Rhee, Kyung E; Lumeng, Julie C; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Bradley, Robert H
The goal was to determine the relationship between the 4 parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) and overweight status in first grade. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed. Children with complete data for parenting parameters at 54 months and measured weight and height in first grade were included in the analysis. Overweight was defined as BMI of > or =95th percentile. The 4 parenting styles were constructed with 2 scales, namely, maternal sensitivity and maternal expectations for child self-control. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between parenting style and overweight in first grade, controlling for gender, race, maternal education, income/needs ratio, marital status, and child behavior problems. A total of 872 children, 11.1% overweight and 82.8% white, were included in the analysis. Children of authoritarian mothers (n = 298) had an increased risk of being overweight, compared with children of authoritative mothers (n = 179). Children of permissive (n = 132) and neglectful (n = 263) mothers were twice as likely to be overweight, compared with children of authoritative mothers. Of the covariates, only income/needs ratio was significant and did not alter the relationship between parenting style and overweight risk. Among the 4 parenting styles, authoritarian parenting was associated with the highest risk of overweight among young children. Understanding the mechanisms through which parenting styles are associated with overweight risk may lead to the development of more-comprehensive and better-targeted interventions.
Hakim, Ashrafalsadat; Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza
Background The most important process in childhood and adolescence is learning. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslexia among primary male school students and the relationship between dyslexia, obesity and overweight. Methods This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 1000 male students (first to fifth grade) in primary schools (20 schools) by using the multi-stage random sampling (50 students were selected randomly from each school). Data collection instrument...
Objectives. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among grade 1 learners, taking into account age, gender, race and school socioeconomic profile. Methods. The study is based on the baseline prevalence of overweight and obesity as part of the ongoing 6-year longitudinal NW Child Health Integrated ...
Xiao, M Y; Wang, Z Y; Fan, H M; Che, C L; Lu, Y; Cong, L X; Gao, X J; Liu, Y J; Yuan, J X; Li, X M; Hu, B; Chen, Y P
Objective: To investigate the relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among the male steel workers selected during health examination in Tangshan Steel Company from March 2015 to March 2016. The relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers were analyzed by using logistic regression model and restricted cubic splinemodel. Results: A total of 7 262 male steel workers were surveyed, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesitywas 64.5% (4 686/7 262), the overweight rate was 34.3% and the obesity rate was 30.2%, respectively. After adjusting for age, educational level and average family income level per month by multivariable logistic regression analysis, shift work was associated with overweight/obesity and obesity in the male steel workers. The OR was 1.19(95% CI : 1.05-1.35) and 1.15(95% CI : 1.00-1.32). Restricted cubic spline model analysis showed that the relationship between shift work years and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ 2 =7.43, P shift work years and obesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ 2 =10.48, P Shift work was associated with overweight and obesity in the male steel workers, and shift work years and overweight/obesity had a nonlinear relationship.
Hakim, Ashrafalsadat; Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza
The most important process in childhood and adolescence is learning. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of dyslexia among primary male school students and the relationship between dyslexia, obesity and overweight. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on 1000 male students (first to fifth grade) in primary schools (20 schools) by using the multi-stage random sampling (50 students were selected randomly from each school). Data collection instruments were a weighting scale, a meter for evaluation of obesity and overweight and a reading inventory test for dyslexia. The height and weight were measured based on body mass index (BMI). Data were analyzed using SPSS17 by χ² test. 17 and 28 percent of the students were obese and overweight in the first to fifth grades, respectively. On average, the percentage of dyslexia among the unhealthy students was 21 per cent; this rate was 3.5 per cent among the healthy students. In addition, χ² test showed that there was a significant difference between dyslexic and healthy students (P=0.001). The prevalence of dyslexia among students with overweight and obesity in comparison to healthy students is high; then close monitoring will ensure that these problems are minimized.
Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter; Bungum, Leif
It is well-documented that male overweight and obesity causes endocrine disorders that might diminish the male reproductive capacity; however, reports have been conflicting regarding the influence of male body mass index (BMI) on semen quality and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology...... (ART). The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased male BMI affects sperm quality and the outcome of assisted reproduction in couples with an overweight or obese man and a non-obese partner. Data was prospectively collected from 612 infertile couples undergoing ART at a Danish fertility...
Costa, Magel; Garmendia, María Luisa; Corvalán, Camila; Reyes, Marcela
Overweight is associated with low-grade inflammation, but it is under debate whether the effect of fat mass accumulation is acute or chronic. We aimed to study the association of overweight duration with low-grade inflammation in children in whom overweight initiation can be established. Observational longitudinal study, including a subsample of 250 Chilean children from the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study followed-up yearly since preschool age (n = 1195). At 4 years, 324 children provided blood. From those, 272 participants were evaluated at 7 years. The current analysis includes 250 children with a blood sample at 4 and 7 years of age and C-reactive protein (CRP) overweight (BAZ ≥ 1) participants at 7 years, the duration of overweight (time since diagnosis) was computed and categorized according to tertiles: overweight (diagnosis and duration) and low-grade inflammation (CRP ≥ 1 mg/L) was studied (logistic regression models). Overweight was associated with CRP ≥ 1 mg/L at 7 years [odds ratio (OR) = 2.93 confidence interval (95% CI = 1.60-5.38)], but not at 4 years [OR = 1.26 (95% CI = 0.71-2.26)]. An overweight duration overweight durations (36-Overweight at 7 years of age was associated with low-grade inflammation only in the case of recent onset. Inflammatory disturbances may be associated with the early phases of excess weight.
Krusińska, Beata; Wuenstel, Justyna Weronika; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wądołowska, Lidia; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna
There has been an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and young adults, especially in men than women. Many adolescents have a sedentary lifestyle and consume more processed, low-fiber foods. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of fiber intake and its selected dietary source consumption in relation to the overweight among Polish male students. This cross-sectional study involved 1,233 male students aged 13.0-24.9 years from northern, eastern and central Poland. The respondents completed a self-administered Block Screening Questionnaire for Fruit/Vegetable/Fiber Intake and measurements of their body mass and height were performed. The overweight and obesity prevalence was assessed using international standards. The most frequently consumed foods by students included: white bread and potatoes, fruit and fruit or vegetable juices. The odds of overweight (including obesity) were lower from 28% (OR=0.72; 95%CI:0.56-0.93) to 31% (OR=0.69; 95%CI:0.50-0.95) with a daily consumption of white bread compared to non-daily consumption of white bread. Consumption ≥4 times/week of prepared vegetables (cooked, preserved or marinated) was associated with 51% lower odds of overweight (OR=0.49; 95%CI:0.27-0.97) compared to consumption less than 4 times/week of these foods. The odds of overweight for the level of fiber intake was insignificant. This study provides surprising insights regarding high-fiber and low-fiber food consumption and overweight in Polish male students. A lower odds of overweight was associated with a higher frequency consumption of relatively low in fiber foods as white bread and cooked, preserved or marinated vegetables. Most of the students consumed fiber at an unacceptable level, so a beneficial impact of high-fiber foods on overweight prevalence was not shown.
Czibor, Eszter; Onderstal, Sander; Sloof, Randolph
The provision of non-pecuniary incentives in education is a topic that has received much scholarly attention lately. Our paper contributes to this discussion by investigating the effectiveness of grade incentives in increasing student performance. We perform a direct comparison of the two most co...
Luana Santos Vital Alves Coelho
Full Text Available Objective.To evaluate the effects of educational software to improve first grade school students' knowledge about prevention of overweight and obesity. Methods. This non-controlled trial with a before-and-after evaluation was carried out in an school located in the municipality of Divinópolis (Brazil among 71 students aged 6 to 10 years. The educational software about prevention of overweight and obesity was designed and then validated. The educational intervention comprised the use of the software. Before and after of the intervention we applied a questionnaire based on the Ten Steps to Healthy Eating for Children, proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Results. Comparing the times before and after application of the educational software, we observed statistically significant differences in proportion of questions answered correctly by first grade school students, mainly concerning daily eating of healthy and unhealthy food, adequate preparation of food and importance of exercise. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of educational actions using software to build knowledge of first grade school students about prevention of overweight and obesity.
Full Text Available Both chronic pain and obesity are known to affect reproductive hormone profiles in male patients. However, the effect of these conditions, alone or in combination, on male fertility potential has received less attention. 20 chronic musculoskeletal pain patients and 20 healthy controls were divided into lean and overweight subgroups according to their BMI. Current level of chronic pain (visual analogue scale and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs in 16 predefined sites, classically described and tested as painful points on the lower body, were measured. Levels of reproductive hormone and lipid profiles were assessed by ELISA. Sperm concentration and motility parameters were analyzed using a computer-aided sperm analysis system. Sperm concentration, progressive motility, and percentage of hyperactivated sperm were generally lower in the chronic pain patients in both lean and overweight groups. The overweight control and the lean chronic pain groups demonstrated a significantly lower percentage of progressively motile sperm compared with the lean control group, suggesting that musculoskeletal chronic pain may have a negative influence on sperm quality in lean patients. However, due to the potential great negative influence of obesity on the sperm parameters, it is difficult to propose if musculoskeletal chronic pain also influenced sperm quality in overweight patients. Further research in chronic pain patients is required to test this hypothesis.
Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa
Full Text Available Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, respectively. There were a variety of factors associated with overweight and obesity; however, having one or more obese brother, an unemployed father, or a high (>11 number of persons living at home was significantly associated with higher risk of overweight and obesity. Increased age and school level as well as having a chronic disease were associated with the risk of overweight. Conclusion. Health education programs for families should be implemented to help control overweight and obesity in Kuwaiti children.
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the magnitude of obesity and overweight among male primary school children, and to find the possible association between obesity/overweight and dietary habits and sociodemographic differentials among them. Study design and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study, including 1139 Saudi male children enrolled in the 5 th and 6 th grades in public primary schools in Al Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, was conducted. The test included a multistage random sampling technique, based on interview using Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, gathering data regarding dietary intake, dietary habits, followed by anthropometric measurements with the calculation of body mass index (BMI, the interpretation of which was based on Cole′s tables for the standard definition of overweight and obesity. Sociodemographic data were collected through a parental questionnaire from. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 12 software (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA; both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: The age of the school children ranged from 10-14 years. The prevalence of overweight among the subjects was 14.2%, while that of obesity was 9.7%; the prevalence was more in the urban, older age students. The mothers of obese and overweight children were less educated and more working. Missing and or infrequent intake of breakfast at home, frequent consumption of fast foods, low servings per day of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, with frequent consumption of sweets/candy and carbonated drinks were all predictors of obesity and overweight among the schoolchildren studied. Conclusion: The prevalence of childhood obesity is escalating and approaching figures that have been reported till now from the developed countries. Less healthy dietary habits and poor selection of food may be responsible for this high prevalence.
Full Text Available To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P0.05 occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight in youth has increased dramatically since the 1980s, and some researchers hypothesize that increased consumption of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods is a key contributor. The potential importance of food retailers near schools has received increasing attention, but public health research and policy has focused primarily on fast food restaurants. Less is known about the relationship between overweight/obesity and other types of retailers. This study aims to investigate the potential associations between nearby 1 fast food restaurants, 2 convenience stores, and 3 supermarkets, and rates of overweight students in California schools. Methods We examined the rate of overweight ninth grade students in public schools in 2007 using linear regression. The percentage of overweight students per school was determined by a state required physical fitness test, with three different options for measuring individual body composition. Our key independent variables were the presence of three different types of retailers within 800 m network buffers of the schools. Additional independent variables included school ethnic, gender and socioeconomic composition, as well as urban/non-urban location. We obtained the data from the California Department of Education and ESRI, Inc. Results The presence of a convenience store within a 10-minute walking distance of a school was associated with a higher rate of overweight students than schools without nearby convenience stores, after controlling for all school-level variables in the regression (1.2%, 95% confidence interval 0.03, 2.36. Nearby fast food restaurants and supermarkets, however, were not associated with school rates of overweight students. Conclusions Public health researchers and policy-makers interested in the food environments outside schools should expand their recent focus on nearby fast food restaurants to include convenience stores, which may also
Sánchez, Brisa N.; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V.; Uscilka, Ali; Baek, Jonggyu; Zhang, Lindy
Epidemiologic studies have observed influences of the food environment near schools on children’s overweight status but have not systematically assessed the associations by race, sex, and grade. The authors examined whether the associations between franchised fast food restaurant or convenience store density near schools and overweight varied by these factors using data for 926,018 children (31.3% white, 55.1% Hispanic, 5.7% black, and 8% Asian) in fifth, seventh, or ninth grade, nested in 6,362 schools. Cross-sectional data were from the 2007 California physical fitness test (also known as “Fitnessgram”), InfoUSA, the California Department of Education, and the 2000 US Census. In adjusted models, the overweight prevalence ratio comparing children in schools with 1 or more versus 0 fast food restaurants was 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03), with a higher prevalence ratio among girls compared with boys. The association varied by student’s race/ethnicity (P = 0.003): Among Hispanics, the prevalence ratio = 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.03); among blacks, the prevalence ratio = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.06), but among Asians the prevalence ratio = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.97). For each additional convenience store, the prevalence ratio was 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.01), with a higher prevalence ratio among fifth grade children. Nuanced understanding of the impact of food environments near schools by race/ethnicity, sex, and grade may help to elucidate the etiology of childhood overweight and related race/ethnic disparities. PMID:22510276
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cardiovascular autonomic function tests (CAFTs are non-invasive tests that can assess both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic functions. Autonomic dysfunction may be considered as a risk factor for obesity and vice versa. For measurement of obesity, body mass index (BMI is a simple, valid and inexpensive method. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of obesity based on BMI criteria on autonomic nervous system based on CAFT in young adult males. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 43 young adult males in the age group of 18–25 years with an age-matched control (n = 43 group. After initial screening, anthropometric measurements were recorded. CAFTs were performed and recorded by the Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Analysis System (CANWin. Unpaired t- test was done to compare the parameters of study and control groups in Microsoft Excel® 2010. Results: Parasympathetic test parameters of study and control groups when expressed in mean ± standard deviation were not found statistically significant (P > 0.05. The fall in systolic blood pressure (BP in orthostatic test of study group (12.19 ± 4.8 mmHg was significantly (P = 0.0001 higher than that of control group (7.33 ± 5.16 mmHg. Increase in diastolic BP in isometric handgrip exercise test of study group (11.84 ± 5.39 mmHg was significantly less (P = 0.004 than that of control group (16.39 ± 8.71 mmHg. Conclusion: Overweight young males have altered sympathetic activity but parasympathetic activity did not show any significant difference when compared to normal weight males.
Cleobury, L; Tapper, K
Snack foods are often high in fat and sugar. Thus, reducing snack consumption may be a useful weight management strategy. However, individuals may snack for a variety of reasons with different implications for intervention. The present study examined the perceived reasons for eating main meals, 'unhealthy' snacks (i.e. snacks high in fat or sugar) and 'healthy' snacks in overweight and obese participants. Over a period of 5 days, 28 males and 27 females completed a food diary every time they ate. As well as providing details about the type of eating episode and food eaten, they also rated their agreement with 13 different reasons for eating (identified from relevant literature and a pilot study). Across a total of 1084 eating episodes, 358 were coded as snacks, 79% of which were high in either fat or sugar. The results showed that hunger and temptation (external eating) were reported as a reason for eating unhealthy snacks in 49% and 55% of all episodes, respectively. Eating because the individual was feeling fed up, bored or stressed (emotional eating) was given as a reason in 26% of episodes. These findings point to the potential utility of intervention strategies that target cravings, enhance self-control or promote stimulus control. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A
To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
José Fernando Vila Nova de Moraes
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n3p259 Obesity is considered a disease with multiple etiologies. Recent advances in technology have pointed candidate genes that are related to weight gain in several populations. However, in countries with ethnic miscegenation, such as Brazil, studies of this nature with students are still scarce. The aim of the present study was to compare anthropometric variables of Brazilian male students according to the genotypes of the rs9939609 of the FTO gene. In order to do so, 205 participants underwent body mass, height, waist circumference and skinfold thickness measurements. Body mass index (BMI, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage were calculated. Volunteers were characterized as overweight according to the BMI-for-age z-score. Participants were genotyped according to the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 of the FTO gene (AA, AT and TT. ANOVA one-way with Bonferroni’s post hoc was performed to compare genotypes and anthropometric variables. Odds Ratio was calculated to reveal increased chances of presenting higher body mass index z-score, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percentage. Participants homozygous for the A allele presented significantly higher values of BMI-for-age z-score (0.38±1.01 vs. -0.29±1.15, waist circumference (77.15±6.51 vs. 72.85±7.36 cm and waist-to-height ratio (0.44±0.04 vs. 0.42±0.04 when compared to individuals with the TT genotype. The A allele of the rs9939609 of the FTO gene seems to influence in the adiposity of male students.
Full Text Available Body image distortion is highly prevalent among overweight individuals. Whilst there is evidence that body-dissatisfied women and those suffering from disordered eating show a negative attentional bias towards their own unattractive body parts and others' attractive body parts, little is known about visual attention patterns in the area of obesity and with respect to males. Since eating disorders and obesity share common features in terms of distorted body image and body dissatisfaction, the aim of this study was to examine whether overweight men and women show a similar attentional bias.We analyzed eye movements in 30 overweight individuals (18 females and 28 normal-weight individuals (16 females with respect to the participants' own pictures as well as gender- and BMI-matched control pictures (front and back view. Additionally, we assessed body image and disordered eating using validated questionnaires.The overweight sample rated their own body as less attractive and showed a more disturbed body image. Contrary to our assumptions, they focused significantly longer on attractive compared to unattractive regions of both their own and the control body. For one's own body, this was more pronounced for women. A higher weight status and more frequent body checking predicted attentional bias towards attractive body parts. We found that overweight adults exhibit an unexpected and stable pattern of selective attention, with a distinctive focus on their own attractive body regions despite higher levels of body dissatisfaction. This positive attentional bias may either be an indicator of a more pronounced pattern of attentional avoidance or a self-enhancing strategy. Further research is warranted to clarify these results.
Warschburger, Petra; Calvano, Claudia; Richter, Eike M; Engbert, Ralf
Body image distortion is highly prevalent among overweight individuals. Whilst there is evidence that body-dissatisfied women and those suffering from disordered eating show a negative attentional bias towards their own unattractive body parts and others' attractive body parts, little is known about visual attention patterns in the area of obesity and with respect to males. Since eating disorders and obesity share common features in terms of distorted body image and body dissatisfaction, the aim of this study was to examine whether overweight men and women show a similar attentional bias. We analyzed eye movements in 30 overweight individuals (18 females) and 28 normal-weight individuals (16 females) with respect to the participants' own pictures as well as gender- and BMI-matched control pictures (front and back view). Additionally, we assessed body image and disordered eating using validated questionnaires. The overweight sample rated their own body as less attractive and showed a more disturbed body image. Contrary to our assumptions, they focused significantly longer on attractive compared to unattractive regions of both their own and the control body. For one's own body, this was more pronounced for women. A higher weight status and more frequent body checking predicted attentional bias towards attractive body parts. We found that overweight adults exhibit an unexpected and stable pattern of selective attention, with a distinctive focus on their own attractive body regions despite higher levels of body dissatisfaction. This positive attentional bias may either be an indicator of a more pronounced pattern of attentional avoidance or a self-enhancing strategy. Further research is warranted to clarify these results.
Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood overweight is a major social and public health issue, and primary assessment should focus on early and middle childhood, because weight gain in these phases constitutes a strong predictor of subsequent negative outcomes. Studies on community samples have shown that growth curves may follow linear or non-linear trajectories from early to middle childhood, and can differ based on sex. Overweight children may exhibit a combination of physiological and psychosocial issues, and several studies have demonstrated an association between overweight and internalizing/externalizing behavior. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of longitudinal studies on depressive and aggressive symptoms in children with high BMI. This study adopted a growth curve modeling over three phases to: (1 describe BMI trajectories in two groups of children aged 2-8 (overweight and normal weight from a community sample; (2 describe the developmental trajectories of children's aggressive and depressive symptoms from 2 to 8 years of age. Results indicate higher BMI in 2-year-old girls, with males catching up with them by age 8. While overweight females' BMIs were consistently high, males' increased at 5 and 8 years. The mean scores for aggressive symptoms at T1 (2 years of age were the same in all subjects, but a significant deviation occurred from T1 to T2 in both samples, in divergent directions. With regards to children's depressive symptoms, the two groups had different starting points, with normal weight children scoring lower than overweight youths. Overweight females showed lower depressive scores than overweight males at T1, but they surpassed boys before T2, and showed more maladaptive symptoms at T3. This study solicits professionals working in pediatric settings to consider overweight children's psychopathological risk, and to be aware that even when children's BMI does not increase from 2 to 8 years, their psychopathological symptoms may grow in
Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Kierkegaard, Lene; Lund, Rikke
Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore...... to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection...... in 2009-2011. Information on male factor infertility and overall infertility was obtained from a questionnaire, and low-grade inflammation was evaluated as the highest plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the population. The level of interleukin-6...
Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.
Full Text Available This paper reports a case of a male infant born to a 32-year-old multiparous mother with overweight (BMI 28.5kg/m2 and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. The mother had fasting hyperglycaemia (range 5.7- 6.0mmol/L noted at 24 weeks of pregnancy and was managed with diet alone. There is no family history of diabetes mellitus and the mother did not have pre-eclampsia. Physical examination of the infant revealed macrosomia (birthweight, 4600g and bilateral congenital cryptorchidism. The baby suffered severe hypoglycaemia (blood glucose 1.7mmol/L and hypocalcaemia (total serum calcium 1.03mmol/L, manifesting with seizures. He was successfully managed with 10% dextrose water and calcium gluconate infusion, using standard protocol. His karyotype is 46 XY. The patient was discharged from admission at the age of 10 days and was referred to the paediatric endocrinologist at the tertiary hospital. By 8 weeks of age, the right testis was noticed to have descended into the right scrotum. At the age of 3 months, the left testis was still not palpable either in the inguinal canal or the scrotal sac. The patient was lost to follow up. Conclusion: Diet-treated maternal overweight in association with GDM could potentially increase the risk for hypocalcaemia, hypoglycaemia, macrosomia and congenital cryptorchidism in the offspring, highlighting the need for physicians to assess for the presence of these morbidities in such infants.
Full Text Available Obesity is frequently accompanied with chronic inflammation over the whole body and is always associated with symptoms that include those arising from metabolic and vascular alterations. On the other hand, the chronic inflammatory status in the male genital tract may directly impair spermatogenesis and is even associated with male subfertility. However, it is still unclear if the chronic inflammation induced by obesity damages spermatogenesis in the male genital tract. To address this question, we used a high fat diet (HFD induced obese mouse model and recruited obese patients from the clinic. We detected increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3 in genital tract tissues including testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate, and serum from obese mice. Meanwhile, the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG and corticosterone were significantly higher than those in the control group in serum. Moreover, signal factors regulated by TNF-α, i.e., p38, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, and their phosphorylated status, and inflammasome protein NLRP3 were expressed at higher levels in the testis. For overweight and obese male patients, the increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were also observed in their seminal plasma. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the TNF-α and IL-6 levels and BMI whereas they were inversely correlated with the sperm concentration and motility. In conclusion, impairment of male fertility may stem from a chronic inflammatory status in the male genital tract of obese individuals.
Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Kierkegaard, Lene; Lund, Rikke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Osler, Merete; Schmidt, Lone
Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection in 2009-2011. Information on male factor infertility and overall infertility was obtained from a questionnaire, and low-grade inflammation was evaluated as the highest plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the population. The level of interleukin-6 was significantly higher among men with male factor infertility compared with other men adjusted for potential confounders. This was not found for the two other inflammatory markers. The lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility were 10.2% and 17.9%, respectively. The findings suggest that male factor infertility might be associated with an increased level of interleukin-6.
Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Cook, Alyce T; Berthon, Bronwyn; Mitchell, Simon; Callister, Robin
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a workplace-based weight loss program (Workplace POWER [Preventing Obesity Without Eating like a Rabbit]) for male shift workers on a number of work-related outcomes. A total of 110 overweight/obese (body mass index = 25-40) (mean [SD] age = 44.3 [8.6] years; body mass index = 30.5 [3.6]) male employees at Tomago Aluminium (New South Wales, Australia) were randomized to either (i) Workplace POWER program (n = 65) or (ii) a 14-week wait-list control group (n = 45). Men were assessed at baseline and 14-week follow-up for weight, quality of life, sleepiness, productivity at work (presenteeism), absenteeism, and workplace injuries. Retention was 81%. Intention-to-treat analysis using linear mixed models revealed a significant intervention effect for weight, quality of life (mental), presenteeism, absenteeism, and injuries. The Workplace POWER weight loss program improved a number of important work-related outcomes in male shift workers.
Simpson, Amber; Che, S. Megan
Utilizing a descriptive phenomenological design, this study examines the lived experiences of seven middle grade students, four females and three males, enrolled in a single-sex mathematics classroom within a coeducational school setting. The intent of the study is to understand, from students themselves, about the experience of single-sex…
Full Text Available To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group.28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure.A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185 in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05.Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1 improved SI, 2 reduced blood lipids, 3 decreased % body fat, and 4 improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or
Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M; Allison, David B
To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese young men, with no clear advantage between these
Duits, Floor H.; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Gianotten, Judith
Objective: To study the effect of body mass index (BMI) on semen quality in a cohort of male partners in subfertile couples. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: A fertility center based in an academic hospital. Patient(s): Between January 2000 and January 2007, 1466 men visiting the Centre
Gable, Sara; Krull, Jennifer L.; Chang, Yiting
The current study examines the social and behavioral development of school-age children with different histories of overweight onset. Eight thousand children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) participated. Three groups of children were identified for analysis: (1) those who were persistently overweight from…
Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab
The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…
Schranz, Natasha; Tomkinson, Grant; Parletta, Natalie; Petkov, John; Olds, Tim
Resistance training is an exercise modality at which overweight and obese adolescents can excel and which can therefore positively affect their psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 6-month resistance training intervention on the self-concept strength and body composition of overweight and obese adolescent males. 56 overweight and obese males aged 13-17 years were randomly allocated to an Intervention (n=30) or Control (n=26) group. Primary (psychological) and secondary (strength and body composition) outcomes were assessed at baseline as well as at 3 (halfway through the intervention), 6 (immediately postintervention) and 12 months follow-up. Random effects mixed modelling was used to determine the effects of the intervention. Statistically significant differences between the Intervention and Control groups were observed at 3-month and 6-month assessments for exercise self-efficacy, resistance training confidence and self-esteem. Large increases in strength for the Intervention group, relative to Controls, were also observed with no substantial changes in body composition shown for either group. Values for all variables returned to baseline following completion of the programme. A 6-month resistance training intervention can positively affect the self-concept and strength of overweight and obese adolescent boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
This study aims to describe student’s critical thinking skill of grade VIII in solving mathematical problem. A qualitative research was conducted to a male student with high mathematical ability. Student’s critical thinking skill was obtained from a depth task-based interview. The result show that male student’s critical thinking skill of the student as follows. In understanding the problem, the student did categorization, significance decoding, and meaning clarification. In devising a plan he examined his ideas, detected his argument, analyzed his argument and evaluated his argument. During the implementation phase, the skill that appeared were analyzing of the argument and inference skill such as drawing conclusion, deliver alternative thinking, and problem solving skills. At last, in rechecking all the measures, they did self-correcting and self-examination.
Gill, Dawn P; Blunt, Wendy; De Cruz, Ashleigh; Riggin, Brendan; Hunt, Kate; Zou, Guangyong; Sibbald, Shannon; Danylchuk, Karen; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J
Effective approaches that engage men in weight loss and lifestyle change are important because of worldwide increases, including in Canada, in obesity and chronic diseases. Football Fans in Training (FFIT), developed in Scotland, successfully tackled these problems by engaging overweight/obese male football fans in sustained weight loss and positive health behaviours, through program deliveries at professional football stadia. Aims: 1) Adapt FFIT to hockey within the Canadian context and integrate with HealtheSteps™ (evidence-based lifestyle program) to develop Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT); 2) Explore potential for Hockey FIT to help overweight/obese men lose weight and improve other outcomes by 12 weeks, and retain these improvements to 12 months; 3) Evaluate feasibility of recruiting and retaining overweight/obese men; 4) Evaluate acceptability of Hockey FIT; and 5) Conduct program optimization via a process evaluation. We conducted a two-arm pilot pragmatic randomized controlled trial (pRCT) whereby 80 overweight/obese male hockey fans (35-65 years; body-mass index ≥28 kg/m 2 ) were recruited through their connection to two junior A hockey teams (London and Sarnia, ON) and randomized to Intervention (Hockey FIT) or Comparator (Wait-List Control). Hockey FIT includes a 12-week Active Phase (classroom instruction and exercise sessions delivered weekly by trained coaches) and a 40-week Maintenance Phase. Data collected at baseline and 12 weeks (both groups), and 12 months (Intervention only), will inform evaluation of the potential of Hockey FIT to help men lose weight and improve other health outcomes. Feasibility and acceptability will be assessed using data from self-reports at screening and baseline, program fidelity (program observations and coach reflections), participant focus group discussions, coach interviews, as well as program questionnaires and interviews with participants. This information will be analyzed to inform program
Fischer, Arielle G; Wolf, Alon
Excess body weight has become a major worldwide health and social epidemic. Training with body weight unloading, is a common method for gait corrections for various neuromuscular impairments. In the present study we assessed the effects of body weight unloading on knee and ankle kinetics and muscle activation of overweight subjects walking overground under various levels of body weight unloading. Ten overweight subjects (25 ≤ BMI weight unloading experimental conditions. Gait parameters assessed under these conditions included knee and ankle flexion moments and the Electromygraphic activity of the Tibialis Anterior, Lateral Gastrocnemius and Vastus Lateralis. Increasing body weight unloading levels from 0% to 30% was found to significantly reduce the peak knee flexion and ankle plantarflexion moments. Also observed was a significant reduction in muscle activity of the Tibialis Anterior, Lateral Gastrocnemius and Vastus Lateralis under the three body-weight unloading conditions. Our results demonstrate that a reduction of up to 30% overweight subjects' body weight during gait is conducive to a reduction in the knee and ankle flexion moments and in the balancing net quadriceps moment and ankle flexors moment. The newly devised body weight unloading device is therefore an effective method for reducing joint loads allowing overweight people who require controlled weight bearing scenarios to retrain their gait while engaging in sustained walking exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Durrer, Cody; Robinson, Emily; Wan, Zhongxiao; Martinez, Nic; Hummel, Michelle L.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Little, Jonathan P.
Background An acute bout of exercise can improve endothelial function and insulin sensitivity when measured on the day following exercise. Our aim was to compare acute high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE) to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese men and women. Methods Inactive males (BMI = 30 ± 3, 25 ± 6 yr, n = 6) and females (BMI = 28 ± 2, 21 ± 3 yr, n = 7) participated in three experimental trials in a randomized counterbalanced crossover design: 1) No exercise control (Control); 2) HICE (20 min cycling @ just above ventilatory threshold); 3) HIIE (10 X 1-min @ ∼90% peak aerobic power). Exercise conditions were matched for external work and diet was controlled post-exercise. Fasting blood samples were obtained ∼18 hr after each condition. CD62E+ and CD31+/CD42b- EMPs were assessed by flow cytometry and insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results There was a significant sex X exercise interaction for CD62E+ EMPs, CD31+/CD42b- EMPs, and HOMA-IR (all Pexercise type. There was a significant increase in HOMA-IR in males but a decrease in females following HIIE compared to Control (Pobese males and females appear to respond differently to acute bouts of high-intensity exercise. A single session of HICE and HIIE reduced circulating EMPs measured on the morning following exercise in males but in females CD62E+ EMPs were increased following HICE. Next day HOMA-IR paradoxically increased in males but was reduced in females following HIIE. Future research is needed to investigate mechanisms responsible for potential differential responses between males and females. PMID:25710559
Hall, A C; Fairclough, A C; Mahadevan, K; Paxman, J R
It is well recognised that the consumption of seaweed isolates (such as alginate) successfully reduce energy intake and modulate glycaemic and cholesterolaemic responses. However, to date, the effect of adding whole seaweed to bread has not been widely investigated. Hence, this study aims to investigate the acceptability of Ascophyllum nodosum enriched bread as part of a meal, and measure its effect on energy intake and nutrient absorption in overweight, healthy males to see if it has a similar impact. Results from the acceptability study, (79 untrained sensory panellists) indicated that it is acceptable to incorporate seaweed (A. nodosum) into a staple food such as bread at concentrations of up to 4% per 400 g wholemeal loaf. A single blind cross over trial (n=12 males, aged 40.1±12.5 years; BMI 30.8±4.4 kg/m(2)) was used to compare energy intake and nutrient uptake after a breakfast meal using the enriched bread (4% A. nodosum) against the control bread (0% A. nodosum). Consumption of the enriched bread at breakfast led to a significant reduction (16.4%) in energy intake at a test meal 4 h later. Differences between treatment arms for area under the curve, peak values, and time of peak for blood glucose and cholesterol were not significant. Further investigation of potential mechanisms of action is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R
Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted.
Research indicated that educators must consider socio-ecological accommodations because not all students learn in cooperative groups. Students must be taught how to discover the process of learning and to apply knowledge to real life situations. Gurian and Ballew (2003) identified differences in the male and female brain and the differences in how…
Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina
Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumors, distinguished from adenocarcinomas by their neuroendocrine differentiation, are the most common pediatric epithelial malignancy that most often occurs in the appendix. In 2010, the WHO classified neuroendocrine neoplasms into three grades based on morphology, mitotic count, and Ki67 proliferation index. A 15-year-old male with a history of anemia and failure to thrive was diagnosed with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor in the jejunum that invaded into the subserosal soft tissue and metastasized to four lymph nodes. Pediatric neuroendocrine tumors frequently arise within hereditary tumor syndromes with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors being the most common. Several studies also indicate an elevated risk of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors in which children born to a parent with a history of neuroendocrine tumors in the small intestine have a significant increased risk of developing one.
Triasih, D.; Krisdiani, D.; Riyanto, J.; Pratitis, W.; Widyawati, S. D.
The aim of this research was to identify the influence of different types of muscle on the characteristics physical quality frozen meat of Simmental Ongole Crossbreed Male frozen meat. The research had been conducted at the Laboratory of Meat Technology and Processing and Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Faculty of Animal Science, University GadjahMada, Yogyakarta. The physical quality with 4 levels treatments, the name was Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), Triceps brachii (TB), and Pectoralis profundus (PP). The chemical quality with 3 levels treatments, the name was Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), and Triceps brachii (TB). The research used Completely Randomized Design with 5 replications for each treatment. The variables of the physical quality test were pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and water-holding capacity. The chemical quality test were water content, protein content, fat content, and cholesterol content. The result of the physical quality test showed that the different types of muscle were significantly influence the pH value (P<0,01), also the influence the tenderness and cooking loss (P<0,05), but there was no significant different on water-holding capacity. The chemical quality test showed that the different types of muscle significant influenced on protein content and fat content (P<0,01). They were significant different (P<0,05) on water content, and there was significant effect (P<0,05) on cholesterol. In conclusion, the BF have high value of pH, cooking loss, water content, protein content, and cholesterol than other muscle, but have low value of tenderness and fat content.
Chen, Chun-An; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lue, Hung-Chi; Hua, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Mei-Hwei; Wu, Mei-Hwan
In Western countries, obesity is a common problem in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, this problem may have racial difference, and little is known about the shift of this trend as patients grow up. The present study sought to investigate the prevalence and trends of being underweight, overweight and obesity in an Asian CHD cohort using a 5-year citywide school survey database. Patient group consisted of 705 first grade elementary school students (children) and 219 first grade senior high school students (adolescents), while 18753 healthy children and 15014 healthy adolescents served as controls. Body mass index (BMI) percentile was calculated to define underweight (BMI obesity (BMI ≥ 95(th) percentile). In CHD children, the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity was 21.0% (control 16%, P obese than children with non-cyanotic CHD. The prevalence of underweight (23.3%) and overweight/obesity (26.5%) in CHD adolescents became close to that in controls. From childhood to adolescence, different shifts in BMI distribution were noted; controls became more underweight and overweight/obese for males and more underweight and less overweight/obese for females, while CHD patients became more overweight/obese for both genders, including cyanotic CHD. In this Asian CHD cohort, we demonstrates a shift of BMI distribution from more underweight and less overweight/obese compared with healthy children, to a pattern similar to that in healthy adolescents. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ingram, Samantha Jones
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the contextual learning method on science performance, attitudes toward science, and motivational factors that influence high school students to learn science. Gender differences in science performance and attitudes toward science were also investigated. The sample included four tenth-grade classes of African-American students enrolled in Chemistry I. All students were required to review for the Alabama High School Graduation Exam in Science. Students were administered a science pretest and posttest to measure science performance. A two-way analysis of covariance was performed on the test data. The results showed a main effect of contextual learning instruction on science achievement and no significant differences between females' and males' performance in science. The Science Attitude and the Alabama High School Graduation Exam (AHSGE) Review Class Surveys were administered to assess students' beliefs and attitudes toward science. The Science Attitude Survey results indicated a control effect in three subscales: perception of guardian's attitude, attitude toward success in science, and perception of teacher's attitude. No significant differences resulted between males and females in their beliefs about science from the attitude survey. However, students' attitudes toward science were more favorable in the contextual learning classes based on the results of the Review Class Survey. The survey data revealed that both males and females in the contextual classes had positive attitudes toward science and toward being active participants in the learning process. Qualitative data on student motivation were collected to examine the meaningfulness of the contextual learning content and materials. The majority of the students in the treatment (96%) and the control groups (86%) reported high interest in the lesson on Newton's three laws of motion. Both the treatment and the control groups indicated their interest
Kathleen S. Talamayan
Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.
Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan
lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....
Results: Results showed that three-month of high-intensity interval training of running had a significant effect on decreasing the plasma chemerin levels, body weight, body fat percentage, BMI (P=0/0001, and WHR (P=0/012 in the experimental group compared to control group. Significant differences were observed for within group (P≤0/05. Conclusion: It seemed that three-month of high-intensity interval training as a non-invasive and non-pharmaceutical way could have a positive effect on reducing the levels of chemerin and some anthropometric indicators associated with obesity and overweight.
Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, Pernille Landrock; Reichkendler, Michala Holm
The amount of weight loss induced by exercise is often disappointing. A diet-induced negative energy balance triggers compensatory mechanisms, e.g. lower metabolic rate and increased appetite. However, knowledge about potential compensatory mechanisms triggered by increased aerobic exercise...... is limited. A randomized controlled trial was performed in healthy sedentary moderately overweight young men to examine the effects of increasing doses of aerobic exercise on body composition, accumulated energy balance, and the degree of compensation. Eighteen participants were randomized to a continuous...... sedentary control group, 21 to a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) and 22 to a high dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) exercise group for 13 weeks, corresponding to approximately 30 and 60 minutes of daily aerobic exercise, respectively. Body weight (MOD: -3.6kg, P...
Pfeuffer, Maria; Fielitz, Kerstin; Laue, Christiane; Winkler, Petra; Rubin, Diana; Helwig, Ulf; Giller, Katrin; Kammann, Julia; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Böger, Rainer H; Bub, Achim; Bell, Doris; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) showed a wide range of beneficial biological effects with relevance for cardiovascular health in animal models and humans. Most human studies used olive oil as a reference. This study assessed the effect of CLA as compared with safflower oil on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular risk in overweight and obese men. Heated safflower oil and olive oil were given for additional descriptive control. Eighty-five overweight men (aged 45-68 years, body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2)) were randomized to receive 4.5 g/d of the CLA isomeric mixture, safflower oil, heated safflower oil, or olive oil in a 4-week double-blind study. Endothelial function was assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) index determination in the fasting and postprandial state (i.e., 4 hours after consumption of a fat- and sucrose-rich meal). CLA as compared with safflower oil consumption did not impair fasting or postprandial PAT index but decreased body weight. CLA as compared with safflower oil did not change total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; insulin sensitivity indices; C-reactive protein; soluble adhesion molecules; oxidized LDL; lipoprotein a (Lp[a]); paraoxonase; or platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity, but significantly reduced arylesterase activity and increased concentrations of the F(2)-isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F (PGF)(2α). CLA did not impair endothelial function. Other parameters associated with metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress were not changed or were slightly improved. Results suggest that CLA does not increase cardiovascular risk. Increased F(2)-isoprostane concentrations in this context may not indicate increased oxidative stress.
... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share ...
Hobayan, Kalani; Patterson, Debra; Sherman, Clay; Wiersma, Lenny
In a society in which obesity levels have tripled in the past 30 years, the importance of increased fitness levels within the academic setting has become even more critical. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of alternative Fitnessgram upper body tests of muscular strength and endurance among seventh and eighth grade males…
Full Text Available By utilizing classroom management styles, teachers will be able to get rid of possible students’ misconducts and promote a friendly atmosphere which will in effect promote students’ participation in learning activities. Additionally, increased self-esteem, which is an achievement of such utilization, will influence various aspects of students’ future lives. Taking this point into consideration, the present study aimed at determining the efficacy of rule-governed democracy classroom management style on self-esteem of 3rd-grade high-school male students. All 3rd-grade high-school male students of Abdanan city in the academic year 2013 comprised the statistical population to this study. Using convenience sampling, 38 subjects were selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The research design was pretest-post-test. Cooper Smith's self-esteem questionnaire was used as the research instrument which was administered to the two groups at the outset. The experimental group was given seven 90-minutes sessions of treatment and twice-a-week. The two groups were asked to fill out the same questionnaire for the post-test stage afterwards. Descriptive statistics, including the analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The results revealed that the utilization of rule-governed democracy classroom management style in the classroom had significantly increased the self-esteem (public-family-social- and scholastic-professional of male students in the post-test (p<0/001.
Knape, Erin Oakley
National education data indicate that young men of color and students living in poverty are not experiencing the same academic success as their female, White, or higher socioeconomic status peers, as evidenced by low reading achievement levels and high dropout rates. Of particular concern is the underachievement of Latino males, who currently have…
Nov 2, 2011 ... Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between overweight and obesity and the motor performance of nine- to 13-year-old ... Body coordination is an indication of balance skills, as well as ..... who work with overweight and obese learners in these age .... statement: life skills grade 4-6.
... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...
National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…
At action level II, there was no obese male. Conclusion: This study revealed that underweight, overweight and obesity exist in young adults, but overweight and obesity are more prevalent. Therefore, concerted efforts should be made to control this in young adults for their present well-being and to possibly avoid the risk of ...
Prevalência de sobrepeso e fatores associados em crianças ingressantes no ensino fundamental em um município da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil Overweight, obesity and associated factors in first grade schoolchildren in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil
Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a prevalência de sobrepeso e sua associação com fatores sócio-ambientais em crianças ingressantes na primeira série do ensino público fundamental do Município de Cajamar, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2005. Sobrepeso foi definido pelo índice de massa corporal, segundo sexo e idade. As variáveis sócio-ambientais foram obtidas por meio de questionário aplicado junto às mães das crianças (58,6%. Associação entre sobrepeso e variáveis independentes foi verificada mediante técnica de regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 17%. Obesidade materna (RP = 3,54; IC: 2,16-5,80, freqüência elevada de consumo de alimentos "não saudáveis" (RP = 2,12; IC: 1,30-3,45, assistir à televisão por mais de quatro horas/dia (RP = 2,08; IC: 1,03-4,20 e disponibilidade domiciliar per capita de óleo (cerca de três colheres sopa/dia (RP = 1,52; IC: 1,01-2,31 apresentaram-se como fatores independentes associados ao excesso de peso infantil. O ambiente familiar apresentou forte influência sobre a condição de sobrepeso em escolares ingressantes no ensino fundamental. Ações de prevenção e controle do sobrepeso deveriam envolver a instituição escolar e também os pais ou responsáveis pelas crianças.This study assessed the prevalence of overweight in public school first graders and the association between overweight and socio-environmental factors in a city in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Children enrolling in public school first grade in Cajamar in 2005 were assessed. Overweight was defined according to body mass index, by gender and age. Socio-environmental information was obtained using a questionnaire applied to 58.6% of the children's mothers. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between overweight in schoolchildren and socio-environmental variables. Seventeen percent of the children were overweight. Factors associated with overweight were: mother's obesity (PR = 3
Ruedl, Gerhard; Greier, Klaus; Kirschner, Werner; Kopp, Martin
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is often associated with motor deficits. Motor performance among children partly depends on modifiable factors, for example, weight status, electronic media use, sports club participation, and on nonmodifiable factors, for example, sex, age, migration background, or socio-economic status. To evaluate factors associated with motor performance among overweight and nonoverweight Tyrolean primary school children. Height, weight, and sport motor performance of primary school children were measured using the German motor performance test DMT 6-18. In addition, children were asked about migration background, sports club participation, and electronic media use in their room. A total of 304 children (48.7% girls) with a mean age of 8.0 ± 1.2 years were tested. In total, 61 (20.1%) children were overweight or obese. Regarding motor performance, nonoverweight children showed significantly higher total z-scores (106.8 ± 5.7 vs. 102.4 ± 6.8). For the total cohort, results of the multiple linear regression analysis (R (2) = 0.20) revealed that factors male sex (β = 0.12), nonoverweight children (β = 0.28), higher school grade (β = 0.23), sports club participation (β = 0.18),and > 2 weekly lessons of physical education (β = 0.26) were associated with an increased motor performance. For nonoverweight children results of the multiple linear regression analysis (R (2) = 0.09) found that a higher school grade (β = 0.17), sports club participation (β = 0.16),and more than 2 weekly lessons of physical education (β = 0.22) were associated with an increased motor performance. For the overweight children, results of the multiple linear regression analysis (R (2) = 0 .43) showed that no migration background (β = 0.23), a higher school grade (β = 0.55), sports club participation (β = 0.33) and more than 2 weekly lessons of physical
Jyoti Kiran Kohli
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is found to be strongest risk factor for persistent hypertension, which is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease and stroke. Urbanisation, unhealthy eating and reduced physical activity are the important reasons. Prevention of obesity is always better than its treatment. The aim of this study is to find out relation of overweight and obesity in dental students with their changed lifestyle and lack of physical activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS A validated predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire was used. Overweight/obesity was assessed on the basis of Body Mass Index (BMI for age using gender specific Center for Disease Control (CDC charts. Settings and Design- Cross-sectional study conducted in 1st year dental students, MRDC (Manav Rachna Dental College, Faridabad. Statistical Analysis- ANOVA and unpaired t-tests were used to find out any statistically association of mean BMI for age with various correlate. RESULTS Out of 110 students, 101 were included in study 72 (71.2% females and 29 (28.7 males. Total 25.7% were overweight students and 17.82% were obese with BMI >30 and grade 1 obesity, while 1.9% were of grade 2 obesity. Lack of physical activity, consumption of junk food, habit of not taking breakfast and consuming food in canteen, home and mess are found to have significant association with obesity and overweight. CONCLUSION The problem of obesity is on rise and there is a definite need to inculcate good habits of healthy eating and regular physical exercise.
