Sample records for grade inferior migrated

  1. Suprapedicular Circumferential Opening Technique of Percutaneous Endoscopic Transforaminal Lumbar Discectomy for High Grade Inferiorly Migrated Lumbar Disc Herniation

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    Hyeun Sung Kim


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of suprapedicular circumferential opening technique (SCOT of percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal lumbar discectomy (PETLD for high grade inferiorly migrated lumbar disc herniation. Material and Methods. Eighteen consecutive patients who presented with back and leg pain with a single-level high grade inferiorly migrated lumbar disc herniation were included. High grade inferiorly migrated disc was removed by the SCOT through PETLD approach. Outcome evaluation was done with visual analog scale (VAS and Mac Nab’s criteria. Result. There were 14 males and 4 females. The mean age of patients was 53.3±14.12 years. One, 4, and 13 patients had disc herniation at L1-2, L3-4, and L4-5 levels, respectively, on MRI, which correlated with clinical findings. The mean follow-up duration was 8.4±4.31 months. According to Mac Nab’s criteria, 9 patients (50% reported excellent and the remaining 9 patients (50% reported good outcomes. The mean preoperative and postoperative VAS for leg pain were 7.36±0.73 and 1.45±0.60, respectively (p<0.001. Improvement in outcomes was maintained even at final follow-up. There was no complication. Conclusion. In this preliminary study we achieved good to excellent clinical results using the SCOT of PETLD for high grade inferiorly migrated lumbar disc herniation.

  2. Immediate Effect of Grade IV Inferior Hip Joint Mobilization on Hip Abductor Torque: A Pilot Study


    Makofsky, Howard; Panicker, Siji; Abbruzzese, Jeanine; Aridas, Cynthia; Camp, Michael; Drakes, Jonelle; Franco, Caroline; Sileo, Ray


    Joint mobilization and manipulation stimulate mechanoreceptors, which may influence the joint and surrounding muscles. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effect of grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization on hip abductor torque. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (grade I inferior hip joint mobilization) or an experimental group (grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization). Subjects performed a pre- and post-intervention test of five isometric re...

  3. The Effect and Feasibility Study of Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy Via Superior Border of Inferior Pedicle Approach for Down-Migrated Intracanal Disc Herniations. (United States)

    Ying, Jinwei; Huang, Kelun; Zhu, Minyu; Zhou, Beibei; Wang, Yu; Chen, Bi; Teng, Honglin


    Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is gradually regarded as an effective alternative to posterior open surgery. However, migrated herniations bring a great technical challenge even for experienced surgeons due to the absence of the appropriate approaching guideline. We aimed to describe a safe and effective approaching technique for the removal of down-migrations on the basis of the clinical outcomes and complications compared with the conventional approaching method.A total of 45 patients recommended to single-level PELD with foraminoplasty were randomly divided into 2 groups, group A received foraminoplasty via upper border of inferior pedicle, group B was approached through the common transforaminal route. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for leg pain and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. Then participants were classified into 2 types of migrations (high-grade and low-grade) based on the extent of migration presented on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The various comparisons between the 2 surgical techniques were analyzed.The postoperative VAS and ODI scores significantly decreased in both of the 2 groups after surgery (P border of inferior pedicle can serve as a safe and effective minimally invasive technique for removal of down-migrated herniations. Furthermore, it is essential to identify the radiologic characteristics so as to choose the most appropriate approaching technique.

  4. Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for very high-grade migrated disc herniation. (United States)

    Ahn, Yong; Jang, Il-Tae; Kim, Woo-Kyung


    Transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) for high-grade migrated disc herniation has been regarded as a challenging task, but because of the remarkable improvement in navigable instruments and advanced epiduroscopic technique, it can be used for the treatment of high- or very high-grade migrated disc herniation. The purpose of this study was to describe in detail the standardized technique of transforaminal PELD for very high-grade migrated disc herniation and demonstrate the clinical results. Very high-grade lumbar migrated disc herniation was defined as a disc migration beyond the inferior margin of the pedicle. Thirteen consecutive patients with very high-grade lumbar migrated disc herniation were treated with transforaminal PELD, which has three stages: (1) direction-oriented transforaminal approach, (2) release of periannular anchorage, and (3) epiduroscopic fragmentectomy with navigable instruments. The surgical outcomes were assessed using the visual analogue pain score (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and modified Macnab criteria. The operated levels were L3-4 in 2 (15.4%) patients, L4-5 in 10 (76.9%), and L5-S1 in 1 (7.7%). The directions of migration were cranial in 8 patients and caudal in 5. The mean VAS for leg pain improved from 7.86±1.28 preoperatively to 2.54±1.51 at 6 weeks postoperatively and 1.85±1.07 at 1year postoperatively (Pdisc herniation, and a standardized technique may provide a reliable and reproducible result. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Successful Percutaneous Retrieval of an Inferior Vena Cava Filter Migrating to the Right Ventricle in a Bariatric Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerapong, Jula; Wahlgren, Carl Magnus; Jolly, Neeraj; Bassiouny, Hisham


    The use of an inferior vena cava filter has an important role in the management of patients who are at high risk for development of pulmonary embolism. Migration is a rare but known complication of inferior vena cava filter placement. We herein describe a case of a prophylactic retrievable vena cava filter migrating to the right ventricle in a bariatric patient. The filter was retrieved percutaneously by transjugular approach and the patient did well postoperatively. A review of the current literature is given.

  6. Immediate Effect of Grade IV Inferior Hip Joint Mobilization on Hip Abductor Torque: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Makofsky, Howard; Panicker, Siji; Abbruzzese, Jeanine; Aridas, Cynthia; Camp, Michael; Drakes, Jonelle; Franco, Caroline; Sileo, Ray


    Joint mobilization and manipulation stimulate mechanoreceptors, which may influence the joint and surrounding muscles. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effect of grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization on hip abductor torque. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (grade I inferior hip joint mobilization) or an experimental group (grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization). Subjects performed a pre- and post-intervention test of five isometric repetitions on the Cybex Normö dynamometer; the average torque was determined for both pre- and post-intervention measurements. These data were analyzed using the independent samples t-test with the significance level set at Phip abductor torque in the experimental group (P=0.03). The experimental group demonstrated a 17.35% increase in average torque whereas the control group demonstrated a 3.68% decrease in average torque. These findings are consistent with other studies demonstrating that the use of grade IV non-thrust mobilization improves strength immediately post-intervention in healthy individuals. The results of this pilot study provide physical therapists with further support for the utilization of manual therapy in conjunction with therapeutic exercise to enhance muscle strength.

  7. A fractured inferior vena cava filter strut migrating to the left pulmonary artery

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    Tamer Hudali


    Full Text Available Inferior vena cava filters are increasingly used in patients with recurrent venous thromboembolism who are contraindicated to anticoagulation. Migration of a broken strut to the pulmonary artery is a very rare complication of these filters. We report the case of an 83-year-old female who experienced this complication with the migratory strut remaining in the same position for years. This case provides evidence that such filters probably have higher rates of complications than what has been thought that remain asymptomatic. The indications and the management of complications of such devices need to be studied further.

  8. Middle Temporal Gyrus Versus Inferior Temporal Gyrus Transcortical Approaches to High-Grade Astrocytomas in the Mediobasal Temporal Lobe: A Comparison of Outcomes, Functional Restoration, and Surgical Considerations. (United States)

    Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Raza, Shaan M; Ahmed, Ishrat; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Chaichana, Kaisorn; Olivi, Alessandro


    High-grade astrocytomas of the mesial temporal lobe may pose surgical challenges. Several approaches (trans-sylvian, subtemporal, and transcortical) have been designed to circumnavigate the critical neurovascular structures and white fiber tracts that surround this area. Considering the paucity of literature on the transcortical approach for these lesions, we describe our institutional experience with transcortical approaches to Grade III/IV astrocytomas in the mesial temporal lobe. Between 1999 and 2009, 23 patients underwent surgery at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions for Grade III/IV astrocytomas involving the mesial temporal lobe (without involvement of the temporal neocortex). Clinical notes, operative records, and imaging were reviewed. Thirteen patients had tumors in the dominant hemisphere. All patients underwent surgery via a transcortical approach (14 via the inferior temporal gyrus and 9 via the middle temporal gyrus). Gross total resection was obtained in 92 % of the cohort. Neurological outcomes were: clinically significant stroke (2 patients), new visual deficits (2 patients), new speech deficit (1 patient); seizure control (53 %). In comparison to reported results in the literature for the transylvian and subtemporal approaches, the transcortical approach may provide the access necessary for a gross total resection with minimal neurological consequences. In our series of patients, there was no statistically significant difference in outcomes between the middle temporal gyrus versus the inferior temporal gyrus trajectories.

  9. Migration of optical core network to next generation networks - Carrier Grade Ethernet Optical Transport Network (United States)

    Glamočanin, D.


    In order to maintain the continuity of the telecom operators’ network construction, while monitoring development needs, increasing customers’ demands and application of technological improvements, it is necessary to migrate optical transport core network to the next generation networks - Carrier Grade Ethernet Optical Transport Network (OTN CE). The primary objective of OTN CE is to realize an environment that is based solely on the switching in the optical domain, i.e. the realization of transparent optical networks and optical switching to the second layer of ISO / OSI model. The realization of such a network provides opportunities for further development of existing, but also technologically more demanding, new services. It is also a prerequisite to provide higher scalability, reliability, security and quality of QoS service, as well as prerequisites for the establishment of SLA (Service Level Agreement) for existing services, especially traffic in real time. This study aims to clarify the proposed model, which has the potential to be eventually adjusted in accordance with new scientific knowledge in this field as well as market requirements.

  10. Renal cell carcinoma: stage, grade and histology migration over the last 15 years in a large Australian surgical series. (United States)

    Doeuk, Norbert; Guo, Ding Y; Haddad, Richard; Lau, Howard; Woo, Henry H; Bariol, Simon; Drummond, Malcolm; Vladica, Philip; Brooks, Andrew; Patel, Manish I


    • To verify whether migration towards earlier-stage renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which has been observed in the USA over the last decade, also applies to Australia. • Between January 1993 and December 2007, 547 nephrectomies performed in public and private hospitals in western Sydney were analysed from a retrospectively collected database. • Data were divided into three consecutive time groups. • Tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage as well as patient demographics, size, grade and histology of tumours and proportion of benign tumours were also assessed. • In all, 499 nephrectomies were performed for RCC. The median age was 62 years, with a male:female ratio of 1.9 : 1. Similarly sized tumours were identified in each time group [group 1 (1993-1997), 54.8 mm; group 2 (1998-2002), 52.0 mm; group 3 (2003-2007), 52.2 mm, P= 0.6]. • Pathological stage II disease decreased from 18.1 to 11.1%, but stage III disease showed an increase from 13.9 to 21.5% over that time period (P= 0.02). • The proportion of stage I and stage IV disease has remained relatively the same. There has been a statistically significant upward histological migration for the papillary subtype from 1.3 to 10.2% (P= 0.01). • There has also been an increasing representation of Fuhrman grade III tumours over time, from 17.6 to 30.8%, and a decreasing proportion of Fuhrman grade I tumours from 16.2 to 7.1% (P= 0.03). • There was a decrease in the incidence of benign tumours originally thought to be malignant on preoperative investigations, from 10% in group 1 to 4% in group 3 (P= 0.03). • The recent US phenomenon of migration towards earlier-stage, smaller RCCs as well as increased representation of benign tumours was not observed in the present study. The results of the present study, however, show an upward histological migration for papillary RCCs and an increasing representation of more aggressive Fuhrman grade III tumours. © 2010 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2010 BJU

  11. Migration of dioctyladipate plasticizer from food-grade PVC film into chicken meat products: effect of gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulas, A.E.; Kontominas, M.G.


    Food-grade PVC film containing 28.3% dioctyladipate (DOA) plasticizer was used to wrap chicken meat samples, with and without skin, contained in a polystyrene tray. Samples were then irradiated with gamma-radiation [60Co] at doses equal to 4 kGy and 9 kGy corresponding to ''cold pasteurization''. Irraddiation was carried out at 8-10 degrees C and samples were subsequently stored at 4-5 degrees C. Contaminated chicken meat samples were analysed for DOA at intervals between 7 h and 240 h of contact, using an indirect GC method. Identical non-irradiated (control) samples were also analysed for their DOA content. Results showed no statistically significant differences in migrated amounts of DOA between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Neither were differences observed between samples irradiated at 4 kGy and 9 kGy. This was supported by identical IR spectra recorded for irradiated and non-irradiated samples and leads to the conclusion that, at such intermediate radiation doses ( < or = kGy), the migration characteristics of PVC film are not affected. DOA migration was found to be time dependent, approaching equilibrium after approximately 170 h for the chicken flesh plus skin samples and 120 h for the chicken flesh samples. The amount of DOA migrated into chicken flesh plus skin samples was significantly greater (3.2-22.3 mg/dm2) than that for chicken flesh samples (0.9-8.9 mg/dm2). After 240 h of sample/film contact under refrigeration, loss of DOA was approximately 35.6% for chicken flesh plus skin samples and 14.3% for chicken flesh samples. Sample spoilage, as demonstrated by off-odour development, occurred after approximately 120 h of refrigerated storage. Diffusion coefficients for DOA were calculated and were found to be lower for chicken flesh (1 x 10(-13) than for flesh plus skin (4.4 x 10(-13)) samples

  12. Directed migration of cancer cells by the graded texture of the underlying matrix (United States)

    Park, JinSeok; Kim, Deok-Ho; Kim, Hong-Nam; Wang, Chiaochun Joanne; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Hur, Eunmi; Suh, Kahp-Yang; An, Steven S.; Levchenko, Andre


    Living cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) can display complex interactions that define key developmental, physiological and pathological processes. Here, we report a new type of directed migration — which we term ‘topotaxis’ — by which cell movement is guided by the gradient of the nanoscale topographic features in the cells’ ECM environment. We show that the direction of topotaxis is reflective of the effective cell stiffness, and that it depends on the balance of the ECM-triggered signalling pathways PI3K-Akt and ROCK-MLCK. In melanoma cancer cells, this balance can be altered by different ECM inputs, pharmacological perturbations or genetic alterations, particularly a loss of PTEN in aggressive melanoma cells. We conclude that topotaxis is a product of the material properties of cells and the surrounding ECM, and propose that the invasive capacity of many cancers may depend broadly on topotactic responses, providing a potentially attractive mechanism for controlling invasive and metastatic behaviour. PMID:26974411

  13. Why Do People Move? Migration from Latin America. A Curriculum Unit for History and Social Studies, Grades 6-10. (United States)

    Nunez, Lucia

    This resource packet looks at the migration flows from six countries in Latin America: Mexico, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, and Cuba. Students will develop an understanding of some of the conditions that exist in both sending and receiving communities, of the connections that facilitate migration, and of the causes of these…

  14. Percutaneous insertion of the inferior vena cava filter

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    Huang Lianjun; Jiang Shiliang; Zhao Shihua; Yang Jianguo; Dai Ruping


    Objective: To evaluate the effect of inferior vena cava filter for prevention of pulmonary embolus (PE) formation. Methods: Twenty-eight cases of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were treated with insertion of the inferior vena cava filter. Results: The filter was implanted into inferior vena cava below the rena vein. There were no severe complications occurred in the group. Twenty-seven cases were followed up to 2-34 months, and no migration of the filters were found. And no pulmonary embolism were revealed in fifteen cases without pulmonary thromboembolism. Conclusions: The inferior vena cava filter implantation is a safe and effective method to prevent pulmonary thromboembolism

  15. Overexpression of long non-coding RNA TUG1 predicts poor prognosis and promotes cancer cell proliferation and migration in high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer. (United States)

    Iliev, Robert; Kleinova, Renata; Juracek, Jaroslav; Dolezel, Jan; Ozanova, Zuzana; Fedorko, Michal; Pacik, Dalibor; Svoboda, Marek; Stanik, Michal; Slaby, Ondrej


    Long non-coding RNA TUG1 is involved in the development and progression of a variety of tumors. Little is known about TUG1 function in high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The aims of our study were to determine expression levels of long non-coding RNA TUG1 in tumor tissue, to evaluate its relationship with clinico-pathological features of high-grade MIBC, and to describe its function in MIBC cells in vitro. TUG1 expression levels were determined in paired tumor and adjacent non-tumor bladder tissues of 47 patients with high-grade MIBC using real-time PCR. Cell line T-24 and siRNA silencing were used to study the TUG1 function in vitro. We observed significantly increased levels of TUG1 in tumor tissue in comparison to adjacent non-tumor bladder tissue (P TUG1 levels were significantly increased in metastatic tumors (P = 0.0147) and were associated with shorter overall survival of MIBC patients (P = 0.0241). TUG1 silencing in vitro led to 34 % decrease in cancer cell proliferation (P = 0.0004) and 23 % reduction in migration capacity of cancer cells (P TUG1 silencing on cell cycle distribution and number of apoptotic cells. Our study confirmed overexpression of TUG1 in MIBC tumor tissue and described its association with worse overall survival in high-grade MIBC patients. Together with in vitro observations, these data suggest an oncogenic role of TUG1 and its potential usage as biomarker or therapeutic target in MIBC.

