Sample records for grade level addresses

  1. Demystify Learning Expectations to Address Grade Inflation (United States)

    Hodges, Linda C.


    This article describes the subject of "grade inflation," a reference to educators giving higher grades to student work than their expectations for student achievement warrant. Of the many reasons why this practice happens, Hodges specifically discusses inflating grades as "a natural consequence" when the faculty really…

  2. Toward a CFD-grade database addressing LWR containment phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladino, Domenico, E-mail: [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Andreani, Michele; Zboray, Robert; Dreier, Joerg [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SETH-2 PANDA tests have supplied data with CFD-grade on plumes and jets at large-scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PANDA tests have contributed to the understanding of phenomena with high safety relevance for LWRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analytical activities related increased confidence in the use of various computational tools for safety analysis. - Abstract: The large-scale, multi-compartment PANDA facility (located at PSI in Switzerland) is one of the state-of-the-art facilities which is continuously upgraded to progressively match the requirements of CFD-grade experiments. Within the OECD/SETH projects, the PANDA facility has been used for the creation of an experimental database on basic containment phenomena e.g. gas mixing, transport, stratification, condensation. In the PANDA tests, these phenomena are driven by large scale plumes or jets. In the paper is presented a selection of the SETH PANDA experimental results. Examples of analytical activities performed at PSI using the GOTHIC, CFX-4 and CFX-5 codes will be used to illustrate how the spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurement grid in PANDA tests are adequate for CFD code (and advanced containment codes) assessment and validation purposes.

  3. Toward a CFD-grade database addressing LWR containment phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladino, Domenico; Andreani, Michele; Zboray, Robert; Dreier, Jörg


    Highlights: ► The SETH-2 PANDA tests have supplied data with CFD-grade on plumes and jets at large-scale. ► The PANDA tests have contributed to the understanding of phenomena with high safety relevance for LWRs. ► The analytical activities related increased confidence in the use of various computational tools for safety analysis. - Abstract: The large-scale, multi-compartment PANDA facility (located at PSI in Switzerland) is one of the state-of-the-art facilities which is continuously upgraded to progressively match the requirements of CFD-grade experiments. Within the OECD/SETH projects, the PANDA facility has been used for the creation of an experimental database on basic containment phenomena e.g. gas mixing, transport, stratification, condensation. In the PANDA tests, these phenomena are driven by large scale plumes or jets. In the paper is presented a selection of the SETH PANDA experimental results. Examples of analytical activities performed at PSI using the GOTHIC, CFX-4 and CFX-5 codes will be used to illustrate how the spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurement grid in PANDA tests are adequate for CFD code (and advanced containment codes) assessment and validation purposes.

  4. Comparing Dropout Predictors for Two State-Level Panels Using Grade 6 and Grade 8 Data (United States)

    Franklin, Bobby J.; Trouard, Stephen B.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dropout predictors across time. Two state-level high school graduation panels were selected to begin with the seventh and ninth grades but end at the same time. The first panel (seventh grade) contained 29,554 students and used sixth grade predictors. The second panel (ninth grade)…

  5. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study (United States)

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana


    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  6. Addresses (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Point features representing locations of all street addresses in Orange County, NC including Chapel Hill, NC. Data maintained by Orange County, the Town of Chapel...

  7. The South Carolina Amazing Coast Program: Using Ocean Sciences to Address Next Generation Science Standards in Grades 3-5 (United States)

    Bell, E. V.; Thomas, C.; Weiss, B.; Bliss, A.; Spence, L.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are more inclusive of ocean sciences than the National Science Standards and respective state science standards. In response, the Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-SouthEast (COSEE SE) is piloting the South Carolina's Amazing Coast (SCAC) program: a three-year initiative that incorporates ocean science concepts in grades 3-5 with the goals of addressing NGSS, STEM (science-technology-engineering-math) disciplines, and inquiry skills. The SCAC program targeted two Charleston County, South Carolina elementary schools that were demographically similar: Title 1 status (75% free or reduced lunch), > 90% African American student population, grade level size inquiry skills. Specifically, third grade students learn about coastal habitats, animal and plant adaptations, and human impacts to the environment, and engage in a salt marsh restoration capstone project. This part of the curriculum aligns with the NGSS Core Ideas 3-LS1, 3-LS3, 3-LS4, 3-ESS3. The fourth grade students learn about weather, organism responses to the environment, and engage in a weather buoy construction capstone project. This part of the curriculum aligns with the NGSSS Core Ideas 4-LS1, 4-ESS2, 4-ESS3, 3-5-ETS1. In 5th grade, students focus specifically on the ocean ecosystem, human impacts on the environment and engage in a capstone project of designing and constructing remotely operated vehicles. This part of the curriculum aligns with NGSS Core Ideas 5-PS2, 5-LS1, 5-LS2, 5-ESS2, 3-5-ETS1. Initial evaluation results indicate that the SCAC teachers value the coach mentor approach for teacher professional development as well as the impact of field based experiences, place-based learning, and a culminating capstone project on student learning. Teacher feedback also indicates elements of sustainability that extend beyond the scope of the pilot project.These initial evaluation results poise the SCAC curriculum to be replicated in other

  8. The Mathematics Literacy Level of Eighth Grade Students


    Esra UYSAL; Kürşat YENİLMEZ


    The purpose of this study is to determine the eighth grade student’s Mathematics Literacy level based on the PISA 2003 Mathematics exam questions and evaluations. Also relationships between distribution of Mathematics Literacy levels and some variables as students’ gender, pre-school education, family’s income and parent’s education level are investigated. Survey method was used in this study. The work group of the study consists of 1047 eighth grade students chosen randomly from 12 primary s...

  9. Grade Level Differences in Factors of Self-Esteem (United States)

    Kokenes, Barbara


    Investigated the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, using approximately 1500 elementary school students. Also investigated grade level differences in preadolescent and adolescent children. (Author/ED)

  10. Ortographic difficulties in writing at a basic grade level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly


    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the performance in children’s writing at a basic grade level. A written test was applied to 546 grade 2 or 3 boys and girls (aged 7 to 13 in public and private schools from the State of São Paulo. The results showed that the grade 3 participants presented a better performance than the grade 2 participants even though both groups have achieved the same maximum and minimum scores. It was confirmed that participants had more difficulty with words containing compound syllables, while words with aggregated consonants and digraphs were associated with the highest rate of correct answers. Furthermore, students from private school revealed more competence in orthographic writing than those coming from public schools. As to gender differences, there were no significant differences in performance for compound and complex syllables items though for other words, girls had better scores.   Keywords: writing; academic achievement; evaluation.

  11. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted eight (8) weeks was carried out to determine the intake and nutrient digestibility by growing Yankasa rams fed graded levels of Tamarindus indica leaves. Twelve Yankasa rams with average liveweight of 17.40kg were randomly allocated to three treatments of four replicates in a Randomized ...

  12. Grade Level and Gender Differences in a School-Based Reading Tutoring Program (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou


    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the grade level and gender differences in a school-based reading tutoring program. The treatment group included 10 first-grade and 12 second-grade struggling readers, and the control group included 41 first-grade and 63 second-grade nonstruggling readers. The tutors were teacher candidates in an…

  13. The Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI), Grade Level, and Socioeconomic Status: A Preliminary Study. (United States)

    Cox, David W.


    The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…

  14. Sample Grade Level Benchmarks, Grades 5-8, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework. (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents the application and use of mathematics learning proposed by the Arkansas curriculum frameworks for grades 5-8. The standards are presented in chart form and organized into five strands: (1) number sense, properties, and operations; (2) geometry and spatial sense; (3) measurement; (4) data analysis, statistics, and…

  15. The Impact of School Environment and Grade Level on Student Delinquency: A Multilevel Modeling Approach (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.; Kim, Young S.; Allen, Thomas M.; Allen, Andrea N.; Minugh, P. Allison; Lomuto, Nicoletta


    Effects on delinquency made by grade level, school type (based on grade levels accommodated), and prosocial school climate were assessed, controlling for individual-level risk and protective factors. Data were obtained from the Substance Abuse Services Division of Alabama's state mental health agency and analyzed via hierarchical linear modeling,…

  16. Readability Levels of the 1975 Third Grade Macmillan Basal Readers. (United States)

    McKinney, Ernestine Williams


    Analysis of third-grade books in the New Macmillan Reading Program reveals that the books exceeded the publisher's designation of readability and did not progress in difficulty from easy to more difficult. Findings suggest the need for more complete and reliable information from publishers concerning textbook readability. (FL)

  17. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.


    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  18. An Analysis of Grades, Class Level and Faculty Evaluation Scores in the United Arab Emirates (United States)

    Waller, Lee


    This study examined the results of a student evaluation of faculty against the grades awarded and the level of the course for a higher education institution in the United Arab Emirates. The purpose of the study was to determine if the grades awarded in the course and/or level of the course impacted the evaluation scores awarded to the faculty…

  19. Relationship between Legible Handwriting and Level of Success of Third Grade Students in Written Expression (United States)

    Bayat, Seher; Küçükayar, Hasan


    This study aims to identify third-grade students' performance levels for written expression and handwriting and to find the relationship between these performances. The study is based on relational screening model. It is carried out with 110 third grade students. Students' levels of success in handwriting and in written expression are evaluated…

  20. Grade-Level Retention in Texas Public Schools, 2015-16 (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2017


    This annual report provides information for the 2015-16 school year on grade-level retention in the Texas public school system. Data on retention are provided by student characteristics, including grade level; race/ethnicity; gender; degree of English proficiency; and economic, at-risk, immigrant, migrant, and overage statuses. Data also are…

  1. Technology Strategies to Address Grade-Level Outcomes: National Standards 1 and 2 (United States)

    Baert, Helena


    The need to prepare students to thrive in the digital world and the benefit of using instructional technology have both been widely recognized in education. As new technology becomes available, its use by both students and teachers must be carefully evaluated. Technology can help enhance learning and facilitate the teaching process, if and when it…

  2. A review of strategies to address the shortage of science and mathematics educators in grades 10-12 (United States)

    Magano, Florence Lesedi

    For an education system to function effectively it is important that its planning functions are executed effectively and efficiently. Among others this implies that the system must know what the teacher supply and demand is and how it will change in time. If the teacher supply and demand is known it could result in sound intervention strategies being developed and implemented. Education planners will be able to plan for the number of bursaries to be awarded and in which subject fields; it will be known how many foreign teachers to employ and for which subjects. This is the basic rationale that underpins this study. This study explored the problem of teacher demand and supply in the Further Education and Training (FET) phase (Grades 10 to 12) in South Africa and offers a critical analysis of strategies adopted by Provincial Education Departments in an endeavour to diminish the demand for teachers, specifically for Mathematics and Science, in rural and poor schools. Initially the study involved a secondary data analysis to extrapolate the demand and supply of teachers in Mathematics and Science over the next ten years. The first key finding of the study was that the data needed for such an analysis does not exist in any reliable form that would facilitate the development of such a projection. What the study had to rely on was anecdotal evidence that suggests that a shortage of Mathematics and Science teachers does exist and that posts are often filled by unqualified and under-qualified staff. In the second phase of the research in which the study explored the effectiveness of strategies developed to address the shortage of Mathematics and Science teachers, a qualitative research approach was adopted within a descriptive interpretive design. The views and opinions of human resource managers responsible for post provisioning in schools were explored through in-depth interviews to understand the types of strategy adopted by the provinces, their potential to alleviate

  3. Relationship of the Van Herick Grading System with Peripheral Iris Configuration and Level of Iris Insertion. (United States)

    Khan, Faisal Aziz; Niazi, Shafaq Pervez Khan; Khan, Assad Zaman


    To determine the relationship of the van Herick angle grading system with the level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Observational study. Eye department, Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt., Karachi, from May to October 2015. Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients were recruited. Anterior chamber depth at the temporal limbus was measured as a fraction of corneal section thickness using van Herick technique and graded on the standard 4-point scale of the van Herick grading system. Gonioscopy of the temporal quadrant was performed with a Posner 4 mirror goniolens and both the true level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration were recorded on a 4-point scale so as to equate with the van Herick 4-point grading system. Spearman's rho test was applied to determine the relationship of the van Herick grading system with level of iris root insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Amoderate positive correlation between van Herick grade and peripheral iris configuration was found which was statistically significant (rs=0.42, p < 0.001). Astatistically significant and moderate positive correlation was also detected between van Herick grade and the level of iris insertion (rs=0.45, p < 0.001). The van Herick grade has a moderately positive relationship with the peripheral iris configuration and true level of iris insertion.

  4. The importance of O – level grades in medical school admission: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grades in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics. In the latter group, the JAMB scores and O' level grades were given equal weighting (50% of mark ... were given a written interview test and an oral interview. At the end of the exercise, 40 candidates were admitted. Eventually, 31 of this group and four out of the five ...

  5. Grade Perceptions of Students in Chemistry Coursework at All Levels (United States)

    Webb, Jeffrey A.; Karatjas, Andrew G.


    Various reasons are attributed to poor student performance in physical science courses such as lack of motivation, lack of ability, and/or the overall difficulty of these courses. One overlooked reason is a lack of self-awareness as to preparation level. Through a study over a two-year period, students at all levels (freshman through M.S.) of a…

  6. Effect of graded levels of phosphorus on growth and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 18, 2009 ... Eleven diets (D1 - D11), designated as treatments (T1 - T11), supplemented with different levels of inorganic ... Phosphorus (P) is an essential and critical nutrient for ... Cod liver oil. 50.0. 50.0 ... machine with a 2.0 mm die.

  7. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The experimental diets formulated were A (0%), B (15%) and C (30%) inclusion levels of the test ingredient. ... experiment, the experimental animals were dewormed with Albendazole at 1ml per. 50kg body weight and fed with the experimental diets. The experimental animals were .... 34th annual conference of the NSAP.

  8. Effects of graded taurine levels on juvenile cobia (United States)

    Taurine, which has multiple important physiological roles in teleost fish and mammals, is an amino acid not found in alternative protein sources not derived from animals. Although taurine is found in fish-meal-based feeds, its high water solubility leads to lower taurine levels in reduction-process-...

  9. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of ... (United States)

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in the corpus callosum (CC), a heterotopia, in adult rats following hypothyroidism induced by the hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). In this report we have investigated the dose- response relationships to administered dose of PTU, the magnitude of reductions in circulating TH, and the incidence and volume of the heterotopia in adult offspring of PTU-treated dams. Pregnant rat dams were administered 0, 1, 2, 3 or 10 ppm of PTU in the drinking water from gestational day 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day 21 (PN2 1). Serum hormones in the dams were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, but at the lower dose levels (1, 2 and 3ppm) reductions were limited to T4 with no change in serum T3. At higher PTU concentrations, serum T3 was reduced in dams (1 Oppm) and pups on PN14 and 21 (3 and 10 ppm). All hormone levels returned to control levels in adulthood. On PN 130, female offspring were perfused with paraformaldehyde and sections prepared for immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. All sections (40-45 50u through the hippocampus) were examined for the presence of a heterotopia in the CC. A dose-dependent increase in incidence and volume of heterotopic re

  10. Creating a three level building classification using topographic and address-based data for Manchester (United States)

    Hussain, M.; Chen, D.


    Buildings, the basic unit of an urban landscape, host most of its socio-economic activities and play an important role in the creation of urban land-use patterns. The spatial arrangement of different building types creates varied urban land-use clusters which can provide an insight to understand the relationships between social, economic, and living spaces. The classification of such urban clusters can help in policy-making and resource management. In many countries including the UK no national-level cadastral database containing information on individual building types exists in public domain. In this paper, we present a framework for inferring functional types of buildings based on the analysis of their form (e.g. geometrical properties, such as area and perimeter, layout) and spatial relationship from large topographic and address-based GIS database. Machine learning algorithms along with exploratory spatial analysis techniques are used to create the classification rules. The classification is extended to two further levels based on the functions (use) of buildings derived from address-based data. The developed methodology was applied to the Manchester metropolitan area using the Ordnance Survey's MasterMap®, a large-scale topographic and address-based data available for the UK.

  11. Low grade inflammation as measured by levels of YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Raymond, Ilan; Kistorp, Caroline


    , increasing YKL-40 levels independently predicted overall and CV mortality rate with hazard ratios of 1.58 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.23, p=0.009) and 1.57 (95% CI, 1.00-2.46, p=0.049) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, total cholesterol, hsCRP, NT-proBNP and UACR. In combined Kaplan...

  12. The Level of motor Skills of the First Grade Pupils


    HEJLOVÁ, Kateřina


    The thesis focuses on motor abilities of children from birth to the age of eight years. It outlines the development of gross motor skills, fine motor skills and micromotor skills, and methods how to help children develop these particular areas. The level of motor skills is determined by method of testing in first graders from Stonařov, Pavlov, Třešť and České Budějovice.

  13. Career Aspirations of Adolescent Girls: Effects of Achievement Level, Grade, and Single-Sex School Environment. (United States)

    Watson, Cary M.; Quatman, Teri; Edler, Erik


    Compared high achieving adolescent girls' ideal and real career aspirations to adolescent boys' aspirations, examining the influence of grade level, achievement level, and an all-girls school environment. At all achievement levels, girls were commensurate with boys in ideal and realistic career aspirations. High achieving girls exceeded the…

  14. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret


    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  15. Addressing challenges for future strategic-level emergency management: reframing, networking, and capacity-building. (United States)

    Bosomworth, Karyn; Owen, Christine; Curnin, Steven


    The mounting frequency and intensity of natural hazards, alongside growing interdependencies between social-technical and ecological systems, are placing increased pressure on emergency management. This is particularly true at the strategic level of emergency management, which involves planning for and managing non-routine, high-consequence events. Drawing on the literature, a survey, and interviews and workshops with Australia's senior emergency managers, this paper presents an analysis of five core challenges that these pressures are creating for strategic-level emergency management. It argues that emphasising 'emergency management' as a primary adaptation strategy is a retrograde step that ignores the importance of addressing socio-political drivers of vulnerabilities. Three key suggestions are presented that could assist the country's strategic-level emergency management in tackling these challenges: (i) reframe emergency management as a component of disaster risk reduction rather than them being one and the same; (ii) adopt a network governance approach; and (iii) further develop the capacities of strategic-level emergency managers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  16. CBM Maze-Scores as Indicators of Reading Level and Growth for Seventh-Grade Students (United States)

    Chung, Siuman; Espin, Christine A.; Stevenson, Claire E.


    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status, scores and growth on a standardized reading test.…

  17. Students' Level of Boredom, Boredom Coping Strategies, Epistemic Curiosity, and Graded Performance (United States)

    Eren, Altay; Coskun, Hamit


    The authors examined the relationships among students' levels of boredom, boredom coping strategies, epistemic curiosity, and graded performance regarding mathematics lessons, with the intention to explore the mediating roles of boredom coping strategies and epistemic curiosity in the relationship between the level of boredom and graded…

  18. CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, S.; Espin, C.A.; Stevenson, C.E.

    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status,

  19. Performance of Layers Fed Graded Levels of Blood –Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    240 laying hens were fed graded levels of Blood-Rumen content mixture (BRCM) for a period of eight weeks. The study was designed to determine the level of BRCM that layers can tolerate in their diet. Feed intake by birds fed the control and 4% BRCM diets were comparable, but significantly higher (P<0.05) than those ...

  20. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students (United States)

    Imdat, Yarim


    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  1. Student selection: are the school-leaving A-level grades in biology and chemistry important? (United States)

    Green, A; Peters, T J; Webster, D J


    This study determined the relationships of grades in A-level biology and chemistry with examination success or failure during the medical course. By inspection of medical student records, A-level grades at entry to medical school and examination performance were obtained for 128 (91%) of the students who sat their final MBBCh examination at the University of Wales College of Medicine in June 1988. The majority, 92 (72%), completed their medical school careers with no professional examination failures; 15 failed examinations just in the period up to 2nd MB; 11 failed examinations in the clinical period only and 10 failed examinations in both periods. Whereas grade achieved in A-level chemistry was not associated with undergraduate examination performance, students with a grade A or B in A-level biology were less likely to have problems than the others (21% compared with 47%; the difference of 26% has a 95% confidence interval of 7% to 44%). Specifically, there appears to be a strong relationship between a low grade in biology and difficulties in the preclinical examinations. Moreover, for those who have difficulties at this stage, this association continues later in the course.

  2. Predictors of cultural capital on science academic achievement at the 8th grade level (United States)

    Misner, Johnathan Scott

    The purpose of the study was to determine if students' cultural capital is a significant predictor of 8th grade science achievement test scores in urban locales. Cultural capital refers to the knowledge used and gained by the dominant class, which allows social and economic mobility. Cultural capital variables include magazines at home and parental education level. Other variables analyzed include socioeconomic status (SES), gender, and English language learners (ELL). This non-experimental study analyzed the results of the 2011 Eighth Grade Science National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The researcher analyzed the data using a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The researcher concluded that the addition of cultural capital factors significantly increased the predictive power of the model where magazines in home, gender, student classified as ELL, parental education level, and SES were the independent variables and science achievement was the dependent variable. For alpha=0.05, the overall test for the model produced a R2 value of 0.232; therefore the model predicted 23.2% of variance in science achievement results. Other major findings include: higher measures of home resources predicted higher 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement; males were predicted to have higher 2011 NAEP 8 th grade science achievement; classified ELL students were predicted to score lower on the NAEP eight grade science achievement; higher parent education predicted higher NAEP eighth grade science achievement; lower measures of SES predicted lower 2011 NAEP eighth grade science achievement. This study contributed to the research in this field by identifying cultural capital factors that have been found to have statistical significance on predicting eighth grade science achievement results, which can lead to strategies to help improve science academic achievement among underserved populations.

  3. Addressing the social determinants of health at the local level: Opportunities and challenges. (United States)

    Fosse, E; Helgesen, M K; Hagen, S; Torp, S


    The gradient in health inequalities reflects a relationship between health and social circumstance, demonstrating that health worsens as you move down the socio-economic scale. For more than a decade, the Norwegian National government has developed policies to reduce social inequalities in health by levelling the social gradient. The adoption of the Public Health Act in 2012 was a further movement towards a comprehensive policy. The main aim of the act is to reduce social health inequalities by adopting a Health in All Policies approach. The municipalities are regarded key in the implementation of the act. The SODEMIFA project aimed to study the development of the new public health policy, with a particular emphasis on its implementation in municipalities. In the SODEMIFA project, a mixed-methods approach was applied, and the data consisted of surveys as well as qualitative interviews. The informants were policymakers at the national and local level. Our findings indicate that the municipalities had a rather vague understanding of the concept of health inequalities, and even more so, the concept of the social gradient in health. The most common understanding was that policy to reduce social inequalities concerned disadvantaged groups. Accordingly, policies and measures would be directed at these groups, rather than addressing the social gradient. A movement towards an increased understanding and adoption of the new, comprehensive public health policy was observed. However, to continue this process, both local and national levels must stay committed to the principles of the act.

  4. A content addressable memory for use in CEBAF's CLAS detector level 2 triggering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, R.F.; Doughty, D.C. Jr.; Allgood, D.C.; Campbell, S.A.; Wilson, W.C.; Bickley, M.H.


    A collaboration of researchers from CEBAF, CNU and NASA is designing a 256-32 specialized Content Addressable Memory (CAM) for the level 2 triggering system in CEBAF's CLAS detector. These integrated circuits will find tracks and the momentum and angle of each track within 2 microseconds of an event. The custom CAM can operate as conventional memory, performing read and write operations, and can additionally perform independent byte compare operations across all words simultaneously. It is this compare feature which makes these CAMs attractive for identifying tracks passing through drift chambers by linking together segment number triplets within the CAM. Simulations have indicated that less than 16 k triplets need to be stored for each sector of the detector. This implies the level 2 triggering can be performed with 64 CAM chips per sector, or 384 total. Each data channel into a sector CAM array is buffered in a FIFO and is designed to handle aggregate data rates up to 750 Mbs for three channels (one channel/superlayer). The architecture of the level 2 trigger and details of the CAM chip design are discussed along with a performance report on our prototype CAMs

  5. What evidence and support do state-level public health practitioners need to address obesity prevention. (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Teal, Randall; Jernigan, Jan; Reed, Jenica Huddleston; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice


    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Public health practitioners are distinctly positioned to promote the environmental changes essential to addressing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other entities provide evidence and technical assistance to support this work, yet little is known about how practitioners use evidence and support as they intervene to prevent obesity. The study's purpose was to describe how practitioners and CDC project officers characterized the obesity prevention task, where practitioners accessed support and evidence, and what approaches to support and evidence they found most useful. APPROACH OR DESIGN: Mixed-methods, cross-sectional interviews, and survey. State-level public health obesity prevention programs. Public health practitioners and CDC project officers. We conducted 10 in-depth interviews with public health practitioners (n = 7) and project officers (n = 3) followed by an online survey completed by 62 practitioners (50% response rate). We applied content analysis to interview data and descriptive statistics to survey data. Practitioners characterized obesity prevention as uncertain and complex, involving interdependence among actors, multiple levels of activity, an excess of information, and a paucity of evidence. Survey findings provide further detail on the types of evidence and support practitioners used and valued. We recommend approaches to tailoring evidence and support to the needs of practitioners working on obesity prevention and other complex health problems.

  6. The Interaction Effects of Gender and Grade Level on Secondary School Students' Attitude towards Learning Chemistry (United States)

    Heng, Chua Kah; Karpudewan, Mageswary


    This quantitative study reports the effects of gender and grade level on secondary students' attitude towards chemistry lessons. For this purpose, the Attitude towards Chemistry Lessons Scale (ATCLS) was administered to 446 secondary school students between 16-19 years old. The ATCLS consists of four different subscales: liking for chemistry…

  7. Testing Our Assumptions: The Role of First Course Grade and Course Level in Mathematics and English (United States)

    Callahan, Janet; Belcheir, Marcia


    Methods that provide an early indicator of factors that affect student persistence are important to colleges and universities. This quantitative research focused on the role of level of entry mathematics and English and also on grades earned in those classes, as they relate to persistence after 1 year. The research showed that by far, the variable…

  8. Turkish students' perceptions of their biology learning environments: the effects of gender and grade level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telli, S.; Brok, den P.J.; Tekkaya, C.; Cakiroglu, J.


    This study investigates the effects of gender and grade level on Turkish secondary school students’ perceptions of their biology learning environment. A total of 1474 high school students completed the What is Happening in This Classroom (WIHIC) questionnaire. The WIHIC maps several important

  9. Physical activity levels and motor skills of 5 th to 7 th grade students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical activity (PA) and motor skill levels (MS) (flexibility, balance, speed, sit-up, hand grip strength, standing long jump) were determined for 5th to 7th grade students from central schools in Nigde Province, Turkey according to age and gender and to investigate the relationships. PAL was determined by means of ...

  10. Effect of Graded Levels of Dates Dietary Fiber on Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of graded levels of dates dietary fiber on diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methodology: Rats were divided into eight groups, among which four groups (Groups 1-4) were normal and the other four groups were ...

  11. (Biased) Grading of Students’ Performance: Students’ Names, Performance Level, and Implicit Attitudes (United States)

    Bonefeld, Meike; Dickhäuser, Oliver


    Biases in pre-service teachers’ evaluations of students’ performance may arise due to stereotypes (e.g., the assumption that students with a migrant background have lower potential). This study examines the effects of a migrant background, performance level, and implicit attitudes toward individuals with a migrant background on performance assessment (assigned grades and number of errors counted in a dictation). Pre-service teachers (N = 203) graded the performance of a student who appeared to have a migrant background statistically significantly worse than that of a student without a migrant background. The differences were more pronounced when the performance level was low and when the pre-service teachers held relatively positive implicit attitudes toward individuals with a migrant background. Interestingly, only performance level had an effect on the number of counted errors. Our results support the assumption that pre-service teachers exhibit bias when grading students with a migrant background in a third-grade level dictation assignment. PMID:29867618

  12. The Effect of Project Based Learning on the Statistical Literacy Levels of Student 8th Grade (United States)

    Koparan, Timur; Güven, Bülent


    This study examines the effect of project based learning on 8th grade students' statistical literacy levels. A performance test was developed for this aim. Quasi-experimental research model was used in this article. In this context, the statistics were taught with traditional method in the control group and it was taught using project based…

  13. (Biased Grading of Students’ Performance: Students’ Names, Performance Level, and Implicit Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Bonefeld


    Full Text Available Biases in pre-service teachers’ evaluations of students’ performance may arise due to stereotypes (e.g., the assumption that students with a migrant background have lower potential. This study examines the effects of a migrant background, performance level, and implicit attitudes toward individuals with a migrant background on performance assessment (assigned grades and number of errors counted in a dictation. Pre-service teachers (N = 203 graded the performance of a student who appeared to have a migrant background statistically significantly worse than that of a student without a migrant background. The differences were more pronounced when the performance level was low and when the pre-service teachers held relatively positive implicit attitudes toward individuals with a migrant background. Interestingly, only performance level had an effect on the number of counted errors. Our results support the assumption that pre-service teachers exhibit bias when grading students with a migrant background in a third-grade level dictation assignment.

  14. Can ethnicity data collected at an organizational level be useful in addressing health and healthcare inequities? (United States)

    Browne, Annette J; Varcoe, Colleen M; Wong, Sabrina T; Smye, Victoria L; Khan, Koushambhi B


    Following arguments made in the USA, the UK and New Zealand regarding the importance of population-level ethnicity data in understanding health and healthcare inequities, health authorities in several Canadian provinces are considering plans to collect ethnicity data from patients at the point of care within selected healthcare organizations. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential quality, utility and relevance of ethnicity data collected at an organizational level as a means of addressing health and healthcare inequities. We draw on findings from a recent Canadian study that examined the implications of collecting ethnicity data in healthcare contexts. Using a qualitative design, data were collected in a large city, and included interviews with 104 patients, community and healthcare leaders, and healthcare workers within diverse clinical contexts. Data were analyzed using interpretive thematic analysis. Our results are discussed in relation to discourses reflected in the current literature that require consideration in relation to the potential utility and relevancy of ethnicity data collected at the point of care within healthcare organizations. These discourses frame excerpts from the ethnographic data that are used as illustrative examples. Three key challenges to the potential relevance and utility of ethnicity data collected at the level of local healthcare organizations are identified: (a) issues pertaining to quality of the data, (b) the fact that data quality is most problematic for those with the greatest vulnerability to the negative effects of health inequities, and (c) the lack of data reflecting structural disadvantages or discrimination. The quality of ethnicity data collected within healthcare organizations is often unreliable, particularly for people from racialized or visible minority groups, who are most at risk, seriously limiting the usefulness of the data. Quality measures for collecting data reflecting ethnocultural identity in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Esti Ari Prasetya


    consisted of 190 of higher grade students and 127 of lower grade students. Mann-Whitney U was used to analyse the data, considering that the data were not normally distributed. This test result showed that there was a significant difference between high school students with higher grade and lower grade (the Mann-Whitney U coefficient of 10,644, with z value of -1795, p <0.05 (p = 0036, 1-tailed, with students of lower grade tend to be more prone to experience learned-helplessness. Additional results from their subjective perception on their achievement were also discussed and so were the implications of the study.

  16. Grade Level Differences in High School Students' Conceptions of and Motives for Learning Science (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    Students' conceptions of learning science and their relations with motive for learning may vary as the education level increases. This study aimed to compare the quantitative patterns in students' conceptions of learning science (COLS) and motives for learning science (MLS) across grade levels by adopting two survey instruments. A total of 768 high school students were surveyed in Taiwan, including 204 eighth graders, 262 tenth graders, and 302 12th graders. In the current research, memorizing, testing, and calculating and practicing were categorized as reproductive conceptions of learning science, while increase of knowledge, applying, understanding and seeing-in-a-new-way were regarded as constructivist conceptions. The results of multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) revealed that conceptions of learning science are more constructivist as education level increases. Both tenth graders and 12th graders endorsed understanding, seeing-in-a-new-way, and the constructivist COLS composite more strongly than the eighth graders did. In addition, the results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis indicated that the positive relations between testing and reproductive COLS were stronger as the grade level increased, while the negative relations between reproductive COLS and deep motive were tighter with the increase in grade level.

  17. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence and Academic Burden Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Zhu


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (a to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children (n = 48,118 reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%. Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74–6.11, but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72–0.84, controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not (p<0.01. Policy makers should promote physical activity and help children find a balance between homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades.

  18. The Revised School Culture Elements Questionnaire: Gender and Grade Level Invariant? (United States)

    DeVaney, Thomas A.; Adams, Nan B.; Hill-Winstead, Flo; Trahan, Mitzi P.


    The purpose of this research was to examine the psychometric properties of the RSCEQ with respect to invariance across gender and grade level, using a sample of 901 teachers from 44 schools in southeast Louisiana. Reliability estimates were consistent with previous research and ranged from 0.81 to 0.90 on the actual and 0.83 to 0.92 on the…

  19. Teacher-to-Teacher Consultation: Facilitating Consistent and Effective Intervention across Grade Levels for Students with ADHD (United States)

    Gormley, Matthew J.; Dupaul, George J.


    Teacher-to-teacher consultation (TTC) is an extension of standard behavioral consultation that seeks to transfer an established and effective intervention across a grade-level transition by including teachers from both grade levels as conjoint consultees at the beginning of the second school year. The purpose of the current study was to determine…

  20. High pre-transplant soluble CD30 levels are predictive of the grade of rejection. (United States)

    Rajakariar, Ravindra; Jivanji, Naina; Varagunam, Mira; Rafiq, Mohammad; Gupta, Arun; Sheaff, Michael; Sinnott, Paul; Yaqoob, M M


    In renal transplantation, serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels in graft recipients are associated with increased rejection and graft loss. We investigated whether pre-transplant sCD30 concentrations are predictive of the grade of rejection. Pre-transplant sera of 51 patients with tubulointerstitial rejection (TIR), 16 patients with vascular rejection (VR) and an age-matched control group of 41 patients with no rejection (NR) were analyzed for sCD30. The transplant biopsies were immunostained for C4d. The median sCD30 level was significantly elevated in the group with VR (248 Units (U)/mL, range: 92-802) when compared with TIR (103 U/mL, range: 36-309, psCD30 levels compared to NR. Based on C4d staining, a TH2 driven process, the median sCD30 levels were significantly raised in C4d+ patients compared with C4d- group (177 U/mL vs. 120 U/mL, psCD30 levels measured at time of transplantation correlate with the grade of rejection. High pre-transplant levels are associated with antibody-mediated rejection which carries a poorer prognosis. sCD30 could be another tool to assess immunological risk prior to transplantation and enable a patient centered approach to immunosuppression.

  1. Views of Physics Teachers on How to Address the Declining Enrolment in Physics at the University Level (United States)

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Subramaniam, R.


    Teachers' views are worth hearing in order to get ideas on how to address the trend of declining enrolment in physics at the university level, which is regarded as a global problem. This study explores physics teachers' views on how to encourage more students to study physics at the university level. A sample of 166 physics teachers in Singapore…

  2. Does Grade Level Matter for the Assessment of Business Process Management Maturity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabryelczyk Renata


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to create and test the practical application of a business process management maturity assessment conducted at two different grade levels (management and professional level in an organization. The conceptual framework for this research includes creating a business process maturity indicator (BPMI for six process areas: strategy, documentation, optimization, implementation, execution, and controlling. The comparative analysis of the business process management maturity is performed using the BPMI on two cases: inside a single organization and the sector internally.

  3. Effects of multisensory resources on the achievement and science attitudes of seventh-grade suburban students taught science concepts on and above grade level (United States)

    Roberts, Patrice Helen

    This research was designed to determine the relationships among students' achievement scores on grade-level science content, on science content that was three years above-grade level, on attitudes toward instructional approaches, and learning-styles perceptual preferences when instructional approaches were multisensory versus traditional. The dependent variables for this investigation were scores on achievement posttests and scores on the attitude survey. The independent variables were the instructional strategy and students' perceptual preferences. The sample consisted of 74 educationally oriented seventh-grade students. The Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) (Dunn, Dunn, & Price, 1990) was administered to determine perceptual preferences. The control group was taught seventh-grade and tenth-grade science units using a traditional approach and the experimental group was instructed on the same units using multisensory instructional resources. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. The traditional unit included oral reading from the textbook, completing outlines, labeling diagrams, and correcting the outlines and diagrams as a class. The multisensory unit included five instructional stations established in different sections of the classroom to allow students to learn by: (a) manipulating Flip Chutes, (b) using Electroboards, (c) assembling Task Cards, (d) playing a kinesthetic Floor Game, and (e) reading an individual Programmed Learning Sequence. Audio tapes and scripts were provided at each location. Students circulated in groups of four from station to station. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of a multisensory, rather than a traditional approach, for teaching science content that is above-grade level. T-tests revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores (p < 0.0007). No significance was detected on grade-level achievement nor on the perceptual

  4. State - Level Regulation's Effectiveness in Addressing Global Climate Change and Promoting Solar Energy Deployment (United States)

    Peterman, Carla Joy

    Paper 1, Local Solutions to Global Problems: Climate Change Policies and Regulatory Jurisdiction, considers the efficacy of various types of environmental regulations when they are applied locally to pollutants whose damages extend beyond the jurisdiction of the local regulators. Local regulations of a global pollutant may be ineffective if producers and consumers can avoid them by transacting outside the reach of the local regulator. In many cases, this may involve the physical relocation of the economic activity, a problem often referred to as "leakage." This paper highlights another way in which local policies can be circumvented: through the shuffling of who buys from whom. The paper maintains that the problems of reshuffling are exacerbated when the options for compliance with the regulations are more flexible. Numerical analyses is presented demonstrating that several proposed policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions from the California electricity sector may have very little effect on carbon emissions if they are applied only within that state. Paper 1 concludes that although local subsidies for energy efficiency, renewable electricity, and transportation biofuels constitute attempts to pick technology winners, they may be the only mechanisms that local jurisdictions, acting alone, have at their disposal to address climate change. Paper 2, Pass-Through of Solar PV Incentives to Consumers: The Early Years of California's Solar PV Incentives, examines the pass through of incentives to California solar PV system owners. The full post-subsidy price consumers pay for solar power is a key metric of the success of solar PV incentive programs and of overall PV market performance. This study examines the early years of California's most recent wave of distributed solar PV incentives (2000-2008) to determine the pass-through of incentives. Examination of this period is both intellectually and pragmatically important due to the high level of incentives provided and

  5. ESCOLEX: a grade-level lexical database from European Portuguese elementary to middle school textbooks. (United States)

    Soares, Ana Paula; Medeiros, José Carlos; Simões, Alberto; Machado, João; Costa, Ana; Iriarte, Álvaro; de Almeida, José João; Pinheiro, Ana P; Comesaña, Montserrat


    In this article, we introduce ESCOLEX, the first European Portuguese children's lexical database with grade-level-adjusted word frequency statistics. Computed from a 3.2-million-word corpus, ESCOLEX provides 48,381 word forms extracted from 171 elementary and middle school textbooks for 6- to 11-year-old children attending the first six grades in the Portuguese educational system. Like other children's grade-level databases (e.g., Carroll, Davies, & Richman, 1971; Corral, Ferrero, & Goikoetxea, Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1009-1017, 2009; Lété, Sprenger-Charolles, & Colé, Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 156-166, 2004; Zeno, Ivens, Millard, Duvvuri, 1995), ESCOLEX provides four frequency indices for each grade: overall word frequency (F), index of dispersion across the selected textbooks (D), estimated frequency per million words (U), and standard frequency index (SFI). It also provides a new measure, contextual diversity (CD). In addition, the number of letters in the word and its part(s) of speech, number of syllables, syllable structure, and adult frequencies taken from P-PAL (a European Portuguese corpus-based lexical database; Soares, Comesaña, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, …, Machado, 2010; Soares, Iriarte, Almeida, Simões, Costa, França, …, Comesaña, in press) are provided. ESCOLEX will be a useful tool both for researchers interested in language processing and development and for professionals in need of verbal materials adjusted to children's developmental stages. ESCOLEX can be downloaded along with this article or from .