Sun Mi Shin
Full Text Available Background : This study aimed to investigate the association of overweight and obesity with red and white meat intake among children and adolescents using secondary survey data (n=16,261 from in-school Student Health Examination conducted in 2006 and 2007. Methods : Descriptive statistics was conducted to investigate the frequency of meat intake per week. The body mass index (BMI grades for obesity in boys and girls were classified using the standards from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. The association of meat intake with overweight and obesity was analyzed using Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results : The proportion of subjects with no intake/week vs. daily meat intake/week was 5.9% and 5.5%, respectively. No intake of meat was more frequent in those who were female and in middle school, whereas daily meat intake was more frequent in those who were male and in high school. The proportions of overweight and obesity in the no meat intake/week group and daily meat intake/week group were 12.3% and 11.1% vs. 8.1% and 9.9%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables, including age; consumption of instant noodles, soft drinks and fast foods, dairy products, and fruits and vegetables; and skipping breakfast, the odds ratios of overweight and obesity in the no meat intake/week group were 1.41 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.85 than those in the daily meat intake/week group. Conclusion : It is important to consider correcting the perception about meat intake and obesity and avoid restricting meat intake to prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents.
Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice; Landale, Nancy S
Being overweight influences adolescents' relationships by increasing their likelihood of experiencing social alienation and discrimination. Its role in sexual development is relatively understudied, as are potential mechanisms through which weight may influence early sexual activity. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used in discrete-time event history analyses investigating the association between body weight, social relationships and timing of sexual debut among 8,197 respondents who were in grades 7-12 in 1994-1995 (Wave 1) and were young adults in 2001-2002 (Wave 3). Subgroup analyses explored gender and racial and ethnic variations in the association. Overweight adolescents were less likely than their normal-weight peers to report first intercourse between Waves 1 and 3 (odds ratio, 0.9). Characteristics reflecting social alienation, including having relatively few close friends and no experience with romantic relationships, were negatively associated with first intercourse among overweight youths. Results differed by gender and race and ethnicity. Overweight females had a lower likelihood than normal-weight females of experiencing first intercourse (0.8), but no such association was evident among males. Similarly, overweight white youths--but not those from other racial and ethnic groups--had reduced odds of sexual debut (0.7). Future studies should seek to understand the broader implications of adolescent weight status for social relationships and subsequent development, and practitioners should apply this knowledge to prevention programs. Postponement of sexual activity may benefit youths, but potential benefits and risks may depend upon the social processes involved. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Francia-Farje, Luis Alberto Domingo; Silva, Denise Salioni; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Fernandes, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves; Carnietto, Nilson; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava
It is well established that sibutramine produces weight loss and is used frequently in women of childbearing age. However, the potential adverse consequences attributed to sibutramine use by women who may become pregnant is not known. It was thus of interest to determine the effects of sibutramine on the reproductive performance of pregnant rats. Overweight as well as non-overweight female Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (6 mg/kg) orally, daily for 15 d and then mated with normal male rats. Pregnancy was confirmed and treatment continued with sibutramine until d 14 of pregnancy. On d 20 of pregnancy all rats were anesthetized for determination of various maternal and fetal parameters. There was a significant maternal weight reduction at the end of pregnancy in the non-overweight drug-treated group compared to the control (non-overweight, no drug). Sibutramine alone and overweight condition alone produced a significant increase in postimplantation loss and placental index. In the overweight with or without sibutramine groups a significant decrease in fetal weight was noted. Data suggest that sibutramine alone or the condition of excess weight in the absence of drugs produced impaired reproductive performance. However, treatment of overweight rats with sibutramine did not further exacerbate fetal loss compared to sibutramine alone or the effects noted with excess weight alone.
López Diez, Elena; Pérez, Sonia; Iñarrea, Amparo; de la Orden, Angel; Castro, Máximo; Almuster, Sheila; Tortolero, Leonardo; Rodríguez, Moises; Montero, Ruben; Ojea, Antonio
Little is known about the characteristics of high-risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in men. The aims of this cross-sectional study were: (a) to investigate HR-HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in men, sexual partners of women presenting with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN), according to epidemiological characteristics, and (b) to assess type-specific concordance between partners. A total of 125 men were recruited within the first 6 months after HG-CIN diagnosis of their partner. Samples from the coronal sulcus, glans penis shaft, and scrotum were tested with linear array HPV genotyping assay (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). Type-specific concordance within 120 couples was studied. Epidemiological factors were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. SPSS 19 (IBM, Chicago, USA). The prevalence of HR-HPV infection in males was 50.4% (63/125). HPV16/53/52/51/66/31 were the most frequent genotypes (24/10.4/9.6/8.8/8/7.2%, respectively). Current smoking was associated with an increased risk for HR-HPV infection in men (38.2% (21/55) vs 60% (42/70), OR 2.4, p=0.025). Among 60 infected couples, 62% shared at least one genotype: 41.7% couples were concordantly HPV16 positive and 18.3% were HPV16 negative (kappa value: 0.21). The proportion of women with the same genotype as their male partner was higher than the proportion of men sharing the same genotype as their female partner: 58.7% (37/63) vs 30.8% (37/120), p<0.0001. Sexual partners of women with HG-CIN are a significant reservoir and vector of HPV infection, a fact that could contribute to making viral clearance more difficult to achieve in their partners after treatment of their HG-CIN lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Maitra, S K; Dey, M; Dutta, S; Bhattacharya, S; Dey, R; Sengupta, A
Effects of daily evening (just before the onset of darkness in a 24 h light dark cycle) administration of graded doses (25, 50, or 100 microg/100 g body wt./day for 30 days) of melatonin on the concentrations of blood glucose and adrenal catecholamines were studied in sexually active male roseringed parakeets under natural (NP; approximately 12L: 12D) and artificial long (LP; 16L: 8D) and short (SP; 8L: 16D) photoperiods. Blood samples and adrenal glands were collected from each bird during the mid-day on the following day of the last treatment. The concentrations of glucose in blood and epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) in the adrenals were measured. The results of the study indicated that exogenous melatonin induces hypo- or hyperglycemia depending on the dose of hormone administered as well as to the length of photoperiod to which birds were exposed. The levels of E and NE in the adrenals were shown also to vary in relation to photoperiod and the dose of melatonin administered. But the nature of the influence of melatonin becomes different under altered photoperiodic conditions. It appears that short photoperiods are more effective than long photoperiods as a modulator of glycemic and adrenal catecholaminergic responses to exogenous melatonin. A statistically significant correlation between the levels of blood glucose and that of E and NE in the adrenals was found in the control birds, but not in the melatonin treated birds. The results suggested that the responses of blood glucose and adrenal catecholamines to the treatment with melatonin in the roseringed parakeets may not be dependent on each other.
Karim - Azali Alamdari
Full Text Available The effects of each hypoxemic exercise session or overall training period still remains to be more elucidated in elite athletes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypobaric endurance training on lymphocytes mobilization and senescence and also their surface Thiol levels following to graded exercise test (GXT in elite male athletes. Fourty six volunteer subjects were randomized into normobaric control (NC, hypobaric control (HC, normobaric exercise (NE and hypobaric exercise (HE groups. The NE and HE groups were exposed to homeland (700 mmHg and 2800 meters above sea level (570 mmHg simulated barometric pressures respectively, while HC and NC groups were remained sedentary at the same conditions. The training was included on treadmill running for four weeks, five sessions/week, 45 min/ session. Each session was consisted of three-min warmed up period, three cycles of 10-min running at 65% maximal heart rate reserve (HRRmax interspersed with a three-min active recovery and three-min cool-down running period. Two GXTs were performed before (baseline and after the interventions and blood samples were collected three times at both occasions. In all groups, mobilization of CD8+lymphocytes and senescent phenotype population of their both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets were increased after both GXTs, however; these changes were reversed following to recovery period(P<0.05. Moreover, HE were decreased lymphocytes surface thiol levels before and after the second GXT (P<0.05.it can be concluded that HE has no additional benefits for elite athletes regarded to lymphocytes mobilization and senescence, however; it may render them to oxidative stress.
Stovitz, Steven D; Demerath, Ellen W; Hannan, Peter J; Lytle, Leslie A; Himes, John H
To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade (8.8 years), 5th grade (11.1 years), 8th grade (14.1 years), and 12th grade (18.3 years). Exposures were young adult obesity status classified by CDC adult BMI categories at 12th grade. Skinfolds were measured in third, fifth, and eighth grades. Outcome was mean height (cm) at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds. Adjusted for age, and race/ethnicity, young adult obesity status explained a small, but statistically significant amount of height growth among both females and males within each of the three intervals. Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Background The increase in the prevalence of obesity and overweight is a global trend, whereas the number of studies devoted to the psycho-social functioning of the overweight young is comparatively small. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlations between the occurrence of overweight and obesity during adolescence and achievement motivation and self-esteem levels, taking into consideration the sex and age of subjects. Participants and procedure Altogether, 72 subjects were included in the study. Of them, 36 were overweight (n = 16; BMI = 25-29.9 or obese (n = 20; BMI ≥ 30, whereas the control group (n = 36 comprised individuals with standard body weight. Both the overweight/obese group and the control group were composed of 18 females and 18 males. The age range of subjects was 14-21 (M = 17.32; SD = 2.61. The M. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Questionnaire of Measuring Achievement Motivation (by M. Widerszal-Bazyl, and also a socio-demographic survey, were applied. Results Overweight and obese individuals are characterized by lower (average or low self-esteem and achievement motivation (they are characterized by a lower perseverance level while performing tasks, perceive time in a less dynamic way, are less future-oriented, and their self-confidence level is lower than individuals with standard body weight, and who are characterized by high self-esteem and average achievement motivation. In the scope of school mark average, and also of planning higher academic education, there are no intergroup differences. Sex, and also age, does not differentiate overweight or obese individuals in the scope of self-esteem or achievement motivation. Differences occur in the case of comparing individuals of the same sex. Overweight or obese women are characterized by a lower self-esteem level than those whose body mass index is normal. Overweight or obese men are characterized by a lower self-esteem and achievement motivation
Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Mortensen, Erik L; Derbyshire, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Grant, Jon E
Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based on body mass index. Data were stratified by sex, with cross-tabulation and t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression for analysis. A total of 492 (27.9%) students were overweight (20.2%; range 25.01-29.98) or obese (7.7%; range 30.04-71.26). Overweight and obesity were associated with significantly lower overall academic achievement, more depressive symptoms, and using diet pills for weight loss. Obese males had significantly higher rates of lifetime trichotillomania while overweight and obese females reported higher rates of panic disorder. Higher educational institutions should be aware of the significant burden associated with overweight and obesity in students, and of the differing demographic and clinical associations between overweight or obesity in men and women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian
OBJECTIVE:: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS:: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS:: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION:: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...
Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian
OBJECTIVE: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5,868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...
Faselis, Charles; Doumas, Michael; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kheirbek, Raya; Korshak, Lauren; Manolis, Athanasios; Pittaras, Andreas; Tsioufis, Costas; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Fletcher, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter
Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality. Exercise capacity is inversely associated with mortality risk. However, little is known on the interaction between fitness, fatness, and mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. Thus, we assessed the interaction between exercise capacity, fatness, and all-cause mortality in hypertensive males. A graded exercise test was performed in 4,183 hypertensive veterans (mean age ± s.d.; 63.3 ± 10.5 years) at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC. We defined three body weight categories based on body mass index (BMI): normal weight (BMI 7.5 METs). During a median follow-up period of 7.2 years, there were 1,000 deaths. The association between exercise capacity and mortality risk was strong, inverse, and graded. For each 1-MET increase in exercise capacity the adjusted risk was 20% for normal weight, 12% for overweight, and 25% for obese (P exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive males regardless of BMI. The risk for overweight and obese but fit individuals was significantly lower when compared to normal weight but unfit. These findings suggest that in older hypertensive men, it may be healthier to be fit regardless of standard BMI category than unfit and normal weight.
Ruedl, Gerhard; Franz, Dominik; Frühauf, Anika; Kopp, Martin; Niedermeier, Martin; Drenowatz, Clemens; Greier, Klaus
Physical activity and physical fitness play an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence and reduce the risk of becoming overweight or obese in adulthood. To evaluate the development of physical fitness in overweight and non-overweight primary school children from the first to third grades. Using a longitudinal study design, body height and weight as well as physical fitness of primary school children from Tyrol, Austria were measured five times during a period of 2.5 years using the German motor performance test (DMT 6-18). In total, 266 children (55% boys) with a mean age of 6.4 ± 0.5 years at baseline participated. The proportion of overweight children was 11% at baseline and 22% at the fifth time point. Overweight children showed a significantly lower physical fitness level (mean total z‑score of DMT6-18) at all 5 time points (Hedges g: 0.64-1.09). Repeated measurement analyses of variances showed a significant increase of physical fitness over time among overweight (partial η 2 : 0.12) and non-overweight (partial η 2 : 0.29) children. With respect to gender, physical fitness significantly increased over time among overweight (partial η 2 : 0.20) and non-overweight (partial η 2 : 0.28) girls, as well as among non-overweight boys (partial η 2 : 0.31) but not among overweight boys (partial η 2 : 0.07). Overweight and non-overweight primary school children significantly increased their physical fitness over the study period; however, overweight children showed a significantly lower physical fitness level at all test time points and did not even achieve the mean baseline fitness level of non-overweight children. With respect to the increasing percentage of overweight children over the study period, evidence-based preventive measures to reduce overweight and increase physical fitness should be implemented at the earliest in primary schools with a special focus on overweight boys.
Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey
The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…
Hazzard, Vivienne M; Hahn, Samantha L; Sonneville, Kendrin R
To examine prevalence of weight misperception (incongruence between one's perceived weight status and one's actual weight status) and disordered weight control behaviors (DWCBs; unhealthy behaviors aiming to control or modify weight), associations between weight misperception and DWCBs, and temporal trends in prevalence and associations among adolescents with overweight and obesity from 1999 to 2013. Self-reported data from eight biennial cycles (1999-2013) of the cross-sectional national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used in analyses restricted to respondents with overweight/obesity. Data on weight status perception, use of fasting, purging, and diet pills to control weight, sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school were used in multivariate logistic regression models. Among U.S. high school students with overweight and obesity, no linear temporal trends were detected for prevalence of weight misperception, fasting, or purging between 1999 and 2013, while a significant linear decrease was observed for prevalence of diet pill use between 1999 and 2013 (b=-0.81, pfasting to control weight among males. No significant changes over time in associations of weight misperception with fasting or purging were observed, though the association between weight misperception and diet pill use weakened somewhat across 1999-2013. In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight misperception appears to be a robust protective factor for DWCBs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I
Cross-sectional studies of adult males have shown that intelligence test score and educational level are inversely correlated to obesity. This study prospectively assessed whether school difficulties in the third school grade are related to the risk of overweight and obesity in young adulthood....... In 1974, body weight, height and social background were ascertained in 987 randomly-selected Copenhagen third graders. For each child, information about learning difficulties, scholastic proficiency, special education received, scholarly difficulties, reduced hearing, speech handicap, and speech...... or hearing education received was obtained. When the subjects were 20-21 years old, they reported their height and weight. The risk of being obese (above the 95th percentile of body mass index distribution) in young adulthood was assessed by logistic regression analysis taking social background, body mass...
Öhlund, Malin; Palmgren, Malin; Holst, Bodil Ström
Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors. Data were obtained from medical records for cats (n = 1072) visiting an academic medical center during 2013-2015, and from a questionnaire on insured cats (n = 1665). From the medical records, information on body condition score, breed, age, sex, neutering status, and diagnosis was obtained. The questionnaire included questions relating to the cat's body condition, breed, age, sex, neutering status, outdoor access, activity level, and diet. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight was 45% in the medical records cohort and 22% in the questionnaire cohort, where owners judged their pet's body condition. Overweight cats in the medical records cohort were more likely to be diagnosed with lower urinary tract disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, skin disorders, locomotor disease, and trauma. Eating predominantly dry food, being a greedy eater, and inactivity were factors associated with an increased risk of overweight in the final model in the questionnaire cohort. In both cohorts, the Birman and Persian breeds, and geriatric cats, were less likely to be overweight, and male cats were more likely to be overweight. The prevalence of overweight cats (45%) as assessed by trained personnel was high and in the same range as previously reported. Birman and Persian cats had a lower risk of overweight. The association with dry food found in adult, neutered cats is potentially important because
Lewis, Shaun; Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julie S.
This small action research study (ARS) began with a review of the literature examining the relationship of gangsta rap in regards to academic achievement, self-esteem, decision-making, identity issues and development of young African American males. The purpose of the ARS was to examine the correlation between gangsta rap and its influence on 5th…
Luis Gabriel Rangel-Caballero
Conclusions: In economically active population, overweight was more frequent among males, in people aged ≥35 years and in those with higher monthly wage income. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
... Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria ... is no current national figure on overweight/obesity in the adult or adolescents. ... A total of 2031 (1126 males and 905 females), students participated in this study.
Sallmén, Markku; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A; Blair, Aaron; Baird, Donna Day
Overweight and obese men have been reported to have lower sperm counts and hormonal changes, but data are lacking regarding effects on couple fertility. We examined the relationship between male body mass index (BMI) and infertility in couples enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study in the United States. The analysis sample was limited to couples (wife conceiving a pregnancy after at least 12 months of unprotected intercourse regardless of whether or not a pregnancy ultimately occurred. Self-reported weight and height were used to calculate BMI (kg/m). Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for infertility associated with increases in male BMI were calculated with logistic regression. Adjusting for potential confounders, a 3-unit increase in male BMI was associated with infertility (aOR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.25; n = 1329). There was a dose-response relationship, and the BMI effect was stronger when the data were limited to couples with the highest-quality infertility data. The association between BMI and infertility was similar for older and younger men, suggesting that erectile dysfunction in older men does not explain the association. This report of lower fertility in overweight and obese men needs replication. If the findings are robust, programs to prevent obesity may improve men's reproductive health and save medical costs for infertility treatment.
Balistreri, KS; Van Hook, J
Much of the research examining the patterns, timing, and socioeconomic characteristics of child overweight has been limited by the lack of longitudinal nationally representative data with sufficiently large or diverse samples. We used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of US kindergartners, to identify three distinct patterns of weight gain from kindergarten through eighth grade. The largest group (boys: 59%, girls: 55%) was characterized as having consistently normal weight whereby BMI percentile remained below the 85th percentile. The remaining children (boys: 41%, girls: 45%) fell either into a class characterized as always overweight/at risk of overweight (boys: 27%, girls: 25%) or gradually becoming overweight/at risk for overweight (boys: 15%, girls 20%). We found some evidence that the relationship between socioeconomic status and children’s health may operate differently across gender. Among girls, low parental income and education were both significant risk factors for the gradual onset of overweight after beginning Kindergarten. Parental income or changes in parental income were not related to boys’ risk of developing overweight after entering Kindergarten; only parents’ education. We found that while children of immigrants display higher levels of overweight / at risk for overweight at each grade level, the children of immigrant parents who have had less exposure to the US were more likely to experience early and sustained overweight throughout elementary and middle school, particularly among boys. High rates of overweight as early as kindergarten, combined with race/ethnic differences suggest that interventions should focus on pre-school children’s environments. PMID:20535537
De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…
0.002), who were about 3 times more likely to have a low self-esteem compared with males (OR 2.7; 95% CI 0.95 - 7.55). Obesity was stigmatised (p=0.002) and obese students were almost 5 times more likely to feel stigmatised than overweight ...
Trout, Josh; Graber, Kim C.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine overweight students' perceptions of and experiences in physical education. Specifically, the applicability of learned helplessness as a framework to understand their experiences was explored. Participants were seven female and five male high school students whose body mass index was at or higher…
Prevalence Of Overweight And Obesity Among Urban Nigeria Adults In Jos. ... to be associated with non-communicable disease (NCDS) like type 2 Diabetes, ... and obesity was 21.4% (19.4%) in males and 23.5% in females (M:F= 1:1.3, ...
Full Text Available Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1 female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2 male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3 this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.
Mößle, Thomas; Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk
Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.
Azar, Ariel; Franetovic, Gonzalo; Martínez, Matías; Santos, Humberto
In Chile, overweight and obesity are pressing issues in public health. To identify individual, social and environmental factors that affect the likelihood of adolescents to become overweight or obese. We used physical condition data of a sample of 900 urban eighth grade students from Santiago, obtained in the 2011 National Study of Physical Education. This information was complemented with georeferenced data from the place of residence of students and the environment in which they live. We used three logistic regression models to estimate the relationship between individual, social and environmental factors and the likelihood of being overweight or obese. Men and students of high socioeconomic status (SES) have a lower probability of being overweight (-6 percentage points (pp.) and -12 pp. respectively). Furthermore, the determinants that affect overweight depend on SES. Namely, only men of middle and low SES have a lower probability of being overweight (-7 pp.). Participation in school sporting activities reduces the likelihood of being overweight only for students of middle and low SES (-5,5 pp.). For adolescents of high SES, the distance between their school and the nearest fast food restaurant decreases the likelihood of being overweight (-4.7 pp. per km.). The determinants of overweight differ by SES. Public policy design should consider socioeconomic inequalities that characterize the Chilean reality.
Kumagai, Hajime; Baral, Bodh R; Shiino, Tatsu; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kolachhapati, Mana R; Tiwari, Ishwor C P
An experiment was conducted using 17 male buffalo calves to assess the effects of plane of nutrition on dry matter intake (DMI), daily gain (DG), body size measurement, apparent digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance. To attain 250kg BW, the calves were allocated into three groups: H, L-H and L, receiving the concentrate at 1.50% of BW, 0.75% of BW until 190kg BW and 1.50% thereafter and 0.75% of BW, respectively. The animals had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw (UTRS). The DMI of UTRS through the experiment was higher in L and L-H than H, showing 3.52, 2.90 and 2.62kg/day, respectively (Pcalves in Nepal. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Vance, Vivienne A; Woodruff, Sarah J; McCargar, Linda J; Husted, Janice; Hanning, Rhona M
The purpose of the present paper was to assess dietary energy reporting as a function of sex and weight status among Ontario and Alberta adolescents, using the ratio of energy intake (EI) to estimated BMR (BMRest). Data were collected using the FBQ, a validated web-based dietary assessment tool (including a 24 h dietary recall, FFQ, and food and physical activity behavioural questions). BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight and participants were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese. BMR was calculated using the WHO equations (based on weight). Reporting status was identified using the ratio EI:BMRest. Data were collected in public, Catholic and private schools in Ontario and Alberta, Canada. A total of 1917 (n 876 male and n 1041 female) students (n 934 grade 9 and n 984 grade 10) participated. The mean EI:BMRest ratio across all participants was 1.4 (sd 0.6), providing evidence of under-reporting for the total sample. Females under-reported more than males (t = 6.27, P < 0.001), and under-reporting increased with increasing weight status for both males (F = 33.21, P < 0.001) and females (F = 14.28, P < 0.001). After removing those who reported eating less to lose weight, the EI:BMRest was 1.56 (sd 0.6) for males and 1.4 (sd 0.6) for females. The present study highlights methodological challenges associated with self-reported dietary data. Systematic differences in under-reporting of dietary intake by gender and weight status were observed using a web-based survey, similar to observations made using paper-based 24 h recalls and dietitian interviews.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Being overweight is considered among major risk factors of chronic non-communicable diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate main determinants associated with being overweight and obese among the population of Ukraine in transitional period.METHODS. Data from the survey “Health and Well-being in the Transitions” (2000 were used. Body mass index (BMI was used to estimate the level of overweight. Binary dependent variable was computed by setting BMI of 25 as the borderline between normal weight and overweight. Risk of being overweight was compared by educational groups, demographic characteristics, occupation, level of physical activity, and behavioral and eating habits, after adjustment for age and stratification by gender.RESULTS. Among men, those overweight were less likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio 2,5, while more likely to eat meat more often (AOR=2,3 and to consume more vegetable oil. However, among women being overweight was associated with eating more potatoes (AOR = 0,4 and with frequent vodka intake (AOR = 1,7. Those women who drank beer were less likely to be overweight (AOR = 0,3. Risk of being overweight was related to occupation: those unemployed, housekeepers, and self-employed people were less likely to be overweight than those employed with salaries. Obesity risk was greater in those older than 30. Education and physical activity did not show significant associations with risk of being overweight.CONCLUSION. Eating habits, occupational status, and unhealthy habits were associated with obesity among men and women in different ways. Age was found to be an important factor of being overweight both for males and females. Some of the associated characteristics may be considered causes of being overweight and the others as consequences.
Gopalakrishnan, S; Ganeshkumar, P; Prakash, M V S; Christopher; Amalraj, V
Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body mass index is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used in classifying overweight and obesity in adult populations and individuals. A study was conducted to screen the medical students of AIMST University for overweight/obesity using Body Mass Index(BMI) and to determine the prevalence among them. This is an institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 290 medical students using a pre-tested questionnaire and measured their Body Mass Index (BMI). Data obtained was analyzed statistically by calculating proportions. Out of 290 students who participated in the study, 45.2% were males. In the study, 14.8% were found to be overweight (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m2); 13.7% of males and 15.7% of females. Pre-obese students (BMI 25-29kg/m2) accounted for 15.9% of the total (males 18.3% and females 13.8%). 5.2% were found to be obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2): males 9.2% and females 1.9%. Also 14.8% were found to be underweight (males 12.2% and females 17.0%). The study group consisted of 63.8% Indian, 32.4% Chinese and 3.8% Malay students. The study reveals that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the medical students of AIMST University is on the high, which is comparable to the findings of earlier studies conducted in Malaysia, reinforcing the need to encourage healthy lifestyle, healthy food habits and a physically active daily routine, among the adolescents and youth of this country.
Lumeng, Julie C; Gannon, Kate; Cabral, Howard J; Frank, Deborah A; Zuckerman, Barry
To determine whether there is a relationship between clinically meaningful behavior problems and concurrent and future overweight in 8- to 11-year-old children. 1998 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth interview data for 8- to 11-year-old children and their mothers were analyzed. A Behavior Problems Index score >90th percentile was considered clinically meaningful. Child overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) >or=95th percentile for age and sex. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders (selected a priori): child's sex, race, use of behavior-modifying medication, history of academic retention, and hours of television per day; maternal obesity, smoking status, marital status, education, and depressive symptoms; family poverty status; and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form (HOME-SF) cognitive stimulation score. In an attempt to elucidate temporal sequence, a second analysis was conducted with a subsample of normal-weight children who became overweight between 1996 and 1998 while controlling for BMI z score in 1996. The sample included 755 mother-child pairs. Of the potential confounding variables, race, maternal obesity, academic grade retention, maternal education, poverty status, and HOME-SF cognitive stimulation score acted as joint confounders, altering the relationship between behavior problems and overweight in the multiple logistic regression model. With these covariates in the final model, behavior problems were independently associated with concurrent child overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 2.95; 95% confidence interval: 1.34-6.49). The relationship was strengthened in the subsample of previously normal-weight children, with race, maternal obesity, HOME-SF cognitive stimulation score, and 1996 BMI z score acting as confounders (adjusted odds ratio: 5.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.37-19.9). Clinically meaningful behavior problems in 8- to 11-year-old children were independently
Amanda Oliveira Rabelo
Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar algumas representações de gênero que envolvem a docência nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental no Rio de Janeiro (Brasil e em Aveiro (Portugal, especialmente as representações geradoras de discriminações que afetam os homens atuantes na profissão. Socialmente definida como feminina, tal profissão carrega representações que podem diferenciar as práticas e as escolhas, sendo que muitas delas associam o magistério ao feminino e alegam que os professores homens estariam fora de lugar. A partir da análise qualitativa e quantitativa de questionários e entrevistas com professores desse segmento, examinamos, então, quais são as representações de gênero que circulam em relação à docência nas séries iniciais do ensino fundamental, se existe discriminação em relação a eles, bem como se os homens que entram na profissão são desprovidos de preconceitos e ajudariam a diminuir as discriminações de gênero. Concluímos que o simples fato de existir um professor do sexo masculino nas salas de aula pode provocar várias representações de gênero; nesse sentido, os professores podem ou não tentar quebrar tais representações, o que aconteceu com alguns dos participantes desta investigação. Mesmo sofrendo preconceitos, porém, muitos se aproveitam das vantagens da masculinidade na sociedade. Apesar disso, demarcamos que a presença de professores do sexo masculino nas séries iniciais é uma forma de inserir as questões de gênero na educação, demonstrar às crianças na escola que o homem também pode escolher essa atividade com sucesso e evidenciar que a aptidão para o magistério não depende do sexo.This article aims to analyze some gender representations of teachers of the early grades of primary education in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil and Aveiro (Portugal, especially the representations that generate discrimination affecting male teachers. Socially defined as female, such
Jiang, Shuhan; Peng, Sihui; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R; Li, Lu
While many studies have examined factors associated with overweight and obesity among college students, no study has yet compared gender differences influencing overweight and obesity using a multilevel framework. The present study examines different influences on overweight and obesity between men and women at both individual and environmental levels. Participants were 11,673 college students identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 Chinese universities. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.5% (95% CI [7.7, 11.3]) in the overall study sample, 13.9% (95% CI [11.5, 16.7]) in males and 6.1% (95% CI [4.1, 8.1]) in females, respectively. We found that higher family income, perceived life stress, home region GDP, and university city unemployment were associated with higher overweight and obesity levels in males, independent of other individual- and city-level covariates. However, unlike male students, only unemployment was associated with overweight and obesity among females. Our research indicates Chinese males are more susceptible to overweight and obesity, and are more easily influenced by external variants than Chinese females. This information should be considered in formulating gender-specific policies and designing and implementing effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young adult male college students.
Preston, Emma C; Ariana, Proochista; Penny, Mary E; Frost, Melanie; Plugge, Emma
To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity among a cohort of children 7-8 years of age in Peru. This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty. The sample was a cohort of 1 737 children 7-8 years of age in 2009. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed using body mass index-forage Z-scores. Logistic regression was used to determine associations with a number of individual, household, and community factors. Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 19.2% and 8.6%, respectively. A prevalence of 32.0% and 23.5% overweight and obesity was found among males and females, respectively. High socioeconomic status, living in Lima, having a mother who was overweight or obese, being male, and being an only child or having only one sibling were associated with being overweight and obese at this age. This study shows a high prevalence of childhood and maternal overweight and obesity in Peru. In contrast to findings in many high-income countries, the findings in Peru indicate that children from wealthier households were more likely to be overweight or obese than those from poorer households. In addition, there is something particularly obesogenic about the Lima environment that merits further investigation, and several key issues to consider when targeting future interventions and research.
Emma C. Preston
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity among a cohort of children 7-8 years of age in Peru. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty. The sample was a cohort of 1 737 children 7-8 years of age in 2009. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed using body mass index-forage Z-scores. Logistic regression was used to determine associations with a number of individual, household, and community factors. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight and obesity were 19.2% and 8.6%, respectively. A prevalence of 32.0% and 23.5% overweight and obesity was found among males and females, respectively. High socioeconomic status, living in Lima, having a mother who was overweight or obese, being male, and being an only child or having only one sibling were associated with being overweight and obese at this age. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a high prevalence of childhood and maternal overweight and obesity in Peru. In contrast to findings in many high-income countries, the findings in Peru indicate that children from wealthier households were more likely to be overweight or obese than those from poorer households. In addition, there is something particularly obesogenic about the Lima environment that merits further investigation, and several key issues to consider when targeting future interventions and research.
Robinson, E; Christiansen, P
Cultural differences in ideal body weight are well established, but less research has examined attraction toward potential mates of heavier body weights. We examined whether exposure to obesity increases physical attraction toward overweight men. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined the effect that exposure to obese vs healthy weight men had on female attraction toward an overweight man. Study 3 examined whether females who are regularly exposed to males of heavier body weights reported a greater attraction toward overweight men. Study 4 tested whether females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man, after having been exposed to obesity. Exposure to obesity altered visual perceptions of what normal and therefore healthy body weights were and this resulted in greater attraction toward an overweight man (Studies 1 and 2). Females regularly exposed to men of heavier body weight reported a greater attraction toward overweight men (Study 3). After exposure to obesity, females in an online dating study were more likely to choose to date an overweight man ahead of a healthy weight man (Study 4). Exposure to male obesity increases female attraction toward overweight men and may affect mate choice.
Poulsen, Anne A; Desha, Laura; Ziviani, Jenny; Griffiths, Lisa; Heaslop, Annabel; Khan, Asad; Leong, Gary M
Differences in fundamental movement skills and self-perceptions of physical ability and physical appearance of overweight and non-overweight children were investigated. Overweight (n = 89, mean age = 8.75 ± 1.4 years, BMI z-score = 2.22, SD = 0.46, 46% male) and non-overweight (n = 27, mean age = 8.25 ± 1.5 years, BMI z-score = 0.03, SD = 0.73, 62.1% male) participants enrolled in the KOALA (Kinder Overweight Activity Lifestyle Actions) project were included. The overall objective of the KOALA project was to determine in a randomized controlled trial the effect of a Triple P (Positive Parenting Program), and a family 'Eat Well Be Active' Scouts Camp program on BMI in overweight children. Baseline between-group differences on measures of fundamental movement skills and self-concept perceptions were analyzed using independent samples t-tests. Relationships between BMI and these variables were investigated with multiple linear regression. Overweight children had lower scores on Bruninks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Performance-2 subtests (Bilateral Coordination, Upper Limb Coordination, Strength, Balance, and Running Speed and Agility), and Physical abilities self-concept than non-overweight children. Children who were overweight had significant fundamental movement skill difficulties, as well as having poorer Physical abilities self-concept perceptions compared to non-overweight children. The association between increasing BMI and poor performance of gross motor tasks has potential implications for physical activity participation. Future research is needed to determine if fundamental movement skill difficulties and low physical ability self-concept are predisposing factors for children who are overweight or associated outcomes.
Full Text Available The number of the overweight people continues to rise across the world. Studies have shown that being overweight can increase health risks, such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Therefore, identifying the overweight status in people is critical to prevent and decrease health risks. This study explores a new technique that uses blood and biochemical measurements to recognize the overweight condition. A new machine learning technique, an extreme learning machine, was developed to accurately detect the overweight status from a pool of 225 overweight and 251 healthy subjects. The group included 179 males and 297 females. The detection method was rigorously evaluated against the real-life dataset for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve criterion. Additionally, the feature selection was investigated to identify correlating factors for the overweight status. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in blood and biochemical indexes between healthy and overweight people (p-value < 0.01. According to the feature selection, the most important correlated indexes are creatinine, hemoglobin, hematokrit, uric Acid, red blood cells, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, triglyceride, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. These are consistent with the results of Spearman test analysis. The proposed method holds promise as a new, accurate method for identifying the overweight status in subjects.
Häkkänen, Paula; Ketola, Eeva; Laatikainen, Tiina
School health care is crucial for obesity prevention. Data on constancy of childhood obesity are still scarce, but highly necessary for risk evaluation. We examined from electronic health records (EHRs) the continuity of obesity during primary school and searched for social and behavioural characteristics associated with childhood obesity. From randomly selected 2000 Finnish sixth graders (aged 12-14), we identified 402 'ever overweight' and 172 'ever obese' children who were overweight or obese at least once since their first grade. These cohort data of growth measurements and the content of all pre-seventh grade health checks were retrospectively analysed from EHRs. Of the ever obese and ever overweight children, 69.3% (95% CI: 65.2-73.4%) continued to be overweight or obese in sixth grade. Of the ever obese children, nearly 40% were obese in first grade and 56% were obese or overweight in all six grades. Furthermore, 80% were obese or overweight already before school age. Obese children had experienced more bullying than overweight children (43.6% versus 30.8%, P = 0.003), had more frequently special needs for studying (25.6% versus 14.7%, P = 0.002) or had undergone a serious family crisis (20.3% versus 11.4%, P = 0.005). Electronic data on children's growth and psychosocial characteristics are potentially useful when aiming for early action to counter obesity. Such routinely collected data appear to be underutilized and should be further exploited both in individual and population level to develop screening and treatment processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Sedej, Katarina; Lusa, Lara; Battelino, Tadej; Kotnik, Primoz
To estimate overweight and obesity prevalence trends in Slovenian adolescents entering secondary schools in the years 2004, 2009 and 2014 and differences in the prevalence between different types of secondary schools. Data from 17,538 adolescents entering secondary schools (mean age ± standard deviation 15.4 ± 0.5 years) collected during obligatory medical examination in years 2004, 2009 and 2014 was analyzed. Overweight and obesity were defined using International Obesity Task Force criteria. In 2004-2009 overweight and obesity prevalence increased, especially in males and stabilized thereafter (2009-2014) in both genders. It was significantly higher (p schools (2009; 28.7 vs. 16.8% overweight females and 31.6 vs. 22.3% overweight males; 2014: 29.7 vs. 17.9% overweight females and 33.6 vs. 20.4% overweight males). Overweight and obesity prevalence in Slovenian adolescents entering secondary schools stabilized recently. Adolescents attending secondary vocational and technical/professional schools are at an increased risk of overweight and obesity. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Full Text Available Background: Overweight is increasing in developing countries even as underweight remains highly prevalent in some communities, leading to a double burden of malnutrition. This study explored physicians' perceptions about emergence of overweight and its clinical management in a socioeconomically developing region of India, where underweight constitutes to be a major health problem among children and adolescents. Objective:This study aimed to explore how physicians in the Vijayapura city, India are understanding and managing the emerging double burden of underweight and overweight in adolescents. Material and Methods: A semi structured questionnaire was developed consisting of 35 close-ended questions about causes of obesity, gender differences, and treatment practices and three open-ended questions about the perceived main reasons for obesity .One question ranked various reasons for emergence of adolescent obesity. Twenty- ve physicians participated in the survey. Results: Physicians treated more adolescents for underweight than overweight; however, most said overweight had increased over the past 5 years (72% while underweight had been steady or decreased (80%. Most desired more training on treating patients for overweight (92% and under-nutrition (60%. Most agreed that urban dwelling (72%, high socioeconomic status (72%, male gender (84% and parental obesity (80% were risk factors for obesity. Almost all discussed eating habits (100% and activity levels (80%, and two-thirds ranked environmental factors, like urbanization, globalization, and technology, as most inuential. Conclusion: Physicians indicated that while the predominant problem among adolescents in this part of India is underweight, overweight is increasing due to various environmental, socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors.
Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M
Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (Pobesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.
To determine what secondary schoolchildren in Jordan want from overweight and obesity intervention strategies and prevention programmes. A school-based, cross-sectional study using a quantitative design was carried out during October 2014. The participants were secondary schoolchildren in grades 11 and 12. Data were analysed using SPSS program version 17. Percentages, standard deviations and means were computed. The main suggestions were for programmes at school, during school hours (n=962, 85.4%), followed by one that involved family and friends (n=951, 84.5%), and a programme at a convenient time free of charge (n=919, 81.6%). The students also suggested many strategies to tackle overweight and obesity, such as: taking more physical exercise (n=925, 82.1%), increasing consumption of more fruit and vegetables (n=712, 63.2%) eating less fast food (n=689, 61.2%). Schools, families, health providers and community organisations should encourage students to adopt healthy lifestyles, and facilitate their selection and participation in health programmes.
Eliane Cristina de Andrade Gonçalves
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n3p277 This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and investigate its association with sociodemographic factors, physical activity level, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes in civil servants of a university in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The research was conducted with 339 civil servants aged above 18 years. Overweight was analyzed by self-reported body mass index. Physical activity level was evaluated using a questionnaire. Sociodemographic data (sex, age, economic status, educational level, marital status, and working hours and information on the chronic diseases of interest (hypercholesterolemia and diabetes were obtained from self-report. The association between overweight and the other variables was investigated using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight was 50.6%. The groups most susceptible to overweight were: male civil servants (OR: 2.04; CI: 1.30-3.22, those less than 12 years of education (OR: 2.46; CI: 1.43-4.23, who were insufficiently active (OR: 1.64; CI: 1.03-2.60, and those with hypercholesterolemia (OR: 2.28; CI: 1.32-3.96. This study concluded that more than a half of the sample was overweight and that this condition was associated with male sex, educational level below 12 years, insufficient physical activity, and hypercholesterolemia.
... Step in the Right Direction Understanding Adult Overweight & Obesity View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts The terms “overweight” and “obesity” refer to body weight that is greater than ...
... You should also choose foods with less salt (sodium), keep your blood pressure under control, and keep your blood glucose in the target range. Pregnancy Problems What are pregnancy problems? Overweight and obesity ...
... are more likely to be overweight. Exercise and Physical Activity Many kids don't get enough physical activity. ... sugar-sweetened beverages. Talk to kids about the importance of eating well and being active. Be a ...
Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N; Crawford, Patricia B; Egerter, Susan
To our knowledge, few published studies have examined the influence of competitive food and beverage (CF&B) policies on student weight outcomes; none have investigated disparities in the influence of CF&B policies on children's body weight by school neighborhood socioeconomic resources. To investigate whether the association between CF&B policies and population-level trends in childhood overweight/obesity differed by school neighborhood income and education levels. This cross-sectional study, from July 2013 to October 2014, compared overweight/obesity prevalence trends before (2001-2005) and after (2006-2010) implementation of CF&B policies in public elementary schools in California. The study included 2 700 880 fifth-grade students in 5362 public schools from 2001 to 2010. California CF&B policies (effective July 1, 2004, and July 1, 2007) and school neighborhood income and education levels. Overweight/obesity defined as a body mass index at or greater than the 85th percentile for age and sex. Overall rates of overweight/obesity ranged from 43.5% in 2001 to 45.8% in 2010. Compared with the period before the introduction of CF&B policies, overweight/obesity trends changed in a favorable direction after the policies took effect (2005-2010); these changes occurred for all children across all school neighborhood socioeconomic levels. In the postpolicy period, these trends differed by school neighborhood socioeconomic advantage. From 2005-2010, trends in overweight/obesity prevalence leveled off among students at schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods but declined in socioeconomically advantaged neighborhoods. Students in the lowest-income neighborhoods experienced zero or near zero change in the odds of overweight/obesity over time: the annual percentage change in overweight/obesity odds was 0.1% for females (95% CI, -0.7 to 0.9) and -0.3% for males (95% CI, -1.1 to 0.5). In contrast, in the highest-income neighborhoods, the annual percentage
Rosas, Lisa G.; Guendelman, Sylvia; Harley, Kim; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Neufeld, Lynnette; Mejia, Fabiola
The prevalence of childhood obesity is high among young children of Mexican origin in the United States, however, the determinants are poorly understood. We conducted a binational study with a sample from California (CA) and Mexico (MX), to identify and compare the most important factors associated with overweight and obesity among children of Mexican descent. Significantly more children were classified as overweight or obese in CA compared to MX (53.3 vs. 14.9%, P obese mother was significantly associated with being overweight or obese. In MX, male gender, high socioeconomic status and very low food insecurity were associated with being overweight or obese. These data offer hypotheses for how migration may influence the high prevalence of overweight among the Mexican children in California. PMID:20217234
de Castro, John M.; King, George A.; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Gonzalez-Ayala, Salvador; Kooshian, Charles H.
The built environment has been implicated in the development of the epidemic of obesity. We investigated the differences in the meal patterns of normal weight vs. overweight/obese individuals occurring at home vs. other locations. The location of meals and their size in free-living participants were continuously recorded for 7 consecutive days. Study 1: 81 males and 84 females recorded their intake in 7-d diet diaries and wore a belt that contained a GPS Logger to record their location continuously for 7 consecutive days. Study 2: 388 males and 621 females recorded their intake in diet diaries for 7 consecutive days. In both studies, compared to eating at home, overweight/obese participants ate larger meals away from home in both restaurants and other locations than normal weight participants. Overweight/obese individuals appear to be more responsive to environmental cues for eating away from home. This suggests that the influence of the built environment on the intake of overweight/obese individuals may contribute to the obesity epidemic. PMID:22565154
Full Text Available Background: Obesity is most common nutritional disorder in developed countries and is assuming significant dimensions in developing countries. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults aged 18 years and above and socio-demographic factors affecting overweight and obesity in rural population of Meerut. To suggest measures for prevention of overweight and obesity in adults population of rural Meerut. Material and Methods: In present community based cross sectional study 1382 individuals aged 18 years and above were covered from 400 families spread over 5 villages with the help of systemic random sampling in rural area of Meerut District. The Individuals were interviewed and examined personally using Pre-designed and Pre-tested Questionnaire. Results: Out of 1382 individuals 244 (17.7% were having BMI ≥ 25. Prevalence of obesity in females (22% was found more than males (13.8%. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity increased with advancing age, maximum being in age group 50-59 years (22.2%. Maximum numbers of males (19.9% were overweight in their most productive life (30 -39 years whereas maximum females were overweight in their menopausal decade i.e. 40-49 years (32.8%. Overweight was more in persons who were married (18.9%, professional/Technical person (33.3%, Savarna upper caste (23.1%, belonging to high standard of living index (21.0%, person living in joint families (18.2%, and Alcoholics (18.6% while smokers were having lower prevalence of overweight (10.6%. Conclusion: The prevalence of Overweight and Obesity is increasing in adult population of rural area. Various socio-demographic correlates are affecting the prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Rural population.
Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsieh, Fu-Nien; Lin, Li-Yu; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Chen, WenChieh
Obesity is a risk factor for multiple health problems, but its association with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) remains controversial. We sought to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and alopecia severity in men with AGA and early-onset AGA. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The medical charts and photographs of men with a clinical diagnosis of AGA were reviewed. In all, 189 men were enrolled with a mean age of 30.8 years. In male-pattern AGA (n = 142), men with severe alopecia (grade V-VII) had higher BMI than those with mild to moderate alopecia (grade I-IV) (25.1 vs 22.8 kg/m(2), P = .01). After multivariate adjustments, the risk for severe alopecia was higher in the overweight or obese (BMI ≥24 kg/m(2)) subjects with male-pattern AGA (odds ratio 3.52, P < .01). In early-onset male-pattern AGA (n = 46), the risk for having severe alopecia was also higher in the overweight or obese subjects (odds ratio 4.97, P = .03). Parameters used to evaluate obesity were limited because of the retrospective nature of the study. Higher BMI was significantly associated with greater severity of hair loss in men with male-pattern AGA, especially in those with early-onset AGA. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Obuchi, Ritsuko; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki
Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9-10 years) in Ina Town during 1999-2009. Information about subjects' sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents' age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects' height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14) and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16) significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Although there was no statistically significant relationship between a larger number of older siblings and overweight, a larger number of younger siblings resulted in a lower OR for overweight (P for trend < 0.001). Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these
Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Hessner, Marie Vik; Lous, Jørgen
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that men and women are treated differently for similar disease including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Differences in attitudes and treatment practices towards men and women with obesity are not well recognized. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the attitudes...... and treatment practices among Danish general practitioners (GPs), in relation to treatment of overweight, while taking gender of both the patients and practitioners into account. DESIGN: Questionnaire inventory covertly examining attitudes and practices among Danish general practitioners towards treatment......: Among general practitioners in Denmark, treatment for weight loss is more often practiced for overweight male than overweight female patients presenting with same symptoms. In addition, hyperlipidemia among overweight males is also more often treated with lipid lowering medicine than hyperlipidemia...
Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Walters, Scott T.; Harris, T. Robert
Introduction Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. Methods ...
Robinson, Eric; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S
Obesity is now common and this may have altered visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' and therefore healthy weight. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in male and female participants' ability to visually identify the weight status of photographed Caucasian males. Five hundred and fifty three male and female young adults from the US (high obesity prevalence), UK and Sweden (lower obesity prevalence) participated in an online study. Participants judged the weight status of a series of photographed healthy weight, overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males and rated the extent to which they believed each male should consider losing weight. There was a strong tendency for both male and female participants to underestimate the weight status of the photographed overweight and obese males. Photographed males were frequently perceived as being of healthier weight than they actually were. Some modest cross-cultural differences were also observed; US participants were worse at recognising obesity than UK participants (p cross-cultural differences were observed for perceptions or attitudes towards the photographed healthy weight or overweight males. The weight status of overweight and obese (class I) Caucasian males is underestimated when judged by males and females using visual information alone. This study provides initial evidence of modest cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward, and the ability to recognise, obesity in Caucasian males.
Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola D; Fairclough, Stuart J; Richardson, David J
This study aimed to compare moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in normal-weight and overweight boys and girls during school recess. Four hundred twenty children, age 6 to 10 years, were randomly selected from 25 schools in England. Three hundred seventy-seven children completed the study. BMI was calculated from height and weight measurements, and heart rate reserve thresholds of 50% and 75% reflected children's engagement in MVPA and VPA, respectively. There was a significant main effect for sex and a significant interaction between BMI category and sex for the percent of recess time spent in MVPA and VPA. Normal-weight girls were the least active group, compared with overweight boys and girls who were equally active. Fifty-one boys and 24 girls of normal weight achieved the 40% threshold; of these, 30 boys and 10 girls exceeded 50% of recess time in MVPA. Eighteen overweight boys and 22 overweight girls exceeded the 40% threshold, whereas 8 boys and 8 girls exceeded the 50% threshold. Overweight boys were significantly less active than their normal-weight male counterparts; this difference did not hold true for girls. Even though nearly double the number of normal-weight children achieved the 40% of MVPA during recess compared with overweight children, physical activity promotion in school playgrounds needs to be targeted not only at overweight but at other health parameters, as 40 overweight children met the 40% MVPA target proposed for recess.
M. Micheletti Cremasco; A. Lorè; F. Zanon; E. Fubini
The aim of the present study is to assess the incidence of under/overweight and obesity in a sample of children 6-11 years old in Turin province and to monitor the secular trend in weight. Our survey shows that about 2% of children are underweight, 17% overweight and 3% obese. Males show a prevalence of overweight and obesity, The comparison of current data with those collected in 1979 by Ente Italiano Moda (E.I.M.) [I] shows a significant increase of weight problems in both sexes: this, in c...
Bakker, G.C.M.; Erk, M.J. van; Pellis, L.; Wopereis, S.; Rubingh, C.M.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Kooistra, T.; Ommen, B. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.
Background: Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Objective: It was hypothesized that specific dietary components are able to reduce low-grade inflammation as well as metabolic and oxidative stress. Design: Dietary products
Leatherdale, Scott T.
The objective is to examine school-level program and policy characteristics and student-level behavioural characteristics associated with being overweight. Multilevel logistic regression analysis were used to examine the school- and student-level characteristics associated with the odds of a student being overweight among 1264 Grade 5-8 students…
Klein, Elizabeth G; Lytle, Leslie A; Chen, Vincent
To explore the social ecological predictors of the transition to overweight in youth, as shown in results from the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools study. Longitudinal data from a school-based intervention trial. Adolescents who were involved in the Teens Eating for Energy and Nutrition at Schools intervention study who reported a healthful weight at baseline in 1998 (n=1,728). Transition to overweight status (body mass index > or =85th percentile) at follow-up in eighth grade. Generalized linear mixed model regression. Factors in the social, environmental, individual, and behavioral domains had significant unadjusted relationships with a transition to overweight status. In the multivariate analysis, adolescents who perceived themselves to be overweight at baseline were 2.3 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up compared to those with a normal weight self-perception. Compared to nondieters, current dieters were 2.6 times more likely to be overweight at follow-up, and boys were nearly three times more likely to transition to overweight status at follow-up compared with girls. Individual factors, primarily related to a self-perception of being overweight, were the strongest predictors of transitioning to overweight as adolescents progressed from seventh through eighth grade. A better understanding of the relationship between weight concern and transition to overweight is needed.
O'Dea, Jennifer A; Chiang, Hueiwen; Peralta, Louisa R
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased during the 1980s to the late 1990s. The prevalence of obesity is higher in socially and economically disadvantaged communities in most Westernised countries. The purpose of this study was to examine how the socioeconomic gradient in weight status, namely thinness, overweight and obesity, changes over time in a longitudinal cohort of Australian schoolchildren, from 2007-2012. 939 Australian children in school grades 2-6 from 10 primary schools initially participated in the study in 2007. Height and weight were directly measured by research assistants each year. Obesity/overweight and thinness were defined by using the International Obesity Task Force BMI cut-offs. Chi-square analyses were used to test associations between categorical variables and linear mixed models were used to estimate whether the differences in SES groups were statistically significant over time. Results found both males and females in the low SES group were more likely to be obese (6-7%) than middle (4-5%) and high (2-3%) SES groups and this pattern tended to be similar over the 6 year study period. There appeared to be no particular SES pattern for thinness with all SES groups having 4-5% of participants who were thin. The gender and SES patterns were also similar over 6 years for BMI with low and middle SES participants having significantly greater BMI than their high SES peers. Patterns of obesity and overweight in children from socially and economically disadvantaged communities in regional NSW are identifiable from a young age and the socioeconomic pattern persists into adolescence. Obesity prevention and intervention programs should be designed, implemented and evaluated with the social determinants of health in mind and in collaboration with community members. Community programs should continue to be based on positive rather than negative messages in order to avoid unintended stigma and other potentially harmful outcomes.
... What are the signs and symptoms of a male yeast infection? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M. ... with HIV Are overweight Practice poor hygiene Most male yeast infections are easily treated with over-the- ...
Raphaela Santos do Nascimento Rodrigues
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify nursing diagnoses in overweight adolescents from public schools, according to the International Classification for Nursing Practice. A population-based cross-sectional study that investigated the socio-demographic, behavioural and psychological characteristics of adolescents aged from 10 to 14 years. 11 nursing diagnoses were identified: "Risk of overweight", "Risk of impaired adolescent development", "Risk of insecurity in parental role performance", "Risk of the family impaired ability to manage diet regime", "Risk of impaired ability to manage diet regime", "Risk of lack of knowledge of dietary regime", "Risk of excess food intake", "Risk of negative self-image", "Risk of low self-esteem", "Risk of impaired social well-being" and "Impaired exercise pattern". These diagnoses reflect the multifactorial nature of obesity, highlighting the need for interdisciplinary and intersectoral articulation of nursing interventions for prevention and control of overweight.
Ravn, P; Haugen, A G; Glintborg, D
Aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in premenopausal women affecting 5-10%. Nearly 50% are overweight or obese, which result in a more severe phenotype of PCOS. Weight loss is therefore considered the first line treatment in overweight women with PCOS....... The type of diet has no implications for degree of weight loss. Physical activity has no significant additive effect on weight loss. Metformin combined with a low calorie diet has subtle additive effect on weight loss and level of androgens when compared to diet alone. Conclusion: Weight loss through life...... style changes, preferably a low calorie diet, should be the first line treatment in overweight/obese women with PCOS. Metformin can be considered as an additional treatment but has subtle additive effect....
Van der Willik, E.M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Altenburg, T.M.; Gademan, M.G.J.; van Holthe, J.E.
Background and objective Several early life determinants play a role in childhood obesity. Rapid weight gain and overweight in infancy increases the risk while breast feeding seems to protect against childhood overweight. However, should we worry about exclusively breastfed overweight infants? The
Nielsen, Sabrina M; Bartels, Else Marie; Henriksen, Marius
OBJECTIVES: Weight loss is commonly recommended for gout, but the magnitude of the effect has not been evaluated in a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to determine benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight and obese patients with gout. METHODS: We searched...... six databases for longitudinal studies, reporting the effect of weight loss in overweight/obese gout patients. Risk of bias was assessed using the tool Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment......, Development and Evaluation. RESULTS: From 3991 potentially eligible studies, 10 were included (including one randomised trial). Interventions included diet with/without physical activity, bariatric surgery, diuretics, metformin or no intervention. Mean weight losses ranged from 3 kg to 34 kg. Clinical...
... body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means weighing too much. Obesity is becoming ... different age. To determine if a child is overweight or obese, experts compare BMI levels of children ...
Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted
We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....
Baker, Elizabeth; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Van Hook, Jennifer
This research examines the relationship between maternal employment and child overweight among fifth grade Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten (ECLS-K) cohort fifth grade sample (N = 4,360) were analyzed. OLS regression models were estimated predicting percentile BMI as a function of maternal employment, ethnicity, parental nativity status, income, and the interactions of employment, ethnicity/nativity, and income. Among Hisp...
Won Kim Cook
Full Text Available Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES, and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS. In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level, age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities, low family income (<300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively. These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.
Khaled K Aldossari
Full Text Available Background: Obesity and overweight occurrence in individuals is regarded to be the major concern in numerous countries. The study aimed to understand the scope and identify the factors that could associate with overweight/ obesity among people from different countries. Methods: A cross-sectional study was adapted from the period of 1st October 2013 to 30th November 2013. All male and female participants were considered for the study from different countries of the world through an online questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire included questions about socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, life style items and academic performance. Both weight (in kg and height (cm were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results: 229 participants returned filled questionnaires giving a response rate of 85.5%. Most of the participants were overweight due to their lifestyle and the way of consuming junk food on daily basis. Conclusion: Almost half of the participants were overweight and obese. Higher academic level participants had a higher prevalence than others. Interventional educational programs are recommended with an involvement of psychologists.
Johnson Renee M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood safety may be an important social environmental determinant of overweight. We examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and overweight status, and assessed the validity of reported neighborhood safety among a representative community sample of urban adolescents (who were racially and ethnically diverse. Methods Data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, a cross-sectional study in which public high school students in Boston, MA completed a pencil-and-paper survey. The study used a two-stage, stratified sampling design whereby schools and then 9th–12th grade classrooms within schools were selected (the analytic sample included 1,140 students. Students reported their perceptions of neighborhood safety and several associated dimensions. With self-reported height and weight data, we computed body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 for the adolescents based on CDC growth charts. Chi-square statistics and corresponding p-values were computed to compare perceived neighborhood safety by the several associated dimensions. Prevalence ratios (PRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety and the prevalence of overweight status controlling for relevant covariates and school site. Results More than one-third (35.6% of students said they always felt safe in their neighborhood, 43.9% said they sometimes felt safe, 11.6% rarely felt safe, and 8.9% never felt safe. Those students who reported that they rarely or never feel safe in their neighborhoods were more likely than those who said they always or sometimes feel safe to believe that gang violence was a serious problem in their neighborhood or school (68.0% vs. 44.1%, p p = 0.025. In the fully adjusted model (including grade and school stratified by race/ethnicity, we found a statistically significant association between feeling unsafe in one's own neighborhood and overweight status among
The primary objectives of the study were to calculate overweight prevalence (body mass index ≥ 25.0) and simple correlations between 10 demographic, social welfare and behavioural variables and overweight prevalence for Muslim countries (populations >50% Muslim; N = 46). Overweight data for a country's total, male and female populations were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) STEPwise country reports and relevant publications. Country-level data for potential correlates were extracted from multiple sources: Central Intelligence Agency (literacy), Gallup Poll (religiosity), United Nations (agricultural employment, food supply, gender inequality, human development), World Bank (automobile ownership, Internet, labour force) and WHO (physical inactivity). The overall, male and female overweight prevalence was 37.4, 33.0 and 42.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimates significantly differed by economic classification, gender and ethnicity. Middle- and upper income countries were 1.54-7.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-8.07) times more likely overweight than low-income countries, females were 1.48 (CI: 1.45-1.50) times more likely overweight than males and Arab countries were 2.92 (CI: 2.86-2.97) times more likely overweight than non-Arab countries. All 10 of the potential correlates were significantly associated with overweight for at least one permutation (total, economic classification, gender, ethnicity). The greater percentage of poorer countries among non-Arab Muslim countries, which compared with Arab countries have not as rapidly been transformed by globalization, nutrition transition and urbanization, may partially explain prevalence differences. Evaluation of correlational data generally followed associations seen in non-Muslim countries but more complex analysis of subnational data is needed. Arab women are a particularly vulnerable subgroup and governments should act within religious and cultural parameters to provide
Połubok, Joanna; Gonera, Aleksandra; Ubysz, Jakub; Wójcik, Maria; Kozicka, Marta; Barg, Ewa
Overweight and obesity are becoming a more and more common problem among children and teenagers. . The aim of this study is to evaluate the development of children and teenagers from Kudowa-Zdroj and to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population. . The study included 545 children, aged 5-16 years from Kudowa-Zdroj. The following anthropometric parameters were assessed: body weight and height, BMI, Quetelet index, Rohrer's index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist to height ratio (WHtR). . Overweight or obesity diagnosed by BMI SDS were observed in 26.7% of children from grades 0-3, 22.02% of children from grades 4-6 and 22.52% of Junior High School students. Students in grades 0-3 (mean 0.95 ± 2.17) achieved higher BMI SDS compared to students in grades 4-6 (mean 0.37 ± 1.71) and secondary school (mean 0.65 ± 1.61) (p= 0.023).Overweight or obesity diagnosed by Rohrer index SDS and Quetelet index SDS were observed in 22,84% and 17,13% children. Elevated value of the hip circumference SDS was found in 19.48% of children and waist circumference SDS was increased in 17.5% of children. In the group of children with overweight and obesity 59.4% had elevated waist circumference SDS and 53.4% waist circumference SDS. WHtR was elevated in 8.3% of children, more often in boys (p overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity are common disorders among children from Kudowa-Zdroj. It is recommended to educate children, adolescence and their family about healthy lifestyle in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.
Stability of artificial synthetic overweight elements has been analysed theoretically using a diagram of nuclear stability. It is indicated that overweight nucleus can be synthesized only when a certain amount of neutrons participate simultaneously in the synthesis. The maximum number of protons in overweight elements is 1002. The proton number of 'extreme overweight' elements of which the neutron star is possibly composed is in the range from 326 to 1002. It is expected that the mass number of the stable overweight elements with proton number 114 is in the range from 299 to 315
Martínez-Gómez, David; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Wärnberg, Julia; Welk, Gregory J; Marcos, Ascensión; Veiga, Oscar L
To evaluate the convergent validity of the PAQ-A for assessing physical activity (PA) in overweight (including obese) adolescents. Two hundred and three Spanish adolescents (96 females), aged 13-17 years, were selected for this study. Levels of PA were self-reported by 3-day activity diary, activity rating and PAQ-A. Adolescents wore the ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days. Overweight was classified according to International Obesity Task Force age- and sex-specific body mass index cut offs. Fifty-four (33 male and 21 female) adolescents (27%) were classified as overweight or obese. The PAQ-A was moderately related in the overweight adolescent group to an activity rating (ρ=0.52), total PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA assessed by activity monitor (ρ=0.52 and 0.43) and total PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA assessed by activity diary (ρ=0.32 and 0.47). There were no significant differences in the correlation coefficients between non-overweight and overweight adolescents. The PAQ-A shows a reasonable validity for assessing PA in Spanish overweight adolescents. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Lozano-Rojas, Gaudi; Cabello-Morales, Emilio; Hernádez-Diaz, Herminio; Loza-Munarriz, Cesar
To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity according to the criteria of the WHO and CDC in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012. This cross-sectional study included 1,743 school children of 12 to 17 years of age selected from ten public and private educational institutions, using a randomized and stratified sample of "conglomerados" (neighborhoods). In the selected schools, weight and height were measured. For the diagnosis of overweight and obesity, criteria from the WHO and CDC were used. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. According to the WHO criteria, the prevalence of overweight was 33.7% (95% CI 31.5-36.0) and obesity was 14.4% (95% CI 12.8-16.1). According to CDC criteria, the prevalence of overweight was 26.5% (95% CI 24.4-28.6) and obesity was 13.9% (95% CI 12.3-15.6). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in males aged 12 and 13 years old and private educational institutions (poverweight and obesity. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, predominantly in male students between 12 and 13 years and private educational institutions. It is necessary to initiate intervention measures that can contribute to the prevention of chronic diseases in adulthood, secondary to obesity in adolescence.
Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Van Horn, John D; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S
Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42 morphological features, achieved 69
Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sanmiguel, Claudia P.; Van Horn, John D.; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S.
Background Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. Aim To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Methods Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. Results 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study seeks to determine whether perception of weight status among the overweight has changed with the increasing overweight/obesity prevalence. Methods The perception of weight status was compared between overweight participants (BMI between 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 from NHANES III (1988–1994 and overweight participants from NHANES 1999–2004. Perception of weight status was assessed by asking participants to classify their weight as about the right weight, underweight or overweight. Comparisons were made across age groups, genders, race/ethnicities and various income levels. Results Fewer overweight people during the NHANES 1999–2004 survey perceived themselves as overweight when compared to overweight people during the NHANES III survey. The change in distortion between the survey periods was greatest among persons with lower income, males and African-Americans. Conclusion The increase in overweight/obesity between the survey years (NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2004 has been accompanied with fewer overweight people perceiving themselves as overweight.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Results Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14 and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16 significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend P for trend Conclusions Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.
Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J; Caccavale, Laura J
To examine whether body image mediates the association between overweight/obesity and chronic disease-related health practices (CDRHP), including lack of physical activity (PA), infrequent breakfast consumption (IBC), screen-based media use (SBM), and smoking. The 2006 Health Behaviors in School-Age Children survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of US students (n = 8,028) in grades 6-10 (mean age = 14.3 years). Outcome variables included self-reported measures of PA, SBM, IBC, and smoking. Body image was assessed with 5 items from the Body Investment Scale (α = 0.87) asking for agreement/disagreement with statements about one's body. Stratifying on gender, an initial regression model estimated the association between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Mediation models that included body image were then compared to the initial model to determine the role of body image in the relationship between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Among boys, body image mediated the relationships of overweight/obesity with SBM, and of obesity with IBC. Among girls, it mediated the relationships of obesity with PA, IBC, and smoking, and of overweight with SBM. As the prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent boys and girls remains high, efforts to improve their body image could result in less frequent engagement in CDRHP. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: To examine whether body image mediates the association between overweight/obesity and chronic disease-related health practices (CDRHP, including lack of physical activity (PA, infrequent breakfast consumption (IBC, screen-based media use (SBM, and smoking. Methods: The 2006 Health Behaviors in School-Age Children survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of US students (n = 8,028 in grades 6-10 (mean age = 14.3 years. Outcome variables included self-reported measures of PA, SBM, IBC, and smoking. Body image was assessed with 5 items from the Body Investment Scale (α = 0.87 asking for agreement/disagreement with statements about one's body. Stratifying on gender, an initial regression model estimated the association between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Mediation models that included body image were then compared to the initial model to determine the role of body image in the relationship between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Results: Among boys, body image mediated the relationships of overweight/obesity with SBM, and of obesity with IBC. Among girls, it mediated the relationships of obesity with PA, IBC, and smoking, and of overweight with SBM. Conclusion: As the prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent boys and girls remains high, efforts to improve their body image could result in less frequent engagement in CDRHP.
Abahussain, Nada A.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Alsulaiman, Nouf A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.
ABSTRACT The nutrition transition with associated lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases has rapidly reached many developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Saudi adolescents. This school-based multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia: Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants included 2,908 students of secondary schools (1,401 males and 1,507 females) aged 14 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster-sampling technique. Weight, height, and waist-circumference were measured; prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined using age- and sex-specific BMI cutoff reference standards of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Abdominal obesity was determined using waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cutoffs (above 0.5). The prevalence of overweight was 19.5% in males and 20.8% in females while that of obesity was 24.1% in males and 14% in females. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in males and females was 35.9% and 30.3% respectively. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among adolescents in private schools. Across all ages, overweight and obesity ranged from 39.9% to 45.6% in males and from 30.4% to 38.7% in females. ANCOVA, controlling for age, showed significant interaction effects (city by gender). It is concluded that the proportions of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity, observed among Saudi adolescents were remarkably high. Such high prevalence of overweight and obesity is a major public-health concern. PMID:25895197
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. There are a host of influences contributing to the development of overweight and obesity, including genetic, metabolic, environmental, behavioral, socioeconomic and cultural factors. Weight gain is caused by consumption of macro-nutrients in excess of the body's requirements creating a situation of positive energy balance. An energy imbalance over a confirmed per...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is becoming an equally challenging, yet under-recognized, problem in developing countries including Pakistan. Children and adolescents are worst affected with an estimated 10% of the world's school-going children being overweight and one quarter of these being obese. The study aimed to assess prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, and trend in prevalence statistics, among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> + 1SD and obesity (> + 2SD were defined using the World Health Organization child growth reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to BMI. Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors for overweight and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were obtained. All regression analyses were controlled for age and gender and statistical significance was considered at P Results Seventeen percent (95% CI 15.4-18.8 children were overweight and 7.5% (95% CI 6.5-8.7 were obese. Higher prevalence of obesity was observed among boys than girls (P = 0.028, however, there was no gender disparity in overweight prevalence. Prevalence of overweight showed a significantly increasing trend with grade (P Conclusion Alarmingly rapid rise in overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children was observed, especially among the affluent urban population. The findings support the urgent need for National preventive strategy for childhood obesity and targeted interventions tailored to local circumstances with meaningful involvement of communities.
Murasko, Jason E
Body mass index (BMI) levels in US children and adolescents have increased over the past several decades. The negative health effects of this trend are well-documented. Recent work has evaluated the potential effects on skills formation. Studies are mixed on whether there is an association between high BMI and skills outcomes, and those that estimate causal effects find none. This paper offers estimates on the causal effect of BMI-defined overweight and obesity on skills formation using two large cohorts of contemporary US children followed from infancy to 5 years and from kindergarten (6 years) to the eighth grade (14 years). Significant negative associations were observed in the random effects models for males in early life with respect to a mental skills assessment, for females during the pre-school years for reading and maths assessments, for both males and females during the schooling years for reading assessments and for females during the schooling years for maths assessments. Fixed effects models yielded a significant negative association only with respect to the latter. The implication of these findings is that any improvement in skills outcomes that may accompany reductions in obesity prevalence may depend on whether interventions are general to overall health productivity or whether they are specific to dietary and exercise behaviours.
Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela; Nadbrzuch, Rachel
The rate of habituation to food is inversely related to energy intake, and overweight children may habituate slower to food and consume more energy. This study compared patterns of sensitization, as defined by an initial increase in operant or motivated responding for food, and habituation, defined by gradual reduction in responding, for macaroni and cheese and pizza in overweight and non-overweight 8−12 year-old children. Non-overweight children habituated faster to both foods than overweigh...
Abdelalim, Ahmed; Ajaj, Nawras; Al-Tmimy, Abdulrahman; Alyousefi, Maytham; Al-Rashaidan, Sulaiman; Hammoud, Majeda S; Al-Taiar, Abdullah
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between childhood obesity and student academic performance in the classroom setting. A multi-stage cluster random sampling was used to select a representative sample of 1,213 fifth-grade students in male public schools. Height and weight were measured using a standard protocol. Overweight was defined as BMI ≥85th but education was the most important predictor for high academic performance in the classroom setting. There is no association between obesity and academic performance in the classroom setting among boys in Kuwait. With the lack of evidence of a relationship between childhood obesity and academic performance, using high performance as a measure of success in prevention initiatives cannot be justified. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Nijland, Marieke L; Stam, Frank; Seidell, Jacob C
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the environmental component of aetiology of overweight and obesity by examining the relationship between the degree of overweight in dogs and cats and the degree of overweight in their owners. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Main outcome measures of the owners were weight,
Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko; Retzloff, Lauren; Rosenblum, Katherine; Miller, Alison L
Maternal feeding is a frequent intervention target for the prevention of early childhood obesity but longitudinal associations between feeding and child overweight are poorly understood. This observational cohort study sought to examine the cross-lagged associations between maternal feeding and overweight across ages 21, 27, and 33 months. Feeding was measured by maternal self-report (n = 222) at each age. Child weight and length were measured. Cross-lagged analysis was used to evaluate longitudinal associations between feeding and overweight, adjusting for infant birth weight, maternal body mass index, maternal education, and maternal depressive symptoms. The sample was 50.5% white, 52.3% male and 37.8% of mothers had a high school education or less. A total of 30.6%, 29.2%, and 26.3% of the sample was overweight at each age, respectively. Pressuring to Finish, Restrictive with regard to Amount, Restrictive with regard to Diet Quality, Laissez-Faire with regard to Diet Quality, Responsiveness to Satiety, Indulgent Permissive, Indulgent Coaxing, Indulgent Soothing, and Indulgent Pampering each tracked strongly across toddlerhood. There were no significant associations between maternal feeding and child overweight either in cross-sectional or cross-lagged associations. Our results do not support a strong causal role for feeding in childhood overweight. Future work longitudinal work should consider alternative approaches to conceptualizing feeding and alternative measurement approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gele, Abdi A; Mbalilaki, Aneth J
Norway is experiencing an increase in overweight/obese adults, with immigrants from developing countries carrying a heavy burden. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Somali immigrants in Oslo. A cross-sectional study involving 208 respondents aged 25 and over was conducted among Somali immigrants in Oslo, using a structured questionnaire. Prevalence of overweight/obesity varied by gender, with women having a significantly higher prevalence (66%) than men (28%). The mean BMI for females and males were 27.4 and 23.6, respectively. Similarly, 53% of women and 28% of men were abdominally obese. In a logistic regression analysis, both generalized and abdominal obesity were significantly associated with increasing duration of residence in Norway, and with being less physically active. Public health policymakers should facilitate an environment that enables Somali immigrants, particularly women, to lead healthy lifestyles. In this time of epidemiological transition, health education in the areas of physical exercise and healthy eating should be a major focus for working with new immigrants.
Toennesen, L L; Bjerregaard, A; Porsbjerg, C
overweight in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), a hallmark of asthma, in early adulthood. METHODS: Of 527 subjects from a random population sample of children and adolescents (7-17 years) examined at baseline, a total of 184 subjects completed......BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing worldwide among children and adolescents, and has been associated with an increased incidence of asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: In this cohort study we aimed to investigate whether being...
Winther, S. A.; Finer, N.; Sharma, A. M.
Objective:Anemia is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. Obesity may cause anemia in several ways, for example, by low-grade inflammation and relative iron deficit. The outcomes associated with anemia in overweight/obese patients at high cardiovascular risk are however not known....... Therefore, we investigated the cardiovascular prognosis in overweight/obese subjects with anemia.Methods:A total of 9 687 overweight/obese cardiovascular high-risk patients from the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial were studied. Patients were stratified after baseline hemoglobin level and followed...... for the risks of primary event (comprising nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality. Risk estimates (hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)) were calculated using Cox regression models.Results:Anemia...
Full Text Available Background: Excess body weight has become a major public health problem worldwide, and the burden of overweight and obesity was calculated in this work from a health economics perspective. Objective: To estimate the burden of disease attributable to overweight and obesity among males and females aged 20 years and older using years of life lost (YLL and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYLL, and to rank the leading causes of premature death. Design: A cross-sectional study took place (2010–2014 and 6,054 deaths were analyzed. Thirteen basic causes of death associated with overweight or obesity were included. The population attributable fraction (PAF, YLL, and ASYLL were calculated. Results: The overall burden attributable to overweight and obesity was 36,087 YLL, and the estimated ASYLL per 10,000 persons was 1,098 and 1,029 in males and females, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the main cause of premature death (males, 968 ASYLL; females, 772 ASYLL. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are major risk factors of chronic diseases that are main causes of premature death in the study population. Strategies for preventing overweight and obesity may decrease the incidence and mortality associated with these non-communicable diseases. ASYLL seems to be an indicator that is particularly well adapted to decision-making in public health.
Bruening, Meg; MacLehose, Richard; Eisenberg, Marla E; Kim, Sunkyung; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Little is known about how interpersonal friend relationships are associated with obesity in young people, particularly with regard to how race/ethnicity, type of friendship, and sex affect the association between friends' and adolescents' weight status. This study examined associations in weight status among adolescents and their friends, exploring magnitudes of associations across friendship type, sex, and race/ethnicity. As part of EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), friend nominations and anthropometrics were obtained from adolescents (n = 2099: 54% female; 80% nonwhite; mean age: 14.2 ± 1.9 years). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to test associations between adolescents' overweight/obese status and friends' (i.e., friend group, female friends, male friends, female best friends, and male best friends) overweight/obese status. Interactions by adolescent race/ethnicity were examined. The majority of significant associations were observed among white female adolescents' who had a 22-40% higher prevalence of overweight/obesity if their friends were overweight compared to white females whose friends were not overweight. In contrast, there were few significant differences for other adolescent female and male racial/ethnic groups for girls and boys. Results for friend groups and best friends were generally similar to one another. The association between friend and adolescent overweight/obese status depended on adolescents' sex, race/ethnicity, and friendship type. Given the similarities among friends, obesity interventions targeting youth, especially white females, should consider involving friends.
Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; Schoeps, Denise de Oliveira; Souza, Sônia Buongermino de; Souza, José Maria Pacheco de; Leone, Claudio
To assess the risk prevalence of overweight and obesity in children enrolled in private and philanthropic preschools in the State of São Paulo. Comparison of two cross sectional studies with children enrolled in private preschools (PPS) or philanthropic (PHP) of the São Paulo Metropolitan Region. Both surveys evaluated the children's environment. To determine the risk of overweight, excess weight and obesity, body mass index (BMI) values were transformed into z scores (according to the World Health Organization - 2006 and 2007). The risk prevalence of overweight (≥ 1 BMIz < 2) in PPS was 21.9% and 24.6% in PHP, with PR = 1.12 (95% CI: 0.96-1.32), without statistical difference. Considering the children with overweight or obesity, (BMIz ≥ 2) the prevalence in PPS was 14.3% and in PHP was 9.0%, with PR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.23-1.93), p = 0.0002. Overweight and obesity prevalence in males in PPS was 16.4% (n = 409) and in PHP, 11.1% (n = 829), PR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.98) and in females it was 12.5% (n = 400) in the PPS and 6.6% (n = 698) in PHP, corresponding to PR = 1.90 (95% CI: 1.30-2.78), both significant differences. Both groups showed a similar and very high prevalence of weight excess. However, overweight and obesity showed a higher prevalence in children from private preschools. This indicates that even though a better socioeconomic level is still a risk factor for overweight and obesity in preschoolers, the same does not seem to occur when analyzing the risk of overweight.
Garza, Jeremiah R; Pérez, Edna Acosta; Prelip, Michael; McCarthy, William J; Feldman, Jonathan M; Canino, Glorisa; Ortega, Alexander N
OBJECTIVE AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This article provides 2005-2008 population-based prevalence data on obesity and overweight among youth residing in Puerto Rico. Data for this report are from the Asthma, Depression, and Anxiety in Puerto Rican Youth (ADA) study. Measures included height and weight level data on youth in Puerto Rico aged 10 to 19 years with and without asthma as well as body mass index data on their caregivers. A total of 436 youth-caregiver dyads were selected and weighted to represent the general population of youth in Puerto Rico using 2008 US Census data. Household surveys demonstrated that 40% of youth aged 10 to 19 were overweight or obese. Twenty-five percent met moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity guidelines, however, physical activity was not associated with overweight or obesity in this sample. In multivariate analyses, females were 50% less likely than males to be overweight or obese. Older youth were 73% less likely to be overweight or obese than younger youth. Youth whose parents were obese were more than two times more likely to be overweight or obese than those whose parents were at a desirable weight. Youth in Puerto Rico have higher rates of overweight and obesity and lower compliance to moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity guidelines than rates reported for youth on the mainland. More population-based research is needed to understand the epidemiology of obesity and overweight among island Puerto Rican youth and the contribution of physical activity to the phenomenon.
Teerds, K.J.; Rooij, de D.G.; Keijer, J.
BACKGROUND: The increase in the incidence of obesity has a substantial societal health impact. Contrasting reports have been published on whether overweight and obesity affect male fertility. To clarify this, we have reviewed published data on the relation between overweight/obesity, semen
Planinšec, Jurij; Matejek, Črtomir
The purpose of the study was to find out differences in moderate to vigorous physical activity among non-overweight, overweight and obese children, and between boys and girls. The sample included 364 children (179 boys and 185 girls), aged 6.4 years (±0.3 SD). Physical activity was assessed by 7-day questionnaire. Age adapted BMI was used as overweight and obesity indicator. The children were divided into non-overweight, overweight and obese groups. It was found out, that there are significan...
Su, Wei; Aurelia, Di Santo
The aim of the study was to determine if preschool children perceive overweight children to have more negative characteristics than non-overweight children. Children from 32 to 70 months old (N = 42) listened to four stories about an interaction between two children, in which one child demonstrated socially unacceptable behaviour and one child…
Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler
Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...
Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Lanfer, A.
What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient......-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11 994....... Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi...
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, despite the increasing progress made in the field of cardiology, are still the most common cause of death for people over 60. Factors conducive to cardiovascular diseases include poor physical activity, high blood cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and obesity. The lifestyle, a determinant of health, is in more than 50% influenced by the diet, that is the type and amount of food consumed. The World Health Organization points to the growing problem of obesity in the world. Especially excess weight and obesity among children are of a great importance as these conditions can survive to the adulthood and lead to the development of cardiovascular diseases. This article aims to analyze the anthropometric data of cardiac patients in terms of excess weight and obesity. The study included 94 cardiac patients, including 35 women and 59 men aged between 40 and 88. The study used anthropometric data such as age, height, weight, body mass index, gender, and information on underlying illnesses and co-morbidities. The BMI helped to identify the overweight and the obese in the studied group. Out of the total number of patients aged between 40 and 88, 42% were overweight and 30% obese (grade 1, 11% (grade 2, 2% (grade 3. The overwhelming majority of patients diagnosed with obesity also have other risk factors for developing cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Excess weight and obesity are dangerous for cardiac patients. It is crucial to adapt meals to the needs and avoid generating excess energy and take into account the medicines. Preventing childhood obesity requires a high priority.
Vohra, Rajaat; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Srivastava, Jyoti P; Srivastava, Shekhar; Vohra, Anusha
Childhood obesity is increasingly being observed with changing lifestyles of families. The magnitude of overweight ranges from 9% to 27.5% and obesity ranges from 1% to 12.9% among Indian children. The present study was undertaken to study the magnitude of overweight/obesity and its determinants among children in Lucknow city. A list of government and private school was procured from Office of Basic Shiksha Adhikari. Three government and three private schools were selected by Simple Random Sampling. Students of 5th to 12th grades available at the time of study were included as study unit. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to elicit the information on family characteristics and individual characteristics. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Children with BMI of 25 and above were considered overweight and children with BMI more than 30 were considered obese. Overweight and obesity was found to be 4.17% and 0.73%, respectively; they together constitute 4.91% for overweight/obesity. The study revealed that the important correlates of overweight/obesity were father's education, father's occupation, class, children playing outdoor games for less than 30 min, and those consuming fast foods. Children of higher classes (above 8th standard) belonging to higher socioeconomic group with less outdoor activities and consuming fast foods were more predisposed to overweight/obesity. As a preventive strategy, there is a need to apply health and nutritional education programs for inculcating healthy life styles, and incorporating more outdoor activities in Physical Education Department of school curriculum.
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is increasingly being observed with changing lifestyles of families. The magnitude of overweight ranges from 9% to 27.5% and obesity ranges from 1% to 12.9% among Indian children. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to study the magnitude of overweight/obesity and its determinants among children in Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A list of government and private school was procured from Office of Basic Shiksha Adhikari. Three government and three private schools were selected by Simple Random Sampling. Students of 5th to 12th grades available at the time of study were included as study unit. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to elicit the information on family characteristics and individual characteristics. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Children with BMI of 25 and above were considered overweight and children with BMI more than 30 were considered obese. Results: Overweight and obesity was found to be 4.17% and 0.73%, respectively; they together constitute 4.91% for overweight/obesity. The study revealed that the important correlates of overweight/obesity were father′s education, father′s occupation, class, children playing outdoor games for less than 30 min, and those consuming fast foods. Conclusions : Children of higher classes (above 8th standard belonging to higher socioeconomic group with less outdoor activities and consuming fast foods were more predisposed to overweight/obesity. As a preventive strategy, there is a need to apply health and nutritional education programs for inculcating healthy life styles, and incorporating more outdoor activities in Physical Education Department of school curriculum.
Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Madeleine, George; Paccaud, Fred
We compared the prevalence of body weight categories between public and private schools in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. In 2004-2006, weight and height were measured and self-reported information on physical activity collected in children of three selected grades in all schools in the country. Overweight, obesity and thinness were defined according to standard criteria. Based on 8 462 students (377 in private schools), the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was markedly higher in private than public schools (boys: 37% [95% CI: 31-44] vs. 15% [14-16]; girls: 33% [26-41] vs. 20% [19-22]). The prevalence of thinness grade 1 was lower in private than public schools (boys: 9% [5-13] vs. 20% [19-21]; girls: 13% [8-18] vs. 19% [18-20]). Students in private schools reported more physical activity at leisure time while students in public schools reported larger weekly walking time. Our findings suggest that school type may be a useful indicator for assessing the association between socio-economic status and overweight in children, and that overweight affects wealthy children more often than others in developing countries.
Kobayashi, Tomoko; Suzuki, Etsuji; Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Takao, Soshi
Background A growing number of studies have sought to examine the health associations of workplace social capital; however, evidence of associations with overweight is sparse. We examined the association between individual perceptions of workplace social capital and overweight among Japanese male and female employees. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey among full-time employees at a company in Osaka prefecture in February 2012. We used an 8-item measure to assess overall and sub-dimensions of workplace social capital, divided into tertiles. Of 1050 employees, 849 responded, and 750 (624 men and 126 women) could be linked to annual health check-up data in the analysis. Binomial logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for overweight (body mass index: ≥25 kg/m2, calculated from measured weight and height) separately for men and women. The prevalence of overweight was 24.5% among men and 14.3% among women. Among men, low levels of bonding and linking social capital in the workplace were associated with a nearly 2-fold risk of overweight compared to high corresponding dimensions of social capital when adjusted for age, sleep hours, physiological distress, and lifestyle. In contrast, among women we found lower overall and linking social capital to be associated with lower odds for overweight even after covariate adjustment. Subsequently, we used multinomial logistic regression analyses to assess the relationships between a 1 standard deviation (SD) decrease in mean social capital and odds of underweight/overweight relative to normal weight. Among men, a 1-SD decrease in overall, bonding, and linking social capital was significantly associated with higher odds of overweight, but not with underweight. Among women, no significant associations were found for either overweight or underweight. Conclusions/Significance We found opposite gender relationships between perceived low linking
Koirala, M; Khatri, R B; Khanal, V; Amatya, A
Childhood overweight/obesity is a global health problem because of adverse health and nutrition consequences worldwide. Currently, there is a paucity of information on childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of, and the factors associated with, childhood overweight/obesity among primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-December, 2013. We collected data using the structured self-administered questionnaire with parents of children aged 6-13 years in grades 1-6 studying at private schools of the Lalitpur district of Nepal. Height and weight measurements of 986 children were taken, and the corresponding body mass index (BMI)-for-age was calculated. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity was reported in proportion. Factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity were examined using the Chi-square tests followed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Of 986 children, 144 (14.6%) were overweight and 111 (11.3%) were obese. Overall, 255 (25.9%) children were found to be overweight/obese. Children from families, having ≤2 siblings (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.958, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.163-3.296), upper class family (aOR=3.672; 95% CI: 1.154-11.690), and advantaged ethnic group (aOR=1.561; 95% CI: 1.00-2.437) and children who were of larger birth weight (>4.0kg) had a greater likelihood of being (aOR=2.557, 95% CI: 1.222-5.349) overweight/obese. A quarter of children were found to be overweight/obese in private primary schools. Preventive interventions should focus on the advantaged ethnic groups, families with fewer siblings, and upper class families. A greater emphasis ought to be placed on formulation and implementation of policies aimed at addressing the newly emerging problems of childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. New school health programs are to be launched and strengthened including avoidance of high energy junk food, and promoting outdoor
Kadek Ayu Erika
conducted in the district area Tamalanrea and Biringkanaya, Makassar from August 2013 to March 2014. The design used is quasy experiment pretest and posttest with control group design. Purposively selected sample of 31 children as overweight or obese in the treatment group and 33 controls on primary school children grade 4 - 6. Intervention research was conducted during a six month period by providing guide books on healthy lifestyle. The instrument used food recall questionnaire. Paired t-test results produced carbohydrate intake in the pre-post intervention treatment groups with p value 0.004 (<0.05, whereas the control group with p value of 0.114. This study concludes that there is influence of CHM and TTM approaches to the intake of carbohydrates of overweight and obese children.
Zhang, Jing; Zhang, YunTing; Jiang, YanRui; Sun, WanQi; Zhu, Qi; Ip, Patrick; Zhang, DongLan; Liu, ShiJian; Chen, Chang; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Tang, MingYu; Dong, WenFang; Wu, YuFeng; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Fan
Background: This was a cross-sectional survey to investigate the relationship of age, parent education, sleep duration, physical activity, and dietary habits with overweight or obesity in school-age children in Shanghai. Methods: The survey gathered information from 13,001 children in grades 1 through 5 (age 6 to 10 years) among 26 elementary…
Adams, Ryan E.; Cantin, Stephane
The objective of the study was to examine the effects of self-disclosure in best friendships on the pathway from peer victimization to depressive symptoms as mediated by self-esteem for physical appearance (SEPA) in overweight adolescents. Utilizing data from 610 French-speaking Canadian adolescents in Grades 7 and 8, the current study examined…
Hale, Brent; Knackmuhs, Eric; Mackert, Michael
Background Anonymous verbal attacks against overweight individuals on social media are common and widespread. These comments often use negative, misogynist, or derogatory words, which stigmatize the targeted individuals with obesity. These verbal attacks may cause depression in overweight individuals, which could subsequently promote unhealthy eating behavior (ie, binge eating) and further weight gain. To develop an intervention policy and strategies that tackle the anonymous, Web-based verbal attacks, a thorough understanding of the comments is necessary. Objective This study aimed to examine how anonymous users verbally attack or defend overweight individuals in terms of 3 themes: (1) topic of verbal attack (ie, what aspects of overweight individuals are verbally attacked), (2) gender of commenters and targeted overweight individuals, and (3) intensity of derogation depending on the targeted gender (ie, the number of swear words used within comments). Methods This study analyzed the content of YouTube comments that discuss overweight individuals or groups from 2 viral videos, titled “Fat Girl Tinder Date” and “Fat Guy Tinder Date.” The twin videos provide an avenue through which to analyze discussions of obesity as they organically occurred in a contemporary setting. We randomly sampled and analyzed 320 comments based on a coding instrument developed for this study. Results First, there were twice as many comments verbally attacking overweight individuals (n=174) than comments defending them (n=89). Second, overweight women are attacked for their capacities (eg, laziness, maturity; 14/51, 28%), whereas overweight men are attacked for their heterosocial skills (eg, rudeness, annoyance; 24/29, 83%). Third, the majority of commenters who attacked overweight women are male (42/52, 81%). Fourth, attacking comments generated toward overweight women included more swear words (mean 0.44, SD 0.77) than those targeting men (mean 0.23, SD 0.48). Conclusions Our data
Jeon, Yongwoog Andrew; Hale, Brent; Knackmuhs, Eric; Mackert, Michael
Anonymous verbal attacks against overweight individuals on social media are common and widespread. These comments often use negative, misogynist, or derogatory words, which stigmatize the targeted individuals with obesity. These verbal attacks may cause depression in overweight individuals, which could subsequently promote unhealthy eating behavior (ie, binge eating) and further weight gain. To develop an intervention policy and strategies that tackle the anonymous, Web-based verbal attacks, a thorough understanding of the comments is necessary. This study aimed to examine how anonymous users verbally attack or defend overweight individuals in terms of 3 themes: (1) topic of verbal attack (ie, what aspects of overweight individuals are verbally attacked), (2) gender of commenters and targeted overweight individuals, and (3) intensity of derogation depending on the targeted gender (ie, the number of swear words used within comments). This study analyzed the content of YouTube comments that discuss overweight individuals or groups from 2 viral videos, titled "Fat Girl Tinder Date" and "Fat Guy Tinder Date." The twin videos provide an avenue through which to analyze discussions of obesity as they organically occurred in a contemporary setting. We randomly sampled and analyzed 320 comments based on a coding instrument developed for this study. First, there were twice as many comments verbally attacking overweight individuals (n=174) than comments defending them (n=89). Second, overweight women are attacked for their capacities (eg, laziness, maturity; 14/51, 28%), whereas overweight men are attacked for their heterosocial skills (eg, rudeness, annoyance; 24/29, 83%). Third, the majority of commenters who attacked overweight women are male (42/52, 81%). Fourth, attacking comments generated toward overweight women included more swear words (mean 0.44, SD 0.77) than those targeting men (mean 0.23, SD 0.48). Our data elucidate a worrying situation of frequent disinhibited
Abdulrahman O. Musaiger
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in seven Arab countries using similar reference standard. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in seven cities in Arab countries, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and United Arab Emirates. A multistage stratified random sampling technique was used. The total sample included was 4698 adolescents aged from 15 to 18 years (2240 males, 2458 females. The International Obesity Task Force (IOTF reference standard was used to classify the adolescents as nonobese, overweight, and obese. Results. Among males, overweight was highest among Kuwaiti adolescents (25.6%, followed by Jordanian (21.6%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. Among females, the highest prevalence of overweight was reported in Libyan adolescents (26.6%, followed by Kuwaiti (20.8%, and Syrian (19.7% adolescents. As for obesity, Kuwaiti adolescents showed the highest prevalence of obesity for both males (34.8% and females (20.6%. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to establish a plan of action to combat obesity in schoolchildren in these countries.
Megan Racey MSc
Full Text Available Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target.
Racey, Megan; Bransfield, Jeanette; Capello, Kathryn; Field, David; Kulak, Verena; Machmueller, David; Preyde, Michèle; Newton, Genevieve
Background: Dairy products and alternatives can contribute to overall good health including positive body composition and decreased adiposity; however, these foods are grossly underconsumed by youth, and worldwide, almost 25% of children are overweight or obese. Objective: The study investigated the barriers and facilitators toward dairy consumption by Grade 7 youth. Methods: Thirty 50-minute, audio-recorded focus groups were conducted with 134 students in eight Grade 7 classes across 5 elementary schools. Focus groups were led by trained facilitators in the elementary schools and participants were separated based on dairy consumption and gender. Recorded data were transcribed and thematically analyzed using qualitative analysis software to identify themes related to barriers and facilitators to dairy product intake by each gender. Results: Factors considered important by males and females across different levels of habitual intake include personal knowledge about dairy products and misconceptions regarding dairy foods and their associated health benefits; food characteristics, including taste; personal behaviors such as habits or routines including dairy products; social environments including parental and peer influence; physical environments factors such as availability and skipping meals; and the convenience of dairy products. Interestingly, only males noted sports as a positive influence for dairy product intake. Also, there were differences in the way males and females perceived dining out as affecting their dairy intake. Conclusion: Results suggest several potential factors that nutrition education interventions aiming to increase dairy consumption could target.
Svendsen Martin V
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe eating patterns in early adolescence and to determine associations between eating patterns and overweight from middle childhood (4th grade, 9 to 10 years old to early adolescence (7th grade, 12 to 13 years old. Methods Children were recruited from primary schools in Telemark County, Norway. Dietary data were obtained by parental report using a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were objectively measured, and overweight was defined using international standard cut-off points. Complete data were obtained for 924 4th grade and 691 7th children, and 427 children provided complete data at both time points. Principal component analysis was applied to identify eating patterns. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for being overweight. Results The same four distinct eating patterns were identified at both time points. Correlation coefficients for the factor scores of corresponding eating patterns at baseline and follow up ranged from 0.44 to 0.60. In the follow-up sample, 345 children (80% were still of normal weight, while 41 (10% remained overweight. Children with high "dieting" pattern scores and low "varied Norwegian" pattern scores in the 7th grade had an increased risk of being overweight. Children with stable or increased "varied Norwegian" pattern scores had a lower risk of remaining overweight over time than children with decreased scores for this pattern; adjusted OR: 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8. This pattern included foods and meals close to current dietary guidelines, including vegetables, fruit and unrefined cereal products. We did not observe an increased risk of overweight in children with high "unhealthy" eating pattern scores, termed "snacking" or "junk/convenient" in either cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Conclusions Slight to moderate stability of eating patterns was observed. Children
... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...
Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg · m(2)] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%-100%) (2MIN-HIIT). There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg(-1) · min(-1)) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ-2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males.
Hearst, Mary O; Biskeborn, Kristin; Christensen, Mathew; Cushing, Carrie
To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among white and American Indian children in a predominantly rural state. Using a repeated, cross-sectional design of school children's height and weight, the study sample included 361,352 measures of children who were 5.0-19.9 years, attending school across 13 academic calendar years. Trained staff measured height, weight, and recorded gender, age, and race. Data were voluntarily reported to the State Department of Health. American Indian children consistently had higher rates of overweight and obesity compared to white children. Across the years, 16.3% of white students were overweight, whereas 19.3% of American Indian students were overweight. In addition, 14.5% of white children were obese and 25.9% of American Indian children were obese. Examining by rural versus urban schools, prevalence of overweight had been increasing among white male and female students and American Indian female students living in rural areas. Obesity is also increasing among rural white females and male and female American Indian children. The findings here suggest that although American Indian children are at higher risk, in general, compared to white children, rural populations in general are experiencing increases in childhood overweight and obesity. Targeted rural interventions beginning at an early age are necessary to improve the health of rural children, especially in American Indian communities. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
M. Micheletti Cremasco
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to assess the incidence of under/overweight and obesity in a sample of children 6-11 years old in Turin province and to monitor the secular trend in weight. Our survey shows that about 2% of children are underweight, 17% overweight and 3% obese. Males show a prevalence of overweight and obesity, The comparison of current data with those collected in 1979 by Ente Italiano Moda (E.I.M. [I] shows a significant increase of weight problems in both sexes: this, in chilhood, is an emergent social problem that can produce adverse health effects in adulthood. It could be prevented encouraging correct eating behaviors and active lifestyle among children.
D. B. Kumah
Full Text Available The aim was to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among students in the Kumasi metropolis. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 500 students aged 10 to 20 years were examined from two junior high schools selected by multistage sampling technique and three randomly selected senior high schools. Height and weight were measured in all participants and the body mass index (BMI of each individual was calculated. Body mass index classes were calculated according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. Out of the 500 students, 290 (58.00% were males and 210 (42.00% were females. The prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity was 7.40%, 79.60%, 12.20%, and 0.80%, respectively. Overweight was more prevalent among students than obesity. There is therefore the need to establish effective public health promotion campaigns among students in order to curtail future implications on health.
Full Text Available Background: the prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate in the developing countries. The present cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence of overweight and obesity along with their associated variables among urban adult individuals belonging to the Bengalee Hindu Caste Population (BHCP.Methods: the study has been carried out among 600 adult individuals belonging to the BHCP in the age group of 20-60 years and residing in the district of Jalpaiguri, West Bengal, India. Height and weight, along with a number of socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle variables were recorded. International cut off points of the body mass index were used to assess overweight (BMI ≥ 23.00 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2. The statistical tests (ANOVA, chi-square and multinomial logistic regression were done using SPSS (version 15.00.Results: the prevalence of overweight and obesity were observed to be high among both the male (23.67% and 9.67% and the female (20.33% and 29.33% individuals. The sex difference was observed to be significant in case of obesity (p<0.01 and combined overweight-obesity (p<0.01. The multinomial logistic regression indicated that age and monthly income had significant effects on overweight (p<0.05. Sex, age, monthly income, marital status, education and alcohol intake were observed to have significant effects on obesity (p<0.05. Sex, age, monthly income and monthly income and marital status also showed significant effects with combined overweight-obesity (BMI ≥ 23.00 kg/m2 (p<0.05.Conclusions: the prevalence of overweight and obesity exhibited an increasing trend among urban adults of the BHCP. Sex, age, marital status and monthly income were observed to have more influence on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among them. There appears to be an urgent need for the development of health strategies and intervention programmes for combating the consequences of overweight and obesity.
Birken, Catherine S.; Tu, Karen; Oud, William; Carsley, Sarah; Hanna, Miranda; Lebovic, Gerald; Guttmann, Astrid
Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of overweight and obese status in children by age, sex, and visit type, using data from EMRALD® (Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database). Design Heights and weights were abstracted for children 0 to 19 years of age who had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Using the most recent visit, the proportions and 95% CIs of patients defined as overweight and obese were compared by age group, sex, and visit type using the World Health Organization growth reference standards. Setting Ontario. Participants Children 0 to 19 years of age who were rostered to a primary care physician participating in EMRALD and had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Main outcome measures Proportion and 95% CI of children with overweight and obese status by age group; proportion of children with overweight and obese status by sex (with male sex as the referent) within each age group; and proportion of children with overweight and obese status at the most recent well-child visit type compared with other visit types by age group. Results There were 28 083 well-child visits during this period. For children who attended well-child visits, 84.7% of visits had both a height and weight documented. Obesity rates were significantly higher in 1- to 4-year-olds compared with children younger than 1 (6.1% vs 2.3%; P overweight and obese status were lower using data from well-child visits compared with other visits. Conclusion Electronic medical records might be useful to conduct population-based surveillance of overweight or obese status in children. Methodologic standards, however, should be developed. PMID:28209703
Smith, E; Sweeting, H; Wright, C
Individual behaviour change to reduce obesity requires awareness of, and concern about, weight. This paper therefore describes how young adults, known to have been overweight or obese during early adolescence, recalled early adolescent weight-related awareness and concerns. Associations between recalled concerns and weight-, health- and peer-related survey responses collected during adolescence are also examined. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults; data compared with responses to self-report questionnaires obtained in adolescence. A total of 35 participants, purposively sub-sampled at age 24 from a longitudinal study of a school year cohort, previously surveyed at ages 11, 13 and 15. Physical measures during previous surveys allowed identification of participants with a body mass index (BMI) indicative of overweight or obesity (based on British 1990 growth reference) during early adolescence. Overall, 26 had been obese, of whom 11 had BMI99.6th centile, whereas 9 had been overweight (BMI=95th-97.9th centile). Qualitative interview responses describing teenage life, with prompts for school-, social- and health-related concerns. Early adolescent self-report questionnaire data on weight-worries, self-esteem, friends and victimisation (closed questions). Most, but not all recalled having been aware of their overweight. None referred to themselves as having been obese. None recalled weight-related health worries. Recollection of early adolescent obesity varied from major concerns impacting on much of an individual's life to almost no concern, with little relation to actual severity of overweight. Recalled concerns were not clearly patterned by gender, but young adult males recalling concerns had previously reported more worries about weight, lower self-esteem, fewer friends and more victimisation in early adolescence; no such pattern was seen among females. The popular image of the unhappy overweight teenager was not borne out. Many obese
Abu Baker, Nesrin N.; Al-Ali, Nahla; Al-Ajlouni, Ranyah
Background: Obesity is a serious public health problem especially among adolescents. Understanding adolescents’ attitudes toward obesity and healthy lifestyle is a crucial step to develop effective health programs to treat and prevent obesity. Objectives: To examine the attitudes toward overweight and obesity among Jordanian adolescent students and to identify the components of obesity prevention program that the students perceive as important. Methods: A sample of 1000 students in 8th to 10th grades was randomly selected from 16 schools in Irbid, Jordan. A self-reported questionnaire including attitude related questions was used in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Results: Generally, the students expressed positive attitudes toward obesity; which means that their attitudes were consistent with societal norms in terms of health and social functioning (mean= 3.5, SD=0.39). Furthermore, the students expressed positive attitudes toward lifestyle; which means that their attitudes were consistent with healthy behaviors (mean=3.7, SD=0.58). However, boys had significantly more positive attitudes than girls (p=0.04). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23.8%, while obese and non-obese students had similar attitudes toward lifestyle and obesity. Finally, around 20% to 30% of students desired a prevention program out of school time shared with their families and friends and involves eating healthy food and getting more exercise. Conclusion: More efforts are needed to build effective obesity prevention programs that focus on eating healthy diet and getting more exercise considering gender differences. PMID:29456780
Abu Baker, Nesrin N; Al-Ali, Nahla; Al-Ajlouni, Ranyah
Obesity is a serious public health problem especially among adolescents. Understanding adolescents' attitudes toward obesity and healthy lifestyle is a crucial step to develop effective health programs to treat and prevent obesity. To examine the attitudes toward overweight and obesity among Jordanian adolescent students and to identify the components of obesity prevention program that the students perceive as important. A sample of 1000 students in 8 th to 10 th grades was randomly selected from 16 schools in Irbid, Jordan. A self-reported questionnaire including attitude related questions was used in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Generally, the students expressed positive attitudes toward obesity; which means that their attitudes were consistent with societal norms in terms of health and social functioning (mean= 3.5, SD=0.39). Furthermore, the students expressed positive attitudes toward lifestyle; which means that their attitudes were consistent with healthy behaviors (mean=3.7, SD=0.58). However, boys had significantly more positive attitudes than girls (p =0.04). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 23.8%, while obese and non-obese students had similar attitudes toward lifestyle and obesity. Finally, around 20% to 30% of students desired a prevention program out of school time shared with their families and friends and involves eating healthy food and getting more exercise. More efforts are needed to build effective obesity prevention programs that focus on eating healthy diet and getting more exercise considering gender differences.
Rodríguez-Martín, A; Novalbos Ruiz, J P; Martínez Nieto, J M; Escobar Jiménez, L
To assess the relationship between life styles and eating habits with the overweight and obesity prevalence in a Spanish adult population. A population-based, cross-sectional study conducted on 2640 subjects older than 15 years, in Cádiz (Spain). Surveys were conducted in subjects' homes to obtain life styles, eating habits, and anthropometric data. Logistic regression has been used to study the association between the life style variables and overweight and obesity. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Cadiz is 37% and 17%, respectively; higher in males and increases with age. BMI has an inverse relationship with educational level (PR = 2.3, 1.57-2.38). The highest levels of obesity are associated with daily alcohol consumption (PR = 1.39, 1.29-1.50), greater consumption of television,and sedentary pursuit (PR 1.5, 1.07-1.24). A lower prevalence of obesity is observed among those with active physical activity (10.9% vs 21.6%), with differences between sex. Following a slimming diet is more frequent in the obese and in women but dedicate more hours than men to passive activities. In men is greater the consumption of alcohol, high energy foods and snacks. Overweight and obesity is associated with the male sex (OR = 3.35 2.75-4.07), high consumption of alcohol (OR = 1.38 1.03-1.86) and watching television (OR = 1.52 1.11-2.07), and foods likes bread and cereals (OR = 1.47 1.13-1.91). Exercise activities is a protective factor (OR = 0.76 0.63-0.98). Life styles factors associated with overweight and obesity present different patterns in men and women and is necessary to understand them to identify areas for behavioural intervention in overweight and obesity patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrant studies in France revealed that Mediterranean migrant men have lower mortality and morbidity than local-born populations for non-communicable diseases (NCDs. We studied overweight and NCDs among Tunisian migrants compared to the population of the host country and to the population of their country of origin. We also studied the potential influence of socio-economic and lifestyle factors on differential health status. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare Tunisian migrant men with two non-migrant male groups: local-born French and Tunisians living in Tunisia, using frequency matching. We performed quota sampling (n = 147 based on age and place of residence. We used embedded logistic regression models to test socio-economic and lifestyle factors as potential mediators for the effect of migration on overweight, hypertension and reported morbidity (hypercholesterolemia, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Results Migrants were less overweight than French (OR = 0.53 [0.33–0.84] and had less diabetes and CVD than Tunisians (0.18 [0.06–0.54] and 0.25 [0.07–0.88]. Prevalence of hypertension (grade-1 and -2 and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia were significantly lower among migrants than among French (respectively 0.06 [0.03–0.14]; 0.04 [0.01–0.15]; 0.11 [0.04–0.34] and Tunisians (respectively OR = 0.07 [0.03–0.18]; OR = 0.06 [0.02–0.20]; OR = 0.23 [0.08–0.63]. The effect of migration on overweight was mediated by alcohol consumption. Healthcare utilisation, smoking and physical activity were mediators for the effect of migration on diabetes. The effect of migration on CVD was mediated by healthcare utilisation and energy intake. No obvious mediating effect was found for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Our study clearly shows that lifestyle (smoking and cultural background (alcohol are involved in the observed protective effect of migration.
Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Avila-Jiménez, Laura; Cano-Pérez, Evaluz; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio; Parrilla-Ortiz, Juan Ismael; Ramos-Hernández, Rosa Isela; Sosa-Caballero, Alejandro; Sosa-Ruiz, María del Rosario; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Judith
Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, due to its size, speed of growth and the negative effect on health. Currently, Mexico and United States have the highest prevalence of obesity in the adult population (30 %), which is nearly ten times higher than that of Japan or Korea (4 %). In our country, the trends of overweight and obesity in different national surveys show steady increase in prevalence over time. According to the results of the National Survey of Health and Nutrition 2012 (ENSANUT, according to its initials in Spanish), the combined prevalence of overweight or obese (BMI = 25 kg/m(2)) in the population over 20 years is higher in women (73.0 %) than men (69.4 %), while the prevalence of obesity (BMI = 30 kg/m(2)) is almost higher in females than in males. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight requires formulating and coordinating comprehensive and efficient multilevel strategies for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual, family and community behavior. It is unlikely that a single intervention can modify the incidence or natural history of overweight and obesity.
Minghelli, Beatriz; Nunes, Carla; Oliveira, Raul
Background: The recommended anthropometric methods to assess the weight status include body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. However, these methods have advantages and disadvantages regarding the classification of overweight and obesity in adolescents. Aims: The study was to analyze the correlation between the measurements of BMI, skinfold thickness and waist circumference to assess overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents. Materials and Methods: A sample of 966 students of Portugal was used. Of them, 437 (45.2%) were males and 529 (54.8%) were females aged between 10 and 16 years. The evaluations included BMI calculation, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference measurements. Results: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity with values ranging from 31.6%, 61.4%, and 41.1% according to the measurement of BMI, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference, respectively. The results found a high level of correlation between BMI and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.712), between BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.001, r = 0.884), and waist circumference and skinfold thickness (P < 0.001, r = 0.701). Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portuguese adolescents using three different anthropometric methods, where the BMI showed the lowest values of prevalence of overweight and obesity and the skinfold thickness showed the highest values. The three anthropometric methods were highly correlated. PMID:24404544
Zayed, Ayman A; Beano, Abdallah M; Haddadin, Faris I; Radwan, Sohab S; Allauzy, Suhaib A; Alkhayyat, Motasem M; Al-Dahabrah, Zaid A; Al-Hasan, Yanal G; Yousef, Al-Motassem F
The prevalence of short stature (SS) and underweight in Jordan on a national level is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, on a national level, the prevalence of short stature (SS), underweight, overweight, and obesity among school aged children in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to January 2016 and included 2702 subjects aged 6-17 years. Jordan was classified into 3 regions; North, Center (urban), and South (rural). Public and private schools were randomly selected from a random sample of cities from each region. The socioeconomic status of the sampling locations was assessed using several indicators including education, income, healthcare and housing conditions. For each participating subject, anthropometrics were obtained. SS, underweight, overweight and obesity were defined using Center of Disease Control's (CDC) growth charts. Median Z-scores for each region, age and gender were calculated. The Central and Northern regions enjoyed higher socioeconomic status compared to rural Southern regions. The overall prevalence of SS, underweight, overweight, and obesity were 4.9 %, 5.7 %, 17.3 %, and 15.7 %, respectively. SS and underweight were most prevalent in the rural South, while obesity was highest in the Central region. Females were more likely to be overweight, while males were more likely to be obese. Private schools had higher prevalence of obesity and overweight than public ones. Variations in height and weight among Jordanian school children might be affected by socioeconomic status.
Full Text Available Obesity among young people increases lifetime cardiovascular risk. This study assesses the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among a random sample of university students from 22 universities in 22 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. This cross-sectional survey comprised of a self-administered questionnaire and collected anthropometric measurements. The study population was 6773 (43.2% males and 8913 (56.8% females, aged 16 to 30 years (mean 20.8 years, SD = 2.6. Body mass index (BMI was used for weight status. Among men, the prevalence of underweight was 10.8%, normal weight 64.4%, overweight 18.9% and obesity 5.8%, while among women, the prevalence of underweight was 17.6%, normal weight 62.1%, overweight 14.1% and obesity 5.2%. Overall, 22% were overweight or obese (24.7% men and 19.3% women. In multivariate regression among men, younger age, coming from a higher income country, consciously avoiding fat and cholesterol, physically inactivity, current tobacco use and childhood physical abuse, and among women older age, coming from a higher income country, frequent organized religious activity, avoiding fat and cholesterol, posttraumatic stress symptoms and physical childhood abuse were associated overweight or obesity. Several gender specific risk factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes.
Gustavo de Souza Moretti
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with overweight among university students from the city of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,104 students (mean age: 24 years from Rio Branco, Acre. Overweight was used as the dependent variable. The following independent variables were studied: socioeconomic variables (gender, age, teaching institution, period of study, marital status, income, household members, living with other people, parent’s education level, and working or not; self-reported health and morbidity variables (health perception, hypertension, diabetes, and altered cholesterol; lifestyle variables (physical activity, watching television, computer use, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The nutritional status was classified based on body mass index. Univariate analysis was performed using Pearson’s chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test. Variables with a p value < 20% on univariate analysis were included in the multiple Poisson regression model. The prevalence of overweight was 35.6%. In the multiple regression model for male students adjusted for age, overweight was associated with marital status, household income, hypertension, and watching television every day. In the model for female students, the variables that remained associated were self-perceived health status, hypertension, and alcohol consumption in the last month. Overweight is determined by a combination of different factors which differed in the present study between men and women.
Full Text Available Context: Obesity is found to be the strongest risk factor for persistent hypertension, which is an important risk factor for the coronary artery disease and stroke. Urbanization, unhealthy eating patterns and reduced physical activity are the important reasons. Prevention of obesity is always better than its treatment. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of overweight/obesity among medical student and to identify various correlates associated with it. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study conducted in medical students in Pune. Methods: A validated, pre-designed, and pre-tested questionnaire was used. Overweight/obesity was assessed on the basis of body mass index (BMI for age using gender specific Centre for Disease Control (CDC charts. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, ANOVA, and unpaired t-tests were used to find any statistical significant association of mean BMI for age with various correlates. Results: Total 159 students including 66 (41.5% female and 93 (58.5% male took part in the study. The proportion of overweight/obesity was 13.2% (C.I: 7.84-18.5%. Daily calorie intake, lack of daily physical activity, daily consumption of Tea/Coffee/Fruit juices, playing outdoor games, socio-economic status, and family history of obesity were found to have statistically significant association with overweight/obesity. Conclusions: The problem of obesity/overweight is on the rise.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Samuels, T Alafia; Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Mantilla, Carolina; Rahamefy, Onja H; Wong, Mee Lian; Gasparishvili, Alexander
Obesity among young people increases lifetime cardiovascular risk. This study assesses the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among a random sample of university students from 22 universities in 22 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. This cross-sectional survey comprised of a self-administered questionnaire and collected anthropometric measurements. The study population was 6773 (43.2%) males and 8913 (56.8%) females, aged 16 to 30 years (mean 20.8 years, SD = 2.6). Body mass index (BMI) was used for weight status. Among men, the prevalence of underweight was 10.8%, normal weight 64.4%, overweight 18.9% and obesity 5.8%, while among women, the prevalence of underweight was 17.6%, normal weight 62.1%, overweight 14.1% and obesity 5.2%. Overall, 22% were overweight or obese (24.7% men and 19.3% women). In multivariate regression among men, younger age, coming from a higher income country, consciously avoiding fat and cholesterol, physically inactivity, current tobacco use and childhood physical abuse, and among women older age, coming from a higher income country, frequent organized religious activity, avoiding fat and cholesterol, posttraumatic stress symptoms and physical childhood abuse were associated overweight or obesity. Several gender specific risk factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Samuels, T. Alafia; Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Mantilla, Carolina; Rahamefy, Onja H.; Wong, Mee Lian; Gasparishvili, Alexander
Obesity among young people increases lifetime cardiovascular risk. This study assesses the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among a random sample of university students from 22 universities in 22 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. This cross-sectional survey comprised of a self-administered questionnaire and collected anthropometric measurements. The study population was 6773 (43.2%) males and 8913 (56.8%) females, aged 16 to 30 years (mean 20.8 years, SD = 2.6). Body mass index (BMI) was used for weight status. Among men, the prevalence of underweight was 10.8%, normal weight 64.4%, overweight 18.9% and obesity 5.8%, while among women, the prevalence of underweight was 17.6%, normal weight 62.1%, overweight 14.1% and obesity 5.2%. Overall, 22% were overweight or obese (24.7% men and 19.3% women). In multivariate regression among men, younger age, coming from a higher income country, consciously avoiding fat and cholesterol, physically inactivity, current tobacco use and childhood physical abuse, and among women older age, coming from a higher income country, frequent organized religious activity, avoiding fat and cholesterol, posttraumatic stress symptoms and physical childhood abuse were associated overweight or obesity. Several gender specific risk factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes. PMID:25050651
van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H.; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.
Background: A considerable proportion of children with early-life overweight attain a normal weight. To recognize infants at risk of persistent overweight, we compared early-life factors of children with a longitudinal pattern of persistent overweight to children with a pattern of overweight in
van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan C; Kerkhof, Marjan; Postma, Dirkje S; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriëtte A
BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of children with early-life overweight attain a normal weight. To recognize infants at risk of persistent overweight, we compared early-life factors of children with a longitudinal pattern of persistent overweight to children with a pattern of overweight in
This report develops a methodology for estimating the effects of different categories of overweight : trucks on NYSDOT pavements and bridges. A data mining algorithm is used to categorize truck : data collected at several Weigh-In-Motion stations aro...
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Obesity and Overweight Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Percent of adults aged 20 and over with obesity: 37.9% (2013-2014) Percent of adults aged ...
Overweight, obesity and underweight profile among adolescent secondary school students ... should be of concern if a healthy and productive future generation is to be ensured. Primary care providers should constantly assess adolescents for ...
Overweight and obesity are linked to an increased risk of 13 types of cancer. See a diagram of the human body highlighting the organs or tissues at increased cancer risk, including the breast, colon and rectum, kidney, and liver.
... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...
... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...
Amory, John K
Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...
Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi
Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...
Bijaya Nanda Naik
Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity are important addendum to the pool of risk factors for noncommunicable disease (NCD among the elderly. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to find (1 the proportion of overweight and obesity and (2 the distribution of overweight and obesity based on sociodemographic characteristics and four major risk factors for NCDs (smoking, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity among the elderly attending the out-patient department/NCD clinic of a Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC. Materials and Methods: This facility-based descriptive study was conducted among 181 elderly attending one UHTC, in Puducherry during June and July 2015. A pretested interview schedule was used to obtain information on sociodemographic details and history of NCD risk factors after obtaining verbal informed consent. Anthropometric measurements were taken as per standard procedures prescribed by the World Health Organization. Body mass index (BMI was calculated and classified using BMI classification for the Asian population. Results: Among the elderly, 18% were overweight and 51% were obese. The proportion of obesity was more among females than males. Obesity was found to be decreasing with increase in age. Overweight and obesity were found to be significantly inversely related to chronic disease status. Overweight and obesity were proportionately more among elderly who were consuming alcohol and doing less physical activity than prescribes. However, the proportion of overweight/obees elderly with no tobacco use and not having unhealthy diet was found to be more than their counterpart. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity are important public health problems in the study population. Hence, interventions should be implemented targeting elderly as well as the adult to decrease the obesity and overweight among the elderly.
Steele, C Brooke; Thomas, Cheryll C; Henley, S Jane; Massetti, Greta M; Galuska, Deborah A; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Puckett, Mary; Richardson, Lisa C
Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of at least 13 different types of cancer. Data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2014 were used to assess incidence rates, and data from 2005 to 2014 were used to assess trends for cancers associated with overweight and obesity (adenocarcinoma of the esophagus; cancers of the breast [in postmenopausal women], colon and rectum, endometrium, gallbladder, gastric cardia, kidney, liver, ovary, pancreas, and thyroid; meningioma; and multiple myeloma) by sex, age, race/ethnicity, state, geographic region, and cancer site. Because screening for colorectal cancer can reduce colorectal cancer incidence through detection of precancerous polyps before they become cancerous, trends with and without colorectal cancer were analyzed. In 2014, approximately 631,000 persons in the United States received a diagnosis of a cancer associated with overweight and obesity, representing 40% of all cancers diagnosed. Overweight- and obesity-related cancer incidence rates were higher among older persons (ages ≥50 years) than younger persons; higher among females than males; and higher among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adults compared with other groups. Incidence rates for overweight- and obesity-related cancers during 2005-2014 varied by age, cancer site, and state. Excluding colorectal cancer, incidence rates increased significantly among persons aged 20-74 years; decreased among those aged ≥75 years; increased in 32 states; and were stable in 16 states and the District of Columbia. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancer is high in the United States. Incidence rates of overweight- and obesity-related cancers except colorectal cancer have increased in some age groups and states. The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancers might be reduced through efforts to prevent and control overweight and obesity. Comprehensive cancer control strategies, including use of evidence
Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit
for their children's habits, including those leading to overweight. They also felt that competent and had the opportunity to take preventive measures against child overweight but they did not always have the energy to do so. Even resourceful mothers required support from nurses and health professionals. Our results...... contribute to better understanding how to approach, motivate and support mothers to draw on their own competencies to benefit their children's weight and health....
A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from European countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. Moreover, we explore potential underlying mechanisms that mi...
Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Moirogiorgou, Evangelia; Tolia, Maria; Pistamaltzian, Nikolaos; Bournakis, Evangelos; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Demiri, Stamatina; Panopoulos, Christos; Koumakis, Georgios; Efremidis, Anna
Breast cancer (BC) in males is a rare disease and comprises 0.5-1% of all BC cases. Due to its rarity, there are limited data regarding risk factors, biology and relevant treatment. A prospective observational study of demographic, clinical and histological characteristics of serially-admitted men with breast cancer was carried out from 1999 to 2009. Data were recorded and analyzed from a database including 1,315 cases of BC. Registered data concerned age, initial presentation, family and lifestyle history (risk factors), histological features, phenotypic subtypes and TNM staging. Twenty two men with BC were identified, with a median age of 63 years. The most common initial presentation was a palpable lump in 12 patients, nipple contraction in three and ulceration in three. According to their medical history, nine men were overweight, 10 suffered from hypertension and 12 were smokers. The most prevalent phenotype was luminal-A followed by triple-negative type. BC in none of the cases was HER 2-amplified. The majority of cases were grade II or III and stage II or III. In the present small study, we confirm that BC in males is rare. It is a disease of middle-age and presents at advanced stages. Most of patients had 1-3 risk factors for BC. Expression of hormonal receptors occurs in the majority of BC tumors in males and with rarity in HER 2 amplification.
Ginsberg, Terrie B
It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Vásquez, Clemente; Almanza-Silva, José R; Jaramillo-Virgen, María E; Mellin-Landa, Tadeana E; Valle-Figueroa, Ofelia B; Pérez-Ayala, Roberto; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca O; Prieto-Díaz-Chávez, Emilio; Newton-Sánchez, Oscar
Determining risk factor frequency regarding obesity and being overweight in university students. A cross-sectional analytic study was carried out on 821 students from the University of Colima. Some variables analysed were age, gender, alcoholism, smoking and weight-control drug use. 821 students were included (380 male, 441 female), 20.9Â±2.5 average age. 27.8 % of males were overweight and 14.7 % suffered from obesity; this was 17 % and 5.2 % in females, respectively. Smoking (2.1 OR; 1.4-3.8 95 % CI; p=0.01) and alcoholism (2.1 OR; 1.2-3.6 95 % CI; p=0.003) were associated with being overweight and being obese. Weight-control drug use was a protective factor in both genders (0.4 OR; 0.2-0.8 95 % CI; p=0.01); diet control was only a protective factor in women (2.2. OR; 1.1-3.4 95 % CI; p=0.01). 31.6 % of university students were overweight and suffered from obesity. Smoking and alcoholism in males were associated with being overweight and suffering from obesity. Weight-control and diet-control drug use were protective factors.
Yeong Jun Ju
Full Text Available Abstract Background Korea has the highest suicide rate in the OECD and is one of the few OECD countries whose suicide rates have not decreased in recent years. To address these issues, we investigated the effects of weight control failure on suicidal ideation in the overweight and obese populations. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012 consisting of 6621 individuals 40 years of age or older. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between weight control failure and suicidal ideation in the overweight and obese populations. Results A total of 6621 participants were analyzed in this study (overweight group: 2439; obese group: 4182. Among them, weight control failure (weight gain with weight loss efforts was experienced in 962 obese (males 16.3 %, females 29.6 % and 412 overweight individuals (males 9.1 %, females 23.4 %. Weight control failure was significantly associated with suicidal ideation in obese females (OR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.21–2.39, but this association was not significant in obese males or in either sex of the overweight group. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that weight control failure is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation among obese women. Furthermore, intervention programs that aim to address the prevalence of suicide, especially for obese women, are needed.
Funk, M B; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Hanschmann, K M; Gerhards, B; Kuhn, K; Krackhardt, B
Various studies show that pre-school age is a sensitive period for the development of overweight and obesity. During a longitudinal study between 2010 and 2013, the municipal health authority (city of Frankfurt) in cooperation with the university children's hospital investigated the development of weight in children aged 5 to 8. The weight and height of a collective of 5720 children were measured (2010/11). In addition, nutritional and exercise habits, as well as media consumption was documented for 4758 children through a questionnaire during the school enrolment procedure. The weight and height of 3481 children were measured again in the second grade (2012/13). Over a period of 24 months, the percentage of overweight (not obese) children increased from 7.5 to 9.4 % and that of obese children from 4.5 to 5.0 %. 164 of 2818 children with a normal initial weight (5.8 %) changed to percentile class overweight or obese. 79 of 260 children who were initially overweight, not obese (30 %), changed to the group of normal weight, but only 4 out of 156 obese children (3 %). Increased TV consumption (> 1 h per day), availability of their own television, lack of physical activity, and consumption of high-calorie drinks were risk factors for the development of overweight during the primary school age. 72 % of parents of overweight children and 22 % of obese children falsely classified their children as normal weight. Targeted education about the risk of obesity in the primary school age and offers for early intervention should be established in the healthcare services concerned.
Wang, Liang; Anderson, James L; Dalton Iii, William T; Wu, Tiejian; Liu, Xianchen; Zheng, Shimin; Liu, Xuefeng
To examine the association between maternal depressive symptoms during early childhood of their offspring and later overweight in the children. Only children (n = 1,090) whose weights and heights were measured at least once for three time points (grades one, three and six) from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study were included. Maternal depressive symptoms, defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of 16 or greater, were assessed using CES-D when the child was 1, 24, and 36 months. Childhood overweight was based on standardized height and weight measures taken during the interviews, and was defined according to appropriate CDC age- and sex-specific BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equation was used to examine the impact of maternal depressive symptoms on the childhood overweight after adjusting for covariates. Compared to children of mothers without depression at any of the three time points, when children were one, 24 and 36 months of age, children of mothers with depression at all three time points were 1.695 times more likely to be overweight after adjusting for other child characteristics (95 % CI = 1.001-2.869). When further adjusted for maternal characteristics, children of mothers with depression at all three time points were 2.13 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI = 1.05-4.31). Persistent maternal depressive symptoms may be associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight in their offspring. Children of mothers with depression may benefit from special attention in terms of obesity prevention.
Chen, Qi; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Sjölander, Arvid; Serlachius, Eva; Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Almqvist, Catarina; Larsson, Henrik
Despite meta-analytic evidence for the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and overweight/obesity, the mechanisms underlying the association are yet to be fully understood. By linking multiple Swedish national and regional registers, we identified 472,735 index males born during 1973-1992, with information on body weight and height directly measured before they were conscripted for military service. We further identified 523,237 full siblings born during 1973-2002 for the index males. All individuals were followed up from their third birthday to December 31, 2009 for ADHD diagnosis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between overweight/obesity in index males and ADHD in their full siblings. Siblings of index males with overweight/obesity had increased risk for ADHD (overweight: OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05-1.24; obesity: OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.24-1.63), compared with siblings of index males with normal weight. The results were adjusted for birth year of the index male and sex of the sibling. After further adjustment for ADHD status of the index male, the familial coaggregation remained significant (overweight: OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04-1.22; obesity: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.21-1.57). The results were similar across sex of the siblings. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and overweight/obesity share familial risk factors, which are not limited to those causing overweight/obesity through the mediation of ADHD. Future research aiming at identifying family-wide environmental risk factors as well as common pleiotropic genetic variants contributing to both traits is warranted. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali
This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…
Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.
The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)
Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade em adolescentes masculinos nas macrorregiões do Brasil, 1980-2000 Predominio del sobrepeso y obesidad en adolescentes masculinos de cinco regiones del Brasil, 1980-2000 Prevalence of overweight and obesity in male adolescents from five regions of Brazil, 1980-2000
Vera Lucia de Vasconcelos
con el uno del extremo del estudio (2000, fue observado, en Brasil, una razón de prevalência de 2,58 para sobrepeso y de 8,18 para obesidad. Los predominios de sobrepeso/obesidad muestran curvas ascendentes con tendencia temporal en crecimiento. Conclusión: La informaciones obtenidas en este estudio indican la necesidad de acciones concretas para la prevención de enfermedades crónicas en adultos jóvenes brasileños.The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the secular trend of overweight / obesity in adolescents Brazilians of the masculine sex. Methods A Brazilian Army's data bank. Those data were collected among 1980 to 2000, and it consists of 4.031.297 adolescents between 17 and 19 years of age. A cross-sectional study, with five cuts, was performed, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was quantified. Overweight was considered when the Body Mass Index (BMI 3 reached between 25 and 29.9 Kg/m² and obesity when the BMI was >30Kg/m²(WHO26. Results:In all the Brazilian states, the overweight prevalence was larger than the one of obesity, in spite of the increment speed to have been higher for obesity. To the prevalece of the beginning to be compared (1980 with the one of the end of the study (2000, it was observed, in Brazil, a reason of prevalência of 2,58 for overweight and of 8,18 for obesity. The prevalece of overweight and obesity shows ascendig curve, with a secular trend. Conclusion: The information obtained in this study points to the necessity of concrete actions to prevent chronic disease in Brazilians young adults.
Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer L.
Objective: Little research has investigated children's physical activity levels during school recess and the contribution of recess to school day physical activity levels by weight status. The aims of this study were to examine non-overweight and overweight children's physical activity levels during school recess, and examine the contribution of…
Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…
Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.
Huang, Jennifer S; Lee, Tiffany A; Lu, Michael C
To review the scientific evidence for prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity, and discuss its implications for MCH research, practice, and policy. A systematic review of observational studies examining the relationship between prenatal exposures and childhood overweight and obesity was conducted using MOOSE guidelines. The review included literature posted on PubMed and MDConsult and published between January 1975 and December 2005. Prenatal exposures to maternal diabetes, malnutrition, and cigarette smoking were examined, and primary study outcome was childhood overweight or obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) for children ages 5 to 21. Four of six included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes found higher prevalence of childhood overweight or obesity among offspring of diabetic mothers, with the highest quality study reporting an odds ratio of adolescent overweight of 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9). The Dutch famine study found that exposure to maternal malnutrition in early, but not late, gestation was associated with increased odds of childhood obesity (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.4). All eight included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking showed significantly increased odds of childhood overweight and obesity, with most odds ratios clustering around 1.5 to 2.0. The biological mechanisms mediating these relationships are unknown but may be partially related to programming of insulin, leptin, and glucocorticoid resistance in utero. Our review supports prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity. MCH research, practice, and policy need to consider the prenatal period a window of opportunity for obesity prevention.
Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is emerging as a public health problem in urban India and also contributes to obesity and various non-communicable diseases among adult population. Hence, it is necessary to identify potential risk factors for childhood obesity and formulate early interventions to control this epidemic. Aims & Objectives: To assess the magnitude of overweight and obesity among high-school students of Dibrugarh and to determine factors associated with it. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study including students enrolled in 8th- 10th grades in schools of urban Dibrugarh, Assam was conducted from October 2012 to June 2013 wherein 1000 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Information regarding dietary intake, amount of physical activity was collected using pre-designed, pre-tested questionnaire followed by anthropometric measurements which included body mass index (BMI, waist and hip circumference was done. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS-16 software. Results: Of the 1000 students enrolled, 119 (11.9% were overweight, 71 (7.1% were obese and 225 (22.5% had high waist-hip ratio. The factors significantly associated with overweight and obesity were higher socio-economic class, frequent intake of fast food items, sedentary lifestyle with less physical activity. Conclusion: Children belonging to higher socio-economic group, consuming fast food and involved in less physical activity were more predisposed to overweight and obesity.
Wilson, Marian; Ramsay, Samantha; Young, Kimberly J
Our objectives were to (a) examine feasibility and receptivity of overweight adolescents joining a community-based group fitness program and (b) test preliminary efficacy of a 12-week pilot intervention designed to promote health, fitness, and self-efficacy for the identified teens. The 12-week fitness program for overweight adolescents was developed and included planned physical activities, nutrition classes, and goal-setting sessions. A one-group pre-/posttest study design evaluated 20 participants from grades 10 through 12 who enrolled in the program pilot study. Participants were given a wearable activity tracker that captured data using an Internet-based platform. Outcome measures included body mass index, screen time, fitness, and cardiovascular measures. A community fitness program for overweight adolescents was successfully implemented. High school students were receptive to the intervention and reported high program satisfaction. Positive effects included measurements of strength, systolic blood pressure, weight, and screen time behaviors. This study provides evidence to support the feasibility, acceptance, and preliminary effects of the pilot program with overweight adolescents. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leach, Robert A; Yates, Joyce M
The purpose of this pilot novel chiropractic health education intervention was to gather preliminary evidence regarding possible benefits from recreational youth soccer and nutrition education in overweight women. A secondary purpose was to determine whether some nutrition knowledge is an independent predictor of changes in body mass index (BMI). A quiz developed and validated on separate age and sex appropriate blinded cohorts was used on study participants-22 volunteers of 57 eligible fourth-grade, overweight female Mississippi public school students. At the beginning of a 5-month study period, a 15-minute baseline nutrition intervention, grounded in Social Cognitive Theory and based on the United States Department of Agriculture's "My Tips for Families" information, was applied in a chiropractic clinic. Subjects were then randomized to 2 months of recreational soccer (n = 14) or waiting list control (n = 8). No preintervention differences were found in height, weight, BMI, or age. Higher follow-up BMI scores were found in both groups, and no significant differences between groups were found, possibly because of the small sample sizes and the short 8-week soccer intervention period. Gains in nutrition knowledge were sustained (P nutrition knowledge and follow-up BMI (r = -.185; P nutrition education alone may be an ineffective intervention for overweight children. The study provides an example of how youth soccer may benefit overweight children.
Kim, Jong-Hyuck; So, Wi-Young
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic performance and obesity/overweight among South Korean adolescents. Our data set included 72,399 adolescents in grades 7-12 who had participated in the 5th Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) in 2009. We assessed the association between academic performance and body mass index (BMI), using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates such as age, parents' education level, economic status, mental stress experienced, sleep duration, frequency of muscle-strengthening exercises, smoking and drinking behaviour, and vigorous and moderate physical activity (PA). For boys, being overweight (compared with being of normal weight) had a significantly greater odds of poor academic performance (OR=1.182, 95% Cl 1.052-1.329, p=0.005). Obese boys had 1.182 (1.048-1.332, p=0.006), 1.461 (1.294-1.648, pperformance, respectively. In the analysis for girls, overweight girls had 1.314 (1.124-1.536, pacademic performance, respectively. Finally, obese girls had 1.374 (1.098-1.718, p=0.005), 1.672 (1.339-2.089, pacademic performance, respectively. Thus, overweight/obesity was negatively associated with academic performance in both boys and girls. The results of this study indicate that adolescents would benefit from weight management to prevent obesity and, possibly, improve academic performance.
Bonney, Andrew; Mayne, Darren J; Jones, Bryan D; Bott, Lawrence; Andersen, Stephen E J; Caputi, Peter; Weston, Kathryn M; Iverson, Don C
Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI) to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities. The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males) and 65.8% (females); increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74%) versus urban areas (71.4%) (pdisadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (pdisadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024) and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896) in males. It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.
Hu, J J; Duan, X N; Fang, J; Xu, N; Wan, Y H; Su, P Y; Tao, F B; Sun, Y
Objective: To determine the possible relations between hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as a biomarker of chronic stress and childhood overweight and obesity. Methods: Children from grade 1 to 3 from 2 primary schools in Bengbu were invited to participate in the study; and those who suffer from mental disorders, endocrine diseases and those who took hormone drugs were excluded. Parental questionnaire was implemented to collect information on physical activity, screen time, sleep duration, sugar-beverage consumption, as well as socio-economic status. Height and weight were examined. Eligible hair samples from 1 263 children (598 boys and 665 girls) were obtained, and the cortisol content was determined. Multivariate logistic regression model analysis was recruited to examine the association between HCC quartiles and overweight and obesity among boys and girls, respectively. Results: HCC in P (50) ( P (25)- P (75)) among girls and boys was separately 11.86 (10.57-13.15) and 11.71 (10.54-13.09) µg/kg ( Z=- 0.886, P= 0.376); HCC in P (50) ( P (25)- P (75)) among non-overweight, overweight and obesity boys was separately 11.62 (10.45-12.82), 12.24 (10.88-13.55) and 12.30 (10.99-13.53) µg/kg (χ(2)=8.24, P= 0.016); HCC in P (50) ( P (25)- P (75)) among non-overweight, overweight and obesity girls was separately 11.35 (10.06-12.62), 12.07 (11.04-13.21) and 12.59 (11.12-13.63) µg/kg (χ(2)=36.16, Pobesity, with OR (95 %CI ) at 2.22 (1.16-4.26) and 5.62 (3.04-10.41). Among boys, highest quartiles in HCC was risk factor for overweight, OR (95 %CI ) was 2.14 (1.18-3.90). Conclusion: Hair cortisol had a significant relation with overweight and obesity in 6-9 years old childhood especially among girls.
Walker S.C. Poston
Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.
A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from other countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. We further explore potential underlying mechanisms that might explain this relationship. In order to address the selection into maternal full-time employment, we use an instrumental variable strategy exploiting the number of younger siblings in the household as an instrument. While the OLS models suggest that maternal full-time employment is related to a 5 percentage point higher probability of the child to be overweight, IV estimates indicate a 25 percentage points higher overweight probability due to maternal full-time employment. Exploring various possible pathways, we find that maternal full-time employment promotes unhealthy dietary and activity behavior which might explain the positive effect of maternal employment on child overweight to some extent. Although there are limitations to our IV approach, several sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of our findings. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Teresa A Ajslev
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.
Vladimir Schuindt da Silva
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n2p161 The worldwide overweight prevalence showed a rapid increase in recent decades, featuring a true global epidemic. The aim of this study was to determine the overweight prevalence (BMI ≥ 25kg/m2 and possible associations with socioeconomic and demographic indicators for adults in Brazil. This epidemiological study analyzed data from the population of adults aged 20-59 years (n = 101 308 637 included in the 2008-2009 Brazilian Family Budget Survey (POF conducted in all geographic regions of Brazil. The nutritional status assessment used the Body Mass Index, which was categorized as normal weight and overweight according to cutoff points recommended by the World Health Organization. As socioeconomic and demographic indicators, sex, age, color-race, education, income, and geographic region were analyzed. Crude and adjusted Poisson regression was performed. The results showed that the overweight prevalence was 47.7%, and the groups with the highest prevalence were adults aged 20-59 years, males, black skin color, schooling from 6 to 9 years , income of 1/4 ≥ minimum wage <1/2 and living in Southern Brazil. Almost half of adults in Brazil are overweight. Strategic actions aimed at reducing the overweight prevalence among adults in Brazil are needed to combat the obesity epidemic.
Hassanzadeh-Rostami, Zahra; Kavosi, Elham; Nasihatkon, Aliasghar
The global prevalence of overweight and obesity had risen in recent decades, and obesity is taken into consideration as a public health concern and a major risk factor of common chronic disease. The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and to identify its underlying factors among children 2-6 yr of age in Fars Province, southern Iran. A total of 8911 children, aged 2-6 yr age, were selected thorough multi-stage sampling in 30 cities of Fars Province in 2012-13. Overweight and obesity status was assessed through comparison by standard BMI for age and for sex percentiles (NCHS/CDC). In addition, socio-demographic measures obtained from structured questionnaire were compared between normal and overweight plus obese (ow/ob) groups. We used backward stepwise Logistic Regression, Chi-square and Independent sample t-test to relate the underlying factors to the nutritional indices. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 5.7% (95% CI: 5.2%, 6.1%) and 5.2% (95% CI: 4.7%, 5.6%), respectively. The ow/ob was significantly correlated with male sex, urbanization, type of father's occupation, universal education of mothers, the higher birth weight, low access to household facilities, and not using health-care services (P<0.05). Besides, the logistic regression analysis showed urbanization (OR=1.46, CI: 1.26, 1.70), second sibling (OR=1.183, CI: 1.00, 1.39), and less access to a variety of food groups (OR=1.32, CI: 1.05, 1.65) as ow/ob risk factors. The rate of overweight and obesity in the study population is at an alarming level. Therefore, a preventive program is needed to control ow/ob since early childhood considering the underlying factors for each region and individual groups.
Waller, Tabitha; Lampman, Claudia; Lupfer-Johnson, Gwen
To determine the implicit or unconscious attitudes of Nursing and Psychology majors towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. Obesity is a leading health concern today, which impacts both physical and psychological health. Overweight individuals confront social biases in many aspects of their lives including health care. Examining the views of Nursing and Psychology students may reveal implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals that may lead to prejudiced behaviours. A mixed design experiment with one between-subjects variable (student major: Nursing or Psychology) and one within-subjects variable (condition: congruent or incongruent) was used to assess implicit attitudes in two convenience samples of Nursing and Psychology students. A computerised implicit association test was used to determine implicit attitudes towards overweight individuals in medical and non-medical contexts. A total of 90 students from Nursing (n= 45) and Psychology (n = 45) were recruited to complete an implicit association test. Reaction times in milliseconds between the congruent trials (stereotype consistent) and incongruent trials (stereotype inconsistent) were compared with determine adherence to social stereotypes or weight bias. A statistically significant implicit bias towards overweight individuals was detected in both subject groups and in both target settings (medical vs. non-medical). Stronger weight bias was found when the stimulus targets were female than male. Findings from this study expand understanding of the implicit attitudes and social biases of Nursing and Psychology students. The views held by these future healthcare professionals may negatively impact patient care. Providing education and support to overweight individuals is central to Nursing practice in a society struggling to manage obesity. Negative stereotypes or beliefs about these individuals may result in poor patient care. Therefore, nurses and other healthcare professionals
Vasudevan, Deepa A; Northrup, Thomas F; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Bamidele, Oluwatosin O; Stotts, Angela L
Obesity is widely underdiagnosed among Asians, due in part to a lack of physician awareness of the modified diagnostic criteria for Asians. This study investigated the effect of a physician training on accurately diagnosing obesity among and providing weight counseling to overweight and obese Asian patients. Physicians (N = 16) from five primary care practices received 1 h of face-to-face training and other reminder resources (e.g., wallet card) describing the guidelines for the diagnosis of overweight/obesity among Asians, as well as weight counseling instruction. Chart reviews of overweight/obese Asian patients were conducted for the 12 months before the training (n = 198) and 3 months following the training (n = 163). Physician race (Asian/non-Asian) and clinic setting (private/academic) were included as outcome moderators. Patients were predominantly male (63.1 %), with a mean age of 46.0 years (SD = 14.9) and an average BMI of 28.2 (SD = 3.8). Across all physicians, 26.8 and 45.1 % of patients were accurately diagnosed as overweight or obese before and after the training, respectively (p Asian patients as overweight or obese were 102 % higher at post-training after accounting for nesting of patients within physicians. Similarly, weight counseling was higher (65.0 %) following training compared to pre-training levels (43.9 %) but failed to reach significance (p = 0.06). Accurate identification and counseling of overweight/obese Asian patients can be improved by education and training. Universal adoption of race-specific guidelines will ensure more successful weight management and reduced morbidity in a rapidly growing Asian population.