  16. [Inferior vestibular neuritis]. (United States)

    Alzuphar, Stephen Jacques; Maire, Raphaël


    Inferior vestibular neuritis is a rare form of acute peripheral vestibular loss that only implies the lesion of the inferior vestibular nerve. The diagnosis is based on the observation of a spontaneous downbeating nystagmus, pathological head impulse test for the posterior semicircular canal and abnormal cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. Bithermal caloric testing and head impulse test for horizontal and anterior canals are normal, as well as the ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The differential diagnosis of inferior vestibular neuritis includes the various central lesions that produce vertical down beating nystagmus (posterior fossa) and a cerebral magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory.

  17. Asymmetrical, inversely graded, upstream-migrating cyclic steps in marine settings: Late Miocene-early Pliocene Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, southern California (United States)

    Gong, Chenglin; Chen, Liuqin; West, Logan


    Cyclic steps are ubiquitous in modern sedimentary environments, yet their recognition remains sparse in the rock record. Here, we interpret three sets of undulating backsets (1 to 3) recognized in the late Miocene-early Pliocene Latrania Formation in the Anza-Borrego Desert, the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, southern California, USA as the first cm- to dm-scale outcrop record of cyclic steps, based on asymmetrical cross-sections, upstream migration, and inversely graded laminae. Upstream migration and asymmetrical cross-sections of backsets and concomitant backset laminae are attributed to supercritical-to-subcritical flow transitions through weak hydraulic jumps, which are composed of: (i) thin (tens of centimetres) and slower (reported as flow velocities (Ū) of 0.45 to 1.45 m s- 1, with mean value of Ū = 0.89 m s- 1) subcritical (represented by internal Froude numbers (Fr) of 0.67 to 0.99, with mean value of Fr = 0.84) turbidity currents on the stoss sides, and (ii) thin (tens of centimetres) and faster (reported as Ū of 0.99 to 4.03 m s- 1, with mean value of Ū = 2.24 m s- 1) supercritical (represented by Fr of 1.84 to 3.07, with mean value of Fr = 2.42) turbidity flows on the lee sides. The inversely graded laminae in the troughs of backsets are 2 to 5 cm thick, and consist of two discrete divisions: (i) 1 to 2 cm thick, lower finer-grained divisions made up of parallel laminated siltstones, overlain by very fine- to fine-grained sandstones, and (ii) 2 to 3 cm thick, upper divisions composed of medium- to coarse-grained sandstones, with sporadic occurrence of subrounded pebbles. These inversely graded laminae are related to stratified, collisional and/or frictional traction carpets under conditions of high fall-out rates. Due to the poor preservation potential of cyclic steps, the rock record of cyclic steps is generally considered to be rare. The present outcrop-based study presents a detailed analysis of sedimentary facies, growth patterns, and flow

  18. Migration of nonylphenol from food-grade plastic is toxic to the coral reef fish species Pseudochromis fridmani. (United States)

    Hamlin, Heather J; Marciano, Kathleen; Downs, Craig A


    Nonylphenol (NP) is a non-ionic surfactant used extensively in industrial applications, personal care products, and many plastics. We exposed marine orchid dottybacks (Pseudochromis fridmani) for 48h to either glass, Teflon, or two bags labeled as FDA food-grade polyethylene (PE1 and PE2) from different manufacturers. The PE2 bags leached high levels of NP into the contact water, which were taken up by the fish, and decreased short and long-term survival. Concentrations of NP that leached from the bags were consistent with 96h LC50 values determined in this study, indicating NP is the likely toxic agent. Despite being similarly labeled, the NP concentrations that leached from the bags and the resultant toxicity to the fish varied dramatically between manufacturers. This study highlights that some plastics, labeled as food-safe, can be highly toxic to aquatic animals, and could pose a greater threat to humans than previously realized. This study also highlights risks for aquatic animals exposed to increasing quantities of plastic waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inferior vestibular neuritis. (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Hyo Jung


    Vestibular neuritis (VN) mostly involves the superior portion of the vestibular nerve and labyrinth. This study aimed to describe the clinical features of VN involving the inferior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents only. Of the 703 patients with a diagnosis of VN or labyrinthitis at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2004 to 2010, we retrospectively recruited 9 patients (6 women, age range 15-75) with a diagnosis of isolated inferior VN. Diagnosis of isolated inferior VN was based on torsional downbeating spontaneous nystagmus, abnormal head-impulse test (HIT) for the posterior semicircular canal (PC), and abnormal cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) in the presence of normally functioning horizontal and anterior semicircular canals, as determined by normal HIT and bithermal caloric tests. All patients presented with acute vertigo with nausea, vomiting, and imbalance. Three patients also had tinnitus and hearing loss in the involved side. The rotation axis of torsional downbeating spontaneous nystagmus was best aligned with that of the involved PC. HIT was also positive only for the involved PC. Cervical VEMP was abnormal in seven patients, and ocular VEMP was normal in all four patients tested. Ocular torsion and subjective visual vertical tests were mostly within the normal range. Since isolated inferior VN lacks the typical findings of much more prevalent superior VN, it may be mistaken for a central vestibular disorder. Recognition of this rare disorder may help avoid unnecessary workups in patients with acute vestibulopathy.

  20. Inferiority is compex (United States)

    Wade, Jess


    In Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong and the New Research That's Rewriting the Story, author Angela Saini puts forward the idea that bad science has been used to endorse the cultural prejudice that women are both biologically and psychologically second rate to men.

  1. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

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    G Raghavendra Prasad


    Full Text Available Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric - inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up.

  2. The effect of shoulder position on inferior glenohumeral mobilization. (United States)

    Witt, Dexter W; Talbott, Nancy R


    Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Inferior mobilizations are used to treat patients with shoulder dysfunctions. Common positions recommended for promoting an inferior glide include: (1) an open-packed position (OPP) in which the shoulder is in 55° of abduction, 30° of horizontal adduction, and no rotation; (2) neutral position (NP) of the shoulder; and (3) position of 90° of shoulder abduction (ABDP). Studies comparing the impact of position on inferior mobilization are lacking. To determine the effect of shoulder position on humeral movement and mobilization force during inferior mobilizations. Twenty-three subjects were tested bilaterally. Subjects were placed in the OPP, and an ultrasound transducer placed over the superior glenohumeral joint. As inferior mobilization forces were applied through a dynamometer, ultrasound images were taken at rest and during 3 grades of inferior mobilization. This process was repeated in the NP and the ABDP. In the NP, movements during grade 1, 2, and 3 mobilizations were 1.8, 3.8, and 4.5 mm, respectively. Movements measured in the OPP (1.0, 2.4, and 3.6 mm, respectively) and in the ABDP (1.0, 2.2, and 2.3 mm, respectively) were less. Forces were higher in the NP during grade 1, 2, and 3 mobilizations (51.8, 138.7, and 202.1 N, respectively) than in the OPP (37.2, 91.2, and 139.9 N, respectively) and the ABPD (42.5, 115.3, and 165.5 N, respectively). Mobilization position altered the movement and force during inferior mobilizations. Shoulder position should be considered when utilizing inferior mobilizations. NA. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Migrations in Slovenian geography textbooks

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    Jurij Senegačnik


    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the migrations are treated in almost all geographical textbooks for different levels of education. In the textbooks for the elementary school from the sixth to ninth grade, students acquire knowledge of the migrations by the inductive approach. Difficulty level of treatment and quantity of information are increasing by the age level. In the grammar school program a trail of gaining knowledge on migration is deductive. Most attention is dedicated to migrations in general geography textbooks. The textbooks for vocational and technical school programs deal with migrations to a lesser extent and with different approaches.

  4. Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) Enhances Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition, and SPARC Expression is Associated with Tumor Grade in Head and Neck Cancer. (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hau; Yen, Meng-Chi; Liao, Ssu-Hui; Hsu, Yu-Ling; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Chang, Kao-Ping; Hsu, Ya-Ling


    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a secreted protein which is involved in various biological processes. SPARC expression is associated with tumor metastasis and poor prognosis in several types of cancer. However, the SPARC-induced signaling pathway was not fully understood in head and neck cancer. In this study, our results showed that SPARC treatment promoted cell proliferation and migration in head and neck cancer cell lines FaDu and Detroit 562. In addition, SPARC induced expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulators, including Slug, Snail, and Twist in Detroit 562. The results of phospho-kinase array analysis showed that SPARC treatment increased phosphorylation of some molecules including protein kinase B (PKB/AKT), ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The expression of SPARC-induced EMT regulator Slug was suppressed by AKT inhibitor, but not ERK and RSK inhibitors. The SPARC expression in grade IV tumor samples is higher when compared to that in grade I-III tumor samples. Our results suggest that SPARC treatment enhances the EMT signaling pathway via activation of AKT, and exogenous SPARC and tumor expressing SPARC might be associated with tumor progression in head and neck cancers.

  5. Creation of the permanent inferior vena cava filter for prevention of pulmonary artery embolism

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    Yа.O. Povar


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a new permanent cava filter to improve functional capacities of the construction and achieve high clinical parameters. A new geometry of the permanent inferior vena cava filter was presented which has high blood clot-capturing ability, does not cause thrombus fragmentation, makes migration impossible. The inferior vena cava filter does not injure the vessel wall and preserves integrity under long-term use. The inferior vena cava filter installation is safe and controllable, the filter self-positioning and reposition are possible, the delivery system size is 6F, the blood flow changing is minimal.

  6. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior turbinate

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    Christopher W. Harper, Jr., MD


    Full Text Available We report a case of leiomyosarcoma of the inferior nasal turbinate. The patient, a 68-year-old Caucasian male, presented with 4–6 weeks of epistaxis that was resistant to nasal packing and septal cautery. Upon inspection in the operating room, a small mass was excised from the inferior turbinate. High-power H&E-stained microscopy demonstrated bundles of malignant smooth muscle cells, and immunohistochemical stains were strongly positive for desmin, smooth muscle actin and vimentin, while negative for pankeratin EA1/EA3 and CaM 5.2, suggesting leiomyosarcoma as the diagnosis. Clear margins were obtained at a second surgery. At the time of this writing it is 8 months since his last surgery and he has remained symptom free.

  7. Injuries of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava and the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koprivica Radenko


    Full Text Available Beckground. Injuries of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava, and the liver have mortality rate up to 71-78%. We presented a patient with combined injury of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava, liver, craniocerebral and thoracic traumas, inflicted in a traffic accident. Case report. Man, 20 years old has been injured in a traffic accident. At admission, 20 minutes after the injury, the patient was comatose and hypotensive. Bloody content was obtained by abdominal tracer. The patient underwent emergent laparotomy, utilizing trifurcated incision and cell saver device. Abdominal exploration revealed two liters of free blood and massive retroperitoneal hematoma. Manual compression of the liver was done, as well as perihepatic packing, complete hepatic vascular exclusion and mobilization of the right liver lobe. Due to impressive chemodynamic instability supraceliac aortic clamping was performed. Upon exposure of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava and right liver lobe, multiple lacerations of retrohepatic inferior vena cava and right hepatic vein, and right hepatic vein avulsion were found. We also identified an injury of VII and VIII segments of the liver (grade V according to the Moore's classification. Nonexpansive hepatoduodenal ligament hematoma and the injury of II and III segments of the liver group II/III according to Moore were found. Venorrhaphy of the inferior vena cava was done in the area of circumference of the right hepatic vein, a portion of which served as autologous vein patch. Continuous prolene 3/0 venorrhaphy of the distal caval laceration was done. Total caval and aorta clamping time of the inferior vena cava was 41 minutes. Atypical resection, debridment, of hepatic segments was done by using a harmonic scalpel. Hepatoduodenal ligament was declamped after 65 minutes. Fibrin glue was applied on the resectioned area of liver. The patient received 3.2 l of autologuos blood transfusion with 5 units of packed red blood cells, 6

  8. Gendering Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Morokvašić


    Full Text Available Migration patterns, migration discourse and underlying representations, migrants’ experiences, obligations and duties as well as the expectations relative to their migration are gendered. Since the pioneering feminist migration scholars’ questioning of men as a universal reference and the invisibility of women or their stereotypical representations as dependents in the mainstream production of knowledge on migration, the scholarship has evolved considerably. It is argued in the paper that the ongoing process of cross-fertilization of developments in two separate epistemologies, each initially questioning monolithic and essentialist visions of a “migrant” on one hand and a “woman” on the other, produced a fecund subfield of research “migration and gender”. The paper provides an insight into this, reviewing work on the issues related to gendering different phases of migration. Bridging migration and gender brought to the top of research agendas issues that used to be on the margins, creating new visibilities but leaving out other gendered dimensions of complex realities of migrant experience.

  9. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling. (United States)

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola


    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. © 2016 The authors.

  10. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Zampetti


    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70% makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres.

  11. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, L.


    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional K D concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  12. Tuberculosis pulmonar de campos inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra González


    Full Text Available La tuberculosis (TB que compromete sólo los campos pulmonares inferiores (TBCI es poco frecuente en el adulto y en general está asociada a alguna causa de inmunodepresión. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue determinar la incidencia de TBCI en nuestra población y comparar sus características respecto de la TB pulmonar de localización habitual. Se estudiaron en forma retrospectiva en el período de 2004 a 2008, 42 pacientes con TBCI que fueron comparados con 84 pacientes con TB pulmonar de localización habitual (grupo control. Se excluyeron pacientes con HIV. La TBCI representó el 6% del total de TB pulmonar. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a edad, sexo, presencia de cavidades en la radiografía, días de evolución y nivel de albúmina. La TBCI tuvo significativamente mayor proporción de comorbilidades (p < 0.001, presencia de condensación (p < 0.001 y compromiso unilateral (p < 0.001 en la radiografía de tórax, junto con mayor número de internaciones (p = 0.02. Cabe destacar que sólo16 de los 42 pacientes con TBCI (38% tenían alguna comorbilidad demostrada. La TBCI puede presentarse aun sin comorbilidades asociadas y debe sospecharse en neumonías de evolución tórpida independientemente de su localización.

  13. Anomalies of the vena cava inferior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, F.R.; Bouwer, A.J.; Bornman, M.S.; Du Plessis, D.J.


    Two cases of anomalous inferior vena cava are presented, with the emphasis on embryology. The firts patient was investigated by venography for a clinically proven varicocele as a probable cause of infertility. A double inferior vena cava was found during venography, and was confirmed by computed tomography (CT). In the second case a left-sided inferior vena cava was an incidental finding when a CT scan was done as a diagnostic procedure in a case of Hodgkin's disease. A short summary of the embryology and the significance of the variants is presented

  14. Traumatismos de veia cava inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleinaldo de Almeida Costa

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, o perfil clínico e as estratégias operatórias dos ferimentos de Veia Cava Inferior (VCI. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os prontuários de 76 doentes com ferimento de VCI atendidos nos dois prontossocorros de Manaus, no período de janeiro de 1997 a julho de 2002. Mecanismo de lesão, mortalidade, estado hemodinâmico, índice de trauma abdominal penetrante (PATI, achados intra-operatórios e conduta cirúrgica foram estudados. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e nove (65% doentes sofreram lesão por arma branca, 26 (34% por arma de fogo e um por traumatismo abdominal fechado. Quarenta e um (54% doentes sobreviveram. Quase todos chegaram acordados, entretanto 40% estavam hipotensos (pressão arterial sistólica < 70mmHg. O índice de trauma abdominal penetrante (PATI médio foi maior que 40. À laparotomia, todos demonstraram sangramento retroperitoneal ativo ou hematoma retroperitoneal em expansão. Vinte e um pacientes possuíam lesão de VCI retro-hepática, enquanto nos outros 55 a lesão era infra-hepática. O reparo operatório predominante foi a venorrafia lateral em 65 doentes. Houve necessidade de tóraco-freno-laparotomia em quatro doentes do total de oito doentes que foram à toracotomia direita por lesão retro-hepática. Foram realizados shunts átrio-cavais em seis doentes, dos quais três sobreviveram. CONCLUSÕES: O ferimento de VCI é uma lesão de alta letalidade e possui uma relação intrínseca com a violência urbana. A sobrevivência depende de uma imediata e vigorosa reposição de volume, um manejo operatório adequado e todo esforço em evitar-se hipotermia.