  6. Serum endocan levels before and after surgery on low-grade gliomas. (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Taner; Kemerdere, Rahsan; Inal, Berrin B; Yuksel, Odhan; Emre, Humeyra O; Ahmedov, Merdin; Baran, Oguz; Ates, Seda


    Endocan has been shown to be a marker for several cancers and may show degree of malignancy. The aim of this study is to assess serum levels of endocan before and after surgery on low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Endocan was assayed by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in a total of 19 patients and 12 controls. Serial serum samples were obtained before and after surgery (1 st day, 1 st week, and 1 st month of surgery). Control samples were collected from cord blood during cesarean section. The results were compared with control brain tissues. Controls showed significantly lower serum endocan levels compared to before and after surgery ( P < 0.05). There is a trend of increase in mean serum levels from before surgery and during the very early period after surgery (during first week); however, in the first month, mean serum levels became lower. Endocan, a vital molecule for angiogenesis, is highly expressed before and after surgery in LGGs, but long-term data is needed. Furthermore, future studies should include high-grade gliomas to discuss whether endocan is associated with recurrence and response to treatment.

  7. Enteral nutrition increases interstitial brain glucose levels in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois J; Beer, Ronny; Gaasch, Maxime; Rhomberg, Paul; Stover, John; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund


    Low brain tissue glucose levels after acute brain injury are associated with poor outcome. Whether enteral nutrition (EN) reliably increases cerebral glucose levels remains unclear. In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected observational data, we investigate the effect of EN on brain metabolism in 17 poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients undergoing cerebral microdialysis (CMD) monitoring. CMD-values were obtained hourly. A nutritional intervention was defined as the clinical routine administration of EN without supplemental parenteral nutrition. Sixty-three interventions were analyzed. The mean amount of EN per intervention was 472.4 ± 10.7 kcal. CMD-glucose levels significantly increased from 1.59 ± 0.13 mmol/l at baseline to a maximum of 2.03 ± 0.2 mmol/l after 5 h (p  40) and the microdialysis probe location. The increase in CMD-glucose was directly dependent on the magnitude of increase of serum glucose levels (p = 0.007). No change in CMD-lactate, CMD-pyruvate, CMD-LPR, or CMD-glutamate (p > 0.4) was observed. Routine EN also increased CMD-glucose even if baseline concentrations were critically low ( < 0.7 mmol/l, neuroglucopenia; p < 0.001). These results may have treatment implications regarding glucose management of poor-grade aneurysmal SAH patients.

  8. CHEMICAL WEAPONS: DoD Does Not Have a Strategy to Address Low-Level Exposures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The possible exposure of U.S. troops to low levels of chemical warfare agents in Iraq in the weeks after the Gulf War ceasefire, along with chemical warfare prophylaxis, vaccines, oil well fire emissions, and other battlefield...

  9. The Role of the A* Grade at a Level as a Predictor of University Performance in the United Kingdom (United States)

    Vidal Rodeiro, Carmen; Zanini, Nadir


    In summer 2010, the A* grade at A level was awarded for the first time. This grade was introduced to help higher education institutions to differentiate between the highest achieving candidates and to promote and reward greater stretch and challenge. Exploring data from the Higher Education Statistics Service and making use of multilevel…

  10. Fifth-Grade Turkish Elementary School Students' Listening and Reading Comprehension Levels with Regard to Text Types (United States)

    Yildirim, Kasim; Yildiz, Mustafa; Ates, Seyit; Rasinski, Timothy


    The aim of this study was to examine fifth grade elementary school students' listening and reading comprehension levels with regard to text types. This study was conducted on 180 fifth grade elementary school students in Sincan-Ankara in the spring semester of the academic year 2008-2009. The comprehension test was administered to students. The…

  11. Variation of Student Numerical and Figural Reasoning Approaches by Pattern Generalization Type, Strategy Use and Grade Level (United States)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad


    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…

  12. The Prediction of Reading Levels between Second and Third Grade Limited English Proficient Students in a Bilingual Program (United States)

    Moses, Britani Creel


    The purpose of this study was to predict the third grade English reading TAKS scores while considering the same students' native language, Spanish, reading level as assessed by a state-approved reading assessment, the Evaluacion del desarrollo de la lectura (EDL), from the end of the second grade year. In addition, this study was been designed to…

  13. Learning Achievement and the Efficiency of Learning the Concept of Vector Addition at Three Different Grade Levels (United States)

    Gubrud, Allan R.; Novak, Joseph D.


    Empirical data relate to Bruner's and Ausubel's theories of learning concepts at different age levels. The concept of vector addition was taught to eighth, ninth, and tenth grade students. The concept was learned and retained by high ability ninth and all tenth grade students. (PS)

  14. The Stability of School Effectiveness Indices across Grade Levels and Subject Areas. (United States)

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Anderson, Lorin W.


    School effectiveness indices based on regressing achievement test scores onto earlier scores and a socioeconomic status measure were obtained for South Carolina students in grades one to four. Results were unstable across grades, and grade-to-grade correlations were more significant for mathematics achievement than for reading. (Author/GDC)

  15. A Study of Light Level Effect on the Accuracy of Image Processing-based Tomato Grading (United States)

    Prijatna, D.; Muhaemin, M.; Wulandari, R. P.; Herwanto, T.; Saukat, M.; Sugandi, W. K.


    Image processing method has been used in non-destructive tests of agricultural products. Compared to manual method, image processing method may produce more objective and consistent results. Image capturing box installed in currently used tomato grading machine (TEP-4) is equipped with four fluorescence lamps to illuminate the processed tomatoes. Since the performance of any lamp will decrease if its service time has exceeded its lifetime, it is predicted that this will affect tomato classification. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum light levels which affect classification accuracy. This study was conducted by varying light level from minimum and maximum on tomatoes in image capturing boxes and then investigates its effects on image characteristics. Research results showed that light intensity affects two variables which are important for classification, for example, area and color of captured image. Image processing program was able to determine correctly the weight and classification of tomatoes when light level was 30 lx to 140 lx.

  16. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste. (United States)

    Kermisch, Celine


    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  17. No differences in grades or level of satisfaction in a flipped classroom for neuroanatomy. (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar Petter


    The intensive nature of a 5- or 6-week teaching block poses unique problems for adequate delivery of content. This study was designed to compare the delivery of a unit of undergraduate neuroanatomy in a short summer school period, as a traditionally taught unit, with a rendition given in the form of the "Flipped Classroom." The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom in the intensive mode classroom. The flipped classroom encompassed the same learning outcomes, but students were responsible for covering the content at home in preparation for tutorials that applied their acquired knowledge to higher levels of thinking. The main outcome measures were the final course grades and the level of satisfaction with the course. There were no significant differences between the 2 cohorts in final grades (p = .259), self-rated knowledge (p = .182), or overall satisfaction with the course (p = .892). This particular design of the flipped classroom did not add value to the intensive mode experience. It may be that this mode of delivery is ill suited to intensive classes for subjects that carry a lot of content. The use of the flipped classroom requires further research to fully evaluate its value.

  18. Anticipating and addressing workplace static magnetic field effects at levels <0.5 mT. (United States)

    Emery, R J; Hopkins, J R; Charlton, M A


    Magnetic resonance, once a research tool limited to the basic sciences, has experienced an increase in popularity due to its unique ability to analyze certain living systems in vivo. Expanding applications in the biomedical sciences have resulted in magnetic sources being located in research institutions nationally. Space and resource limitations sometimes necessitate siting magnetic resonance units in proximity to other institutional operations. For magnetic field shielding and personnel protection considerations, the generally accepted 0.5 mT (milliTesla) limit for implanted cardiac devices is commonly used as the conservative basis for decisions. But the effects of magnetic fields on equipment can be easily observed at levels far below 0.5 mT, often resulting in concern and apprehension on the part of personnel in the surrounding areas. Responding to recurrent worker concerns spawned by noticeable effects on equipment at exposure levels information, practicing radiation safety professionals can better anticipate facility incompatibility issues and improve their responses to worker concerns initiated by observed effects on equipment.

  19. Sensitivity of anterior pituitary hormones to graded levels of psychological stress. (United States)

    Armario, A; Lopez-Calderón, A; Jolin, T; Castellanos, J M


    The effect of graded levels of stressor intensity on anterior pituitary hormones was studied in adult male rats. Corticosterone, considered as a reflection of ACTH release, and prolactin responses showed a good correlation with the intensity of the stressors. On the contrary, neither LH, GH nor TSH release showed a parallelism with the intensity of the stressors in spite of the fact that they clearly responded to all the stimuli. It appears that the hormones of the anterior pituitary might be divided into two groups: those whose response is sensitive to the levels of emotional arousal elicited by stress, and those displaying a clear but stereotyped response during stress. However, other alternative explanations might exist to justify the present results. The neural mechanisms underlying the two types of response are at present unknown. These data indicate that only the pituitary-adrenal axis and prolactin have some potential utilities as quantitative indices of emotional arousal elicited by currently applied stressors in the rat.

  20. Population-level associations between preschool vulnerability and grade-four basic skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo D'Angiulli


    Full Text Available This is a predictive validity study examining the extent to which developmental vulnerability at kindergarten entry (as measured by the Early Development Instrument, EDI is associated with children's basic skills in 4th grade (as measured by the Foundation Skills Assessment, FSA.Relative risk analysis was performed on a large database linking individual-level EDI ratings to the scores the same children obtained on a provincial assessment of academic skills (FSA--Foundation Skills Assessment four years later. We found that early vulnerability in kindergarten is associated with the basic skills that underlie populations of children's academic achievement in reading, writing and math, indicating that the Early Development Instrument permits to predict achievement-related skills four years in advance.The EDI can be used to predict children's educational trends at the population level and can help select early prevention and intervention programs targeting pre-school populations at minimum cost.

  1. Linguistic Resources Used in Grade 8 Students' Submicro Level Explanations—Science Items from TIMSS 2007 (United States)

    Frändberg, Birgitta; Lincoln, Per; Wallin, Anita


    Explanations involving submicro levels of representation are central to science education, but known to be difficult for students in secondary school. This study examines students' written explanations of physical and chemical phenomena regarding matter and changes in matter, in a large-scale test. This is done in order to understand linguistic challenges in constructing submicro level explanations involving the particle model of matter. Drawing from systemic functional linguistics, the lexicogrammatics used in explanations for realising experiential meaning in student explanations were analysed. We used answers to two partly constructed response items from the Swedish part of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies 2007, grade 8, to sort out explanations referring to the particle model of matter. These answers (86 from 954) were analysed regarding choices of vocabulary and grammar to distinguish between macro and submicro level of representation. The results show that students use a wide variety of lexicogrammatical resources to realise what happens on both macro and submicro level of representation, with greater diversity of verbs on the submicro level of explanation. The results suggest an uncertainty about the distinction between macro and submicro level of explanation.

  2. Librarians and Scientists Partner to Address Data Management: Taking Collaboration to the Next Level. (United States)

    Medina-Smith, Andrea; Tryka, Kimberly A; Silcox, Barbara P; Hanisch, Robert J


    This study looks at the changing way in which the Information Services Office (ISO) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides services to NIST scientific and technical staff throughout their research and publishing cycles. These services include the more traditional services of a research library as well as publishing NIST technical reports and The Journal of Research of NIST , and preserving and exhibiting scientific instruments and other artifacts. ISO has always prided itself on having a close relationship with its customers, providing a high level of service, and developing new services to stay in front of NIST researcher needs. Through a concerted, strategic effort since the late 1990s, ISO has developed and promoted relationships with its key customers through its Lab Liaison Program. This paper discusses the relationship ISO has developed with the Office of Data and Informatics (ODI), how this relationship was forged, and how this collaboration will serve as a model for working with the other labs and programs at NIST. It will also discuss the risks and opportunities of this new collaborative service model, how ISO positioned itself to become an equal partner with ODI in the exploration of solutions to data management issues, and the benefits of the relationship from ODI's perspective. A pattern of strategic changes to the services and activities offered by the Lab Liaison program has put ISO in the position to collaborate as peers with researchers at NIST. This study provides an overview of how ISO made strategic decisions to incorporate non-traditional services to support data management at NIST.

  3. Analysis of facility needs level in architecture studio for students’ studio grades (United States)

    Lubis, A. S.; Hamid, B.; Pane, I. F.; Marpaung, B. O. Y.


    Architects must be able to play an active role and contribute to the realization of a sustainable environment. Architectural education has inherited many education research used qualitative and quantitative methods. The data were gathered by conducting (a) observation,(b) interviews, (c) documentation, (d) literature study, and (e) Questionnaire. The gathered data were analyzed qualitatively to find out what equipment needed in the learning process in the Architecture Studio, USU. Questionnaires and Ms. Excel were used for the quantitative analysis. The tabulation of quantitative data would be correlated with the students’ studio grades. The result of the research showed that equipment with the highest level of needs was (1) drawing table, (2) Special room for each student, (3) Internet Network, (4) Air Conditioning, (5) Sufficient lighting.

  4. Relationship of word- and sentence-level working memory to reading and writing in second, fourth, and sixth grade. (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D; Swanson, H Lee; Lovitt, Dan; Trivedi, Pam; Lin, Shin-Ju Cindy; Gould, Laura; Youngstrom, Marci; Shimada, Shirley; Amtmann, Dagmar


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of working memory at the word and sentence levels of language to reading and writing outcomes. Measures of working memory at the word and sentence levels, reading and writing, were administered to 2nd (N = 122), 4th (N = 222), and 6th (N = 105) graders. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate whether the 2 predictor working memory factors contributed unique variance beyond their shared covariance to each of 5 outcome factors: handwriting, spelling, composing, word reading, and reading comprehension. At each grade level, except for handwriting and composing in 6th grade, the word-level working memory factor contributed unique variance to each reading and writing outcome. The text-level working memory factor contributed unique variance to reading comprehension in 4th and 6th grade. The clinical significance of these findings for assessment and intervention is discussed.

  5. Effects of Graded Levels of Montmorillonite on Performance, Hematological Parameters and Bone Mineralization in Weaned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. W. Duan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of montmorillonite, a constituent of clay, on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty, 35-d-old crossbred pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace, 10.50±1.20 kg were used in a 28-d experiment and fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0% montmorillonite added at the expense of wheat bran. Each treatment was replicated six times with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts per replicate. Feed intake declined (linear and quadratic effect, p< 0.01 with increasing level of montmorillonite while feed conversion was improved (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01. Daily gain was unaffected by dietary treatment. Plasma myeloperoxidase declined linearly (p = 0.03 with increasing dietary level of montmorillonite. Plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were quadratically affected (p<0.01 by montmorillonite with increases observed for pigs fed the 0.5 and 1.0% levels which then declined for pigs fed the 2.5 and 5.0% treatments. In bone, the content of potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese and magnesium were decreased (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01 in response to an increase of dietary montmorillonite. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of montmorillonite at levels as high as 5.0% does not result in overt toxicity but could induce potential oxidative damage and reduce bone mineralization in pigs.

  6. Acceptable contamination levels in solar grade silicon: From feedstock to solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, J.; Lelievre, J.F.; Canizo, C.; Luque, A. del


    Ultimately, alternative ways of silicon purification for photovoltaic applications are developed and applied. There is an ongoing debate about what are the acceptable contamination levels within the purified silicon feedstock to specify the material as solar grade silicon. Applying a simple model and making some additional assumptions, we calculate the acceptable contamination levels of different characteristic impurities for each fabrication step of a typical industrial mc-Si solar cell. The acceptable impurity concentrations within the finished solar cell are calculated for SRH recombination exclusively and under low injection conditions. It is assumed that during solar cell fabrication impurity concentrations are only altered by a gettering step. During the crystallization process, impurity segregation at the solid-liquid interface and at extended defects are taken into account. Finally, the initial contamination levels allowed within the feedstock are deduced. The acceptable concentration of iron in the finished solar cell is determined to be 9.7x10 -3 ppma whereas the concentration in the silicon feedstock can be as high as 12.5 ppma. In comparison, the titanium concentration admitted in the solar cell is calculated to be 2.7x10 -4 ppma and the allowed concentration of 2.2x10 -2 ppma in the feedstock is only two orders of magnitude higher. Finally, it is shown theoretically and experimentally that slow cooling rates can lead to a decrease of the interstitial Fe concentration and thus relax the purity requirements in the feedstock.

  7. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways. (United States)

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex


    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti-ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF-α, leptin and IGF-1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes.

  8. First grade classroom-level adversity: Associations with teaching practices, academic skills, and executive functioning. (United States)

    Abry, Tashia; Granger, Kristen L; Bryce, Crystal I; Taylor, Michelle; Swanson, Jodi; Bradley, Robert H


    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a model-building approach, the authors examined direct and indirect associations between first-grade (G1) classroom-level adversity (CLA), G1 teaching practices, and student (N = 1,073; M = 6.64 years; 49% girls; 82% White) academic skills and executive functioning in G1 and third grades (G3). Teachers reported the prevalence of adversity among their students (e.g., poor home/family life, poor academic/social readiness). Observers rated G1 teaching practices: teachers' classroom management, controlling instruction, and amount of academic instruction (classroom observation system). Children completed literacy and math assessments at 54 months, G1, and G3 (Woodcock Johnson Letter-Word Identification and Applied Problems), and executive functioning at G1 and G3 (Tower of Hanoi). Direct associations emerged between CLA and controlling instruction (positive), classroom management, and academic instruction (both negative). In addition, CLA was related to G1 literacy (but not math) directly and indirectly via classroom management (negatively) and controlling instruction (positively). The addition of G3 outcomes revealed a negative direct longitudinal association between CLA and G3 executive functioning, and indirect associations with G3 literacy and math through G1 teaching practices and literacy. Results support the notion that collective student characteristics influence student outcomes in part through teaching practices and suggest that teachers and students may benefit from the diffusion of high-adversity classroom compositions when possible. Moreover, in high-adversity classrooms teachers and students may benefit from supports targeting classroom management and foundational student competencies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Can delayed time to referral to a tertiary level urologist with an abnormal PSA level affect subsequent Gleason grade in the opportunistically screened population?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Kelly, Fardod


    There is growing conflict in the literature describing the effect of delayed treatment on outcomes following radical prostatectomy. There is also evidence to suggest progression of low-risk prostate cancer to develop higher grades and volumes of prostate cancer during active surveillance. It is unknown as to what affect a delay in referral of those men with abnormal screened-PSA levels have on subsequent Gleason grade.

  10. Teachers' Motivating Methods to Support Thai Ninth Grade Students' Levels of Motivation and Learning in Mathematics Classrooms (United States)

    Nenthien, Sansanee; Loima, Jyrki


    The aims of this qualitative research were to investigate the level of motivation and learning of ninth grade students in mathematics classrooms in Thailand and to reveal how the teachers supported students' levels of motivation and learning. The participants were 333 students and 12 teachers in 12 mathematics classrooms from four regions of…

  11. Longitudinal Relationships of Levels of Language in Writing and between Writing and Reading in Grades 1 to 7 (United States)

    Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Fayol, Michel


    Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used to evaluate longitudinal relationships across adjacent grade levels 1 to 7 for levels of language in writing (Model 1, subword letter writing, word spelling, and text composing) or writing and reading (Model 2, subword letter writing and word spelling and reading; Model 3, word spelling and…

  12. Grading A-Level Double Subject Mathematicians and the Implications for Selection. (United States)

    Newbould, Charles A.


    Test data were used to compare the grading of two forms of double mathematics: pure and applied math, and regular and advanced math. Results confirm expectations that in the former system, the grading is comparable, and in the latter, it is not necessarily comparable. Implications for student admission are discussed. (MSE)

  13. inaugral address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While political reorientation and economic redress were of immediate concern, ... South African context, where widespread changes have been proposed for education at all ... education at school and other levels and needs to be addressed so as to ..... the major national curriculum intervention in environmental education.

  14. Change in the level of strength and endurance development of 5-6 grades pupils under cheerleading exercises influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Bala


    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the degree of change in the level of strength and endurance development of 5-6 grades pupils under cheerleading exercises influence. Material and Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment and mathematical statistics methods. Results: parameters of strength and endurance development level are presented with their degree of change under cheerleading exercises influence for 5-6 grades pupils of secondary school. Conclusions: cheerleading exercises usage has positive influence on demonstrated strength and endurance degree of secondary school children by all investigated parameters.

  15. The Effect of Group Counseling Program on 8th Grade Students’ Assertiveness Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail SEÇER


    Full Text Available This study is conducted to determine the effects of group counseling program on elementary school 8th grade students’ assertiveness skills. Study group was formed of 100 students getting educated in Erzurum Kültür Elementary School in 2011-2012 education years. RAE-Rathus Assertiveness Schedule was applied on this group to gather data. 30 students getting lower scores from the inventory have been randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Each group is formed of 15 students. Group counseling program has been carried out for 8 weeks on the experimental group to improve the students’ assertiveness skills. Single-way and two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA has been used in the analysis of the data. The data is analyzed with SPSS 19.00. The results of the study show that assertiveness skills of the students who participate in the group counseling program has increased significantly compared to the control group and to the preexperimental circumstances. Besides, it is determined that the change observed in the experimental group has been occurred separately from the age and socio-economic level variables, and it is determined with the monitoring test applied after four months that this affect is continued. According to this result, it can be said that the applied group counseling program is an effective means to improve the assertiveness skills of elementary school students

  16. The management of moderation of school based assessment at Grade 12 level in the Gauteng province



    D.Phil. In 2000, the incumbent Minister of Education, Professor Kader Asmal, mandated the inclusion of school based assessment (SBA) as a component of Senior Certificate (Grade 12) assessment across all examining bodies in the country. Prior to this, the Senior Certificate (Grade 12) examination was a “once off” terminal examination at the end of twelve years of schooling. The rationale for the inclusion of SBA as a component of the Senior Certificate (Grade 12) was to remove the focus fro...

  17. Performance and cost-benefits of weaner rabbits fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Moringa has been acclaimed to be beneficial especially in livestock production. Its leaves and green fresh pods are said to be rich in carotene and ascorbic acid with a good profile of amino acids while its twigs are reported to be very palatable to ruminants and have appreciable crude protein levels. However, Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM has been observed to contain higher pepsin and total soluble protein than other parts of the plant which makes it more suitable to monogastric animals. MOLM has been widely used in poultry production but with limited use in rabbits� diets; hence this study was conducted to determine the performance of weaner rabbits fed graded levels of MOLM. A total of 48 unsexed weaner rabbits of mean initial weight of 744.56�29.25 g were assigned to 4 experimental diets, namely T1, T2, T3 and T4 containing 0%, 15%, 30% and 45% MOLM, respectively, having 3 replicates and 4 animals per replicate. The results showed that the dry matter intake of T1-T4 ranged 53.17 - 55.31g/day. Though not significant, highest crude protein digestibility coefficient was recorded for experimental animals on diet T4 (71.36% followed by diets T1 (69.67%, T2 (69.17%, T3 (68.25%, respectively. The keel length for T1, T2, T3, and T4 rabbits were 225.39, 201.64, 246.66 and 217.26cm, respectively Rabbits fed 30% MOLM were found to be most profitable numerically (N1320.10 while the least profit was obtained with 0% MOLM with N1305.40. Hence, it can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM can replace soya bean meal up to 45% in the nutrition of weaner rabbits.

  18. Impact Pathways to Address Social Well-Being and Social Justice in SLCA—Fair Wage and Level of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Neugebauer


    Full Text Available Social well-being and social justice are meant to create a positive outcome meaningful for people and societies. According to the guidelines of social life cycle assessment, especially well-being should be considered as the main area of protection to assess social impacts of products. In addition, equity and equality need to be addressed in terms of social justice to ensure a fair and ethic society. However, even if a lot of studies focused on the definition social indicators to assess resulting impacts, neither have scientific or common agreements been founded to define a valid set of indicators, nor have consistent pathways from inventory towards impact indicators been established. This work, therefore, proposes possible pathways from life cycle inventory to impact assessment of two social midpoint categories: fair wage and level of education. Respective cause-effect-chains are developed based on the environmental life cycle assessment principle. Correspondingly, social inventory indicators throughout direct impacts to midpoint and endpoint categories are defined. Three endpoint categories are included (economic welfare, damage to human health and environmental stability to address social well-being and social justice. Qualitative characterization factors and a scaling method are proposed to evaluate the impacts according to threshold and reference values from valuable literature.

  19. The Relationship between Readability Level of Mississippi's Middle Schools' Websites and Seventh Grade Language Arts MCT2 Scores (United States)

    Pickard, Anna Marlene Graves


    Today's educators face the unprecedented challenge of increasing achievement for all students. One response has been to increase and improve parent involvement and school-to-home communication through the use of school websites. The quantitative section of this study analyzed the readability grade level of the website as it relates to state test…

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Multiple Intelligence Theory with Relationship to Gender and Grade Level in Selected Schools in Ghana (United States)

    Oteng, Ellen N.


    This dissertation examined the relationships between Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory and students' gender, age, grade level, and enrollment into a public or private school. The research determined students' dominant intelligences and investigated whether students' intelligences may be influenced by demographic variables such as…

  1. Effect of Fermented Cocoa Pod Husk Level in Concentrate on Etawah Grade Semen Quality (United States)

    Munier, F. F.


    The purpose of study was to determine the effect of fermented CPH supplementation level in concentrate toward semen quality of Etawah Grade Buck (EGB). This research was conducted from August to October, 2011 at experiment pen and Feeds Science Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah, Yogyakarta. Semen was collected from 4 heads of EGB with about 2 years old and weight approximately of 24 kg. Concentrate was main material of CPH fermentation with composition P0 0, P1 20%, P2 40% and P3 60% from total of ration. The composer was used by the Aspergillus niger BPT with density 9.1 × 107 of colony/g as many as 1% of CPH material (on dry matter). Semen collection was done every 1 time/week and to be done five times semen collection. An examination was consisting of volume, color, smell, consistency, and the pH. Meanwhile, for microscopic examination was motion of mass, individual, motility, viability of spermatozoa. pH of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were 6.95, 7.03, 7.50 and 7.79, respectively. Mass movement of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were +++, +++, ++ and ++, while viability of P0, P1, P2 and P3 were 79.57%, 79.47%, 59.97% and 51.13%, respectively. It was concluded that addition of CPH fermentation in concentrates up to 20% for of EGB has not affect to feed consumption but it has affect to decreasing of semen quality in both of microscopic and microscopic.

  2. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed Hibiscus Sabdariffa in Graded Level. (United States)

    Adenkola, A Y; Oluremi, O I A


    This study was conducted for 10 weeks with the aim of investigating the erythrocyte membrane integrity as measured by erythrocyte osmotic fragility and excitability scores of rabbits fed graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx (HSC). Twenty weaners' rabbit of both sexes were used for the study and were placed on four experimental diets which contain the following percentages of HSC 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, as feed additive and were added at 0 g, 62.5 g, 125 g, 187.5 g designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 experimental diets. Excitability scores were measured weekly as described by Voisnet et al. (1997). At the end of the experiment, the rabbits were slaughtered by severing the jugular vein. A Blood sample (2 ml) was collected from each rabbit into sampled bottles, containing the Na EDTA as anticoagulant for hematological analysis. Packed cell volume (PCV) Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Total red blood cell (RBC) count, Total leukocyte count as well as differential leukocyte was determined using standard method. The percentage haemolysis recorded at 0.3 % to 0.8 % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rabbits in T1 compared to the remaining 3 diets. The result of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on diets 3 and 4 with a value of 65.5 ± 5.0 and 70.00 ± 5.50 % respectively. In conclusion this study demonstrated for the first time that chronic administration of HSC improves haematological parameters, brain mood and function as well as maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity.

  3. Hierarchical Effects of School-, Classroom-, and Student-Level Factors on the Science Performance of Eighth-Grade Taiwanese Students (United States)

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Yang, Chih-Chien


    This study was conducted to understand the effect of student-, classroom-, and school-level factors on the science performance of 8th-grade Taiwanese students in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 by using multilevel analysis. A total of 5,042 students from 153 classrooms of 150 schools participated in the TIMSS 2011 study, in which they were required to complete questionnaires. A 3-level multilevel analysis was used to assess the influence of factors at 3 levels on the science performance of 8th-grade Taiwanese students. The results showed that the provision of education resources at home, teachers' level of education, and school climate were the strongest predictor of science performance at the student, classroom, and school level, respectively. It was concluded that the science performance of 8th-grade Taiwanese students is driven largely by individual factors. Classroom-level factors accounted for a smaller proportion of the total variance in science performance than did school-level factors.

  4. A critical appraisal of standard guidelines for grading levels of evidence. (United States)

    Gugiu, P Cristian; Gugiu, Mihaiela Ristei


    Over the past 30 years, a general consensus has emerged within the medical community regarding the essential role served by grading guidelines in evaluating the quality of evidence produced by a medical research study. Specifically, consensus exists regarding the hierarchy of evidence, where randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the ''gold standard'' followed by nonrandomized controlled trials (non-RCTs) and uncontrolled trials. As guidelines have become more sophisticated, processes have been developed for downgrading poorly conducted studies and upgrading strong studies. Lists of threats to internal validity have been disseminated, thereby assisting reviewers in grading studies. However, despite these many accomplishments, considerable issues remain unresolved with respect to how to evaluate the strength of evidence produced by flawed RCTs versus well-conducted non-RCTs. The purpose of this article is to evaluate existing evidence-based grading guidelines and to offer suggestions for how such guidelines may be improved.

  5. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players. (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T


    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  6. Different behavioral patterns of success for men and women in an online introductory science course: Addressing the course grade gender gap (United States)

    Mead, C.; Horodyskyj, L.; Buxner, S.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.


    In this study, we explore how data provided by an online learning environment can provide fine-grained behavioral context for the performance gender gap commonly observed in introductory college science courses. Previous studies reported that women earn lower grades than men in such courses, often ascribed to reduced engagement and resilience driven by sociocultural causes, such as stereotype threat. This may be exacerbated in courses graded primarily based on high-stakes exams. Here, we use student data (n = 1121) from Habitable Worlds, an online laboratory science course, to identify behavioral differences between men and women. In Habitable Worlds, students earn points from 30 "trainings," which are scored on completion, and 30 "applications," which are scored on correctness. The lack of high-stakes cumulative exams represents a valuable contrast with typical science courses in which gender gaps have been reported. Our data indicate that a gender gap exists even for these low-stakes assessments. Results of a generalized linear model show that course success among women is much more strongly predicted by training scores than by application scores, while those factors have roughly equal predictive value among men. Predicted success among women is also modulated by the total number of attempts made on questions throughout the course, where more attempts implies lower success (holding other factors constant). This relationship is non-significant for men. Our interpretation of these model results is that obstacles such as stereotype threat represent a tax for women on effort and engagement, such that equivalent effort yields lesser success than for men. Thus, the women who do succeed differ sharply from lower performing women on indicators of effort. Future work should build on this result both as an indicator of conditions under which women are more likely to succeed and as a way to more quickly identify students who may struggle.

  7. The Perpetration of School Violence in Taiwan: An Analysis of Gender, Grade Level and School Type (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi


    Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study aims to describe the prevalence of perpetration of school violence in Taiwan. The study explores how gender, age and school type relate to students' perpetration of violence in an Asian culture context. The sample included 14,022 students from elementary to high schools in grades 4 to…

  8. Secondary Schools Curriculum Guide, Mathematics, Grades 10-12, Levels 87-112. (United States)

    Rogers, Arnold R., Ed.; And Others

    Behavioral objectives for geometry, algebra, computer mathematics, trigonometry, analytic geometry, calculus, and probability are specified for grades 10 through 12. General objectives are stated for major areas under each topic and are followed by a list of specific objectives for that area. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

  9. Impact of School Violence on Youth Alcohol Abuse: Differences Based on Gender and Grade Level (United States)

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…

  10. Implementation of Case-Based Instruction on Electrochemistry at the 11th Grade Level (United States)

    Tarkin, Aysegul; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen


    This study aims to compare the effectiveness of case-based instruction over traditional instruction in improving 11th grade students' understanding of electrochemistry concepts, attitudes toward chemistry, chemistry self-efficacy beliefs, and motivation to learn chemistry. In total, 113 students (47 males and 66 females) from three high schools…

  11. Rad51 expression levels predict synthetic lethality and metastatic potential in high grade breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegmans, A.P.; Al-Ejeh, F.; Khanna, K.K.


    Among women with breast cancer, 30-40% will develop metastatic disease and only achieve an overall survival of less than 5 years. Despite new-targeted therapy, breast tumors that harbour similar histology or molecular phenotype differ in their response to treatment. To uncover potential new therapeutic targets and improve outcome, we performed data mining of cancer micro array databases. We found that high expression of the homologous recombination protein, RAD51, was significantly associated with high-grade breast cancer, aggressive subtypes and increased risk of metastasis. We confirmed using immunohistochemistry that RAD5 1 was highly expressed in metastatic tumours and high-grade triple negative, HER2+ and luminal-B tumours. This provided a rationale for targeting RAD5 1 in high-grade, therapy-resistant breast cancers. Here, we report for the first time preclinical evaluation of RAD5 1 as a therapeutic target. We found that, in-vitro high RAD5 expressing cell lines were resistant to PARP inhibitor while knockdown reversed this resistance. In-vivo, knockdown of RAD5 1 inhibited metastatic progression using a syngeneic breast cancer model and the seeding of human xenografts to distant sites, including brain and lung. Concurrent PARP inhibition reduced primary tumor growth and delayed metastasis supporting synthetic lethality in-vivo. Together these insights provide pre-clinical data demonstrating RAD5 1 as a new biomarker and potential therapeutic target against aggressive metastatic breast cancer. (author)

  12. The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students (United States)

    Curry, Steven James


    This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…

  13. Multiaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Failures of Grade 91 and Haynes 230 Alloys Toward Addressing Design Issues of Gen IV Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Tasnim [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Lissenden, Cliff [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Carroll, Laura [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The proposed research will develop systematic sets of uniaxial and multiaxial experimental data at a very high temperature (850-950°C) for Alloy 617. The loading histories to be prescribed in the experiments will induce creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting failure mechanisms. These experimental responses will be scrutinized in order to quantify the influences of temperature and creep on fatigue and ratcheting failures. A unified constitutive model (UCM) will be developed and validated against these experimental responses. The improved UCM will be incorporated into the widely used finite element commercial software packages ANSYS. The modified ANSYS will be validated so that it can be used for evaluating the very high temperature ASME-NH design-by-analysis methodology for Alloy 617 and thereby addressing the ASME-NH design code issues.

  14. Multiaxial Creep-Fatigue and Creep-Ratcheting Failures of Grade 91 and Haynes 230 Alloys Toward Addressing Design Issues of Gen IV Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Tasnim; Lissenden, Cliff; Carroll, Laura


    The proposed research will develop systematic sets of uniaxial and multiaxial experimental data at a very high temperature (850-950°C) for Alloy 617. The loading histories to be prescribed in the experiments will induce creep-fatigue and creep-ratcheting failure mechanisms. These experimental responses will be scrutinized in order to quantify the influences of temperature and creep on fatigue and ratcheting failures. A unified constitutive model (UCM) will be developed and validated against these experimental responses. The improved UCM will be incorporated into the widely used finite element commercial software packages ANSYS. The modified ANSYS will be validated so that it can be used for evaluating the very high temperature ASME-NH design-by-analysis methodology for Alloy 617 and thereby addressing the ASME-NH design code issues.

  15. Evaluation of community level interventions to address social and structural determinants of health: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draper Alizon


    range of groups and organisational levels targeted by the intervention, and secondly, a degree of flexibility or tailoring of the intervention, makes this trial potentially very useful in providing evidence of the types of activities that can be used to address chronic health problems in communities suffering from multiple deprivation. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68175121

  16. Levels of some molecular and biochemical tumor markers in Egyptian patients with different grades and stages of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-elgoad, E.I.; Elkashef, H.S.; Hanfy, A.; El-maghraby, T.


    This study enrolled 64 patients with bladder cancer disease, 54 of them treated by surgery and 10 by radiotherapy. The patients were classified according to their clinical data that include infection with bilharziasis, grade, stage and type of tumor. The present study included determination of telomerase activity in tissue and urine using molecular methods and the levels of nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) and fibronectin in urine. The applied tumor markers showed significant differences in malignant patients compared to control. The same picture was noticed in case of patients received radiotherapy but less pronounced. The results revealed that there is significant correlation between the three tumor markers and the grade of tumor, while NMP22 and fibronectin correlated with stage. Moreover, fibronectin only have significant correlation with the infection with the bilharziasis. The results indicated that determination of telomerase, fibronectin and NMP22 can give clear idea about the development of malignancy and may help in the prediction of cancer recurrence

  17. The results of STEM education methods in physics at the 11th grade level: Light and visual equipment lesson (United States)

    Tungsombatsanti, A.; Ponkham, K.; Somtoa, T.