Liu, Ying; Yu, Shuyi; Wang, Fen; Yu, Haitao; Li, Xueli; Dong, Wanru; Lin, Ruichao; Liu, Qingshan
This study aimed to investigate if ellagic acid has beneficial effects on cognitive deficits in middle-aged overweight individuals and to propose a possible mechanism. A total of 150 middle-aged male participants, including 76 normal-weight and 74 overweight men, aged between 45 to 55 years, were recruited for this study. Both normal-weight and overweight participants were administered either 50 mg ellagic acid or placebo cellulose daily for 12 weeks. Blood lipids, peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and saliva cortisol were assessed on the last day of the procedure to investigate the effects induced by ellagic acid. The results revealed that ellagic acid treatment improved the levels of blood lipid metabolism with a 4.7% decline in total cholesterol, 7.3% decline in triglycerides, 26.5% increase in high-density lipoprotein, and 6.5% decline in low-density lipoprotein. Additionally, ellagic acid increased plasma BDNF by 21.2% in the overweight group and showed no effects on normal-weight participants. Moreover, the increased saliva cortisol level in overweight individuals was inhibited by 22.7% in a 12-week ellagic acid treatment. Also, compared with placebo, overweight individuals who consumed ellagic acid showed enhanced cognitive function as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that ellagic acid prevents cognitive deficits through normalization of lipid metabolism, increase in plasma BDNF level, and reduction of saliva cortisol concentration. These results indicate that ellagic acid has a potential to restore cognitive performance related to mild age-related declines.
Hornaday, Robert W.; And Others
A study analyzed the grade point averages (GPAs) and scores on a business concepts quiz of 419 undergraduate business students. Effect of student major was also controlled. Females earned higher overall grades than males; males outperformed females in ability to describe basic business concepts. Gender and academic major accounted for over 10…
Full Text Available Introduction. Overweight and perception of being overweight, may lead adolescent to lose weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate overweight adolescents’ self-perceived weight, body dissatisfaction, and weight control behaviour during 1994–2010 in Finland. Methods. The country-representative, cross-sectional data of 15-year olds were obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study, conducted in 1994 (=1194; males: 48%, 1998 (=1545; 49%, 2002 (=1745; 50%, 2006 (=1670; 47%, and 2010 (=2082; 48%. Results. The majority of overweight boys (62–69% and girls (89–100% assessed themselves as too fat, and their body image was lower than in nonoverweight adolescents. The highest prevalence of current weight controlling was found in 2006 in males (18% and in 2010 in females (39%. Conclusion. The phenomena were current and gender differences notable, but there was no statistically significant difference in overweight adolescents’ self-perceived weight, body dissatisfaction, or weight control behaviour between survey years.
Li, Haixia; Li, Xiaomei; Tao, Jing; Ma, Yitong; Yang, Yining; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bangdang; Xie, Xiang; Yang, Hong
To investigate the detection rates of overweight and obesity among Han,Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents in Xinjiang. Random samples were used to analyze the detection rates on overweight and obesity based on data from Han,Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents aged 7-14 years from 3 regions-Hetian, Kashi and Fuhai prefectures in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Anthropometric data including weight and height was collected. Overweight and obesity were defined according to body mass index [BMI, weight (kg)/height (m²)] cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Working Group on Obesity for Children (WGOC)aged 7-14 years. The present study was performed in 11 894 Han, Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents aged 7-14 years. The overall prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 5.6% and 2.9% respectively, which the difference between male and female was significant (χ² = 39.765, P overweight and obesity rate showed differences, with detection rate of overweight among Kazakh students was 12.0% , higher than the other ethnic groups. The obesity detection rate was 7.2% among Han students, which was the highest of the three ethnic groups, with differences statistically significant(χ² = 363.885, P overweight and obesity decreased with increasing age in various ethnic groups, showing a clear downward trend, with the peak at 7-9 year-olds and the difference was statistically significant(χ² = 101.479, P overweight and obesity among children and adolescents were significantly lower in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region than the national average level, with differences also seen in different ethnic, gender and age groups.
Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is one of the most common reasons that children and adolescents are teased at school. We carried out a study in order to investigate: i the relation between weight status and school bullying and ii the relation between weight status categories and types of victimization and bullying in an outpatient sample of Italian children and adolescents with different degrees of overweight from minimal overweight up to severe obesity.Nine-hundred-forty-seven outpatient children and adolescents (age range 6.0-14.0 years were recruited in 14 hospitals distributed over the country of Italy. The participants were classified as normal-weight (N = 129, overweight (N = 126, moderately obese (N = 568, and severely obese (N = 124. The nature and extent of verbal, physical and relational bullying and victimization were assessed with an adapted version of the revised Olweus bully-victim questionnaire. Each participant was coded as bully, victim, bully-victim, or not involved.Normal-weight and overweight participants were less involved in bullying than obese participants; severely obese males were more involved in the double role of bully and victim. Severely obese children and adolescents suffered not only from verbal victimization but also from physical victimization and exclusion from group activities. Weight status categories were not directly related to bullying behaviour; however severely obese males perpetrated more bullying behaviour compared to severely obese females.Obesity and bullying among children and adolescents are of ongoing concern worldwide and may be closely related. Common strategies of intervention are needed to cope with these two social health challenges.
Ren, Xiaohua; Chen, Yan; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Tian, Li; Lu, Mi; Lu, Wei; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhognhua; Yao, Yingshui
Overweight and obesity are epidemic worldwide. Our previous study found that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary students is high. we sought to estimate whether the prevalence of overweight and obesity among university students is still high in China. A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for university students in 2013. The height and weight of students were measured, and BMI was calculated with height and weight, we estimated the underweight and obesity prevalence of university students using by two references [Working Group on Obesity references in China (2004) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (2000)]. Depending on the China references used, the overall prevalence of underweight, overweight (including obesity) and obesity in male university students were 14.2%, 14.7% and 4.2%, respectively; in female university students were 27.5%, 4.4% and 0.6%, respectively. Depending on the WHO references used, the overall prevalence of underweight, overweight (including obesity) and obesity in male university students were 14.2%, 11.5% and 2.5%, respectively, in female university students were 27.5%, 2.4% and 0.3%, respectively. An interesting observation made was that the underweight prevalence of university students has an increasing trend, especially in female. The study showed that the prevalence of underweight in university students, especially in female students has become a critical health issue. Related department of school and government should pay more attention to student's physical health. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Kivimäki, Mika; Kuosma, Eeva; Ferrie, Jane E.
Background: Although overweight and obesity have been studied in relation to individual cardiometabolic diseases, their association with risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is poorly understood. Here we aimed to establish the risk of incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity (ie, at least two from......: type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke) in adults who are overweight and obese compared with those who are a healthy weight. Methods: We pooled individual-participant data for BMI and incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity from 16 prospective cohort studies from the USA and Europe....... According to WHO recommendations, we classified BMI into categories of healthy (20·0–24·9 kg/m2), overweight (25·0–29·9 kg/m2), class I (mild) obesity (30·0–34·9 kg/m2), and class II and III (severe) obesity (≥35·0 kg/m2). We used an inclusive definition of underweight (
Paul, Tracy K; Sciacca, Robert R; Bier, Michael; Rodriguez, Juviza; Song, Sharon; Giardina, Elsa-Grace V
Perception of body size is a key factor driving health behavior. Mothers directly influence children's nutritional and exercise behaviors. Mothers of ethnic minority groups and lower socioeconomic status are less likely to correctly identify young children as overweight or obese. Little evaluation has been done of the inverse--the child's perception of the mother's weight. To determine awareness of weight status among mother-child dyads (n = 506). Cross-sectional study conducted in an outpatient pediatric dental clinic of Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY. Primarily Hispanic (82.2 %) mothers (n = 253), 38.8 ± 7.5 years of age, and children (n = 253), 10.5 ± 1.4 years of age, responding to a questionnaire adapted from the validated Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Anthropometric measures-including height, weight, and waist circumference-and awareness of self-size and size of other generation were obtained. 71.4 % of obese adults and 35.1 % of overweight adults underestimated size, vs. 8.6 % of normal-weight (NW) adults (both p < 0.001). Among overweight and obese children, 86.3 % and 62.3 % underestimated their size, vs. 14.9 % NW children (both p < 0.001). Among mothers with overweight children, 80.0 % underestimated their child's weight, vs. 7.1 % of mothers with NW children (p < 0.001); 23.1 % of mothers with obese children also underestimated their child's weight (p < 0.01). Among children with obese mothers, only 13.0 % correctly classified the adult's size, vs. 76.5 % with NW mothers (p < 0.001). Among obese mothers, 20.8 % classified overweight body size as ideal, vs. 1.2 % among NW mothers (p < 0.001). Overweight/obese adults and children frequently underestimate their size. Adults misjudge overweight/obese children as being of normal weight, and children of obese mothers often underestimate the adult's size. Failure to recognize overweight/obesity status among adults and children can lead to prolonged exposure to obesity
Overweight traffic movements can negatively affect pavement integrity and quality. However, it is less : known to what degree buried utility plant along and across the right of way is affected by these overweight : loads, especially if the utility fa...
A weighty matter: Identification and management of overweight and obesity in ... is increased intake of unhealthy foods and lower levels of physical activity. ... despite using different methods, classify overweight and obesity in children by age- ...
Hestetun, Ingebjørg; Svendsen, Martin Veel; Oellingrath, Inger Margaret
Overweight and mental health problems represent two major challenges related to child and adolescent health. More knowledge of a possible relationship between the two problems and the influence of peer problems on the mental health of overweight children is needed. It has previously been hypothesized that peer problems may be an underlying factor in the association between overweight and mental health problems. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between overweight, peer problems, and indications of mental health problems in a sample of 12-13-year-old Norwegian schoolchildren. Children aged 12-13 years were recruited from the seventh grade of primary schools in Telemark County, Norway. Parents gave information about mental health and peer problems by completing the extended version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Height and weight were objectively measured. Complete data were obtained for 744 children. Fisher's exact probability test and multiple logistic regressions were used. Most children had normal good mental health. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that overweight children were more likely to have indications of psychiatric disorders (adjusted OR: 1.8, CI: 1.0-3.2) and peer problems (adjusted OR: 2.6, CI: 1.6-4.2) than normal-weight children, when adjusted for relevant background variables. When adjusted for peer problems, the association between overweight and indications of any psychiatric disorder was no longer significant. The results support the hypothesis that peer problems may be an important underlying factor for mental health problems in overweight children.
Chang, Yiting; Gable, Sara
The primary objective of this study was to predict weight status stability and change across the transition to adolescence using parent reports of child and household routines and teacher and child self-reports of social-emotional development. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. At fifth grade, parents reported on child and household routines and the study child and his/her primary classroom teacher reported on the child's social-emotional functioning. At fifth and eighth grade, children were directly weighed and measured at school. Nine mutually-exclusive weight trajectory groups were created to capture stability or change in weight status from fifth to eighth grade: (1) stable obese (ObeSta); (2) obese to overweight (ObePos1); (3) obese to healthy (ObePos2); (4) stable overweight (OverSta); (5) overweight to healthy (OverPos); (6) overweight to obese (OverNeg); (7) stable healthy (HelSta); (8) healthy to overweight (HelNeg1); and (9) healthy to obese (HelNeg2). Except for breakfast consumption at home, school-provided lunches, nighttime sleep duration, household and child routines did not predict stability or change in weight status. Instead, weight status trajectory across the transition to adolescence was significantly predicted by measures of social-emotional functioning at fifth grade. Assessing children's social-emotional well-being in addition to their lifestyle routines during the transition to adolescence is a noteworthy direction for adolescent obesity prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khambalia, Amina; Hardy, Louise L; Bauman, Adrian
To compare overweight and obese adolescents with accurate and inaccurate self-reported weight perception across a range of behaviours and measures of psychological well-being. This study uses a cross-sectional survey of grade 7-12 high school students in New South Wales, Australia, conducted in 2008 (n= 7553). Overweight and obese students based on body mass index were classified as accurate perceivers (weight perception was 'too fat') or inaccurate perceivers (weight perception was 'about right'). Nearly a third of adolescents had incongruity between self-perceived body weight status and body mass index-determined weight category. Compared with boys, girls were less likely to underestimate their body weight (odds ratio: 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.27) and more likely to overestimate their body weight (odds ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 3.3, 3.5). Accurate body weight perception was higher in obese adolescents compared with overweight adolescents (69.5% vs. 44.0%). Compared with mis-perceivers, accurate overweight and obese perceivers had significantly higher odds of trying to lose weight and being more physically active; however, they showed a combination of unhealthy and healthy behaviours (i.e. dietary patterns and sedentary activities). Accurate weight perception among overweight and obese adolescents was associated with increased odds of feeling sad or depressed in the past 6 months. Further research on social, familial and psychological factors that predict or mediate healthy and unhealthy weight-related behaviours among adolescents by accuracy of weight perception is needed. Accurate weight perception should be considered in counselling and behavioural interventions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Sentenac, Mariane; Gariepy, Geneviève; McKinnon, Britt; Elgar, Frank J
The last decade saw a higher prevalence of overweight reported among food-insecure families in Canada, but no robust evidence exists on the covariate-adjusted association in children. In this study, we examined the association between hunger and overweight in Canadian students, using a propensity score matching analysis to reduce confounding. This research used data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study on a representative national sample of students in Grades 6 through 10. Students self-reported their height and weight and how often they have gone to school or to bed hungry due to a lack of food at home. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted on the total sample (N = 17,694) and on the sample matched on propensity scores (n = 7,788). The overall prevalence of overweight among students was 20.2% with a significant difference between students who reported hunger (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1-26.0) and students who did not (19.0%; 95% CI: 17.9-20.2). Analysis on the matched sample revealed a significant association between hunger and overweight in children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). A substantial number of Canadian students have reported being hungry because of a lack of food at home. These students are at increased risk of overweight, regardless of their social class. Child hunger and household food insecurity exist in Canada and constitute a call for policy action at a national level.
Full Text Available Obesity in dogs is an increasing problem and better knowledge of the metabolism of overweight dogs is needed. Identification of molecular changes related to overweight may lead to new methods to improve obesity prevention and treatment. The aim of the study was firstly to investigate whether Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR based metabolomics could be used to differentiate postprandial from fasting urine in dogs, and secondly to investigate whether metabolite profiles differ between lean and overweight dogs in fasting and postprandial urine, respectively. Twenty-eight healthy intact male Labrador Retrievers were included, 12 of which were classified as lean (body condition score (BCS 4-5 on a 9-point scale and 16 as overweight (BCS 6-8. After overnight fasting, a voided morning urine sample was collected. Dogs were then fed a high-fat mixed meal and postprandial urine was collected after 3 hours. Metabolic profiles were generated using NMR and 45 metabolites identified from the spectral data were evaluated using multivariate data analysis. The results revealed that fasting and postprandial urine differed in relative metabolite concentration (partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA 1 comp: R2Y = 0.4, Q2Y = 0.32; cross-validated ANOVA: P = 0.00006. Univariate analyses of discriminant metabolites showed that taurine and citrate concentrations were elevated in postprandial urine, while allantoin concentration had decreased. Interestingly, lean and overweight dogs differed in terms of relative metabolite concentrations in postprandial urine (PLS-DA 1 comp: R2Y = 0.5, Q2Y = 0.36, cross-validated ANOVA: P = 0.005 but not in fasting urine. Overweight dogs had lower postprandial taurine and a trend of higher allantoin concentrations compared with lean dogs. These findings demonstrate that metabolomics can differentiate 3-hour postprandial urine from fasting urine in dogs, and that postprandial urine metabolites may be more useful than fasting
Madsen, Kristine A; Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie
The Alliance for a Healthier Generation's Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools' nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP's inception in 2006 through 2012. We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP's onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose-response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools.
González Rosendo, Guillermina; Villanueva Sánchez, Javier; Alcantar Rodríguez, Victor Eduardo; Quintero Gutiérrez, Adrián Guillermo
in Mexico, although there are low intakes of some nutrients; there are higher total energy, fat and sodium and common inadequate physical activity in schools, which originates the presence of overweight and obesity. Objetive: the aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children full- time state of Morelos (Mexico). a cross sectional study in 30 966 students 3-15 years attending 186 schools. The nutritional status was obtained through the Body Mass Index, considering the age and sex; weight was measured with SECA 813 scales and height with stadiometer SECA 213; international benchmarks were used. 36 482 boys and girls censused, it's measured at 30 966 (84.9%) attended the day of visit. The overall prevalence of underweight was close to 8%, and the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity exceeded 25%. Were higher prevalences of underweight and obesity in men. one in 12 children are underweight; one in four, overweight and one in nine obese. The male population is more vulnerable to suffer consequences for nutritional deficiencies and excesses. Specific studies are needed to differentiate and address obesity primary type and associated risks to define future actions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Rafael Vieira Martins
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association of overweight and obesity with hypertension in adolescents from public schools in Curitiba, southern Brazil.The sample comprised 1,549 randomly selected adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (744 males. Body mass index (BMI was calculated and classified according to Conde and Monteiro (2006. Blood pressure was measured by the auscultation method on two occasions (different days and was classified according to the fourth report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP. Prevalence ratio was used as a measure of association. Overweight and obesity were observed in 23% and 5.8% of boys, respectively. Among girls, 18.8% were overweight and 5.6% were obese. After two measurements, 7% of boys had prehypertension and 10.5% had hypertension. Pre hypertension and hypertension were observed in 5.2% and 9.9% of girls, respectively. Obesity was significantly associated with high blood pressure among boys (PR = 1.19, 95% CI= 1.07-1.32. Overweight (PR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04-1.17 and obese (PR = 1.26,95% CI = 1.13-1.40 girls were more likely to have high blood pressure levelsin comparison to normal weight adolescents. These results showed alarming estimates of hypertension among young people and that the reduction of obesity during adolescence should be focused on public policies for hypertensionprevention in the population.
Center for Rural Pennsylvania, 2005
The number of overweight children and adolescents in the U.S. has reached epidemic proportions, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2000, the CDC estimated that 15 percent of the nation's youth were overweight. Overweight children and adolescents are exposed to many health risks, most notably the increased risk…
Overweight and obesity are serious health concerns for children. However, only a few studies have investigated the influence of gender on prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to investigate gender influence on prevalence of overweight and obesity ...
Croezen, S.; Visscher, T. L. S.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Veling, M. L.; Haveman-Nies, A.
Objective/Background: To investigate the association between skipping breakfast, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity with overweight and obesity in adolescents. The design comprises cross-sectional electronic health survey (E-MOVO). Subjects/Methods: Over 35 000 Dutch adolescents in grade 2
studies were performed in Germany and in the United Kingdom. The studies, which had a significant effect on overweight were 'Dance for Health', 'Planet Health', 'San Jose Study', 'Kiel Obesity Prevention Study', 'Healthy Schools' programme, 'El Paso Catch', and 'Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project...
Boutelle, Kerri N; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Harnack, Lisa
The purpose of this study was to identify overeating phenotypes and their correlates in overweight and obese children. One hundred and seventeen treatment-seeking overweight and obese 8-12year-old children and their parents completed the study. Children completed an eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) paradigm, the Eating Disorder Examination interview, and measurements of height and weight. Parents and children completed questionnaires that evaluated satiety responsiveness, food responsiveness, negative affect eating, external eating and eating in the absence of hunger. Latent profile analysis was used to identify heterogeneity in overeating phenotypes in the child participants. Latent classes were then compared on measures of demographics, obesity status and nutritional intake. Three latent classes of overweight and obese children were identified: High Satiety Responsive, High Food Responsive, and Moderate Satiety and Food Responsive. Results indicated that the High Food Responsive group had higher BMI and BMI-Z scores compared to the High Satiety Responsive group. No differences were found among classes in demographics or nutritional intake. This study identified three overeating phenotypes, supporting the heterogeneity of eating patterns associated with overweight and obesity in treatment-seeking children. These finding suggest that these phenotypes can potentially be used to identify high risk groups, inform prevention and intervention targets, and develop specific treatments for these behavioral phenotypes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Flegal, Katherine M.; Tabak, Carolyn J.; Ogden, Cynthia L.
Studies in a variety of countries have shown increases in the prevalence of overweight among children in recent years. These increases have given rise to concern about children's health and well-being. The terminology used in these studies varies considerably. However, whatever the terminology used, such studies are generally based on weight…
School health teams, comprising trained nurses, measured the height (in cm) and weight (in kg) of 963 female learners in 31 primary schools. Internationally accepted standardised measures were used as cut-offs for defining overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting. Results. We found evidence of both under- and ...
Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Thulstrup, A M; Bonde, J P
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that not only women's but also men's obesity has adverse effects on fecundity and since fecundity is a couple concept, we examined fecundity in relation to overweight and obesity of the couple. We also examined the association between weight changes and fecundi...
Adequate management of oversize/overweight (OS/OW) permit loads throughout the state of Texas is : critical to maintaining a vibrant state economy. The growth in the number and size of permit loads in recent : years is clear evidence that new tools a...
Smith, S M; Sumar, B; Dixon, K A
This review seeks to provide a current overview of musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Databases searched were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss and Trove for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 December 2012. We used a broad definition of children within a 3- to 18-year age range. The search strategy included the following terms: obesity, morbid obesity, overweight, pain, musculoskeletal pain, child, adolescent, chronic pain, back pain, lower back pain, knee pain, hip pain, foot pain and pelvic pain. Two authors independently assessed each record, and any disagreement was resolved by the third author. Data were analysed using a narrative thematic approach owing to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measures. Ninety-seven records were initially identified using a variety of terms associated with children, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. Ten studies were included for thematic analysis when predetermined inclusion criteria were applied. Bone deformity and dysfunction, pain reporting and the impact of children being overweight or obese on physical activity, exercise and quality of life were the three themes identified from the literature. Chronic pain, obesity and a reduction in physical functioning and activity may contribute to a cycle of weight gain that affects a child's quality of life. Future studies are required to examine the sequela of overweight and obese children experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24077005
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the global obesity epidemic, few studies have performed cross-national comparisons of adolescents' attempts to lose weight and weight control practices. This study aims to investigate matters mentioned above by weight status in Europe, Israel, and North America. Methods Nationally representative samples of adolescents from over 30 countries completed an anonymous, standardized questionnaire as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2001/2002 survey. The prevalence and likelihood of attempts to lose weight were determined. The effect of weight status, self-perception of overweight, age and country of residence upon the likelihood of current attempts to lose weight were evaluated using multilevel multivariate logistic regression in separate analyses for boys and girls. The study also presented the prevalence of weight control practices of overweight and non-overweight adolescents who had controlled their weight in seven countries. Results In general, overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to be engaged in current attempts to lose weight and had tried to control their weight during the past 12 months more often than non-overweight adolescents. Besides weight status, self-perception of overweight and age were significant individual-level factors determining current attempts to lose weight. Country of residence was a significant second-level factor but no clear geographical pattern was found. Several gender-related differences existed. Conclusion The findings indicated that most overweight adolescents were motivated to reduce their weight. The importance of promoting a healthy body image for all adolescents was highlighted by the fact that self-perception of overweight was found to be the most important factor leading to attempts to lose weight.
Martin, J D; Hauck, A E
An 83-year-old man with an endometrioma of the lower abdominal wall has been reported. This occurred following the administration of 25 mg of TACE for a period of about 10 years for what was thought to be carcinoma of the prostate. A second transurethral resection done by Dr. R. C. Thompson proved to be adenocarcinoma. Subsequent to this he was continued on TACE. A review of the more commonly accepted theories of the development of endometriosis in the female has been presented. It is pointed out that the separation between the male and female urogenital systems occurs in the embryo between the eighth week and the fourth month. There is always a possibility for remnants of the opposite sex to remain in individuals. No such was seen in the case which is herein reported. Normal phenotype male was demonstrated in the chromosomal evaluation. A review of the literature on endometriosis in the male reveals several cases which have occurred; the origin of which is though to be from the prostatic utricle which is a remnant of the uterus existing in the male. After a prolonged course the patient reported was followed until he died in 1979. There was no recurrence of the abdominal wall mass but persistent low grade carcinoma of the prostate remained. The terminal process was related to cardiovascular disease and not carcinoma of the prostate. There was delay in publication of this unusual case. The original plan was to await final confirmation of the exact pathologic nature of this condition; unfortunately this was never done since a postmortem examination was not performed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
M??le, Thomas; Kliem, S?ren; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk
Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parentin...
Full Text Available Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse, affects approximately 15% of couples. Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Thus, male factor infertility is present in approximately half of all infertile couples. Known etiologies of male infertility include cryptorchidism, testicular torsion or trauma, varicocele, seminal tract infections, anti-sperm antibodies, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, gonadal dysgenesis, and obstruction of the reproductive channels. Recently in some studies, it has been reported that increased body mass index negatively affect on male fertility or semen parameters.Overweight and obesity have become a major public health concern worldwide. The prevalence of male obesity or overweight in the united states was reported to be 71%. This ratio changes between 10% and 60% in the world. Negative effects of obesity on male fertility are postulated to occur through several mechanisms. Obese men have been shown to exhibit higher levels of circulating estradiol. Several studies reveal a direct correlation between a rise in BMI and a decline in both free and total blood testosterone levels. In addition, obesity may cause to oxidative stress. All these changes may affect to semen parameters in obese cases. However, the relationship between male obesity and fertility parameters has not been well established. The aim of this review is to evaluate the relationship between the obesity and male infertility.
Rodgers, Rachel F; Watts, Allison W; Austin, S Bryn; Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
High rates of disordered eating exist among adolescents with overweight and among ethnic/racial minority adolescents. Given the lack of research examining how eating disorder risk is moderated by both overweight and ethnicity/race, this study aimed to explore interactions between ethnicity/race and overweight status on disordered eating behaviors in a population-based adolescent sample. Cross-sectional data from adolescents (n = 2,271; 52% females) of White (23%), Black (34%), Hispanic (20%), and Asian (23%; 82% Hmong) ethnicity/race participating in the EAT 2010 study were used to examine associations between overweight status and disordered eating behaviors across ethnic/racial groups. Disordered eating behaviors occurred more frequently among adolescents with overweight compared with those without overweight across all ethnic/racial groups. Although some differences in the prevalence of disordered eating were found by ethnicity/race, particularly in girls, no consistent patterns of interaction emerged. Overweight White and Hispanic girls reported the highest risk for dieting, while the highest risk for unhealthy weight control behaviors was among overweight Black girls, and for overeating among overweight White and Asian girls. Within a society in which thinness is highly valued and being overweight is stigmatized, across diverse cultural groups, adolescents with overweight are at risk for disordered eating. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Alegría-Lertxundi, Iker; Rocandio Pablo, Ana; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta
Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.
paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...
In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with
Toselli, Stefania; Zaccagni, Luciana; Celenza, Francesca; Albertini, Augusta; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela
In this study, we evaluated the risk factors associated with overweight and obesity in 2,640 preschool children in Italy taking into account the ethnic background of the parents. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Personal and lifestyle data for the children (birth weight, type of breastfeeding, sleep duration, skipping breakfast, snacking, physical activity) and parents (ethnicity, educational level, occupation, weight, height) were collected by means of a questionnaire. Italian and Other European children generally showed the highest percentage of normal weight, while the other ethnic groups presented a greater imbalance. Overweight and obesity were high in African males, who also presented high birth weight. Breastfeeding was most common, although formula feeding was significantly higher in Italians than in immigrants. Immigrants, particularly males, tended to skip breakfast more than Italians. Physical activity was significantly higher in Italians than in immigrants. In the parents, underweight was particularly high in Italian and Other mothers. African parents had high rates of overweight and obesity and a low educational level. The most common profession was worker for the fathers and housewife for the mothers, with the exception of Italians in which clerical work prevailed. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the BMI of children was closely related to the BMI of the parents and the birth weight. Hence, these are the most informative parameters in preventing obesity.
Carson, Valerie; Faulkner, Guy; Sabiston, Catherine M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leatherdale, Scott T
To identify underlying subgroups based on patterns of physical activity, screen-based sedentary behavior, and sleep in a large sample of Canadian youth and to examine the associations between the identified subgroups and overweight and obesity. The study is based on 19,831 youth aged 13-18 years from across Ontario, Canada in the COMPASS study. Participants self-reported their movement behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep), height and weight, and demographics. Latent class analysis and logistic regression models were conducted. Three underlying subgroups were identified in the total sample and male and female subsamples (i.e., unhealthiest movers, active screenies, healthiest movers). In the total sample, the active screenies subgroup was 1.19 (95 % CI 1.09-1.29) times and the unhealthiest movers subgroup was 1.24 (1.14-1.36) times more likely to be classified as overweight/obese compared to the healthiest movers subgroup. Similar associations were observed in the female subsample but not in the male subsample. Public health interventions targeting youth subgroups at increased risk of overweight and obesity through integrated approaches accounting for multiple movement behaviors should be considered, especially for females.
Birken, Catherine S; Tu, Karen; Oud, William; Carsley, Sarah; Hanna, Miranda; Lebovic, Gerald; Guttmann, Astrid
To determine the prevalence of overweight and obese status in children by age, sex, and visit type, using data from EMRALD ® (Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database). Heights and weights were abstracted for children 0 to 19 years of age who had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Using the most recent visit, the proportions and 95% CIs of patients defined as overweight and obese were compared by age group, sex, and visit type using the World Health Organization growth reference standards. Ontario. Children 0 to 19 years of age who were rostered to a primary care physician participating in EMRALD and had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Proportion and 95% CI of children with overweight and obese status by age group; proportion of children with overweight and obese status by sex (with male sex as the referent) within each age group; and proportion of children with overweight and obese status at the most recent well-child visit type compared with other visit types by age group. There were 28 083 well-child visits during this period. For children who attended well-child visits, 84.7% of visits had both a height and weight documented. Obesity rates were significantly higher in 1- to 4-year-olds compared with children younger than 1 (6.1% vs 2.3%; P overweight and obese status were lower using data from well-child visits compared with other visits. Electronic medical records might be useful to conduct population-based surveillance of overweight or obese status in children. Methodologic standards, however, should be developed. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Full Text Available Introduction Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low‐income and middle‐income countries. Childhood obesity is associated with higher chances of premature deaths and disabilities in adulthood. It is also evident that nearly 75% of the obese adolescents remain obese as adults thus increasing the risk of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs. Aim and Objectives To study the prevalence and associated socio‐demographic factors of overweight and obesity among rural school going adolescents. Material and Methods The present study was conducted in Lakhanmajra block of Rohtak district over a period of one year from July 2016 to June 2017. 750 students from six co‐ educational government senior secondary schools were included in the study. Data were collected using pre‐designed, pre‐tested, semi structured interview schedule. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.7% and 1.1% respectively. Maximum prevalence of obesity/overweight was found in the age group 13‐14 years (11.2%. Obesity/overweight was more prevalent in males (9.4% in comparison to females (3.4%. 14.3% of the study subjects belonging to three generation family, 11.7% belonging to joint and 4.5% belonging to the nuclear families were found to obese/ overweight. 11% and 5.1% of the study subjects with 6‐10 family members and 5 and less than five family members were obese/ overweight. Conclusion Childhood obesity continues in adult life and thus gives rise to diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thus it is the need of the hour to address this problem and to devise programs and strategies to prevent overweight/obesity among children and adolescents because today’s children are future of the nation.
Amit Kumar Kamboj
Full Text Available Background: Today however, as standard of living continues to rise, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in both developed and developing countries and affecting children as well as adults. Indeed, it is now so common that it is replacing the more traditional public health concern including under nutrition and infectious diseases. Overweight and obesity is a major risk factor for high morbidity and mortality. Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic heart disease related morbidity and mortality. Aims and Objectives: To find out the prevalence of overweight & obesity and to suggest measures for prevention of overweight and obesity in adult population. Material and Method: To cover a sample size of 1152 in Urban Health Centre area population ≥18 years every fifth family was selected by systematic random sampling from the total of 1698 families registered at Urban Health Centre. They were interviewed personally and information was collected about sociodemographic characteristics, personal factors, and measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumference of the individuals were taken to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR. Results: Prevalence of overweight (BMI -25-29.99 and obesity (BMI ≥30 being 28.0% and 8.0% respectively. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was 25.8%. About two-third (66.9% of abdominal obesity rightly corresponded with the high BMI (25+. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in urban area of Meerut, more in females than males and it is being affected by various socio-demographic correlates.
Jung, Christian; Figulla, Hans R; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Pernow, John
Overweight and the metabolic syndrome have become major problems, especially in children and adolescents. Obesity at a young age increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus later in life. An early event in the development of cardiovascular disease is endothelial dysfunction which is found in obese young individuals. Increased activity of the enzyme arginase has been described as a central mechanism for endothelial dysfunction, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to determine plasma levels of arginase in overweight adolescents. Sixty-six male German adolescents (age: 15.2 ± 1.1 years old) were included. Thirty-one of them were overweight (>90th age-specific weight percentile). Plasma arginase I and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined. In addition, clinical data were recorded and anthropometrical measurements of obesity were performed. Overweight adolescents had a higher systolic blood pressure, lower high-density lipoprotein and increased levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP). Circulating arginase I was elevated in overweight adolescents (95.8 ± 68.2 ng/ml) compared to normal weight adolescents (39.3 ± 26.9 ng/ml, p obesity. There was no difference between the two groups regarding TNFα. We demonstrate that arginase I levels are increased in obese adolescents. Knowing the important role for arginase in endothelial dysfunction, elevated levels of arginase I may represent a link between obesity, endothelial dysfunction and related comorbidities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Amit Kumar Kamboj
Full Text Available Background: Today however, as standard of living continues to rise, weight gain and obesity are posing a growing threat to health in both developed and developing countries and affecting children as well as adults. Indeed, it is now so common that it is replacing the more traditional public health concern including under nutrition and infectious diseases. Overweight and obesity is a major risk factor for high morbidity and mortality. Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic heart disease related morbidity and mortality. Aims and Objectives: To find out the prevalence of overweight & obesity and to suggest measures for prevention of overweight and obesity in adult population. Material and Method: To cover a sample size of 1152 in Urban Health Centre area population ≥18 years every fifth family was selected by systematic random sampling from the total of 1698 families registered at Urban Health Centre. They were interviewed personally and information was collected about sociodemographic characteristics, personal factors, and measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumference of the individuals were taken to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR. Results: Prevalence of overweight (BMI -25-29.99 and obesity (BMI ≥30 being 28.0% and 8.0% respectively. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was 25.8%. About two-third (66.9% of abdominal obesity rightly corresponded with the high BMI (25+. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in urban area of Meerut, more in females than males and it is being affected by various socio-demographic correlates.
Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...
Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Barbu, Carmen Gabriela; Cinteza, Elena Eliza; Chesaru, Bianca Ioana; Gafencu, Mihai; Mocanu, Veronica; Pascanu, Ionela M; Tatar, Simona Alexandra; Balgradean, Mihaela; Dobre, Michaela; Fica, Simona Vasilica; Ichim, Gabriela Edita; Pop, Raluca; Puiu, Maria
High-quality national representative data on obesity in Romanian children are needed to shape public health policies. To provide a unified data landscape on national prevalence, trends and other factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in Romanian children aged 6-19 years, across the last decade (2006-2015). Using a common protocol, we selected published and unpublished studies that measured Romanian children in schools between 2006 and 2015. Children's BMI was classified using the current WHO, IOTF, and CDC references. 25,060 children from 8 Romanian counties were included in the analysis. The prevalence of underweight children was 5%/4.5%/8.5% (WHO/IOTF/CDC), while the prevalence of overweight (including obese) children was 28.3%/23%/23.2% (WHO/IOTF/CDC). The prevalence of overweight children did not change significantly over the last decade (chi-square test p = 0.6). Male gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.37; 95% CI 1.29-1.45, compared to female); prepubertal age (OR = 3.86; 95% CI 3.41-4.36,compared to postpubertal age), and urban environment (OR 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.26, compared to rural environment) had higher risk for overweight. While the prevalence of underweight children was low, almost one in four children in Romania was overweight or obese (according to WHO criteria) between 2006 and 2015. This prevalence remained relatively stable over the last decade. Male gender, prepubertal age, and urban environment, were the most relevant risk factors associated with overweight status in Romanian children. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Damiri, Basma; Aghbar, Amir; Alkhdour, Saja; Arafat, Yousef
Metabolic Syndrome "MetS" is characterized by the presence of several factors that play a major role in the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted to establish the prevalence of MetS and its individual components among the overweight and obese students at An-Najah National University (ANU) using IDF and modified NCEP ATP III definition and to identify conditions associated with it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016. Data were collected in two stages: first stage included anthropometric and blood pressure measurements for 850 participants. Second stage included a self-administered questionnaire and biochemical analysis for only overweight or obese (154) participants. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 26.2%, with significant increase among males (36.4%) compared with females (19.1%). The prevalence of MetS among obese and overweight was (28.6%) according to IDF with no significant increase compared to NCEP ATP criteria (24%). Reduced HDL- cholesterol was the most prevalent component (74.7%) in obese and overweight participants followed by central obesity (72.1%), raised blood pressure (29.9%), elevated fasting blood sugar (24%), and lastly increased triglycerides (18.2%). No significant differences were found between males and females according to both criteria. Moreover, no significant associations with geographic locality, house-hold income, smoking, physical activity, or family history were determined. The prevalence of MetS among overweight and obese young adult Palestinians was high and demands immediate intervention, given the potential for these adults to develop chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Álvarez-Dongo, Doris; Sánchez-Abanto, Jose; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina
Estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and the determining social factors of overweight in the Peruvian population. A cross-cut study was conducted which included family members from homes in the sample of the National Household Survey, 2009-2010. Stratified random and multistage sampling was used. The sample included 69 526 members; the anthropometric measurements were done based on the international methodology. To evaluate overweight and obesity, weight-for-height (children Overweight and obesity were higher in young adults (62.3%) and lower in children overweight according to age group were: not being poor (child Overweight and obesity are indeed a public health issue in Peru. Not being poor and living in urban areas are determining social factors of overweight among Peruvian people.
Gomez-Parra, Myrna; Romero-Arrieta, Lydis; Vasquez-Trespalacios, Elsa Maria; Palacio-Jaramillo, Veronica; Valencia-Martinez, Andrea
Shift work is common in health care settings and has been hypothesized as a risk factor for being overweight or obese. We examined the relation between shift work and being overweight or obese, adjusting for stress and lifestyle habits in Colombian health care workers. The aim of this study was to assess the association between shift work and being overweight/obese in employees of a health care setting in Medellin, Colombia. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 workers in a health care setting. Participants completed a demographic, occupational, work-related stress and life style questionnaire. Their Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were also measured. The study sample consisted of 160 (80%) females and 40 (20%) males. Mean age was 35.1±9.1 years and mean BMI was 25±3.9. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate logistic regression revealed no statistically significant association between being overweight, being obese or waist to hip ratio and shift work; 95% CI OR: 1.08 (0.62-1.89), 1.33 (0.44-3.99) and 1.2 (0.8-1.9), respectively. Day workers were statistically more likely to smoke, work more hours, and have a higher educational level than shift workers. No significant associations between shift work and being overweight/obese were observed in health care workers in a Colombian setting. These findings need to be confirmed through longitudinal studies.
Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to higher probability of individuals accessing primary care but adiposity estimates are rarely available at regional levels to inform health service planning. This paper analyses a large, community-derived clinical database of objectively measured body mass index (BMI to explore relationships with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage for informing regional level planning activities.The study included 91776 adults who had BMI objectively measured between 1 July 2009 and 30 June 2011 by a single pathology provider. Demographic data and BMI were extracted and matched to 2006 national census socioeconomic data using geocoding. Adjusted odds-ratios for overweight and obesity were calculated using sex-stratified logistic regression models with socioeconomic disadvantage of census collection district of residence as the independent variable.The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 79.2% (males and 65.8% (females; increased with age to 74 years; and was higher in rural (74% versus urban areas (71.4% (p<0.001. Increasing socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with increasing prevalence of overweight (p<0.0001, obesity (p<0.0001 and overweight or obesity (p<0.0001 in women and obesity (p<0.0001 in men. Socioeconomic disadvantage was unrelated to overweight (p = 0.2024 and overweight or obesity (p = 0.4896 in males.It is feasible to link routinely-collected clinical data, representative of a discrete population, with geographic distribution of disadvantage, and to obtain meaningful area-level information useful for targeting interventions to improve population health. Our results demonstrate novel area-level socioeconomic gradients in overweight and obesity relevant to regional health service planning.
Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit
Objective: We investigated mothers' possession and display of action competence to counteract or prevent overweight and eventual obesity in their children. Action competence is defined as a personal resource where the most important aspect is the individual's wish to take action and to believe...... in its benefit. It unfolds within the room for action as experienced by the individual due to action obstacles and action potentials. Methods: In a case-control study, mothers of 111 overweight children (MOC) were compared with mothers of 149 nonoverweight children (MNC). They underwent a semistructured...... interview about action competence, lifestyle, and their 7- to 9-year-old children. Results: Compared to MNC, MOC considered it more important to change habits, both for themselves (p = 0.003) and their children (p
Osella, Alberto R; Díaz, María Del Pilar; Cozzolongo, Rafaelle; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Franco, Isabella; Abrescia, Daniela Isabel; Bianco, Antonella; Giampiero, Elba Silvana; Petruzzi, José; Elsa, Lanzilota; Mario, Correale; Mastrosimni, Anna María; Giocchino, Leandro
In the last decades, overweight and obesity have been transformed from minor public health issues to a major threat to public health affecting the most affluent societies and also the less developed ones. To estimate overweight-obesity prevalence in adults, their association with some social determinants and to assess the effect of these two conditions on levels of biologic and biochemical characteristics, by means of a population-based study. A random sample of the general population of Putignano was drawn. All participants completed a general pre-coded and a Food Frequency questionnaire; anthropometric measures were taken and a venous blood sample was drawn. All subjects underwent liver ultra-sonography. Data description was done by means of tables and then Quantile Regression was performed. Overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were 34.5% and 16.1% respectively. Both overweight and obesity were more frequent among male, married and low socio-economic position subjects. There were increasing frequencies of normal weight with higher levels of education. Overweight and obese subjects had more frequently Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Hypertension and altered biochemical markers. Quantile regression showed a statistically significant association of age with overweight and obesity (maximum about 64.8 yo), gender (female) and low levels of education in both overweight and obesity. More than 10 gr/day of wine intake was associated with overweight. The prevention and treatment of overweight/obesity on a population wide basis are needed. Population-based strategies should also improve social and physical environmental contexts for healthful lifestyles.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a six-months’ nutrition program, delivered and taught by classroom teachers with in-service nutrition training, on the prevention of overweight and obesity among children in grades 1 to 4. In this randomized trial, four hundred and sixty four children from seven elementary schools were allocated to a nutrition educational program delivered by their own teachers. Intervened teachers had 12 sessions of three hours each with the researchers throughout six months, according to the topics nutrition and healthy eating, the importance of drinking water and healthy cooking activities. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop activities in class focused on the learned topics. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. In the intervention group the increase in Body Mass Index (BMI z-score was significantly lower than in the control group (p = 0.009; fewer proportion of children became overweight in the intervened group compared with the control (5.6% vs. 18.4%; p = 0.037. Our study provides further support to decrease the overweight epidemic, involving classroom teachers in a training program and making them dedicated interventionists.
Full Text Available This study describes the prevalence rate of overweight and thinness in a population of teens living in two different areas of Italy and explores the body self-image perception and unhealthy eating behaviours and strategies to lose weight. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 2,121 teenage students (1,084 males; 1,037 females. Results showed that teen females and males build and perceive their body images in very different ways. Most of the overall sample perceived their weight as normal, while a relevant 31.6% defined themselves as overweight and another 4.4% as heavily overweight. Analysis based on BMI (calculated through self-referred weight and height showed that only 9.2% of our sample could be considered overweight and 1,7% obese. Most of female teen students (485 out of 1,037 were trying to lose weight, demonstrating that strategies to lose weight were undertaken also by girls perceiving themsleves as normal in relation to body weight; 46.8% girls were using strategies to lose weight compared with 21.9% boys. These strategies included very problematic behaviours like self-induced vomiting (3.3% F vs. 1.7% M and dieting pills (2.8% F vs. 1.5% M undertaken along with more usual thinning strategies like dieting and exercising. Girls were more prone than boys to exercise as a way to lose weight (41% vs. 31.7%. This study showed that there is a deep gap between actual weight and perceived body-image and weight. This study is one of the first of this kind in Italy and calls for primary prevention and health education programs aimed at improving teen body-image as a strategy to reduce the eating disorder epidemics spreading among young people.
The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)
Sandra Vuk Pisk; Mate Mihanovic; Ante Silic; Anamarija Bogovic; Vesna Vidovic
Background and objective. Adolescence is considered a critical stage of life, and one during which body image and self-concept are of particular importance for peer acceptance and approval. Body weight may impact on satisfaction or dissatisfaction in adolescent girls’ self-concept. The aim of this research was to determine the association between obesity and self-concept among adolescent girls. Methods. The study sample consisted of 40 overweight (BMI 25 - 30) 18-year-old girls in their la...
Brosseau, Lucie; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter; Egan, Mary; Dubouloz, Claire-Jehanne; Casimiro, Lynn; Bugnariu, Nicoleta; Welch, Vivian A; De Angelis, Gino; Francoeur, Lilliane; Milne, Sarah; Loew, Laurianne; McEwan, Jessica; Messier, Steven P; Doucet, Eric; Kenny, Glen P; Prud'homme, Denis; Lineker, Sydney; Bell, Mary; Poitras, Stéphane; Li, Jing Xian; Finestone, Hillel M; Laferrière, Lucie; Haines-Wangda, Angela; Russell-Doreleyers, Marion; Lambert, Kim; Marshall, Alison D; Cartizzone, Margot; Teav, Adam
The objective of this review was to construct an updated evidence-based clinical practice guideline on the use of physical activity and diet for the management of osteoarthritis (OA) in adults (>18 years of age) who are obese or overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)). Articles were extracted from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE (Current Contents), SPORTDiscus, SUM, Scopus, CINAHL, AMED, BIOMED, PubMed, ERIC, the Cochrane Controlled Trials, and PEDro. The Ottawa Panel and research assistance team strictly applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria from previous Ottawa Panel publications. An a priori literature search was conducted for articles related to obesity and OA of the lower extremities that were published from January 1, 1966, to November 30, 2010. Inclusion criteria and the methods to grade the recommendations were created by the Ottawa Panel. were graded based on the strength of evidence (A, B, C, C+, D, D+, or D-) as well as experimental design (I for randomized controlled trials and II for nonrandomized studies). In agreement with previous Ottawa Panel methods, Cochrane Collaboration methods were utilized for statistical analysis. Clinical significance was established by an improvement of ≥15% in the experimental group compared with the control group. There were a total of 79 recommendations from 9 articles. From these recommendations, there were 36 positive recommendations: 21 grade A and 15 grade C+. There were no grade B recommendations, and all recommendations were of clinical benefit. Further research is needed, as more than half of the trials were of low methodological quality. This review suggests that physical activity and diet programs are beneficial, specifically for pain relief (9 grade A recommendations) and improved functional status (6 grade A and 7 grade C+ recommendations), for adults with OA who are obese or overweight. The Ottawa Panel was able to demonstrate that when comparing physical activity alone, diet alone
Owen, Ann L.