  15. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A.; Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R.


    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  16. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)


    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  17. Indications, management, and complications of temporary inferior vena cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Rieger, Johannes; Schenk, Franz; Rock, Clemens; Mangel, Eugen; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen


    Purpose: We describe the results of a preliminary prospective study using different recently developed temporary and retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters.Methods: Fifty temporary IVC filters (Guenther, Guenther Tulip, Antheor) were inserted in 47 patients when the required period of protection against pulmonary embolism (PE) was estimated to be less than 2 weeks. The indications were documented deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and temporary contraindications for anticoagulation, a high risk for PE, and PE despite DVT prophylaxis.Results: Filters were removed 1-12 days after placement and nine (18%) had captured thrombi. Complications were one PE during and after removal of a filter, two minor filter migrations, and one IVC thrombosis.Conclusion: Temporary filters are effective in trapping clots and protecting against PE, and the complication rate does not exceed that of permanent filters. They are an alternative when protection from PE is required temporarily, and should be considered in patients with a normal life expectancy.

  18. [Inferior vestibular neuritis: diagnosis using VEMP]. (United States)

    Walther, L E; Repik, I


    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are a new method to establish the functional status of the otolith organs. The sacculocollic reflex of the cervical VEMP to air conduction (AC) reflects predominantly saccular function due to saccular afferents to the inferior vestibular nerve. We describe a case of inferior vestibular neuritis as a rare differential diagnosis of vestibular neuritis. Clinical signs were a normal caloric response, unilaterally absent AC cVEMPs and bilaterally preserved ocular VEMPs (AC oVEMPs).

  19. Sarcoma of the vena cava inferior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Alvarez, Jorge Luis; Rosello Silva, Nelson; Llorens Nunnez, Martha; Ochoa Montes, Luis Alberto


    Authors present an infrequent case of a female patient with abdominal tumor a great superficial collateral circulation type cava-cava, the abdominal ultrasound, the transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiogram and the computerized axial tomography (CAT) identified a tumor of the vena cava inferior. The fine-needle aspiration cytology of lesion confirmed the presence of primary fusopleomorphous sarcoma of high degree of malignancy of vena cava inferior

  20. Dateline Migration. (United States)

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.


    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  1. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  2. Complications after the placement of domestic ZQL filter and imported inferior vena caval filter: a mid-and long-term comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kun; Zhao Yi; Xu Ke; Feng Bo; Liang Songnian


    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of domestic ZQL-type inferior vena caval filter through comparing its complications with that of imported inferior vena caval filter. Methods: Domestic ZQL-type inferior vena caval filter was placed in 62 patients (study group) and imported inferior vena caval filter in 58 patients (control group) for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis of the lower limb. Abdominal plain film, lower limb phlebography and/or pulmonary arteriography, color Doppler ultrasonography were performed after the procedure. 3D-CT scanning was carried out when pulmonary embolism was suspected. The complications were documented and analyzed. Results In all patients the inferior vena caval filter was successfully implanted in planned site. In study group, the complications included filter migration over 10 cm (n = 1), thrombus in the filter (n = 1), inferior vena cava obstruction (n = 2) and pulmonary embolism (n = 1). In control group, the complications included thrombus in the filter (n = 2), deep venous thrombus of the lower extremities (n = 2), inferior vena cava obstruction (n = 9), venous perforation by filter (n = 1) and pulmonary embolism (n = 1). The data were compared between two groups and statistic analysis showed no significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: No significant difference in the occurrence of complications exists between domestic ZQL-type inferior vena caval filter and imported inferior vena caval filter, therefore, domestic ZQL-type inferior vena caval filter can safely substitute for the imported filter. (authors)

  3. Aneurysm of Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery-posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Variant (United States)

    Ansari, Khursheed Ahmad; Menon, Girish; Nair, Suresh; Abraham, Mathew


    Aneurysms arising from anterior inferior cerebellar artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA-PICA) variant are extremely rare. They usually present with subarachnoid hemorrhage. This is probably the second case report of a large thrombosed AICA-PICA variant aneurysm presenting as a cerebellopontine angle mass lesion with cranial nerve palsy, managed successfully by surgical clipping. PMID:29492120

  4. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Castro Pimentel


    Full Text Available Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics.

  5. A preference for migration


    Stark, Oded


    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  6. Bosnia: Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Pavičić


    Full Text Available The paper is a reprint of a very informative review of migrations in Bosnia published almost 60 years ago. The author first notes that the [Slavic] population that first settled Bosnia spoke variants of the ikavian-ţakavian dialect spoken also in neighbouring parts of Croatia (although the interrogative ča itself was not common. From the 13th century the jekavian-štokavian dialect expanded from the Southeast, from areas in modern Montenegro. This change was greatly due to immigration of Vlachs, who had adopted jekavian-štokavian. Although earlier Vlach immigrants had adopted the indigenous ikavian idiom, as well as associating themselves with Catholicism or with the Patarene Bosnian Church, later arrivals spoke jekavian-štokavian and adhered to Eastern Orthodoxy. In the 14th century the former group, living on both sides of the Neretva valley and in the Dinaric range, expanded to areas of Croatia, whereas the Eastern Vlachs had already established themselves on the left bank of the Drina river. By 1450 all Vlachs in Bosnia spoke jekavian-štokavian. In the 15–16th centuries the Ottomans favoured the settlement of Vlachs in Bosnia. The Vlachs served in Ottoman military structures, provided transportation services and were useful in the integration of conquered western and northwestern lands. In general, the establishment of Ottoman rule in Bosnia induced major changes in the population and in migration flows. The author divides this history into three periods. The first lasted from the initial Ottoman conquests to the wars of 1683–1699. At its start in the 15th century almost all Patarenes adopted Islam, especially in areas where the Bosnian Church was strong, but also in areas where Catholicism dominated, where some Catholics embraced Islam. Conversions of Catholics to Islam intensified in the 16th century and throughout the 17th, to a different degree in various regions: a in Central Bosnia conversion was almost total, b along the Sava

  7. [Scleral buckling for inferior rhegmatogenous retinal detachments]. (United States)

    Abdellaoui, M; Chraibi, F; Benatiya Andaloussi, I; Tahri, H


    To investigate the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic factors in cases of inferior rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RD) treated by scleral buckling surgery. A retrospective chart review was performed on 45 patients (45 eyes) with inferior RD with only inferior tears (4:00-8:00), who had been treated by scleral buckling surgery over a 6-year period from 2006 to 2011. The parameters studied included patient demographics, refractive status, time until consultation, clinical exam data, treatment modalities and functional and anatomic results. Forty-five cases were included in this study (45 eyes), with an average patient age of 44.5 years (14 to 75 years) and a slight male predominance (56%). Myopia was observed in 60%. Mean time until consultation was 3.5 months. Visual acuity on admission was less than 1/10 in 53.33%. Macular detachment was found in 80%. Causative lesions were holes in 26 eyes. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy was essentially stage B in 48.9%. Scleral buckling surgery was performed in all patients, with drainage of subretinal fluid in 37.8%. Retinal reattachment was obtained in 36 eyes (80%) with a final visual acuity greater than or equal to 1/10 in 71.11%. The mean follow-up in our study was 6.62 months. Inferior retinal detachment has a predilection for young myopes. The time until consultation is often long, and extraocular surgery, although difficult, exhibits documented efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Vascular loops in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, as identified by magnetic resonance imaging, and their relationship with otologic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz de Abreu Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To use magnetic resonance imaging to identify vascular loops in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and to evaluate their relationship with otologic symptoms. Materials and Methods: We selected 33 adults with otologic complaints who underwent magnetic resonance imaging at our institution between June and November 2013. Three experienced independent observers evaluated the trajectory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery in relation to the internal auditory meatus and graded the anterior inferior cerebellar artery vascular loops according to the Chavda classification. Kappa and chi-square tests were used. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The interobserver agreement was moderate. Comparing ears that presented vascular loops with those that did not, we found no association with tinnitus, hearing loss, or vertigo. Similarly, we found no association between the Chavda grade and any otological symptom. Conclusion: Vascular loops do not appear to be associated with otoneurological manifestations.

  9. The limitations and risks of transarterial Onyx injections in the treatment of grade I and II DAVFs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Xianli; Jiang Chuhan; Li Youxiang; Liu Lian; Liu Jie; Wu Zhongxue


    Background and objective: Embolization of grade III–V intracranial DAVFs using Onyx is feasible with promising results, indicating stability at the time of mid-term follow-up. This article is to evaluate the role of transarterial Onyx embolization in the treatment of grade I and II intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), including its limitations and risks. Methods: We retrospectively studied consecutive 26 patients (8 women and 18 men) treated for an grade I and II intracranial DAVF since 2006 in whom a transarterial approach was attempted with Onyx-18 embolization. There were 18 transverse-sigmoid sinus, 4 cavernous sinus, 2 superior sagittal sinus, 1 inferior petrosal sinus and 1 intradiploic fistulas. Five fistulas were Type I, 8 were Type IIa, and 13 were Type IIa + b, according to the Cognard classification. The mean clinical follow-up period was 15.6 months. Results: Anatomic cure was proven in 13 patients (50%) and clinical cure was obtained in 17 cases (65.4%). These 13 cures were achieved after a single procedure. All these 13 patients underwent a follow-up angiography, which has confirmed the complete cure. Partial occlusion was obtained in 13 patients. Complications were as follows: 2 cardiac Onyx migration, 2 reflexive bradyarrythmia, 1 transient visual hallucination, 2 transient fifth nerve palsies and 1 permanent seventh nerve palsy in inferior petrosal sinus DAVF. Conclusions: Based on this experience, grade I and II intracranial DAVFs may be treated with transarterial Onyx embolization to reduce the shunted blood flow and to facilitate subsequent transvenous embolization or surgery.

  10. Stimulatory effects of histamine on migration of nasal fibroblasts. (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Moon; Park, Il-Ho; Um, Ji-Young; Shin, Jae-Min; Lee, Heung-Man


    Fibroblast migration is crucial for normal wound repair after sinonasal surgery. Histamine is known to be involved in wound healing by its effects on cell proliferation and migration. This study aimed to determine whether histamine affects the migration of nasal fibroblasts and to investigate the mechanism of action of histamine on nasal fibroblasts. Primary cultures of nasal fibroblasts were established from inferior turbinate samples. Fibroblast migration was evaluated with scratch assays. Cells were treated with histamine and/or histamine receptor-selective antagonists. U-73122 and pertussis toxin, which are selective inhibitors of the lower signaling pathway of H1R and H4R, were used to confirm the modulation of nasal fibroblast migration by histamine. Fibroblast cytoskeletal structures were visualized with immunocytochemistry. Histamine significantly stimulated the migration of nasal fibroblasts. Antagonists selective for HR1 and HR4 significantly reduced nasal fibroblast migration. In immunocytochemical staining, histamine treatment increased membrane ruffling and pyrilamine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, and JNJ7777120 decreased histamine-induced membrane ruffling. U-73122 and pertussis toxin also decreased histamine-induced migration of fibroblasts. Histamine maintains its stimulatory effects on fibroblast migration in the presence of mitomycin C, which blocks proliferation of cells. We showed that histamine stimulates fibroblast migration in nasal fibroblasts. This effect appeared to be mediated by HR1 and HR4. However, because fibroblast migration also can be involved in scaring and fibrosis, more research is necessary to determine the effects of antihistamine on wound healing after sinus surgery. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  11. Tumor Grade (United States)

    ... Peer Review and Funding Outcomes Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring ... may require immediate or more aggressive treatment. The importance of tumor grade in planning treatment and determining ...

  12. Reconstrucción de extremidad inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrett Brian, M.D.


    Full Text Available La reconstrucción de la extremidad inferior es parte esencial de la cirugía plástica y se concentra en el tratamiento de heridas y defectos causados por trauma, cáncer, o procesos de enfermedades crónicas. Durante los últimos 25 años, los avances en técnicas de cirugía plástica tales como la transferencia libre de tejidos tecnologías más avanzadas de cuidado de heridas han revolucionado este campo, permitiendo salvar extremidades que de otro modo habrían sido amputadas. Este documento analizará el campo de la reconstrucción de extremidades inferiores concentrándose en la evaluación de defectos y heridas de pierna y las variadas opciones de tratamiento.

  13. Non-inferiority trials: are they inferior? A systematic review of reporting in major medical journals. (United States)

    Rehal, Sunita; Morris, Tim P; Fielding, Katherine; Carpenter, James R; Phillips, Patrick P J


    To assess the adequacy of reporting of non-inferiority trials alongside the consistency and utility of current recommended analyses and guidelines. Review of randomised clinical trials that used a non-inferiority design published between January 2010 and May 2015 in medical journals that had an impact factor >10 (JAMA Internal Medicine, Archives Internal Medicine, PLOS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine). Ovid (MEDLINE). We searched for non-inferiority trials and assessed the following: choice of non-inferiority margin and justification of margin; power and significance level for sample size; patient population used and how this was defined; any missing data methods used and assumptions declared and any sensitivity analyses used. A total of 168 trial publications were included. Most trials concluded non-inferiority (132; 79%). The non-inferiority margin was reported for 98% (164), but less than half reported any justification for the margin (77; 46%). While most chose two different analyses (91; 54%) the most common being intention-to-treat (ITT) or modified ITT and per-protocol, a large number of articles only chose to conduct and report one analysis (65; 39%), most commonly the ITT analysis. There was lack of clarity or inconsistency between the type I error rate and corresponding CIs for 73 (43%) articles. Missing data were rarely considered with (99; 59%) not declaring whether imputation techniques were used. Reporting and conduct of non-inferiority trials is inconsistent and does not follow the recommendations in available statistical guidelines, which are not wholly consistent themselves. Authors should clearly describe the methods used and provide clear descriptions of and justifications for their design and primary analysis. Failure to do this risks misleading conclusions being drawn, with consequent effects on clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  14. The Globalisation of migration


    Milan Mesić


    The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities). First, in ...

  15. Added clinical value of the inferior temporal EEG electrode chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Justesen, Anders; Eskelund Johansen, Ann Berit; Martinussen, Noomi Ida


    Objective To investigate the diagnostic added value of supplementing the 10–20 EEG array with six electrodes in the inferior temporal chain. Methods EEGs were recorded with 25 electrodes: 19 positions of the 10–20 system, and six additional electrodes in the inferior temporal chain (F9/10, T9/10, P...... in the inferior chain) and 6% (only seen at the inferior chain). Conclusions Adding six electrodes in the inferior temporal electrode chain to the 10–20 array improves the localization and identification of EEG abnormalities, especially those located in the temporal region. Significance Our results suggest...

  16. Inferior alveolar canal course: a radiographic study. (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Xia, Bing; Gu, Zhiyuan


    To describe the morphology and course of the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) as it appears in digital panoramic radiographs. Three hundred and eighty-six digital rotational panoramic radiographs (OPG) were studied using the Clinview Software ( version, Instrumentarium). Among the 386 radiographs, 86 radiographs with 5-mm steel balls were used to calculate the magnification. The average magnification of radiographs in this study was 7.24+/-7.55%. The course of IAC as seen in the panoramic radiograph may be classified into four types: (1) linear curve, 12.75%, (2) spoon-shaped curve, 29.25%, (3) elliptic-arc curve, 48.5%, and (4) turning curve, 9.5%. On panoramic radiographs, the IAC appeared closest to the inferior border of the mandible in the region of the first molar. In relation to the teeth, on panoramic radiographs, the IAC appeared closest to the distal root tip of the third molar and furthest from the mesial root tip of the first molar. In the OPG, there are four types of IAC: linear, spoon shape, elliptic-arc, and turning curve. The data found in the study may be useful for dental implant, mandibule surgery, and dental anesthesia. The limitations of the panoramic radiograph in depicting the true three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the IAC are recognized, computed tomography (CT) and cone beam (CB)3D imaging being more precise.