    This research aimed to: 1) To evaluate the efficiency of the process and the efficiency of the results (E1 / E2) of the innovative instructional lesson plan in the form of the STEM Education method in the field of physics of secondary students at the 10th grade level in physics class to determine the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria of the 70/70 standard level. 2) To study students' critical thinking skills of secondary students at the 11th grade level, and assessing skill in criteria 80 percentage 3) To compare learning achievements between students' pre-post testing after taught in STEM Education 4) To evaluate Student' Satisfaction after using STEM Education teaching by using mean compare to 5 points Likert Scale. The participant used were 40 students from grade 11 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 11 students of 1 schemes with total of 15 hours, 2) The test of critical think skills with essay type in amount of 30 items, 3) achievement test on Light and visual equipment with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 16 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The results of these findings revealed that the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria indicate that are higher than the standard level of the 70/70 at 71.51/75 2) Student has critical thinking scores that are higher than criteria 80 percentage as amount is 26 people. 3) Statistically significant of students' learning achievements to their later outcomes were differentiated between pretest and posttest at the .05 level, evidently. 4) The student' level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a good level (X ¯ = 4.33, S.D = 0.64).

  18. Assessment of primary school students’ level of understanding the concepts of 2nd grade life sciences course based on different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altıntaş Gülşen


    Full Text Available The course of Life Sciences is one of the pivot courses taught in the first three years of primary school. Ensuring children get to know their environment and gain correct information related to their problems by making them investigate their natural and socio-cultural environment as well as providing them with necessary information, skills and behaviors for environmental adaptation are among the main purposes of Life Sciences course. The concepts to be instilled in students in line with these purposes are important. Since concepts are mostly intellectual and non-physical, they can only exist tangibly through examples. This study aims to assess Primary School Students’ Level of Understanding the Concepts of 2nd Grade Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables. 17 concepts included in the 2nd Grade Life Sciences course within the subject of School Excitement were addressed within the study, and students were requested to define and exemplify these concepts. A total of 102 students from five different primary schools of upper-middle and lower socioeconomic classes located in Manisa and Istanbul were included in the study in line with the intentional maximum diversity sample selection. The answers given by students for each concept were categorized and analyzed in terms of liking or disliking home, school, technology and the course of Life Sciences.

  19. A Global Perspective on Virtual Reality. Grade Levels 9-12. Technology in the Classroom. (United States)

    American Forum for Global Education, New York, NY.

    This activity packet addresses technology in the classroom, specifically using the Internet. It presents three activities that use the Internet as a resource: (1) "Whose Point of View" (the transfer of Hong Kong to Chinese control); (2) "Where to Look" (an earthquake in Afghanistan); and (3) "Research Project: The Pros and Cons of Free Trade."…

  20. Educators' Perceptions of Teaching Grade-Level Content to Students with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Carlson, Christina V.


    The purpose of this study was to address a gap in the research literature by describing the perceptions of Special Education teachers of students with intellectual disabilities (ID), regarding the paradigm shift required in their teaching practices as they strove to implement current educational reform legislation. Knowledge of the lived…

  1. Development of Chemistry Triangle Oriented Module on Topic of Reaction Rate for Senior High School Level Grade XI Chemistry Learning. (United States)

    Sari, D. R.; Hardeli; Bayharti


    This study aims to produce chemistry triangle oriented module on topic of reaction rate, and to reveal the validity and practicality level of the generated module. The type of research used is EducationalDesign Research (EDR) with development model is Plompmodel. This model consists of three phases, which are preliminary research, prototyping phase, and assessment phase. The instrument used in this research is questionnaire validity and practicality. The data of the research were analyzed by using Kappa Cohen formula. The chemistry triangle oriented module validation sheet was given to 5 validators consisting of 3 chemistry lecturers and 2 high school chemistry teachers, while the practicality sheet was given to 2 chemistry teachers, 6 students of SMAN 10 Padang grade XII MIA 5 on the small groupevaluation and 25 students of SMAN 10 Padang grade XII MIA 6 on the field test. Based on the questionnaire validity analysis, the validity level of the module is very high with the value of kappa moment 0.87. The level of practicality based on teacher questionnaire response is very high category with a kappa moment value 0.96. Based on the questionnaire of student responses on small group evaluation, the level of practicality is very high category with a kappa moment 0.81, and the practicality is very high category with kappa moment value 0.83 based on questionnaire of student response on field test.

  2. School and Child Level Predictors of Academic Success for African American Children in Third Grade: Implications for No Child Left behind (United States)

    Graves, Scott


    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of being at expected grade level in reading in the third grade. Participants for this study were a nationally representative sample of African American children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K). Multilevel modeling was conducted to determine significant predictors of academic…

  3. Classification of Living Things. A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development. Grades 7 and 8. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/55. (United States)

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    This manual is one of a series designed to assist junior high school teachers in developing general level or non-academic science programs which focus on the relationship between science and society. Although designed primarily for grades 7 and 8, the content is also suitable for students in grade 6. The major portion of the manual consists of six…

  4. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education. (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  5. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure (United States)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  6. Readmission after treatment of Grade 3 and 4 renal injuries at a Level I trauma center: Statewide assessment using the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. (United States)

    Winters, Brian; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B


    One criticism of the existing renal trauma research is the limited outpatient follow-up after index hospitalization. We assessed readmission rates following treatment for American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Grade 3 and 4 renal injury using the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System (CHARS). We evaluated all patients with AAST Grade 3 and 4 renal injuries admitted to Harborview Medical Center (HMC) between 1998 and 2010, the only Level 1 trauma center in Washington state. Grade 4 renal injuries were stratified by collecting system laceration (CSL) or segmental vascular injury. Data were abstracted from the CHARS database for readmissions to any Washington state hospital within 6 months of renal injury. Clinical variables, diagnoses, and procedures were queried based on DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes. A total of 477 Grade 3 and 159 Grade 4 renal injuries were initially treated at HMC. On admission, 111 patients required intervention: 75 (16%) of 477 Grade 3 and 36 (23%) of 159 Grade 4 injuries. Within 6 months of index hospitalization, 86 (18%) of 477 Grade 3 and 38 (24%) of 159 Grade 4 patients were readmitted to any Washington state hospital. Eighty percent of Grade 3 injuries and 66% of Grade 4 injuries returned to HMC compared with secondary hospitals (p = 0.08). At readmission, 19 (22%) of 86 Grade 3 and 16 (42%) of 38 Grade 4 injuries had a urologic diagnosis. Subsequent procedural intervention was required on readmission in 6 (7%) of 86 Grade 3 and 5 (13%) of 38 Grade 4 renal injuries (all CSL injuries). A subset of patients treated for Grade 3 and 4 renal trauma will be readmitted for further management. While urologic diagnoses and additional procedures may be low overall, readmission to outside hospitals may preclude accurate determination of renal trauma outcomes. Based on these data, patients with Grade 4 CSL injuries seem to be at the highest risk for readmission and to require a subsequent

  7. High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It (United States)

    Akbas, Yavuz


    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…

  8. Effects of graded levels of iron-fortified locally produced natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although, dressing percentage was not affected (P>0.05) by the dietary levels, relative fresh organs and primal cut weights were different (P<0.05) for birds fed the various levels of LPNVP and the control birds fed CVMP-based diets. It was however cheaper (P<0.05) to use LPNVP than CVMP as a source of vitamin for ...

  9. Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein


    Full Text Available Dietary energy for chickens normally includes cereal grains and fat. This innovative study investigated the effect of replacing part of the corn and fat in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of sugar syrup on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soy basal diet alone, or with graded levels of sugar syrup in increments of 5%, 10% and 15%. All starter diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization of chicks fed the control diet alone were not significantly (P < 0.05 different from chicks fed diets supplemented with either 5% or 15% sugar syrup. Supplementation of sugar syrup to broiler diets had no significant effect on blood glucose, creatinine, total protein, or liver enzymes. Adding 5% sugar syrup to broiler rations significantly decreased blood cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens fed the sugar syrup diet compared with birds fed the control diet. In conclusion, the results shows sugar syrup can be used in poultry ration to replace part of the corn as a source of energy. These results allowed the authors to recommend the safe usage of sugar syrup in broiler rations.

  10. Student-Centred Teaching Strategies by Gender, Grade Level, and Teacher’s Self-Concept in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study examined the student-centred teaching strategies of Mexican teachers by gender, grade level, and self-concept as an instructor. A conventional sample of 573 teachers from diverse school settings in the state of Yucatan in Mexico responded to a paper and pencil questionnaire. Results indicated, in general, that teachers prioritized classroom management and independent learning activities, in contrast with teaching strategies emphasized by policies and teacher´s training programs in the country, such as cooperative learning, differentiation, or promoting critical thinking. There were some gender and grade level differences. In general, female teachers promoted more independent activities than males. As expected, primary school teachers were more concerned with using differentiation teaching strategies than secondary education teachers, considering the greatest variance in younger students. Teachers self-concept had differential effects. Whilst self-efficacy feelings had no influence in the use of specific student-centred teaching strategies, high self-esteem teachers used more student-centred teaching strategies. The importance of asking teachers what they did, and how they felt as teachers was argued in light of results. Future research avenues regarding self-concept and teaching strategies are posited.

  11. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farlinger, W.


    In this second keynote address of the conference Mr. Farlinger, Chairman of Ontario Hydro, attempted to respond to some of the criticisms levelled at the Corporation in the course of the Macdonald Committee process. He appeared to be particularly vexed by the criticism of IPPSO, saying that in effect, they are' beating up on their only customer', at a time when Hydro is being pulled in several different directions, and was facing pressure from jurisdictional dispute with municipal utilities, (MEUs). Nevertheless, he agreed with the need for restructuring. He defended Hydro by saying that the Macdonald Report in fact represented a vindication of the position Ontario Hydro had taken, particularly on such issues as open competition, customer choice, rationalization of the distribution system, and termination of Hydro's monopoly position. At the same time, he objected to the Report's assertion that dismantling the generation system into smaller units would be in the best interest of the people of Ontario. He suggested that there would be several large US utility companies willing and able to fill the vacuum if there was no large company with its head office in Ontario to stake its claim to the provincial market

  12. Analysis on the International Trends in Safe Management of Very Low Level Waste Based upon Graded Approach and Their Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak


    Recently, International Atomic Energy Agency and major leading countries in radioactive waste management tend to subdivide the categories of radioactive waste based upon risk-graded approach. In this context, the category of very low level waste has been newly introduced, or optimized management options for this kind of waste have been pursued in many countries. The application of engineered surface landfill type facilities dedicated to dispose of very low level waste has been gradually expanded, and it was analyzed that their design concept of isolation has been much advanced than those of the old fashioned surface trench-type disposal facilities for low and intermediate level waste, which were usually constructed in 1960's. In addition, the management options for very low level waste in major leading countries are varied depending upon and interfaced with the affecting factors such as: national framework for clearance, legal and practical availability of low and intermediate level waste repository and/or non-nuclear waste landfill, public acceptance toward alternative waste management options, and so forth. In this regard, it was concluded that optimized long-term management options for very low level waste in Korea should be also established in a timely manner through comprehensive review and discussions, in preparation of decommissioning of large nuclear facilities in the future, and be implemented in a systematic manner under the framework of national policy and management plan for radioactive waste management

  13. Effect of graded levels of dry pineapple peel on digestibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 30, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objectives: A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of the inclusion levels of sun dried pineapple peel (PP) in the diets, on the digestibility and growth performance of rabbits. Methodology and Results: Diets R0 (control), R20, R30 and R40 were formulated by including 0, 20, 30.

  14. Response of broiler turkeys to graded dietary levels of Palm Kernel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of local broiler turkeys fed dietary treatments in which palm kernel meal (PKM) replaced maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent was evaluated. The replacement levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent represented diets 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. One hundred and eighty dayold unsexed turkey ...

  15. Greek Mythology: Literature Curriculum, Levels C-D [Grades Three and Four]; Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    This curriculum guide is intended to introduce elementary school students to Greek mythology. The authors suggest that the selections be presented by the teacher as lively and imaginative stories; the more abstract aspects of the myths should be largely ignored until students reach the junior high school level. In addition to the myths themselves,…

  16. SPSS and SAS programs for addressing interdependence and basic levels-of-analysis issues in psychological data. (United States)

    O'Connor, Brian P


    Levels-of-analysis issues arise whenever individual-level data are collected from more than one person from the same dyad, family, classroom, work group, or other interaction unit. Interdependence in data from individuals in the same interaction units also violates the independence-of-observations assumption that underlies commonly used statistical tests. This article describes the data analysis challenges that are presented by these issues and presents SPSS and SAS programs for conducting appropriate analyses. The programs conduct the within-and-between-analyses described by Dansereau, Alutto, and Yammarino (1984) and the dyad-level analyses described by Gonzalez and Griffin (1999) and Griffin and Gonzalez (1995). Contrasts with general multilevel modeling procedures are then discussed.

  17. Performance of juveniles of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum fed graded levels of corn gluten meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José de Almeida Bicudo


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate corn gluten meal (CGM as a substitute for fish meal in diets for striped catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum juveniles. Eight isonitrogenous (46% crude protein and isoenergetic (3,450 kcal kg-1 digestible energy diets, with increasing levels of CGM - 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42% -, were fed to juvenile striped catfish (113.56±5.10 g for seven weeks. Maximum values for weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and feed conversion ratio, evaluated by polynomial quadratic regression, were observed with 10.4, 11.4, 15.4 and 15% of CGM inclusion, respectively. Feed intake decreased significantly from 0.8% CGM. Mesenteric fat index and body gross energy decreased linearly with increasing levels of CGM; minimum body protein contents were observed with 34.1% CGM. Yellow pigmentation of fillets significantly increased until 26.5% CGM, and decreased from this point forth. Both plasma glucose and protein concentrations decreased with increased CGM levels. The inclusion of 10-15% CGM promotes optimum of striped catfish juveniles depending on the parameter evaluated. Yellow coloration in fillets produced by CGM diets can have marketing implications.

  18. Planning of questions for various level of reading of textbooks for early grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Haxhijaha


    Full Text Available During the entire history of education, questioning has been one of the usual techniques of teaching. Despite all the changes in the education theory and technology, this technique continues to be usual, because it is an efficient tool to increase learning. Questioning is an interactive relation, which enlivens the conversation, by giving continuity to the finding of final result. Questioning should be assessed as a technique, which gives high results, when it is managed successfully and with attention towards the teacher, playing meanwhile an important role during the learning of students. Through various planed activities, I tried to influence teachers in order to plan as many questions as possible, for the development of student’s critical thinking. Taking into account the development of further activities I focused in the results extracted from the data gained from the observation of teachers, target group, consultations with teachers, and took into consideration various literature which considered this issue. This research included five teachers that teach in classes 1-5, in the ELSS “Emin Duraku” in Prizren/Kosovo. Observation consisted of two periods. Results of the first period of observation showed that while preparing the teaching work, specifically planning of questions I noticed that a big number were direct questions with a low level of thinking. The research continued by maintaining the target group focused where important discussions were held about the importance of planning the questions of different levels that helped students to understand what they read and also contributed to the increasing of their interest for reading-understanding of various school texts. Then the second period of observation was conducted. Results showed that there were differences in the planning of questions by teachers, compared to the results of the first period of observation. Conclusions of this operational research showed that students can


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Riva, María de Jesús


    Full Text Available In Mexico, basic schooling is composed of three levels: infant (or preschool education, primary (or elementary education and secondary (or middle school education, each taught at a different educational establishment. Students egressing from elementary school are (in average between 12 to 13 years-old, an age of profound changes to which the following can be added: a different educational establishment, different class mates/peers, higher organizational specialization and class work strategies which, in turn, result in a higher number of teachers. Secondary schools have harder institutional structures and higher disciplinary control, so that students seek new ways of negotiation. This article elaborates on those experiences, on how control over appearance, place and body movements influences students through spokesmen and norms, and how body control effectively 'becomes part' of daily class work. I use an ethnographic approach enriched by the categories of Actor-Network Theory (ANT, which allows visualization of the passage of students from one level to another as a network of paths and routes in tension transcending space scales and measured time. It is assumed that students will also build its action context.This paper is written in Spanish.

  20. Curriculum-Level Strategies That U.S. Occupational Therapy Programs Use to Address Occupation: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Hooper, Barb; Krishnagiri, Sheama; Price, Pollie; Taff, Steven D; Bilics, Andrea

    This study's objective was to describe curriculum-level strategies used to convey occupation to occupational therapy students. The study used a descriptive qualitative research design. Fifteen occupational therapy and 10 occupational therapy assistant programs participated in interviews, submitted curriculum artifacts such as syllabi and assignments, and recorded teaching sessions. Data were coded both inductively and deductively and then categorized into themes. Occupational therapy programs designed strategies on two levels of the curriculum, infrastructure and implementation, to convey knowledge of occupation to students. The degree to which strategies explicitly highlighted occupation and steered instruction fluctuated depending on how differentiated occupation was from other concepts and skills. Two arguments are presented about the degree to which occupation needs to be infused in all curricular elements. To guide curriculum design, it is critical for educators to discuss beliefs about how ubiquitous occupation is in a curriculum and whether curricular elements portray occupation to the extent preferred. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Convocation address. (United States)

    Swaminathan, M S


    This address delivered to the 40th convocation of the International Institute for Population Sciences in India in 1998 opens by noting that a shortage of jobs for youth is India's most urgent problem but that the problems that attend the increasing numbers of elderly also require serious attention. The address then notes that the Earth's population is growing at an unsustainable rate while economic inequities among countries are increasing, so that, while intellectual property is becoming the most important asset in developed countries, nutritional anemia among pregnant women causes their offspring to be unable to achieve their full intellectual potential from birth. Next, the address uses a discussion of the 18th-century work on population of the Marquis de Condorcet and of Thomas Malthus to lead into a consideration of estimated increased needs of countries like India and China to import food grains in the near future. Next, the progress of demographic transition in Indian states is covered and applied to Mahbub ul Haq's measure of human deprivation developed for and applied to the region of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, and the Maldives). The address continues by reiterating some of the major recommendations forwarded by a government of India committee charged in 1995 with drafting a national population policy. Finally, the address suggests specific actions that could be important components of the Hunger-Free India Programme and concludes that all success rests on the successful implementation of appropriate population policies.

  2. Supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with graded levels of concentrate mix consisting of noug seed meal and rice bran. (United States)

    Asmare, Bimrew; Melaku, Solomon; Peters, Kurt J


    The study was carried out at Woreta, Ethiopia, to determine feed intake, digestibility, body weight (BW) change, and profitability of Farta sheep fed pasture hay alone or supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) consisting of noug seed meal (NSM) and rice bran in 2:1 ratio. Twenty yearling intact male Farta sheep with BW of 16.9 +/- 1.68 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The dietary treatments consisting of sole natural pasture hay (T1, control), hay +200 g of CM dry matter (DM) (T2, low), hay +300 g of CM DM (T3, medium), and hay +400 g of CM DM (T4, high) were randomly assigned to sheep within each block. Common salt and water were available to animals all the time. The supplements were offered twice daily in equal portions at 0800 and 1600 h. Supplementation with the CM increased (P profitability. Among the supplemented treatments, the high level of supplementation resulted in better (P profitability. Thus, the high level of supplementation is recommended based on biological performance and profitability under conditions of this study.

  3. An elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level in hepatic metastases of grade 1 and 2 gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors is unusual and of prognostic value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeva Andriantsoa

    Full Text Available In our clinical practice we have observed that despite a high hepatic metastatic tumor burden, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP levels are frequently normal in cases of metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET.We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with grade 1 and 2 NETs with liver metastases but without bone metastases seen at our institution in 2013. In total, 49 patients were included (22 female, with a median age of 60 years (range: 28 to 84 years. The primary tumors were located in the duodenum/pancreas (n = 29, small bowel (n = 17 or colon/rectum (n = 3; 10 cases were grade 1 and 39 grade 2. Hepatic involvement was bulky, with more than 10 lesions in 23 patients and a tumor burden above 10% of the liver volume in 26 patients.Serum AP levels were elevated (≥ upper limit of normal (ULN in 16 patients. In multiparametric analysis, elevated serum AP levels were not associated with the primary site, grade, or number or volume of metastases. In multiparametric analysis, progression-free survival was only correlated with grade (p = 0.010 and AP level (p = 0.017.Serum AP levels are frequently normal in liver metastases from NET, even in the event of a major tumor burden, and the serum AP level can be of prognostic value.

  4. An elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level in hepatic metastases of grade 1 and 2 gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors is unusual and of prognostic value. (United States)

    Andriantsoa, Maeva; Hoibian, Solene; Autret, Aurelie; Gilabert, Marine; Sarran, Anthony; Niccoli, Patricia; Raoul, Jean-Luc


    In our clinical practice we have observed that despite a high hepatic metastatic tumor burden, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels are frequently normal in cases of metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET). We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with grade 1 and 2 NETs with liver metastases but without bone metastases seen at our institution in 2013. In total, 49 patients were included (22 female), with a median age of 60 years (range: 28 to 84 years). The primary tumors were located in the duodenum/pancreas (n = 29), small bowel (n = 17) or colon/rectum (n = 3); 10 cases were grade 1 and 39 grade 2. Hepatic involvement was bulky, with more than 10 lesions in 23 patients and a tumor burden above 10% of the liver volume in 26 patients. Serum AP levels were elevated (≥ upper limit of normal (ULN)) in 16 patients. In multiparametric analysis, elevated serum AP levels were not associated with the primary site, grade, or number or volume of metastases. In multiparametric analysis, progression-free survival was only correlated with grade (p = 0.010) and AP level (p = 0.017). Serum AP levels are frequently normal in liver metastases from NET, even in the event of a major tumor burden, and the serum AP level can be of prognostic value.

  5. Addressing Climate Change at the State and Local Level: Using Land Use Controls to Reduce Automobile Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Medina


    Full Text Available Automobiles are a major source of CO2 emissions. Because there is no immediate technological fix to reduce these emissions, the most promising current strategy is to promote less automobile use. In the United States, this is difficult because federal programs such as the interstate highway system and local land use planning and regulation have encouraged suburban sprawl. In 2006, the state of California passed legislation to roll back greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. This legislation did not link the roll back target with land use policies. However, NGOs and the state Attorney General used the state’s pre-existing environmental impact assessment act to sue a large county east of Los Angeles alleging that its revised land use plan was inconsistent with the 2006 legislation. The state and the county settled the suit after the county agreed to new greenhouse gas mitigation duties, and in 2008 California passed additional legislation to implement its 2006 statute. Communities are strongly encouraged to adopt compact, transit-oriented development strategies to limit automobile use. The new legislation gives the attorney general and NGOs additional legal authority to challenge local land use plans and regulatory decisions which fail to adopt these strategies. California’s important experiment has lessons for all urban areas struggling to reduce automobile CO2 emissions. It suggests that local land use controls can be added to the list of workable greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  6. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.


    This short talk was the opening remarks to the attendees at this conference, presented by the Scientific Secretary, IWG-LMNPP, of the IAEA. This meeting is an effort to aid research on problems related to the general area of nuclear plant aging and life management. In particular it addresses fracture properties of reactor materials and components, both as installed, and at end of service condition. A major concern is relating measurements made on laboratory samples to properties displayed by actual reactor components

  7. Convocation address. (United States)

    Zakaria, R


    By means of this graduation address at the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in Bombay, the Chancellor of Urdu University voiced his concerns about overpopulation in India. During the speaker's tenure as Health Minister of Maharashtra, he implemented a sterilization incentive program that resulted in the state's having the best family planning (FP) statistics in India for almost 10 years. The incentive program, however, was misused by overenthusiastic officials in other states, with the result that the FP program was renamed the Family Welfare Programme. Population is growing in India because of improvements in health care, but the population education necessary to change fertility will require more time than the seriousness of the population problem allows. In the longterm, poverty and illiteracy must be addressed to control population. In the meanwhile, the graduate program at the IIPS should be expanded to include an undergraduate program, marriage age laws should be enforced, and misconceptions about religious objections to FP must be addressed. India can not afford to use the measures forwarded by developed countries to control population growth. India must integrate population control efforts with the provision of health care because if population continues to grow in the face of reduced infant mortality and longer life expectancy, future generations will be forced to live in a state of poverty and economic degradation.

  8. Developing models to predict 8th grade students' achievement levels on timss science based on opportunity-to-learn variables (United States)

    Whitford, Melinda M.

    Science educational reforms have placed major emphasis on improving science classroom instruction and it is therefore vital to study opportunity-to-learn (OTL) variables related to student science learning experiences and teacher teaching practices. This study will identify relationships between OTL and student science achievement and will identify OTL predictors of students' attainment at various distinct achievement levels (low/intermediate/high/advanced). Specifically, the study (a) address limitations of previous studies by examining a large number of independent and control variables that may impact students' science achievement and (b) it will test hypotheses of structural relations to how the identified predictors and mediating factors impact on student achievement levels. The study will follow a multi-stage and integrated bottom-up and top-down approach to identify predictors of students' achievement levels on standardized tests using TIMSS 2011 dataset. Data mining or pattern recognition, a bottom-up approach will identify the most prevalent association patterns between different student achievement levels and variables related to student science learning experiences, teacher teaching practices and home and school environments. The second stage is a top-down approach, testing structural equation models of relations between the significant predictors and students' achievement levels according.

  9. Effectiveness of Acoustic and Conceptual Retrieval Cues in Memory for Words at Two Grade Levels. Technical Report No. 220. (United States)

    Ghatala, Elizabeth S.; Hurlbut, Nancy L.

    The effectiveness of two types of retrieval cues was assessed with second- and sixth-grade children. After a single presentation of a list of words, the children first recalled as many of the words as they could. Following free recall, children in each grade were given either conceptual (category names for words on the input lists) or acoustic…

  10. Activities for Studying Ponds (Limnology), Grade Level 5-6. Environmental Education Series, Bulletin No. 247-D. (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This bulletin is one in a series of environmental education activity guides for grades K-12, developed and field-tested by teachers in the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. Primarily for use in the middle grades four through six, the guides are not intended to constitute complete units in themselves. They are, rather, a compilation of…

  11. The Effect of Using a Mobile Literacy Game to Improve Literacy Levels of Grade One Students in Zambian Schools (United States)

    Jere-Folotiya, Jacqueline; Chansa-Kabali, Tamara; Munachaka, Jonathan C.; Sampa, Francis; Yalukanda, Christopher; Westerholm, Jari; Richardson, Ulla; Serpell, Robert; Lyytinen, Heikki


    This intervention study was conducted to document conditions under which a computer based literacy game (GraphoGame™) could enhance literacy skills of first grade students in an African city. The participants were first grade students from Government schools (N = 573). These students were randomly sampled into control (N = 314) and various…

  12. Individual- and regional-level determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine refusal: the Ontario Grade 8 HPV vaccine cohort study. (United States)

    Remes, Olivia; Smith, Leah M; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz E; Colley, Lindsey; Lévesque, Linda E


    Studies on the determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use have generally focused on individual-level characteristics, despite the potentially important influence of regional-level characteristics. Therefore, we undertook a population-based, retrospective cohort study to identify individual- and regional-level determinants of HPV vaccine refusal (non-receipt) in Ontario's (Canada) Grade 8 HPV Immunization Program. Ontario's administrative health and immunization databases were used to identify girls eligible for free HPV vaccination in 2007-2011 and to ascertain individual-level characteristics of cohort members (socio-demographics, vaccination history, health care utilization, medical history). The social and material characteristics of the girl's region (health unit) were derived from the 2006 Canadian Census. Generalized estimating equations (binomial distribution, logit link) were used to estimate the population-average effects of individual- and regional-level characteristics on HPV vaccine refusal. Our cohort consisted of 144,047 girls, 49.3% of whom refused HPV vaccination. Factors associated with refusal included a previous diagnosis of Down's syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.16-1.63) or autism (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.34-1.90), few physician visits (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.35-1.55), and previous refusal of mandatory (OR = 2.23, 95% CI 2.07-2.40) and optional (OR = 3.96, 95% CI 3.87-4.05) vaccines. Refusal was highest among the lowest and highest income levels. Finally, a previous diagnosis of obesity and living in an area of high deprivation were associated with lower refusal (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.92 and OR = 0.82 95%, CI 0.79-0.86, respectively). Studies on HPV vaccine determinants should consider regional-level factors. Efforts to increase HPV vaccine acceptance should include vulnerable populations (such as girls of low income) and girls with limited contact with the healthcare system.

  13. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, R.


    This paper addresses various aspects of the bases underlying the nuclear third party liability regime, and also analyses the distinction between danger and risk and the manner in which damage caused by flood, mass unemployment (economic damage mainly) and certain diseases is dealt with in the absence of liability provisions similar to those applicable to nuclear incidents. It also is suggested that the State because of its duty under the Basic Law to ensure adequate energy supplies, should be co-responsible for liability questions along with the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr

  14. Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9. (United States)

    Sanders, Elizabeth A; Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text). A five-block regression model sequentially predicted literacy achievement from cognitive-linguistic translation (Block 1); working memory components for word-form coding (Block 2), phonological and orthographic loops (Block 3), and supervisory focused or switching attention (Block 4); and SLD groups (Block 5). Results showed that cognitive-linguistic translation explained an average of 27% and 15% of the variance in reading and writing achievement, respectively, but working memory components explained an additional 39% and 27% of variance. Orthographic word-form coding uniquely predicted nearly every measure, whereas attention switching uniquely predicted only reading. Finally, differences in reading and writing persisted between dyslexia and dysgraphia, with dysgraphia higher, even after controlling for Block 1 to 4 predictors. Differences in literacy achievement between students with dyslexia and oral and written language learning disabilities were largely explained by the Block 1 predictors. Applications to identifying and teaching students with these SLDs are discussed.

  15. Organizational- and system-level characteristics that influence implementation of shared decision-making and strategies to address them - a scoping review. (United States)

    Scholl, Isabelle; LaRussa, Allison; Hahlweg, Pola; Kobrin, Sarah; Elwyn, Glyn


    Shared decision-making (SDM) is poorly implemented in routine care, despite being promoted by health policies. No reviews have solely focused on an in-depth synthesis of the literature around organizational- and system-level characteristics (i.e., characteristics of healthcare organizations and of healthcare systems) that may affect SDM implementation. A synthesis would allow exploration of interventions to address these characteristics. The study aim was to compile a comprehensive overview of organizational- and system-level characteristics that are likely to influence the implementation of SDM, and to describe strategies to address those characteristics described in the literature. We conducted a scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework. The search strategy included an electronic search and a secondary search including gray literature. We included publications reporting on projects that promoted implementation of SDM or other decision support interventions in routine healthcare. We screened titles and abstracts, and assessed full texts for eligibility. We used qualitative thematic analysis to identify organizational- and system-level characteristics. After screening 7745 records and assessing 354 full texts for eligibility, 48 publications on 32 distinct implementation projects were included. Most projects (N = 22) were conducted in the USA. Several organizational-level characteristics were described as influencing the implementation of SDM, including organizational leadership, culture, resources, and priorities, as well as teams and workflows. Described system-level characteristics included policies, clinical guidelines, incentives, culture, education, and licensing. We identified potential strategies to influence the described characteristics, e.g., examples how to facilitate distribution of decision aids in a healthcare institution. Although infrequently studied, organizational- and system-level characteristics appear to play a role in the

  16. The Relationship of Values in Elementary School 4th Grade Social Studies Textbook with the Attainments and Their Level of Being Included in Student Workbooks (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman


    In this study, the relationship of values in elementary school 4th grade Social Studies textbook with the attainments and their level of being included in student workbook are tried to be determined. Case study, which is a qualitative research method, was applied for this research. To collect data, document analysis technique, which is among the…

  17. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan


    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  18. The Level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the Teachers of the First Three Elementary Grades' Teachers at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District (United States)

    Yaghmour, Kholoud Subhi; Obaidat, Luai Taleb; Hamadneh, Qaseem Mohammad


    This study aimed at exploring the level of Diagnostic Tests' Preparation Skills among the teachers of the first Three Elementary Grades at the Directorate of Education of Bani Kinana District, and its relationship to the variables of gender, academic qualification, and years of experience. The sample of the study consisted of (264) male and female…

  19. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program. 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Second Grade, Level 2. (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the second grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  20. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program, 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Third Grade, Level 3. (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the third grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  1. Multiple-level stakeholder engagement in malaria clinical trials: addressing the challenges of conducting clinical research in resource-limited settings. (United States)

    Mtove, George; Kimani, Joshua; Kisinza, William; Makenga, Geofrey; Mangesho, Peter; Duparc, Stephan; Nakalembe, Miriam; Phiri, Kamija S; Orrico, Russell; Rojo, Ricardo; Vandenbroucke, Pol


    Multinational clinical trials are logistically complex and require close coordination between various stakeholders. They must comply with global clinical standards and are accountable to multiple regulatory and ethical bodies. In resource-limited settings, it is challenging to understand how to apply global clinical standards to international, national, and local factors in clinical trials, making multiple-level stakeholder engagement an important element in the successful conduct of these clinical trials. During the planning and implementation of a large multinational clinical trial for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in resource-limited areas of sub-Saharan Africa, we encountered numerous challenges, which required implementation of a range of engagement measures to ensure compliance with global clinical and regulatory standards. These challenges included coordination with ongoing global malaria efforts, heterogeneity in national regulatory structures, sub-optimal healthcare infrastructure, local practices and beliefs, and perspectives that view healthcare providers with undue trust or suspicion. In addition to engagement with international bodies, such as the World Health Organization, the Malaria in Pregnancy Consortium, the Steve Biko Centre for Bioethics, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, in order to address the challenges just described, Pfizer Inc. and Medicines for Malaria Venture (the "Sponsoring Entities" for these studies) and investigators liaised with national- and district-level stakeholders such as health ministers and regional/local community health workers. Community engagement measures undertaken by investigators included local meetings with community leaders to explain the research aims and answer questions and concerns voiced by the community. The investigators also engaged with family members of prospective trial participants in order to be sensitive to local practices and beliefs. Engagement

  2. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.


    The program of this 9th Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors IGORR includes are quite a number of fascinating new research reactor projects in France, Germany, Russia, Canada, China, Thailand, and in Australia. In addition to the session about New Facilities there are interesting sessions on the Upgrades and on the Optimization of Operation and Utilization of existing research reactors, on Secondary Neutron Sources, on Neutron Scattering applications, and on the aspects of Safety, Licensing and Decommissioning. Two particular projects of new research reactors are mentioned specially: the TRR-II project in Taiwan, has unfortunately been terminated last year because of a change to anti-nuclear of the ruling parties in the government - and the new FRM-II in Munich, Germany, which will hopefully survive such a political change and receive its green light for nuclear start up in the very near future. The charter of IGORR and its objectives are part of this address: The International Group on Research Reactors IGORR was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. The main IGORR objectives are to promote contacts between its members, to identify and discuss problems of common interest, to distribute newsletters about once or twice every year and to organize meetings about once every one-and-a-half years

  3. Influence of feeding graded levels of canned sardines on the inflammatory markers and tissue fatty acid composition of Wistar rats. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro O; Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Ramos, Cristina; Miguéis, Samuel; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinto, Rui M A; Rolo, Eva A; Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Prates, José A M


    Canned sardines are a ready-to-use fish product with excellent nutritional properties owing to its high n-3 long-chain PUFA content, mainly EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The present study aimed to assess the effect of two dosages of canned sardines, recommended for the primary and secondary prevention of human CVD, on the inflammatory marker concentrations and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and key metabolic tissues (liver, muscle, adipose tissue and brain) in the rat model. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 11 % (w/w) of canned sardines (low-sardine (LS) diet) and a diet containing 22 % (w/w) of canned sardines (high-sardine (HS) diet) for 10 weeks. Daily food intake, weight gain, and organ and final body weights were not affected by the dietary treatments. The concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased in both the LS and HS groups, while those of alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin increased. The concentrations of IL-1β increased only with the highest dosage of sardine. The dose-dependent influence of the graded levels of EPA+DHA was tissue specific. Compared with that of other tissues and erythrocytes, the fatty acid composition of the brain was less affected by the canned sardine-supplemented diets. In contrast, the retroperitoneal adipose tissue was highly responsive. The deposition ratios of EPA and DHA indicated that the LS diet was optimal for DHA deposition across the tissues, except in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Taken together, our findings indicate that a LS diet positively affects plasma lipid profiles and inflammatory mediators, whereas a HS diet has contradictory effects on IL-1β, which, in turn, is not associated with variations in the concentrations of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This finding requires further investigation and pathophysiological understanding.

  4. Level of knowledge and understanding of informed consent amongst the training grade group orthodontists in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. (United States)

    Sharma, Pratik K; Chate, Robert A


    To assess the level of knowledge and understanding of informed consent in UK orthodontic trainees. A cross-sectional, written questionnaire-based study. Hospital orthodontic departments in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A one page questionnaire which covered a range of legal issues pertinent to informed consent was circulated to 207 members of the Training Grades Group (TGG) of the British Orthodontic Society (BOS). The questionnaire consisted of four open questions with 11 responses, which the investigators considered to be ideal, seven closed questions requiring yes/no responses and one question requiring a yes/no response followed by two open responses. Following the initial circulation, a second posting to non-responders was conducted. The response rate was 61% (N=126). The mean number of complete answers to the 21 questions was 13 (62%; median 13; mode 14). There were a low number of complete responses to specific questions in the following areas - explanations patients need from clinicians prior to obtaining consent; how to fully judge if a patient is capable of consenting; how to manage a patient incapable of giving consent; the legal status of fathers consenting on behalf of their children; whether consent forms have to be re-signed if the start of treatment is delayed by six months or more and responsibility for obtaining consent for dental treatment under general anaesthesia. There was a disappointingly high proportion of incomplete answers to questions testing the knowledge and understanding of the law as it pertains to informed consent exists amongst members of the TGG of BOS.

  5. Opening Address (United States)

    Yamada, T.