The author employs a regression discontinuity design to provide direct evidence on the effects of grades earned in economics principles classes on the decision to major in economics and finds a differential effect for male and female students. Specifically, for female students, receiving an A for a final grade in the first economics class is…
Laura E Pryor
Full Text Available Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence.To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories.Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010. Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child's caregiver (mother in 98% of cases. Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child's perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years associated with each trajectory.Three trajectories of overweight were identified: "early-onset overweight" (11.0 %, "late-onset overweight" (16.6% and "never overweight" (72.5%. Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25, short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57, and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84 were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28 was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group.The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home environment on early childhood obesity, little is known on how weight-related behaviors, parent practices and the home environment influence overweight/obesity in older children and adolescents. Methods This analysis used data from a cross-sectional, representative population survey of Australian children age 5–16 years conducted in 2015. Data included measured anthropometry to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; waist circumference/height. Information on home-based weight-related behaviors (individual eating and screen time behaviors, parent influences including rules and home environment factors were measured using established short questions, with parental proxy reporting for children in up to grade 4, and self-report for students in grades 6, 8 and 10. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between weight status and home-based weight-related behaviors. Results Both children and adolescents who did not consume breakfast daily were more likely to be overweight/obese OR (95% CI = 1.39 (1.07–1.81 p = 0.015, OR (95% CI =1.42 (1.16–1.74 p = 0.001, respectively, adjusted for age, gender, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence and physical activity. There was also a significant positive association with higher waist-to-height ratio in both children and adolescents. Among children, having a TV in the bedroom was also associated with overweight and obesity OR (95% CI = 1.54 (1.13–2.09 p = 0.006 and higher waist-to-height ratio. For adolescents, parenting practices such as having no rules on screen-time, OR (95% CI = 1.29 (1.07–1.55 p = 0.008, and rewarding good behavior with sweets, OR (95% CI = 2.18 (1.05–4.52 p = 0.036, were significant factors associated with overweight and obesity. The prevalence of these obesogenic behaviors were higher in certain sub-groups of children
Wang, Zhenghe; Fu, Lianguo; Yang, Yide; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Jun
To compare consistency of Body Mineral Content (BMC, kg) assessed by Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis ( MF-BIA) and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) measurement, providing evidence for MF-BIA accurate application in Chinese overweight/obese adults. A total of 1323 overweight/obesity adults aged 22-55 years were recruited voluntarily. All the subjects received the measurement of BMC both using MF-BIA and DXA. To evaluate the agreement of BMC measured by MF-BIA and DXA using interclass correlation coefficients (ICC), then establish correction prediction models. The mean difference of BMC between two methods was significant different with 0, overweight male subgroup was 0.28 kg, and 0.38 kg for obesity male, 0.24 kg for overweight female and 0.36 kg for obesity female, respectively (P BMC between MF-BIA and DXA measurement were statistically significant in all subgroups (P BMC (DXA method) = -0.297 + 1.005 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Obese male population: BMC (DXA method) =0.302 + 0.799 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Overweight female groups: BMC (DXA method) = 0.780 + 0.598 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Obese female group: BMC (DXA method) = 0.755 + 0.597 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Upon examination, correction prediction models were better. Co The correlation and agreement of BMC measured by BIA and DXA are weak in Chinese overweight/obese adults. Therefore, consideration should be given to BMC measured by BIA method in Chinese overweight/obese adults. It should be corrected or adjusted to reduce errors compared with DXA method.
Kappus, Rebecca M; Fahs, Christopher A; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Agiovlasitis, Stomatis; Rossow, Lindy; Jae, Sae Y; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo
Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease, stroke, increased mortality and vascular remodeling. Although increased arterial diameter is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and obesity, it is unknown whether lumen enlargement is accompanied by unfavorable vascular changes in young and otherwise healthy obese individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare carotid and brachial artery diameter, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function in young, apparently healthy, normal-weight, overweight, and obese male subjects. One hundred sixty-five male subjects (27.39±0.59 years) were divided into 3 groups (normal weight, overweight, and obese) according to body mass index. Subjects underwent cardiovascular measurements to determine arterial diameter, function, and stiffness. After adjusting for age, the obese group had significantly greater brachial, carotid, and aortic pressures, brachial pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness, and carotid arterial diameter compared with both the overweight and normal-weight groups. Obesity is associated with a much worse arterial profile, as an increased carotid lumen size was accompanied by higher blood pressure, greater arterial stiffness, and greater carotid intima media thickness in obese compared with overweight or normal-weight individuals. These data suggest that although obesity may be a factor in arterial remodeling, such remodeling is also accompanied by other hemodynamic and arterial changes consistent with reduced arterial function and increased cardiovascular risk.
Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.
Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449
Jan R. Magnus
Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the relationship between physical fitness and obesity in children have had mixed results despite their interrelationship making intuitive sense. We examined the relationship between physical fitness and overweight and obesity in a large sample of adolescents in the Republic of Seychelles (Indian Ocean, African region. Methods All students of four grades of all secondary schools performed nine physical fitness tests. These tests assessed agility, strength and endurance, and included the multistage shuttle run, a validated measure of maximal oxygen uptake. Weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI calculated, and "overweight" and "obesity" were defined based on the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. We defined "lean" weight as age- and sex-specific BMI th percentile. Age- and sex-specific percentiles for each fitness test were calculated. "Good" performance was defined as a result ≥75th percentile. Results Data were available in 2203 boys and 2143 girls from a total of 4599 eligible students aged 12–15 years. The prevalence of overweight (including obesity was 11.2% (95% confidence interval: 9.9–12.4 in boys and 17.5% (15.9–19.1 in girls. For 7 of the 9 tests, the relationship between BMI and fitness score, as assessed by locally weighted regression, was characterized by a marked inverse J shape. Students with normal body weight achieved "good" performance markedly more often than overweight or obese students on 7 of the 9 tests of fitness and more often than lean children. For example, good performance for the multistage shuttle run was achieved by 25.6% (SE: 2.1 of lean students, 29.6% (0.8 of normal weight students, 7.9% (1.3 of overweight students and 1.2% (0.9 of obese students. Conclusion This cross-sectional study shows a strong inverse relationship between fitness and excess body weight in adolescents. Improving fitness in adolescents, likely through increasing
Vader, Amanda M; Walters, Scott T; Harris, T Robert; Hoelscher, Deanna M
Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition monitoring system, a validated survey with objective measures of height and weight. The sample of 11,594 children in the fourth and eighth grades was weighted to provide data representative of children in Texas public schools. Children were categorized on the basis of self-reported daily television viewing, snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze, by grade level, the differences in the prevalence of overweight by category. Television viewing, frequency of snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television were all positively related to one another. In general, both consuming more snacks and foods advertised on television were associated with reduced odds of overweight regardless of the amount of television watched. The results suggest that the relationships between weekday snacking behaviors and television viewing in a multiethnic population are complicated. When these behaviors are clustered, overweight status may be related more to the number of snacks consumed than to the amount of television watched. To determine the exact relationship, additional research, especially among Hispanic children, is warranted.
Abangah, Ghobad; Yousefi, Atefeh; Asadollahi, Rouhangiz; Veisani, Yousef; Rahimifar, Paria; Alizadeh, Sajjad
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease in the western population and expanding disease in the world. Pathological changes in fatty liver are like alcohol liver damage, which can lead to end-stage liver disease. The prevalence of NAFLD in obese or overweight people is higher than general population, and it seems that people with high Body Mass Index (BMI) or abnormality in some laboratory tests are more susceptible for severe fatty liver and high grade of NAFLD in ultrasonography (U.S). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of BMI and laboratory tests with NAFLD in ultrasonography. During a multi-step process, we selected two-hundred and thirteen cases from four hundred and eighteen patients with NAFLD. Laboratory tests performed included: ALT, AST, FBS, Triglyceride and cholesterol levels, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C antibody, ceruloplasmin, serum iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation, ferritin, AMA, ANA, ANTI LKM1, serum protein electrophoresis, TSH, anti TTG (IgA). BMI and ultrasonography for 213 patients were performed, and then data was analyzed. These parameters and grades of ultrasonography were compared with the values obtained using one way ANOVA. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of ultrasonography grade. The Statistical Package for the Social Science program (SPSS, version 16.0) was used for data analysis. Two-hundred and thirteen cases including 140 male and 73 female, were studied. In general, 72.3% of patients were overweight and obese. Post-hoc tests showed that only BMI (P < 0.001) and TG (P < 0.011) among variables had statistically significant associations with ultrasonography grade (USG), and ordinal logistic regression model showed that BMI and AST were the best predictors. Our results suggest that in patients with NAFLD, BMI and TG are most effective factors in severity of fatty liver disease and ultrasonography grade (USG). On the other hand, BMI as a
Full Text Available To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old.Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55, 2.98 (1.89-4.69, and 2.93 (2.07-4.13, respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84, 2.89 (1.78-4.70, and 2.84 (1.98-4.06, respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73, 1.96 (1.24-3.09, and 1.59 (1.15-2.21, respectively].Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG.
Agnesi, Filippo; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Frigo, Carlo A.; Kaufman, Kenton R.
To compare joint space width (JSW) measurements obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a semi-automated computer algorithm to the Kellgren and Lawrence grading of osteoarthritis (OA). Three hundred and six patients (234 female, 72 male) with a mean age of 56.7 years (range 31-81 years) underwent MRI of their knees with a fast oblique spiral spoiled gradient (SPGR) sequence. A board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist graded the OA of all the patients in accordance with the Kellgren and Lawrence OA scale. A previously validated computer algorithm was used to determine the minimum JSW for both the tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Student-Newman-Kuels post-hoc test was used to determine if there were differences in JSW as a function of OA grade. The radiologic grade of OA was inversely associated with the JSW. In the medial compartment the JSW did not change significantly between grade 1 and grade 2, but there was a significant decrease in JSW between grade 0 (normal) and grade 1 and for each OA grade above grade 2. In the lateral compartment no statistical differences were found till grade 2, while grade 3 was found to be statistically different from the previous one. The number of patients with a grade 4 patellofemoral OA was too low for the statistical significance to be assessed. In the patellofemoral joint the JSW did not change significantly until grade 2, while a statistically significant reduction was found for both grade 3 and grade 4. This study showed that an inverse non-linear relationship exists between radiologic grade and JSW. The relationship differs for the tibiofemoral and the patellofemoral joint. (orig.)
Agnesi, Filippo [Mayo Clinic, Motion Analysis Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Research, Rochester, MN (United States); Polytechnic of Milan, Department of Bioengineering, Milan (Italy); Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Frigo, Carlo A. [Polytechnic of Milan, Department of Bioengineering, Milan (Italy); Kaufman, Kenton R. [Mayo Clinic, Motion Analysis Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Research, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Motion Analysis Laboratory, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)
To compare joint space width (JSW) measurements obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a semi-automated computer algorithm to the Kellgren and Lawrence grading of osteoarthritis (OA). Three hundred and six patients (234 female, 72 male) with a mean age of 56.7 years (range 31-81 years) underwent MRI of their knees with a fast oblique spiral spoiled gradient (SPGR) sequence. A board-certified musculoskeletal radiologist graded the OA of all the patients in accordance with the Kellgren and Lawrence OA scale. A previously validated computer algorithm was used to determine the minimum JSW for both the tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Student-Newman-Kuels post-hoc test was used to determine if there were differences in JSW as a function of OA grade. The radiologic grade of OA was inversely associated with the JSW. In the medial compartment the JSW did not change significantly between grade 1 and grade 2, but there was a significant decrease in JSW between grade 0 (normal) and grade 1 and for each OA grade above grade 2. In the lateral compartment no statistical differences were found till grade 2, while grade 3 was found to be statistically different from the previous one. The number of patients with a grade 4 patellofemoral OA was too low for the statistical significance to be assessed. In the patellofemoral joint the JSW did not change significantly until grade 2, while a statistically significant reduction was found for both grade 3 and grade 4. This study showed that an inverse non-linear relationship exists between radiologic grade and JSW. The relationship differs for the tibiofemoral and the patellofemoral joint. (orig.)
Wirix, Aleid J G; Nauta, Jeroen; Groothoff, Jaap W; Rabelink, Ton J; HiraSing, Remy A; Chinapaw, Mai Jm; Kist-van Holthe, Joana E
The aim of this study is to explore different methods for screening and diagnosing hypertension-which definitions and criteria to use-in children and in addition to determine the prevalence of hypertension in Dutch overweight children. A cross-sectional study performed in the Dutch Child Health Care setting. Four Child Health Care centres in different cities in the Netherlands. 969 overweight (including obese) and 438 non-overweight children, median age 11.7 years (range 4.1-17.10), 49% boys. The main outcome was blood pressure, and the difference in prevalence of hypertension using different criteria for blood pressure interpretation: using the first blood pressure measurement, the mean of two measurements and the lowest of three measurements on two different occasions. Looking at the first measurement alone, 33% of overweight and 21% of non-overweight children had hypertension. By comparing the mean of the first two measurements with reference values, 28% of overweight children and 16% of non-overweight children had hypertension. Based on the lowest of three consecutive measurements, the prevalence decreased to 12% among overweight children and 5% among non-overweight children at visit one and at visit two 4% of overweight children still had hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is highly dependent on the definitions and criteria used. We found a prevalence of 4% in overweight children, which is considerably lower than suggested by recent literature (4%-33%). This discrepancy can be explained by our more strict definition of hypertension. However, to draw any conclusions on the prevalence, normal values using the same definition of hypertension should be established. Despite the low prevalence, we recommend measuring blood pressure in all overweight children in view of later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Chu, Lanling; Sheng, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan
Background It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children?s BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). Material/Methods We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 a...
Zermeño-Ibarra, Jorge A; Delgado-Pastrana, Soledad; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P
The aim of this study was to examine the association between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in subjects who attended the clinic of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, San Luis de Potosi, Mexico. This was cross-sectional study involving 88 subjects - 60 without overweight-obesity and 28 with overweight-obesity. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: dental bacterial plaque, index of calculus, gingivitis, probing depth and periodontal disease index (PDI). When comparing t...
We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)
Baker, Elizabeth; Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Van Hook, Jennifer
This research examines the relationship between maternal employment and child overweight among fifth grade Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten (ECLS-K) cohort fifth grade sample (N = 4,360) were analyzed. OLS regression models were estimated predicting percentile BMI as a function of maternal employment, ethnicity, parental nativity status, income, and the interactions of employment, ethnicity/nativity, and income. Among Hispanic children of immigrants, maternal employment is associated with lower percentile BMI and this association strengthens at higher levels of income. Among Hispanic children of natives and non-Hispanic whites, maternal employment is beneficial (i.e. associated with lower percentile BMI) among low-income children but detrimental among high-income children, but this pattern is significantly greater in strength for Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites. Thus, maternal employment is associated with worse health outcomes only in the case of Hispanic children of natives, and maternal employment is associated with the best outcomes for Hispanic children of mothers from high-income families. We speculate that among children of immigrants, maternal employment may signify and/or accelerate assimilation towards middle- or upper-class American values of healthy weight and body size. Diet, meal regularity and supervision, and childcare did not mediate the relationship between maternal employment and overweight.
A Food. Frequency Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity ... Keywords: adolescent, overweight, obesity, prevalence, factors, Tanzania ..... Our study reported no association between school type, age, parent education and.
Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group.
Méndez, Juan Pablo; Rojano-Mejía, David; Pedraza, Javier; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Soriano, Ruth; García-García, Eduardo; Aguirre-García, María Del Carmen; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia
Obesity and osteoporosis are two important public health problems that greatly impact mortality and morbidity. Several similarities between these complex diseases have been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze if different body mass indexes (BMIs) are associated with variations in bone mineral density (BMD) among postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal weight, overweight, or different degrees of obesity. We studied 813 postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied. Height and weight were used to calculate BMI, whereas BMD in the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We used ANCOVA to examine the relationship between BMI and BMDs of the LS, TH, and femoral neck (FN), adjusting for confounding factors. Based on World Health Organization criteria, 15.13% of women had normal BMI, 39.11% were overweight, 25.96% had grade 1 obesity, 11.81% had grade 2 obesity, and 7.99% had grade 3 obesity. The higher the BMI, the higher was the BMD at the LS, TH, and FN. The greatest differences in size variations in BMD at these three sites were observed when comparing women with normal BMI versus women with grade 3 obesity. A higher BMI is associated significantly and positively with a higher BMD at the LS, TH, and FN.
Álvarez-Dongo, Doris; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Nutricionista.; Sánchez-Abanto, José; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. nutricionista magíster en nutrición.; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. médico.; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. obstetriz magíster en Epidemiología con especialidad en Estadística.
Objectives. Estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and the determining social factors of overweight in the Peruvian population. Materials and methods. A cross-cut study was conducted which included family members from homes in the sample of the National Household Survey, 2009-2010. Stratified random and multistage sampling was used. The sample included 69 526 members; the anthropometric measurements were done based on the international methodology. To evaluate overweight and obesity, ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is emerging as a public health problem among adolescents in India. The aim of this study was to describe specific weight-related concerns among school-going youth in Delhi, India and to assess the prevalence of weight control behaviors, including healthy and unhealthy ones. Differences by weight status, gender, grade level, and school-type (a proxy for SES in this setting are considered. Methods This study is cross-sectional by design. A sample of eighth and tenth graders (n = 1818 enrolled in Private (middle-high SES and Government (low SES schools (n = 8 in Delhi, India participated. All students' height and weight were measured. Students participated in a survey of weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors, as well. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test for differences in weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors across key factors of interest (i.e., weight status, gender, grade level, and SES. Results The combined prevalence of obesity and overweight was 16.6%, overall. Controlling one's weight was important to overweight and non-overweight youth, alike (94.2% v. 84.8%, p p Conclusions Interventions to promote healthy weight control should be pertinent to and well-received by school-going youth in India. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly encouraged and unhealthy practices reduced. Future interventions should address issues specific to body image, too, as body dissatisfaction was not uncommon among youth.
Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), ... Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.
Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Childhood obesity is an emerging public health problem. The national prevalence of child overweight/obesity in Montenegro has increased by one third in the last decade. As the overwhelming majority of Montenegrin population is urban, investigation of obesity and correlates among urban children is of special public health interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and contributing factors to obesity among schoolchildren of Podgorica. Method. The sample included 1,134 schoolchildren (49.8% boys aged 7–12 years, from 10 elementary schools in Podgorica. We measured children’s body mass, body height, and waist circumference to calculate body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio. The research instrument was a closed type of the original questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed according to the criteria recommended by the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization and International Obesity Task Force. Results. Among the investigated children there were 21.2% and 6% overweight and obese children, respectively. Obesity was more frequent among boys (7.6% compared to girls (4.4%. In a multiple regression, childhood obesity was positively related to the following: male gender, younger age, lower number of siblings, parental obesity, and low physical activity. Conclusion. One out of five urban Montenegrin schoolchildren is overweight/obese, with obesity being twice as frequent among boys compared to girls. A program against obesity among urban Montenegrin children should focus on the revealed contributing factors.
Heier, Mona S; Jansson, Tine S; Gautvik, Kaare M
The possible relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin and leptin levels, overweight, and association to risk factors for diabetes 2 in narcolepsy with cataplexy were compared to patients with idiopathic hypersomnia and controls. 26 patients with narcolepsy, cataplexy, and hypocretin deficiency; 23 patients with narcolepsy, cataplexy, and normal hypocretin values; 11 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia; and 43 controls. Body mass index (BMI), serum leptin, and HbA1C were measured in patients and controls; and CSF hypocretin 1 and leptin measured in all patients. Female and male patients with narcolepsy and hypocretin deficiency had the highest mean BMI (27.8 and 26.2, respectively), not statistically different from patients with narcolepsy and normal hypocretin or controls, but statistically higher than the patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (p 30) was increased in both narcolepsy groups. Serum and CSF leptin levels correlated positively to BMI in patients and controls, but not to CSF hypocretin concentrations. HbA1C was within normal levels and similar in all groups. The study confirms a moderate tendency to obesity (BMI > 30) and overweight in patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy. Obesity was not correlated to hypocretin deficiency or reduced serum or CSF leptin concentrations. We suggest that overweight and possible metabolic changes previously reported in narcolepsy, may be caused by other mechanisms.
Hernandez, Dominica; Kalichman, Seth; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar
In the U.S., there has been a rise in overweight and obesity among persons living with HIV (PLWH). The aim of this study was to examine dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) in PLWH in Atlanta Georgia relative to the U.S. Dietary intake among PLWH was compared with recommended standards as well as estimated dietary intake for adults in the U.S. Over 31% of the study participants were overweight [BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m 2 ], and 33.1% obese [BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ]. Results indicated significant dietary differences between participants in our sample and U.S. daily recommendations for adults as well as estimated intakes of the U.S. Both males and females consumed more percentage of energy from fat and less fiber as well as fruit and vegetables servings than what is recommended. Results suggest that overweight and obesity are an additional health burden to PLWH in our sample and that their daily dietary practices are not meeting the U.S. government-recommended nutritional standards.
Jarpa, M Catalina; Cerda, L Jaime; Terrazas, M Claudia; Cano, C Carmen
The rates of overweight and obesity among children have significantly increased in Chile. To assess the benefits of breastfeeding in preventing malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children. A case-control study was conducted in 2011 on pediatric patients treated in a private Chilean healthcare center (San Joaquin Medical Center, Catholic University). Gender, age, weight, height, nutritional diagnosis, type of feeding during the first 6 months of life, socioeconomic status, parental education and obesity, television viewing, and kindergarten attendance were analyzed. A total of 209 patients were included in the study, 53.1% of whom were male, and 60.3% were predominantly breastfed for the first 6 months of life. More than half (51.7%) were eutrophic, 29.7% were overweight, and 18.6% obese. The patients were between the ages of 2 and 3 years 11 months. The crude Odds Ratio of breast-feeding versus formula during the first 6 months of life in patients with normal weight versus overweight children was 0.442 (95% CI 0.204-0.961). It was found that predominantly breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life acted as a protective factor against malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children treated in this private medical center. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Rijks, Jesse; Penders, Bas; Dorenbos, Elke; Straetemans, Saartje; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Vreugdenhil, Anita
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in the high normal range are common in children with overweight and obesity, and associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Prior studies aiming at unravelling the mechanisms underlying these high TSH concentrations mainly focused on factors promoting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) production as a cause for high TSH concentrations. However, it is unknown whether TSH release of the pituitary in response to TRH is affected in children with overweight and obesity. Here we describe TSH release of the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH in 73 euthyroid children (39% males) with overweight or (morbid) obesity. Baseline TSH concentrations (0.9-5.5 mU/L) were not associated with BMI z score, whereas these concentrations were positively associated with TSH concentrations 20 minutes after TRH administration (r(2) = 0.484, p obesity. The clinical significance and the intermediate factors contributing to pituitary TSH release need to be elucidated in future studies.
Full Text Available IntroductionAs with most emerging nations, Brazil lacks up-to-date data on the prevalence of obesity and overweight among its children. Of particular concern is the lack of data on children in early adolescence, considered by many to be the crucial stage for weight-related healthcare.ObjectiveTo assess regional, socioeconomic, and gender differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Brazilian early adolescents.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted on a racially diverse sample of students aged 10–13 years, from schools in three geographic regions (north, northeast, south (N = 1,738. Data on gender, age, race, socioeconomic status (SES, weight, and height were obtained. Weight class was calculated from age- and gender-adjusted body mass index, based on children’s weight and height. Bivariate and multivariable analyses, with post hoc tests, were conducted to estimate differences between groups and were corrected for multiple comparisons. Procedures were approved by institutional review boards at study sites.ResultsAnalyses revealed a higher prevalence of obesity and/or overweight among: (1 children of higher SES; (2 children in southern Brazil; (3 males; and (4 Black females.ConclusionThe most salient predictor of weight risk among Brazilian early adolescents is higher SES. This finding is consistent with previous findings of an inverse social gradient, in weight risk, among emerging-nation population groups.
Lewis, Dwight W; Dutton, Gareth R; Affuso, Olivia
The purpose of this study was to (1) determine the prevalence of weight misperception among overweight and obese men with total body fat levels ≥ 25%, and (2) examine associations of weight misperception with anthropometric and body composition measures. Data came from 4,200 overweight or obese men from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weight misperception was operationalized as having a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived total body fat percentage ≥25% and classifying oneself as either "underweight" or "about right weight." Logistic regression was used to determine physical characteristics associated with weight misperception. Weight misperception was highest among Mexican American (35.9%) followed by Black (30.8%) and White men (22.9%). Physical characteristics (OR, 95% CI) associated with weight misperception were decreased arm fat (0.95, 0.91-0.98), being overweight (9.02, 5.34-15.24), and having a waist circumference ≤ 94 cm (2.31, 1.72-3.09). Findings suggest that future research should include a measure of adiposity in the operationalization of weight misperception among male populations. © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Tang, Amber; Ji, Meimei; Zhang, Yefu; Zou, Jiaojiao; Li, Mingzhi; Yang, Lina; Lin, Qian
Introduction : Early childhood obesity in China has become a pressing public health concern. A substantial barrier to healthy weight management is poor parental recognition of child overweight. This study examined the relationship between caregiver perceptions of child weight and dietary practices. Methods : A total of 364 children between 2 and 6 years old from six urban preschools in Changsha (China) were included in a cross-sectional study. Information on household demographics, health behaviors, and caregiver attitudes was collected through a self-administered caregiver questionnaire. Chi-squared tests, t -tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between caregiver perceptions, dietary behaviors, and child weight status. Results : Over 60% of caregivers with overweight/obese children underestimated their children's weight status. These caregivers were less likely to worry about weight and restrict their children's dietary intakes. Children of caregivers who incorrectly classified their weights were also more likely to have a poor appetite. Caregivers of male children and those from families with incomes between 7000 and 11,000 Ren Min Bi (RMB) were more likely to underestimate weight compared to caregivers with daughters and those from higher income households. Conclusions : Although accurate weight perception may be important for motivating healthy behavioral changes, it may also lead to greater restriction of children's diets, which has been linked to long-term weight gain. Interventions to improve awareness of child overweight should be coupled with efforts that teach caregivers about healthy weight management strategies.
Rijks, J M; Plat, J; Mensink, R P; Dorenbos, E; Buurman, W A; Vreugdenhil, A C E
Despite stabilization of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence, there is a shift toward more severe degrees of obesity, which results in an increasing prevalence of children with morbid obesity. Prior studies demonstrated that lifestyle modification without ongoing treatment has only a modest and not sustainable effect in children with morbid obesity. This suggests that a chronic care model is necessary for long-term effects on weight management and health. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an ongoing lifestyle intervention in children with morbid obesity in comparison with children with overweight and obesity. This was a nonrandomized prospective intervention study with 12- and 24-month followup at the Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Healthcare. Children and adolescents (n = 100 females and 72 males) with overweight, obesity, or morbid obesity were given long-term, outpatient, tailored lifestyle intervention. Body mass index (BMI) z score was measured. In children with morbid obesity, 12- and 24-month interventions resulted in a decrease of BMI z score of -0.13 ± 0.25 (P = .001) and -0.23 ± 0.32 (P = .01) respectively, whereas weight status category improved to obese in 21% and 25% of the children. Cardiovascular risk parameters including serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and diastolic blood pressure significantly improved after 1-year intervention in the complete group. Most important, BMI z score as well as cardiovascular risk parameters improved to a similar degree in children with overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity. Children with overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity benefit equally from an ongoing, outpatient, tailored lifestyle intervention, and demonstrate significant weight loss and improvement of cardiovascular risk parameters.
Epstein, Leonard H.; Robinson, Jodie L.; Temple, Jennifer L.; Roemmich, James N.; Marusewski, Angela; Nadbrzuch, Rachel
The rate of habituation to food is inversely related to energy intake, and overweight children may habituate slower to food and consume more energy. This study compared patterns of sensitization, as defined by an initial increase in operant or motivated responding for food, and habituation, defined by gradual reduction in responding, for macaroni…
Ames, Megan; Leadbeater, Bonnie
This longitudinal study investigates whether there are particularly salient ages when being overweight is related to problems in interpersonal relationships (i.e., physical, relational, and verbal victimization, lack of friend social support, dating status, and romantic relationship worries). Participants were from a large, six-wave longitudinal…
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Infertility as well as obesity are risng global concern. Whilst there is an established association between female obesity and infertility, a similar link is yet to be proven in men. Objective: To determine the effects of elevated body mass index (BMI on semen quality among male partners of infertile couples attending an infertility clinic. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 206 men who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Selected participants were grouped according to their BMI (kg/m2: normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2 and elevated BMI (≥25 kg/m2. The effect of weight on semen quality was assessed based on sperm count, percentage motility, and morphology. Results: The number of participants with normal BMI was 110 (53.4% while those with elevated BMI were 96 (46.6%. Of the participants in elevated BMI group, 52 (25.2% were overweight and 44 (21.4% were obese. There was no statistically significant difference in the semen quality as well as the pattern of semen parameter abnormalities between males with normal and elevated BMI (overweight or obese (p=0.813. Conclusion: Elevated BMI did not significantly influence semen quality.
Firstly, essential developmental aspects of the focused periods of life, namely childhood and adolescence, are discussed. Furthermore, different issues of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence are highlighted. Besides the definition and the assessment, possibilities of classification and epidemiological aspects are of interest. Physical and psychiatric consequences, which can be associated with obesity are also presented. In the context of a model of multifactorial genesis of obesity, different causing and maintaining factors are described. In addition to genetic and biological risk factors, the significance of several psychosocial factors is illustrated. Finally, the focus is on the therapy of obesity in childhood and adolescence.
Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.
Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…
Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James
This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…
Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Yamamoto-Kimura, Liria; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Caracas-Portilla, Nacú A; Posadas-Romero, Carlos
aim: To know the metabolic syndrome and its components prevalence in Mexico City adolescents sample. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 772 men and 1078 women, 12 to 16 years old, from 8 randomly selected public junior high schools in Mexico City. Anthropometric variables, lipids, lipoproteins, Apo AI and B, glucose and insulin were determined. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 12.5%, 11.15% in men and 13.5% en women (p ns). The most frequently metabolic syndrome component found in México City adolescents was low HDL-C levels (38%), followed by hypertriglyceridemia (25.5%), hypertension (19.2%), central obesity (11.8%) and elevated fasting glucose (1.7). Except by the hypertriglyceridemia, higher in woman than in men, 28.2% vs. 21.6%, p metabolic syndrome components was similar between males and females. The high prevalence of biochemical and physiological factors of metabolic syndrome, associated with overweight and obesity in Mexico City adolescents, increases the risk of premature development of coronary atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus in this population.
Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt
The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....
Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt
The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
Awareness of overweight status is an important factor of weight control and may have more impact on one's decision to lose weight than objective weight status. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of underestimation of overweight/obesity and its associated factors among university students from 21 low, middle and emerging economy countries. In a cross-sectional survey the total sample included 15,068 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8, age range of 16-30 years) from 21 countries. Anthropometric measurements and self-administrated questionnaire were applied to collected data. The prevalence of weight underestimation (being normal or underweight) for overweight or obese university students was 33.3% (41% in men and 25.1% in women), among overweight students, 39% felt they had normal weight or were under weight, and among obese students 67% did not rate themselves as obese or very overweight. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being male, poor subjective health status, lack of overweight health risk awareness, lack of importance to lose weight, not trying and not dieting to lose weight, and regular breakfast was associated with underestimation of weight in overweight and obese university students. The study found a high prevalence of underestimation of overweight/obesity among university students. Several factors identified can be utilized in health promotion programmes including diet and weight management behaviours to focus on inaccurate weight perceptions on the design of weight control, in particular for men. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hingorjo, Mozaffer Rahim; Syed, Sadiqa; Qureshi, Masood Anwar
To compare body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (%BF), as index of overweight and obesity in young adults. We also intended to find an association between lifestyle behaviours and obesity. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi, during 2007 to 2008, with 192 first year dental students, (18-21years) of high socioeconomic class. All were questioned regarding lifestyle behaviours. Overweight and obesity were estimated by measuring %BF, BMI, and WC. For %BF, skinfold thickness was measured using skinfold calipers. BMI > or = 23.0-24.9 kg/m2 was taken as overweight and > or = 25.0 kg/m2 as obese (Asians criteria proposed by Western Pacific Regional Office of World Health Organization). WC using Asian cutoff values for overweight and obesity were: males > or = 78 cm and > or = 90 cm; females > or = 72 cm and > or = 80 cm, respectively. Body fat percentage used to define overweight and obesity was: males 22.1-27.0 and > 27.1; females 27.1-32.0 and > 32.1, respectively. Pearson's correlation was done between the BMI, WC and %BF with statistical significance taken at P obese. Obesity was underpredicted by BMI when compared to skinfold calipers method. The obese were seen to skip breakfast more often [odds ratio (OR): 2.39], take frequent snacks (OR: 1.58), watch television more (OR: 1.58), and were physically less active than their non-obese counterparts. Body fat percentage using skinfold caliper is a reliable index of obesity. Lack of sleep and skipping of breakfast, are prominent promoters of obesity, in addition to other lifestyle behaviours.
Females more than males demonstrated lower indices of participation in physical activity, which did not permit the formulation of a positive assessment of their lifestyle. A positive phenomenon is the normal BMI and trace values of overweight in women, exactly the reverse to males.
Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop; Colles, Susan L; Kondal, Dimple; Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Bansal, Sunil; Mishra, Mamatha; Madkaikar, Vaishali; Bhardwaj, Swati
The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is increasing in India. However, knowledge of, attitude towards and practice of health and nutrition in mothers and children have not been researched. To assess knowledge of, attitude towards and practice of nutrition, physical activity and other lifestyle practices in a nationally representative sample of urban children and mothers in India. A cross-sectional observational study of 1,800 children aged 9-18 years and their mothers, using qualitative (focus group) and quantitative (semi-structured survey) data. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity among the children was 19.2% in males and 18.1% in females; 64.8% of mothers were either overweight [body mass index (BMI) 23.0-24.9; 23.3%] or obese (BMI >25.0; 41.5%). Household family income, related socioeconomic factors, and overweight in mothers were most significantly associated with obesity in children (all p ≤ 0.001). Dietary consumption patterns (snacking, fast food etc.) showed a marked association between mothers and children (all p ≤ 0.000). Focus group discussion revealed several interesting attitudes and misconceptions among children ('home-cooked food is old fashioned') and mothers ('a child with chubby cheeks is healthy, not fat'). Importantly, only a few mothers understood that excess weight or diets are contributory factors of morbidities in children or themselves. This study highlights the poor knowledge, faulty attitudes and practices of urban Asian Indian mothers and their children in a highly correlated manner. These knowledge gaps must be addressed to formulate effective strategies for the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man
We investigated the effect of participating in two domains of extracurricular activities (sports and performance arts/clubs) in Grades 7 and 8 on Grade 9 academic motivation and letter grades, above baseline performance. Participants were 483 students (55% male; 33% Euro-American, 25% African American, and 39% Latino). Propensity score weighting…
Masheb, Robin; White, Marney A
The aim of the present study was to examine overweight bulimia nervosa (BN) in a community sample of women. Volunteers (n = 1964) completed self-report questionnaires of weight, binge eating, purging, and cognitive features. Participants were classified as overweight (body mass index ≥25) or normal weight (body mass index <25). Rates of BN within the overweight and normal-weight classes did not differ (6.4% vs 7.9%). Of the 131 participants identified as BN, 64% (n = 84) were classified as overweight BN and 36% (n = 47) as normal-weight BN. The overweight BN group had a greater proportion of ethnic minorities and reported significantly less restraint than the normal-weight BN group. Otherwise, the 2 groups reported similarly, even in terms of purging and depression. In summary, rates of BN did not differ between overweight and normal-weight women. Among BN participants, the majority (two thirds) were overweight. Differences in ethnicity and restraint, but little else, were found between overweight and normal-weight BN. Findings from the present study should serve to increase awareness of the weight range and ethnic diversity of BN, and highlight the need to address weight and cultural sensitivity in the identification and treatment of eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Jong, E.; Stocks, T.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Seidell, J.C.; Renders, C.M.
Objective:Sleep duration has been related to overweight in children, but determinants of sleep duration are unclear. The aims were to investigate the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight adjusted for family characteristics and unhealthy behaviours, to explore determinants of
Qian, Ling; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.; Cheng, Cheng Maojin
Obesity and overweight among children in China is a growing concern. The curriculum and organization of Chinese schools focuses on academic achievement leaving little time for other programs. This pilot program illustrated that it is possible to involve schools and parents in a program to reduce obesity and overweight. Teachers, school staff,…
Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping
Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…
de Hoog, M.L.A.
Overweight is a major public health issue that is often occurring during childhood. Approximately 14% of the 2-21 year old children are overweight or obese. Although the current obesity epidemic in children seems to be levelling off, children from ethnic minority groups do not seem to benefit from
de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.
Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…
Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit
We investigated mothers' and children's assessments of body weight and their expectations about perceived body size in relation to overweight of the children.......We investigated mothers' and children's assessments of body weight and their expectations about perceived body size in relation to overweight of the children....
The aim of this study was to investigate the development of overweight compared with healthy-weight children attending kindergartens in Munich, Germany. Mean age of the children at the beginning of the study was 53.2 months (SD = 7.5); the duration of the study was 20 months. At the beginning of the study children were classified as overweight (n…
Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Dommelen, P. van; Schönbeck, Y.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.; Wouwen, J.P. van; Buitendijk, S.E.
Prevalence of overweight in children is increasing, causing various health problems. This study aims to establish growth references for weight and to assess the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in a nationwide sample of Dutch children with Down syndrome (DS), taking into account the
Background: Overweight and obesity in children, and adolescents is on the rise globally. Affected children are prone to cardio-metabolic problems later in life, especially hypertension. The prevalence of obesity/overweight may differ depending on school type. Private schools are attended mostly by children of the affluent, ...
Obesity and overweight are lifestyle conditions affecting more than half of the younger adult population. This study determined the prevalence and risks factors of obesity and overweight among undergraduate students in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. This institutional based ...
The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9kg/m2) and obesity (BMI 30kg/m2 and above) in this population were 18.1% and 7.1% respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was highest among Igbo women. Multivariable logistic regression revealed increased frequency of watching television, belonging to a ...
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide and has implications for a variety of diseases. This has been due to various causes such as poor nutrition, inactivity or both. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary ...
Background: In South Africa, anecdotal evidence concerning the prevalence of overweight and obesity in nurses is alarming, but no scientific studies have confirmed this notion. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in black nurses practising in South Africa. Method: A ...
Background: Adolescent overweight and obesity has been linked to obesity in adult life, with its associated risks of chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Thus, prevention aimed at early screening and surveillance should be the key.The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity ...
for overweight pregnant women. Methods: The theory of social construction and the concept of governmentality are applied in a discourse analysis on the prevention of overweight among pregnant women in Denmark. This study draws on a documentary analysis of the discourse in central governmental documents...
Li Yanping,; Zhai, F.; Yang, X.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.; He, Y.; Luan, D.; Ma, Guansheng
In order to investigate the determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was compared according to different dietary and physical activity patterns and parental body weight status. A total of 6826 children aged 7-17 years from the 2002
Deforche, Benedicte; Haerens, Leen; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
As regular physical activity of high enough intensity is essential in the management of overweight, efforts should be made to increase physical activity adherence in overweight children. To make overweight children exercise and follow the recommendations, it is essential to have insight into determinants of exercise initiation and adherence. According to the Self-determination Theory, creating opportunities to satisfy the need for autonomy (i.e., having choices), competence (i.e., feeling effective) and relatedness (i.e., being socially connected) might increase autonomous motivation for physical activity in overweight children and promote a long-lasting active lifestyle. To increase feelings of autonomy in overweight children, exercise programs could be delivered in an autonomy-supportive manner by providing choices, supporting the child's initiatives, avoiding use of external rewards, offering relevant information and rationale for changing behaviour, making a decisional balance and using autonomy supportive language, while minimizing pressure and control. Perceived competence in physical activities could be increased by offering activities tailored to the capabilities of the overweight child, helping the children set realistic goals, learning the children self-management skills, providing the children with appropriate feedback and organizing separate exercise sessions for overweight children. Feelings of relatedness in overweight children might increase by adopting an empathic approach, showing interest in the child's well-being and problems, showing enjoyment and enthusiasm, knowing the names of the children, talking to the children as equals, offering group sessions and talks, encouraging club participation and having a sports partner and encouraging parental support.
Jun 15, 2011 ... Obesity in Developing Countries: People are Overweight But Still Not Well Nourished. Available. Sola, et al.: Underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. [Downloaded from http://www.annalsafrmed.org on Wednesday, June 15, 2011, IP: 188.8.131.52] || Click here to download free Android application ...
Nov 2, 2011 ... The cause of this high prevalence of overweight and obesity ... cardiovascular risk factor is present in 75.4% of overweight ... Body coordination is an indication of balance skills, as well as ... running.13 In a study of 709 Greek school children at a primary ... Informed consent forms were distributed among.
Stradmeijer, M.; Bosch, J; Koops, W; Seidell, J
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in Dutch overweight children and adolescents. METHOD: Seventy-three overweight (weight-for-height >P90) and 70 normal-weight youngsters between the ages of 10 and 16 years were recruited by school
There is limited research on the types of activities that are most effective for promoting moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children. The purpose of this study was to assess which types of activities elicit MVPA in overweight minority girls. The sample consisted of 31 overweight Latina ...
Greaux, K.; Schwiebbe, L.; Renders, C.M.; Doak, C.M.; Visser, R.; Kist-van Holthe, J.E.; Hirasing, R.A.
Background: As in most countries around the globe, overweight and obesity are a major threat to public health on the Caribbean island of Aruba. Increasing evidence confirms that breastfeeding protects against overweight and obesity. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the
Nelson, Toben F.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Subramanian, S. V.; Cheung, Lilian; Wechsler, Henry
Objectives: To examine social disparities and behavioral correlates of overweight and obesity over time among college students. Methods: Multilevel analyses of BMI, physical activity, and television viewing from 2 representative surveys of US college students (n=24,613). Results: Overweight and obesity increased over time and were higher among…
Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid
The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child's health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships - characterized by the prototypes - between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child's weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children.
Arnold, Melina; Freisling, Heinz; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael
Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing...
Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight. Keywords: Obesity; overweight; prevalence; Uganda; young adults. African Health Sciences ...
MSc Annemieke van Nunen; PhD Ad Vingerhoets; MD E.J.M. Wouters; PhD Rinie Geenen
Objective: Health beliefs of overweight adults who did and did not enter an exercise program were compared to identify possible factors that hamper people to increase physical exercise. Method: Participants (n = 116, 78 women and 38 men) were overweight adults without comorbidities. Self-report
Olaya, Beatriz; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Eke, Ceyda; Goelitz, Dietmar; Keyes, Katherine M; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Haro, Josep Maria; Kovess, Viviane
The present study aims to estimate childhood overweight and obesity prevalence and their association with individual and population-level correlates in Eastern and Western European countries. Data were obtained from the School Children Mental Health in Europe, a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010 in Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania and Turkey. The sample consists of 5,206 school children aged 6 to 11 years old. Information on socio-demographics, children's height and weight, life-style and parental attitude were reported by the mothers. Country-level indicators were obtained through several data banks. Overweight and obesity in children were calculated according to the international age and gender-specific child Body Mass Index cut-off points. Multivariable logistic regression models included socio-demographic, lifestyle, mothers' attitude, and country-level indicators to examine the correlates of overweight. Overall prevalence was 15.6% (95% CI = 19.3-21.7%) for overweight and 4.9% (95% CI = 4.3-5.6%) for obesity. In overweight (including obesity), Romanian children had the highest prevalence (31.4%, 95% CI = 28.1-34.6%) and Italian the lowest (10.4%, 95% CI = 8.1-12.6%). Models in the pooled sample showed that being younger (aOR = 0.93, 95% = CI 0.87-0.97), male (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.07-1.43), an only child (aOR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.07-1.84), spending more hours per week watching TV (aOR = 1.01, 95% CI =1.002-1.03), and living in an Eastern Country were associated with greater risk of childhood overweight (including obesity). The same predictors were significantly associated with childhood overweight in the model conducted in the Eastern region, but not in the West. Higher Gross Domestic Product and Real Domestic Product, greater number of motor and passenger vehicles, higher percentage of energy available from fat, and more public sector expenditure on health were also associated with lower risk for childhood overweight after
of overweight in European children. Thus, overweight was significantly increased among 13 y olds of both sexes in Finland, Ireland, and Greece, and in Portuguese girls. Among 15 y olds, the prevalence of overweight was significantly increased in Greek boys, and in Danish and Portuguese girls. On the contrary......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the methods and results used and conclusions found in available published papers on childhood overweight and obesity in Europe. SURVEYS: This paper compares the two available published papers on the prevalence of child and adolescent overweight and obesity in Europe....... The first paper was published in November 2003 and was based on 20 previously conducted surveys performed from 1992 to 2001. The other paper was published in January 2004 and was based on data from the WHO collaborative survey 'Health Behaviour in School Children', which collected the data in 1997...
Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Lust, Katherine; Wimmelmann, Cathrine L
students and its association with stress, mental health disorders and academic achievement. A total of 1765 students completed the College Student Computer User Survey (CSCUS) online at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were classified by weight as normal, overweight or obese based......Recent statistics indicate that over one-third of college students are currently overweight or obese, however, the impact of weight in this population from academic and psychiatric perspectives is not fully understood. This study sought to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in college...... on body mass index. Data were stratified by sex, with cross-tabulation and t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and logistic regression for analysis. A total of 492 (27.9%) students were overweight (20.2%; range 25.01-29.98) or obese (7.7%; range 30.04-71.26). Overweight and obesity were associated...
El-Koofy, Nehal; El-Karaksy, Hanaa; El-Akel, Wafaa; Helmy, Heba; Anwar, Ghada; El-Sayed, Rokaya; El-Hennawy, Ahmad
Introduction: Liver biopsy, although a gold standard in diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is an invasive and expensive tool. Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasound in detecting NAFLD among a group of overweight/obese children having one or more liver abnormality (clinical hepatomegaly, raised ALT or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound). Methods: Seventy-eight overweight/obese children were referred to the Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Pediatric Hospital, Egypt, for assessment for hepatic abnormalities. Out of the 78 children, 34 had one or more abnormality in the form of clinical hepatomegaly, raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound. All 34 cases underwent liver biopsy for evaluation for NAFLD. Results: Histological NAFLD was detected in 15 cases; 8 simple steatosis and 7 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sonographic evaluation of hepatic parenchymal echogenicity revealed: 11 with grade 1 echogenicity, 12 with grade 2 and 9 with grade 3 while only 2 had normal liver echopattern. Ultrasonography was 100% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting histological NAFLD, while the positive predictive value (PPV) was 47% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 11%. After consolidating the included children into 2 groups: the first including normal and grade 1 echogenicity and the second including grades 2 and 3, the sensitivity of ultrasonography in detecting histological NAFLD was still 100%, while negative predictive value increased to 100% with an accuracy of 82%. Conclusion: We conclude that ultrasonography is an important non invasive tool in assessment for NAFLD. Normal or grade 1 hepatic echogenicity can soundly exclude histological NAFLD and obviates the need for liver biopsy.