  17. Endovascular treatment for ruptured distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Sang; Yoon, Seok-Mann; Shim, Jai-Joon; Bae, Hack-Gun; Yoon, Il-Gyu


    A 42-year-old woman presented with Hunt and Hess grade (HHG) III subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured left distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm. Computed tomography showed a thin SAH on the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and small vermian intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in the fourth ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the aneurysm on the postmeatal segment of left distal AICA, a branching point of rostrolateral and caudomedial branch of the left distal AICA. Despite thin caliber, tortuous running course and far distal location, the AICA aneurysm was obliterated successfully with endovascular coils without compromising AICA flow. However, the patient developed left side sensorineural hearing loss postoperatively, in spite of definite patency of distal AICA on the final angiogram. She was discharged home without neurologic sequela except hearing loss and tinnitus. Endovascular treatment of distal AICA aneurysm, beyond the meatal loop, is feasible while preserving the AICA flow. However, because the cochlear hair cell is vulnerable to ischemia, unilateral hearing loss can occur, possibly caused by the temporary occlusion of AICA flow by microcatheter during endovascular treatment.

  18. Added clinical value of the inferior temporal EEG electrode chain. (United States)

    Bach Justesen, Anders; Eskelund Johansen, Ann Berit; Martinussen, Noomi Ida; Wasserman, Danielle; Terney, Daniella; Meritam, Pirgit; Gardella, Elena; Beniczky, Sándor


    To investigate the diagnostic added value of supplementing the 10-20 EEG array with six electrodes in the inferior temporal chain. EEGs were recorded with 25 electrodes: 19 positions of the 10-20 system, and six additional electrodes in the inferior temporal chain (F9/10, T9/10, P9/10). Five-hundred consecutive standard and sleep EEG recordings were reviewed using the 10-20 array and the extended array. We identified the recordings with EEG abnormalities that had peak negativities at the inferior temporal electrodes, and those that only were visible at the inferior temporal electrodes. From the 286 abnormal recordings, the peak negativity was at the inferior temporal electrodes in 81 cases (28.3%) and only visible at the inferior temporal electrodes in eight cases (2.8%). In the sub-group of patients with temporal abnormalities (n = 134), these represented 59% (peak in the inferior chain) and 6% (only seen at the inferior chain). Adding six electrodes in the inferior temporal electrode chain to the 10-20 array improves the localization and identification of EEG abnormalities, especially those located in the temporal region. Our results suggest that inferior temporal electrodes should be added to the EEG array, to increase the diagnostic yield of the recordings. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Total laparoscopic retrieval of inferior vena cava filter. (United States)

    Benrashid, Ehsan; Adkar, Shaunak Sanjay; Bennett, Kyla Megan; Zani, Sabino; Cox, Mitchell Wayne


    While there is some local variability in the use of inferior vena cava filters and there has been some evolution in the indications for filter placement over time, inferior vena cava filters remain a standard option for pulmonary embolism prophylaxis. Indications are clear in certain subpopulations of patients, particularly those with deep venous thrombosis and absolute contraindications to anticoagulation. There are, however, a variety of reported inferior vena cava filter complications in the short and long term, making retrieval of the filter desirable in most cases. Here, we present the case of a morbidly obese patient complaining of chronic abdominal pain after inferior vena cava filter placement and malposition of the filter with extensive protrusion outside the inferior vena cava. She underwent successful laparoscopic retrieval of her malpositioned inferior vena cava filters after failure of a conventional endovascular approach.

  20. Total laparoscopic retrieval of inferior vena cava filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Benrashid


    Full Text Available While there is some local variability in the use of inferior vena cava filters and there has been some evolution in the indications for filter placement over time, inferior vena cava filters remain a standard option for pulmonary embolism prophylaxis. Indications are clear in certain subpopulations of patients, particularly those with deep venous thrombosis and absolute contraindications to anticoagulation. There are, however, a variety of reported inferior vena cava filter complications in the short and long term, making retrieval of the filter desirable in most cases. Here, we present the case of a morbidly obese patient complaining of chronic abdominal pain after inferior vena cava filter placement and malposition of the filter with extensive protrusion outside the inferior vena cava. She underwent successful laparoscopic retrieval of her malpositioned inferior vena cava filters after failure of a conventional endovascular approach.

  1. Rare Inferior Shoulder Dislocation (Luxatio Erecta) (United States)

    Cift, Hakan; Soylemez, Salih; Demiroglu, Murat; Ozkan, Korhan; Ozden, Vahit Emre; Ozkut, Afsar T.


    Although shoulder dislocations have been seen very frequently, inferior dislocation of shoulder constitutes only 0.5% of all shoulder dislocations. We share our 4 patients with luxatio erecta and present their last clinical control. 2 male and 2 female Caucasian patients were diagnosed as luxatio erecta. Patients' ages were 78, 62, 65, and 76. All patients' reduction was done by traction-abduction and contour traction maneuver in the operating room. The patients had no symptoms and no limitation of range of motion of their shoulder at their last control. Luxatio erecta is seen rarely, and these patients may have neurovascular injury. These patients should be carefully examined and treated by the orthopaedic and traumatology surgeons. PMID:25883820

  2. Rare Inferior Shoulder Dislocation (Luxatio Erecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Cift


    Full Text Available Although shoulder dislocations have been seen very frequently, inferior dislocation of shoulder constitutes only 0.5% of all shoulder dislocations. We share our 4 patients with luxatio erecta and present their last clinical control. 2 male and 2 female Caucasian patients were diagnosed as luxatio erecta. Patients’ ages were 78, 62, 65, and 76. All patients’ reduction was done by traction-abduction and contour traction maneuver in the operating room. The patients had no symptoms and no limitation of range of motion of their shoulder at their last control. Luxatio erecta is seen rarely, and these patients may have neurovascular injury. These patients should be carefully examined and treated by the orthopaedic and traumatology surgeons.

  3. Collateral circulations in inferior vena cava obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Beum; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung; Park, Soo Soung


    Obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is an uncommon condition, and the collateral pathway varies according to the level, extent, duration and the cause of obstruction. Membranous obstruction of IVC in its hepatic portion might be one of the principle cause among Korean, though not reported till now. Analytical study was performed in 26 cases of IVC obstruction with various cause. 1. The level of the obstruction showed relatively even distribution as follows, upper caval in 11 cases, middle caval in 6 cases and infrarenal in 9 cases. 2. The main cause of upper caval obstruction was membranous obstruction. 3. As a whole, the main collateral pathway was the central route (22 cases: 85%). 4. Characteristic collateral pathway unique to upper caval obstruction was transhepatic venous collateral, developed between the obstructed segment and unobstructed segment of IVC. 5. Scalloping of left cardiac border produced by pericardiophrenic venous collateral was characteristic simple chest x-ray finding in IVC obstruction

  4. Obstruction of the hepatic portion of the inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deok; Choi, Han Chin


    Five patients with obstruction of the hepatic portion of the inferior vena cava diagnosed by digital subtraction inferior vena cavography were reported. All of these patients, aged from 38 to 52, were female who had never used the oral contraceptives. Main collateral pathway of these patients was the central channels through ascending lumbar veins, internal and external vertebral plexuses, azygos-hemiazygos complex, and inferior vena cava itself above the obstructed segment

  5. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Jong Sung; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Cho, On Koo


    A 29 year old woman with unresectable Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava extending into the right atrium of the heart was presented. The upper and middle inferior vena cava was involved and there were both intrinsic and extrinsic tumor growth components. The diagnosis was made by a combination of radiological studies including ultrasound, CT, inferior vena cavography and arteriography and the diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound guided tumor biopsy. The clinical and radiological presenting features were reviewed

  6. Endovascular treatment of ruptured distal posterior inferior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 1, 2014 ... Methods: 11 consecutive patients (7 women, 4 men, mean age of 49.2 years) with ruptured distal PICA aneurysms were studied retrospectively. All had onset of acute intraventricular or cerebellar haemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. (SAH). Hunt-Hess (HH) grades were H-H I in 1 patient, H-H II in ...

  7. PERFORATION OF INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BY MAXILLARY ARTERY. Perforation of inferior alveolar nerve by maxillary artery


    Prakash B Billakanti


    La fosa infratemporal es un área anatómica clínicamente importante para la administración de agentes anestésicos locales en odontología y cirugía maxilofacial. Fueron estudiadas variaciones en la anatomía del nervio alveolar inferior y la arteria maxilar en la disección infratemporal. Durante la disección rutinaria de la cabeza en el cadáver de un varón adulto, fue observada una variación excepcional en el origen del nervio alveolar inferior y su relación con las estructuras circundantes. El ...

  8. Relação entre terceiros molares inferiores e nervo alveolar inferior (NAI)


    Vidigal, Victor Laviola


    Exodontias de terceiros molares são procedimentos comuns realizados por médicos dentistas, e apesar de rotineiro podem causar transtornos ou complicações trans e/ou pós operatórias. Vários fatores estão ligados às possíveis complicações, como idade e o grau de impactação do dente, em casos de terceiros molares inferiores, a sua íntima relação com o nervo alveolar inferior. Existem exames imaginológicos como radiografias e tomografias computadorizadas que podem ser utilizadas no pré-operatório...



    Vanishree S Nayak; Ramachandra Bhat K; Prakash Billakanti Babu


    Infratemporal fossa is clinically important anatomical area for the delivery of local anesthetic agents in dentistry and maxillofacial surgery. Variations in the anatomy of the inferior alveolar nerve and maxillary artery were studied in infratemporal dissection. During routine dissection of the head in an adult male cadaver an unusual variation in the origin of the inferior alveolar nerve and its relationship with the surrounding structures was observed. The inferior alveolar nerve originate...

  10. Retroperitoneal arteriovenous malformation extending through the inferior vena cava into the heart and causing inferior vena cava dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Yon Mi; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Seung Woo; Park, Pyo Won; Sung, Chang Ohk


    We present a case of retroperitoneal arteriovenous malformation extending through the inferior vena cava into the heart, which was associated with dissection of the inferior vena cava in a 32-year-old female. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a double-lumen inferior vena cava and a rod-like solid component attached to a sac-like lesion in the right heart chambers. Digital subtraction angiography showed an arteriovenous malformation draining to the inner lumen of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  11. Population, migration and urbanization. (United States)


    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  12. Environmental Disasters and Migration


    Mbaye, Linguère Mously; Zimmermann, Klaus F.


    This paper reviews the effect of environmental disasters on migration. Although there is an increase of environmental disasters and migration over the past years, the relationship is complex. While some authors find that environmental disasters increase migration, others show that they have only a marginal or no effect or are even negative. Migration appears to be an insurance mechanism against environmental shocks. Remittances help to decrease households' vulnerability to shocks but also dam...

  13. [Internal migration studies]. (United States)

    Stpiczynski, T


    Recent research on internal migration in Poland is reviewed. The basic sources of data, consisting of censuses or surveys, are first described. The author discusses the relationship between migration studies and other sectors of the national economy, and particularly the relationship between migration and income.

  14. Clinical characteristics of inferior vestibular neuritis. (United States)

    Chihara, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Murofushi, Toshihisa; Yagi, Masato; Inoue, Aki; Fujimoto, Chisato; Egami, Naoya; Ushio, Munetaka; Karino, Shotaro; Sugasawa, Keiko; Yamasoba, Tatsuya


    Inferior vestibular neuritis (IVN) is a relatively minor subtype of vestibular neuritis (VN) and its clinical characteristics are unique. To clarify clinical characteristics of IVN in comparison with conventional VN. This was a retrospective case series review. Caloric responses and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) responses were measured in 71 patients with VN. The patients were classified into three groups: (1) IVN group, who showed only asymmetrical cVEMP responses; (2) superior VN (SVN) group, who showed only asymmetrical caloric responses; (3) total VN (TVN) group, who showed asymmetrical responses in both tests. The clinical records of time course of subjective symptoms (duration of attack, duration of hospitalization, and time to remission) were reviewed and other profiles (age, sex, affected side, acute symptoms, and sequelae) were evaluated. Of the 71 patients with VN, 13 (18%) were classified as having IVN. The mean age and time to remission of patients with IVN (44.2 ± 4.8 years, 0.9 ± 0.5 months) were significantly lower and shorter, respectively, than those of patients with TVN (57.3 ± 2.5 years, 4.9 ± 4.7 months). There were no significant differences in other symptoms and profiles among the three groups. No patients with IVN showed benign paroxysmal positional vertigo as a sequela.

  15. 'Pseudothrombus' of the inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebayashi, Shigeo; Odagiri, Kunio; Matsui, Kengo; Hayano, Ikuo.


    Normal Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) of 15 cases were studies on CT with bolus injection in the foot vein.FWell dilated IVC were obtained on scan both at full-inspiration and full-expiration. As the normal findings of IVC, different opacification patterns which may be designate ''homogenous'', ''layered'' and ''pseudothrombus'' were obtained. The ''homogenous'' opacification was noted both at full-inspiration and full-expiration. In homogenous patterns as noted as ''layered'' and ''pseudothrombus'' were suspected to occur in the case of insufficient mixing of contrast agent with blood and/or insufficient amount of contrast agent. And both these patterns were observed in dilated IVC. The ''layered'' opacified IVC was shown on scan at full-inspiration at which respiratory phase the blood flow in IVC may decrease.FThe ''pseudothrombus'' pattern was generally noted at full-expiration at which the blood flow may increase.FAlthough bolus injection of contrast agent into foot vein is useful for evaluation of IVC, one shound be aware of normal opacification of IVC including ''pseudothrombus'' pattern. (author)

  16. Ultrasound evaluation of the inferior epigastric artery. (United States)

    Petrossian, E; Menegus, M A; Issenberg, H J; Jones, A; Frame, R; Brodman, R F


    Color-flow Doppler ultrasound was used to assess the anatomic characteristics of the inferior epigastric artery (IEA) bilaterally in 20 nonatherosclerotic (group I; mean age, 28 years) and 20 atherosclerotic (group II; mean age, 57 years) subjects. Forty-nine percent of the IEAs were located laterally within the rectus sheath with 34% in a mid and 17% in a medial location. Seventeen percent had a large branch within 5 cm of the origin. Average length of the IEA was 10.7 +/- 3.2 cm. Average proximal and distal internal diameters were 3.0 +/- 0.45 and 1.9 +/- 0.35 mm, respectively. Neither length nor vessel diameter showed any correlation with age or body surface area. Sixty-two percent of the IEAs were greater than or equal to 9 cm in length and 1.5 mm in distal diameter. Stenosis of the vessel (more than 50% diameter) was noted at the proximal 1 cm segment in 20% of the IEAs in the atherosclerotic group but none of the IEAs in the nonatherosclerotic group. Beyond this proximal segment, there was freedom from atherosclerotic stenosis as demonstrated by the IEAs' similarity of length and diameter irrespective of age in these atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic populations.

  17. Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children: just a normal variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, J.H.; Vogelius, Esben S.; Orth, Robert C.; Guillerman, R.P.; Jadhav, Siddharth P. [Texas Children' s Hospital, E.B. Singleton Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)


    Fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella is often dismissed as a normal variant in children younger than 10 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fragmentary inferior patellar pole ossification is a normal variant or is associated with symptoms or signs of pathology using MRI and clinical exam findings as reference. A retrospective review was performed on 150 patients ages 5-10 years who underwent 164 knee radiography and MRI exams (45.1% male, mean age: 7.8 years). The presence or absence of inferior patellar pole fragmentation on radiography was correlated with the presence or absence of edema-like signal on MR images. Clinical notes were reviewed for the presence of symptoms or signs referable to the inferior patellar pole. These data were compared with a 1:1 age- and sex-matched control group without inferior pole fragmentation. Statistical analysis was performed using two-tailed t-tests. Forty of 164 (24.4%) knee radiographs showed fragmentary ossification of the inferior patella. Of these 40 knees, 62.5% (25/40) had edema-like signal of the inferior patellar bone marrow compared with 7.5% (3/40) of controls (P = 0.035). Patients with fragmentary ossification at the inferior patella had a significantly higher incidence of documented focal inferior patellar pain compared with controls (20% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.015). Inferior patellar pole fragmentation in children 5 to 10 years of age may be associated with localized symptoms and bone marrow edema-like signal and should not be routinely dismissed as a normal variant of ossification. (orig.)