    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the

  6. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.


    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  7. Concluding Address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Giovannelli


    Full Text Available Before I offcially conclude this workshop - far be it from me to attempt to compete with some concluding remarks already delivered at the meeting with various levels of passion by Gennady Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Giulio Auriemma and Sergio Colafrancesco - I would like to comment on some of the highlights emerging from our fruitful week of discussions about Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources, without any pretension of completeness.

  8. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone


    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  9. Welcome Address (United States)

    Kiku, H.


    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  10. Presidential address. (United States)

    Shunglu, V K


    Rapid and substantial population growth in India is hampering development. Family welfare programs in the country during the last four years have not met population reduction goals. The decentralization of political and administrative power in relevant programs, however, will help the country attain its goal of replacement fertility. To that end, the 73rd and 74th amendments to the constitution have recently been enacted to help decentralize power to people at the village, intermediate, and district levels. The participation of the people is essential for success. State ministers of health must begin assigning management of the rural health care systems to the Panchayats. Population policy has changed so that family planning is now provided within the broader context of maternal and child health care, emphasizing voluntarism and informed choice among contraceptive methods and popular participation. The speaker laments the decline of male participation in family planning and calls for high priority to be given to developing fertility regulation methods for men as well as identifying factors which prohibit male participation. The country's unbalanced female to male sex ratio and interstate and inter-district variations in social parameters which have a bearing upon population growth rates also merit attention. Investing in human resources is crucial to the success of population programs. Financing has therefore increased for poverty alleviation programs and other social sector programs.

  11. Analyzing Entrepreneurship Skill Levels of the 3rd Grade Primary School Students in Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables (United States)

    Polat, Hüseyin


    The purpose of this study is to investigate Life Sciences course entrepreneurship skills of the 3rd grade primary school students as evaluated by their parents. The study was conducted with the screening model. The participants of the study were the parents (47 mothers and 23 fathers) of the students (32 girls, 38 boys) who study in the center of…

  12. Sequential Prediction of Literacy Achievement for Specific Learning Disabilities Contrasting in Impaired Levels of Language in Grades 4 to 9 (United States)

    Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.


    Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 (N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling…

  13. Chairman's address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.S.


    There is no intrinsic demand for energy separable from supply; the demand for a resource reflects its availability. The Conservation Commission of the World Energy Conference used one study that predicted that if economic growth rates were to remain comparable to those of the last forty years, eight times the 1975 level of energy supply would be required by 2020. An alternative view suggested that if the income elasticity for energy declined with increasing economic development, there would be a fourfold increase in energy demand by 2020. Energy supply today and what it might be in 40 years is examined. The energy use of biomass will probably increase in certain areas of the world, but it is unlikely that there will be an overall growth in supply from this source. Energy production from fossil fuels may double between now and the early years of the next century, but unless the recovery rate of coal is increased drastically, growth will peak by mid-century. Hydro-electric and geothermal power may quadruple over the next forty years, but this will not represent a big increase in supply. Solar energy can make only a modest contribution in the next few decades. If there is to be a major increase in world energy supply, it must come from nuclear energy. The Conservation Commission felt that the potential for world energy supply is doubling between 1980 and 2000, and a further 50 percent growth to 2020. There will most likely be a 50 percent growth in per capita energy use around the world, with 3 to 4 percent annual growth rate in developing countries and perhaps the same in industrialized countries for the first 20 years, but about half that growth rate towards the end of the time period

  14. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike J. Bruins


    Full Text Available Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods.

  15. [Low level auditory skills compared to writing skills in school children attending third and fourth grade: evidence for the rapid auditory processing deficit theory?]. (United States)

    Ptok, M; Meisen, R


    The rapid auditory processing defi-cit theory holds that impaired reading/writing skills are not caused exclusively by a cognitive deficit specific to representation and processing of speech sounds but arise due to sensory, mainly auditory, deficits. To further explore this theory we compared different measures of auditory low level skills to writing skills in school children. prospective study. School children attending third and fourth grade. just noticeable differences for intensity and frequency (JNDI, JNDF), gap detection (GD) monaural and binaural temporal order judgement (TOJb and TOJm); grade in writing, language and mathematics. correlation analysis. No relevant correlation was found between any auditory low level processing variable and writing skills. These data do not support the rapid auditory processing deficit theory.

  16. Thousand Islands River : study of solutions to address critically low water levels : summary report; Riviere des Milles Iles : etude des solutions de soutien des etiages critiques : rapport sommaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyr, J F; Fontin, M [Centre d' Expertise Hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Service de la Securite des Barrages


    A study was conducted to find solutions to very low water flow in the Thousand Islands River, near the Island of Montreal, Quebec. It was launched in response to the critically low water levels that were experienced in 2001 and 2002. In the summer of 2001, municipalities served by the Thousand Island River were faced with problems in the supply of drinking water when the river flow reached approximately 13 cubic metres per second. Since 1970, the minimal values of flow observed for this time of year had seldom passed under 20 cubic metres per second. Under such conditions of flow, the dilution of any water discharged into the river became so weak that the aging water treatment facilities had to work beyond their capacity. In addition, the population served by this river has increased significantly in the past 2 decades. During this episode of critically low water levels, Quebec's Center of Water Expertise (CEHQ)intervened in an emergency measure to drain flows from a water reservoir in the catchment area to ensure a minimal flow of approximately 25 cubic metres per second. Thereafter, the affected municipalities had to ask the Quebec Environment Ministry to define permanent interventions to ensure a minimal flow the river in the event of similar episodes. The CEHQ carried out a preliminary study of possible solutions to address the critically low water levels and presented its report in the spring 2002. In the winter of 2002, CEHQ created an emergency management procedure in preparation of a repeat episode. 28 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Thousand Islands River : study of solutions to address critically low water levels : summary report; Riviere des Milles Iles : etude des solutions de soutien des etiages critiques : rapport sommaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyr, J.F.; Fontin, M. [Centre d' Expertise Hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Service de la Securite des Barrages


    A study was conducted to find solutions to very low water flow in the Thousand Islands River, near the Island of Montreal, Quebec. It was launched in response to the critically low water levels that were experienced in 2001 and 2002. In the summer of 2001, municipalities served by the Thousand Island River were faced with problems in the supply of drinking water when the river flow reached approximately 13 cubic metres per second. Since 1970, the minimal values of flow observed for this time of year had seldom passed under 20 cubic metres per second. Under such conditions of flow, the dilution of any water discharged into the river became so weak that the aging water treatment facilities had to work beyond their capacity. In addition, the population served by this river has increased significantly in the past 2 decades. During this episode of critically low water levels, Quebec's Center of Water Expertise (CEHQ)intervened in an emergency measure to drain flows from a water reservoir in the catchment area to ensure a minimal flow of approximately 25 cubic metres per second. Thereafter, the affected municipalities had to ask the Quebec Environment Ministry to define permanent interventions to ensure a minimal flow the river in the event of similar episodes. The CEHQ carried out a preliminary study of possible solutions to address the critically low water levels and presented its report in the spring 2002. In the winter of 2002, CEHQ created an emergency management procedure in preparation of a repeat episode. 28 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Reporting the incidence of school violence across grade levels in the U.S. using the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). (United States)

    Yu, Lei


    School violence has increasingly captured public attention due to deadly school shootings. Controversy on school violence is demonstrated by a mixed picture of school safety and the lack of consensus on the definitions of violence, which makes comparison of findings across studies difficult. This study extended the application of the Rasch model to school violence research using TIMSS data. The results show that school violence occurred at a level much lower than the predictions of the measurement model. Across all grade levels the most frequently reported type of violence is intimidation or verbal abuse of students and the least frequently reported physical injury to teachers or staff. Copyright 2004

  19. Individual and school level effects of perceived harm, perceived availability, and community size on marijuana use among 12th-grade students: a random effects model. (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C


    A hierarchical linear model was used to estimate the individual and school level effects for marijuana use among a national sample of 12th-grade students. School effects were small in comparison to individual level effects, accounting for 2.9% of the variance in marijuana use. At the individual level, perceived harm, perceived availability, and their interaction were significant predictors, each of which varied randomly across schools. Among two school-level predictors, the normative environment for perceived harm was not significant, but normative perceived availability predicted level of marijuana use. The effect of perceived availability on marijuana use was stronger in larger, compared to smaller communities. Results are discussed in light of the use of random regression methods for identifying school-specific patterns of risk and protection for prevention planning.

  20. Premise to implement a grading system to evaluate the sanitary level in food service establishments in Milan, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Razzini


    Full Text Available The regulatory framework of the official controls on food safety, the criteria and methods from the planning of interventions in the field of official control to the management of information flows, and the standards described in the operation manual of the local competent authorities drafted by the Lombardy Region (2011 were evaluated. A questionnaire consisting of n. 10 questions with multiple answers draft in partnership with EPAM (the Association of Provincial Public Retail and catering businesses in Milan to n. 107 Food service establishments of Milan shows that 92% of managers approve the introduction of a grading system. The regulatory framework is planned to support the implementation of risk assignment, unfortunately the attribution of risk category of retail and catering businesses is still different among regions.

  1. The Conceptual Complexity of Vocabulary in Elementary-Grades Core Science Program Textbooks (United States)

    Fitzgerald, W. Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Kung, Melody; Stenner, A. Jackson


    The researchers explored the conceptual complexity of vocabulary in contemporary elementary-grades core science program textbooks to address two research questions: (1) Can a progression of concepts' complexity level be described across grades? (2) Was there gradual developmental growth of the most complex concepts' networks of associated concepts…

  2. Addressing the high levels of psychological distress in law students through intentional assessment and feedback design in the first year law curriculum


    Rachael Field; Sally Kift


    A study of the Brain and Mind Institute released in 2009 established that more than one third of Australian law students suffer from psychological distress (BMRI, 2009). The psychological health of law students is therefore a critical issue for Australian legal education, and strategic change is necessary to address the stressful nature of studying law. This paper argues that intentional first year curriculum design has a critical role to play in addressing and preventing psychological distre...

  3. Meat standards and grading: a world view. (United States)

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M


    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  4. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp.) on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae


    Molatelo Junior Madibana; Victor Mlambo; Brett Lewis; Chris Fouché


    This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp.) into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus) on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0), 50 (Ulva50), 100 (Ulva100), 150 (Ulva150) and 200 (Ulva200) g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14â¯Â±â¯0.30â¯g) were distribu...

  5. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of thyroid hormone insufficiency: Dose dependent increases in heterotopia volume (United States)

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in ...

  6. Exploring How Second Grade Elementary Teachers Translate Their Nature of Science Views into Classroom Practice After a Graduate Level Nature of Science Course (United States)

    Deniz, Hasan; Adibelli, Elif


    The main purpose of this study was to explore the factors mediating the translation of second grade teachers' nature of science (NOS) views into classroom practice after completing a graduate level NOS course. Four second grade in-service elementary teachers comprised the sample of this study. Data were collected from several sources during the course of this study. The primary data sources were (a) assessment of the elementary teachers' NOS views before and after the graduate level NOS course using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire Version B (VNOS-B) (Lederman et al., 2002) coupled with interviews, and (b) a classroom observation and videotaped recording of the elementary teachers' best NOS lessons coupled with interview. We identified three distinct but related factors that mediated the translation of NOS views into classroom practice: the teachers' perspectives about the developmental appropriateness of the NOS aspect, the teachers' selection of target NOS aspects, and the relative importance placed by teachers on each NOS aspect.

  7. United States Air Force Company Grade Officer PME and Leader Development: Establishing a Glide Path for Future Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Patrick


    .... This monograph addresses the role of PME at the company grade level in the development of Air Force officers in light of ongoing Army and Air Force leader development initiatives as well as recent...

  8. Elevated serum fetuin-A levels are associated with grades of retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ahu; Yilmaz, Tolga; Gunay, Murat


    Fetuin-A is a physiological inhibitor of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase and thus associated with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aims to investigate the possible relation between the serum fetuin-A levels and the stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with T2DM. This prospective study included 82 patients with T2DM and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) (group 1). Diabetic patients were subclassified into three groups according to ocular findings: without DR (group 2; n = 26); non-proliferative DR (group 3; n = 29), and proliferative DR (group 4; n = 27). Serum fetuin-A levels were determined by a spectrophotometric technique using an immulite chemiluminescent immunometric assay. The data were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test, and the results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Mean fetuin-A values were 256.4 ± 21.3 μg/ml in group 1, 263.5 ± 24.2 μg/ml in group 2, 282.2 ± 31.1 μg/ml in group 3, and 296.3 ± 26.2 μg/ml in group 4. Group 2 had higher mean fetuin-A level compared with group 1, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Serum fetuin-A levels were significantly higher in groups 3 and 4 compared with HCs (both p < 0.05). Compared with group 2, both DR groups had higher fetuin-A levels with a significant difference (both p < 0.05); and patients with proliferative DR had significantly higher serum fetuin-A levels compared with non-proliferative DR (p < 0.05). The mean serum fetuin-A levels increased with the stage of DR, and the highest levels were found in patients with proliferative DR. Our findings suggest an association between fetuin-A levels and DR stage. In diabetic patients, the risk of retinopathy development increases with higher fetuin-A values. Fetuin-A may play an important role in the pathophysiology and progression of DR.

  9. Endangered Animals. Second Grade. (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  10. The results of STEM education methods for enhancing critical thinking and problem solving skill in physics the 10th grade level (United States)

    Soros, P.; Ponkham, K.; Ekkapim, S.


    This research aimed to: 1) compare the critical think and problem solving skills before and after learning using STEM Education plan, 2) compare student achievement before and after learning about force and laws of motion using STEM Education plan, and 3) the satisfaction of learning by using STEM Education. The sample used were 37 students from grade 10 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 10 students of 1 schemes with total of 14 hours, 2) The test of critical think and problem solving skills with multiple-choice type of 5 options and 2 option of 30 items, 3) achievement test on force and laws of motion with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 20 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have score of critical think and problem solving skills on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level .01. 2) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have achievement score on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level of .01. 3) The student'level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a high level (X ¯ = 4.51, S.D=0.56).

  11. Effects of Supplementing Napier Grass With Graded Levels of Desmodium on Intake and Rumen Fermentation of Steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.N.; Muia, J.M.K.; Gitau, G.K.; Gachuri, C.K.; Tamminga, S.


    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of greenleaf desmodium ( Desmodium Detortum) on organic matter (OM) intake and rumen fermentation of steers fed on Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). four Sahiwal steers (live-weight 437+/- 21 kg) were offered ad libitum four diets constituted from Napier grass and desmodium hay in a 4*4 latin square. The proportion of Desmodium in the diet on DM basis were 0% (D1), 15% (D2), 25% (D3), and 35% (D4) respectively.The OM intake increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the level of desmodium supplement (6.1, 6.4, 7.6 and 8.3). Rumen ammonia (NH3-N) also increased with increased level of supplementation (138, 162, 198, 237 mg 1-1). rumen pH increased slightly with increasing levels of legume in diet. Feeding desmodium significantly improved (P < 0.05) total volatile acids (VFA). The result indicated that supplementing a basal diet of Napier grass with desmodium increased rumen NH3-N, VFA levels which subsequently led to enhanced digestion and intake

  12. Should Millions of Students Take a Gap Year? Large Numbers of Students Start the School Year above Grade Level (United States)

    Peters, Scott J.; Rambo-Hernandez, Karen; Makel, Matthew C.; Matthews, Michael S.; Plucker, Jonathan A.


    Few topics have garnered more attention in preservice teacher training and educational reform than student diversity and its influence on learning. However, the actual degree of cognitive diversity has yet to be considered regarding instructional implications for advanced learners. We used four data sets (three state-level and one national) from…

  13. Teacher's Guide in Population Education for Social Studies, Grades I-VI. Elementary Level. (Revised for Muslim Filipinos). (United States)

    Department of Education and Culture, Manila (Philippines).

    Revised to be in accordance with the customs, traditions, beliefs, and practices of the Muslim Filipinos, these elementary-level social studies units will help Filipino children understand world population problems and develop the necessary skills, attitudes, and values that will lead them to make rational decisions about population matters,…

  14. Laboratory studies on leaching of low grade uranium ores and treatment of low level liquid waste generated by leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palabrica, O.T.; Antonino, E.J.; Caluag, L.A.; Villamater, D.


    Acid leaching experiments of preconcentrated uranium ore were carried out at a pulp density of 50% solids, using sulfuric acid with sodium chlorate as oxidant. The different leaching parameters considered in this work were temperature, oxidant level and leaching time. In the experimental procedure, the concentration of oxidant and the temperature were varied to determine how they affect the leaching process. Experimental results are illustrated in tabulated form for better interpretation. Uranium analyses were done by fluorimetric and delayed-neutron activation analysis. An anion exchange method using Dowex 1 x 8, 200-400 mesh (Cl - ) was used in treating the low-level liquid waste generated by leaching experiments. The purpose of this treatment was to minimize radioactive contamination in the waste materials and also to recover some of the uranium left in the liquid waste. (author)

  15. Prostate cancer volume associates with preoperative plasma levels of testosterone that independently predicts high grade tumours which show low densities (quotient testosterone/tumour volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro


    Conclusion: The investigation shows that TT relates to volume and grade of PCa; moreover, the density of TT relative to TV inversely associates with rate of increase of cancer that depends on the grade of the tumour.

  16. The association of elevated reactive oxygen species levels from neutrophils with low-grade inflammation in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Katsuhiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS, including free radicals, oxygen ions, and peroxides, are implicated in cell damage. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the spontaneous production of ROS from neutrophils changes with age and is associated with the conventional inflammatory markers. Results Thirty-seven elderly subjects (median age, 87, range 70–95 years and 22 young subjects (median age, 26, range 21–37 years participated in this study. Circulating levels of C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and heat shock protein (HSP70 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated ROS of neutrophils were quantified by flow cytometry. Both spontaneous ROS production and circulating levels of inflammatory markers were higher in the elderly group than in the younger group. In addition, spontaneous ROS production by neutrophils was negatively associated with HSP70 in plasma. We could not find the association between spontaneous ROS production by neutrophils and the other inflammatory markers including cytokines. Conclusion The results suggest that spontaneous ROS production from neutrophils may increase with age and represent the different aspect of age-associated immune dysregulation.

  17. [A study of growth and malignancy grading of stomach and colorectal cancers by serial serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels analysis]. (United States)

    Umehara, Y; Miyahara, T; Yoshida, M; Isobe, S; Oba, N; Harada, Y


    Changes in serum CEA levels were analyzed on a time-course basis in 33 patients with stomach cancer and 20 patients with colorectal cancer. A linear relationship between log CEA and time could be evaluated and individual CEA doubling time (CEA D.T.) was calculated. The results obtained are as follows. 1) The CEA D.T. was not constant from the onset of the disease to death in stomach cancer and colorectal cancer. 2) The CEA D.T. was distributed widely with 5 to 140 days in stomach cancer and 8 to 134 days in colorectal cancer. It tended to be shortened at the terminal stage in both tumors. 3) In terms of age, sex and histology, the CEA D.T. tended to be short in the young, female and poorly differentiated cancer. These background appeared to have an influence on the growth of tumor. 4) The CEA D.T. was well correlated with the period of survival of the patients with gastric cancer (r = 0.636, p less than 0.001). The analysis of serial CEA levels on a time-course basis is considered useful in studying the relationship between tumor-bearing hosts and malignancy of the tumor.

  18. [Grading the level of suspicion in criminal proceedings, restrictions of the proportionality principle and veto options in forensic autopsies]. (United States)

    Czerner, Frank


    The article deals with two topics: determination of the necessary level of suspicion for an internal post-mortem examination pursuant to Section 87 (German) Code of Criminal Procedure and options of the family to object to the forensic autopsy. The level of suspicion required in this case is to be regarded as very low, even below that of the initial suspicion, because a detailed opinion as to any third-party fault can only be given after completion of the autopsy. The individual concerned does not have a right to oppose a forensic autopsy while still alive. The same applies to the family. Other than in clinical autopsies, the interest in prosecution is to be considered the higher good to be protected, because at the time of deciding a homicide cannot be ruled out and only an internal examination can furnish the necessary evidence. Consequently, it is appropriate. Contrary to the opinion often expressed in the literature, one cannot infer from the provisions of Sections 87 subs. 4, 33 subs. 3 Code of Criminal Procedure and Section 103 subs. 3 Basic Law that the family of the deceased has a right to be informed or heard. This can only be changed by the legislator in an amendment to the autopsy law.

  19. Growth and subsequent egg production performance of shika-brown pullets fed graded levels of cooked Lablab purpureus beans. (United States)

    Abeke, F O; Ogundipe, S O; Sekoni, A A; Dafwvang, I I; Adeyinka, I A; Oni, O O; Abeke, A


    The lablab seeds were cooked for 30 min, sundried for three days and thereafter milled and incorporated into chickens' diets. Six treatments, comprising of six dietary levels of lablab at 0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, 30.0 and 37.5%, respectively was fed during the grower's phase. Results obtained for the growers phase indicate that final weight (g/bird), weight gain (g/bird) and feed cost (N kg(-1)) decreased significantly (p cooked lablab beans to pullets. Results obtained during the laying phase indicates that feeding lablab seed meal up to 22.5% in the diets at the growers stage had no significant adverse effect (p egg production, percent production at peak, kilogramme feed per twelve eggs, feed cost per twelve eggs, Haugh Unit and yolk index. However, age of birds at first egg, age at 50% production and age at peak egg production were increased significantly (p > 0.05) with increase in the level of lablab seed meal in the growers diets.

  20. Creating a strategy for science-based national policy: Addressing conflicting views on the health risk of low-level ionizing radiation. Final report, Wingspread Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, Roger O.; Apple, Martin A.


    Significant cancer risk for adults exposed to more than 100 millisieverts (10 REM) of ionizing radiation. More research on low-level ionizing radiation is needed in molecular and cellular mechanisms of injury and ongoing exposed populations. Implementation costs should be considered in regulating low-level ionizing radiation. Comparative risk assessment is a powerful tool for risk-based policy formation, and conflicting legal statutes should become harmonized for radiation regulation. More public dialog on low-level radiation is needed. A high level commission should evaluate radiation hazard control practices

  1. Issues in the review of a license application for an above grade low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringenberg, J.D. [Nebraska Dept. of Environmental Quality, NE (United States)


    In December 1987, Nebraska was selected by the Central Interstate Compact (CIC) Commission as the host state for the construction of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. After spending a year in the site screening process, the Compact`s developer, US Ecology, selected three sites for detailed site characterization. These sites were located in Nemaha, Nuckolls and Boyd Counties. One year later the Boyd County site was selected as the preferred site and additional site characterization studies were undertaken. On July 29, 1990, US Ecology submitted a license application to the Nebraska Department of Environmental Control (now Department of Environmental Quality-NDEQ). This paper will present issues that the NDEQ has dealt with since Nebraska`s selection as the host state for the CIC facility.

  2. Analysis of critical thinking ability of VII grade students based on the mathematical anxiety level through learning cycle 7E model (United States)

    Widyaningsih, E.; Waluya, S. B.; Kurniasih, A. W.


    This study aims to know mastery learning of students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E, determine whether the critical thinking ability of the students with learning cycle 7E is better than students’ critical thinking ability with expository model, and describe the students’ critical thinking phases based on the mathematical anxiety level. The method is mixed method with concurrent embedded. The population is VII grade students of SMP Negeri 3 Kebumen academic year 2016/2017. Subjects are determined by purposive sampling, selected two students from each level of mathematical anxiety. Data collection techniques include test, questionnaire, interview, and documentation. Quantitative data analysis techniques include mean test, proportion test, difference test of two means, difference test of two proportions and for qualitative data used Miles and Huberman model. The results show that: (1) students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E achieve mastery learning; (2) students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E is better than students’ critical thinking ability with expository model; (3) description of students’ critical thinking phases based on the mathematical anxiety level that is the lower the mathematical anxiety level, the subjects have been able to fulfil all of the indicators of clarification, assessment, inference, and strategies phases.

  3. The influence of graded levels of available phosphorus on growth performance, muscle antioxidant and flesh quality of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wen


    Full Text Available Growth, muscle composition, meat quality characteristics and antioxidant capacity in muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella (initial weight 282.9 ± 3.3 g fed graded levels of phosphorus (1.0, 2.5, 3.8, 5.6, 7.8 and 9.5 g/kg diet for 8 wk were investigated. Results indicated that percentage weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were improved with optimal phosphorus supplementations (P < 0.05. Muscle protein content and water holding capacity were significantly elevated, while moisture, lipid and ash contents were significantly decreased with dietary phosphorus to a certain level (P < 0.05. The meat shear force value and hydroxyproline content were not influenced by different levels of phosphorus. Muscle anti-hydroxyl radical, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase activities and glutathione content were significantly improved (P < 0.05. Conversely, anti-superoxide anion, glutathione reducase and glutathione peroxidase activities were decreased (P < 0.05 with dietary phosphorus to a certain level. These results indicated that suitable dietary phosphorus improved growth performance, meat quality and muscle antioxidant capacity. Dietary available phosphorus requirement of young grass carp for percentage weight gain was 4.0 g/kg diet.

  4. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: IV. Non-linear change in behavioural phenotype of mice in response to short-term calorie restriction. (United States)

    Lusseau, David; Mitchell, Sharon E; Barros, Ceres; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong Jackie; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R


    Animals have to adjust their activities when faced with caloric restriction (CR) to deal with reduced energy intake. If CR is pronounced, allostasis can push individuals into alternate physiological states which can result in important health benefits across a wide range of taxa. Here we developed a new approach to determine the changes in behavioural phenotype associated with different levels of CR. We exposed C57BL/6 male mice to graded CR (from 0 to 40%) for three months and defined their behavioural phenotype using hidden Markov models of their movement and body temperature. All 40% CR mice exhibited a state-shift in behavioural phenotype and only some exposed to 30% CR did. We show for the first time that mice changed their activity characteristics rather than changed their activities. This new phenotyping approach provides an avenue to determine the mechanisms linking CR to healthspan.

  5. Developing the conceptual instructional design with inquiry-based instruction model of secondary students at the 10th grade level on digestion system and cellular degradation issue (United States)

    Rotjanakunnatam, Boonthida; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn


    The aims of this research study was to develop the conceptual instructional design with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model (IBIM) of secondary students at the 10th grade level on Digestion System and Cellular Degradation issue using both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients were designed instructional model with a sample size of 45 secondary students at the 10th Grade level. Data were collected by asking students to do a questionnaire pre and post learning processes. The questionnaire consists of two main parts that composed of students' perception questionnaire and the questionnaire that asked the question answer concept for the selected questionnaire. The 10-item Conceptual Thinking Test (CTT) was assessed students' conceptual thinking evaluation that it was covered in two main concepts, namely; Oxygen degradation nutrients and degradation nutrients without oxygen. The data by classifying students' answers into 5 groups and measuring them in frequency and a percentage of students' performances of their learning pre and post activities with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model were analyzed as a tutorial. The results of this research found that: After the learning activities with the IBIM, most students developed concepts of both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients in the correct, complete and correct concept, and there are a number of students who have conceptual ideas in the wrong concept, and no concept was clearly reduced. However, the results are still found that; some students have some misconceptions, such as; the concept of direction of electron motion and formation of the ATP of bioactivities of life. This cause may come from the nature of the content, the complexity, the continuity, the movement, and the time constraints only in the classroom. Based on this research, it is suggested that some students may take some time, and the limited time in the classroom to their learning activity with content creation content binding and

  6. Public health agendas addressing violence against rural women - an analysis of local level health services in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. (United States)

    da Costa, Marta Cocco; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques; Soares, Joannie dos Santos Fachinelli


    This study analyses health managers' perceptions of local public health agendas addressing violence against rural women in municipalities in the southern part of the State Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a qualitative approach. Municipal health managers responsible for planning actions directed at women's health and primary health care were interviewed. The analysis sought to explore elements of programmatic vulnerability related to violence in the interviewees' narratives based on the following dimensions of programmatic vulnerability: expression of commitment, transformation of commitment into action, and planning and coordination. It was found that local health agendas directed at violence against rural women do not exist. Health managers are therefore faced with the challenge of defining lines of action in accordance with the guidelines and principles of the SUS. The repercussions of this situation are expressed in fragile comprehensive services for these women and programmatic vulnerability.

  7. Public health agendas addressing violence against rural women - an analysis of local level health services in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cocco da Costa


    Full Text Available This study analyses health managers' perceptions of local public health agendas addressing violence against rural women in municipalities in the southern part of the State Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a qualitative approach. Municipal health managers responsible for planning actions directed at women's health and primary health care were interviewed. The analysis sought to explore elements of programmatic vulnerability related to violence in the interviewees' narratives based on the following dimensions of programmatic vulnerability: expression of commitment, transformation of commitment into action, and planning and coordination. It was found that local health agendas directed at violence against rural women do not exist. Health managers are therefore faced with the challenge of defining lines of action in accordance with the guidelines and principles of the SUS. The repercussions of this situation are expressed in fragile comprehensive services for these women and programmatic vulnerability.

  8. Differences in eighth grade science student and teacher perceptions of students' level of input into academic planning and decision making (United States)

    Chapman, Jarrett Michael

    Teachers are expected to improve their planning, instruction, and assessment as they progress through their career. An important component to teachers knowing what to modify in their teaching style is being able to solicit meaningful feedback from students. This mixed-methods study was conducted to provide teachers with a quantitative method to collect data about their teaching using the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES). Phase 1 allowed students to provide anonymous feedback to their teachers that the teachers could later reflect upon in conjunction with the students' other feedback. Using measures of central tendencies, it was determined that of the five categories of the CLES the area of student negotiation was statistically different from the other categories. While eight teachers had sufficient (n>10) student data to be invited to participate in Phase 2, only five of the teachers choose to participate in a semi-structured interview to further examine the potential differences between teacher and student perception of student negotiation with the curriculum, instruction and assessment that occurs in the classroom. Coding the interview transcripts led to three categories: 1) teaching style (with themes including curriculum, instruction, and assessment, and sub themes of teacher centered and student centered); 2) external pressures (with themes of standards , standardized tests, and socioeconomic conditions); 3) effectiveness of student negotiation (with themes of positive effect or no effect on motivation). The five teachers who participated in Phase 2 had varying levels of awareness and willingness to adjust their classroom curriculum, instruction, and assessment to include student negotiation. All but one teacher, however, saw the value in increasing student negotiation in the classroom and desired to continue to change their teaching to include more student negotiation.

  9. The Delaware Bay Estuary as a Classroom: A Research Experience for Future Elementary Grade-Level Teachers (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Fifield, S.; Allen, D.; Shipman, H.; Ford, D.; Dagher, Z.; Brickhouse, N.


    With supplemental funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), students from the University of Delaware's Science Semester course took part in a two-day research cruise in the Delaware Bay Estuary. The Science Semester, an NSF-funded project, is an integrated 15-credit sequence that encompasses the entire course work for the spring semester for approximately 60 sophomore-level elementary education majors. The semester includes the earth, life, and physical science content courses and the education science methods course integrated into one curriculum. In this curriculum, problem-based learning and other inquiry-based approaches are applied to foster integrated understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. The research cruise was conducted as part of one of the four major investigations during the course. The investigation focused on Delaware's state marine animal, Limulus polyphemus. It is one of the four remaining species of horseshoe crabs; the largest spawning population of Limulus is found in Delaware Bay. Within the problem- and inquiry-based learning approaches of the Science Semester course, the students became aware that very little data exists on the benthic habitat of Limulus polyphemus. In order to learn more about this habitat, a cohort of seven students from the course was recruited as part of the scientific party to take part in the research cruise to collect data on the floor of Delaware Bay. The data included: multibeam bathymetry/backscatter data, grab samples of bay bottom sediments, and CTD profiles. Prior to the cruise, all students in the course took part in laboratory exercises to learn about topographic maps and navigation charts using the Delaware Bay area as the region of study. While "at-sea", the cruise participants sent the ship's latitude and longitude positions as a function of time. The positions were used by the on-land students to

  10. Effect of supplementation of Simada sheep with graded levels of concentrate meal on feed intake, digestibility and body-weight parameters. (United States)

    Dessie, Jemberu; Melaku, Solomon; Tegegne, Firew; Peters, Kurt J


    The experiment consisting of 7 days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trial was conducted at Wogda (Ethiopia) to determine the effect of supplementation of graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) on feed intake, digestibility, and body weight (BW) change in hay-based feeding of Simada sheep. Twenty-yearling Simada sheep with a mean initial BW of 17.9 +/- 0.81 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The four dietary treatments that consisted of hay alone (T1), hay +150 g dry matter (DM; T2, low), hay +250 g DM (T3, medium), and hay +350 g DM (T4, high) CM were randomly assigned to each sheep within a block. The CM consisted of wheat bran (WB), noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) meal and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seed meal at the ratio of (2:1:1), respectively. Supplementation with T2 and T3 increased (P profitability compared to the control, whereas sheep on the high than the low and medium level of supplementation performed better in these parameters among the supplemented treatments. From the results of this study, T4 is recommended as the best level of supplementation since it resulted in better nutrient utilization, animal performance, and profitability.

  11. Low MAD2 expression levels associate with reduced progression-free survival in patients with high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Furlong, Fiona


    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has an innate susceptibility to become chemoresistant. Up to 30% of patients do not respond to conventional chemotherapy [paclitaxel (Taxol®) in combination with carboplatin] and, of those who have an initial response, many patients relapse. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate cellular chemotherapeutic responses in EOC cells has the potential to impact significantly on patient outcome. The mitotic arrest deficiency protein 2 (MAD2), is a centrally important mediator of the cellular response to paclitaxel. MAD2 immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 82 high-grade serous EOC samples. A multivariate Cox regression analysis of nuclear MAD2 IHC intensity adjusting for stage, tumour grade and optimum surgical debulking revealed that low MAD2 IHC staining intensity was significantly associated with reduced progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.0003), with a hazard ratio of 4.689. The in vitro analyses of five ovarian cancer cell lines demonstrated that cells with low MAD2 expression were less sensitive to paclitaxel. Furthermore, paclitaxel-induced activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and apoptotic cell death was abrogated in cells transfected with MAD2 siRNA. In silico analysis identified a miR-433 binding domain in the MAD2 3\\' UTR, which was verified in a series of experiments. Firstly, MAD2 protein expression levels were down-regulated in pre-miR-433 transfected A2780 cells. Secondly, pre-miR-433 suppressed the activity of a reporter construct containing the 3\\'-UTR of MAD2. Thirdly, blocking miR-433 binding to the MAD2 3\\' UTR protected MAD2 from miR-433 induced protein down-regulation. Importantly, reduced MAD2 protein expression in pre-miR-433-transfected A2780 cells rendered these cells less sensitive to paclitaxel. In conclusion, loss of MAD2 protein expression results in increased resistance to paclitaxel in EOC cells. Measuring MAD2 IHC staining intensity may predict

  12. Allegheny County Addressing Landmarks (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  13. Allegheny County Address Points (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  14. [Experiences of Life and Work of a Group of Epidemiologists in Training in Order to Address Mental Health Problems and Issues at Local and Departmental Level. Medellin, 2013]. (United States)

    Duque, María Osley Garzón; Bernal, Diana Restrepo; Cardona, Doris Alejandra Segura; Vargas, Alejandra Valencia; Salas, Ivony Agudelo; Quintero, Lina Marcela Salazar


    To examine, from the point of view of a group of epidemiologists in training, their life experiences and work related to addressing mental health problems and mental health issues. An exploratory qualitative-descriptive study was conducted using ethnographic tools, non-participant observation, note-taking, and group interviews (FG). The participants mentioned that mental health and mental health issues are managed and poorly differentiated either by them and the community in general. They also said they were not ready to handle mental problems, or have the support of services for patient care, as mental health issues have not yet been clearly dimensioned by society. Epidemiology has its limitations, it focuses on knowledge of the physical-biological aspects and the use of quantitative approach with poor integration of the qualitative approach, thus hindering the understanding of a phenomenon that exceeds the limits of a research approach. This approach to issues of health and mental illness widens the view of knowledge from only a single focus. It includes an understanding of the qualitative approach as an option to advance the knowledge and recognition of a public health problem overshadowed by stigma and apathy of society. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. High levels of sarcospan are well tolerated and act as a sarcolemmal stabilizer to address skeletal muscle and pulmonary dysfunction in DMD (United States)

    Gibbs, Elizabeth M.; Marshall, Jamie L.; Ma, Eva; Nguyen, Thien M.; Hong, Grace; Lam, Jessica S.; Spencer, Melissa J.


    Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder that causes progressive muscle weakness, ultimately leading to early mortality in affected teenagers and young adults. Previous work from our lab has shown that a small transmembrane protein called sarcospan (SSPN) can enhance the recruitment of adhesion complex proteins to the cell surface. When human SSPN is expressed at three-fold levels in mdx mice, this increase in adhesion complex abundance improves muscle membrane stability, preventing many of the histopathological changes associated with DMD. However, expressing higher levels of human SSPN (ten-fold transgenic expression) causes a severe degenerative muscle phenotype in wild-type mice. Since SSPN-mediated stabilization of the sarcolemma represents a promising therapeutic strategy in DMD, it is important to determine whether SSPN can be introduced at high levels without toxicity. Here, we show that mouse SSPN (mSSPN) can be overexpressed at 30-fold levels in wild-type mice with no deleterious effects. In mdx mice, mSSPN overexpression improves dystrophic pathology and sarcolemmal stability. We show that these mice exhibit increased resistance to eccentric contraction-induced damage and reduced fatigue following exercise. mSSPN overexpression improved pulmonary function and reduced dystrophic histopathology in the diaphragm. Together, these results demonstrate that SSPN overexpression is well tolerated in mdx mice and improves sarcolemma defects that underlie skeletal muscle and pulmonary dysfunction in DMD. PMID:27798107

  16. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanos, L.; Arista, E.; Osorio Deliz, J.F.


    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  17. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal. (United States)

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus


    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P  0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens.