El-Koofy, Nehal [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Karaksy, Hanaa, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Akel, Wafaa [Tropical Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Helmy, Heba; Anwar, Ghada; El-Sayed, Rokaya [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Hennawy, Ahmad [Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt)
Introduction: Liver biopsy, although a gold standard in diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is an invasive and expensive tool. Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasound in detecting NAFLD among a group of overweight/obese children having one or more liver abnormality (clinical hepatomegaly, raised ALT or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound). Methods: Seventy-eight overweight/obese children were referred to the Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Pediatric Hospital, Egypt, for assessment for hepatic abnormalities. Out of the 78 children, 34 had one or more abnormality in the form of clinical hepatomegaly, raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound. All 34 cases underwent liver biopsy for evaluation for NAFLD. Results: Histological NAFLD was detected in 15 cases; 8 simple steatosis and 7 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sonographic evaluation of hepatic parenchymal echogenicity revealed: 11 with grade 1 echogenicity, 12 with grade 2 and 9 with grade 3 while only 2 had normal liver echopattern. Ultrasonography was 100% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting histological NAFLD, while the positive predictive value (PPV) was 47% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 11%. After consolidating the included children into 2 groups: the first including normal and grade 1 echogenicity and the second including grades 2 and 3, the sensitivity of ultrasonography in detecting histological NAFLD was still 100%, while negative predictive value increased to 100% with an accuracy of 82%. Conclusion: We conclude that ultrasonography is an important non invasive tool in assessment for NAFLD. Normal or grade 1 hepatic echogenicity can soundly exclude histological NAFLD and obviates the need for liver biopsy.
Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie
Introduction The Alliance for a Healthier Generation’s Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools’ nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP’s inception in 2006 through 2012. Methods We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP’s onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Results Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose–response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools. PMID:25996984
Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Bendezú-Quispe, Guido; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Santero, Marilina; Minckas, Nicole; Azañedo, Diego; Antiporta, Daniel A
To estimate regional prevalence and identify the spatial patterns of the degree of overweight and obesity by districts in under five years children in Peru during 2014. Analysis of the information reported by the Information System Nutritional Status (SIEN) of the number of cases of overweight and obesity in children under five years recorded during 2014. Regional prevalence for overweight and obesity, and their respective confidence intervals to 95% were calculated. Moran index was used to determine patterns of grouping districts with high prevalence of overweight and/or obesity. Data from 1834 districts and 2,318,980 children under five years were analyzed. 158,738 cases (6.84%; CI 95%: 6.81 to 6.87) were overweight, while 56,125 (2.42%; CI 95%: 2.40 to 2.44) obesity. The highest prevalence of overweight were identified in the regions of Tacna (13.9%), Moquegua (11.8%), Callao (10.4%), Lima (10.2%) and Ica (9.3%), and in the same regions for obesity with 5.3%; 4.3%; 4.0%; 4.0% and 3.8% respectively. The spatial analysis found grouping districts of high prevalence in 10% of all districts for both overweight and obesity, identifying 199 districts for overweight (126 urban and 73 rural), and 184 for obesity (136 urban and 48 rural). The highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were identified in the Peruvian coast regions. Moreover, these regions are predominantly exhibited a spatial clustering of districts with high prevalence of overweight and obesity.
Pryor, Laura E.; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Liu, Xuecheng; Dubois, Lise; Touchette, Evelyne; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.
Background Research is needed to identify early life risk factors associated with different developmental paths leading to overweight by adolescence. Objectives To model heterogeneity in overweight development during middle childhood and identify factors associated with differing overweight trajectories. Methods Data was drawn from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD; 1998-2010). Trained research assistants measured height and weight according to a standardized protocol and conducted yearly home interviews with the child’s caregiver (mother in 98% of cases). Information on several putative early life risk factors for the development of overweight were obtained, including factors related to the child’s perinatal, early behavioral family and social environment. Group-based trajectories of the probability of overweight (6-12 years) were identified with a semiparametric method (n=1678). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify early risk factors (5 months- 5 years) associated with each trajectory. Results Three trajectories of overweight were identified: “early-onset overweight” (11.0 %), “late-onset overweight” (16.6%) and “never overweight” (72.5%). Multinomial analyses indicated that children in the early and late-onset group, compared to the never overweight group, had 3 common types of risk factors: parental overweight, preschool overweight history, and large size for gestational age. Maternal overprotection (OR= 1.12, CI: 1.01-1.25), short nighttime sleep duration (OR=1.66, CI: 1.07-2.57), and immigrant status (OR=2.01, CI: 1.05-3.84) were factors specific to the early-onset group. Finally, family food insufficiency (OR=1.81, CI: 1.00-3.28) was weakly associated with membership in the late-onset trajectory group. Conclusions The development of overweight in childhood follows two different trajectories, which have common and distinct risk factors that could be the target of early preventive interventions. PMID
Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah; Akl, Christelle; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla
The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6–19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. PMID:24618510
Full Text Available The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6–19-year-old subjects (n = 868. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents.
Cherif, Rim; Vico, Laurence; Laroche, Norbert; Sakly, Mohsen; Attia, Nebil; Lavet, Cedric
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the most widely used technique for measuring areal bone mineral density (BMD). However, several studies have shown inaccuracy, with either overestimation or underestimation of DXA BMD measurements in the case of overweight or obese individuals. We have designed an overweight rat model based on junk food to compare the effect of obesity on in vivo and ex vivo BMD and bone mineral content measurements. Thirty-eight 6-month old male rats were given a chow diet (n = 13) or a high fat and sucrose diet (n = 25), with the calorie amount being kept the same in the two groups, for 19 weeks. L1 BMD, L1 bone mineral content, amount of abdominal fat, and amount of abdominal lean were obtained from in vivo DXA scan. Ex vivo L1 BMD was also measured. A difference between in vivo and ex vivo DXA BMD measurements (P body weight, perirenal fat, abdominal fat, and abdominal lean. Multiple linear regression analysis shows that body weight, abdominal fat, and abdominal lean were independently related to ex vivo BMD. DXA underestimated lumbar in vivo BMD in overweight rats, and this measurement error is related to body weight and abdominal fat. Therefore, caution must be used when one is interpreting BMD among overweight and obese individuals.
Marini, M.; Sriram, N.; Schnabel, K.; Maliszewski, N.; Devos, T.; Ekehammer, B.; Wiers, R.; HuaJian, C.; Somogyi, M.; Shiomura, K.; Schnall, S.; Neto, F.; Bar-Anan, Y.; Vianello, M.; Ayala, A.; Dorantes, G.; Park, J.; Kesebir, S.; Pereira, A.; Tulbure, B.; Ortner, T.; Stepanikova, I.; Greenwald, A.G.; Nosek, B.A.
Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural
Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...
Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite growing international migration and documented ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in developed countries, no research has described the epidemiology of immigrant overweight and obesity at a national level in Australia, a country where immigrants comprise 28.1 % of the population. The aim of this study was to examine ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI and overweight/obesity in Australia and the influence of acculturation on bodyweight among Australian immigrants. Methods Data from the national Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA survey were used to examine mean BMI and odds of overweight/obesity comparing immigrants (n = 2 997 with Australian born (n = 13 047. Among immigrants, acculturation differences were examined by length of residence in Australia and age at migration. Data were modelled in a staged approach using multilevel linear and logistic regression, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. Results Relative to Australian born, men from North Africa/Middle East and Oceania regions had significantly higher BMIs, and men from North West Europe, North East Asia and Southern and Central Asia had significantly lower BMIs. Among women, the majority of foreign born groups had significantly lower BMIs compared with Australian born. Male and female immigrants living in Australia for 15 years or more had significantly higher BMIs and increased odds of being overweight/obese respectively, compared with immigrants living in Australia for less than 5 years. Male immigrants arriving as adolescents were twice more likely to be overweight/obese and had significantly higher BMIs than immigrants who arrived as adults. Male and female immigrants who arrived as children (≤11 years had significantly higher odds of adult overweight/obesity and BMIs. Conclusions This study provides evidence of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in Australia with male
Menigoz, Karen; Nathan, Andrea; Turrell, Gavin
Despite growing international migration and documented ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in developed countries, no research has described the epidemiology of immigrant overweight and obesity at a national level in Australia, a country where immigrants comprise 28.1 % of the population. The aim of this study was to examine ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and overweight/obesity in Australia and the influence of acculturation on bodyweight among Australian immigrants. Data from the national Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey were used to examine mean BMI and odds of overweight/obesity comparing immigrants (n = 2 997) with Australian born (n = 13 047). Among immigrants, acculturation differences were examined by length of residence in Australia and age at migration. Data were modelled in a staged approach using multilevel linear and logistic regression, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. Relative to Australian born, men from North Africa/Middle East and Oceania regions had significantly higher BMIs, and men from North West Europe, North East Asia and Southern and Central Asia had significantly lower BMIs. Among women, the majority of foreign born groups had significantly lower BMIs compared with Australian born. Male and female immigrants living in Australia for 15 years or more had significantly higher BMIs and increased odds of being overweight/obese respectively, compared with immigrants living in Australia for less than 5 years. Male immigrants arriving as adolescents were twice more likely to be overweight/obese and had significantly higher BMIs than immigrants who arrived as adults. Male and female immigrants who arrived as children (≤11 years) had significantly higher odds of adult overweight/obesity and BMIs. This study provides evidence of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in Australia with male immigrants from North Africa/Middle East and Oceania regions being
Obesity has been associated with a slowing of V˙O2 dynamics in children and adolescents, but this problem has not been studied in adults. Cardiovascular mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear. In this study, 48 adults (18 males, 30 females) grouped according to body mass index (BMI) (lean < 25 kg·m-2 , overweight = 25-29.9 kg·m-2 , obese ≥30 kg·m-2 ) provided a fasting blood sample, completed a maximal graded exercise test and six bouts of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, and performed two protocols of calf exercise. Dynamic response characteristics of V˙O2 and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were assessed during cycling (80% ventilatory threshold) and calf exercise (30% MVC), respectively. Dynamic responses of cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and total systemic vascular conductance were also assessed during cycling based on measurements at 30 and 240 sec. The time constant of the second phase of the V˙O2 response was significantly greater in obese than lean subjects (39.4 (9.2) vs. 29.1 (7.6) sec); whereas dynamic responses of cardiac output and systemic vascular conductance were not affected by BMI. For calf exercise, the time constant of the second growth phase of LVC was slowed significantly in obese subjects (22.1 (12.7) sec) compared with lean and overweight subjects (11.6 (4.5) sec and 13.4 (6.7) sec). These data show that obesity slows dynamic responses of V˙O2 during cycling and the slower phase of vasodilation in contracting muscles of male and female adults.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Overweight and obesity represent a rapidly growing threat to the health of population in an increasing number of countries. Indeed, these are now so common that they are replacing more traditional problems such as under nutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant causes of ill health. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was undertaken in 5 schools catering Warangal city. The age groups included in the study were between 5- 15 years of age. Out of 3352 children included in the study, 2188 (65.27% were males and 1164 (34.73% were females. RESULTS 14.4% of the children were obese, and in that, females (17% were slightly more in number than males (13%. Obese children had significantly higher caloric intake than non-obese children. There was a significant relationship between birth weight of the child and development of obesity in the later age. Significant relationship was found between obesity in children and their parental BMI. There was no significant difference in physical activity between obese, overweight and non-obese group. Sedentary behaviour had a significant association with the obese group when compared to the non-obese group. There was a significant relationship between sedentary behaviour with overweight and obesity. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were found to be significantly higher in the obese group when compared to the non-obese group, and in the obese group, this was more predominant in the age group of 11-15 than the 5-10 years age group. CONCLUSION Timely intervention will result in decreased adulthood morbidity and mortality due to obesity in these children
Kenneth H. Thomas
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...
Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe
This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.
Sonneville, Kendrin R; Thurston, Idia B; Milliren, Carly E; Gooding, Holly C; Richmond, Tracy K
The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between weight misperception among young adults with overweight/obesity and disordered eating behaviors. In a subsample of young adults with overweight or obesity participating in Wave III (2001-2002) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 5,184), we examined the cross-sectional association between weight under-perception (i.e., perceiving oneself to be at a healthy body weight or underweight) and disordered eating (fasting/meal skipping for weight control, purging/pills for weight control, overeating/loss of control eating, and use of performance-enhancing products/substances). About 20% of young adult females under-perceived their weight compared to 48% of males. Individuals who misperceived their weight as healthy were significantly less likely to report fasting/meal skipping (Females: OR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.14-0.43; Males: OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.20-0.48) and vomiting or taking diet pills/laxatives/diuretics (Females: OR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.04-0.25; Males: OR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.04-0.25) for weight control. Among females, those who misperceived their weight status as healthy were also less likely to report overeating or loss of control eating (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.24-0.71). Greater use of performance-enhancing products/substances was seen among males who under-perceived their weight as healthy (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.57-2.72) and among both females (OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.40-20.0) and males (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13-4.55) who perceived themselves to be underweight. Weight under-perception among young adults with overweight/obesity may convey some benefit related to disordered eating behaviors, but could be a risk factor for the use of performance-enhancing products/substances. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord ; 49:937-946). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sandra Vuk Pisk
Full Text Available Background and objective. Adolescence is considered a critical stage of life, and one during which body image and self-concept are of particular importance for peer acceptance and approval. Body weight may impact on satisfaction or dissatisfaction in adolescent girls’ self-concept. The aim of this research was to determine the association between obesity and self-concept among adolescent girls. Methods. The study sample consisted of 40 overweight (BMI 25 - 30 18-year-old girls in their last year of high school. A further 40 girls of the same age with a BMI of 18 - 25 formed a control group. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire for Adolescents (OSIQ was used to evaluate their self-concept. Descriptive statistical methods used in analysing the data included calculation of the median and standard deviation of variables, and t-tests were used to compare group differences, with p
This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... in families with a non-western ethnic minority background and with low socioeconomic status. In families who participated in interventions, other social problems and a sense of insecurity caused by precarious living conditions of different kinds influenced the parents’ readiness to restrict children in order...... in the Danish health care system, which was found to be insufficient to initiate and facilitate early interventions. In addition, cultural stereotypes were found to affect the health care practitioners who are performing early interventions, and this can create reluctance to address overweight problems...
This study was initiated to compare the performance of male and female distance education students of the University of Education, Winneba in Integrated Science. This was done by randomly selecting the cumulated grades of male and female students of 2002, 2003 and 2004-year groups in Integrated Science for analysis ...
Zermeño-Ibarra, Jorge A; Delgado-Pastrana, Soledad; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P
The aim of this study was to examine the association between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in subjects who attended the clinic of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, San Luis de Potosi, México. This was cross-sectional study involving 88 subjects--60 without overweight-obesity and 28 with overweight-obesity. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: dental bacterial plaque, index of calculus, gingivitis, probing depth and periodontal disease index (PDI). When comparing the group of subjects with overweight-obesity to the control, there were statistically significant differences in the variables calculus (p = 0.0015), gingivitis (p = 0.0050) and periodontal disease (p = 0.0154). Regarding the logistic regression analysis, the dependent variable was subjects with and without overweight-obesity and the independent variables were sex, age and periodontal disease. We found statistically significant differences (p = 0.0162) with OR = 3.16 in periodontal disease. Periodontal disease showed statistically significant differences in the group of subjects with overweight-obesity. The oral health of subjects with overweight-obesity should be supervised and checked in order to prevent oral alterations.
Full Text Available Obesity has become a significant public health problem of the twenty first century. An increasing number of preschool children are becoming overweight. Although many risk factors have been identified for school-age children, less is known about this young age group. This study was aimed to determine factors associated with overweight among preschool children. Study design was a cross sectional survey. Sample in this study was 90 children aged 3–6 years old in Bina Putik Kindergarten School in Cempaka Putih District (total sampling. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample were 24.4% and 13.3% respectively. There were significant relationships between overweight and some variables using chi-square test such as: age of the children, having overweight parents, nutritional knowledge of the mother, duration of breast feeding, frequency of fast food consumption (p5 years old. It could be concluded that mother’s knowledge on nutrition played an important role in preventing overweight children. Suggested recommendation in order to prevent overweight since childhood was by increasing mother’s knowledge through optimizing relevant programs in the Puskesmas.
Winter, Jonathan D; Taylor, Yhenneko; Mowrer, Lauren; Winter, Katherine M; Dulin, Michael F
Extensive investigation has established that an elevated weight at birth is associated with subsequent obesity and obesity related negative health outcomes. The significance of overweight at birth, however, remains ill-defined. Historically, it has been difficult to approximate adiposity in infancy in a way that is both simple and meaningful. Body-mass-index (BMI) growth charts for children younger than two years of age only became available in 2006 when published by the WHO. This retrospective cohort analysis utilised anthropometric data extracted from the electronic medical record of a large integrated healthcare system in North Carolina. BMI and weight-for-age (WFA) >85% of WHO growth charts measured newborn overweight and macrosomia respectively. Logistic regression models assessed the associations between newborn macrosomia and overweight and overweight at 4 years of age, as well as associations with maternal BMI. Models included demographic data, gestational age, and maternal diabetes status as covariates. Both BMI and WFA >85% at birth were significantly associated with overweight at age 4 years. However, the greater odds of overweight was associated with newborn BMI >85%, with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 2.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.08) versus 1.57 (95% CI: 1.08-2.27). Maternal obesity was also more robustly correlated with newborn BMI >85%, AOR of 4.14 (95% CI: 1.6-10.7), than with newborn WFA >85%, AOR of 3.09 (95% CI: 1.41-6.77). BMI >85% at birth is independently associated with overweight at 4 years. Newborn overweight is perhaps superior to newborn macrosomia in predicting overweight at age 4. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Sabrina M; Bartels, Else M; Henriksen, Marius; Wæhrens, Eva E; Gudbergsen, Henrik; Bliddal, Henning; Astrup, Arne; Knop, Filip K; Carmona, Loreto; Taylor, William J; Singh, Jasvinder A; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Kristensen, Lars E; Christensen, Robin
Weight loss is commonly recommended for gout, but the magnitude of the effect has not been evaluated in a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to determine benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight and obese patients with gout. We searched six databases for longitudinal studies, reporting the effect of weight loss in overweight/obese gout patients. Risk of bias was assessed using the tool Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. From 3991 potentially eligible studies, 10 were included (including one randomised trial). Interventions included diet with/without physical activity, bariatric surgery, diuretics, metformin or no intervention. Mean weight losses ranged from 3 kg to 34 kg. Clinical heterogeneity in study characteristics precluded meta-analysis. The effect on serum uric acid (sUA) ranged from -168 to 30 μmol/L, and 0%-60% patients achieving sUA target (gout attacks. Two studies indicated dose-response relationship for sUA, achieving sUA target and gout attacks. At short term, temporary increased sUA and gout attacks tended to occur after bariatric surgery. The available evidence is in favour of weight loss for overweight/obese gout patients, with low, moderate and low quality of evidence for effects on sUA, achieving sUA target and gout attacks, respectively. At short term, unfavourable effects may occur. Since the current evidence consists of a few studies (mostly observational) of low methodological quality, there is an urgent need to initiate rigorous prospective studies (preferably randomised controlled trials). PROSPERO, CRD42016037937. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Thomson, Rebecca L; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Norman, Robert J; Brinkworth, Grant D
To determine the effects of weight loss on heart rate recovery (HRR) in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A 10-week prospective clinical intervention. Clinical research unit. Fifty-seven overweight and obese women with PCOS (age: 29.8 +/- 0.8 years; body mass index [BMI] 36.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)). A dietary plan of 5-6 MJ/day ( approximately 30% energy restricted). Heart rate recovery (defined as the reduction in heart rate after 1 minute from peak heart rate after a graded treadmill test to exhaustion), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and sex steroids before and after the intervention. The mean percentage of weight loss was (-6.7 +/- 0.4%). There were significant reductions in waist circumference (-6.9 +/- 0.6 cm), blood pressure (-4.9/-2.5 +/- 1.2/1.2 mm Hg), fasting insulin (-3.4 +/- 0.7 mU/L), fasting glucose (-0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/L), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.43 +/- 0.09), T (-0.38 +/- 0.07 nmol/L), free androgen index (-2.86 +/- 0.58), and an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin [SHBG] (5.86 +/- 1.12 nmol/L). The HRR improved from 30.9 +/- 1.1 to 38.0 +/- 1.1 beats/min and that was related to the reduction in body weight (r = -0.34) and waist circumference (r = -0.27). Weight loss in overweight and obese women with PCOS is associated with improvements in HRR, which suggests improved autonomic function. This highlights the importance of weight loss to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk in these women. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, and currently nearly half of the reproductive-age women are overweight or obese. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 1.6 billion worldwide are overweight (BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2 and 400 million are obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2. Over half of all women in the UK and 61% of women in USA are either overweight or obese. There are distinctly increased health risks and costs of obesity that led to a great argument about fertility treatment including assisted reproductive techniques (ART in obese women.
Full Text Available The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and deficits in cognitive control. The present study aims to clarify the association between weight status and the degree of impairment in cognitive flexibility, i.e., the ability to efficiently switch from one task to another, by disentangling the preparatory and residual domains of task switching. Twenty-six normal weight (BMI < 25, five males and twenty-six overweight (BMI ≥ 25, seven males university students performed a task-switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of proactive vs. reactive control with regard to cognitive flexibility. Compared to individuals with a BMI lower than 25, overweight (i.e., ≥25 was associated with increased switching costs in the reactive switching condition (i.e., when preparation time is short, representing reduced cognitive flexibility in the preparatory domain. In addition, the overweight group reported significantly more depression and binge eating symptoms, although still indicating minimal depression. No between-group differences were found with regard to self-reported autism spectrum symptoms, impulsiveness, state- and trait anxiety, and cognitive reactivity to depression. The present findings are consistent with and extend previous literature showing that elevated BMI in young, otherwise healthy individuals is associated with significantly more switching costs due to inefficiency in the retrieval, implementation, and maintenance of task sets, indicating less efficient cognitive control functioning.
Boutelle, Kerri N.; Feldman, Shira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective: This qualitative study addresses: (1) what challenges parents of overweight adolescents face and (2) what advice parents of overweight adolescents have for other parents. Design: One-on-one interviews were conducted with parents of overweight or previously overweight adolescents. Setting: Medical clinic at the University of Minnesota.…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group. Median body mass index (BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2 were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. RESULTS: Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02 and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0.06 was higher in the exposed group. Conscripts exposed 6 to 0 months before conception and during pregnancy had a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03; 1.27 and odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.25, respectively. Conscripts born to mothers who experienced death of the child's biological father before child birth had a two-fold risk of obesity (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI: 0.93; 4.31. There was no elevated risk in those who experienced maternal bereavement postnatally. CONCLUSION: Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in a group of young male conscripts, and this may possibly be reflected to severe stress exposure early in life. However, not all associations were clear, and further studies are warranted.
Hohwü, Lena; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Obel, Carsten
Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group). Median body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02) and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0.06) was higher in the exposed group. Conscripts exposed 6 to 0 months before conception and during pregnancy had a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03; 1.27 and odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.25, respectively). Conscripts born to mothers who experienced death of the child's biological father before child birth had a two-fold risk of obesity (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI: 0.93; 4.31). There was no elevated risk in those who experienced maternal bereavement postnatally. Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in a group of young male conscripts, and this may possibly be reflected to severe stress exposure early in life. However, not all associations were clear, and further studies are warranted.
Full Text Available Xinguang Chen, Kathryn BroganPediatric Prevention Research Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAObjective: To detect subgroups with different risks at different ages to develop overweight and obese during the adolescence–young adulthood period.Design: Accelerated longitudinal design and developmental trajectory analysis were used. The likelihoods to become overweight (body mass index [BMI] .25 kg/m2 and obese (BMI .30 kg/m2 were assessed across the life course from the ages of 12 to 28 years.Subjects: Adolescent participants aged 12–17 years (n = 4119 identified in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 at baseline were followed up to 2008.Results: Seven overweight risk groups (WG were detected for male and female samples respectively, of which five were closely related to each of the following five periods: (a middle-school ages (19.7% and 12.6% for male and female, respectively, (b high-school ages (11.4% and 13.6%, respectively, (c college ages (12.6% and 9.1%, respectively, (d post-college ages (11.8% and 10.0%, respectively, and (e work–family-formation ages (11.0% and 12.9%, respectively; two were nonperiod-specific groups: a permanent low-risk group for both sexes (27.3% for male, 36.4% for female, a growing-risk group for males (6.2%, and a self-limiting risk group for females (5.4%, with the likelihood increasing with age, which peaked at the age of 21 years, and then declined. Likewise, six obesity risk groups (OG were detected, of which four corresponded to the first four high-risk WG groups. The risk groups were relatively independent of race and educational attainment.Conclusions: Findings of this study imply that five risk groups for weight gain like five consecutive "tests" exist from middle-school period to work-and-family formation. Failure to pass any of these tests in the life course could lead to overweight or obese status. Further research needs to study life
Sadoh, W E; Israel-Aina, Y T; Sadoh, A E; Uduebor, J E; Shaibu, M; Ogonor, E; Enugwuna, F C
Overweight and obesity in children, and adolescents is on the rise globally. Affected children are prone to cardio-metabolic problems later in life, especially hypertension. The prevalence of obesity/overweight may differ depending on school type. Private schools are attended mostly by children of the affluent, while public schools are attended predominantly by those in the low and middle socio-economic classes. To compare the prevalence of overweight, obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) in pupils attending public and private primary schools in an urban community in Nigeria. In this cross sectional study, the BMI and BP of pupils in public and private primary schools, recruited by multistage sampling method, were measured. Their nutritional status was categorized using their BMI percentiles. Analysis was by SPSS. A total of 1466 pupils were recruited, 814(55.5%) were in public schools and 722(49.2%) were males. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in private schools 11.8% and 11.7% compared to public schools 3.3% and 0.9%. The mean systolic BP of pupils in public schools 96.8 ± 12.5 mmHg was higher than that in private schools 95.5 ± 10.2 mmHg, p = 0.032. Distribution of pupils with prehypertension and hypertension between private and public schools was not significantly different. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher in pupils attending private schools compared to those in public school. Urgent measures are needed to stem this tide through education, weight reduction and physical activity programs, especially in pupils attending private schools.
Aly, Rim; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Mangroo, Gaynor; Gedeon, Jude; Bovet, Pascal
This study assessed trends in the prevalence of children and adolescents with obesity, overweight, and thinness in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing nation in the Indian Ocean, and changes in the distribution of BMI over time. Between 1998 and 2016, examination surveys were conducted every year in all students of four selected school grades (kindergarten, primary 4, secondary 1, and secondary 4) in all schools. We categorized BMI by using the International Obesity Task Force criteria. Based on 70,187 observations, the prevalence of combined overweight or obesity increased largely and monotonically between 1998 and 2016, from 8.9% to 20.0% in boys and from 12.3% to 23.6% in girls, but the prevalence of underweight did not decrease. BMI increased mostly in the upper range of the BMI population distribution: percentile 5 (P5), -1.7%; P10, -0.8%; P25, 0.3%; P50, 2.5%; P75, 7.4%; P90, 12.7%; and P95, 13.3%. The distribution of BMI was increasingly skewed, with a rising prevalence of obesity, a modest or null increase in BMI in a substantial proportion of the population, and a continued burden of underweight. Further studies should assess child growth trajectories and their underlying determinants, which may bear significance for weight control strategies. © 2018 The Obesity Society.
Salazar-Rendón, Juan Carlos; Méndez, Nina; Azcorra, Hugo
Some studies have found a negative relationship between obesity and school performance in scholars. However, this topic has not been studied in depth in Mexico. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight and obesity with school performance in secondary school students from Merida. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated in a sample of 566 secondary students in Merida. Nutritional status was classified in normal weight (-2- + 2 SD) according to the World Health Organization criteria. The scores in language, mathematics and sciences were used as indicators of school performance. Good performance was considered when the scores were ≥8 points, and poor performance when scores were <8 points. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between the variables. The 44% of the sample met the criteria for overweight and obesity. After adjusting for school grade, type of school, number of absences, and Mayan surnames, we found that girls classified as obese had a significant risk of a poor performance in mathematics (odds ratio [OR]: 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-6.80) and language (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.14-5.71) compared with those with healthy weight. Our results suggest that obesity represents a risk of having a lower school performance in girls but not in boys. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.
Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Valdivia, Martín
To examine trends in stunting and overweight in Peruvian children, using 2006 WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study criteria. Trend analyses using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from Demographic and Health Surveys (1991-2011). We performed logistic regression analyses of stunting and overweight trends in sociodemographic groups (sex, age, urban-rural residence, region, maternal education and household wealth), adjusted for sampling design effects (strata, clusters and sampling weights). Peru. Children aged 0-59 months surveyed in 1991-92 (n 7999), 1996 (n 14 877), 2000 (n 11 754), 2007-08 (n 8232) and 2011 (n 8186). Child stunting declined (F(1, 5149) = 174·8, P ≤ 0·00) and child overweight was stable in the period 1991-2011 (F(1, 5147) = 0·4, P ≤ 0·54). Over the study period, levels of stunting were highest in rural compared with urban areas, the Andean and Amazon regions compared with the Coast, among children of low-educated mothers and among children living in households in the poorest wealth quintile. The trend in overweight rose among males in coastal areas (F(1, 2250) = 4·779, P ≤ 0·029) and among males in the richest wealth quintile (F(1, 1730) = 5·458, P ≤ 0·020). The 2011 levels of stunting and overweight were eight times and three and a half times higher, respectively, than the expected levels from the 2006 WHO growth standards. The trend over the study period in stunting declined in most sociodemographic subgroups. The trend in overweight was stable in most sociodemographic subgroups.
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem in developed and developing countries worldwide. The aim of this survey was to establish baseline data on the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI). METHODS: The heights and weights of 19,617 school-going children and adolescents aged between 4 and 16 years in NI and RoI were measured using standardised and calibrated scales and measures. The participants were a representative cross-sectional sample of children randomly selected on the basis of age, gender and geographical location of the school attended. Overweight and obesity were classified according to standard IOTF criteria. RESULTS: Males were taller than females, children in RoI were taller than those in NI and the more affluent were taller than the less well off. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among females than males in both jurisdictions. Overall, almost one in four boys (23% RoI and NI) and over one in four girls (28% RoI, 25% NI) were either overweight or obese. In RoI, the highest prevalence of overweight was among 13 year old girls (32%) and obesity among 7 year old girls (11%). In NI the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were found among 11 and 8 year old girls respectively (33% and 13%). CONCLUSION: These figures confirm the emergence of the obesity epidemic among children in Ireland, a wealthy country with the European Union. The results serve to underpin the urgency of implementing broad intersectoral measures to reduce calorie intake and increase levels of physical activity, particularly among children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem in developed and developing countries worldwide. The aim of this survey was to establish baseline data on the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in the Republic of Ireland (RoI and Northern Ireland (NI. Methods The heights and weights of 19,617 school-going children and adolescents aged between 4 and 16 years in NI and RoI were measured using standardised and calibrated scales and measures. The participants were a representative cross-sectional sample of children randomly selected on the basis of age, gender and geographical location of the school attended. Overweight and obesity were classified according to standard IOTF criteria. Results Males were taller than females, children in RoI were taller than those in NI and the more affluent were taller than the less well off. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among females than males in both jurisdictions. Overall, almost one in four boys (23% RoI and NI and over one in four girls (28% RoI, 25% NI were either overweight or obese. In RoI, the highest prevalence of overweight was among 13 year old girls (32% and obesity among 7 year old girls (11%. In NI the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were found among 11 and 8 year old girls respectively (33% and 13%. Conclusion These figures confirm the emergence of the obesity epidemic among children in Ireland, a wealthy country with the European Union. The results serve to underpin the urgency of implementing broad intersectoral measures to reduce calorie intake and increase levels of physical activity, particularly among children.
Seifert, T; Rasmussen, P; Brassard, P
/(glucose + (1/2) lactate); OCI], changes in mitochondrial oxygen tension (DeltaP(Mito)O(2)) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) were calculated. For all subjects, resting OCI was higher at the 3-mo follow-up (6.3 +/- 1.3 compared with 4.7 +/- 0.9 at baseline, mean +/- SD; P ... with a lower plasma epinephrine concentration (P Mito)O(2) (-22 mmHg) decreased (P ... +/- 53 micromol x 100 x g(-1) min(-1) (P Mito)O(2) (-7 +/- 13 mmHg) did not decrease significantly from rest and when compared with values before training (P
Cappellari, Lorenzo; Lucifora, Claudio; Pozzoli, Dario
This paper investigates the determinants of grades achieved in mathematics by rst-year students in Economics. We use individual administrative data from 1993 to 2005 to t an educational production function. Our main ndings suggest that good secondary school achievements and the type of school attended are signi cantly associated with maths grades. Ceteris paribus, females typically do better than males. Since students can postpone the exam or repeat it when they fail, we also analyze the dete...
Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon-Wan; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Khir, Amir Sharifuddin-Md; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Ismail, Ikram Shah; Kadir, Khalid Abdul; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Yaacob, Nor Azwany; Mustafa, Norlaila; Ali, Osman; Isa, Siti Harnida-Md; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad-Wan
A total of 4428 adults (>18 years old) from 5 different selected regions in Peninsular and East Malaysia participated in this health survey. Using World Health Organization recommendations for body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of overweight and obesity were found to be 33.6% (95% CI= 32.2, 35.0) and 19.5% (95% CI= 18.3, 20.7) respectively. There were more females who were obese (22.5%, 95% CI=20.9, 24.0) compared to males (14.1%, 95% CI=12.3, 15.9). Highest prevalence of obesity were among the Indians (24.6%, 95% CI=20.3, 29.3), followed closely by the Malays (23.2%, 95% CI=21.6, 24.8%) and lowest prevalence was among the Chinese subjects (8.2%, 95% CI=6.2, 10.6). More than 43% of the 531 younger subjects (obese (13.9%, 95% CI=11.1, 17.2%). All subjects who claimed to be non-diabetes were required to undergo 75 g glucose tolerance test. Compared to subjects with normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), there was a 3- and 2-folds increase in the prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance respectively, among obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m2) who initially claimed to have no diabetes. This study highlights a need for more active, inter-sectoral participation advocating a health-promoting environment in order to combat obesity in this country.
Presti, Giovambattista; Cau, Silvia; Oppo, Annalisa; Moderato, Paolo
To increase classroom consumption of home-provided fruits (F) and vegetables (V) in obese, overweight, and normal weight children. Consumption evaluated within and across the baseline phase and the end of the intervention and maintenance phases. Three Italian primary schools. The study involved 672 children (321 male and 329 female) aged 5-11 years. Body mass index measures were available for 461 children. Intervention schools received the Food Dudes (FD) program: 16 days of repeated taste exposure (40 g of F and 40 g of V), video modeling, and rewards-based techniques. The comparison school was only repeatedly exposed to FV. Grams of FV brought from home and eaten. Chi-square, independent t test, repeated-measures ANOVA, and generalized estimating equation model. Intervention schools show a significant increase in home-provided F (P < .001) and V (P < .001) consumption both in overweight and non-overweight children. Approximately half of children in the intervention schools ate at least 1 portion of FV at the end of the intervention and maintenance phases. The increase in home-provided FV intake was similar in overweight and non-overweight children in the FD intervention schools compared with the comparison school. The effect of the FD program was higher at the end of the intervention phase than the end of the maintenance phase. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Qingqing; Yu, Canqing; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lyu, Jun; Wang, Shengfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Wang, Dezheng; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming
To analyze the associations between birth weight and overweight/obesity among children. A total of 8 267 twin pairs younger than 18 years old from the Chinese National Twin Registry were included in the study. Associations between birth weight, childhood BMI and overweight/obesity were explored by this co-twin control study. After adjusting for sex and zygosity, when birth weight had an increase of 0.5 kg per fold, the OR values for overweight and obesity were 1.87(95%CI: 1.40-2.48) for 2-6 year olds, 1.69 (95%CI: 1.16-2.46) for 6-12 year olds and 1.28 (95%CI: 0.80-2.07) for 12-18 year olds. from the stratified analysis in the 2-6 year-olds, statistically significant differences were seen. When birth weight increased 0.5 kg per fold, the risk of overweight and obesity increased by 0.87 times among the dizygotic twins, more than that of the monozygotic twins (OR=1.86, 95%CI:1.24-2.81). The risk for male twins was 1.12 times higher than that of female twins (OR=1.65, 95%CI:1.11-2.44). Birth weight seemed associated with overweight and obesity for kids at early childhood or at age for schools. However, guidance on the implementation of public health interventions is still needed on these children.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity in women of childbearing age is a serious public-health problem. In China, the incidence of maternal overweight/obesity has been increasing. However, there is not a meta-analysis to determine if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI is related to infant birth weight (BW and offspring overweight/obesity. METHODS: Three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched systematically from January 1970 to November 2012. The dichotomous data on pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and BW or offspring overweight/obesity were extracted. Summary statistics (odds ratios, ORs were used by Review Manager, version 5.1.7. RESULTS: After screening 665 citations from three electronic databases, we included 45 studies (most of high or medium quality. Compared with normal-weight mothers, pre-pregnancy underweight increased the risk of small for gestational age (SGA (odds ratios [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76-1.87; low BW (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27-1.71. Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increased the risk of being large for gestational age (LGA (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.08; 95% CI; 1.95-2.23, high BW (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.00; 95% CI; 1.84-2.18, macrosomia (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.42-1.97; and OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.39-4.37, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.77-2.13; and OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 2.68-3.49, respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that sample size, study method, quality grade of study, source of pre-pregnancy BMI or BW had a strong impact on the association between pre-pregnancy obesity and LGA. No significant evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pregnancy underweight increases the risk of SGA and LBW; pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increases the risk of LGA, HBW, macrosomia, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity. A potential effect modification by maternal age, ethnicity, gestational weight gain, as
Sedibe, Modiehi Heather; Pisa, Pedro T; Feeley, Alison B; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Norris, Shane A
The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural ( n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban ( n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114-2.835; p ≤ 0.02), eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106-2.343; p ≤ 0.01), and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007-1.896; p ≤ 0.05) were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For "Year 15" adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099-2.129, p ≤ 0.01), was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299-0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218-0.397; p ≤ 0.00) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324-0.924; p ≤ 0.02) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.
Full Text Available Bin Zhang,1,* Yanli Hao,2,* Jiangyan Zhou,1,3 Fujun Jia,1 Xueli Li,1 Yi Tang,1 Huirong Zheng1 1Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, 2Department of Human Anatomy, Guang Zhou Medical University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: This study evaluated the association between sleep patterns and the risk of being overweight/obese in Chinese children. Methods: A total of 3,086 children (1,608 boys and 1,478 girls between 7 and 14 years of age and studying in primary schools were recruited as eligible study participants in this study. We collected the information about children regarding sleep patterns, body height and weight, insomnia, healthy status, time allocation of daily activities, and demographic characteristics using a parental-reported questionnaire. Results: Overweight/obese children were younger, predominantly male, and more prone to have suffered from illness in the past 12 months compared to normal-weight peers. They were also less prone to compensate for sleep deficits during weekends (47.6% vs 39.1%; χ2=11.637, P<0.001 and holidays (52.0% vs 42.0%; χ2=16.057, P<0.001. Sleep duration on weekdays did not affect the risk of being overweight/obese. The adjusted odds ratios for overweight/obesity (noncompensated group using the compensated group as a reference were 1.197 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.004–1.493 during weekends and 1.309 (95% CI: 1.052–1.630 during holidays. Conclusion: Compensation for sleep deficits on non-weekdays may ameliorate the risk of being overweight/obese in Chinese children. Moreover, no significant association between the risk of being overweight/obese and sleep duration on weekdays was demonstrated in the current study, which may be due to pervasive sleep insufficiency on weekdays in Chinese children. Keywords: Chinese
Modiehi Heather Sedibe
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114–2.835; p ≤ 0.02, eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106–2.343; p ≤ 0.01, and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007–1.896; p ≤ 0.05 were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For “Year 15” adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099–2.129, p ≤ 0.01, was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299–0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218–0.397; p ≤ 0.00 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324–0.924; p ≤ 0.02 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.
Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash
We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.
This report develops a methodology for estimating the effects of different categories of overweight : trucks on NYSDOT pavements and bridges. A data mining algorithm is used to categorize truck : data collected at several Weigh-In-Motion stations aro...
Multiple jurisdictions within Minnesota process oversize/overweight (OSOW) permits for the movement of freight on state roadways, county roads, and municipal and township streets. Movement of freight has increased in recent years to help support econ...
This instructor and student guide is designed to guide the instructor in conveying information at the district level concerning Research Project 0-6404 Accommodating Oversize and Overweight Loads. The specific information focuses on the Bryan D...
Mosca, Nancy W.
This manual discusses the school nurse's role in prevention and management of overweight children from an individual student perspective and, perhaps more important, from a system perspective. Manual includes the BMI (Body Mass Index) Wheel.
... we spend more time in front of computers, video games, TV, and other electronic pastimes, we have fewer ... no other risk factors. Overweight and obesity also increase the risks for diabetes, high blood pressure, high ...
Full Text Available The problem of overweight and obesity in school children is considered. It is shown that the problem of child obesity underlie the development of many serious medical illness. It is introduced the analysis of publications on the problem of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren. It is defined methods for detection and possible non-pharmacological correction of the condition. The necessity of creating and putting into practice of long-term training programs to promote healthy lifestyle among schoolchildren are overweight or obese, to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and other metabolic complications. Conceptually, it is determined the main directions of teaching and physical education students who are overweight and obese. It is shown that it is advisable to inform children and parents about the need to combine a balanced diet with exercise stress.
determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among nursery school children aged 3-6 ... These risk factors may operate through the association ... traditional food systems and habits have been preferred over western type cereal based.
Jun 5, 2013 ... cultures (underweight and overweight).8-11 Obesity and malnutrition represent .... have to predominantly rely on purchased food in an area in which they have low ..... The association of fat patterning with blood pressure in ...
Boutelle, Kerri N.; Feldman, Shira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective: This qualitative study addresses: (1) what challenges parents of overweight adolescents face and (2) what advice parents of overweight adolescents have for other parents. Design: One-on-one interviews were conducted with parents of overweight or previously overweight adolescents. Setting: Medical clinic at the University of Minnesota. Participants: Twenty-seven parents of adolescents (12-19 years) who were either currently or previously overweight recruited from the community. Main...
Manyanga, Taru; El-Sayed, Hesham; Doku, David Teye; Randall, Jason R
The burden caused by the coexistence of obesity and underweight in Low and Middle Income Countries is a challenge to public health. While prevalence of underweight among youth has been well documented in these countries, overweight, obesity and their associated risk factors are not well understood unlike in high income countries. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in seven African countries were used for this study. The survey used a clustered design to obtain a representative sample (n = 23496) from randomly selected schools. 53.6% of the sample was male, and participants ranged in age from 11-17 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated using age and sex adjusted self-reported heights and weights. Classification of weight status was based on the 2007 World Health Organization growth charts (BMI-for-age and sex). Multivariable Logistic Regression reporting Odds Ratios was used to assess potential risk factors on BMI, adjusting for age, sex, and country. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata with an alpha of 0.05 and reporting 95% confidence intervals. Unadjusted rates of being underweight varied from 12.6% (Egypt) to 31.9% (Djibouti), while being overweight ranged from 8.7% (Ghana) to 31.4% (Egypt). Obesity rates ranged from 0.6% (Benin) to 9.3% (Egypt). Females had a higher overweight prevalence for every age group in five of the countries, exceptions being Egypt and Malawi. Overall, being overweight was more prevalent among younger (≤12) adolescents and decreased with age. Males had a higher prevalence of being underweight than females for every country. There was a tendency for the prevalence of being underweight to increase starting in the early teens and decrease between ages 15 and 16. Most of the potential risk factors captured by the GSHS were not significantly associated with weight status. The prevalence of both overweight and underweight was relatively high, demonstrating the
Rodrigues, Luis P; Stodden, David F; Lopes, Vítor P
To test how different developmental pathways of health-related physical fitness and motor competence tests relate to weight status (overweight and obesity) at the end of primary school. Longitudinal study on growth, health-related physical fitness, and motor competence of 472 primary school children assessed yearly throughout 1st to 4th grade, with an average age of 6.3±0.7 years of age at 1st grade. Children's pathways of change on each of the fitness and motor competence tests were determined along the four years of the study. Participants were divided into three groups according to their rate of change in each test over time: Low Rate of Change, Average Rate of Change, and High Rate of Change. A logistic regression was used to predict the odds ratio of becoming overweight or obese, depending on the developmental pathway of change in fitness and motor competence across childhood. Children with a low or average rate of change in their developmental pathways of fitness and motor competence were several times more prone to become overweight or obese at the end of primary school (OR 2.0 to 6.3), independent of sex and body mass index at baseline. Specifically, a negative developmental pathway (Low Rate of Change) in cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated over a six-fold elevated risk of being overweight or obese, compared to peers with a positive pathway. Not all children improve their motor competence and fitness levels over time and many actually regress over time. Developing positive fitness and motor competence pathways during childhood protects from obesity and overweight. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wiesenthal, Elise N; Fagnano, Maria; Cook, Stephen; Halterman, Jill S
To evaluate the effects of overweight/obese versus normal weight on symptoms, activity limitation and health care utilization among a group of urban children with persistent asthma. Data were obtained from the School Based Asthma Therapy trial. We enrolled 530 children ages 3-10 with persistent asthma from 2006 to 2009 (response rate: 74%). We conducted in-home interviews to assess symptoms and health care utilization. We measured height and weight in school nurse offices to determine BMI percentile, and compared normal weight children to overweight/obese (BMI >85th percentile) children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used. We collected BMI data from 472 children (89%); 49% were overweight/obese. When controlling for child race, child ethnicity, intervention group, caregiver age and screen time, overweight/obese children had more days with asthma symptoms (4.25 versus 3.42/2 weeks, p = 0.035) and more activity limitation (3.43 versus 2.55/2 weeks, p = 0.013) compared to normal weight children. Overweight/obese children were more likely to have had an ED visit or hospitalization for any reason (47% versus 36%, OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.01, 2.19), and there was a trend for overweight/obese children to have more acute asthma visits in the past year (1.68 versus 1.31, p = 0.090). Overweight/obese children were not more likely to be taking a daily preventive inhaled corticosteroid (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.68, 1.56). Overweight/obese children with persistent asthma experience more asthma symptoms, activity limitation and health care utilization compared to normal weight children, with no increased use of inhaled corticosteroids. Further efforts are needed to improve the health of these children.
Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne
: A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...
Zalewska, Magdalena; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta
Introduction A balanced diet is at the heart of healthy growth and development of children and youth, whereas inappropriate eating habits considerably influence the incidence of disorders connected with nutrition, including overweight and obesity. This paper aims at studying nutritional factors of 18-year-old secondary school youth in the urban environment and their effect on the incidence of overweight and obesity. Materials and methods The survey was conducted among 1,999 secondary school s...