  18. The clinical application of inferior vena caval CO2-DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinhe; Teng Gaojun; Zhu Guangyu; Li Guozhao; Fang Wen; He Shicheng; Deng Tang


    Objective: To explore the feasibility and safety of inferior vena caval CO 2 -DSA and evaluate the results of inferior vena cavography using CO 2 -DSA or iodinated contrast media. Methods: 25 patients diagnosed as deep venous thrombosis of lower limb were prepared to conceive the implantation of inferior vena caval filter. The inferior vena cava and right renal vein CO 2 -DSA and iodinated contrast media DSA were carried out through jugular or femoral vein approach in all patients. Results: The inferior vena caval angiography with CO 2 -DSA or iodinated contrast media were carried out successfully in all patients. The quality of the inferior vena caval angiogram showed: with CO 2 as contrast media, 14 cases obtained excellent images and 11 cases had good images; with iodinated contrast media the images of 18 cases were excellent and 7 cases were good. No thrombus and variation of inferior vena cava were found by the two kinds of angiography. The diameter of inferior vena cava showed: (20.01 ± 0.83) mm with CO 2 contrast media and (20.15 ± 0.92) mm with iodinated contrast media, (P=0.006); having statistical significance between them. The safety of angiography with CO 2 presented only 1 case with transient slight decrease of O 2 saturation. No abnormal changes were found in blood pressure, heart rate and so on. Conclusions: Inferior vena caval CO 2 -DSA is feasible and safe, with statistical significance in the measurement of inferior vena caval diameter comparing with iodinated contrast material but with no influence on the implantation of filter. (authors)

  19. Roentgenologic appearance of left-sided inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Fumio; Koga, Sukehiko; Takeuchi, Akira; Saitoh, Takashi


    2 Cases of left-sided inferior vena cava, and 2 cases of left-sided inferior vena cava with azygos and hemiazygos continuation were evaluated with computed tomography and other roentgenologic procedures and discussed thier clinical and radiological significance. Left-sided inferior vena cava with azygos (hemiazygos) continuation is often associated with cyanotic or acyanotic congenital heart disease and abnormalities of cardiovascular position, abdominal situs and polysplenia. But, single left-sided inferior vena cavas have little tendency having associated anomalies. Both venous anomalies also shuld be embryologically differentiated, namely, failure of development of the lower portion of the supracardinal veins results in infrahepatic interruption of inferior vena cava with azygos continuation, persistence of the left cardinal system and atrophy of the right system lead to the left-side inferior vena cava. Knowledge of inferior vena cava anomalies is important to the radiologist in order to differentiate between venous anomalies and an enlarged lymph nodes in a patient with malignant tumor. (author)

  20. Hydraulic transport and washing of low grade coal. Transportul hidraulic si spalarea carbunilor inferior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, G.; Baran, N.; Marin, O.


    An efficient method to improve the calorific power of coal residues is the washing method used with a view to separate the waste from the coal. This method can be associated with the transportation of coal or waste and at the same time can be used in hydrocyclone-equipment offering constructive advantages and a low price. The washing of low coal in hydrocyclones has led to an improvement of its calorific power with about 600 kcal/kg. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Fibrous dysplasia of inferior turbinate, middle turbinate, and frontal sinus. (United States)

    Ozcan, K M; Akdogan, O; Gedikli, Y; Ozcan, I; Dere, H; Unal, T


    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a non-neoplastic fibro-osseous lesion. Paranasal sinus involvement is infrequent. Involvement of the frontal sinus, sphenoid sinus, and middle turbinate is rare, and only sporadic cases have been reported in the literature. Nasal turbinates and especially the inferior turbinate are the least involved bones of the craniofacial region. To the best of our knowledge, only one case with McCune-Albright syndrome had FD of the inferior turbinate. Here, we report a rare case with FD of inferior and middle turbinates and review literature concerning FD of the craniofacial region.

  2. Isquemia aguda de miembros inferiores secundaria a ergortismo


    Franco J. Vallejo, MD; Juan F. Gómez, MD; Natalia Tamayo, MD


    Paciente de género femenino, de 21 años de edad, quien ingresó por dolor progresivo e intenso en miembros inferiores, y refirió antecedente reciente de ingestión de derivados del ergot. Al examen físico se observó ausencia de pulsos en ambos miembros inferiores. Por angiotomografia se documentó disminución severa, generalizada y bilateral, del calibre de los vasos arteriales de miembros inferiores. Se diagnosticó isquemia arterial aguda secundaria a ergotismo y se inició tratamiento con vasod...

  3. MDCT of inferior mesenteric vein: normal anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, E.; Turkbey, B. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Karcaaltincaba, M. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail:; Karaosmanoglu, D.; Akata, D. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)


    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a useful technique for imaging the inferior mesenteric vein. The aim of the present review was to discuss the normal anatomy and the pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein, including partial or total thrombosis secondary to inflammation (pyophlebitis) and malignancy, occlusion, dilatation and reversed flow, which are rarely encountered. Optimal reconstruction techniques are also discussed. The pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein can be clearly demonstrated using MDCT using curved-planar reformatted multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and minimum intensity projection (MIP) images.

  4. MDCT of inferior mesenteric vein: normal anatomy and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpinar, E.; Turkbey, B.; Karcaaltincaba, M.; Karaosmanoglu, D.; Akata, D.


    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a useful technique for imaging the inferior mesenteric vein. The aim of the present review was to discuss the normal anatomy and the pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein, including partial or total thrombosis secondary to inflammation (pyophlebitis) and malignancy, occlusion, dilatation and reversed flow, which are rarely encountered. Optimal reconstruction techniques are also discussed. The pathologies of the inferior mesenteric vein can be clearly demonstrated using MDCT using curved-planar reformatted multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and minimum intensity projection (MIP) images

  5. Bilateral Intraosseous Migration of Mandibular Second Premolars in a Patient with Nine Missing Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahoon


    Full Text Available Intraosseous migration is an unusual developmental dental anomaly, which demonstrates horizontal movement of unerupted teeth only affecting the permanent dentition of the lower jaw. Mandibular second premolar is the most common impacted tooth after the thirdmolars and maxillary canines. Distal migration of the second premolar is rare and early loss of the permanent first molar is one of the most important predisposing factors of intrabony migration of this tooth. Bilateral migration of the mandibular premolars is veryrare compared to unilateral migration. Hereby, we present an 18-year-old man with bilateral intrabony migration of the mandibular second premolars to the mandibular angle (at the inferior and buccal side of the mandibular canal in the presence of first molars. Thepatient also had nine congenitally missing teeth without any systemic complication or abnormality in the skeleton. The teeth were surgically extracted. The clinical and diagnostic features and treatment of this case are discussed.

  6. Migration and income distribution.


    Rodgers G


    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper based on a conference paper on models for analysis of interrelationships between labour mobility of migrant workers (migration) and income distribution in developing countries - includes a literature survey of empirical research, and covers labour market absorption of migrant rural workers, effects of rural areas-urban areas wage differentials on migration, impact of migration on wages, etc. References. Conference held in Ahmedabad 1981 Jan.

  7. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices. (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  8. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  9. Migration into art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    This book addresses a topic of increasing importance to artists, art historians and scholars of cultural studies, migration studies and international relations: migration as a profoundly transforming force that has remodelled artistic and art institutional practices across the world. It explores...... contemporary art's critical engagement with migration and globalisation as a key source for improving our understanding of how these processes transform identities, cultures, institutions and geopolitics. The author explores three interwoven issues of enduring interest: identity and belonging, institutional...... visibility and recognition of migrant artists, and the interrelations between aesthetics and politics, including the balancing of aesthetics, politics and ethics in representations of forced migration....

  10. Patellar Shape-Memory Fixator for the Treatment of Comminuted Fractures of the Inferior Pole of the Patella (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Shang, Hui-Juan; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Chun-Cai; Fu, Qing-Ge


    Comminuted and displaced fractures of the inferior pole of the patella are not easy to reduce and it is difficult to fix the fragments soundly enough to allow early movement of the knee. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the internal fixation technique with Patellar Shape-Memory Fixator (PSMF) in acute comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patella. We retrospectively studied 25 patients with comminuted fractures of the inferior pole of the patella who were treated with PSMF and followed up for a mean period of 26 months (14 to 60). All the fractures healed at a mean of 6 weeks (5 to 7). The mean grading at the final follow-up was 29.5 points (27 to 30) using the Bostman score, with no observable restriction of movement. No breakage of the PSMF or infection occurred. No delayed union, nonunion, and infection were seen. This technique preserved the length of the patella, reduced the comminuted fragments of the inferior pole and avoided long-term immobilization of the knee.

  11. Enhanced Modiolar Stimulation Effects in the Inferior Colliculus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lithgow, Brian


    This preliminary study quantifies and provides one explanation for the extent of modiolar stimulation observed as a function of current level as recorded in a population of Inferior Colliculus units...

  12. Frustrative reward omission increases aggressive behaviour of inferior fighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Vela-Avitua, Sergio


    Animals use aggressive behaviour to gain access to resources, and individuals adjust their behaviour relative to resource value and own resource holding potential (RHP). Normally, smaller individuals have inferior fighting abilities compared with larger conspecifics. Affective and cognitive proce...

  13. Collateral veins in inferior caval vein occlusion demonstrated via CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, H.H.; Lund, G.


    CT-scans of 12 patients with tumour-induced occlusion of the inferior vena cava were studied with regard to collateral veins. A comparison was performed with findings at phlebography in 10 patients and at autopsy in 2. The site and appearance of the main collateral pathway are presented. A close study of vascular structures renders useful information on collateral circulation in occlusion of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  14. Migrating Art History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania


    Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0.......Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0....

  15. Developments in Australian Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to make a comprehensive assessment of recent developments in international migration to Australia.  In doing so we will be discussing changes in the scale and composition of migration into Australia, the dispersal of migrants throughout Australia and also the influence of policy-decisions and various departmental programmes on this movement.

  16. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.


    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  17. Diel vertical migrat..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 24, 2002 ... Ringelberg 11964 The positively photo tactic reaction of Daphnia magna. Straus: A contribution to the understanding of diurnal vertical migration. Netherlands Journal of. Sea Research 2: 319—406. Ringelberg J 1980 Introductory remarks: causal and teleological aspects of diurnal migration. ~ In: Kerfoot,.

  18. Migration in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.


    Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. A recent World Bank investigation finds a significant positive relationship between international migration and poverty reduction at the country level (Adams and Page 2003). Burkina Faso, whose conditions for

  19. Samtidskunst og migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring


    "Samtidskunst og migration. En oversigt over faglitteraturen" er en forskningsoversigt der gør status over hvad der hidtil er skrevet inden for det kunsthistoriske område om vor tids billedkunst og migration som politisk, socialt og kulturelt fænomen, primært i forbindelse med immigration til...

  20. The Globalisation of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić


    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities. First, in accordance with Saskia Sassen’s analysis, the author rejects the wide-spread notion that unqualified migrants have lost an (important role in »global cities«, i.e. in the centres of the new (global economy. Namely, the post-modern service sector cannot function without the support of a wide range of auxiliary unqualified workers. Second, a critical comparison with traditional overseas mass migration to the USA at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries indicates that present international migration is, perhaps, less extensive – however it is important to take into consideration various limitations that previously did not exist, and thus the present migration potential is in really greater. Third, globalisation is more evident in a diversification of the forms of migration: the source area of migrants to the New World and Europe has expanded to include new regions in the world; new immigration areas have arisen (the Middle East, new industrial countries of the Far East, South Europe; intra-regional migration has intensified. Forth, globalisation is linked to an increased migration of experts and the pessimistic notion of a brain drain has been replaced by the optimistic idea of a brain gain. Fifth, contemporary international migration has been associated with a crisis of the national model of citizenship. Sixth, the interlinking of (migrant cultural communities regardless of distance and the physical proximity of cultural centres (the

  1. Migration of health workers. (United States)

    Buchan, James


    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  2. Asterisk Grade Study Report. (United States)

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  3. Women in migration. (United States)

    Morokvasic, M


    This special issue reflects the belated but growing scholarly appreciation of the specificity and importance of women in migration. Aside from the sheer numerical significance of female migration documented in this issue, women migrants encounter problems and make special contributions which render comprehension of their specificity critical to an understanding of international migration in general. In an introductory essay, Morokvasic surveys the state of knowledge concerning women in migration. The focus then shifts, in Part II, to regional and national case studies which collectively elucidate the multifaceted dimensions of the women in migration research issue through time and space. In Part III, an international comparison of female immigrants and their labor market characteristics reveals striking similarities but also important differences. The US Canada and Australia can be discretely compared through 5 census-based quantitative analyses. The role of migrant women in the labor market is also the theme of Part IV. But the 5 studies comprising this section are based on survey research or on discernible global trends in migration and employment. Part V is devoted to the theme of female rural to urban migration in the Third World.

  4. Temporary Migration and Economic Assimilation


    Dustmann, Christian


    In this paper, I study temporary migrations, and its consequences for immigrants' behaviour. I distinguish between temporary migrations where the return time is exogenous, and temporary migrations where the migrant chooses when to return. I then illustrate the consequences both types of temporary migration have for migrants' behaviour (as opposed to a permanent migration). If migrations are non-permanent, then this has also consequences for the way empirical models need to be specified. The p...

  5. Labor migration in Asia. (United States)

    Martin, P L


    "A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt

  6. Inferior vestibular neuritis: a novel subtype of vestibular neuritis. (United States)

    Zhang, D; Fan, Z; Han, Y; Yu, G; Wang, H


    To report eight cases of inferior vestibular neuritis, in order to raise awareness of this new subtype of vestibular neuritis. We retrospectively analysed 216 patients (104 males and 112 females; age range 10-64 years; mean age 38.4 years) with full clinical documentation who had attended our hospital's vertigo clinic between May 2007 and December 2008. All patients underwent systematic investigation, including hearing tests, radiology, caloric testing and vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing. Of 216 patients with vestibular neuritis, eight cases were diagnosed as inferior vestibular neuritis, based on comprehensive analysis of test data. The clinical features of these eight patients were consistent with the characteristics of vestibular neuritis. The results of pure tone audiometry and caloric testing were normal, and the possibility of central lesions was excluded by cerebral computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging on admission. Six cases had unilateral loss of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, whereas two had a unilateral lower amplitude of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Inferior vestibular neuritis is a novel subtype of vestibular neuritis, which involves the inferior vestibular nerve alone. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing is a useful aid to the diagnosis of inferior vestibular neuritis.

  7. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H.


    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable [ 3 H]AMPA [(RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid] binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in [ 3 H]AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine] were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the [ 3 H]AMPA binding data

  8. Inferior oblique muscle injury from local anesthesia for cataract surgery. (United States)

    Hunter, D G; Lam, G C; Guyton, D L


    Vertical rectus muscle injury is commonly cited as a cause of strabismus after cataract surgery. Injury to the inferior oblique muscle or nerve as a complication of cataract surgery has not been described previously. Four patients without pre-existing strabismus who had diplopia after cataract surgery were studied. Analysis included prism and cover testing, Lancaster red-green testing, and fundus torsion assessment. Three patients had a delayed-onset hypertropia with fundus extorsion in the eye that underwent surgery, which is consistent with inferior oblique muscle overaction secondary to presumed contracture. The fourth patient had an immediate-onset hypotropia with fundus intorsion in the eye that underwent surgery, which is consistent with inferior oblique muscle paresis. Damage to a vertical rectus muscle or "unmasking" of a pre-existing superior oblique muscle paresis could not explain the history and findings in this group of four patients. The inferior oblique muscle contracture observed in three patients may have been caused by local anesthetic myotoxicity, whereas the paresis observed in one patient may have been due to mechanical trauma or anesthetic toxicity directly to the nerve innervating the muscle. Inferior oblique muscle or nerve injury should be considered as another possible cause of postoperative strabismus, especially when significant fundus torsion accompanies a vertical deviation.

  9. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis. (United States)

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y


    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (pgravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is it worth adding an inferior vena cava filter to anticoagulation in thromboembolic disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Yunes


    Full Text Available Resumen A pesar del tratamiento anticoagulante, algunos pacientes que han presentado un episodio de enfermedad tromboembólica persisten con riesgo elevado de recurrencia. Se ha planteado que adicionar un filtro de vena cava inferior podría disminuir este riesgo, pero la real utilidad clínica no está clara. Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información. Identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen cuatro ensayos aleatorizados que responden la pregunta. Extrajimos los datos, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que podría existir poca o nula diferencia en cuanto a la ocurrencia de trombosis venosa profunda al agregar un filtro de vena cava inferior en pacientes anticoagulados, y que no está claro si existen diferencias en cuanto a la ocurrencia de tromboembolismo pulmonar o mortalidad porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja.

  11. Anterior ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction as a marker of greater inferior, apical, and posterolateral damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, T.D.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.