  18. The Montbeliard Radiation Protection Pilot Project: a global approach of radiation protection addressing occupational, public and patient exposures at the level of a large urban community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, Caroline; Lochard, Jacques; Badajoz, Coralie; Bataille, Celine; Croueail, Pascal; Klein, Didier; Klopfenstein, Jean-Francois; Makovicka, Libor


    The Montbeliard Radiation Protection Pilot Project started in March 2004, at the initiative of the Inter- City Council of the Montbeliard Country in cooperation with CEPN. It aims at improving the radiation protection of the inhabitants of the Montbeliard Country in the various exposure situations which can be potentially encountered on the territory (hospital, dwellings, environment,...) as well as at promoting the creation of a pole of competence in the field of radiation protection in the Montbeliard Country. The project relies on the involvement of all relevant stakeholders at the local, national and international level. This paper provides with a quick insight of the project organisation, followed by a synthetic description of the main achievements of the various project areas. (author)

  19. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp. on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molatelo Junior Madibana


    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp. into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0, 50 (Ulva50, 100 (Ulva100, 150 (Ulva150 and 200 (Ulva200 g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14 ± 0.30 g were distributed into each of 20 experimental tanks and offered diets at 2.8% body mass. Weight and length of fish were measured weekly for 9 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, fish fed Ulva50 had higher body mass (38.20 ± 1.38 g compared to those fed the other three Ulva-based diets. Fish offered Ulva200 had significantly (P  .05 by dietary treatments. However, the levels of both blood cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase tended to decrease as dietary Ulva inclusion levels increased. These results indicate that Ulva could be incorporated at the rate of 50 g kg−1 in future commercial dusky kob diets without any negative effects on feed utilizationa and growth performance. Hematology and serum biochemistry results indicate that dietary inclusion of Ulva had no adverse effects on physiological status of the fish. Keywords: Ulva sp., Haematology, Dusky kob, Feed conversion efficiency, Specific growth rate

  20. Effects of hypobaric Endurance Training on Graded Exercise Induced Lymphocyte Mobilization, Senescence and Their Surface Thiol Levels in Elite Male Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim - Azali Alamdari


    Full Text Available The effects of each hypoxemic exercise session or overall training period still remains to be more elucidated in elite athletes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypobaric endurance training on lymphocytes mobilization and senescence and also their surface Thiol levels following to graded exercise test (GXT in elite male athletes. Fourty six volunteer subjects were randomized into normobaric control (NC, hypobaric control (HC, normobaric exercise (NE and hypobaric exercise (HE groups. The NE and HE groups were exposed to homeland (700 mmHg and 2800 meters above sea level (570 mmHg simulated barometric pressures respectively, while HC and NC groups were remained sedentary at the same conditions. The training was included on treadmill running for four weeks, five sessions/week, 45 min/ session. Each session was consisted of three-min warmed up period, three cycles of 10-min running at 65% maximal heart rate reserve (HRRmax interspersed with a three-min active recovery and three-min cool-down running period. Two GXTs were performed before (baseline and after the interventions and blood samples were collected three times at both occasions. In all groups, mobilization of CD8+lymphocytes and senescent phenotype population of their both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets were increased after both GXTs, however; these changes were reversed following to recovery period(P<0.05. Moreover, HE were decreased lymphocytes surface thiol levels before and after the second GXT (P< can be concluded that HE has no additional benefits for elite athletes regarded to lymphocytes mobilization and senescence, however; it may render them to oxidative stress.  

  1. The Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 (PAI-1) Level and PAI-1 4G/5G Gene Polymorphism with the Formation and the Grade of Endometrial Cancer. (United States)

    Yıldırım, Malik Ejder; Karakuş, Savas; Kurtulgan, Hande Küçük; Kılıçgün, Hasan; Erşan, Serpil; Bakır, Sevtap


    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (Serpine 1), and it inhibits both tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator which are important in fibrinolysis. We aimed to find whether there is a possible association between PAI-1 level, PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, and endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels in peripheral blood were determined in 82 patients with endometrial carcinoma and 76 female healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Then, the genomic DNA was extracted and screened by reverse hybridization procedure (Strip assay) to detect PAI 1 4G/5G polymorphism. The levels of PAI-1 in the patients were higher statistically in comparison to controls (P 5G polymorphism was quite different between patients and controls (P = 0.008), and 4G allelic frequency was significantly higher in the patients of endometrial cancer than in controls (P = 0.026). We found significant difference between Grade 1 and Grade 2+3 patients in terms of the PAI-1 levels (P = 0.047). There was no association between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and the grades of endometrial cancer (P = 0.993). Our data suggest that the level of PAI-1 and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism are effective in the formation of endometrial cancer. PAI-1 levels are also associated with the grades of endometrial cancer.

  2. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay. (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu


    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  3. Growth indices and cost implications of hybro broiler chicks fed with graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corm meal as a replacement for maize. (United States)

    Olajide, R


    Corms such as wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta] have potential to replace maize as a cheaper energy source in poultry rations. A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of fermented wild cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm (FWCC), as substitutes for maize in the diets of broilers at the starter phase. One hundred and twenty unsexed day-old Hybro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). There were 3 replicates per dietary treatment with 10 birds per replicate. Diet 1 without FWCC served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% FWCC. Each of the diets represented a treatment. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum for 4 weeks (28 days) representing the starter phase of the broiler production. Result of the performance revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The economic analysis also showed that cost (Naira58.52) of a kilogram feed was highest (p<0.05) for the control and least (Naira53.10) for 30% FWCC. The least cost (Naira101.24) of feed per kilogram weight gain (p<0.05) was obtained for birds fed 30% FWCC compared to (Naira105.53) for the control. It was concluded that maize can economically be substituted with 30% FWCC in broiler starter diets.

  4. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G titer correlates with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density, and levels of serum biomarkers. (United States)

    Tu, Huakang; Sun, Liping; Dong, Xiao; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Jing, Jingjing; Yuan, Yuan


    OBJECTIVE. Clinical implications of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer were unclear. This study investigated the associations of serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and levels of serum biomarkers, including pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII, PGI/II ratio and gastrin-17. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Study participants were from a screening program in northern China. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG measurements were available for 5922 patients with superficial gastritis. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized criteria. RESULTS. In patients with mild, moderate or severe superficial gastritis, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers were 17.3, 33.4 and 54.4 EIU (p for trend histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and concentrations of serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17, and negatively with PGI/II ratio.

  5. Load-dependent brain activation assessed by time-domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy during a working memory task with graded levels of difficulty (United States)

    Molteni, Erika; Contini, Davide; Caffini, Matteo; Baselli, Giuseppe; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Cerutti, Sergio; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Torricelli, Alessandro


    We evaluated frontal brain activation during a mixed attentional/working memory task with graded levels of difficulty in a group of 19 healthy subjects, by means of time-domain functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Brain activation was assessed, and load-related oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin changes were studied. Generalized linear model (GLM) was applied to the data to explore the metabolic processes occurring during the mental effort and, possibly, their involvement in short-term memorization. GLM was applied to the data twice: for modeling the task as a whole and for specifically investigating brain activation at each cognitive load. This twofold employment of GLM allowed (1) the extraction and isolation of different information from the same signals, obtained through the modeling of different cognitive categories (sustained attention and working memory), and (2) the evaluation of model fitness, by inspection and comparison of residuals (i.e., unmodeled part of the signal) obtained in the two different cases. Results attest to the presence of a persistent attentional-related metabolic activity, superimposed to a task-related mnemonic contribution. Some hemispherical differences have also been highlighted frontally: deoxy-hemoglobin changes manifested a strong right lateralization, whereas modifications in oxy- and total hemoglobin showed a medial localization. The present work successfully explored the capability of fNIRS to detect the two neurophysiological categories under investigation and distinguish their activation patterns.

  6. Influences of graded dose of melatonin on the levels of blood glucose and adrenal catecholamines in male roseringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri ) under different photoperiods. (United States)

    Maitra, S K; Dey, M; Dutta, S; Bhattacharya, S; Dey, R; Sengupta, A


    Effects of daily evening (just before the onset of darkness in a 24 h light dark cycle) administration of graded doses (25, 50, or 100 microg/100 g body wt./day for 30 days) of melatonin on the concentrations of blood glucose and adrenal catecholamines were studied in sexually active male roseringed parakeets under natural (NP; approximately 12L: 12D) and artificial long (LP; 16L: 8D) and short (SP; 8L: 16D) photoperiods. Blood samples and adrenal glands were collected from each bird during the mid-day on the following day of the last treatment. The concentrations of glucose in blood and epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) in the adrenals were measured. The results of the study indicated that exogenous melatonin induces hypo- or hyperglycemia depending on the dose of hormone administered as well as to the length of photoperiod to which birds were exposed. The levels of E and NE in the adrenals were shown also to vary in relation to photoperiod and the dose of melatonin administered. But the nature of the influence of melatonin becomes different under altered photoperiodic conditions. It appears that short photoperiods are more effective than long photoperiods as a modulator of glycemic and adrenal catecholaminergic responses to exogenous melatonin. A statistically significant correlation between the levels of blood glucose and that of E and NE in the adrenals was found in the control birds, but not in the melatonin treated birds. The results suggested that the responses of blood glucose and adrenal catecholamines to the treatment with melatonin in the roseringed parakeets may not be dependent on each other.

  7. The integrated learning management using the STEM education for improve learning achievement and creativity in the topic of force and motion at the 9th grade level (United States)

    Kakarndee, Nampetch; Kudthalang, Nukool; Jansawang, Natchanok


    The aims of this research study were to investigate and analyze the processing performances and the performance results (E1/E2) efficiency at the determining criteria for planning students' improvements to their learning processes toward their scientific knowledge were investigated, carry out the investigations, gathering evidence, and proposing explanations were developed and predicted. Students' engagements to their needs in unambiguous and clearly content of science teaching onto the instructional processes were attempted for establishing a national approach with the STEM education instructional method were strategized. Research administrations were designed to a sample size consisted of 40 secondary students in science class at the 9th grade level in Borabu School with the purposive sampling technique was selected. Using the STEM Education instructional innovation's lesson plans were managed learning activities. Students' learning achievements were assessed with the Pre-Test and Post-Test designs of 30 items. Students' creative thinking abilities were determined of their perceptions that obtained of the 3-item Creative Thinking Ability Test. The results for the effectiveness of the innovative instructional lesson plans based on the STEM Education Method, the lessoning effectiveness (E1/E2) evidences of 78.95/76.58 over the threshold setting is 75/75. Pretest-posttest designs for assessing students' learning achievements that impact a student's ability to achieve and explains with the STEM education instructional method were differences, significantly (ρ<.001) and the posttest of the 3-item Creative Thinking Ability Test designs for assessing Students' creative thinking abilities that impact a student's ability to have a good skill level in originality, fluency and flexibility thinking with the STEM education instructional method were differences, significantly (ρ<.001).

  8. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torki M


    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell® on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30% and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 % were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet during the entire experiment (P. Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P. The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P. The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P. Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.

  9. High grade intraepithelial neoplasia of prostate is associated with values of prostate specific antigen related parameters intermediate between prostate cancer and normal levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermina Obralic


    Full Text Available High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN is widely regarded as the precancerous. The aim of this study was to determine PSA related parameters in patients with initial PSA values 2-10 ng/mL and diagnosis of HGPIN without finding carcinoma at the time of their first needle biopsy. Study groups consisted of 100 men who were diagnosed HGPIN, 84 with cancer and 183 with benign hyperplasia on first biopsy of prostate. Total PSA and free PSA were measured and ratio free/total PSA and PSA density calculated. Mean values of these parameters were compared, and receiver operating characteristic curves were used for comparison of PSA related parameters to discriminate groups of patients. Total PSA, free PSA level and PSA density in patients with HGPIN (6.388 ng/mL did not differ significantly compared to prostate carcinoma (6.976 ng/mL or benign prostatic hyperplasia (6.07 ng/mL patients. Patients with HGPIN had significantly higher ratio free/total PSA than those with prostate carcinoma (0.168 vs 0.133, but significantly lower than patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (0.168 vs 0.185. Ratio of free/total PSA significantly discriminate HGPIN from prostate carcinoma with sensitivity 84.52 and specify 45.00 at cut-off point of ≤ 0.18. Values of PSA, free PSA and ratio free/total PSA in cases of HGPIN appear to be intermediate between prostate cancer and normal levels. Ratio of free/total PSA may help in decision to repeat biopsies in the presence of HGPIN on biopsy, without concomitant prostate cancer, in patients suitable for curative treatment, with normal digito-rectal examination and trans-rectal sonography.

  10. License Address List (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  11. Reach Address Database (RAD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  12. Addressing Enterprise-Level Information System Deficiencies (United States)


    Appendix 8: List of NSNs Researched ............................................................................. 77 Appendix 9: Thesis Storyboard ... Storyboard 79 Bibliography AF/A4LM. (2013, August 8). AFI 23-101 Materiel Management. Air Force Materiel Management. Washington DC, USA: US Air

  13. Effects of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, total protozoa and methane production. (United States)

    Bhatta, R; Saravanan, M; Baruah, L; Prasad, C S


    This study was carried out to determine the effect of graded levels of tannin-containing tropical tree leaves, Autocarpus integrifolis, Azardirachta indica and Ficus bengalensis, on the in vitro rumen fermentation pattern, total protozoa and methane suppression in order to establish the optimum dose of these leaves for inclusion in the ruminant diets. The air-dried and ground samples of Au. integrifolis, Az. indica and Ficus bengalensis were subjected to in vitro incubation using 30 ml buffered rumen fluid at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0% (dry matter refers to moisture-free basis) of a total mixed ration (TMR: refers to mixture of roughage and concentrate containing cereals and oil cakes) devoid of tannin. The TMR for the experimental incubation was prepared by mixing 40 parts of ground Elusine coracana straw as roughage source with 60 parts of concentrate mixture. The leaves contained an average 130 g kg(-1) CP with 7·0 MJ of ME kg(-1) DM. The average neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content was content also showed similar trend. However, condensed tannin (CT) was highest in F. bengalensis (260) followed by Au. integrifolis (186) and Az. indica (138). There was significant (P 5.0%) reduced TVFA concentration. Protozoa (cells per mL) were similar at all levels of inclusion with Au. integrifolis, but reduced in case of F. bengalensis and Az. indica. As the level of tannin increased in the incubation medium, there was a linear reduction in methane concentration. Highest methane reduction (%) was recorded in incubations supplemented with Az. indica (61.5) followed by F. bengalensis (46.8) and Au. integrifolis (30.3). It was established from this study that tropical leaves of F. bengalensis, Au. integrifolis and Az. indica suppress methanogenesis. Ficus bengalensis, Au. integrifolis and Az. indica leaves are of interest in the enteric methane ameliorative strategies. Total mixed ration containing 10-15% ground F. bengalensis or Au. integrifolis or Az

  14. Toward a Theoretical Model of Text Complexity for the Early Grades: Learning from the Past, Anticipating the Future (United States)

    Mesmer, Heidi Anne; Cunningham, James W.; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.


    In this conceptual essay, we offer rationales and evidence for critical components of a working model of text complexity for the early grades. In the first three sections of the article, we examine word-level, syntax-level, and discourse-level features of text, posing questions for future research. In the fourth section, we address elements of…

  15. CA 15–3 cell lines and tissue expression in canine mammary cancer and the correlation between serum levels and tumour histological grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuali Elisabetta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary tumours are the most common malignancy diagnosed in female dogs and a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in this species. Carbohydrate antigen (CA 15–3 is a mucinous glycoprotein aberrantly over-expressed in human mammary neoplasms and one of the most widely used serum tumour markers in women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the antigenic analogies of human and canine CA 15–3 and to assess its expression in canine mammary cancer tissues and cell lines. Immunohistochemical expression of CA 15–3 was evaluated in 7 canine mammary cancer cell lines and 50 malignant mammary tumours. As a positive control, the human breast carcinoma cell line MCF7 and tissue were used. To assess CA 15–3 staining, a semi-quantitative method was applied. To confirm the specificity and cross-reactivity of an anti-human CA 15–3 antibody to canine tissues, an immunoblot analysis was performed. We also investigated serum CA 15–3 activity to establish whether its expression could be assigned to several tumour characteristics to evaluate its potential use as a serum tumour marker in the canine mammary oncology field. Results Immunocytochemical analysis revealed CA 15–3 expression in all examined canine mammary cancer cell lines, whereas its expression was confirmed by immunoblot only in the most invasive cells (CMT-W1, CMT-W1M, CMT-W2 and CMT-W2M. In the tissue, an immunohistochemical staining pattern was observed in 34 (68% of the malignant tumours. A high statistical correlation (p = 0.0019 between serum CA 15–3 levels and the degree of tumour proliferation and differentiation was shown, which indicates that the values of this serum marker increase as the tumour stage progresses. Conclusions The results of this study reveal that CA 15–3 is expressed in both canine mammary tumour cell lines and tissues and that serum levels significantly correlate with the histological grade of the

  16. Examining the Impact and School-Level Predictors of Impact Variability of an 8th Grade Reading Intervention on At-Risk Students' Reading Achievement (United States)

    Fien, Hank; Anderson, Daniel; Nelson, Nancy J.; Kennedy, Patrick; Baker, Scott K.; Stoolmiller, Michael


    The purpose of the present article is to report on a large-scale investigation of six school districts' implementation of an initiative aimed at reducing dropout rates by improving reading achievement in the middle grades. Data for the Middle School Intervention Project (MSIP) were collected in 25 middle schools across the state of Oregon. We…

  17. Twenty Percent of the Variance between Students in Academic Engagement Is Explained by Grade Level, Gender, Family Affluence, Anxiety, and Social Support (United States)

    Wilcox, Gabrielle; McQuay, Jocelyn; Blackstaffe, Anita; Perry, Rosemary; Hawe, Penelope


    Understanding what contributes to academic engagement is important to effectively support students. This study examines the relationship between sociodemographic factors, anxiety, social support, and academic engagement in elementary and junior high school students. Students in grades 5-9 (N = 1,904) completed self-reports measuring academic…

  18. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5b: Medida Lineal, Perimetro y Area (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5b: Linear Measure, Perimeter and Area). (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include measurement, perimeter, and area. (MK)

  19. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6a: Suma de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6a: Addition of Fractions). (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include addition of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  20. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 5a: Geometria - Conjuntos de Puntos (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 5a: Geometry - Sets of Points). (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in the booklet include points, lines, planes, space, angles, and intersection and union of sets. (MK)

  1. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 4b: Division de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 4b: Division of Fractions). (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include reciprocals, complex fractions, and division of fractions. (MK)

  2. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 6b: Resta de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 6b: Subtraction of Fractions). (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include subtraction of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  3. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Nivel 4a: Multiplicacion de Fracciones (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Level 4a: Multiplication of Fractions). (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include equivalent fractions, mixed numbers, and multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers. (MK)

  4. Sherlock Holmes im Englischunterricht auf der Sekundarstufe Eins (Sherlock Holmes in English Teaching at the Lower Secondary Level /Grades 5-10/) (United States)

    Schneider, Rudolf


    Discusses the use of simplified versions of detective stories ("The Hound of the Baskervilles,""The Speckled Band,""Black Peter") in grades 5-8. The aim is to gain insights and skills transferable to other literature. Examples from the stories show how this is done. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  5. Technical Adequacy of the easyCBM Primary-Level Mathematics Measures (Grades K-2), 2009-2010 Version. Technical Report #1006 (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Saez, Leilani; Jamgochian, Elisa; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald


    In the following technical report, we present evidence of the technical adequacy of the easyCBM[R] math measures in grades K-2. In addition to reliability information, we present criterion-related validity evidence, both concurrent and predictive, and construct validity evidence. The results represent data gathered throughout the 2009/2010 school…

  6. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s (United States)

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.


    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  7. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  8. San Francisco Bay Area CHARG: Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group, a Multi-Jurisdictional Collaboration to Develop Innovative Regional Solutions to Address Sea Level Rise and Improve Shoreline Resiliency (United States)

    Saleh, R.


    For a challenge as complex and far-reaching as sea level rise and improving shoreline resiliency, strong partnerships between scientists, elected officials, decision-makers, and the general public are the only way that effective solutions can be developed. The San Francisco Bay, like many similar sheltered water coastal environments (for example, Galveston Bay, Tampa Bay, or Venetian Lagoon) offers a unique opportunity for multiple jurisdictions to collaborate to address sea level rise on a regional basis. For the San Francisco Bay, significant scientific progress has been made in building a real-time simulation model for riverine and Bay hydrodynamics. Other major scientific initiatives, such as morphology mapping, shoreline mapping, and a sediment budget are also underway. In 2014, leaders from the Bay Area science, engineering, planning, policy, elected, and regulatory communities representing jurisdictions around the Bay joined together to address sea level rise. The group includes people from local, regional, state, and federal agencies and organizations. Together, CHARG (Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group) established a collective vision and approach to implementing regional solutions. Decision-makers within many Bay Area jurisdictions are motivated to show demonstrable progress toward addressing sea level rise. However, the cost to implement shoreline resiliency solutions will be very large, and must be founded on strong science.CHARG is now tackling several key technical challenges. One is to develop science-based guidelines for local jurisdictions to determine when a project is local, sub-regional, or regional. Concurrently, several organizations are planning or implementing pilot shoreline resiliency projects and other programs. Many creative regional solutions are possible in a sheltered water environment that simply would not be feasible along the open coast. By definition, these solutions cannot be undertaken by one entity alone. Large



    Kam Tung Tuang Suante


    Private tuition is the practice of academic teaching and learning from outside of the school with a fee but a few of studies acknowledged what private tuition provides to the receivers beyond the teaching of academic subjects. This study explored the intensity and nature of private tuition through 1119 Grade 9 students’ survey reports and 18 interviewees’ responses. The study revealed the common practice of private tuition in Myanmar and 69.5% of the participants are in private boarding tuiti...

  10. Increasing the Vocabulary Acquisition Rate for Third Grade English Language Learners (United States)

    Pendergrass, Jennifer D.


    Given the ongoing demographic transformations of U.S classrooms, knowledge of the strategies teachers use to address the vocabulary needs of English language learners (ELLs) is central for improving student outcomes. The problem in a Georgia school system was that ELLs were not building grade-level appropriate vocabulary at a pace comparable to…

  11. Addressing the nuclear misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.


    There is a perception, fostered and encouraged by the anti-nuclear groups, that the nuclear industry generates large quantities of waste with no idea how to deal with it, that it is unsafe, uneconomic, and environmentally damaging. The task is to change these perceptions, by demonstrating that the industry is not a problem in itself, but in fact provides solutions to problems. This paper, while primarily concerned with waste, addresses all of these issues as each has a bearing on the perception of the industry and therefore must be considered when addressing the issue of waste. The paper concludes that evidence exists to support the industry view, but that the mission of the industry should be to change the perception of the industry, by influencing and working together with its stake holders to address their concerns, rather than merely presenting more and more facts. (author)

  12. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems. (United States)

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  13. Forecasting and recruitment in graded manpower systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nunen, J.A.E.E.; Wessels, J.


    In this paper a generalized Markov model is introduced to describe the dynamic behaviour of an individual employee in a graded Manpower system. Characteristics like the employee's grade, his educational level, his age and the time spent in his actual grade, can be incorporated in the Markov model.

  14. Addressing Sexual Harassment (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.


    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  15. Teachers' Grading Decision Making (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali


    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  16. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices. (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  17. Variables affecting the acceptability of radappertized ground beef products. Effects of food grade phosphates, NaCl, fat level, and grinding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.S.; Shults, G.W.; Mason, V.C.; Wierbicki, E.


    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of different variables on the quality of an irradiated ground beef product. Factors studied included: different food-grade phosphates; NaCl content; fat content; and size of grind. The influence of these variables on the cooking loss (moisture retention), shear press values and sensory scores was studied. The addition of phosphates and NaCl was desirable in controlling cooking losses. The most effective phosphate was tetrasodium pyrophosphate. The addition of NaCl decreased the shear press force required to penetrate the beef patty, i.e., it tenderized the product. Phosphate addition did not affect the shear press force. Increased fat content increased the cooking losses, but did not affect the shear press force. Irradiation with sterilizing doses had a marked effect on decreasing the shear press force

  18. TMEM45A, SERPINB5 and p16INK4A transcript levels are predictive for development of high-grade cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manawapat-Klopfer, Anna; Thomsen, Louise T; Martus, Peter


    Women persistently infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 are at high risk for development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN3+). We aimed to identify biomarkers for progression to CIN3+ in women with persistent HPV16 infection. In this prospective study......, 11,088 women aged 20-29 years were enrolled during 1991-1993, and re-invited for a second visit two years later. Cervical cytology samples obtained at both visits were tested for HPV DNA by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), and HC2-positive samples were genotyped by INNO-LiPA. The cohort was followed for up...... to 19 years via a national pathology register. To identify markers for progression to CIN3+, we performed microarray analysis on RNA extracted from cervical swabs of 30 women with persistent HPV16-infection and 11 HPV-negative women. Six genes were selected and validated by quantitative PCR. Three genes...

  19. Modulation of selenium tissue distribution and selenoprotein expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with graded levels of plant ingredients. (United States)

    Betancor, Monica B; Dam, Thi M C; Walton, James; Morken, Thea; Campbell, Patrick J; Tocher, Douglas R


    Increased substitution of marine ingredients by terrestrial plant products in aquafeeds has been proven to be suitable for Atlantic salmon farming. However, a reduction in n-3 long-chain PUFA is a consequence of this substitution. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the effects of fishmeal and oil substitution on levels of micronutrients such as Se, considering fish are major sources of this mineral for human consumers. To evaluate the effects of dietary marine ingredient substitution on tissue Se distribution and the expression of Se metabolism and antioxidant enzyme genes, Atlantic salmons were fed three feeds based on commercial formulations with increasing levels of plant proteins (PP) and vegetable oil. Lipid content in flesh did not vary at any sampling point, but it was higher in the liver of 1 kg of fish fed higher PP. Fatty acid content reflected dietary input and was related to oxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances). Liver had the highest Se levels, followed by head kidney, whereas the lowest contents were found in brain and gill. The Se concentration of flesh decreased considerably with high levels of substitution, reducing the added value of fish consumption. Only the brain showed significant differences in glutathione peroxidase, transfer RNA selenocysteine 1-associated protein 1b and superoxide dismutase expression, whereas no significant regulation of Se-related genes was found in liver. Although Se levels in the diets satisfied the essential requirements of salmon, high PP levels led to a reduction in the supply of this essential micronutrient.

  20. Addressing the terawatt challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter C. K.; Jaramillo, Thomas F.


    The energy infrastructure for fossil fuels is well-established, accounting for approximately 87% of the 16 TW of power consumed globally. For renewable and sustainable energy conversion technologies to play a relevant role at the terrestrial scale, they must be able to scale to the TW level...

  1. FELLOWS ADDRESS California Dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van Kees


    California was the first jurisdiction to mandate a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. This target was subsequently endorsed by the G8 in 2009 and the European Commission in 2014, and is the guiding principle of the 2015 Paris Agreement. To achieve these

  2. Effect of corn replacement with graded levels of wheat screening and enzyme supplementation on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, M.; Golian, A.; Kermanshahi, H.


    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of corn replacement with five levels of wheat screening (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g/kg of diet) with (0.5 g/kg of diet) or without xylanase-glucanase enzyme on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers (25-42 days of age). Five hundred day-old Ross-308 male broiler chicks were fed by a standard commercial diet up to 24 days of age, then randomly assigned to 10 diets. Each diet was fed to five groups of ten chicks each. There was not significant differences in body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of birds fed with different levels of wheat screening (WS), whereas enzyme increased (p<0.05) BWG. Different levels of WS and enzyme did not have a significant effect on relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, and abdominal fat of broilers. Relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, small and large intestine, and relative length of jejunum and jejunal and ileal viscosity were increased (p<0.05) by WS, while were decreased (p<0.05) by enzyme. The serum cholesterol level decreased (p<0.05) by increasing levels of WS. Jejunal histomorphological observations showed (p<0.05) shorter and thicker villus and lower crypt depth by increasing levels of WS, while addition of enzyme to the diets, affected (p<0.05) reversely to these parameters. The results showed that the addition of wheat screening up to an inclusion level of 600 g/kg of diet had no adverse effect on broiler performance in the finisher (25-42 d) phases whereas decreased serum cholesterol levels, increased viscosity and villus atrophy. The dietary administration of exogenous enzyme improved performance parameters and decreased viscosity and villus atrophy of broiler jejunum. (Author)

  3. Counting addressing method: Command addressable element and extinguishing module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Jovan D.


    Full Text Available The specific requirements that appear in addressable fire detection and alarm systems and the shortcomings of the existing addressing methods were discussed. A new method of addressing of detectors was proposed. The basic principles of addressing and responding of a called element are stated. Extinguishing module is specific subsystem in classic fire detection and alarm systems. Appearing of addressable fire detection and alarm systems didn't caused essential change in the concept of extinguishing module because of long calling period of such systems. Addressable fire security system based on counting addressing method reaches high calling rates and enables integrating of the extinguishing module in addressable system. Solutions for command addressable element and integrated extinguishing module are given in this paper. The counting addressing method was developed for specific requirements in fire detection and alarm systems, yet its speed and reliability justifies its use in the acquisition of data on slowly variable parameters under industrial conditions. .

  4. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean daily body temperature and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Douglas, Alex; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.


    A commonly observed response in mammals to calorie restriction (CR) is reduced body temperature (Tb). We explored how the Tb of male C57BL/6 mice responded to graded CR (10 to 40%), compared to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) over 3 months. Under CR there was a dynamic change in daily Tb over the first 30–35 days, which stabilized thereafter until day 70 after which a further decline was noted. The time to reach stability was dependent on restriction level. Body mass negatively correlated with Tb under ad libitum feeding and positively correlated under CR. The average Tb over the last 20 days was significantly related to the levels of body fat, structural tissue, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Some mice, particularly those under higher levels of CR, showed periods of daily torpor later in the restriction period. None of the changes in Tb under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. We conclude that changes in Tb under CR are a response only to the shortfall in calorie intake. The linear relationship between average Tb and the level of restriction supports the idea that Tb changes are an integral aspect of the lifespan effect. PMID:26286956

  5. "Teaching Is a Lot More than Just Showing up to Class and Grading Assignments": Preparing Middle-Level Teachers for Longevity in the Profession (United States)

    Van Overschelde, James P.; Saunders, Jane M.; Ash, Gwynne Ellen


    The university's teacher preparation program has implemented and continually refined a professional development school program, with extended university-school relationships in its middle-level certification program. This program offers dialogue, targeted learning activities, and intensive field-based experiences to help ease preservice teachers…

  6. Children Who Desperately Want To Read, but Are Not Working at Grade Level: Use Movement Patterns as "Windows" To Discover Why. Part III: The Frontal Midline. (United States)

    Corso, Marjorie

    A longitudinal research study observed 30 children between the ages of infancy and elementary age to determine if using large muscle motor patterns to master the three identified midlines that concur with the body planes used in anatomy is reflected in academic classroom learning levels. This third part of the study focused on the frontal midline.…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Manuel Carbonell-Zamora


    Full Text Available The Integrated Strategic Direction constitutes a superior stage of Direction that expresses the coordinated system of external and internal relations with full participation in order to reach the vision of the organization. It can be insured by the use of the Strategic Direction model for the integration of the Company Direction System. This model has been applied in several companies. Recently, it was applied in the Inspection State Unit of MICONS in Santiago de Cuba through the investigation thesis for master degree developed during 18 months which objective was to validate its effectiveness in a budgeted unit, obtaining positive results when the levels of integration in the direction system increased in their external and internal relations expressed in a 37 % and 15 % respectively, which impacted the increment of the efficiency and effectiveness of all processes of the organization. 

  8. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet. (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A


    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  9. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints (United States)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.


    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  10. Prognostic impact of hemoglobin level and other factors in patients with high-grade gliomas treated with postoperative radiochemotherapy and sequential chemotherapy based on temozolomide. A 10-year experience at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausili Cefaro, Giampiero; Genovesi, Domenico; Vinciguerra, Annamaria; Trignani, Marianna; Taraborrelli, Maria; Augurio, Antonietta; Buonaguidi, Roberto; Galzio, Renato J.; Di Nicola, Marta


    To evaluate the influence of serum hemoglobin level prior to radiotherapy and other prognostic factors on survival in patients with high-grade gliomas. From 2001-2010, we retrospectively evaluated a total of 48 patients with malignant glioma treated with surgery and postoperative radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. A total of 37 of 48 patients received sequential temozolomide. Hemoglobin levels were assayed before radiotherapy in all patients. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate the overall survival, while the log-rank test was applied to evaluate the differences on survival probability between prognostic subgroups. Results were assessed in 43 patients. The median overall survival time was 18 months (95% confidence interval: 12-40 months). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 62.2% and 36.3%, respectively. The prognostic factors analyzed were gender, age, extent of surgery, performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, hemoglobin level, and methylation of the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT). In univariate analysis, the variables significantly related to survival were performance status before and after radiotherapy, sequential chemotherapy, and hemoglobin level. The median overall survival in patients with a hemoglobin level ≤ 12 g/dl was 12 months and 23 months in patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 46.7% and 20.0%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level ≤ 12 mg/dl and 69.6% and 45.7%, respectively, for patients with a hemoglobin level > 12 g/dl. Our results confirm the impact of well-known prognostic factors on survival. In this research, it was found that a low hemoglobin level before radiotherapy can adversely influence the prognosis of patients with malignant gliomas.

  11. Oxygen sensors and energy sensors act synergistically to achieve a graded alteration in gene expression: consequences for assessing the level of neuroprotection in response to stressors. (United States)

    Renshaw, Gillian M C; Warburton, Joshua; Girjes, Adeeb


    Changes in gene expression are associated with switching to an autoprotected phenotype in response to environmental and physiological stress. Ubiquitous molecular chaperones from the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily confer neuronal protection that can be blocked by antibodies. Recent research has focused on the interactions between the molecular sensors that affect the increased expression of neuroprotective HSPs above constitutive levels. An examination of the conditions under which the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was up regulated in a hypoxia and anoxia tolerant tropical species, the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum), revealed that up-regulation was dependent on exceeding a stimulus threshold for an oxidative stressor. While hypoxic-preconditioning confers neuroprotective changes, there was no increase in the level of Hsp70 indicating that its increased expression was not associated with achieving a neuroprotected state in response to hypoxia in the epaulette shark. Conversely, there was a significant increase in Hsp70 in response to anoxic-preconditioning, highlighting the presence of a stimulus threshold barrier and raising the possibility that, in this species, Hsp70 contributes to the neuroprotective response to extreme crises, such as oxidative stress. Interestingly, there was a synergistic effect of coincident stressors on Hsp70 expression, which was revealed when metabolic stress was superimposed upon oxidative stress. Brain energy charge was significantly lower when adenosine receptor blockade, provided by treatment with aminophylline, was present prior to the final anoxic episode, under these circumstances, the level of Hsp70 induced was significantly higher than in the pair-matched saline treated controls. An understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis for neuroprotective switches, which result in an up-regulation of neuroprotective Hsp70 expression in the brain, is needed so that intervention strategies can be devised

  12. Improving productive performance and mitigating harmful emissions from laying hen excreta via feeding on graded levels of corn DDGS with or without Bacillus subtilis probiotic. (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Mahgoub, S A; Alagawany, M; Ashour, E A


    An experiment that included some inclusions of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without supplementation of probiotic bacteria to Hi-sex Brown laying hen diets was conducted to evaluate the impacts on performance, egg quality, blood metabolites and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion in the manure. A total of 216 twenty-two-week-old Hi-sex Brown laying hens were randomly divided into eight treatment groups in a factorial design (4 × 2) experiment, which included four levels of DDGS (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg diet) plus two levels of Bacillus subtilis probiotic (0 or 1000 mg/kg diet, with a concentration of 1.5 × 108 CFU/g of dried product). The experimental period extended from 22 to 34 weeks of age. The results showed that linear increase in DDGS level up to 150 g/kg improved (p ≤ 0.01) the values of feed consumption, egg shape index and yolk colour compared to the control and other treatment groups. Inclusion of dietary DDGS up to 150 g/kg in layer diets led to a significant decrease in egg mass and a significant increase in Haugh unit score compared to other groups. In the bacillus group, the values of feed conversion, egg weight and egg mass enhanced by 6.45, 3.27 and 7.60% respectively compared with the control diet. Total protein, albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, calcium and ammonia in serum were significantly (p ≤ 0.01) influenced by DDGS inclusion. The excreted nitrogen decreased by 8.62 and 4.31% in hens fed 50 or 100 g/kg of DDGS respectively, while excreted phosphorous decreased by 3.33, 7.22 and 10.56% in hens fed 50, 100 or 150 g/kg of DDGS respectively as compared to the control group. It could be concluded that increasing DDGS inclusion level in the diet up to 10% and the supplementation of probiotic bacteria improved the productive performance of laying hens and mitigated the harmful emissions from chicken manure; this means better production within environmentally friendly conditions. Journal of Animal

  13. Technical session keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish, J.T.


    The nuclear industry faces many impacting challenges. First among them is staying competitive with non-nuclear generating options. In the last couple of years, we have seen early shutdowns of plants that could not produce our product cheaply or reliably enough to compete with the other options. Although there have been substantial variations in both the volume of waste disposed and its curie content, the volume has generally been decreasing. This decrease is likely due to economic factors which encourage volume reduction by decontamination and recycle, compaction, better administrative controls, and incineration. It appears that the threat of having to pay the surcharge may have affected the trends between 1985 and 1990. Even accounting for the dramatic 70-75% reduction in disposal volume that had occurred over the last 10 years, base disposal cost have nearly quadrupled. Most of this increase has been attributable to rising federal and state surcharges. The rising cost associated with low-level waste disposal site development threaten economic competitiveness. Successfully responding to competition in the nuclear power industry is a serious and important issue that is being confronted by all

  14. Notes for an address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, R.W.


    The policy of the Ontario government is to ensure that consumers have access to a full range of competitively-priced energy forms. Nuclear power is more desirable than coal, both environmentally and from the point of view of cost, and the nuclear industry is also important to Ontario, providing jobs and contributing to the province's industrial development. The government of Ontario is exploring the possibility of exporting surplus electrical power when a profit can be made. Ontario Hydro has been exporting electricity for about 60 years, and sales to the United States have increased significantly since 1973, allowing rates to Ontario consumers to be lowered. Exports at present are from fossil-fired plants, increasing nuclear capacity frees the more expensive coal-fuelled capacity for export purposes. In past generating plants have not been built exclusively for the export market, and only short-term power surplusses have been exported. Over the next ten years exports are likely to remain about 10 billion kilowatt-hours per year. It would be environmentally advantageous for Ontario to build nuclear plants to generate electricity for the American market, rather than have to import acid rain from US coal-fired power plants. Much depends on public opinion and government policies at the federal level in both countries

  15. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  16. Graded manifolds and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, M.