Full Text Available The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional case-controlled one. It included 111 overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child relationship as: complementary, asymmetrical, symmetrical or symbiotic prototypes. There was no difference in mother-child relationships – characterized by the prototypes – between the overweight and non-overweight mother-child pairs. Therefore, we conclude that the mother-child relationship has no bearing on the child’s weight status according to the prototypes. It is suggested that it is more the culture, or the universal phenomenon of expressing love through food, than the mother-child relationship, which influences the development of childhood overweight, or that the mothers are not capable of assess the true attachment style between themselves and their children.
Chabanova, Elizaveta; Bille, Dorthe S; Thisted, Ebbe
The objective was to investigate T(2) relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3T in overweight and obese children and adolescents.......The objective was to investigate T(2) relaxation values and to optimize hepatic fat quantification using proton MR spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at 3T in overweight and obese children and adolescents....
Champion, S L; Rumbold, A R; Steele, E J; Giles, L C; Davies, M J; Moore, V M
Studies in school-age children have consistently shown a positive association between maternal paid work hours and child obesity. However, there is conflicting evidence about the impact of maternal work hours scheduled at nonstandard times (for example, evenings, nights or weekends), and no previous examination of paternal work schedules and child weight. We examined the associations between maternal, paternal and combined parental paid work schedules and overweight/obesity in children at age 9 years. Data were analysed from the most recent follow-up of 9-year-old children (n=434) in an Australian birth cohort study. Children were measured and classified as overweight/obese using the International Obesity Taskforce body mass index cutoff points. Current working conditions of parents were obtained from a structured interview with the primary caregiver. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the effect of parental work schedules on child overweight/obesity with adjustment for a range of sociodemographic and household factors associated with parental employment and child weight. At 9 years of age, 99 children (22.8%) were overweight or obese. When parental work schedules were examined separately, child overweight/obesity was significantly associated with paternal nonstandard work schedules (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-3.61). There was no association with any type of maternal work schedule. We also found an association between child overweight/obesity and circumstances in which both parents worked nonstandard schedules; however, this was of borderline statistical significance in the adjusted models (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 0.99-5.16). Work hours scheduled at nonstandard times, when worked by the father or both parents, were associated with child overweight and obesity. These findings indicate the potential importance of fathers' paid work arrangements for child overweight/obesity, which until recently has largely
Kelly, Benjamin M; Xenophontos, Soteris; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A
Both sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) have been described as time-efficient strategies for inducing favourable metabolic and cardiorespiratory adaptations in healthy and diseased participants. To date, little attention has been given to profiling the potential health benefits of HIIT or modified HIIT training within overweight and obese cohorts with particular focus on inflammation. Within this pilot trial, we tested the hypothesis that 6 sessions of HIIT performed over 2 weeks with 1-2 days' rest would improve aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism and inflammatory profile in an overweight and obese male cohort. Additionally, we profiled the potential health benefits of 4 HIIT sessions performed over the same period. 18 overweight or obese males (BMI = 31.2 ± 3.6; V̇O 2 = 30.3 ± 4.4 ml.kg.min -1 ) were studied before and 72 h after HIIT. Training sessions consisted of 10 x 1 min intervals at 90% HR peak separated by 1 min recovery periods. Exercise was performed either 6 (group 1, n = 8) or 4 (group 2, n = 10) times over a 2 week period. After training no changes were detected from baseline for body composition, aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism or inflammatory profile ( p > 0.05) in either group. Both 6 and 4 sessions of HIIT performed over a 2-week period are ineffective in improving selected health markers within an overweight and obese cohort. This trial reports data from human participants and was retrospectively registered on 22/02/2017 with the ISRCTN registry, trial number ISRCTN90672085.
Tchoubi, Sébastien; Sobngwi-Tambekou, Joëlle; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Nkoum, Benjamin Alexandre; Sobngwi, Eugene
Background Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (overweight and obesity among children aged 6 months to 5 years in Cameroon in 2011. Methods Four thousand five hundred and eighteen children (2205 boys and 2313 girls) aged between 6 to 59 months were sampled in the 2011 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) database. Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores based on WHO 2006 reference population was chosen to estimate overweight (BMI z-score > 2) and obesity (BMI for age > 3). Regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors of overweight/obesity. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8% (1.7% for obesity alone). Boys were more affected by overweight than girls with a prevalence of 9.7% and 6.4% respectively. The highest prevalence of overweight was observed in the Grassfield area (including people living in West and North-West regions) (15.3%). Factors that were independently associated with overweight and obesity included: having overweight mother (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.51; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.97) and obese mother (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI = 155 to 3.07), compared to having normal weight mother; high birth weight (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.28) compared to normal birth weight; male gender (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.95); low birth rank (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.72); being aged between 13–24 months (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.66) and 25–36 months (aOR = 2.79; 95% CI 1.93 to 4.13) compared to being aged 45 to 49 months; living in the grassfield area (aOR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.87 to 3.79) compared to living in Forest area. Muslim appeared as a protective factor (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95).compared to Christian religion. Conclusion This study underlines a high prevalence of early childhood overweight with significant disparities between ecological areas of Cameroon. Risk factors of overweight included high maternal BMI, high
Tchoubi, Sébastien; Sobngwi-Tambekou, Joëlle; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Nkoum, Benjamin Alexandre; Sobngwi, Eugene
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (overweight and obesity among children aged 6 months to 5 years in Cameroon in 2011. Four thousand five hundred and eighteen children (2205 boys and 2313 girls) aged between 6 to 59 months were sampled in the 2011 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) database. Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores based on WHO 2006 reference population was chosen to estimate overweight (BMI z-score > 2) and obesity (BMI for age > 3). Regression analyses were performed to investigate risk factors of overweight/obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8% (1.7% for obesity alone). Boys were more affected by overweight than girls with a prevalence of 9.7% and 6.4% respectively. The highest prevalence of overweight was observed in the Grassfield area (including people living in West and North-West regions) (15.3%). Factors that were independently associated with overweight and obesity included: having overweight mother (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.51; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.97) and obese mother (aOR = 2.19; 95% CI = 155 to 3.07), compared to having normal weight mother; high birth weight (aOR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.28) compared to normal birth weight; male gender (aOR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.95); low birth rank (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.72); being aged between 13-24 months (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.66) and 25-36 months (aOR = 2.79; 95% CI 1.93 to 4.13) compared to being aged 45 to 49 months; living in the grassfield area (aOR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.87 to 3.79) compared to living in Forest area. Muslim appeared as a protective factor (aOR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95).compared to Christian religion. This study underlines a high prevalence of early childhood overweight with significant disparities between ecological areas of Cameroon. Risk factors of overweight included high maternal BMI, high birth weight, male gender, low birth rank
Potes, Yaiza; de Luxán-Delgado, Beatriz; Rodriguez-González, Susana; Guimarães, Marcela Rodrigues Moreira; Solano, Juan J; Fernández-Fernández, María; Bermúdez, Manuel; Boga, Jose A; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio; Coto-Montes, Ana
Sarcopenia is the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality associated with aging. Changes in body composition, especially in skeletal muscle and fat mass are crucial steps in the development of chronic diseases. We studied the effect of overweight on skeletal muscle tissue in elderly people without reaching obesity to prevent this extreme situation. Overweight induces a progressive protein breakdown reflected as a progressive withdrawal of anabolism against the promoted catabolic state leading to muscle wasting. Protein turnover is regulated by a network of signaling pathways. Muscle damage derived from overweight displayed by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces inflammation and insulin resistance and forces the muscle to increase requirements from autophagy mechanisms. Our findings showed that failure of autophagy in the elderly deprives it to deal with the cell damage caused by overweight. This insufficiently efficient autophagy leads to an accumulation of p62 and NBR1, which are robust markers of protein aggregations. This impaired autophagy affects myogenesis activity. Depletion of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) without links to variations in myostatin levels in overweight patients suggest a possible reduction of satellite cells in muscle tissue, which contributes to declined muscle quality. This discovery has important implications that improve the understanding of aged-related atrophy caused by overweight and demonstrates how impaired autophagy is one of the main responsible mechanisms that aggravate muscle wasting. Therefore, autophagy could be an interesting target for therapeutic interventions in humans against muscle impairment diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A R
There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children's BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9-11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287-0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23-0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27-0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children's BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.
Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: This population-based study was conducted to assess the prevalenceof overweight and obesity in high schools in the city of Birjand in Khorasan Province,Eastern Iran.METHODS: In this descriptive study, we attempted to determine the prevalence ofoverweight and obesity in Iranian adolescents attending high school in Birjand in 2005.A sample of 2230 high school students (1115 boys and 1115 girls aged 15-18 years wasselected via stepwise random sampling in four districts of Birjand. Overweight andobesity were defined based on the 85th and 95th percentiles of BMI for age, respectively,as proposed by the Center for Disease Control (CDC in 2000.RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 6.1% and 2.3%,respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 5% in boys and 7.1% in high school girls.The prevalence of obesity was 2.8% and 1.8% in high school boys and girls, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in high schools in the city ofBirjand is lower than figures reported by other studies conducted in Iran and in othercountries.Key Words: Prevalence, overweight, obesity, adolescents.
Katja Glejsted Ingstrup
Objective. To examine if distress as a combined measure of anxiety, depression, and stress of the mother during pregnancy was associated with offspring childhood overweight at age 7. Methods. We performed a cohort study using prospective data from 37,764 women and child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002. At a telephone interview at approximately 30 weeks gestation, the women reported whether they felt anxious, depressed, or stressed. The 95 percentile for body mass index in an international reference defined childhood overweight at any given age. Logistic regression was used for the analyses. Results. The prevalence of overweight children at 7 years of age was 9.9%. Prenatal exposure to maternal distress during pregnancy was not associated with childhood overweight at 7 years of age (adjusted OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.96; 1.18. In analyses stratified on sex, a small tendency of overweight was seen in boys (OR 1.15 (0.99; 1.33, but not in girls (OR 0.98 (0.85; 1.13. Conclusions. Maternal distress during pregnancy appeared to have limited, if any, influence on the risk of overweight in offspring at 7 years of age.
Jensen, Gunnar; Millett, Peter J; Tahal, Dimitri S; Al Ibadi, Mireille; Lill, Helmut; Katthagen, Jan Christoph
The purpose of this study was to identify the risk of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies with acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III and V. Patients who underwent arthroscopically-assisted stabilization of acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III or grade V between 01/2007 and 12/2015 were identified in the patient databases of two surgical centres. Gender, age at index surgery, grade of acromioclavicular joint injury (Rockwood III or Rockwood V), and duration between injury and index surgery (classified as acute or chronic) were of interest. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies were noted and their treatment was classified as debridement or reconstructive procedure. A total of 376 patients (336 male, 40 female) were included. Mean age at time of arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint reconstruction surgery was 42.1 ± 14.0 years. Overall, 201 patients (53%) had one or more concomitant glenohumeral pathologies. Lesions of the biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff were the most common. Forty-five patients (12.0%) had concomitant glenohumeral pathologies that required an additional repair. The remaining 156 patients (41.5%) received a debridement of their concomitant pathologies. Rockwood grade V compared to Rockwood grade III (p = 0.013; odds ratio 1.7), and chronic compared to acute injury were significantly associated with having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology (p = 0.019; odds ratio 1.7). The probability of having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology was also significantly associated with increasing age (p acromioclavicular joint injury of either grade III or V. Twenty-two percent of these patients with concomitant glenohumeral pathologies received an additional dedicated repair procedure. Although a significant difference in occurrence of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies was seen between Rockwood grades III and V, and between acute and chronic lesions, increasing age was identified as the most dominant predictor. Level IV, case series.
Rachel E. Laxer
Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian youth exhibit a number of risky behaviours, some of which are associated with overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of 15 modifiable risk behaviours in a large sample of Canadian youth, to identify underlying subgroups based on patterns of health behaviours, and to examine the association between identified subgroups and overweight/obesity. Methods Data from 18,587 grades 9–12 students in Year 1 (2012–13 of the COMPASS study and latent class analysis were used to identify patterns and clustering among 15 health behaviours (e.g., physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour, unhealthy eating, substance use. A logistic regression model examined the associations between these clusters and overweight/obesity status. Results Four distinct classes were identified: traditional school athletes, inactive screenagers, health conscious, and moderately active substance users. Each behavioural cluster demonstrated a distinct pattern of behaviours, some with a greater number of risk factors than others. Traditional school athletes (odds ratio (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03–1.29, inactive screenagers (OR 1.33; 1.19–1.48, and moderately active substance users (OR 1.27; 1.14–1.43 were all significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to the health conscious group. Conclusions Four distinct subpopulations of youth were identified based on their patterns of health and risk behaviours. The three clusters demonstrating poorer health behaviour were all at an increased risk of being overweight/obese compared to their somewhat healthier peers. Obesity-related public health interventions and health promotion efforts might be more effective if consideration is given to population segments with certain behavioural patterns, targeting subgroups at greatest risk of overweight or obesity.
Laxer, Rachel E; Brownson, Ross C; Dubin, Joel A; Cooke, Martin; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T
Canadian youth exhibit a number of risky behaviours, some of which are associated with overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of 15 modifiable risk behaviours in a large sample of Canadian youth, to identify underlying subgroups based on patterns of health behaviours, and to examine the association between identified subgroups and overweight/obesity. Data from 18,587 grades 9-12 students in Year 1 (2012-13) of the COMPASS study and latent class analysis were used to identify patterns and clustering among 15 health behaviours (e.g., physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour, unhealthy eating, substance use). A logistic regression model examined the associations between these clusters and overweight/obesity status. Four distinct classes were identified: traditional school athletes, inactive screenagers, health conscious, and moderately active substance users. Each behavioural cluster demonstrated a distinct pattern of behaviours, some with a greater number of risk factors than others. Traditional school athletes (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95% CI 1.03-1.29), inactive screenagers (OR 1.33; 1.19-1.48), and moderately active substance users (OR 1.27; 1.14-1.43) were all significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to the health conscious group. Four distinct subpopulations of youth were identified based on their patterns of health and risk behaviours. The three clusters demonstrating poorer health behaviour were all at an increased risk of being overweight/obese compared to their somewhat healthier peers. Obesity-related public health interventions and health promotion efforts might be more effective if consideration is given to population segments with certain behavioural patterns, targeting subgroups at greatest risk of overweight or obesity.
This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…
Allswang, John M.
This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)
We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…
Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013
The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…
Hartman, Michael; And Others
An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…
Taylor, Lewis A., III
An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…
Koyuncuoğlu Güngör, Neslihan
Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, fatty liver disease and psychosocial complications. It is also a major contributor to increasing healthcare expenditures. For all these reasons, it is important to prevent childhood obesity as well as to identify overweight and obese children at an early stage so they can begin treatment and attain and maintain a healthy weight. At present, pharmacotherapy options for treatment of pediatric obesity are very limited. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive management program that emphasizes appropriate nutrition, exercise and behavioral modification is crucial. The physician’s role should expand beyond the clinical setting to the community to serve as a role model and to advocate for prevention and early treatment of obesity. PMID:25241606
Full Text Available Neck circumference (NC is an anthropometric measurement of differentiating body fat distributions and a marker of upper subcutaneous adiposity. The present study highlights the association and importance of NC as a suitable proxy screening measure of overweight/obesity as compared to the conventional anthropometric variables used among Indian adults. The present community based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1169 Karbi adults (males: 625; females: 544 residing in Karbi Anglong district of Assam, Northeast India, who were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling method. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC and NC were recorded using standard procedures. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and prevalence of overweight/obesity was assessed using standard cut-offs. The prevalence of obesity using BMI (≥25.00 kg m-2 was 15.52% and 15.26% among males and females, respectively (p≥0.05.The prevalence of obesity using NC was observed to be significantly higher among males (48.80% than females (19.12% (p<0.01. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that NC predicted obesity over the conventional anthropometric variables with reasonable accuracy (p<0.01. The ROC-AUC analysis showed a relatively greater significant association between BMI, WC and HC and NC for obesity (p<0.01. Thus, NC appears to be a potentially simple, easyto- use screening measure for predicting obesity among adults. Further studies are required to validate its use for screening of obesity among other ethnic populations in India.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad en Cantabria. Métodos: En el marco del estudio CANHTABRIA, se realizaron, entre los años 2002 y 2004, mediciones de peso y talla a una muestra de1.197 sujetos ≥ 18 años de edad representativa de la población general. Resultados: La prevalencia de sobrepeso fue del 37,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 34,2-41, en hombres un 43,8% (IC95%: 37,2-50,5 y en mujeres un 32,4% (IC95%: 28,6-36,1; p Objetive: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Cantabria (Spain. Methods: In the framework of the CANHTABRIA study, carried out in 2002-2004, measurements of height and weight were performed on a representative sample of 1197 subjects aged 18 years or over. Results: The overall prevalence of overweight was 37.6% (95%CI: 34.2-41; 43.8% (95%CI: 37.2-50.5 in males, and 32.4% (95%CI: 28.6-36.1 in females (p < 0.01. Prevalence of obesity was 22.3% (95%CI: 19.1-25.5; 23.2% (95%CI: 16.9-29.5 in males, and 21.5% (95%CI: 18.3-24.8 in females. Compared to persons with higher education, individuals with lowest level of education had two-fold higher prevalence of overweigth and obesity. Conclusions: The Increase in weight is a public health problem in Cantabria as it affects 6 out of 10 adults of the general population, mainly males and individuals with low educational level.
Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...
Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.
*Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment
... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...
Hernández-Cordero, S; Cuevas-Nasu, L; Morán-Ruán, M C; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, I; Ávila-Arcos, M A; Rivera-Dommarco, J A
The objective of the study was to provide current estimates of the prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity (OW+OB) in Mexican children and adolescents. Body mass index objectively measured was analyzed for 37 147 children and adolescents aged 0-19 years obtained in 2012 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2012), a nationally representative sample of the Mexican population. In addition, data from previous National Nutrition Surveys obtained in 1988, 1999 and 2006 were compared with analyze trends over a 24-year period (1988-2012) for children children. World Health Organization Child Growth Standard was used to define OW+OB. In 2012, 33.5% of children overweight or were overweight (OW); 32% and 36.9% of girls and boys 5-11 years of age were OW+OB, respectively, and 35.8% and 34.1% of female and male adolescents were OW+OB, respectively. Statistically significant trends were documented for all age groups during the study period. Overall change in the combined prevalence in preschool children was 6.3±1.0 percentage points (pp; Pchildren and adolescents in the lowest quintile of the household living condition index. Prevalence of OW+OB among children and adolescents increased significantly during the last 13-24 years. The rate of increase has declined in the last 6 years in all age groups. Changes in prevalence of OW+OB presented here suggest that, in Mexico, the burden of obesity is shifting toward the groups with lower socioeconomic level.
Wendell Costa Bila
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To correlate different methods of body composition assessment in overweight or obese schoolchildren, using deuterium oxide (D2O dilution as a reference. METHODS: Percentage of total body water (%TBW, fat free mass (%FFM, and body fat (%BF were assessed by D2O and tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA in 54 obese and overweight students aged 6-9 years. Skinfold thickness (ST, body mass index (BMI, conicity index (CI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and waist-to-hip (WHR ratio were also used. RESULTS: Mean values for body composition were 38.4% ± 8.4% BF, 44.9% ± 6.1% TBW and 61.6% ± 8.4% FFM. There was no significant difference in body weight, body fat mass (FM, TBW, and FFM between genders. Regarding D2O, ST underestimated %BF, and overestimated %FFM in both genders (p < 0.05. BIA overestimated %TBW in the group as a whole and in males (p < 0.05. The only positive and strong correlations occurred in females regarding the WC (s= 0.679, CI (r = 0.634, and WHtR (r = 0.666. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of obese and overweight children, there were strong correlations between body composition measured by D2O and some indices and anthropometric indicators in females, but there was no positive and strong correlation of fat tissue with the indices/indicators at all ages and in both genders.
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM incidence has been increasing worldwide along with the rise of obesity and sedantery lifestyle. Decreased physical activity (PA and obesity have also been associated with the low vitamin D levels. We aimed to determine the association between PA, vitamin D status and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects. A total of 294 (186 female, 108 male overweight or obese subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD, insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples. Body mass index (BMI, HOMA-index and total score of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form (IPAQ were calculated. Insulin resistant subjects were compared with the non-resistant group. The mean age of the participants was 45±12.25 and 41.39±10.32; 25(OHD levels were 8.91 ± 4.30 and 17.62 ± 10.47 ng/dL; BMIs were 31.29 ± 4.48 and 28.2 ± 3.16 kg/m², IPAQ total scores were 548.71±382.81 and 998±486.21 in the insulin resistant and nonresistant subjects, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in terms of 25(OHD, FPG, insulin levels, IPAQ total score and BMI between the two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001.Significantly low 25(OHD levels, high BMI and low PA in insulin resistant subjects confirm the importance of active lifestyle and the maintenance of normal vitamin D levels in overweight and obese subjects in prevention of T2DM.
Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Jakicic, John M.; Hebert, James R.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.
With decades of trends for decreasing activity during work and travel, exercise becomes an important contributor to total physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of different types of exercise to the variability in energy expenditure and time spent at different PA intensities in young adults. Four hundred and seventeen adults (49.9% male; 46.2 overweight/obese) between 21 and 36 years of age provided valid objective PA and energy expenditure data, assessed via the SenseWear Armband (BodyMedia Inc.). Frequency and duration of participation in various exercise types was self-reported. Weight status was based on body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) with body weight and height being measured according to standard procedures. Eighty-four percent of the participants reported regular exercise engagement with no difference in participation rate by sex or BMI category. Exercise time along with sex and ethnicity explained roughly 60% of the variability in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) while the association between exercise and time spent in moderate to vigorous PA or being sedentary was low or nonsignificant. Engagement in endurance exercise and sports contributed predominantly to the variability in energy expenditure and PA in nonoverweight participants. In overweight/obese participants engagement in resistance exercise and swimming contributed significantly to variability in TDEE. Current exercise recommendations focus primarily on aerobic exercise, but results of the present study suggest that nonweight-bearing exercises, such as resistance exercise and swimming, contribute significantly to the variability in TDEE in overweight/obese adults, which would make these types of activities viable options for exercise interventions. PMID:25647557
Full Text Available Introduction: Early childhood obesity in China has become a pressing public health concern. A substantial barrier to healthy weight management is poor parental recognition of child overweight. This study examined the relationship between caregiver perceptions of child weight and dietary practices. Methods: A total of 364 children between 2 and 6 years old from six urban preschools in Changsha (China were included in a cross-sectional study. Information on household demographics, health behaviors, and caregiver attitudes was collected through a self-administered caregiver questionnaire. Chi-squared tests, t-tests, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between caregiver perceptions, dietary behaviors, and child weight status. Results: Over 60% of caregivers with overweight/obese children underestimated their children’s weight status. These caregivers were less likely to worry about weight and restrict their children’s dietary intakes. Children of caregivers who incorrectly classified their weights were also more likely to have a poor appetite. Caregivers of male children and those from families with incomes between 7000 and 11,000 Ren Min Bi (RMB were more likely to underestimate weight compared to caregivers with daughters and those from higher income households. Conclusions: Although accurate weight perception may be important for motivating healthy behavioral changes, it may also lead to greater restriction of children’s diets, which has been linked to long-term weight gain. Interventions to improve awareness of child overweight should be coupled with efforts that teach caregivers about healthy weight management strategies.
Jessica Anne Douglas
Full Text Available In lean individuals, acute aerobic exercise is reported to transiently suppress sensations of appetite, suppress blood concentrations of acylated ghrelin (AG, and increase glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide-YY (PYY. Findings in overweight/obese individuals have yet to be synthesised. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we quantified the effects that acute exercise has on AG and total PYY and GLP-1 in overweight/obese individuals. The potential for body mass index (BMI to act as a moderator for AG was also explored. Six published studies (73 participants, 78% male, mean BMI: 30.6 kg·m−2 met the inclusion criteria. Standardised mean differences (SMDs and standard errors were extracted for AG and total PYY and GLP-1 concentrations in control and exercise trials and synthesised using a random effects meta-analysis model. BMI was the predictor in metaregression for AG. Exercise moderately suppressed AG area-under-the-curve concentrations (pooled SMD: −0.34, 95% CI: −0.53 to −0.15. The magnitude of this reduction was greater for higher mean BMIs (pooled metaregression slope: −0.04 SMD/kg·m−2 (95% CI: −0.07 to 0.00. Trivial SMDs were obtained for total PYY (0.10, 95% CI: −0.13 to 0.31 and GLP-1 (−0.03, 95% CI: −0.18 to 0.13. This indicates that exercise in overweight/obese individuals moderately alters AG in a direction that could be associated with decreased hunger and energy intake. This trial is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42014006265.
Roy, Melyssa; Williams, Sheila M; Brown, Rachel C; Meredith-Jones, Kim A; Osborne, Hamish; Jospe, Michelle; Taylor, Rachael W
Although high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise have comparable health outcomes in the laboratory setting, effectiveness studies in real-world environments are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an unsupervised HIIT programme in overweight/obese adults over 12 months. 250 overweight/obese adults could choose HIIT or current exercise guidelines of 30 minutes/day moderate-intensity exercise. HIIT participants received a single training session and were advised to independently perform HIIT 3x/week utilizing a variety of protocols. Mixed models, with a random effect for participant, compared differences in weight, body composition, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, physical activity and blood indices at 12 months, adjusting for relevant baseline variables. Forty-two percent (n=104) of eligible participants chose HIIT in preference to current guidelines. At 12 months, there were no differences between exercise groups in weight (adjusted difference HIIT vs conventional; 95% CI: -0.44kg; -2.5, 1.6) or visceral fat (-103cm; -256, 49), although HIIT participants reported greater enjoyment of physical activity (p=0.01). Evidence of adherence to ≥2 sessions/week of unsupervised HIIT (from heart rate monitoring) declined from 60.8% at baseline to 19.6% by 12 months. Participants remaining adherent to HIIT over 12 months (23%) were more likely to be male (67% vs 36%, p=0.03), with greater reductions in weight (-2.7kg; -5.2 -0.2) and visceral fat (-292cm; -483, -101) than non-adherent participants. HIIT was well-accepted by overweight adults and opting for HIIT as an alternative to standard exercise recommendations led to no difference in health outcomes after 12 months. While regular participation in unsupervised HIIT declined rapidly, those apparently adherent to regular HIIT demonstrated beneficial weight loss and visceral fat reduction. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN
Full Text Available Objectives: Body mass index (BMI, total body fat (TBF, and physical activity in relation to obesity and overweight prevalence among Omani students were studied. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 202 Omani students (101 males and 101 females from Sultan Qaboos University (SQU was carried out. Data were collected by interview using a structured questionnaire. Weight, TBF and physical activity score (PAS were measured using TANITA scales, and height measured using a standardised measuring tape. Results: Subjects were classified based on BMI as: underweight (2.48%, normal weight (69.31%, overweight (26.73% and obese (1.49%. According to TBF, 32.67% of students had low body fat scores (BFS, 26.73% high BFS and 22.28% very high BFS. Low BFS was insignificantly less likely with the increase in the mean hours of weekly exercising, (odds ratio [OR] = 0.708; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.448, 1.119 and the PAS (OR = 0.728; 95% CI= 0.562, 0.944. Among high and very high BFS students, the mean hours of weekly exercising (6.73±1.20 and physical activity scores (7.51±1.67 were higher than those of healthy students. Nutrition knowledge was higher among healthy students compared to low BFS, and high and very high BFS subjects. Higher nutrition knowledge was associated with a non-significant lower risk of low BFS (OR = 0.986; 95% CI = 0.958, 1.015, high and very high BFS (OR = 0.984; 95% CI = 0.961, 1.008. Conclusion: High and very high BFS were prevalent among subjects with sedentary lifestyles. Nutritional and physical activity interventions should be introduced to combat the problem of overweight students.
Lazzeri, G; Rossi, S; Pammolli, A; Pilato, V; Pozzi, T; Giacchi, M V
grades. This study presents data on the prevalence of different grades of nutritional status (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) among Tuscan school-aged children from primary to high school (9-11-13-15-y-old), assessed by means of Body Mass Index, according to international definitions. From 2002 to 2006 the prevalence of thinness among children aged 9 years decreased from 4.6% to 4.2%, and the prevalence of normal weight from 63.7% to 62.4%; the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) rose from 31.7% to 33.4%. From 2004 to 2006, among pre-adolescents aged 11 years, the prevalence of thinness declined from 11.0% to 10.1%; the prevalence of normal weight rose from 68.4% to 70.2%, and the prevalence of overweight declined from 20.7% to 19.6%. Among adolescents aged 13 years, the prevalence of thinness declined from 9.8% to 8.0%; the prevalence of normal weight rose from 73.5% to 74.0%, and the prevalence of overweight from 16.8% to 17.9%. Among adolescents aged 15 years, the prevalence of thinness declined from 9.8% to 8.7%, and the prevalence of normal weight from 77.0% to 71.6%, while the prevalence of overweight rose from 13.3% to 19.7%. The 2006 data showed that the trend in the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) tended to decrease with age for both sexes, though more markedly in girls (from 34.0% at 9-y of age to 12.2% at 15-y of age) than in boys (from 32.8% at 9-y of age to 22.8% at 13-y of age to 27.5% at 15-y of age). By contrast, the prevalence of thinness increased with age in girls (from 4.9% at 9-y of age to 14,1% at 15-y of age), while boys presented a similar low prevalence at 9 and 15-y of age (3.3% and 3.1%), doubling the values at 11 and 13-y of age (7.5% and 6.5%). The trend in the prevalence of normal weight increased with age from 62.4% at 9-y of age to 74.0% at 13-y of age and to 71.6% at 15-y of age. Boys displayed a higher prevalence than girls only at 9-y of age (63.9% vs. 61.0%). The results of this study allow us to
Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok
The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Atsu, Benedicta K; Guure, Chris; Laar, Amos K
Malnutrition (undernutrition and overnutrition) is a major public health problem in Ghana -affecting growth and development of individuals and the nation. Stunting and overweight are of particular interest, as recent national surveys show a rising trend of overnutrition and stubbornly high burden of stunting among Ghanaian children. There are currently no data on the simultaneous occurrence of overweight and stunting within individuals in Ghana. This paper presents the burden, the individual-level, and contextual determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children. This study analyzed data set of the fourth round of the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4). Bivariate analyses were used to describe selected characteristics of survey respondents and their children. Hierarchical modelling approach facilitated identification of significant distal, intermediate and proximal factors/determinants of concurrent stunting and overweight. Both crude and adjusted prevalence ratios via a multivariable Poison regression model with their corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) are reported. Variables with p ≤ 0.25 at the bivariate level were included in the multivariable analysis. An alpha value of 5% was used to indicate significance. Of 7550 cases (children) analyzed, the prevalence of stunting was 27.5%; underweight was 17.3%; and wasting was 7.7%. The prevalence of overweight and concurrent overweight and stunting were respectively 2.4% and 1.2%. Children who belonged to the fourth wealth quintile, were more likely to be overweight and concurrently stunted as against children belonging to the poorest quintile (aPR = 1.010; 95% CI, 1.003-1.017). Compared to religious (Christians/Muslim/Traditionalist) household heads, children whose household heads did not belong to any religion had 2 times the rates of the Overweight with concurrent stunting (PR = 2.024; 95% CI, 1.016-4.034). Children with mothers aged 20-34 and 35-49 had an
Grech, A; Allman-Farinelli, M
This analysis examines period trends in body weight of Australian 18-24 year olds. Secondary analysis of National Health Surveys was performed, including examination of socio-demographic determinants of obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased from 24.0 and 5.1% in males and 13.2 and 5.8% in females, respectively, in 1995 to 29.3 and 13.8% in males and 20.6 and 20.6% in females in 2012. Mean body mass index (BMI) increased over time from 23.7 (s.d. 3.5) for males and 22.4 (s.d. 4.0) for females in 1995 to 25.2 (s.d. 4.8) and 25.5 (s.d. 5.9) in 2011/2. Lower educational attainment increased the odds of having BMI⩾25.00 kg/m(2) for both sexes (P=0.03 males and Pobesity were higher in rural females (Pobesity epidemic has worsened for Australian young adults and in particular young females.
Grace K. Z. S. Dourado
Full Text Available Background: Abdominal adiposity has been linked to metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and low-grade inflammation. Objective: To test the hypothesis that consumption of 100% orange juice (OJ would improve metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory biomarkers and cytokine levels in normal and overweight subjects with increased waist circumference. Design: Subjects were divided into two groups in accordance with their body mass index: normal and overweight. Both groups of individuals consumed 750 mL of OJ daily for 8 weeks. Body composition (weight, height, percentage of fat mass, and waist circumference; metabolic biomarkers (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and glycated hemoglobin; oxidative biomarkers (malondialdehyde and DPPH•; inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]; cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ; and diet were evaluated before and after consumption of OJ for 8 weeks. Results: The major findings of this study were: 1 no alteration in body composition in either group; 2 improvement of the lipid profile, evidenced by a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL-C; 3 a potential stimulation of the immune response due to increase in IL-12; 4 anti-inflammatory effect as a result of a marked reduction in hsCRP; and 5 antioxidant action by the enhancement of total antioxidant capacity and the reduction of lipid peroxidation, in both normal and overweight subjects. Conclusions: OJ consumption has a positive effect on important biomarkers of health status in normal and overweight subjects, thereby supporting evidence that OJ acts as functional food and could be consumed as part of a healthy diet to prevent metabolic and chronic diseases.
Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.
The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....
Full Text Available There is a paucity of information on secular trends in the age-related process by which people develop overweight or obesity. Utilizing longitudinal data in the United Kingdom birth cohort studies, we investigated shifts over the past nearly 70 years in the distribution of body mass index (BMI and development of overweight or obesity across childhood and adulthood.The sample comprised 56,632 participants with 273,843 BMI observations in the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD; ages 2-64 years, 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS; 7-50, 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS; 10-42, 1991 Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; 7-18, or 2001 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS; 3-11. Growth references showed a secular trend toward positive skewing of the BMI distribution at younger ages. During childhood, the 50th centiles for all studies lay in the middle of the International Obesity Task Force normal weight range, but during adulthood, the age when a 50th centile first entered the overweight range (i.e., 25-29.9 kg/m2 decreased across NSHD, NCDS, and BCS from 41 to 33 to 30 years in males and 48 to 44 to 41 years in females. Trajectories of overweight or obesity showed that more recently born cohorts developed greater probabilities of overweight or obesity at younger ages. Overweight or obesity became more probable in NCDS than NSHD in early adulthood, but more probable in BCS than NCDS and NSHD in adolescence, for example. By age 10 years, the estimated probabilities of overweight or obesity in cohorts born after the 1980s were 2-3 times greater than those born before the 1980s (e.g., 0.229 [95% CI 0.219-0.240] in MCS males; 0.071 [0.065-0.078] in NSHD males. It was not possible to (1 model separate trajectories for overweight and obesity, because there were few obesity cases at young ages in the earliest-born cohorts, or (2 consider ethnic minority groups. The end date for analyses was August
DeVault, Norma; Kennedy, Tay; Hermann, Janice; Mwavita, Mwarumba; Rask, Pam; Jaworsky, Amber
In response to the increased incidence of child overweight, a school-based program, It's All About Kids, was designed by the Tulsa Health Department, Tulsa Public Schools, and community partners to improve food choices and increase physical activity of students in first through fifth grade. The nutrition component consisted of six weekly 30-minute experiential, age-appropriate classroom lessons, including healthful-eating food games, taste-testing foods, whole-grain bread baking, information on portion sizes, and food demonstrations. Documenting and evaluating school-based intervention programs is critical for setting evidence-based health policy, justifying funding, and achieving broader implementation of successful interventions. To evaluate the effectiveness of the It's All About Kids nutrition component in fourth-grade children, we conducted a controlled trial from 20 fourth-grade classes in five intervention and five comparison Title I public schools. Evaluation included 140 fourth-grade students, including 69 in the comparison group and 71 in the intervention group. Outcomes were measured by pre-, post-, and follow-up tests using a modified version of the Pathways Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors questionnaire and the Child and Adolescent Trial of Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Food Checklist. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance over time controlling for sex, paired samples t tests, and independent samples t tests. Intervention students had significant improvements in knowledge of which food had more fat (Pfood choice intentions improved significantly (P<0.014). Self-reported consumption of saturated fat and sodium improved considerably in both intervention and comparison students. We conclude that results support a broader program implementation. More reinforcement over time may be needed to sustain the level of improvement.
Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan
BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.
Lee, Joyce M; Wasserman, Richard; Kaciroti, Niko; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh; Steffes, Jennifer; Dowshen, Steven; Harris, Donna; Serwint, Janet; Abney, Dianna; Smitherman, Lynn; Reiter, Edward; Herman-Giddens, Marcia E
Studies of the relationship of weight status with timing of puberty in boys have been mixed. This study examined whether overweight and obesity are associated with differences in the timing of puberty in US boys. We reanalyzed recent community-based pubertal data from the American Academy of Pediatrics' Pediatric Research in Office Settings study in which trained clinicians assessed boys 6 to 16 years for height, weight, Tanner stages, testicular volume (TV), and other pubertal variables. We classified children based on BMI as normal weight, overweight, or obese and compared median age at a given Tanner stage or greater by weight class using probit and ordinal probit models and a Bayesian approach. Half of boys (49.9%, n = 1931) were white, 25.8% (n = 1000) were African American, and 24.3% (n = 941) were Hispanic. For genital development in white and African American boys across a variety of Tanner stages, we found earlier puberty in overweight compared with normal weight boys, and later puberty in obese compared with overweight, but no significant differences for Hispanics. For TV (≥3 mL or ≥4 mL), our findings support earlier puberty for overweight compared with normal weight white boys. In a large, racially diverse, community-based sample of US boys, we found evidence of earlier puberty for overweight compared with normal or obese, and later puberty for obese boys compared with normal and overweight boys. Additional studies are needed to understand the possible relationships among race/ethnicity, gender, BMI, and the timing of pubertal development. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available Rebecca K Kelly,1 Costan G Magnussen,1,2 Matthew A Sabin,3 Michael Cheung,3 Markus Juonala3–5 1Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia; 2Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; 3Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital and University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia; 4Department of Medicine, University of Turku, 5Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Abstract: The upward trend in adolescent hypertension is widely attributed to the adolescent obesity epidemic. Secular trends in adolescent prehypertension and hypertension have risen in congruence with increasing trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The correlation between body mass index and blood pressure in adolescence is moderate to strong in most studies and strongest in those classified as overweight or obese. The mechanisms relating to the development of hypertension in overweight adolescents are unclear; however, a number of nonmodifiable and modifiable factors have been implicated. Importantly, certain clinical and biochemical markers in overweight adolescents are indicative of high risk for hypertension, including family history of hypertension and hyperinsulinemia. These characteristics may prove useful in stratifying overweight adolescents as high or low risk of comorbid hypertension. The treatment of overweight and obesity related hypertension in this population focuses on two key modalities: lifestyle change and pharmacotherapy. These approaches focus almost exclusively on weight reduction; however, a number of emerging strategies target hypertension more specifically. Among adolescents with overt hypertension there are also several factors that indicate higher risk of concurrent subclinical disease, persistent adult hypertension, and adult cardiovascular disease. This group may benefit substantially from more
Utesch, T; Dreiskämper, D; Naul, R; Geukes, K
Both the physical self-concept and actual motor competence are important for healthy future physical activity levels and consequently decrease overweight and obesity in childhood. However, children scoring high on motor competence do not necessarily report high levels of physical self-concept and vice versa, resulting in respective (in-) accuracy also referred to as (non-) veridicality. This study examines whether children's accuracy of physical self-concept is a meaningful predictive factor for their future physical activity. Motor competence, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 3 rd grade and one year later in 4 th grade. Children's weight status was categorized based on WHO recommendations. Polynomial regression with Response surface analyses were conducted with a quasi-DIF approach examining moderating weight status effects. Analyses revealed that children with higher motor competence levels and higher self-perceptions show greater physical activity. Importantly, children who perceive their motor competence more accurately (compared to less) show more future physical activity. This effect is strong for underweight and overweight/obese children, but weak for normal weight children. This study indicates that an accurate self-perception of motor competence fosters future physical activity beyond single main effects, respectively. Hence, the promotion of actual motor competence should be linked with the respective development of accurate self-knowledge.
Fulkerson, Jayne A; Strauss, Jaine; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri
An ethnically diverse sample of at-risk-for-overweight and overweight youths (body mass index greater than the 85th percentile for age and gender; n = 667 male participants, and n = 684 female participants) completed a school-based survey measuring family variables (connectedness, mealtime environment, and weight commentary), psychosocial well-being (depressed mood, body satisfaction, and self-esteem), and unhealthy weight-control behaviors; all measures were assessed concurrently. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that measures of general family connectedness, priority of family meals, and positive mealtime environment were significantly positively associated with psychological well-being and inversely associated with depressive symptoms and unhealthy weight-control behaviors. Familial weight commentary (i.e., weight-based teasing and parental encouragement to diet) was associated with many indicators of poor psychological health. The authors conclude that greater psychosocial well-being and fewer unhealthy weight-control behaviors are associated with making family time at meals a priority, creating a positive mealtime atmosphere, and refraining from weight commentary. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Albarwani, Sulayma; Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Abri, Mohammed; Jaju, Deepali; Hassan, Mohammed O
The aim of this research was to study the effects of overweight and leisure-time activities on maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) in urban and rural Omani adolescents. A total of 529 (245 males, 284 females) adolescents, aged 15-16 years were randomly selected from segregated urban and rural schools. Maximal aerobic capacity was estimated using the multistage 20-meter shuttle-run test. The body mass index (BMI) of urban boys and girls was significantly higher than that of rural boys and girls. Urban boys and girls spent significantly less weekly hours on sports activities and significantly more weekly hours on TV/computer games than their rural counterpart. Urban boys and girls achieved significantly less VO(2)max than rural boys and girls (44.2 and 33.0 vs. 48.3 and 38.6 mL/kg/min, respectively). Maximal aerobic capacity was negatively correlated with BMI in urban boys. Overweight and inactivity had significant negative effects on cardiorespiratory fitness in urban boys and girls as compared to their rural counterparts. Weight gain in adolescence requires early intervention.
Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy; Faga, Pat; McDonald, Glenda
This paper reports a study exploring the strategies a group of mothers of overweight and obese children were using and planned to use in the future to assist their children to achieve a healthy weight. Over the past two decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has grown exponentially to become a major public health concern. Extant literature suggests that childhood obesity is associated with a range of physical, social and psychological effects, including poor self-esteem, depression, social isolation, and cardio-vascular and other morbidity. Parents are known to be important in determining early eating and exercise habits, and their involvement is crucial to achieving positive child health outcomes. An exploratory-descriptive design informed by feminist research principles shaped the study, which was carried out in 2003-2004. Eleven mothers meeting the inclusion criteria took part in in-depth interviews. These were transcribed, and qualitatively analysed. Participants revealed sound understandings of the concept and ramifications of obesity. They had initiated a range of strategies including role modelling, developing opportunities for increased physical activity, reducing the use of junk food, and heightened awareness of how they used food. Participants viewed the problem as a family rather than an individual problem, and aimed many of the interventions at the entire family to avoid targeting the focus child. Further research into how childhood obesity is managed within the context of family life is needed. Specifically, additional perspectives on how mothers from various socio-cultural groups address childhood obesity within family life, and longitudinal studies to explore the efficacy and sustainability of family-based lifestyle changes that are made in response to concerns about child weight issues. Additional research to explore the type and nature of family support that can best assist families to achieve sustainable lifestyle improvements is needed.
J. E. Stone
Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.
TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.
Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a global concern. Although childhood obesity has grown as a result of a complex array of interactions among multiple behavioural, biological, and environmental factors, excessive screen time (ST and low levels of physical activity (PA are often discussed as causal factors. Therefore, it is beneficial to identify risky family behavioural patterns contributing to the increasing prevalence of obesity even in pre-schoolers. Objective: The main aim of the study was to assess whether parental obesity and parent-child behavioural patterns (PA and ST affect the odds of overweight/obesity in 4-to-7-year-old preschool children. Methods: We analysed seven-day PA and ST behaviour among families with pre-schoolers that included 194 preschool children (88 girls and 106 boys and their parents (165 mothers and 111 fathers. PA was monitored by means of unsealed Yamax pedometers for at least eight hours a day over seven consecutive days during spring (April/May and autumn (September/October of 2015. ST was recorded by parents on family log book sheets. To assess the odds of parents' obesity and PA/ST variables in relation to child overweight/obesity, a logistic regression (backward method was used. Results: Most children (n = 157 reported normal weight (87 boys, 70 girls, 37 children were overweight or obese (19 boys, 18 girls. Children's excessive ST (> 1 hour/day (OR: 5.65/33.19 on weekdays/weekends, mothers' obesity (OR: 13.80/28.84 on weekdays/weekends, mothers' excessive ST (> 2 hours/ day (OR: 32.46 at weekends, and children's male gender (OR: 38.69 at weekends were significantly (p < .05 associated with higher odds of overweight/obesity in the preschool children. Conclusions: Uncovering parent-child behavioural patterns provides insight into the lifestyle of families with pre-schoolers and is a source of valuable information for designing and implementing family-based intervention
Dunger David B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those 2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile
Full Text Available Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context - particularly the national prevalence of obesity - predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/ between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals and national (i.e., across nations level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT. The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels.
Gruchow, Harvey William; Brown, Roger K.
Background: Although males are often the initiators of teen sexual activity, pregnancy prevention programs generally target females. To address this deficiency, the Wise Guys Male Responsibility Curriculum was developed to be delivered to adolescent males in weekly classroom sessions. Methods: Seventh grade participants (n = 124) in the Wise Guys…
Ulrici, J; Hempel, G; Sasse, M; Vollrath, J; Höhne, C
Overweight and obesity are increasing problems in pediatric anesthesia. This observational study was designed to examine how airway-related complications occur in overweight children and adolescents during general anesthesia and if this is a relevant problem in Germany. From October 2008 until August 2009, at the university clinic in Leipzig, 504 in- and outpatients, aged 2-18 years, ASA I-III, undergoing elective procedures (ENT and pediatric surgery), were observed. With the aid of special data sheets, the following parameters were determined: Mallampati Score, difficult mask ventilation and intubation, use of a Guedel/Wendl tube, Cormack-Lehane Score, number of intubation attempts, airway obstructions (broncho- and laryngospasms), coughing as a sign of airway irritation, and decreases in oxygen saturation >10 %. Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher Mallampati Score and a significantly higher prevalence of coughing (p overweight children and 6.3 % in children of normal weight, and that of airway obstructions was 4.1 vs 2.7 %. This study demonstrated a very low incidence of respiratory problems, which may be caused by the low proportion of morbidly obese children and the older age of overweight children in comparison with other studies.
Chaparro, M Pia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Harrison, Gail G
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity according to poverty level. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of data from 46,217 non-pregnant and non-lactating women in Lima, Peru was conducted; these data were obtained from nationally representative surveys from the years 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2008-2010. The dependent variable was overweight/obesity, and the independent variable was food assistance program participation. Poisson regression was used to stratify the data by family socioeconomic level, area of residence (Lima versus the rest of the country; urban versus rural), and survey year (2003-2006 versus 2008-2010). The models were adjusted for age, education level, urbanization, and survey year. RESULTS Food assistance program participation was associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity in women living in homes without poverty indicators [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06;1.57]. When stratified by area of residence, similar associations were observed for women living in Lima and urban areas; no associations were found between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity among women living outside of Lima or in rural areas, regardless of the poverty status. CONCLUSIONS Food assistance program participation was associated with overweight/obesity in non-poor women. Additional studies are required in countries facing both aspects of malnutrition.