    The clinical significance of anterior precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction was evaluated in 67 consecutive patients early after onset of symptoms with gated blood pool scans, thallium-201 perfusion images, and 12-lead ECGs. Patients with anterior ST depression (n = 33) had depressed mean values for left ventricular ejection fraction (54 +/- 2% [mean +/- S.E.M.] vs 59 +/- 2%; p = 0.02), cardiac index (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 L/m2; p = 0.03), and ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs 2.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg/ml; p = 0.04) compared to patients with no anterior ST depression (n = 34). Patients with anterior ST depression had (1) lower mean wall motion values for the inferior, apical, and inferior posterolateral segments (p less than 0.05) and (2) greater reductions in thallium-201 uptake in the inferior and posterolateral regions (p less than 0.05). However, anterior and septal (1) wall motion and (2) thallium-201 uptake were similar in patients with and without ST depression. Thus, anterior precordial ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction represents more than a reciprocal electrical phenomenon. It identifies patients with more severe wall motion impairment and greater hypoperfusion of the inferior and adjacent segments. The poorer global left ventricular function in these patients is a result of more extensive inferior infarction and not of remote septal or anterior injury

  12. Bird's nest versus the Kimray-Greenfield inferior vena cava filter: Randomized clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanasoulis, C.A.; Roberts, A.C.; Brown, K.; Geller, S.C.; Waltman, A.C.; Eckstein, M.R.


    A randomized clinical study was conducted comparing the percutaneously introduced bird's nest inferior vena cava (IVC) filter and the Kimray-Greenfield IVC filter. Study end points included recurrent pulmonary embolism, new or worse leg venous stasis symptoms, IVC thrombosis, and ease of filter introduction. Of the 109 patients in the study, 58 were randomly assigned to the BN and 51 to the KG filter. Demographic factors were comparable between the two groups. Follow-up entailed cavography, noninvasive assessment of the femoral veins, and standardized telephone interviews. The follow-up period was extended to 1 year after filter insertion. Results for the bird's nest versus the Kimray-Greenfield filter respectively were as follows: death due to massive pulmonary embolism, 3% versus 5%; recurrent pulmonary embolism, 1.5% versus 7.5%; filter migration, 1.1% versus 0.0%; IVC thrombosis, 6% versus 2.5%; new or worse leg edema, 28.5% versus 22%; ease of introduction (qualitative), maximal versus minimal; patient discomfort (qualitative), minimal versus maximal. The authors conclude the bird's nest filter is better than the Kimray-Greenfield filter in terms of prevention of recurrent pulmonary embolism and ease of introduction. In terms of venous stasis, the bird's nest filter is not better and may be worse than the Kimray-Greenfield filter. Filter migration is a problem with the bird's nest filter

  13. Inferior oblique overaction in infantile esotropia: fundus extorsion as a predictive sign. (United States)

    Eustis, H S; Nussdorf, J D


    Inferior oblique overaction develops in 72% of patients with infantile esotropia but generally is not recognized until the patient is between 2 and 4 years of age. While undergoing bilateral medial rectus recessions, photographs were taken of the posterior pole of 27 eyes in 14 patients with infantile esotropia and graded for the presence or absence of torsion by a masked observer. Follow up ranged from 10 months to 6 years. Oblique muscle overaction developed in 15 of the 27 eyes. Of these 15, six demonstrated fundus torsion in infancy, before the oblique dysfunction was recognized clinically. The presence of abnormal fundus torsion can serve as a marker for patients with infantile esotropia who ultimately will develop overt oblique muscle dysfunction.

  14. Samtidskunst og migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring


    "Samtidskunst og migration. En oversigt over faglitteraturen" er en forskningsoversigt der gør status over hvad der hidtil er skrevet inden for det kunsthistoriske område om vor tids billedkunst og migration som politisk, socialt og kulturelt fænomen, primært i forbindelse med immigration til Eur...... Europa og i bredere forstand Vesten. Rapporten er en intern rapport som er lavet i tilknytning til det kollektive forskningsprojekt "Islam i europæisk litteratur" på Afdelingen for Litteraturvidenskab og Moderne Kultur og indleveret til dette projekts leder, Peter Madsen......."Samtidskunst og migration. En oversigt over faglitteraturen" er en forskningsoversigt der gør status over hvad der hidtil er skrevet inden for det kunsthistoriske område om vor tids billedkunst og migration som politisk, socialt og kulturelt fænomen, primært i forbindelse med immigration til...

  15. Migration og etnicitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe


    Migration og etnicitet er aktuelle og forbundne fænomener, idet migration øger berøringsfladerne mellem befolkningsgrupper. Etniciteter formes i takt med at grænser drages imellem disse grupper. Imod moderniserings-teoriernes forventning forsvandt etnicitet ikke som en traditionel eller oprindelig...... måde at skabe tilhørsforhold på; globalt set fremstår vor tid istedet som en "migrationens tidsalder", der tilsyneladende også er en tidsalder, hvor kulturelle særtræk, i form af etnicitet, udgør vigtige linjer, hvorefter grupper skilller sig ud fra hinanden. Både migration og etnicitet bringer fokus...... den finder sted i modtagerlandet, men nyere perspektiver på migration, som begreber om medborgerskab, transnationalisme og diaspora er eksponenter for, søger udover den nationalstatslige ramme og inddrager konsekvenserne af migrationen for afsenderlande....

  16. Symptomatic duodenal perforation by inferior vena cava filter. (United States)

    Baptista Sincos, Anna Pw; Sincos, Igor R; Labropoulos, Nicos; Donegá, Bruno C; Klepacz, Andrea; Aun, Ricardo


    Objectives Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter is rare and life threatening. Our objective is to find out number of occurrences and compare diagnosis and treatments. Method The reference list of Malgor's review in 2012 was considered as well as all new articles with eligible features. Search was conducted on specific databases: MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde. Results Most of the patients presented with upper abdominal pain and the use of radiologic studies was crucial for diagnosis. The most common treatment was laparotomy with filter or strut removal plus duodenum repair. However, clinical conditions of patients must be considered and the endovascular technique with endograft deployment into inferior vena cava may be an alternative. Conclusion Duodenal perforation by an inferior vena cava filter is uncommon and in high-risk surgical patients endovascular repair must be considered.

  17. Isquemia aguda de miembros inferiores secundaria a ergortismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco J. Vallejo, MD


    Full Text Available Paciente de género femenino, de 21 años de edad, quien ingresó por dolor progresivo e intenso en miembros inferiores, y refirió antecedente reciente de ingestión de derivados del ergot. Al examen físico se observó ausencia de pulsos en ambos miembros inferiores. Por angiotomografia se documentó disminución severa, generalizada y bilateral, del calibre de los vasos arteriales de miembros inferiores. Se diagnosticó isquemia arterial aguda secundaria a ergotismo y se inició tratamiento con vasodilatadores y calcio-antagonistas, que resolvió los síntomas en su totalidad.

  18. Migration and intervening opportunities. (United States)

    Denslow, D A; Eaton, P J


    An analysis of factors affecting migration is presented. The authors "extend the investigation of the roles of information, intervening opportunities, and psychic costs by focussing on differences in migrant destinations with respect to the deterring effect of distance. [They develop] a reservation-wage model of migration which implies that the distance effect is weaker for high-wage destinations and stronger for low-wage destinations." The model is tested using data for Brazil, Japan, Mexico, the United States, and Venezuela. excerpt

  19. Agenesia de veia cava inferior associada à trombose venosa profunda Agenesis of inferior vena cava associated with deep venous thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Luis Konopka


    Full Text Available A agenesia da veia cava inferior é uma anomalia congênita rara, que foi recentemente identificada como um importante fator de risco para o desenvolvimento e a recorrência de trombose venosa profunda de membros inferiores em jovens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar o caso de uma paciente que apresentou trombose venosa profunda dois meses após a realização de cirurgia de varizes. A angiotomografia computadorizada demonstrou a presença de anomalia venosa complexa com ausência da veia cava inferior.The agenesis of the inferior vena cava is a rare congenital anomaly, which was recently identified as an important risk factor for the development and recurrence of deep venous thrombosis especially in young people. The goal of this work was to report the case of a patient who presented deep venous thrombosis approximately two months after varicose vein surgery. The computerized angiotomography demonstrated the presence of a complex venous anomaly with absence of the inferior vena cava.

  20. Comparative studies on dyeing rate migration and wash fastness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration and diffusion properties of synthesized azo dyes from 2-aminothiazole derivatives applied on commercial grade undyed cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) were investigated using dyeing conditions of 2% on weight of fabric (owf), 50:1 liquor ratio and subjected to ISO3 and ISO4 standard wash ...

  1. [Surgery of inferior vena cava-associated urological tumor lesions]. (United States)

    Weber, M; Meyer, F; Liehr, U B; Halloul, Z


    Tumor lesions of the inferior vena cava are extremely challenging with regard to adequate therapeutic management also in advanced malignant urological tumor lesions which can be caused by malignant adhesion, impression and tumor infiltration from the surrounding tissue. This can be the case with metastases from a seminoma or testicular carcinoma (differential diagnosis: primary vena cava leiomyosarcoma), tumor-associated growth into and within the inferior vena cava originating from renal cell carcinoma or carcinoma of the pararenal gland. The aim of this overview was to summarize current clinical and operative experiences in the treatment of inferior vena cava-associated urological tumor lesions, perioperative management, individual-specific and finding-adapted surgical technique and possible outcome, including prognostic considerations from clinical daily practice and representative data found in the literature. The primary aim of the surgical approach is to achieve R0 resection with reconstruction of the inferior vena cava lumen providing a reasonable risk-benefit ratio, which comprises i) complete resection and substitution of the inferior vena cava by a prosthesis along the previous extent of tumor growth, ii) partial resection of the vena cava wall with subsequent patch-plasty or tangential resection with primary suture or iii) removal of the vena cava thrombus after cavotomy. Particular attention should be paid to tumor thrombi reaching the right atrium which need to be extracted after sternotomy and atriotomy using an extracorporeal circulation (cardiac surgeon). For surgical planning, subdivision of the inferior vena cava into three segments, infracardiac, infrahepatic and infrarenal third, has been proven and tested. The current development status and advances in surgical approaches as well as advances in medical technology allow the successful approach to such advanced stage urological tumor manifestations. A deciding factor is the abdominal and

  2. Repeat migration and disappointment. (United States)

    Grant, E K; Vanderkamp, J


    This article investigates the determinants of repeat migration among the 44 regions of Canada, using information from a large micro-database which spans the period 1968 to 1971. The explanation of repeat migration probabilities is a difficult task, and this attempt is only partly successful. May of the explanatory variables are not significant, and the overall explanatory power of the equations is not high. In the area of personal characteristics, the variables related to age, sex, and marital status are generally significant and with expected signs. The distance variable has a strongly positive effect on onward move probabilities. Variables related to prior migration experience have an important impact that differs between return and onward probabilities. In particular, the occurrence of prior moves has a striking effect on the probability of onward migration. The variable representing disappointment, or relative success of the initial move, plays a significant role in explaining repeat migration probabilities. The disappointment variable represents the ratio of actural versus expected wage income in the year after the initial move, and its effect on both repeat migration probabilities is always negative and almost always highly significant. The repeat probabilities diminish after a year's stay in the destination region, but disappointment in the most recent year still has a bearing on the delayed repeat probabilities. While the quantitative impact of the disappointment variable is not large, it is difficult to draw comparisons since similar estimates are not available elsewhere.

  3. Projecte constructiu d'un pas inferior entre andanes


    Sabate Cots, Guerau


    El condicionante fundamental de la solución adoptada es la no afectación a la explotación de la línea de ferrocarril. La ejecución del paso inferior se resuelve mediante la construcción de una estructura tipo marco unicelular y su posterior empuje, bajo las vías del ferrocarril porque de este modo se disminuye la afección de las obras al tráfico ferroviario, evitando el corte de vías. El Sistema de Empuje consiste esencialmente en la construcción de la estructura del paso inferior fue...

  4. Human rights and migration policies. (United States)

    Marmora, L


    This paper concerns the history of migration, migration policies, and the rights of migrants in Latin America from 1500 to the present. In the first part of the article, the author identifies and discusses the basic rights of migrants. In the second part, migration policies, migration flows, and the treatment of migrants are examined over time.

  5. Managing migration: the Brazilian case


    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto


    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  6. Environmental concerns and international migration. (United States)

    Hugo, G


    "This article focuses on international migration occurring as a result of environmental changes and processes. It briefly reviews attempts to conceptualize environment-related migration and then considers the extent to which environmental factors have been and may be significant in initiating migration. Following is an examination of migration as an independent variable in the migration-environment relationship. Finally, ethical and policy dimensions are addressed."

  7. Gleason grading system (United States)

    ... Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  8. Case Report: Supernumerary right renal vein draining inferior to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With recent increase in renal transplantations, renovascular reconstructions and imaging advances, meticulous knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the renal vasculature is important to avoid potential pitfalls. We report a case of an accessory renal vein arising from the right kidney, and draining into the inferior ...

  9. Buccal Infiltration versus Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 4, 2018 ... Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods. Matherials and Methods: Forty patients, who.

  10. Renal Angiomyolipoma Associated with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Durand


    Full Text Available A 57-year-old woman was found to have an inferior vena cava involvement of a known sinusal angiomyolipoma incompletely resected three years beforehand. Intravascular extension into the IVC of angiomyolipoma has rarely been reported. We present a new case and reconsider the literature about this uncommon complication of a benign renal tumor.

  11. Hepatic and postrenal segment anomalies of inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung


    Postrenal segment anomalies of inferior vena cava such as bilateral inferior vena cava and left-sided inferior vena cava can simulate lymphadenopathy on CT scan and these anomalous veins need consideration in retroperitoneal operations such as procedures for prevention of venous embolism, splenorenal shunt operation and aortic prosthetic replacement. Retrocaval ureter is a rare cause of obstructive uropathy or medical deviation of ureter. We analyzed 16 cases of postrenal segment anomalies diagnosed by CT, vena cavography, retrograde pyelography and ultrasonography including six rare positional anomalies at hepatic segment of inferior vena cava diagnosed by cardiac angiography. The results were as follows. 1. Postrenal segment anomalies were 6 cases of bilateral IVC, 8 cases of left-sided IVC and 2 cases of retrocaval ureters. On CT scan, 3 cases of bilateral IVC and 4 cases of left-sided IVC were accompanied by malignant tumors, but caval veins could be discriminated from enlarged nodes because of continuous tubular nature of vein on consecutive sections with homogeneous strong enhancement. Two cases of retrocaval ureters showed hydroureteronephrosis due to ureteral compression by IVC. 2. Hepatic segment anomalies were 6 cases. Five cases of IVC on left side of vertebra crossed midline at live to enter right-sided right atrium and one case of IVC on right side crossed midline to enter left-sided right atrium. Four cases of complex cardiac anomalies, 4 cases of annapolis and 2 cases of situs ambiguous were associated with these anomalies.

  12. Transhepatic approach for extracardiac inferior cavopulmonary connection stent fenestration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Damien


    We report on a 3-year-old male who underwent transcatheter stent fenestration of the inferior portion of an extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection in the setting of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Transhepatic approach, following an unsuccessful attempt from the femoral vein facilitated delivery of a diabolo-shaped stent.

  13. Does the reduction of inferior turbinate affect lower airway functions? (United States)

    Unsal, Ozlem; Ozkahraman, Mehtap; Ozkarafakili, Mufide Arzu; Akpinar, Meltem; Korkut, Arzu Yasemin; Kurt Dizdar, Senem; Uslu Coskun, Berna


    Although the nose and lungs are separate organs, numerous studies have reported that the entire respiratory system can be considered as a single anatomical and functional unit. The upper and lower airways affect each other either directly or through reflex mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the radiofrequency ablation of persistent inferior turbinate hypertrophy on nasal and pulmonary function. Twenty-seven patients with bilateral persistent inferior turbinate hypertrophy without septal deviation were included in this study. All of the patients were evaluated using anterior rhinoscopy, nasal endoscopy, acoustic rhinometry, a visual analogue scale, and flow-sensitive spirometry on the day before and 4 months after the radiofrequency ablation procedure. The post-ablation measurements revealed that the inferior turbinate ablation caused an increase in the mean cross-sectional area and volume of the nose, as well as in the forced expiratory volume in 1s, forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow of the patients. These differences between the pre- and post-ablation results were statistically significant. The post-ablation visual analogue scale scores were lower when compared with the pre-ablation scores, and this difference was also statistically significant. This study demonstrated that the widening of the nasal passage after the reduction of the inferior turbinate size had a favorable effect on the pulmonary function tests. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu


    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  15. Incidental right Bochdalek hernia with interruption of the inferior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 30, 2014 ... Case Report doi:10.4102/sajr.v18i1.592 Incidental right Bochdalek hernia with interruption of the inferior vena cava and hepatic venous collateral continuation: A case report. Authors: Farzanah I. Ismail1. Rule Human2. Anith Chacko1. Parmanand Naran2. Samia Ahmad1. Siraj Ellemdin2.