    In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with

  17. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken Fed Graded Levels of Sun-Dried Irish Potato Peel Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafar James Raphael


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of substituting different levels of sun-dried Irish potato peel meal (SPPM for maize in diets of broiler chickens. Five diets in which SPPM was replaced with 0 (0SPPM, 25 (25SPPM, 50 (50SPPM, 75 (75SPPM and 100% (100SPPM of maize in starter and finisher diets for a 8 week period using broiler chickens were examined. A total of 300 two weeks old broilers chicks Anak 2000 were randomly allotted to five experimental diets with six pen per treatment and 10 birds chicks per pen. Body weight and feed intake of broilers, and feed conversion ratio were determined at the beginning and 56th day of the experiment respectively. On day 56, four broilers from each pen were selected and slaughtered to determine some carcass characteristics and serum biochemistry. The result of growth performance showed that 100SPPM decreased daily weight gain of chickens when compared to other SPPM levels (P

  18. Computer generated holography with intensity-graded patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Conti


    Full Text Available Computer Generated Holography achieves patterned illumination at the sample plane through phase modulation of the laser beam at the objective back aperture. This is obtained by using liquid crystal-based spatial light modulators (LC-SLMs, which modulate the spatial phase of the incident laser beam. A variety of algorithms are employed to calculate the phase modulation masks addressed to the LC-SLM. These algorithms range from simple gratings-and-lenses to generate multiple diffraction-limited spots, to iterative Fourier-transform algorithms capable of generating arbitrary illumination shapes perfectly tailored on the base of the target contour. Applications for holographic light patterning include multi-trap optical tweezers, patterned voltage imaging and optical control of neuronal excitation using uncaging or optogenetics. These past implementations of computer generated holography used binary input profile to generate binary light distribution at the sample plane. Here we demonstrate that using graded input sources, enables generating intensity graded light patterns and extend the range of application of holographic light illumination. At first, we use intensity-graded holograms to compensate for LC-SLM position dependent diffraction efficiency or sample fluorescence inhomogeneity. Finally we show that intensity-graded holography can be used to equalize photo evoked currents from cells expressing different level of chanelrhodopsin2 (ChR2, one of the most commonly used optogenetics light gated channels, taking into account the non-linear dependence of channel opening on incident light.

  19. Forms of address in Isizulu



    M.A. (African Studies) The study deals with forms of address in isiZulu. Therefore, the various aspects of speech that play roles when addressing a person, the factors affecting forms of address in isiZulu and the effect of languages such as English, Afrikaans and other African languages on the forms of address in isiZulu are of interest. Research was conducted on forms of address in isiZulu in parts of Soweto and it was discovered that form of address are determined by different factors i...

  20. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  1. Growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of yellow-feathered broilers fed graded levels of alfalfa meal with or without wheat. (United States)

    Jiang, Shouqun; Gou, Zhongyong; Li, Long; Lin, Xiajing; Jiang, Zongyong


    The effects of 0, 40 and 80 g/kg alfalfa meal on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of Chinese yellow-feathered broilers fed diets containing or lacking wheat (0 or 200 g/kg) as part of the energy source, were examined using random design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dressing percentage and semi-eviscerated proportion were lower, and meat color a* (redness) value was higher in birds fed diets containing wheat than diets lacking wheat (P meat was higher in chickens fed corn-based diets than in those fed wheat (P Meat from those supplemented with 40 g/kg alfalfa meal had better taste than the other two levels (P meat color and lower drip loss than those fed the diets without wheat, and adding 40 g/kg alfalfa meal generally improved meat quality and taste. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. The effect of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal on growth performances and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. (United States)

    Melesse, Aberra; Alemu, Temesgen; Banerjee, Sandip; Berihun, Kefyalew


    This study was designed to assess the effects of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performances and carcass components of broiler chickens. The experiment was a completely randomized design consisting of five dietary treatments replicated four times with ten chicks each. The control diet (treatment 1, T1) contained roasted soybean seed as the major protein source without SPLM and treatment diets containing SPLM at the levels of 30 g/kg (treatment 2, T2), 60 g/kg (treatment 3, T3), 90 g/kg (treatment 4, T4) and 120 g/kg (treatment 5, T5) by partially substituting the roasted soybean seed in the control diet. The results indicated that the body weight gain in chickens reared in T1 was (pchickens reared in T1 was (pchickens fed on T1 was (pChickens fed with T2 diet had numerically higher values of slaughter, dressed carcass and breast than those reared in T4 and T5 diets. It can be concluded that the partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato leaf might be economically feasible feeding strategy of broiler chickens in smallholder poultry farm settings.

  3. Raising the Bar: A Data-Driven Discussion on Grade Inflation (United States)

    Laurie, Robert


    The practice of handing out excellent grades to students who don't deserve them (grade inflation) is not a new phenomenon. Indeed grade inflation is among the oldest and most difficult issues to address in higher education. The author first studied the impact of grade inflation on student performance on standardized tests at the high school level…

  4. Effects of corn gluten feed inclusion at graded levels in a corn-soybean diet on the ileal and fecal digestibility of growing pigs (United States)


    Background This study aimed to determine the effect of the inclusion of corn gluten feed (CGF) on the apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids and the apparent ileal and total tract digestibility of energy in growing pigs. The study was performed using 16 barrows (weight, 45.3 ± 4.5 kg) that were fitted with a T cannula at the terminal ileum. There were four treatments: a corn-soybean diet without CGF and three corn-soybean diets containing increasing levels of CGF (65, 130, and 195 g/kg). Data were analyzed according to a randomized complete block design, four blocks with four pigs each (one pig per treatment). The trend of the response (linear or quadratic) was determined using orthogonal contrasts, and when a linear effect was determined, a linear equation was obtained. Results The results showed that the inclusion up to 195 g/kg of CGF in the corn-soybean diet did not diminish the ileal digestibility (apparent and standardized) of protein and amino acids (P > 0.05), except that of phenylalanine, cystine, and proline. A linear decrease (P digestibility of phenylalanine (0.011 and 0.015 percentage units, respectively), cystine (0.048 and 0.043 percentage units, respectively), and proline (0.045 and 0.047 percentage units, respectively) was noted. Similarly, ileal digestibility of dry matter and energy were adversely affected (reduced by 0.028 and 0.025 percentage units, respectively, per gram of CGF increment in the diet). A significant (P digestibility with increase in CGF amount in the diet was observed for energy (0.027 percentage units), dry matter (0.027 percentage units), crude protein (0.020 percentage units), and neutral detergent fiber (0.041 percentage units) per gram of CGF added to the diet. Conclusion CGF did not affect the ileal digestibility of protein and most amino acids but reduced the ileal and total tract digestibility of energy. PMID:25279142

  5. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.


    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  6. Exergame Grading Scheme: Concept Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluations in Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Wang


    Full Text Available The challenge of using exergames to promote physical activity among cancer survivors lies in the selection of the exergames that match their fitness level. There is a need for a standardized grading scheme by which to judge an exergame’s capacity to address specific physical fitness attributes with different levels of physical engagement. The study aimed to develop an Exergame Grading Scheme and preliminarily evaluate its psychometric properties. Fourteen (14 items were created from the human movement and exergame literature. The content validity index (CVI was rated by content experts with two consecutive rounds (N=5 and N=3 independently. The interrater reliability (IRR was determined by two raters who used the Exergame Grading Scheme to determine the grading score of the five exergames performed by two cancer survivors (N=10. Each item had a score of 1 for item-level CVI and 1 for k. For IRR, 9 items had rho values of 1, 1 item had 0.93, and 4 items had between 0.80 and 0.89. This valid and reliable Exergame Grading Scheme makes it possible to develop a personalized physical activity program using any type of exergame or fitness mobile application in rehabilitation practice to meet the needs of cancer survivors.

  7. GRADE: Assessing the quality of evidence in environmental and occupational health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, Rebecca L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Bero, Lisa; Bruce, Nigel; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Ghersi, Davina; Guyatt, Gordon; Hooijmans, Carlijn; Langendam, Miranda; Mandrioli, Daniele; Mustafa, Reem A.; Rehfuess, Eva A.; Rooney, Andrew A.; Shea, Beverley; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sutton, Patrice; Wolfe, Mary S.; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Verbeek, Jos H.; Holloway, Alison C.; Santesso, Nancy; Schünemann, Holger J.


    There is high demand in environmental health for adoption of a structured process that evaluates and integrates evidence while making decisions and recommendations transparent. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework holds promise to address this

  8. Effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on apparent total tract digestibility of calcium and phosphorus and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in four sources of canola meal and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs. (United States)

    She, Y; Liu, Y; Stein, H H


    One hundred twenty pigs were used to determine effects of graded levels of microbial phytase on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 4 sources of canola meal and in 1 source of soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. The 4 sources of canola meal were produced from 1 source of high-protein canola seeds and 2 sources of conventional canola seeds with 1 of the conventional canola seeds being divided into 2 separate batches before crushing. Pigs (16.2 ± 5.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates and were randomly allotted to 1 of 20 diets in a 5 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments with 5 ingredients and 4 levels of phytase. There were 6 replicate pigs per diet. Five basal diets based on high-protein canola meal (CM-HP), high-temperature processed canola meal (CM-HT), low-temperature processed canola meal (CM-LT), conventional canola meal (CM-CV), or SBM were formulated. The basal diets contained no phytase. Fifteen additional diets were prepared by adding approximately 500, 1,500, or 2,500 phytase units/kg to each of the 5 basal diets. Feces were quantitatively collected for 5 d based on the marker-to-marker approach after a 7-d adaptation period. Results indicated that supplementation of microbial phytase increased (linear, phytase also increased (linear and quadratic, phytase was added, but no differences were observed in the ATTD and STTD of P in SBM, CM-HP, CM-HT, or CM-CV if the highest amount of phytase were added (interaction, phytase on the STTD of P in CM-HP, CM-HT, CM-LT, CM-CV, and SBM. In conclusion, inclusion of graded levels of microbial phytase increased the ATTD and STTD of P in CM-HP, CM-HT, CM-LT, CM-CV, and SBM and the response to microbial phytase added to each ingredient can be predicted by regression equations.

  9. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary


    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  10. Algebra task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat


    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  11. Geometry task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary


    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  12. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.


    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  13. Comparisons between students' learning achievements of their conventional instruction and the science, technology and social conceptual instructional design on digestion system issue of secondary students at the 10th grade level (United States)

    Wichalek, Supattra; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Santiboon, Toansakul


    The purposes of this action research study were 1) to develop learning activities according to the instructional designing model of science, technology, and social (STS) on Digestion Issue, 2) to compare students' learning achievements between their learning activities with the conventional instructional (CIM) and conceptual instructional designing methods of science, technology, and social (STS) on digestion system of secondary students at the 10th grade level with a sample size of 35 experimental student group of their STS learning method, and 91 controlling group in two classes in the first semester in academic year 2016. Using the 4-Instructional Innovative Lesson Plans, the Students' Learning Behaviour Observing Form, the Questionnaire on Teacher Behaviour Interaction (QTBI), the Researcher's Recording Form, the Learning Activity Form, and the Parallel Learning Achievement Test (LAT) were assessed. The results of this research have found that; the Index of Item Objective Congruence (IOC) value ranged from 0.67 to 1.00; the difficulty values were 0.47 and 0.79 for the CIM and STS methods, respectively, the discriminative validity for the LAT was ranged from 0.20 to 0.75. The reliability of the QTBI was 0.79. Students' responses of their learning achievements with the average means scores indicted of the normalized gain values of 0.79 for the STS group, and 0.50 and 0.36 for the CIM groups, respectively. Students' learning achievements of their post-test indicated that of a higher than pre-test, the pre-test and post-test assessments were also differentiated evidence at the 0.05 levels for the STS and CIM groups, significantly. The 22-students' learning outcomes from the STS group evidences at a high level, only of the 9-students' responses in a moderate level were developed of their learning achievements, responsibility.

  14. From Russian weapons grade plutonium to MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, G.; Kudriavtsev, E.G.; Seyve, C.


    The April 1996, G7 Moscow Summit on nuclear matters provided a political framework for one of the most current significant challenges: ensuring a consistent answer to the weapons grade fissile material disposition issue resulting from the disarmament effort engaged by both the USA and Russia. International technical assessments have showed that the transformation of Weapons grade Plutonium in MOX fuel is a very efficient, safe, non proliferant and economically effective solution. In this regard, COGEMA and SIEMENS, have set up a consistent technical program properly addressing incineration of weapons grade plutonium in MOX fuels. The leading point of this program would be the construction of a Weapons grade Plutonium dedicated MOX fabrication plant in Russia. Such a plant would be based on the COGEMA-SIEMENS industrial capabilities and experience. This facility would be operated by MINATOM which is the partner for COGEMA-SIEMENS. MINATOM is in charge of coordination of the activity of the Russian research and construction institutes. The project take in account international standards for non-proliferation, safety and waste management. France and Germany officials reasserted this position during their last bilateral summits held in Fribourg in February and in Dijon in June 1996. MINATOM and the whole Russian nuclear community have already expressed their interest to cooperate with COGEMA-SIEMENS in the MOX field. This follows governmental-level agreements signed in 1992 by French, German and Russian officials. For years, Russia has been dealing with research and development on MOX fabrication and utilization. So, the COGEMA-SIEMENS MOX proposal gives a realistic answer to the management of weapons grade plutonium with regard to the technical, industrial, cost and schedule factors. (author)

  15. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  16. System Thinking Skills at the Elementary School Level (United States)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir


    This study deals with the development of system thinking skills at the elementary school level. It addresses the question of whether elementary school students can deal with complex systems. The sample included 40 4th grade students from one school in a small town in Israel. The students studied an inquiry-based earth systems curriculum that…

  17. Addressing Bullying: Policy and Practice (United States)

    Lerman, Bradford C.


    Bullying can be a serious and damaging experience for students today. The children who bully are more likely to be truant; drop out of school; or engage in alcohol, tobacco, or other drug abuse, and children who are bullied are more likely to experience depression, low self-esteem, health problems, poor grades, and suicidal thoughts. In addition,…

  18. The Effect of Teacher and Student Characteristics on TIMSS 2011 Mathematics Achievement of Fourth- and Eighth-Grade Students in Turkey (United States)

    Yalcin, Seher; Demirtasli, Rahime Nükhet; Dibek, Munevver Ilgun; Yavuz, Hatice Cigdem


    This study investigated effect of student- and school-level variables on mathematics achievement of fourth- and eighth-grade students using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 data of Turkey. The common variables addressed in student and school questionnaires were compared. Due to nested structure of the TIMSS…

  19. Teaching Middle-Grades Mathematics through Financial Literacy (United States)

    Crawford-Ferre, Heather Glynn; Wiest, Lynda R.; Vega, Stephanie


    Because financial literacy is an important skill for middle-grades students, this article suggests numerous personal financial literacy tasks for use in the mathematics classroom. Also provided are specifics for implementing one of these tasks to address mathematical content.

  20. Using the mixed media according to internet-based on the instructional multimedia for developing students' learning achievements in biology course on foundational cell issue of secondary students at the 10th grade level in Rangsit University demonstration school (United States)

    Kangloan, Pichet; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Santiboon, Toansakul


    The aims of this research study were 1) to develop students' learning achievements in biology course on foundational cell issue, 2) to examine students' satisfactions of their learning activities through the mixed media according to internet-based multi-instruction in biology on foundational cell issue at the 10th grade level were used in the first semester in the academic year 2014, which a sample size of 17 students in Rangsit University Demonstration School with cluster random sampling was selected. Students' learning administrations were instructed with the 3-instructional lesson plans according to the 5-Step Ladder Learning Management Plan (LLMP) namely; the maintaining lesson plan on the equilibrium of cell issue, a lesson plan for learning how to communicate between cell and cell division. Students' learning achievements were assessed with the 30-item Assessment of Learning Biology Test (ALBT), students' perceptions of their satisfactions were satisfied with the 20-item Questionnaire on Students Satisfaction (QSS), and students' learning activities were assessed with the Mixed Media Internet-Based Instruction (MMIBI) on foundational cell issue was designed. The results of this research study have found that: statistically significant of students' post-learning achievements were higher than their pre-learning outcomes and indicated that the differences were significant at the .05 level. Students' performances of their satisfaction to their perceptions toward biology class with the mixed media according to internet-based multi instruction in biology on foundational cell issue were the highest level and evidence of average mean score as 4.59.

  1. Grade Repetition and Primary School Dropout in Uganda (United States)

    Kabay, Sarah


    Research on education in low-income countries rarely focuses on grade repetition. When addressed, repetition is typically presented along with early school dropout as the "wasting" of educational resources. Simplifying grade repetition in this way often fails to recognize significant methodological concerns and also overlooks the unique…

  2. The Value of Action Research in Middle Grades Education (United States)

    Caskey, Micki M.


    Action research is one of the relevant methodologies for addressing research questions and issues in middle grades education. Accounting for nearly 20% of published middle grades research studies (Hough, 2003), action research has emerged as an important and appropriate research method. In addition to reviewing the historical context, this article…

  3. Classroom: Efficient Grading (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.


    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  4. Grain Grading and Handling. (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  5. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt


    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  6. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt


    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  7. Transitioning HIV-infected adolescents to adult care at 14 clinics across the United States: using adolescent and adult providers' insights to create multi-level solutions to address transition barriers. (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Tanner, Amanda E; Chambers, Brittany D; Ma, Alice; Ware, Samuella; Lee, Sonia; Fortenberry, J Dennis; The Adolescent Trials Network


    HIV-infected adolescents have disproportionately low rates of care retention and viral suppression. Approximately half disengage from care while transitioning to adult clinics, in part due to fragmented care systems and lack of streamlined protocols. We conducted 58 qualitative interviews with social service and health care providers across 14 Adolescent Trials Network clinics (n = 28) and 20 adult clinics that receive transitioning adolescents (n = 30) from August 2015-June 2016. We used the constant comparative approach to examine processes, barriers, and facilitators of adult care transition. Transition barriers coalesced around three levels. Structural: insurance eligibility, transportation, and HIV-related stigma; Clinical: inter-clinic communication, differences in care cultures, and resource/personnel limitations; and Individual: adolescents' transition readiness and developmental capacity. Staff-initiated solutions (e.g., grant-funded transportation) were often unsustainable and applied individual-level solutions to structural-level barriers. Comprehensive initiatives, which develop collaborative policies and protocols that support providers' ability to match the solution and barrier level (i.e., structural-to-structural), are sorely needed. These initiatives should also support local systematic planning to facilitate inter-clinic structures and communication. Such approaches will help HIV-infected adolescents transition to adult care and improve long-term health outcomes.

  8. Foraminal syringomyelia: suggestion for a grading system. (United States)

    Versari, P P; D'Aliberti, G; Talamonti, G; Collice, M


    The standard treatment of foraminal syringomyelia includes foramen magnum decompression and duraplasty. Improvement or stabilization of the disease are achieved in most of cases. However, at least one third of patients are reported to receive little or no benefit. In this paper we retrospectively reviewed a series of 40 consecutive foramen magnum decompressions in order to identify the possible pre-operative outcome predictors. Based on clinical evolution, neurological impairment and radiological features, a scale of severity was fixed and retrospectively tested. A pre-operative score was obtained for each patient and was correlated with the surgical results. Then a four level grading system was derived. All grade I and grade II patients achieved good results (improvement or stabilization), whereas grade III patients showed intermediate behaviour and grade IV invariably worsened. On this basis, surgical results of foramen magnum decompression might be further improved provided that a careful pre-operative selection is made.

  9. Impact of a Ninth-Grade Transition Program on Cumulative GPAs and Credits, Ninth-Grade Dropout Rates, and Student Satisfaction (United States)

    Buhrman, B. R.


    Concerned educators have been implementing ninth-grade transition programs to help freshmen adjust to the demands in high school and to reduce ninth-grade failure rates. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to investigate the impact of a ninth-grade transition program. The research questions addressed impact on cumulative…

  10. Grading evidence from test accuracy studies: what makes it challenging compared with the grading of effectiveness studies? (United States)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Khan, Khalid


    Guideline panels need to process a sizeable amount of information to issue a decision on whether to recommend a health technology or not. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) is being frequently applied in guideline development to facilitate this task, typically for the synthesis of effectiveness research. Questions regarding the accuracy of medical tests are ubiquitous, and they temporally precede questions about therapy. However, literature summarising the experience of applying GRADE approach to accuracy evaluations is not as rich as one for effectiveness evidence. Type of study design (cross-sectional), two-dimensional nature of the performance measures (sensitivity and specificity), propensity towards a higher level of between-study heterogeneity, poor reporting of quality features and uncertainty about how best to assess for publication bias among other features make this task challenging. This article presents solutions adopted to addresses above challenges for judicious estimation of the strength of test accuracy evidence used to inform evidence syntheses for guideline development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Integrating emotional and psychological support into the end-stage renal disease pathway: a protocol for mixed methods research to identify patients' lower-level support needs and how these can most effectively be addressed. (United States)

    Taylor, Francesca; Taylor, Celia; Baharani, Jyoti; Nicholas, Johann; Combes, Gill


    As a result of difficulties related to their illness, diagnosis and treatment, patients with end-stage renal disease experience significant emotional and psychological problems, which untreated can have considerable negative impact on their health and wellbeing. Despite evidence that patients desire improved support, management of their psychosocial problems, particularly at the lower-level, remains sub-optimal. There is limited understanding of the specific support that patients need and want, from whom, and when, and also a lack of data on what helps and hinders renal staff in identifying and responding to their patients' support needs, and how barriers to doing so might be overcome. Through this research we therefore seek to determine what, when, and how, support for patients with lower-level emotional and psychological problems should be integrated into the end-stage renal disease pathway. The research will involve two linked, multicentre studies, designed to identify and consider the perspectives of patients at five different stages of the end-stage renal disease pathway (Study 1), and renal staff working with them (Study 2). A convergent, parallel mixed methods design will be employed for both studies, with quantitative and qualitative data collected separately. For each study, the data sets will be analysed separately and the results then compared or combined using interpretive analysis. A further stage of synthesis will employ data-driven thematic analysis to identify: triangulation and frequency of themes across pathway stages; patterns and plausible explanations of effects. There is an important need for this research given the high frequency of lower-level distress experienced by end-stage renal disease patients and lack of progress to date in integrating support for their lower-level psychosocial needs into the care pathway. Use of a mixed methods design across the two studies will generate a holistic patient and healthcare professional perspective that

  12. CRA Grade Inflation


    Kenneth H. Thomas


    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...

  13. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe


    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  14. Antioxidant nutrition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar parr and post-smolt, fed diets with high inclusion of plant ingredients and graded levels of micronutrients and selected amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Hamre


    Full Text Available The shift from marine to plant-based ingredients in fish feeds affects the dietary concentrations and bioavailability of micronutrients, amino acids and lipids and consequently warrants a re-evaluation of dietary nutrient recommendations. In the present study, an Atlantic salmon diet high in plant ingredients was supplemented with graded levels of nutrient premix (NP, containing selected amino acids, taurine, cholesterol, vitamins and minerals. This article presents the results on the antioxidant nutrients vitamin C, E and selenium (Se, and effects on tissue redox status. The feed ingredients appeared to contain sufficient levels of vitamin E and Se to cover the requirements to prevent clinical deficiency symptoms. The body levels of α-tocopherol (TOH in parr and that of Se in parr and post-smolt showed a linear relationship with dietary concentration, while α-TOH in post-smolt seemed to be saturable with a breakpoint near 140 mg kg−1. Ascorbic acid (Asc concentration in the basal feed was below the expected minimum requirement, but the experimental period was probably too short for the fish to develop visible deficiency symptoms. Asc was saturable in both parr and post-smolt whole body at dietary concentrations of 190 and 63–89 mg kg−1, respectively. Maximum whole body Asc concentration was approximately 40 mg kg−1 in parr and 14 mg kg−1 in post-smolt. Retention ranged from 41 to 10% in parr and from −206 to 12% in post-smolt with increasing NP supplementation. This indicates that the post-smolts had an extraordinarily high consumption of Asc. Analyses of glutathione (GSH and glutathione disulphide (GSSG concentrations and the calculated GSH based redox potentials in liver and muscle tissue, indicated only minor effects of diets on redox regulation. However, the post-smolt were more oxidized than the parr. This was supported by the high consumption of Asc and high expression of gpx1 and gpx3 in liver. Based on the present trials

  15. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the healing process of donor site in patients with grade 3 burn ulcer after skin graft surgery (a randomized clinical trial). (United States)

    Vaghardoost, Reza; Momeni, Mahnoush; Kazemikhoo, Nooshafarin; Mokmeli, Soheila; Dahmardehei, Mostafa; Ansari, Fereshteh; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Sabr Joo, Parisa; Mey Abadi, Sara; Naderi Gharagheshlagh, Soheila; Sassani, Saeed


    Skin graft is a standard therapeutic technique in patients with deep ulcers, but managing donor site after grafting is very important. Although several modern dressings are available to enhance the comfort of donor site, using techniques that accelerate wound healing may enhance patient satisfaction. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in several medical fields, including healing of diabetic, surgical, and pressure ulcers, but there is not any report of using this method for healing of donor site in burn patients. The protocols and informed consent were reviewed according to Medical Ethics Board of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (IR.SBMU.REC.1394.363) and Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT2016020226069N2). Eighteen donor sites in 11 patients with grade 3 burn ulcer were selected. Donor areas were divided into 2 parts, for laser irradiation and control randomly. Laser area was irradiated by a red, 655-nm laser light, 150 mW, 2 J/cm 2 , on days 0 (immediately after surgery), 3, 5, and 7. Dressing and other therapeutic care for both sites were the same. The patients and the person who analyzed the results were blinded. The size of donor site reduced in both groups during the 7-day study period (P < 0.01) and this reduction was significantly greater in the laser group (P = 0.01). In the present study, for the first time, we evaluate the effects of LLLT on the healing process of donor site in burn patients. The results showed that local irradiation of red laser accelerates wound healing process significantly.

  16. Addressing problems of employee performance. (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R


    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  17. Grade Retention at Primary School: What the Teachers in Zimbabwe Say

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchemwa Stella


    Full Text Available Primary education is the base of all advanced education levels, developments and innovations; it should therefore be meticulously done so as not to disadvantage the learners. In a bid to do it well, those involved in primary education have tried and are still trying strategies that can give the learners maximum advantage, for instance, grade retention and grade promotion. This research aimed at assessing the Zimbabwean primary school teachers’ stance on grade retention. The researcher took the advantage of Block-Release students at Solusi University in April 2016 (these are teachers from all over Zimbabwe and other countries in Africa who come for their degree studies at Solusi University during the holidays to collect data through interviews from a purposive sample of these teachers. Collected data was coded and analyzed descriptively. Findings showed that: 56% of the respondents indicated that retention is taking place at the primary schools where they are teaching but usually on a minimal scale since it is usually done upon parents’ request; 67% of the respondents said that retention is necessary and helpful; retention can be most suitably done at infant grades (1-3; however, the effect of retention on pupils’ performance is not clear due to other factors that affect performance. Findings also showed that the Zimbabwean Government is neither for retention nor grade promotion but for ERI (Early Reading Initiative and PLAP (Performance Lag Address Programme which have been recently introduced.

  18. Interrater and intrarater reliability of the Knosp scale for pituitary adenoma grading. (United States)

    Mooney, Michael A; Hardesty, Douglas A; Sheehy, John P; Bird, Robert; Chapple, Kristina; White, William L; Little, Andrew S


    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to determine the interrater and intrarater reliability of the Knosp grading scale for predicting pituitary adenoma cavernous sinus (CS) involvement. METHODS Six independent raters (3 neurosurgery residents, 2 pituitary surgeons, and 1 neuroradiologist) participated in the study. Each rater scored 50 unique pituitary MRI scans (with contrast) of biopsy-proven pituitary adenoma. Reliabilities for the full scale were determined 3 ways: 1) using all 50 scans, 2) using scans with midrange scores versus end scores, and 3) using a dichotomized scale that reflects common clinical practice. The performance of resident raters was compared with that of faculty raters to assess the influence of training level on reliability. RESULTS Overall, the interrater reliability of the Knosp scale was "strong" (0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.84). However, the percent agreement for all 6 reviewers was only 10% (26% for faculty members, 30% for residents). The reliability of the middle scores (i.e., average rated Knosp Grades 1 and 2) was "very weak" (0.18, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.56) and the percent agreement for all reviewers was only 5%. When the scale was dichotomized into tumors unlikely to have intraoperative CS involvement (Grades 0, 1, and 2) and those likely to have CS involvement (Grades 3 and 4), the reliability was "strong" (0.60, 95% CI 0.39-0.75) and the percent agreement for all raters improved to 60%. There was no significant difference in reliability between residents and faculty (residents 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.83 vs faculty 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.84). Intrarater reliability was moderate to strong and increased with the level of experience. CONCLUSIONS Although these findings suggest that the Knosp grading scale has acceptable interrater reliability overall, it raises important questions about the "very weak" reliability of the scale's middle grades. By dichotomizing the scale into clinically useful groups, the authors were able to address the poor

  19. Zone memories and pseudorandom addressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, D.; Mirizzi, N.; Stella, R.; Visaggio, G.


    A quantitative comparison between zone memories, pseudorandom addressed memories and an alternative special purpose memory (spread zone memory) in which the distance between any two transformed descriptors, at first adjacent, is independent of the descriptors pair and results the maximum one is presented. This memory has not been particularly considered at present in spite of its efficiency and its simple implementation

  20. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim


    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  1. Desempenho produtivo de tilápia do Nilo alimentada com níveis de colina na dieta = Growth performance of Nile tilapia fed graded choline levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Calvo Fernandes Junior


    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus alimentada com níveis de colina na dieta pelo período de 109 dias. Foram utilizados 192 alevinos com 4,0 ± 0,15 g de peso médio, distribuídos em 32 tanques-rede de 200 L, na densidade de seis peixes por tanque-rede, dispostos em aquários de 1.000 L. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. As rações foram suplementadas com 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000 e 1.200 mg de colina kg-1 de ração. Não foram observadas diferenças para ganho de peso, taxa de sobrevivência, conversão alimentar aparente, porcentagem de extrato etéreo do filé e do fígado, índice hepatossomático e concentração de lipídeos no plasma. Concluiuseque os diferentes níveis de colina não melhoraram o desempenho produtivo dos peixes nestas condições, pois a dieta basal supostamente supriu a exigência do peixe para colina.A 109-day feeding trial was undertaken aiming to evaluate the growth performance of Nile tilapia fed graded choline levels. One hundred and ninety-two (initial weight 4.0 ± 0.15 g fingerlings were distributed into 32 net cages (200 L each, four cages per treatmentand six fish per cage, placed in eight 1000L aquaria in a closed recirculation system. The treatments were assigned to the tanks comprising eight treatments and four replications arranged in a completely randomized experimental design. Diets were supplemented with choline chloride to provide 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200 mg of choline per kg of feed and an unsupplemented diet. No significant differences were observed in growth performance, survival, apparent feed conversion, liver and fillet ether extract, hepatosomatic index and plasma lipid concentration, among treatments. Choline levels did not improve growth performance, possibly because the amount of choline in the diet had already met fish

  2. Opening address; Allocution d`ouverture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, R


    In this opening address the president of WANO underlines the relative isolation of the Kozloduy NPP from the international nuclear community due to the lack of information and contacts. The need for eliminating the isolation is stressed and the following measures are proposed: to make the Kozloduy NPP an active member of the international community; to improve and maintain the safety level; to contribute to the electricity exchange system of Southeastern Europe.

  3. Contractions from grading (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash


    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  4. Living in Space. Book II. Levels D, E, F for Grades 4, 5, 6. Operation Liftoff: Elementary School Space Program. A Resource Guide with Activities for Elementary School Teachers. (United States)

    Andrews, Sheila Briskin; Kirschenbaum, Audrey

    This guide contains teacher background information and activities for students which deal with space travel and is designed to encourage elementary school students to take a greater interest in mathematics and science. The activities in this guide are to be used with grades 4 to 6 and cover the topics of food, clothing, health, housing,…

  5. Living in Space. Book 1. Levels A, B, C for Grades 1, 2, 3. Operation Liftoff: Elementary School Space Program. A Resource Guide with Activities for Elementary School Teachers. (United States)

    Andrews, Sheila Briskin; Kirschenbaum, Audrey

    This guide contains teacher background information and activities for students that relate to space travel and is designed to encourage elementary school students to take a greater interest in mathematics and science. The activities in this guide are to be used with grades 1 to 3 and cover the topics of food, clothing, health, housing,…

  6. Calculating Student Grades. (United States)

    Allswang, John M.


    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  7. Grades as Information (United States)

    Grant, Darren


    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  8. First Grade Baseline Evaluation (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013


    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  9. The Fifth Grade Classroom. (United States)

    Hartman, Michael; And Others

    An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…

  10. Cutting Class Harms Grades (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III


    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  11. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman


    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  12. A Life’s Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious relations......According to Jonathan Culler’s essay ”Apostrophe”, ”…post-enlightenment poetry seeks to overcome the alienation of subject from object”, and “apostrophe takes the crucial step of constituting the object as another subject with whom the poetic subject might hope to strike up a harmonious...... to a number of different aspects of Koch’s own life such as marijuana, the Italian language, World War Two, etc. In this way, the book quite conventionally inscribes itself in the tradition of post-enlightenment apostrophic poetry as characterized by Culler, just as all its poems belong to the favourite......, are literally troped as and addressed in the manner of so many acquaintances, personal connections, relatives, friends, lovers, and family members in Koch’s life. My main claim is that Koch’s poetics in New Addresses is one that slightly dislocates the romantic dichotomy between the world of things...

  13. The Use of Peer Facilitators To Enhance Self-Esteem Levels of At-Risk Students. (United States)

    Winkler, Joann B.

    This practicum addressed the problems of low self-esteem levels of at-risk students in kindergarten and in grades three and five by implementing a peer facilitator program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the OUNCE Attitude Scale, and a Kindergarten Checklist of Low Self-Esteem Characteristics were used to determine the students'…

  14. Research of future network with multi-layer IP address (United States)

    Li, Guoling; Long, Zhaohua; Wei, Ziqiang


    The shortage of IP addresses and the scalability of routing systems [1] are challenges for the Internet. The idea of dividing existing IP addresses between identities and locations is one of the important research directions. This paper proposed a new decimal network architecture based on IPv9 [11], and decimal network IP address from E.164 principle of traditional telecommunication network, the IP address level, which helps to achieve separation and identification and location of IP address, IP address form a multilayer network structure, routing scalability problem in remission at the same time, to solve the problem of IPv4 address depletion. On the basis of IPv9, a new decimal network architecture is proposed, and the IP address of the decimal network draws on the E.164 principle of the traditional telecommunication network, and the IP addresses are hierarchically divided, which helps to realize the identification and location separation of IP addresses, the formation of multi-layer IP address network structure, while easing the scalability of the routing system to find a way out of IPv4 address exhausted. In addition to modifying DNS [10] simply and adding the function of digital domain, a DDNS [12] is formed. At the same time, a gateway device is added, that is, IPV9 gateway. The original backbone network and user network are unchanged.

  15. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, D.L.; Sauerbrun, T.J.


    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate dispositioning options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) assisted NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the dispositioning options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. Additionally, the INEL investigated the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing light water reactors and provided a preconceptual analysis for a reactor specifically designed for destruction of weapons-grade plutonium. This four-volume report was prepared for NAS to document the findings of these studies. Volume 2 evaluates 12 plutonium dispositioning options. Volume 3 considers a concept for a low-temperature, low-pressure, low-power-density, low-coolant-flow-rate light water reactor that quickly destroys plutonium without using uranium or thorium. This reactor concept does not produce electricity and has no other mission than the destruction of plutonium. Volume 4 addresses neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and fuel performance and compatibility issues for zirconium-plutonium oxide fuels and aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels. This volumes gives summaries of Volumes 2--4

  16. Use of commercial grade item dedication to reduce procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.


    In the mid-1980s, the Nuclear Regulatory Industry (NRC) began inspecting utility practices of procuring and dedicating commercial grade items intended for plant safety-related applications. As a result of the industry efforts to address NRC concerns, nuclear utilities have enhanced existing programs and procedures for dedication of commercial grade items. Though these programs were originally enhanced to meet NRC concerns, utilities have discovered that the dedication of commercial grade items can also reduce overall procurement costs. This paper will discuss the enhancement of utility dedication programs and demonstrates how utilities have utilized them to reduce procurement costs

  17. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  18. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades? (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink


    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  19. Developing Middle Grades Students' MP3 (United States)

    Tassell, Janet; Stobaugh, Rebecca; Sheffield, Linda


    Middle grades are a critical time for capturing the interest and imagination and developing the potential of mathematically promising students. This is a time for students to make sense of mathematics, build a solid foundation and enthusiasm, and set the course for the highest levels of mathematics in the future. This is a time to explore their…

  20. First keynote address - biological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.


    The author describes the interplay of physical research and the practice of radiation protection. There are both analogies in and differences between the problems of health protection from radiation and chemical pollutants. In formulating research objectives for synfuel technologies, it is important to take what lessons there are to be learned from the radiation experience. The regulation of the exposure of persons to radiation probably rests on a firmer scientific basis than does the regulation of exposure to many toxic chemicals. Some things in radiation protection - in both applied work and in research - should help to guide in approaching chemicals. The second section of this paper gives a brief description of the practice of radiation protection. The next section mentions some fundamental deficiencies that exist in radiation protection. Some physical research avenues illustrate how such deficiencies are being addressed as part of an integrated radiation research program. In the fourth section the author focuses on chemical pollutants, drawing some lessons from the radiation experience

  1. A region addresses patient safety. (United States)

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I


    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  2. Let's End the Grading Game. (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie


    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  3. Four Steps in Grading Reform (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann


    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  4. Preparing Student Teachers to Address Complex Learning and Controversy with Middle Grades Students (United States)

    Smith, Ann Marie; Lennon, Sean


    This qualitative study explores pre-service teachers' perceptions of teaching critical literacy through discussions of controversial issues. Personality questionnaires were given to six classes of pre-student teachers over three semesters in order to gauge interest in teaching methods that incorporate inquiry learning and critical literacy. The…

  5. Preparing student teachers to address complex learning and controversy with middle grades students


    Smith, Ann Marie; Lennon, Sean


    This qualitative study explores pre-service teachers’ perceptions of teaching critical literacy through discussions of controversial issues. Personality questionnaires were given to six classes of pre-student teachers over three semesters in order to gauge interest in teaching methods that incorporate inquiry learning and critical literacy. The results of this study suggest that these pre-service teachers were generally unwilling to discussing controversial issues in their classes. Also some ...