  16. Brucellosis and thrombosis of the inferior vena cava. (United States)

    Rüegger, Kristina; Tarr, Philip; Karatolios, Konstantinos; Humburg, Jörg; Hügli, Rolf; Jeanneret, Christina


    We describe the case of a 23-year old woman with a newly diagnosed thrombosis of the inferior vena cava associated with a Brucella melitensis infection. We suggest possible mechanisms leading to brucellosis-associated venous thrombosis and review 14 previously reported cases.

  17. reduction mammoplasty using inferior pedicle in heavy breasts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 9, 2011 ... reduction of the breast as well as enhancement of the aesthetic appearance of the breasts. In this study, the inferior ... of the procedure is reduction in weight, volume and improvement in aesthetic appearance ... resections are done in a beveling fashion leaving a carpet of breast tissue of the muscle fascia ...

  18. Buccal infiltration versus inferior alveolar nerve block in mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods. Materials and Methods: Forty patients, who had irreversible ...

  19. Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma: vascular reconstruction is not ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of inferior vena cava is a rare and aggressive tumor, arising from the smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall. A large complete surgical resection is the essential treatment. The need of vascular reconstruction is not always mandatory. It's above all to understand the place of the reconstruction with ...

  20. Migration = cloning; aliasiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kleist, Josva; Nestmann, Uwe


    In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider the creat......In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider...... the creation of object surrogates as an abstraction of the abovementioned style of migration. We introduce Øjeblik, a distribution-free subset of Obliq, and provide three different configuration-style semantics, which only differ in the respective aliasing model. We show that two of the semantics, one of which...... matches Obliq’s implementation, render migration unsafe, while our new proposal for a third semantics is provably safe. Our work suggests a straightforward repair of Obliq’s aliasing model such that it allows programs to safely migrate objects....

  1. Comminuted inferior pole fracture of patella can be successfully treated with rim-plate-augmented separate vertical wiring. (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jinil; Cho, Won-Tae; Gujjar, Pranay H; Oh, Chang-Wug; Oh, Jong-Keon


    We present the surgical technique of rim-plate-augmented separate vertical wiring for comminuted inferior pole fracture of the patella and report the clinical outcomes. Between July 2013 and January 2016, 13 patients (7 male and 6 female) who were diagnosed with comminuted inferior pole fracture of the patella in preoperative computed tomography and underwent a minimum of 1 year of follow-up were enrolled in this study. Mean patient age was 57.7 years (range 28-72 years). All patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation by rim-plate-augmented separate vertical wiring. Bony union, complications, range of motion and Bostman score were the clinical outcomes. Bony union was achieved in all cases at an average of 10 weeks after surgery (range 8-12). There was no loss of reduction and fixative failure during follow-up. The average range of motion was 127° (range 120°-130°). The mean Bostman score at last follow-up was 29.6 points (range 27-30) and graded excellent in 12 patients. Rim-plate-augmented separate vertical wiring demonstrated secure fixation and favorable clinical outcomes. This study provides evidence for its effectiveness as a fixation method for treating displaced, comminuted inferior pole fracture of the patella.

  2. Internal fixation of displaced inferior pole of the patella fractures using vertical wiring augmented with Krachow suturing. (United States)

    Oh, Hyoung-Keun; Choo, Suk-Kyu; Kim, Ji-Wan; Lee, Mark


    We present the surgical technique of separate vertical wiring for displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella combined with Krachow suture and report the surgical outcomes. Between September 2007 to May 2012, 11 consecutive patients (mean age, 54.6 years) with inferior pole fractures of the patella (AO/OTA 34-A1) were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Through longitudinal incision, all patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation by separate vertical wiring combined with Krackow suture. The range of motion, loss of fixation, and Bostman score were primary outcome measures. The union time was 10 weeks after surgery on average (range: 8-12). No patient had nonunion, loss of reduction and wire breakage. There was no case of wound problem and irritation from the implant. At final follow-up, the average range of motion arc was 129.4° (range: 120-140). The mean Bostman score at last follow-up was 29.6 points (range: 28-30) and graded excellent in all cases. Separate vertical wiring combined with Krackow suture for inferior pole fractures of the patella is a useful technique that is easy to perform and can provide stable fixation with excellent results in knee function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. More myths of migration. (United States)

    Basch, L; Lerner, G


    This paper discusses some of the myths of migration. The 5 myths presented are: 1) racism has little to do with the causes of migration and does not necessarily impede the adjustment or success of migrants; 2) in areas where there is a strong feminist movement and trade unions, migrant women receive their support and can count on the solidarity of these organizations; 3) transnational corporations are positive forces in the developing countries where they operate--not only do they provide these states with new sources of capital, but they also impart new industrial skills to the labor force; 4) migration today is essentially short-term in nature--it therefore does not have a strong impact on family life; and 5) most migrants cluster together in ethnic enclaves which provide a strong source of support and diminish dislocation inherent in the migrant process.

  4. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    and many experiments are only becoming possible with the current development of tracking technologies. During this thesis work I have been tracking the poorly known movements of several species of long-distance migrants and document highly complex migration patterns. In three manuscripts these movements......, and conclude that the currently believed theoretical framework is insufficient to explain the observed performance. The other study investigates the ability of a displaced experienced migrant to navigate back to the normal migration route. It documents the capability, but also finds interesting patterns...... were related to the yearly progression of an environmental surrogate for food availability along the course of migration. In one species, with multiple, different non-breeding staging sites, environmental conditions explain movements well and also how yearly differences explain differences in timing...

  5. En fornemmelse for migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütze, Laura Maria

    Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan sted, museets rolle som aktør og religion er relevante for produktionen af migration på Immigrantmuseet (2012) og i Københavns Museums udstilling At blive københavner (2010). Afhandlingen er baseret på udstillingsanalyse samt interview med relevant museumsfagligt......, anvendes som virkemidler til at nuancere migration og distancere udstillingen fra den offentlige debat om indvandring. Afhandlingen peger på, at produktionen af den nyere danske historie på museum er præget af et fravær af religion. Det skyldes, at de museumsfaglige praksisser og traditioner afspejler en...... identiteter, som vi tager for givet: nationer, byer, kvinder - såvel som migration og religion. Afhandlingen argumenterer følgelig for, at museernes produktion af (materiel) religion er et særdeles relevant, men kun ringe udforsket, genstandsfelt for religionssociologien....

  6. Migration, Narration, Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    three consecutive summers from 2010 to 2012. The articles focus on various aspects of the migrant experience and try to answer questions about migrant identity and its representations in literature and the media. The book closes with an original play by Carlos Morton, the Chicano playwright working......(co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...

  7. Internal migration in Peru. (United States)

    Cole, J


    "E. G. Ravenstein proposed 'laws of migration' to explain the movement of population in the British Isles from data in the 1881 census. Here, migration in Peru is studied using data from the 1981 census to ascertain the extent to which Ravenstein's 'laws' hold for a different country at a different time.... In conclusion, it is a salutory exercise to apply Ravenstein's seven laws and other findings to Peru and to see how, in a different environment a good time ago, someone could produce a model with wide applicability." excerpt

  8. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond


    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  9. Migration, klima og sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel


    Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which...... environmental refugees find themselves and the consequences this may have. Finally, it points to the urgent need to reform health systems in both developing and developed countries to adapt to rapidly changing disease patterns and to become more responsive to them. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Oct-26...

  10. Migrating for a Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog


    a strong sense of agency and self-empowerment. In the post-WWII period, numerous Caribbean women trained in nursing at British hospitals that have been described as marred by race and gender related inequality and associated forms of exploitation. Yet, the nurses interviewed about this training emphasised......Youths from the Global South migrating for further education often face various forms of discrimination. This Caribbean case study discusses how conditions in the home country can provide a foundation for educational migration that helps the migrants overcome such obstacles and even develop...

  11. Making Migration Meaningful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger


    . The article focuses on changing patterns of mobility in the Mongolian ‘age of the market’ and its effects on population groups. Internal and international migration has continually risen as individuals and families have moved to places of opportunity. Connections are believed to be maintained during periods...... of absence by migrant family members, as both men and women are culturally permitted to be separate from their families. Migration is understood to contribute to prosperity, and separations contribute to generate growth and hishig (good fortune) for the good of the family. However, such mobility is also...

  12. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till


    Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts that the probabil......Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  13. What's driving migration? (United States)

    Kane, H


    During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts

  14. [The gluteus maximus inferior split-muscle flap for the cover of ischiatic pressure ulcers: Study of 61 cases]. (United States)

    Vincent, P-L; Pinatel, B; Viard, R; Comparin, J-P; Gir, P; Voulliaume, D


    The coverage of ischiatic pressure ulcers is characterized by a significant recurrence rate (8-64% depending on the series). It therefore seems necessary to introduce the concept of saving in the use of muscle flaps available to avoid being in a situation of therapeutic impasse. The gluteus maximus inferior split-muscle flap allows a tailored coverage to the ischiatic pressure ulcers grade IV with skin defect less than 8cm after surgical debridement. It is associated with an advancement-rotation skin flap removed above the sub-gluteal fold. The surgical treatment is performed in a single-stage (care+coverage), undercovered by probabilistic antibiotic per- and postoperative then secondarily adapted. After excision of the cavity, a gluteus maximus inferior split-muscle flap was realized. The inferior gluteal artery ensures the muscular flap vascularization. Afterwards, patients follow a rehabilitation program in a specialized center. Sixty-one flaps were performed in 55 patients between September 2000 and January 2015. Fifty-nine (97%) were conducted in first-line and 2 (3%) for covering recurrent pressure ulcers. After a mean duration of 4 years and 8 months follow-up, 13 pressure ulcers (21.3%) relapsed. If reoperation, a simple remobilization of the muscle flap was achieved in 54% of cases, a myocutaneous flap of biceps femoris in 23% and surgical abstention in a patient with non-compliant perioperative care. The gluteus maximus inferior split-muscle flap, simple to implement, provides coverage of ischial pressure sores while sparing muscle flaps usually used for this indication. The recurrence rate associated with the gluteus maximus inferior split-muscle flap is comparable to biceps femoris and gluteus maximus muscle flaps (totally harvested). It does not sacrifice function gluteus maximus muscle and can be performed in the valid patient. This flap keeps the Superior split-muscle, mobilized in case of sacral pressure ulcer. The gluteus maximus inferior split

  15. [Migration and health]. (United States)

    Litvinjenko, S


    In the last decades of this century we are witnesses of frequent crises in different parts of the world produced by internal disturbance and wars. These crises, together with natural disasters, poverty and hunger, follow the history of mankind often forcing huge population groups to leave their homes. The harmful health consequences are among negative effects of migrations. While stable populations have well-tried routines for maintaining health, migrations mean abandoning such support systems. The increased exposure to harmful factors contributes more to the bad health condition of the migrant population. Setting of newcomers and local people together in the same homes, reduction in food and heating resources, drug shortage as well as importation of new infectious agents, may also endanger health of the native population. These observations have also been confirmed by Yugoslav experience. Depending on the fact whether a migration is elemental or organized i.e. dependent on its place in the large scale between these two extreme endpoints, the size of risk is also dependent on the consequences and degree of their difficulty. Mass health disturbances occur during migrations of the population from war regions, migrations from areas of natural disasters, mass pilgrimage, migrations of seasonal workers and migrations of armies during wars. However, even in these difficult times and conditions, a good organization can contribute to the mitigation of harmful consequences caused by these migrations. For instance, in 1942 there was an epidemic of typhus fever in Bosnia when many refugees crossed the Drina river on the way to Serbia escaping from Ustasha terrorism. At the Serbian side there were checkpoints where the refugees could taka a bath and where their laundry and clothing were depediculated with dry air, and after a two-week quarantine they could continue to Serbian provinces without making new foci of typhus fever. The most vulnerable and numerous group of refugees

  16. Brief Technical Note: A Markov Chain Approach to Measure Investment Rating Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Fenech


    Full Text Available We explore two approaches (cohort versus hazard to measure the probability of investment rate migrations of pension funds in Australia. We also develop validation procedures pertinent to each approach and find that the cohort method is more stable in its forecasts and reports a lesser migration probability to lower investment grades with minimal statistical significance. Conversely, the hazard approach reports a higher migration probability to lower investment grades with statistical significance. This finding has considerable consequences for fund managers as they seek to mitigate any downward trends in their investment appraisals, especially as the cohort approach is the industry’s preferred approach in calculating rating migrations. The fund manager has a choice to make regarding measuring probability investment rate migrations, one between: stability (cohort or accuracy (hazard.

  17. Migration pathways in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, J.R.


    This study looked at diffusive migration through three types of deformation; the projectile pathways, hydraulic fractures of the sediments and faults, and was divided into three experimental areas: autoradiography, the determination of diffusion coefficients and electron microscopy of model projectile pathways in clay. For the autoradiography, unstressed samples were exposed to two separate isotopes, Pm-147 (a possible model for Am behaviour) and the poorly sorbed iodide-125. The results indicated that there was no enhanced migration through deformed kaolin samples nor through fractured Great Meteor East (GME) sediment, although some was evident through the projectile pathways in GME and possibly through the GME sheared samples. The scanning electron microscopy of projectile pathways in clay showed that emplacement of a projectile appeared to have no effect on the orientation of particles at distances greater than two projectile radii from the centre of a projectile pathway. It showed that the particles were not simply aligned with the direction of motion of the projectile but that, the closer to the surface of a particular pathway, the closer the particles lay to their original orientation. This finding was of interest from two points of view: i) the ease of migration of a pollutant along the pathway, and ii) possible mechanisms of hole closure. It was concluded that, provided that there is no advective migration, the transport of radionuclides through sediments containing these defects would not be significantly more rapid than in undeformed sediments. (author)

  18. Practical Data Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Johny


    This book is for executives and practitioners tasked with the movement of data from old systems to a new repository. It uses a series of steps guaranteed to get the reader from an empty new system to one that is working and backed by the user population. Using this proven methodology will vastly increase the chances of a successful migration.

  19. Brain Migration Revisited (United States)

    Vinokur, Annie


    The "brain drain/brain gain" debate has been going on for the past 40 years, with irresolvable theoretical disputes and unenforceable policy recommendations that economists commonly ascribe to the lack of reliable empirical data. The recent report of the World Bank, "International migration, remittances and the brain drain", documents the…

  20. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  1. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco


    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...

  2. Migration as Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog


    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  3. Migration and regional inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah


    rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...

  4. Digitizing migration heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi


    Museums are increasingly digitizing their collections and making them available to the public on-line. Creating such digital resources may become means for social inclusion. For museums that acknowledge migration history and cultures of ethnic minority groups as important subjects in multiethnic...

  5. Dispersal and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, C.


    Full Text Available Ringing of birds unveiled many aspects of avian migration and dispersal movements. However, there is even much more to be explored by the use of ringing and other marks. Dispersal is crucial in understanding the initial phase of migration in migrating birds as it is to understand patterns and processes of distribution and gene flow. So far, the analysis of migration was largely based on analysing spatial and temporal patters of recoveries of ringed birds. However, there are considerable biases and pitfalls in using recoveries due to spatial and temporal variation in reporting probabilities. Novel methods are required for future studies separating the confounding effects of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of recovery data and heterogeneity of the landscape as well. These novel approaches should aim a more intensive and novel use of the existing recovery data by taking advantage of, for instance, dynamic and multistate modeling, should elaborate schemes for future studies, and should also include other marks that allow a more rapid data collection, like telemetry, geolocation and global positioning systems, and chemical and molecular markers. The latter appear to be very useful in the delineating origin of birds and connectivity between breeding and non–breeding grounds. Many studies of migration are purely descriptive. However, King and Brooks (King & Brooks, 2004 examine if movement patterns of dolphins change after the introduction of a gillnet ban. Bayesian methods are an interesting approach to this problem as they provide a meaningful measure of the probability that such a change occurred rather than simple yes/no response that is often the result of classical statistical methods. However, the key difficulty of a general implementation of Bayesian methods is the complexity of the modelling —there is no general userfriendly package that is easily accessible to most scientists. Drake and Alisauskas (Drake & Alisauskas, 2004 examine the

  6. Some problems with non-inferiority tests in psychotherapy research: psychodynamic therapies as an example. (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Hofmann, Stefan G


    In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others. We conclude that non-inferiority trials have specific risks of different types of validity problems, usually favoring an (erroneous) non-inferiority conclusion. Non-inferiority trials require the definition of non-inferiority margins, and currently used thresholds have a tendency to be inflationary, not protecting sufficiently against degradation. The use of non-inferiority approaches can lead to the astonishing result that one single analysis can suggest both, superiority of the comparator (here: CBT) and non-inferiority of the other treatment (here PDT) at the same time. We provide recommendations how to improve the quality of non-inferiority trials, and we recommend to consider them among other criteria when evaluating manuscripts examining non-inferiority trials. If psychotherapeutic families (such as PDT and CBT) differ on the number of investigating trials, and in the fields of clinical applications, and in other validity aspects mentioned above, conclusions about their general non-inferiority are no more than a best guess, typically expressing the favored approach of the lead author.