  6. Addressing Priorities for Elementary School Mathematics (United States)

    Venenciano, Linda; Dougherty, Barbara


    Findings from international assessments present an opportunity to reconsider mathematics education across the grades. If concepts taught in elementary grades lay the foundation for continued study, then children's introduction to school mathematics deserves particular attention. We consider Davydov's theory (1966), which sequences…

  7. Addressing the Language Description Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Bolgiin


    Full Text Available Well-described language features are key to successful teaching and learning, especially for achieving advanced levels of proficiency. Other measures, such as simply increasing the number of reading and listening passages in a language program alone are not enough to bring the student to a higher level in a given skill. In fact, even being present in the target culture does not suffice. Angelelli and Degueldre (2002 argue that at advanced levels, even spending time in a country where the language is spoken is not necessarily sufficient for learners: "They do not need just exposure; they need answers to questions and explanations that they can rarely get by simply being immersed in a language/ culture." Less commonly taught languages (LCTLs lack descriptions that have such answers and explanations (cf. Fotos, 2002. It is argued in this paper that corpuslinguistic analyses help to provide actual usage-based, rather than intuition-based, descriptions and explanations of language features. Such approach is illustrated through English and Turkish examples.

  8. The struggling reader: Identifying and addressing reading problems successfully at an early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Cordeur, Michael


    Full Text Available The standard of reading of learners in the intermediate phase is cause for considerable concern. In this article, the intermediate phase refers to grades 4, 5 and 6 (roughly ages 10 – 12. According to the 2008 Evaluation Assessment Tests for Reading, only 15% of learners in Grade 6 achieved the required literacy level. Clearly, reading achievement is a problem in South Africa. Although approximately 4% of any given population experience neurological reading problems, the focus of this article is on the significant number of learners in the intermediate phase who experience reading problems and the generic causes of reading problems for learners in general. The intent is to alert teachers and parents to the characteristics of a struggling reader so that the problem can be identified and addressed early. Firstly, ways in which learning problems are manifested are described. Secondly, a discussion of various types of reading problems, of which four, namely poor reading comprehension, inadequate reading fluency, a lack of vocabulary and a negative attitude towards reading, are discussed in depth. Strategies for struggling readers are presented and recommendations are made. The conclusion is that learners who experience reading problems can learn to read successfully when given the necessary support.

  9. Clinical and molecular features of high-grade osteosarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anninga, Jakob Klaas


    It can be concluded from this thesis that high-grade osteosarcoma is at clinical, pathological and molecular level a heterogeneous disease. To treat high-grade osteosarcoma, neo-adjuvant chemotherapy should be combined with radical surgery, irrespective the localization. There are only 4 effective

  10. Upper Elementary Grades Bear the Brunt of Accountability (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.


    Upper elementary teachers won't be surprised to learn that in every state, students enrolled in grades 3 through 8 bear the brunt of educational accountability. All states test all students at these grade levels in English/language arts and mathematics. Furthermore, an increasing number of states are testing students at selected elementary and…

  11. Realization and Addressing Analysis In Blockchain Bitcoin (United States)

    Sakti Arief Daulay, Raja; Michrandi Nasution, Surya; Paryasto, Marisa W.


    The implementation research and analyze address blockchain on this bitcoin will have the results that refers to making address bitcoin a safe and boost security of address the bitcoin. The working mechanism of blockchain in making address bitcoin which is already in the blockchain system.

  12. Addressing climate and energy misconceptions - teaching tools offered by the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) (United States)

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; Kirk, K. B.; Grogan, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Fox, S.; Niepold, F.; Howell, C.; Lynds, S. E.


    Despite a prevalence of peer-reviewed scientific research and high-level reports by intergovernmental agencies (e.g., IPCC) that document changes in our climate and consequences for human societies, the public discourse regards these topics as controversial and sensitive. The chasm between scientific-based understanding of climate systems and public understanding can most easily be addressed via high quality, science-based education on these topics. Well-trained and confident educators are required to provide this education. However, climate science and energy awareness are complex topics that are rapidly evolving and have a great potential for controversy. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary nature of climate science further increases the difficulty for teachers to stay abreast of the science and the policy. Research has shown that students and educators alike hold misconceptions about the climate system in general and the causes and effects of climate change in particular. The NSF-funded CLEAN Pathway ( as part of the National Science Digital Library ( strives to address these needs and help educators address misconceptions by providing high quality learning resources and professional development opportunities to support educators of grade levels 6 through 16. The materials focus on teaching climate science and energy use. The scope and framework of the CLEAN Pathway is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP, 2009) and the Energy Literacy Principles recently developed by the Department of Energy. Following this literacy-based approach, CLEAN helps with developing mental models to address misconceptions around climate science and energy awareness through a number of different avenues. These are: 1) Professional development opportunities for educators - interactive webinars for secondary teachers and virtual workshops for college faculty, 2) A collection of scientifically and pedagogically reviewed, high

  13. Keynote Address from V. Sucha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucha, V.; )


    1. Nuclear Energy in Europe: In the EU, the whole nuclear fuel cycle is fully monitored, from uranium enrichment, to fuel production, power reactors, including the two largest plants for reprocessing of spent fuel in the world and final disposal: It goes without saying that the European Union sees nuclear safety, security and safeguards as one of its utmost priorities. 2. Euratom Nuclear safeguards system: The Euratom treaty introduced a strict system of safeguards throughout the EU to ensure that nuclear materials are used only for declared, peaceful purposes; The European Commission's Safeguards Service-better known internationally as Euratom - is a global and quite unique safeguards actor with exceptional enforcement powers; Inspections in the Non-Nuclear Weapon States and in certain installations in the two Nuclear Weapon States of the EU, France and the UK, are carried out jointly by Euratom and IAEA inspectors. More generally, Euratom and IAEA safeguards activities complement each other, which requires close cooperation. In 2013, 1300 inspections took place in the EU in accordance with the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement in place for the Non-Nuclear Weapon States of the EU and the voluntary Safeguards Agreements for UK and France; In this regard, it is important to mention that Euratom has historically supported all measures aimed to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the Agency's safeguards system, and currently this is the case with the IAEA's State-Level Concept. State-level Approaches are being used by the IAEA for a couple of years for all non-nuclear weapon EU member states; these should now be further developed by putting more emphasis on utilizing the unique features of the Euratom regional system of safeguards. 3. EU current support to IAEA in the field of nuclear safeguards: The obligations for the European Commission to safeguard a large variety of nuclear facilities, which are becoming ever more sophisticated

  14. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  15. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  16. Traversing myths and mountains: addressing socioeconomic inequities in the promotion of nutrition and physical activity behaviours. (United States)

    Ball, Kylie


    In developed countries, individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage - whether a low education level, low income, low-status occupation, or living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhood - are less likely than those more advantaged to engage in eating and physical activity behaviours conducive to optimal health. These socioeconomic inequities in nutrition and physical activity (and some sedentary) behaviours are graded, persistent, and evident across multiple populations and studies. They are concerning in that they mirror socioeconomic inequities in obesity and in health outcomes. Yet there remains a dearth of evidence of the most effective means of addressing these inequities. People experiencing disadvantage face multiple challenges to healthy behaviours that can appear insurmountable. With increasing recognition of the role of underlying structural and societal factors as determinants of nutrition and physical activity behaviours and inequities in these behaviours, and the limited success of behaviour change approaches in addressing these inequities, we might wonder whether there remains a role for behavioural scientists to tackle these challenges. This debate piece argues that behavioural scientists can play an important role in addressing socioeconomic inequities in nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and that this will involve challenging myths and taking on new perspectives. There are successful models for doing so from which we can learn. Addressing socioeconomic inequities in eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviours is challenging. However, successful examples demonstrate that overcoming such challenges is possible, and provide guidance for doing so. Given the disproportionate burden of ill health carried by people experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage, all our nutrition and physical activity interventions, programs and policies should be designed to reach and positively impact these individuals at greatest

  17. Keynote Address from K. Mendelsohn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, K.


    The United States believes it is critically important for Member States to support the Secretariat's efforts to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the IAEA safeguards system. We should continue to work with the Agency to provide resources, technology, expertise, and training to strengthen the Secretariat's capabilities to implement safeguards agreements effectively and efficiently. The Secretariat went to extraordinary lengths over the last year to explain how safeguards implementation has evolved, particularly at the level of the state as a whole. The United States, like other member states, found the Secretariat's thorough technical briefings and the Director General's Supplementary Document to be extremely valuable. Now, after discussion of the issue at the September meetings of the Board of Governors and the General Conference, it really is time to let the Secretariat get on with its work. Our task now, especially for the assembled experts here at this Symposium, is to identify options for helping the IAEA as appropriate to find the best possible technologies, procedures, and practices for safeguards implementation. And like all of you, we look forward to further updates from the Secretariat on future lessons learned in implementing strengthened safeguards. I urge you to work together at this Symposium to make real progress on promoting peaceful uses of nuclear energy, strengthening safeguards, and preventing proliferation

  18. "Notice the Similarities between the Two Sets …": Imperative Usage in a Corpus of Upper-Level Student Papers (United States)

    Neiderhiser, Justine A.; Kelley, Patrick; Kennedy, Kohlee M.; Swales, John M.; Vergaro, Carla


    The sparse literature on the use of imperatives in research papers suggests that they are relatively common in a small number of disciplines, but rare, if used at all, in others. The present study addresses the use of imperatives in a corpus of upper-level A-graded student papers from 16 disciplines. A total of 822 papers collected within the past…

  19. Affix Meaning Knowledge in First Through Third Grade Students. (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Henbest, Victoria Suzanne


    We examined grade-level differences in 1st- through 3rd-grade students' performance on an experimenter-developed affix meaning task (AMT) and determined whether AMT performance explained unique variance in word-level reading and reading comprehension, beyond other known contributors to reading development. Forty students at each grade level completed an assessment battery that included measures of phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, reading comprehension, and affix meaning knowledge. On the AMT, 1st-grade students were significantly less accurate than 2nd- and 3rd-grade students; there was no significant difference in performance between the 2nd- and 3rd-grade students. Regression analyses revealed that the AMT accounted for 8% unique variance of students' performance on word-level reading measures and 6% unique variance of students' performance on the reading comprehension measure, after age, phonological awareness, and receptive vocabulary were explained. These results provide initial information on the development of affix meaning knowledge via an explicit measure in 1st- through 3rd-grade students and demonstrate that affix meaning knowledge uniquely contributes to the development of reading abilities above other known literacy predictors. These findings provide empirical support for how students might use morphological problem solving to read unknown multimorphemic words successfully.

  20. Battling with breast cancer - addressing the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, S; Wahid, N; Wasim, B; Tabassum, S [Patel Hospital Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi (Pakistan)


    In the background of the current situation of breast cancer in Pakistan, with its rising incidence and mortality, non afford ability and inaccessibility to screening, diagnosis and treatment, Patel Hospital took up the task of addressing these issues at a local level, by initiating an annual free breast camp in the year 2006. In 2008 an inclusion criteria was defined to focus on high risk women for breast cancer. A comparative analysis over a period of three years was done. In the focused camps, in which 28% patients were found to have a positive family history. Most women were symptomatic. Total 11 patients were diagnosed to have cancer after evaluation. Six patients underwent definitive treatment. A problem with lack of awareness, regarding screening and treatment protocols was identified. Family history seems to be an important risk factor in our set up signifying the need to introduce extensive screening programmes. (author)

  1. Battling with breast cancer - addressing the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, S.; Wahid, N.; Wasim, B.; Tabassum, S.


    In the background of the current situation of breast cancer in Pakistan, with its rising incidence and mortality, non afford ability and inaccessibility to screening, diagnosis and treatment, Patel Hospital took up the task of addressing these issues at a local level, by initiating an annual free breast camp in the year 2006. In 2008 an inclusion criteria was defined to focus on high risk women for breast cancer. A comparative analysis over a period of three years was done. In the focused camps, in which 28% patients were found to have a positive family history. Most women were symptomatic. Total 11 patients were diagnosed to have cancer after evaluation. Six patients underwent definitive treatment. A problem with lack of awareness, regarding screening and treatment protocols was identified. Family history seems to be an important risk factor in our set up signifying the need to introduce extensive screening programmes. (author)

  2. Moving to world's best uranium address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, Frank


    Most exploration dollars spent in South Australia are focused on exploiting uranium. This is for good reason as South Australia is the world's best address for uranium. Pressure to cut CO 2 emissions and the ballistic growth of the Chinese and Indian economies has heightened expectations that the worldwide use of uranium for power generation will mushroom beyond its current 17% market share. The recent Australia-China deal only seems to confirm this; hence uranium's growing popularity among miners and explorers. Such is the attractiveness of uranium-related floats, when Toro Energy sought $18m in March it was swamped with more than three times share application volume. In the north west, Southern Gold and Hindmarsh Resources are expectantly drilling for commercial uranium deposits all around the acreage that hosts the Challenger gold mine in the Gawler Craton. The first exploration drilling for uranium in quaternary-age river channels will take place in South Australia's far north in May. Red Metal says while older and deeper tertiary river channels in the area that host the Beverley uranium mine were explored for uranium, the younger near-surface channel has not had a single hole drilled for uranium. This is despite the area being one of the 'hottest radiogenic terrains in South Australia'. The company will target calcrete-style uranium mineralisation similar to the Yerrlirrie deposit in Western Australia (52,000t U308). Tasman Resources will start drilling to test seven uranium targets within 30km of Olympic Dam, the world's largest known uranium deposit, later this year. Tasman also holds tenements adjoining the Warrior uranium deposit near Tarcoola that contains known radiometric anomalies within the 40km-long Wynbring paleochannels. They are the fourth largest uranium explorer in South Australia. Alliance Resources and its JV partner Quasar Resources are exploring the Beverley 4 Mile uranium prospect at Arkaroola. Quasar is an affiliate of Heathgate Resources

  3. Functionally Graded Materials Database (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki


    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  4. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies associated with acute and chronic grade III and grade V acromioclavicular joint injuries. (United States)

    Jensen, Gunnar; Millett, Peter J; Tahal, Dimitri S; Al Ibadi, Mireille; Lill, Helmut; Katthagen, Jan Christoph


    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies with acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III and V. Patients who underwent arthroscopically-assisted stabilization of acromioclavicular joint injuries grade III or grade V between 01/2007 and 12/2015 were identified in the patient databases of two surgical centres. Gender, age at index surgery, grade of acromioclavicular joint injury (Rockwood III or Rockwood V), and duration between injury and index surgery (classified as acute or chronic) were of interest. Concomitant glenohumeral pathologies were noted and their treatment was classified as debridement or reconstructive procedure. A total of 376 patients (336 male, 40 female) were included. Mean age at time of arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint reconstruction surgery was 42.1 ± 14.0 years. Overall, 201 patients (53%) had one or more concomitant glenohumeral pathologies. Lesions of the biceps tendon complex and rotator cuff were the most common. Forty-five patients (12.0%) had concomitant glenohumeral pathologies that required an additional repair. The remaining 156 patients (41.5%) received a debridement of their concomitant pathologies. Rockwood grade V compared to Rockwood grade III (p = 0.013; odds ratio 1.7), and chronic compared to acute injury were significantly associated with having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology (p = 0.019; odds ratio 1.7). The probability of having a concomitant glenohumeral pathology was also significantly associated with increasing age (p acromioclavicular joint injury of either grade III or V. Twenty-two percent of these patients with concomitant glenohumeral pathologies received an additional dedicated repair procedure. Although a significant difference in occurrence of concomitant glenohumeral pathologies was seen between Rockwood grades III and V, and between acute and chronic lesions, increasing age was identified as the most dominant predictor. Level IV, case series.

  5. Education for Participatory Democracy: A Grade R Perspective (United States)

    Linington, Vivien; Excell, Lorayne; Murris, Karin


    This paper proposes a form of Grade R pedagogy in South African schools that addresses both the diverse realities of South Africa's children and the principles underpinning a participatory democracy. The community of enquiry pedagogy we propose is based on a socio-cultural historical theoretical perspective and focuses on the nurturing of a…

  6. Data analysis & probability task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Tanya


    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the data analysis & probability concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages your students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  7. Number & operations task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat


    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  8. Data analysis & probability drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Forest, Chris


    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the data analysis & probability concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages your students to review the concepts in unique ways. Each drill sheet contains warm-up and timed drill activities for the student to practice data analysis & probability concepts.

  9. Education for participatory democracy: A Grade R perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes a form of Grade R pedagogy in South African schools that addresses both the diverse realities of South Africa's children and the principles underpinning a participatory democracy. The community of enquiry pedagogy we propose is based on a socio-cultural historical theoretical perspective and focuses ...

  10. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven


    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...... have been profiled in the news. The model is provided to ensure that degree candidates are academic experts in their field, having earned the credential through rigorous study....

  11. The impact of speech and language problems in kindergarten on academic learning and special education status in grade three. (United States)

    Janus, Magdalena; Labonté, Chantal; Kirkpatrick, Ryan; Davies, Scott; Duku, Eric


    This study addressed the implications of experiencing early speech-language pathologies (SLPs) in kindergarten on special education needs (SEN) and academic outcomes in grade three. Early Development Instrument (EDI) kindergarten data on development and the presence or absence of SLPs were matched with grade three school-system standardised tests of reading, writing and maths, and SEN classification in Ontario, Canada for 59 015 students. Children were classified as having a Persistent speech language pathology (SLP), Remittent SLP, Latent SEN or as a typically developing Control. Even though 72.3% of children's SLPs remitted by grade three, kindergarten SLPs conveyed higher likelihood of having an SEN, and of lower achievement levels in grade three. The degree of impact varied between Persistent and Remittent groups. Children in the Latent group had lower scores in kindergarten on all five EDI domains than Control children. These population level results provide strong evidence to indicate that all children who present with an SLP in kindergarten face further academic challenges, even if their SLP resolves over time. Findings have implications for early intervention and treatment for children with early SLPs.

  12. The value of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MR imaging in differentiation of renal solid mass and grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC: analysis based on the largest cross-sectional area versus the entire whole tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Wu

    Full Text Available To study the value of assessing renal masses using different methods in parameter approaches and to determine whether BOLD MRI is helpful in differentiating RCC from benign renal masses, differentiating clear-cell RCC from renal masses other than clear-cell RCC and determining the tumour grade.Ninety-five patients with 139 renal masses (93 malignant and 46 benign who underwent abdominal BOLD MRI were enrolled. R2* values were derived from the largest cross-section (R2*largest and from the whole tumour (R2*whole. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreements were analysed based on two measurements by the same observer and the first measurement from each observer, respectively, and these agreements are reported with intra-class correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals. The diagnostic value of the R2* value in the evaluation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic analysis.The intra-observer agreement was very good for R2*largest and R2*whole (all > 0.8. The inter-observer agreement of R2*whole (0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.69~0.79 was good and was significantly improved compared with the R2*largest (0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.52~0.68, as there was no overlap in the 95% confidence interval of the intra-class correlation coefficients. The diagnostic value in differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign lesions with R2*whole (AUC=0.79/0.78[observer1/observer2] and R2*largest (AUC=0.75[observer1] was good and significantly higher (p=0.01 for R2*largest[observer2] vs R2*whole[observer2], p 0.7 and were not significantly different (p=0.89/0.93 for R2*largest vs R2*whole[observer1/observer2], 0.96 for R2*whole[observer1] vs R2*largest[observer2] and 0.96 for R2*whole [observer2] vs R2*largest[observer1].BOLD MRI could provide a feasible parameter for differentiating renal cell carcinoma from benign renal masses and for predicting clear-cell renal cell carcinoma grading. Compared with the largest cross

  13. Effect of Balanced Math Instruction on Math Performance of Grade 1 and Grade 2 English Language Learners (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Gary Scott


    Research affirmed that instructional strategies that promote English Language Learners' (ELLs) Academic Language Proficiency (ALP) are essential in the primary grades for ELLs to succeed in school. This quantitative causal-comparative study relied on the premise of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and addressed to what extent Balanced Math…

  14. Addressing Maslow’s deficiency needs in smart homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.


    Modern smart homes contain elements from different technical disciplines, such as home automation, robotics, and tele-heath. We investigated to which extent smart-home systems address the different levels of deficiency needs of Maslow, and the corresponding level of integration of smart-home

  15. Grading standards, prepared by the Configuration Management Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, G.; Donahue, S.; Frank, J.; Perkins, B.; Wrye, J.


    This report describes the grading methodology used by the organization to determine the required levels of configuration management for all controlled elements that are part of the nuclear facility and its operation. The goal is to have a flexible grading system that accurately reflects the overall operational environment. The grading methodology should identify which items, processes, and information should be incorporated into facility baselines as controlled elements; and specify the level of formality that should be applied to activities that employ or impact these controlled elements. Evaluation categories include the following: radiological damage to workers; toxicological damage to workers; industrial safety; environmental damage; property damage; facility availability; cost effect; reputation; and commitments

  16. Understanding the triple nature of the chemical bond on submicroscopic level


    Klun, Tina


    The master’s thesis addresses three definitions of chemical bond with particular emphasis on the sub-microscopic level in a comprehensive manner. Slovenian pupils are taught about chemical bond for the first time in the eighth grade of primary school as part of learning about the connection between particles. Due to the abstract nature of the notion chemical bond, it is essential that pupils are encouraged to learn about the topic on the macroscopic, sub microscopic and symbolic level as this...

  17. 33 CFR 135.9 - Fund address. (United States)


    ... FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND General § 135.9 Fund address. The address to which correspondence relating to the Coast Guard's administration of the Fund... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fund address. 135.9 Section 135.9...

  18. The development of learning competency and skills for the 21st century to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in students grade 11 (United States)

    Jedaman, Pornchai; Kinboon, Nittayaporn; Suksup, Chareon; Kinboon, Wutcharapong


    The teaching strategies of append were the technological pedagogical content knowledge; TPCK. This description knowledge in a content to corresponds of a effective teaching. This article aims to address the relevance of; 1) the learning competency and skills for the 21st Century to integrate "TPCK" of a world life with local environment in the students grade 11, 2) the effective achievement of the learning competency and skills to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in the students grade 11 were the passing score of a percentage 80 upwards (EI.), and 3) the attitudes for learning activities in the students grade 11. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches for 9teachers of third schools were the participatory action research (PAR) in collecting data including a instructional, a testing, and a questionnaire surveywith 33 students grade 11 of Phuwiengwittayakom school. The participants werecluster random sampling. The data analysis of descriptive statistical, percentage, mean average, standard deviation. The findings in the study were to learning competency and skills for the 21st Century to integrate "TPCK" of a world life with local environment on TK, PK, CK, and TCK at a excellent levels (X¯ = 3.62, 3.57, 3.54, 3.51) respectively, and PCK, TPK,TPCK at a good levels (X¯ = 3.36, 3.23, 3.17) respectively. The effective achievement of the learning competency and skills to integrate "TPCK" of world life with local environment in 30 students grade 11 were the passing score (EI.) of a percentage at 90.91. The attitudes for learning activities in the students grade 11 at a high levels (X¯ =3.29). In addition of the students grade 11 to understanding of the importance were a local learning resources including the value integrating technology of the knowledge technology and to choose the right were create of an effective information.

  19. Convolving optically addressed VLSI liquid crystal SLM (United States)

    Jared, David A.; Stirk, Charles W.


    We designed, fabricated, and tested an optically addressed spatial light modulator (SLM) that performs a 3 X 3 kernel image convolution using ferroelectric liquid crystal on VLSI technology. The chip contains a 16 X 16 array of current-mirror-based convolvers with a fixed kernel for finding edges. The pixels are located on 75 micron centers, and the modulators are 20 microns on a side. The array successfully enhanced edges in illumination patterns. We developed a high-level simulation tool (CON) for analyzing the performance of convolving SLM designs. CON has a graphical interface and simulates SLM functions using SPICE-like device models. The user specifies the pixel function along with the device parameters and nonuniformities. We discovered through analysis, simulation and experiment that the operation of current-mirror-based convolver pixels is degraded at low light levels by the variation of transistor threshold voltages inherent to CMOS chips. To function acceptable, the test SLM required the input image to have an minimum irradiance of 10 (mu) W/cm2. The minimum required irradiance can be further reduced by adding a photodarlington near the photodetector or by increasing the size of the transistors used to calculate the convolution.

  20. Has First-Grade Core Reading Program Text Complexity Changed across Six Decades? (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Relyea, Jackie Eunjung; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Stenner, A. Jackson


    The purpose of the study was to address possible text complexity shifts across the past six decades for a continually best-selling first-grade core reading program. The anthologies of one publisher's seven first-grade core reading programs were examined using computer-based analytics, dating from 1962 to 2013. Variables were Overall Text…

  1. Extent of resection and timing of surgery in adult low grade glioma. (United States)

    A Mirza, Farhan; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad


    Low grade glioma is a group of WHO grade II tumours including diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma. Strong evidence exists in literature now to support early surgery and higher extent of safe resection in improving outcomes. In this review, we are highlighting some of the important studies done in the last few years specifically addressing timing of surgery and extent of resection.

  2. Extracurricular Activities and Their Effect on the Student's Grade Point Average: Statistical Study (United States)

    Bakoban, R. A.; Aljarallah, S. A.


    Extracurricular activities (ECA) are part of students' everyday life; they play important roles in students' lives. Few studies have addressed the question of how student engagements to ECA affect student's grade point average (GPA). This research was conducted to know whether the students' grade point average in King Abdulaziz University,…

  3. Event generators for address event representation transmitters (United States)

    Serrano-Gotarredona, Rafael; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares Barranco, Bernabe


    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. In a typical AER transmitter chip, there is an array of neurons that generate events. They send events to a peripheral circuitry (let's call it "AER Generator") that transforms those events to neurons coordinates (addresses) which are put sequentially on an interchip high speed digital bus. This bus includes a parallel multi-bit address word plus a Rqst (request) and Ack (acknowledge) handshaking signals for asynchronous data exchange. There have been two main approaches published in the literature for implementing such "AER Generator" circuits. They differ on the way of handling event collisions coming from the array of neurons. One approach is based on detecting and discarding collisions, while the other incorporates arbitration for sequencing colliding events . The first approach is supposed to be simpler and faster, while the second is able to handle much higher event traffic. In this article we will concentrate on the second arbiter-based approach. Boahen has been publishing several techniques for implementing and improving the arbiter based approach. Originally, he proposed an arbitration squeme by rows, followed by a column arbitration. In this scheme, while one neuron was selected by the arbiters to transmit his event out of the chip, the rest of neurons in the array were

  4. Analysis of readability and quality of web pages addressing both common and uncommon topics in pediatric surgery. (United States)

    Adorisio, Ottavio; Silveri, Massimiliano; Rivosecchi, Massimo; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Scottoni, Federico; Buonuomo, Paola Sabrina


    The quality medical information on Internet is highly variable. The aim of this study is to determine if Web pages addressing four common pediatric surgical topics (CT) and four uncommon pediatric surgical topics (UT) differ significantly in terms of quality and/or characteristics. We performed an Internet search regarding four CT, addressing more frequent clinical conditions with an incidence≤1:1.500 children (inguinal hernia, varicocele, umbilical hernia, and phimosis) and four UT addressing less frequent clinical conditions with an incidence≥1:1.500 children (anorectal malformation, intestinal atresia, gastroschisis, and omphalocele), using a popular search engine (Google). We evaluated readability with the Flesch reading ease (FRE) and the Flesch-Kincaid grade (FKG) and quality of content using the site checker of the HON Code of Conduct (HON code) for each website. In this study, 30/40 websites addressing CT versus 33/50 addressing UT responded to our criteria. No differences statistically significant in advertisements between the two groups were found (15 vs. 16%) (p>0.05). No differences were found in terms of time from last update, owner/author type, financial disclosure, accreditation, or advertising. CT had higher quality level according to the HON code (6.54±1.38 vs. 5.05±1.82) (p0.05). The mean FKG was 8.1±1.9 for CT versus 8±1.9 for UT (p>0.05). Websites devoted to pediatric surgical topics have higher readability and quality information for disease diagnosis and natural history. Otherwise, the quality of pediatric surgical information on the Internet is high for CT and UT. A high reading level is required to use these resources. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4. (United States)

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  6. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction


    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M


    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  7. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors. (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank


    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  8. Reading handprinted addresses on IRS tax forms (United States)

    Ramanaprasad, Vemulapati; Shin, Yong-Chul; Srihari, Sargur N.


    The hand-printed address recognition system described in this paper is a part of the Name and Address Block Reader (NABR) system developed by the Center of Excellence for Document Analysis and Recognition (CEDAR). NABR is currently being used by the IRS to read address blocks (hand-print as well as machine-print) on fifteen different tax forms. Although machine- print address reading was relatively straightforward, hand-print address recognition has posed some special challenges due to demands on processing speed (with an expected throughput of 8450 forms/hour) and recognition accuracy. We discuss various subsystems involved in hand- printed address recognition, including word segmentation, word recognition, digit segmentation, and digit recognition. We also describe control strategies used to make effective use of these subsystems to maximize recognition accuracy. We present system performance on 931 address blocks in recognizing various fields, such as city, state, ZIP Code, street number and name, and personal names.

  9. Final Report on Internet Addressable Lightswitch; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Pettler, Peter


    This report describes the work performed to develop and test a new switching system and communications network that is useful for economically switching lighting circuits in existing commercial buildings. The first section of the report provides the general background of the IBECS (Integrated Building Environmental Communications System) research and development work as well as the context for the development of the new switching system. The research and development effort that went into producing the first proof-of-concept (the IBECS Addressable Power Switch or APS) and the physical prototype of that concept is detailed in the second section. In the third section of the report, we detail the refined Powerline Carrier Based IBECS Title 24 Wall Switch system that evolved from the APS prototype. The refined system provided a path for installing IBECS switching technology in existing buildings that may not be already wired for light level switching control. The final section of the report describes the performance of the IBECS Title 24 Switch system as applied to a small demonstration in two offices at LBNL's Building 90. We learned that the new Powerline Carrier control systems (A-10 technology) that have evolved from the early X-10 systems have solved most of the noise problems that dogged the successful application of X-10 technologies in commercial buildings. We found that the new A-10 powerline carrier control technology can be reliable and effective for switching lighting circuits even in electrically noisy office environments like LBNL. Thus we successfully completed the task objectives by designing, building and demonstrating a new switching system that can provide multiple levels of light which can be triggered either from specially designed wall switches or from a digital communications network. By applying commercially available powerline carrier based technologies that communicate over the in-place lighting wiring system, this type of control can be


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić


    Full Text Available In this research the motivation for learning mathematics was tested,as well as the effect of grades on the motivation of primary school level students. On a sample of N=100 participants, primary school students, we conducted a survey, the results of which show that the participants are more motivated with extrinsic factors, then intrinsic factors for learning mathematics. Grades are the main factor that has the most influence on the motivation level of students for learning mathematics, because students need good grades for their further education. The results also show that punishment and rewards from parents for bad and good grades has no effect on the motivation level of students

  11. Contrasting Grading Approaches in Introductory Physics and Quantum Mechanics: The Case of Graduate Teaching Assistants (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Sayer, Ryan; Henderson, Charles; Singh, Chandralekha


    At large research universities, physics graduate teaching assistants (TAs) are often responsible for grading in courses at all levels. However, few studies have focused on TAs' grading practices in introductory and advanced physics courses. This study was designed to investigate whether physics graduate TAs grade students in introductory physics…

  12. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4 (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008


    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the German Language and Culture Nine-year…

  13. Japanese Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4 (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008


    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…

  14. A Quantitative Evaluation of an Ability-Grouped Literacy Program in the Elementary Grades (United States)

    Portales Blair, Lidiana


    National assessments have shown that the majority of students in the United States cannot read at grade level by fourth grade. These results are alarming because students who are not proficient readers by third grade suffer long-term consequences and are more likely to drop out of high school. Feeling pressure to improve reading outcomes, schools…

  15. Punjabi Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4 (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008


    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year…

  16. Technological Studies at Thomas Edison Middle School. Grades 6-7-8. (United States)

    Foster, Patrick N.

    This technology studies curriculum for grades 6-8 is a plan for each middle school student to experience technology education for approximately 60 days (1 trimester of a 180-day school year) in each grade. Section A provides definitions; structure or content for grade-level programs with science and technology unifiers (unifying curricular…

  17. Stepping It Up: Walking Behaviors in Children Transitioning from 5th to 7th Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E. Taverno Ross


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to (1 describe children’s walking behaviors in 5th to 7th grade and change over time and (2 examine associations between walking behaviors and Walk Score®. Participants consisted of n = 586 students from the Transitions and Activity Changes in Kids (TRACK Study. Children reported any walking behavior (e.g., exercise and transportation over the past five days. Walk Score was calculated based on children’s home address. Descriptive statistics summarized walking behaviors by gender and time, and repeated measure mixed models examined the relationship between walking behaviors and Walk Score. Approximately 46.8% and 19.2% of 5th grade children reported walking for exercise and transportation, respectively, and these percentages declined through 7th grade. Girls reported higher levels of total walking behavior and walking for exercise than boys (p < 0.001. Girls with a higher Walk Score had 63% higher odds of reporting walking for transportation than girls with a lower Walk Score (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.62. Walking behaviors among children were infrequent with significant declines over time, and of the nine associations examined with Walk Score, only one was significant. Efforts should prioritize frequent walking behavior and community design to increase children’s physical activity.

  18. Silent cerebral infarction, income, and grade retention among students with sickle cell anemia (United States)

    King, Allison A.; Rodeghier, Mark J.; Panepinto, Julie Ann; Strouse, John J.; Casella, James F.; Quinn, Charles T.; Dowling, Michael M.; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Thompson, Alexis A.; Woods, Gerald M.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa C.; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Kirkham, Fenella J.; McKinstry, Robert; Noetzel, Michael J.; White, Desiree A.; Kwiatkowski, Janet K.; Howard, Thomas H.; Kalinyak, Karen A.; Inusa, Baba; Rhodes, Melissa M.; Heiny, Mark E.; Fuh, Ben; Fixler, Jason M.; Gordon, Mae O.; DeBaun, Michael R.


    Children with sickle cell anemia have a higher-than-expected prevalence of poor educational attainment. We test two key hypotheses about educational attainment among students with sickle cell anemia, as measured by grade retention and use of special education services: (1) lower household per capita income is associated with lower educational attainment; (2) the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is associated with lower educational attainment. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study of cases from 22 U.S. sites included in the Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial. During screening, parents completed a questionnaire that included sociodemographic information and details of their child’s academic status. Of 835 students, 670 were evaluable; 536 had data on all covariates and were used for analysis. The students’ mean age was 9.4 years (range: 5–15) with 52.2% male; 17.5% of students were retained one grade level and 18.3% received special education services. A multiple variable logistic regression model identified that lower household per capita income (odds ratio [OR] of quartile 1 = 6.36, OR of quartile 2 = 4.7, OR of quartile 3 = 3.87; P = 0.001 for linear trend), age (OR = 1.3; P sickle cell anemia, household per capita income is associated with grade retention, whereas the presence of a silent cerebral infarct is not. Future educational interventions will need to address both the medical and socioeconomic issues that affect students with sickle cell anemia. PMID:25042018

  19. Closing the Discovery Learning Gap: A Leader Development Training Strategy for Company-Grade Officers for the Conduct of Stability and Reconstruction Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Erik N


    ...). However, current Institutional Domain education and training methods for company grade officers fail to adequately address the variety of challenges these officers face during operational deployments...

  20. INAA of polyacrylic hydrogels of pharmaceutical grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, C.; Salagean, M.; Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.


    Polyacrylic acid (PA) and its salts are promising biomaterials used in the pharmaceutical industry. They could be used as pharmaceutical additives, as a burn dressing and also in the slow released implants or trans-derma patch formulations. Polyacrylic acid of pharmaceutical grade can be obtained by gamma irradiation polymerization. The influence of the raw materials and of the technological procedure on the final product purity has been investigated by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method. The following materials have been analyzed by INAA: 1) acrylic acid of technical grade; 2) acrylic acid purified by double crystallisation; 3) NaOH of analytical grade; 4) CaCl-2·6H 2 O of pharmaceutical grade; 5) CaCl 2 ·2H 2 O of analytical grade; 6) granulated PANa; 7) ungranulated PANa; 8) ungranulated PANaCa; 9) PANaCa granulated by milling in IFIN-HH using the mill nr. 1; 10) PANaCa granulated by milling in Institute of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (ICPR); 11) PANaCa granulated by milling in IFIN-HH using the mill nr. 2. The first five samples, marked from 1 to 5, are raw materials and the other six samples, marked from 6 to 11, are the final polyacrylic structures processed by various technological procedures. The samples together with the appropriate reference materials have been irradiated at WWR-S reactor in a neutron flux of 2.5·10 12 cm -2 s -1 and the induced radioactivity was registered by a HPGe detector (EG/G ORTEC) of 30% efficiency and 2.1 keV resolution. The concentrations of As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Sb, Sc, Zn have been determined. For the final polyacrylic structures, except for granulated PANa (sample 6), only the elements Co, Cr, Fe, Sc, Zn were found at the following concentration levels: tens of ppm (Co), ppm (Zn), hundreds of ppb (Cr), tens of ppb (Co), ppb (Co, Sc), 10 -1 ppb (Sc). In the granulated PANa, in comparison with the other analyzed final products, similar concentration values were found for Fe, Sc and Zn

  1. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing


    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko


    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  2. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy


    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  3. Examining School-Level Reading and Math Proficiency Trends and Changes in Achievement Gaps for Grades 3-8 in Florida, Mississippi, and North Carolina. REL 2017-235 (United States)

    Herrera, Sarah; Zhou, Chengfu; Petscher, Yaacov


    The 2001 authorization of the No Child Left Behind Act and its standards and accountability requirements generated interest among state education agencies in Florida, Mississippi, and North Carolina, which are served by the Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, in monitoring changes in student reading and math proficiency at the school level.…

  4. The Perceptions of the Self-Efficacy of 9th Grade Algebra 1 Students at an Urban High School in New England Based on Their Placement in Low, On, or above Level Algebra Classes (United States)

    Lopes, Manuel J.


    At a time of persistent unemployment, especially among the less skilled, many wonder whether our schools are adequately preparing students for the 21st-century global economy. Despite above average employment rates, firms are experiencing shortages of educated workers, outsourcing professional-level work to workers abroad, and competing for the…

  5. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes


    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.


    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline var...

  6. Prostate malignancy grading using gland-related shape descriptors (United States)

    Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Scheibe, Patrick; Loeffler, Markus; Kristiansen, Glen; Wernert, Nicolas


    A proof-of-principle study was accomplished assessing the descriptive potential of two simple geometric measures (shape descriptors) applied to sets of segmented glands within images of 125 prostate cancer tissue sections. Respective measures addressing glandular shapes were (i) inverse solidity and (ii) inverse compactness. Using a classifier based on logistic regression, Gleason grades 3 and 4/5 could be differentiated with an accuracy of approx. 95%. Results suggest not only good discriminatory properties, but also robustness against gland segmentation variations. False classifications in part were caused by inadvertent Gleason grade assignments, as a-posteriori re-inspections had turned out.

  7. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  8. Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlholm, Per


    An increasing need for goods and passenger transportation drives continued worldwide growth in traffic. As traffic increases environmental concerns, traffic safety, and cost efficiency become ever more important. Advancements in microelectronics open the possibility to address these issues through new advanced driver assistance systems. Applications such as predictive cruise control, automated gearbox control, predictive front lighting control, and hybrid vehicle state-of-charge control decrease the energy consumption of vehicles and increase the safety. These control systems can benefit significantly from preview road grade information. This information is currently obtained using specialized survey vehicles, and is not widely available. This thesis proposes new methods to obtain road grade information using on-board sensors. The task of creating road grade maps is addressed by the proposal of a framework where vehicles using a road network collect the necessary data for estimating the road grade. The estimation can then be carried out locally in the vehicle, or in the presence of a communication link to the infrastructure, centrally. In either case the accuracy of the map increases over time, and costly road surveys can be avoided. This thesis presents a new distributed method for creating accurate road grade maps for vehicle control applications. Standard heavy duty vehicles in normal operation are used to collect measurements. Estimates from multiple passes along a road segment are merged to form a road grade map, which improves each time a vehicle retraces a route. The design and implementation of the road grade estimator are described, and the performance is experimentally evaluated using real vehicles. Three different grade estimation methods, based on different assumption on the road grade signal, are proposed and compared. They all use data from sensors that are standard equipment in heavy duty vehicles. Measurements of the vehicle speed and the engine


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegene Negesse


    Full Text Available With the objective to assess effect of level of linseed inclusion in feeds on nutritive value, an in vitro OM digestibility (IVOMD, total short chain fatty acids (SCFA:mMol l-1, microbial crude protein (MCP:g kg-1 DM, metabolizable energy (MEruminants:MJ kg-1 DM and relative feed values (RFV of household wastes=HW (Areke-Atela=AA, carrot peels=CaP, cabbage leaf=Cle, cabbage leftover=Clef, onion leaf=OL, onion peels=OP, potato peels=PP, Tela-Atela=TA supplemented with linseed (LS containing concentrates=LSC1…LSC5 (39.32, 37.32, 35.32, 33.32, 31.32% noug cake + 58.99% wheat bran + 1.69% salt + 0, 2, 4, 6, 8% LS, as fed basis were estimated via an in vitro gas trial. HWs were mixed with LSC (LSC-HW at 3:1 ratio. Samples were incubated in-vitro with rumen fluid in duplicate and readings recorded at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. LSC-HW mixtures had higher CP, IVDMD, IVOMD, ME and SCFA, MCP and RFV than those of HWs alone. IVDMD and IVOMD of the LSC-HW improved with increasing LS levels, mostly at 2 and 4%LSC; but at higher concentrations they declined.  AA, TA had high IVOMD. However, IVDMD of AA (with the lowest IVDMD was much more influenced than TA (with highest IVDMD by LS levels. Clef had lowest and AA and TA highest ME. SCFA increased over incubation periods and with increasing levels of LS, in Clef improvement (from 0.25 to 0.61 mMol l-1 was significant but in AA (from 0.69 to 0.72 mMol l-1 moderate. Mixing HWs with LSC gave best results at 2%LSC.

  10. A New Method of Chinese Address Extraction Based on Address Tree Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Mengjun


    Full Text Available Address is a spatial location encoding method of individual geographical area. In China, address planning is relatively backward due to the rapid development of the city, resulting in the presence of large number of non-standard address. The space constrain relationship of standard address model is analyzed in this paper and a new method of standard address extraction based on the tree model is proposed, which regards topological relationship as consistent criteria of space constraints. With this method, standard address can be extracted and errors can be excluded from non-standard address. Results indicate that higher math rate can be obtained with this method.

  11. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler


    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  12. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William


    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  13. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications. (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  14. Generative Street Addresses from Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Demir


    Full Text Available We describe our automatic generative algorithm to create street addresses from satellite images by learning and labeling roads, regions, and address cells. Currently, 75% of the world’s roads lack adequate street addressing systems. Recent geocoding initiatives tend to convert pure latitude and longitude information into a memorable form for unknown areas. However, settlements are identified by streets, and such addressing schemes are not coherent with the road topology. Instead, we propose a generative address design that maps the globe in accordance with streets. Our algorithm starts with extracting roads from satellite imagery by utilizing deep learning. Then, it uniquely labels the regions, roads, and structures using some graph- and proximity-based algorithms. We also extend our addressing scheme to (i cover inaccessible areas following similar design principles; (ii be inclusive and flexible for changes on the ground; and (iii lead as a pioneer for a unified street-based global geodatabase. We present our results on an example of a developed city and multiple undeveloped cities. We also compare productivity on the basis of current ad hoc and new complete addresses. We conclude by contrasting our generative addresses to current industrial and open solutions.

  15. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish (United States)

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim


    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  16. 29 CFR 4245.7 - PBGC address. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PBGC address. 4245.7 Section 4245.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION INSOLVENCY, REORGANIZATION, TERMINATION, AND OTHER RULES APPLICABLE TO MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE OF INSOLVENCY § 4245.7 PBGC address. See...

  17. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy


    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments. Exp...

  18. Addressing contrasting cognitive models in scientific collaboration (United States)

    Diviacco, P.


    If the social aspects of scientific communities and their internal dynamics is starting to be recognized and acknowledged in the everyday lives of scientists, it is rather difficult for them to find tools that could support their activities consistently with this perspective. Issues span from gathering researchers to mutual awareness, from information sharing to building meaning, with the last one being particularly critical in research fields as the geo-sciences, that deal with the reconstruction of unique, often non-reproducible, and contingent processes. Reasoning here is, in fact, mainly abductive, allowing multiple and concurrent explanations for the same phenomenon to coexist. Scientists bias one hypothesis over another not only on strictly logical but also on sociological motivations. Following a vision, scientists tend to evolve and isolate themselves from other scientists creating communities characterized by different cognitive models, so that after some time these become incompatible and scientists stop understanding each other. We address these problems as a communication issue so that the classic distinction into three levels (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) can be used. At the syntactic level, we highlight non-technical obstacles that condition interoperability and data availability and transparency. At the semantic level, possible incompatibilities of cognitive models are particularly evident, so that using ontologies, cross-domain reconciliation should be applied. This is a very difficult task to perform since the projection of knowledge by scientists, in the designated community, is political and thus can create a lot of tension. The strategy we propose to overcome these issues pertains to pragmatics, in the sense that it is intended to acknowledge the cultural and personal factors each partner brings into the collaboration and is based on the idea that meaning should remain a flexible and contingent representation of possibly divergent views

  19. EMMPRIN expression positively correlates with WHO grades of astrocytomas and meningiomas. (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chiuan; Chen, Ying; Huang, Li-Chun; Lee, Herng-Sheng; Ma, Hsin-I; Huang, Shih-Ming; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan


    High-grade primary brain tumors possessed poor outcome due to invasiveness. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) stimulates peri-tumoral fibroblasts to secrete matrix metalloproteinase and promote invasiveness. This study hypothesized that high-grade brain tumors overexpress EMMPRIN. Analyzing the public delinked database from the Gene Expression Omnibus profile, the results showed that the EMMPRIN mRNA level was higher in WHO grade IV (n = 81) than in grade III (n = 19, p EMMPRIN levels positively correlated with WHO grades for astrocytomas (p = 0.008) and meningiomas (p = 0.048). EMMPRIN mRNA levels in conventional glioma cell lines (n = 36) was not less than those in glioma primary culture cells (n = 27) and glioblastoma stem-like cells (n = 12). The GBM8401, U87MG, and LN229 human glioma cell lines also overexpressed EMMPRIN. Hematoxylin and eosin, IHC, and immunofluorescence staining of xenografts confirmed that high-grade brain tumors overexpressed EMMPRIN. Lastly, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed poorer survival in WHO grade IV (n = 56) than in grade III astrocytomas (n = 21, by log-rank test; p = 0.0001, 95 % CI: 1.842-3.053). However, in high-grade astrocytomas, there was no difference in survival between high and low EMMPRIN mRNA levels. Thus, this study identified that high-grade brain tumors overexpress EMMPRIN, which positively correlates with WHO grades in human astrocytomas and meningiomas, and suggests that EMMPRIN may be a therapeutic target of brain tumor.

  20. Cracks in functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, H.-A.; Balke, H.; Fett, T.; Hofinger, I.; Kirchhoff, G.; Munz, D.; Neubrand, A.; Semenov, A.S.; Weiss, H.-J.; Yang, Y.Y.


    The weight function method is described to analyze the crack growth behavior in functionally graded materials and in particular materials with a rising crack growth resistance curve. Further, failure of graded thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under cyclic surface heating by laser irradiation is modeled on the basis of fracture mechanics. The damage of both graded and non-graded TBCs is found to develop in several distinct stages: vertical cracking→delamination→blistering→spalling. This sequence can be understood as an effect of progressive shrinkage due to sintering and high-temperature creep during thermal cycling, which increases the energy-release rate for vertical cracks which subsequently turn into delamination cracks. The results of finite element modeling, taking into account the TBC damage mechanisms, are compatible with experimental data. An increase of interface fracture toughness due to grading and a decrease due to ageing have been measured in a four-point bending test modified by a stiffening layer. Correlation with the damage observed in cyclic heating is discussed. It is explained in which way grading is able to reduce the damage

  1. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao


    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  2. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast


    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  3. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  4. Effective Organizational Structures and Processes: Addressing Issues of Change (United States)

    Andrade, Maureen Snow


    This chapter describes organizational structures and processes at the institutional and project levels for the development and support of distance learning initiatives. It addresses environmental and stakeholder issues and explores principles and strategies of effective leadership for change creation and management.

  5. Identifying and Addressing Gender Issues in Doing Business


    Aimée Hampel-Milagrosa


    Doing Business, the World Bank's annual flagship publication, claims that payoffs for women from regulatory reform are large despite a lack of explicit focus on social factors affecting the economic participation of women. Taking off from our previous findings that discrimination hindering women's economic participation originate at the level of traditions and perpetuate at the level of regulations, this article suggests a combined qualitative and quantitative methodology that addresses gende...

  6. DDT and Malaria Prevention: Addressing the Paradox (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; van den Berg, Henk; Kylin, Henrik


    Background The debate regarding dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in malaria prevention and human health is polarized and can be classified into three positions: anti-DDT, centrist-DDT, pro-DDT. Objective We attempted to arrive at a synthesis by matching a series of questions on the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with literature and insights, and to identify options and opportunities. Discussion Overall, community health is significantly improved through all available malaria control measures, which include IRS with DDT. Is DDT “good”? Yes, because it has saved many lives. Is DDT safe as used in IRS? Recent publications have increasingly raised concerns about the health implications of DDT. Therefore, an unqualified statement that DDT used in IRS is safe is untenable. Are inhabitants and applicators exposed? Yes, and to high levels. Should DDT be used? The fact that DDT is “good” because it saves lives, and “not safe” because it has health and environmental consequences, raises ethical issues. The evidence of adverse human health effects due to DDT is mounting. However, under certain circumstances, malaria control using DDT cannot yet be halted. Therefore, the continued use of DDT poses a paradox recognized by a centrist-DDT position. At the very least, it is now time to invoke precaution. Precautionary actions could include use and exposure reduction. Conclusions There are situations where DDT will provide the best achievable health benefit, but maintaining that DDT is safe ignores the cumulative indications of many studies. In such situations, addressing the paradox from a centrist-DDT position and invoking precaution will help design choices for healthier lives. PMID:21245017

  7. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia


    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address:   Emergency contacts:   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  8. Laser-controlled land grading for farmland drainage in the Red River Valley: an economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, S.; Watt, D.; Disrud, L.


    A study was conducted in the Red River Valley to evaluate the benefits of laser land grading for drainage. Graded fields were compared with ungraded fields to measure changes in crop yields due to better drainage on the graded fields. Cut-and-fill areas were studied in graded fields to evaluate the effect of grading on nutrient levels and crop uniformity. Potential cut-and-fill areas on an ungraded field were also studied for yield uniformity and nutrient levels and compared with the graded field. Crop maturity and yield were more uniform on graded fields (0.05 level of significance) than on ungraded fields. Aerial photographs indicated graded fields had more uniform drainage and, consequently, more uniform crop maturity at harvest. A method is presented for determining the economic feasibility of land grading based upon the percentage of land lost to drown out, the value of the crop, and the cost of grading. The economic analysis indicates that land grading on the areas studied resulted in an 8-year payback and a positive investment return for a longer period of time. (author)

  9. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Thomas O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is

  10. Radiation and occupational health: opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Taib Osman


    The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act

  11. VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 ESITE geocoder - address points. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode...

  12. What is an address in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S


    Full Text Available Puccini Street, Constantia Park 546 Puccini Street, Glenstantia, 0181 A recent study in Denmark analysed the qualitative and quantitative impact of address ambiguities. The qualitative analysis confirmed that the ambiguities affect people every day... description consists of a land parcel number together with a registered name and registration division, and is recorded at a Surveyor-General’s office. An address complements a land parcel description with information such as the street name and the street...

  13. Research Note Consumer Addressability and Customized Pricing


    Yuxin Chen; Ganesh Iyer


    The increasing availability of customer information is giving many firms the ability to reach and customize price and other marketing efforts to the tastes of the individual consumer. This ability is labeled as consumer addressability. Consumer addressability through sophisticated databases is particularly important for direct-marketing firms, catalog retailers such as L.L Bean and Land's End, credit card-issuing banks, and firms in the long-distance telephone market. We examine the strategic...

  14. Home Economics/Health Grades 6-12. Program Evaluation. (United States)

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA. Teaching and Learning Div.

    Home economics programs are offered to students in grades 6-12 in the Des Moines INdependent Community School District (Iowa). Programs at the middle school level are exploratory, leading to occupational training in family and consumer science, child care, food service, and textile and fashion arts at the high school level. Health education…

  15. South African address standard and initiatives towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available ; visiting friends; and providing a reference context for presenting other information. The benefits of an international address standards include: enabling address interoperability across boundaries; reducing service delivery costs; enabling development...

  16. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  17. Number & operations task & drill sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat


    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  18. Five strands of math tasks big book : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris


    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Included are challenging problem-solving tasks which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  19. Geometry task & drill sheets : grades 6-8

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary


    For grades 6-8, our Common Core State Standards-based combined resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills.

  20. Five strands of math drills big book : grades PK-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat; Forest, Chris


    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the five strands of math concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Included are warm-up and timed drill activities which will push the boundaries of critical thought and demonstrate to students the importance of mathematical problems in Number & Operations, Geometry, Measurement, Data Analysis & Probability and Algebra using real world situations.

  1. Perceptions of entrepreneurship as a career option in South Africa: An exploratory study among grade 12 learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Burger


    Full Text Available Job creation and poverty alleviation are two pressing challenges facing South Africa today. South Africa’s capacity to address the high unemployment and poverty levels are partly hampered by a poorly developed entrepreneurial culture. An entrepreneurial culture that enhances the supply of effective entrepreneurs at all age and population groups could contribute to economic growth and address both unemployment and poverty. This article investigates the perceptions of entrepreneurship as career option by Grade 12 learners in a specific region in South Africa, as the youth could be viewed as the logical group from which new entrepreneurs should emerge in future. The majority of the surveyed learners seem to have a positive disposition towards small business entrepreneurship as an eventual career, although considerable differences exist in terms of self-image, locality and ethnic backgrounds.

  2. Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte


    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  3. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may...

  4. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell


    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  5. Enter your email-address: how German internet users manage their email addresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.


    Writing E-mail is the most popular Internet activity. Meanwhile, many people have more than one E-mail address. The question how people manage their E-mail addresses, more specifically, whether they use them deliberately for different purposes, is the central question of this paper. E-mail addresses

  6. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM


    Full Text Available -3146. [50] X. Jin, L. Wu, L. Guo, H. Yu, and Y. Sun, ?Experimental investigation of the mixed-mode crack propagation in ZrO2/NiCr functionally graded materials,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 76(12), (2009), pp. 1800-1810. [51] Z. Cheng, D. Gao... by stable crack growth,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.72(15), (2005), pp. 2359-2372. [47] Z.-H. Jin, and R.H. Dodds Jr, ?Crack growth resistance behavior of a functionally graded material: computational studies,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics...

  7. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  8. Memorization techniques: Using mnemonics to learn fifth grade science terms (United States)

    Garcia, Juan O.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether mnemonic instruction could assist students in learning fifth-grade science terminology more effectively than traditional-study methods of recall currently in practice The task was to examine if fifth-grade students were able to learn a mnemonic and then use it to understand science vocabulary; subsequently, to determine if students were able to remember the science terms after a period of time. The problem is that in general, elementary school students are not being successful in science achievement at the fifth grade level. In view of this problem, if science performance is increased at the elementary level, then it is likely that students will be successful when tested at the 8th and 10th grade in science with the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in the future. Two research questions were posited: (1) Is there a difference in recall achievement when a mnemonic such as method of loci, pegword method, or keyword method is used in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary as compared to the traditional-study method? (2) If using a mnemonic in learning fifth-grade science vocabulary was effective on recall achievement, would this achievement be maintained over a span of time? The need for this study was to assist students in learning science terms and concepts for state accountability purposes. The first assumption was that memorization techniques are not commonly applied in fifth-grade science classes in elementary schools. A second assumption was that mnemonic devices could be used successfully in learning science terms and increase long term retention. The first limitation was that the study was conducted on one campus in one school district in South Texas which limited the generalization of the study. The second limitation was that it included random assigned intact groups as opposed to random student assignment to fifth-grade classroom groups.

  9. A better norm-referenced grading using the standard deviation criterion. (United States)

    Chan, Wing-shing


    The commonly used norm-referenced grading assigns grades to rank-ordered students in fixed percentiles. It has the disadvantage of ignoring the actual distance of scores among students. A simple norm-referenced grading via standard deviation is suggested for routine educational grading. The number of standard deviation of a student's score from the class mean was used as the common yardstick to measure achievement level. Cumulative probability of a normal distribution was referenced to help decide the amount of students included within a grade. RESULTS of the foremost 12 students from a medical examination were used for illustrating this grading method. Grading by standard deviation seemed to produce better cutoffs in allocating an appropriate grade to students more according to their differential achievements and had less chance in creating arbitrary cutoffs in between two similarly scored students than grading by fixed percentile. Grading by standard deviation has more advantages and is more flexible than grading by fixed percentile for norm-referenced grading.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of pre-treatment biopsy for grading cutaneous mast cell tumours in dogs. (United States)

    Shaw, T; Kudnig, S T; Firestone, S M


    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are common tumours of the canine skin, and are estimated to represent up to 20% of all skin tumours in dogs. Tumour grade has a major impact on the incidence of local recurrence and metastatic potential. In addition to helping the clinician with surgical planning, knowledge of the tumour grade also assists in proper prognostication and client education. For pre-treatment biopsies to be useful, there must exist a high level of correlation between the histopathological grade obtained from the pre-treatment biopsy and the actual histopathological grade from the excisional biopsy. The aim of this study was to determine concordance of tumour grade between various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch, needle core) and the "gold standard" excisional biopsy method. We found an overall concordance rate of 96% based on the Patnaik grading system, and an overall concordance rate of 92% based on the Kiupel grading system. The accuracy of the various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch and needle core) when compared with excisional biopsy was 92%, 100% and 100%, respectively, based on the Patnaik grading system, and 90%, 95% and 100%, respectively, based on the Kiupel grading system. Of the cases with discordant results, the pre-treatment biopsies tended to underestimate the grade of the tumour. Based on these results, we conclude that pre-treatment biopsies are sufficiently accurate for differentiating low-grade from high-grade MCTs, regardless of biopsy technique or tumour location. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Addressing the Issue: Bullying and LGBTQ Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Allen


    Full Text Available Each day, thousands of youth experience bullying and as many of 70% of all youth report having experienced bullying, either directly or indirectly (Cantor, 2005. For Gay, Lesbian, Bi-sexual, Transgender and Questioning (LGBTQ youth, the chances of experiencing bullying are much higher than for youth in the general population (Russell, Horn, Kosciw, & Saewyc, 2010. Although many youth serving organizations have begun to address the issue of bullying with bullying prevention programs, there is a deficit of information and a lack of inclusion of prevention efforts that specifically address LGBTQ youth. This article address the role of youth organizations in creating safe and inclusive environments for all youth, with specific attention paid to resources and strategies for inclusive environments for LGBTQ youth.

  12. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space (United States)

    Wilkes, John


    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  13. Address rituals as heuristics of social structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Kotze


    Full Text Available The address form as linguistic variable has more realisation possibilities than any other, because semantic variation is involved and it reflects all the different interpersonal relations in the societal structure. Factors such as religious status, sex, kinship and age differences play a key role in the choice of the address form. It is hypothesised that the way in which address forms vary in a speech community is a linguistic reflection of the social norms determining the hierarchical structure of the community. Die aanspreekvorm as linguistiese veranderlike het meer verwesenlikingsmoontlikhede as enige ander vorm, want semantiese verskeidenheid is betrokke en dit reflekteer die verskillende interpersoonlike verhoudings in die gemeenskapstruktuur. Faktore soos religieuse status, geslag, verwantskap en ouderdomsverskille speel 'n sleutelrol in die aanspreekvorm. Daar word gehipotetiseer dat die wyse waarop aanspreekvorms in 'n spraakgemeenskap wissel, 'n linguistiese refleksie is van die sosiale norme wat die hierargiese struktuur van die gemeenskap bepaal.

  14. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, John


    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  15. Vocabulary and syntactic knowledge factors in 5th grade students’ reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouider Mokhtari


    Full Text Available In this study, we examined 5th grade students’ levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness contributed in significant yet unique ways to students’ reading comprehension performance. Students who showed weaknesses in vocabulary and syntax also performed poorly on measures of reading comprehension. Additionally, we found that syntactic awareness explained a small amount of additional variance in reading comprehension beyond what was explained by vocabulary. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of research and practice addressing the relationships among syntax, vocabulary, and reading comprehension for more and less skilled readers.

  16. Addressing EO-1 Spacecraft Pulsed Plasma Thruster EMI Concerns (United States)

    Zakrzwski, C. M.; Davis, Mitch; Sarmiento, Charles; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)


    The Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Experiment on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) spacecraft has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a new generation PPT to perform spacecraft attitude control. Results from PPT unit level radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests led to concerns about potential interference problems with other spacecraft subsystems. Initial plans to address these concerns included firing the PPT at the spacecraft level both in atmosphere, with special ground support equipment. and in vacuum. During the spacecraft level tests, additional concerns where raised about potential harm to the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). The inadequacy of standard radiated emission test protocol to address pulsed electromagnetic discharges and the lack of resources required to perform compatibility tests between the PPT and an ALI test unit led to changes in the spacecraft level validation plan. An EMI shield box for the PPT was constructed and validated for spacecraft level ambient testing. Spacecraft level vacuum tests of the PPT were deleted. Implementation of the shield box allowed for successful spacecraft level testing of the PPT while eliminating any risk to the ALI. The ALI demonstration will precede the PPT demonstration to eliminate any possible risk of damage of ALI from PPT operation.

  17. Rapid grading of fundus photographs for diabetic retinopathy using crowdsourcing. (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Pearson, Jennifer L; Kirchner, Thomas R; Gupta, Omesh P; Shah, Chirag P


    Screening for diabetic retinopathy is both effective and cost-effective, but rates of screening compliance remain suboptimal. As screening improves, new methods to deal with screening data may help reduce the human resource needs. Crowdsourcing has been used in many contexts to harness distributed human intelligence for the completion of small tasks including image categorization. Our goal was to develop and validate a novel method for fundus photograph grading. An interface for fundus photo classification was developed for the Amazon Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing platform. We posted 19 expert-graded images for grading by Turkers, with 10 repetitions per photo for an initial proof-of-concept (Phase I). Turkers were paid US $0.10 per image. In Phase II, one prototypical image from each of the four grading categories received 500 unique Turker interpretations. Fifty draws of 1-50 Turkers were then used to estimate the variance in accuracy derived from randomly drawn samples of increasing crowd size to determine the minimum number of Turkers needed to produce valid results. In Phase III, the interface was modified to attempt to improve Turker grading. Across 230 grading instances in the normal versus abnormal arm of Phase I, 187 images (81.3%) were correctly classified by Turkers. Average time to grade each image was 25 seconds, including time to review training images. With the addition of grading categories, time to grade each image increased and percentage of images graded correctly decreased. In Phase II, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) indicated that sensitivity and specificity were maximized after 7 graders for ratings of normal versus abnormal (AUC=0.98) but was significantly reduced (AUC=0.63) when Turkers were asked to specify the level of severity. With improvements to the interface in Phase III, correctly classified images by the mean Turker grade in four-category grading increased to a maximum of 52.6% (10/19 images

  18. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography]. (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F


    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  19. Content addressable memories in scientific instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotto, I. de; Golinelli, S.


    The content-addressable-memory feature of a new system designed in these laboratories for non-destructive testing of nuclear reactor pressure vessels based on acoustic emission analysis is presented. The content addressable memory is divided into two parts: the first selects the most frequent events among incoming ones (FES: Frequent Event Selection memory), the second stores the frequent events singled out (FEM: Frequent Event Memory). The statistical behaviour of FES is analyzed, and experimental results are compared with theoretical ones; the model presented proved to be a useful tool in dimensioning the instrument store capacity. (Auth.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yarmolik


    Full Text Available A universal approach for generation of address sequences with specified properties is proposed and analyzed. A modified version of the Antonov and Saleev algorithm for Sobol sequences genera-tion is chosen as a mathematical description of the proposed method. Within the framework of the proposed universal approach, the Sobol sequences form a subset of the address sequences. Other sub-sets are also formed, which are Gray sequences, anti-Gray sequences, counter sequences and sequenc-es with specified properties.

  1. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard


    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally...

  2. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N


    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  3. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  4. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  5. Attendance Policies and Student Grades (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael


    The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…

  6. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help? (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J.


    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  7. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV. (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  8. Readability Levels of Dental Patient Education Brochures. (United States)

    Boles, Catherine D; Liu, Ying; November-Rider, Debra


    The objective of this study was to evaluate dental patient education brochures produced since 2000 to determine if there is any change in the Flesch-Kincaid grade level readability. A convenience sample of 36 brochures was obtained for analysis of the readability of the patient education material on multiple dental topics. Readability was measured using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level through Microsoft Word. Pearson's correlation was used to describe the relationship among the factors of interest. Backward model selection of multiple linear regression model was used to investigate the relationship between Flesch-Kincaid Grade level and a set of predictors included in this study. A convenience sample (n=36) of dental education brochures produced from 2000 to 2014 showed a mean Flesch-Kincaid reading grade level of 9.15. Weak to moderate correlations existed between word count and grade level (r=0.40) and characters count and grade level (r=0.46); strong correlations were found between grade level and average words per sentence (r=0.70), average characters per word (r=0.85) and Flesch Reading Ease (r=-0.98). Only 1 brochure out of the sample met the recommended sixth grade reading level (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level 5.7). Overall, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level of all brochures was significantly higher than the recommended sixth grade reading level (preadability of the brochures. However, the majority of the brochures analyzed are still testing above the recommended sixth grade reading level. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  9. Raman spectroscopy for grading of live osteosarcoma cells. (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Hung; Wu, Stewart H; Kuo, Yi-Chun; Chen, How-Foo; Chiou, Arthur; Lee, Oscar K


    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, and the grading of osteosarcoma cells relies on traditional histopathology and molecular biology methods, which require RNA extraction, protein isolation and immunohistological staining. All these methods require cell isolation, lysis or fixation, which is time-consuming and requires certain amount of tumor specimen. In this study, we report the use of Raman spectroscopy for grading of malignant osteosarcoma cells. We demonstrate that, based on the detection of differential production of mineral species, Raman spectroscopy can be used as a live cell analyzer to accurately assess the grades of osteosarcoma cells by evaluating their mineralization levels. Mineralization level was assessed by measuring amount of hydroxyapatite (HA), which is highly expressed in mature osteoblasts, but not in poorly differentiated osteosarcoma cell or mesenchymal stem cells, the putative cell-of-origin of osteosarcoma. We found that under Raman spectroscopy, the level of HA production was high in MG-63 cells, which are low-grade. Moreover, hydroxyapatite production was low in high-grade osteosarcoma cells such as 143B and SaOS2 cells (p Raman spectroscopy for the measurement of HA production by the protocol reported in this study may serve as a useful tool to rapidly and accurately assess the degree of malignancy in osteosarcoma cells in a label-free manner. Such application may shorten the period of pathological diagnosis and may benefit patients who are inflicted with osteosarcoma.

  10. Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Curriculum (United States)

    Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Hecht, Michael L.


    This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, "keepin' it REAL" ("kiR"), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th,…

  11. Correlation between CT grading and blood interleukin-6 in severe acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokohari, Kenji; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Shiga, Hidetoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuya; Nakamura, Masataka


    Computed tomography (CT) and an evaluating of the degree of severity in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) are required to decide the therapeutic strategy. We measured blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) in critically ill patients at our intensive care unit (ICU) in a daily clinical setting. To determine the significance of grading CT findings in SAP, we studied the correlation between CT grading and blood IL-6 in SAP patients on ICU admission. Among 31 SAP cases, 66 were CT grade III, 22 CT grade IV, and 3 cases CT grade V. Patients with a higher CT grade tended to have higher blood IL-6. Data also showed that mean blood IL-6 among SAP patients in stage 2 was significantly higher than that among those in stage 3 (p<0.05). From these results, we concluded that CT grading and IL-6 blood level have a different significance in the management of SAP patients. (author)

  12. Response of weaner rabbits to diets containing graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    Oct 26, 2011 ... Available online at DOI: 10.5897/AJB10. .... alternative protein sources, which are cheap and locally available. .... The rabbits were provided feed and water ad libitum twice daily at 8.00 ...

  13. Comparability of [0-Level] GCE Grades in 1968 and 1973. (United States)

    Backhouse, John K.


    Willmott's comparison of General Certificate of Education (GCE) scores in 1968 and 1973 is reexamined. The trend toward an increasing percentage of students who pass is confirmed, but estimates of standard errors indicate that subtest differences may be attributed to the sampling plan. (CP)

  14. Growth response of rabbits fed graded levels of processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of processed and undehulled sunflower seed (PUSS) as feed supplement, on the performance of growing rabbits was studied.The eight weeks feeding trial involving twenty four, six weeks old male and female New Zealand white rabbits weighing 600-650g in a completely randomized design were feed three ...

  15. Performance and digestibility of weaner rabbits fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 4, 2006 ... Full fat soybean contains 38% crude protein (CP) and. 3300 kcal ... good source of energy for poultry and livestock. Bracharia ... intervals during the study. Feed intake .... enough nutrients for body maintenance probably because they were not ... Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ibadan, Nigeria. 16-20 ...

  16. Grade Level: Tracking Online Education in the United States (United States)

    Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Jeff


    This report is the twelfth annual report on the state of online learning in U.S. higher education. The survey is designed, administered and analyzed by the Babson Survey Research Group, with data collection conducted in partnership with the College Board and additional data from the National Center for Education Statistics' Integrated…

  17. Effect of graded levels and sources of protein on scrotal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iso caloric rations (10.50 MJ/kg DM ME) were formulated using non-conventional protein source (maize offal and dry layer litter) to contain 12.11% CP, 14.96% CP, and 17.94% CP and fed to groups A, B and C respectively. Another ration was formulated using conventional protein source (maize, wheat bran, groundnut ...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema


    to rework, misunderstandings, miscommunication and lower quality. This paper investigates how the organisation can reduce the negative aspects of offshoring by presenting two possible approaches; one which lessens the exposure to situations in which these negative impacts happen and another which addresses...

  19. Addressing Diversity: A Call for Action. (United States)

    Henderson, Ingeborg


    Suggests a series of steps that individuals in the foreign language profession can take to effectively address the issue of demographic changes in the U.S. college student populations and keeping foreign language learning a feasible discipline in the future. (26 references) (GLR)

  20. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  1. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels


    , improvements in technology have made it more efficient to utilize food waste for biogas and compost, which improves nutrient cycling through the food system. Major efforts to address food waste in Denmark have mainly been promoted through civil society groups with governmental support, as well as by industry...

  2. 40 CFR 65.14 - Addresses. (United States)


    ... 75202. Region VII (Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska), Director, Air and Toxics Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 726 Minnesota Avenue, Kansas City, Kansas 66101. Region VIII (Colorado, Montana... authority has been delegated under section 112(l) of the Act. The mailing addresses for State agencies are...

  3. Addressing the Global Burden of Breast Cancer (United States)

    The US National Cancer Institute’s Center for Global Health (CGH) has been a key partner in a multi-institutional expert team that has developed a set of publications to address foundational concerns in breast cancer care across the cancer care continuum and within limited resource settings.

  4. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter


    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  5. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.


    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  6. 76 FR 80903 - Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses (United States)


    ... John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201. (13) Missile Defense Agency. Missile Defense Agency... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Mandatory Declassification Review Addresses AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Information Security Oversight Office's...

  7. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom (United States)

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick


    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  8. 37 CFR 301.2 - Official addresses. (United States)


    ..., Room LM-401 in the James Madison Memorial Building, Monday through Friday, between 8:30 a.m. and 5 p.m., and be addressed as follows: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial... Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, 101 Independence Avenue, SE...

  9. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology. (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  10. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.


    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  11. Volume 1: president's address, CNA committee reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The president's address summarizes the 1974-75 activities of the CNA and reports are given by CNA subcommittees on codes, standards and practices, economic development, education and manpower, international affairs, nuclear insurance, nuclear safety and environment, public relations, and technology. (E.C.B.)

  12. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control (United States)

    Tonso, William R.


    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  13. Transition through Teamwork: Professionals Address Student Access (United States)

    Bube, Sue Ann; Carrothers, Carol; Johnson, Cinda


    Prior to 2013, there was no collaboration around the transition services for deaf and hard of hearing students in Washington State. Washington had numerous agencies providing excellent support, but those agencies were not working together. It was not until January 29, 2013, when pepnet 2 hosted the Building State Capacity to Address Critical…

  14. Addressing Sexual Violence as Student Affairs Work (United States)

    Landreman, Lisa M.; Williamsen, Kaaren M.


    In this chapter, we outline the challenges campuses face in addressing sexual violence and Title IX compliance. We argue that there are critical roles for student affairs professionals in Title IX work in developing effective campus sexual violence prevention and response strategies.

  15. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, H.; Cardelli, L.


    . These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the role of nutritional information for addressing under-five child malnutrition in Tanzania. The paper is based on a master's dissertation whose objective was to determine the sources of nutritional information used to provide nutritional information to mothers in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) clinics, ...

  17. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting


    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  18. Content and Grade Trends in State Assessments and NAEP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Schafer


    Full Text Available Each state is required by the No Child Left Behind Act to report the percents of its students who have reached a score level called - proficient- or above for certain grades in the content areas of reading (or a similar construct and math. Using 2005 data from public web sites of states and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, state-to-state differences in percents were analyzed, both unconditionally and conditionally on NAEP, for (1 trend across content areas (horizontal moderation, (2 trend across grade levels (vertical moderation, and (3 consistency with NAEP. While there was considerable variation from state to state, especially on an idealistic-realistic dimension, the results generally show that states are relatively consistent in trends across grades and contents.

  19. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization. (United States)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  20. Linguistic Feature Development Across Grades and Genre in Elementary Writing. (United States)

    Hall-Mills, Shannon; Apel, Kenn


    As children develop skills in writing across academic contexts, clinicians and educators need to have a fundamental understanding of typical writing development as well as valid and reliable assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to examine the progression of linguistic elements in school-age children's narrative and expository writing development. Narrative and expository writing samples produced by 89 children in Grades 2 through 4 were analyzed at the microstructure and macrostructure levels. Measures of receptive vocabulary, word-level reading, and reading comprehension were obtained. Exploratory factor analyses revealed 4 microstructure factors (e.g., productivity, grammatical complexity, grammatical accuracy, and lexical density) and 1 macrostructure factor (e.g., a combination of organization, text structure, and cohesion). Multivariate analyses of covariance with reading comprehension as a covariate showed that productivity and macrostructure were sensitive to grade-level and genre differences and that expository grammatical complexity was sensitive to grade-level differences. Findings are discussed in light of grade-level standards for narrative and expository writing and current practices in writing assessment. Multiple suggestions are offered for clinical and educational implications, and specific directions are provided for future research.