  7. From Migration Regime to Regional Citizenry: Migration and Identity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I examine the East African common market, taken as a regional migration regime, and draw its implications for intra-regional migration and identity formation. Using desk research, I analyse the common market Protocol's provisions and envisage the implications of its implementation for intraregional migration and identity ...

  8. Globalization, Migration and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George, Susan


    Full Text Available EnglishMigration may become the most important branch of demography in the earlydecades of the new millennium in a rapidly globalizing world. This paper discusses the causes, costsand benefits of international migration to countries of the South and North, and key issues of commonconcern. International migration is as old as national boundaries, though its nature, volume,direction, causes and consequences have changed. The causes of migration are rooted in the rate ofpopulation growth and the proportion of youth in the population, their education and training,employment opportunities, income differentials in society, communication and transportationfacilities, political freedom and human rights and level of urbanization. Migration benefits the Souththrough remittances of migrants, improves the economic welfare of the population (particularly womenof South countries generally, increases investment, and leads to structural changes in the economy.However, emigration from the South has costs too, be they social or caused by factors such as braindrain. The North also benefits by migration through enhancement of economic growth, development ofnatural resources, improved employment prospects, social development and through exposure toimmigrants' new cultures and lifestyles. Migration also has costs to the North such as of immigrantintegration, a certain amount of destabilization of the economy, illegal immigration, and socialproblems of discrimination and exploitation. Issues common to both North and South include impact onprivate investment, trade, international cooperation, and sustainable development. Both North andSouth face a dilemma in seeking an appropriate balance between importing South's labour or itsproducts and exporting capital and technology from the North.FrenchLa migration est sans doute devenue la partie la plus importante de la démographie des premières décennies du nouveau millénaire dans un monde qui change rapidement. Ce

  9. Treatment of an Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm With Microsurgical Trapping and In Situ Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery to Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Bypass: Case Report. (United States)

    Lee, Bryan S; Witek, Alex M; Moore, Nina Z; Bain, Mark D


    Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysms are rare lesions whose treatment can involve microsurgical and/or endovascular techniques. Such treatment can be challenging and may carry a significant risk of neurological morbidity. To demonstrate a case involving a complex AICA aneurysm that was treated with a unique microsurgical approach involving trapping the aneurysm and performing in Situ bypass from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) to the distal AICA. The nuances of AICA aneurysms and revascularization strategies are discussed. The aneurysm and the distal segments of AICA and PICA were exposed with a retrosigmoid and far lateral approach. A side-to-side anastomosis was performed between the adjacent caudal loops of PICA and AICA. The AICA aneurysm was then treated by trapping the aneurysm-bearing segment of the parent vessel between 2 clips. A postoperative angiogram demonstrated a patent PICA-AICA bypass and complete occlusion of the AICA aneurysm. There were no complications, and the patient made an excellent recovery. The combination of parent vessel sacrifice and bypass remains an excellent option for certain difficult-to-treat aneurysms. This case involving PICA-AICA bypass to treat an AICA aneurysm serves as an example of the neurosurgeon's ability to develop unique solutions that take advantage of individual anatomy. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  10. Right Ventricular Involvement in either Anterior or Inferior Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Abtahi


    Full Text Available Background: Unlike left ventricular function, less attention has been paid to Right Ventricular (RV function after Myocardial Infarction (MI. Objectives: The current study aimed to compare RV function in patients with inferior and anterior MI. Patients and Methods: During the study period, 60 patients consecutively presented to the Emergency Department with chest pain were divided into two groups based on their electrocardiographic findings. Accordingly, 25 patients had inferior MI (IMI group and 35 ones had anterior MI (AMI group. Echocardiography was performed 48 hours after starting the standard therapy. Conventional echocardiographic parameters and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI measurements were acquired from the standard views. Student t-test and the chi-square test were respectively used for comparisons of the normally distributed continuous and categorical variables in the two groups. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

  11. Anterior Inferior cerebellar artery infarction misdiagnosed as inner ear disease. (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Ikemiyagi, Y; Ikemiyagi, F; Tamura, Y; Suzuki, M; Tsuyusaki, Y


    Anterior Inferior cerebellar artery infarction misdiagnosed as inner ear disease. The clinical >resentation of anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) infarction may mimic that of inner ear disease. lethodology: This report presents two patients with cerebellar artery infarction initially misdiagnosed with inner ear lisease. ase Report: Both the patients presented with sudden hearing loss and vertigo. The patient in case 1 was initially liagnosed with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The patient in case 2 presented with 17 days of vertigo and iearing loss. Both were correctly diagnosed with AICA infarction after performing magnetic resonance imaging. esults and Conclusions: We differentiated AICA from inner ear disease based on the variability in degree and frequency ange of hearing loss, the duration of vertigo, and the manifestation of nystagmus. Because cases of AICA infarction and nner ear disease may present with si'milar symptoms, a detailed examination including clinical course assessments, aboratory findings, and neurological imaging is essential for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Extraluminal leimyosarcoma of inferior vena cava. Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza, S. de; Arenal, F.; Garcia, M.


    The leiomyosarcoma is the second most common primary retroperitoneal tumor in adults, after liposarcoma. Retroperitoneal leimyosarcoma (RLMS) and leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava are presently considered to belong to the same group of tumors. RMLS presents three major growth patterns: a) totally extravascular (extraluminal); b) totally intravascular (intraluminal), and c) extra and intraluminal. In most cases, the growth of RLMS is extrinsic to the blood vessels. The most common clinical sign is a large abdominal mass. The variability in the findings and the potential intravascular extension results in differing radiological images. That most frequently observed is that of a large mass of soft tissue with partial necrosis, within the retroperitoneum, sometimes extending into vena cava. We present a typical case of RLMS with totally extravascular growth, which was discovered during surgery to be intimately joined to inferior vena cava. (Author) 13 refs

  13. Drive for thinness as a women's strategy to avoid inferiority


    Ferreira, C.; Pinto-Gouveia, J.; Duarte, C.


    Ferreira, C., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Duarte, C. (2013). Drive for thinness as a women's strategy to avoid inferiority. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 13(1), 15-29. The emphasis on the need to achieve and be successful, and the contextual competitive dynamics in Western societies, may explain the increase of distinct forms of psychopathology. This study examined sex differences relative to the expression and conseque...

  14. Las alteraciones posturales en miembros inferiores en el surf


    Gaspe, Guillermina


    Cuando el equilibrio neuromuscular no es óptimo durante la práctica de un deporte, es posible que, a largo plazo, aparezcan trastornos posturales que, dependiendo del tiempo de entrenamiento, pueden convertirse en un obstáculo para la salud. Es por esto, que mediante esta investigación he pretendido mostrar las alteraciones posturales que el surf puede llegar a provocar en quienes lo practican. Objetivo: Analizar las alteraciones posturales en los miembros inferiores de surfist...

  15. The Inferiority Complex of Homunculus in Hiromu Arakawa's Fullmetal Alchemist


    Thenady, Tania P; Limanta, Liem Satya


    This article explores the causes and effects of inferiority complex in a character of a manga created by Hiromu Arakawa, Fullmetal Alchemist. Commonly seen as a child's play and underestimated by the society of literature, comic book or manga actually has the same quality as those considered as literary arts and stands equally with them. It embraces issues freely without the restriction of social rules and individual or group and uncontaminated by social, personal, or political influences. On...

  16. Nerve damage associated with inferior alveolar nerve blocks. (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Bryan, J; Regezi, J


    The authors reviewed 12 cases in which altered sensation occurred in the distribution of the inferior alveolar or lingual nerves following injection of a local anesthetic for restorative treatment only. Most patients suffered only partial damage, but recovery was poor. The exact mechanism of the nerve damage is unknown, but a number of theories are proposed. The extent of this problem is also unknown, but many more cases probably exist than have been reported to date.

  17. Suspected spinocellular carcinoma of the inferior eyelid resulted multiple chalazion. (United States)

    Onesti, Maria Giuseppina; Troccola, Antonietta; Maruccia, Michele; Conversi, Andrea; Scuderi, Gianluca


    Chalazion is a subacute granulomatous inflammation of the eyelid caused by retention of tarsal gland secretions and it's the most common inflammatory lesion of the eyelid. In cases of doubtful clinical presentation the diagnosis with a biopsy and a histopathological examination is important because it can orientate an appropriate surgical treatment. We report a case of a 64-years-old diabetic man, suspected for a spinocellular lesion of the inferior eyelid of the left eye, it resulted unexpectedly a chalazion.

  18. Optional inferior vena caval filters: where are we now?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, A N


    With the advent of newer optional\\/retrievable inferior vena caval filters, there has been a rise in the number of filters inserted globally. This review article examines the currently available approved optional filter models, outlines the clinical indications for filter insertion and examines the expanding indications. Additionally, the available evidence behind the use of optional filters is reviewed, the issue of anticoagulation is discussed and possible future filter developments are considered.

  19. Inferior vestibular neuritis in a fighter pilot: a case report. (United States)

    Xie, Su Jiang; Jia, Hong Bo; Xu, Po; Zheng, Ying Juan


    Spatial disorientation in airplane pilots is a leading factor in many fatal flying accidents. Spatial orientation is the product of integrative inputs from the proprioceptive, vestibular, and visual systems. One condition that can lead to sudden pilot incapacitation in flight is vestibular neuritis. Vestibular neuritis is commonly diagnosed by a finding of unilateral vestibular failure, such as a loss of caloric response. However, because caloric response testing reflects the function of only the superior part of the vestibular nerve, it cannot detect cases of neuritis in only the inferior part of the nerve. We describe the case of a Chinese naval command fighter pilot who exhibited symptoms suggestive of vestibular neuritis but whose caloric response test results were normal. Further testing showed a unilateral loss of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). We believe that this pilot had pure inferior nerve vestibular neuritis. VEMP testing plays a major role in the diagnosis of inferior nerve vestibular neuritis in pilots. We also discuss this issue in terms of aeromedical concerns.

  20. Gaining surgical access for repositioning the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. (United States)

    Al-Siweedi, Saif Yousif Abdullah; Nambiar, P; Shanmuhasuntharam, P; Ngeow, W C


    This study is aimed at determining anatomical landmarks that can be used to gain access to the inferior alveolar neurovascular (IAN) bundle. Scanned CBCT (i-CAT machine) data of sixty patients and reconstructions performed using the SimPlant dental implant software were reviewed. Outcome variables were the linear distances of the mandibular canal to the inferior border and the buccal cortex of the mandible, measured immediately at the mental foramen (D1) and at 10, 20, 30, and 40 mm (D2-D5) distal to it. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, and gender of subjects. Apicobasal assessment of the canal reveals that it is curving downward towards the inferior mandibular border until 20 mm (D3) distal to the mental foramen where it then curves upwards, making an elliptic-arc curve. The mandibular canal also forms a buccolingually oriented elliptic arc in relation to the buccal cortex. Variations due to age, ethnicity, and gender were evident and this study provides an accurate anatomic zone for gaining surgical access to the IAN bundle. The findings indicate that the buccal cortex-IAN distance was greatest at D3. Therefore, sites between D2 and D5 can be used as favorable landmarks to access the IAN bundle with the least complications to the patient.

  1. Gaining Surgical Access for Repositioning the Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Yousif Abdullah Al-Siweedi


    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining anatomical landmarks that can be used to gain access to the inferior alveolar neurovascular (IAN bundle. Scanned CBCT (i-CAT machine data of sixty patients and reconstructions performed using the SimPlant dental implant software were reviewed. Outcome variables were the linear distances of the mandibular canal to the inferior border and the buccal cortex of the mandible, measured immediately at the mental foramen (D1 and at 10, 20, 30, and 40 mm (D2–D5 distal to it. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, and gender of subjects. Apicobasal assessment of the canal reveals that it is curving downward towards the inferior mandibular border until 20 mm (D3 distal to the mental foramen where it then curves upwards, making an elliptic-arc curve. The mandibular canal also forms a buccolingually oriented elliptic arc in relation to the buccal cortex. Variations due to age, ethnicity, and gender were evident and this study provides an accurate anatomic zone for gaining surgical access to the IAN bundle. The findings indicate that the buccal cortex-IAN distance was greatest at D3. Therefore, sites between D2 and D5 can be used as favorable landmarks to access the IAN bundle with the least complications to the patient.

  2. Radionuclide Migration Program: strategy document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Radionuclide Migration Program (RNM) is composed of projects to obtain data that will define the hydrologic system on NTS and determine the radionuclides available for migration in that system. Specific objectives are: (1) determine the kinds and amounts of radionuclides available for migration in groundwater (Hydrologic Source Term); (2) determine regional and local hydrology; and (3) predict the direction and migration rates of radionuclides in groundwater and the radionuclide concentration at any given distance for the source

  3. International migration and the gender


    Koropecká, Markéta


    My bachelor thesis explores the connection between international migration and gender. Gender, defined as a social, not a biological term, has a huge impact on the migration process. Statistics and expert studies that have been gender sensitive since 1970s demonstrate that women form half of the amount of the international migrants depending on the world region and representing a wide range of the kinds of international migration: family formation and reunification, labour migration, illegal ...

  4. The definition of illegal migration




    The article analyzes the definitions of illegal migration. In theory, there is no consensus on the concept of illegal immigration. In the scientific revolution applied the concept of “illegal migration”, “illegal immigration”, “migration of the crime” and “criminal migration”. Crime and illegal migration, although they have common features, are different concepts. For the concept of illegal immigration is characterized by violation of migration laws. For the concept of mandatory criminal migr...

  5. The migration of university graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Nielsen, Kristian

    in university as well as migration after graduation using the terminology of Faggian and McCann (2009a). Graduates’ migration is mainly studied in relation to first employment. The analysis also includes the migration of university graduates who become entrepreneurs. The different migration patterns...... are combined with measures of performance for wage-earners, expressed as level and growth rate of hourly wages, and for entrepreneurs, expressed as firm survival and growth in sales and employees....

  6. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt


    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  7. Supplemental scleral buckling for inferior retinal detachment in silicone oil-filled eyes. (United States)

    Solaiman, Kamal A M; Dabour, Sherif A


    To evaluate the efficiency of treating selected cases of inferior retinal detachment in silicone oil-filled eyes using a supplemental scleral buckling with external drainage of subretinal fluid, versus performing a second vitreoretinal surgery and silicone oil endotamponade. A prospective interventional pilot study that was performed on silicone oil-filled eyes with inferior retinal detachment. Twenty-three eyes of 23 consecutive patients were alternatively distributed between 2 groups: Group A included 12 eyes treated with supplemental scleral buckling with drainage of subretinal fluid and without the removal of silicone oil, and Group B included 11 eyes treated with silicone oil removal, vitreoretinal surgery, and reinjection of silicone oil. The preoperative data included indications and details of primary vitreoretinal surgery, cause of retinal redetachment, subretinal fluid, grade of proliferative vitreoretinopathy, lens status, and the duration between primary vitreoretinal surgery and reoperation. The postoperative examination included the best-corrected visual acuity, retina status, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, silicone oil, and any reported complication. Follow-up examinations were scheduled at Day 1, weekly for 1 month, and monthly thereafter till the end of the follow-up period which extended for at least 2 months after silicone oil removal. The average number of detached clock hours per eye was 2.7 in Group A and 2.4 in Group B, caused by a mean of 1.58 ± 0.80 break per eye in Group A and 1.48 ± 0.66 break per eye in Group B. The mean interval between the primary vitreoretinal surgery and the scleral buckling procedure in Group A patients was 2.83 ± 1.22 months (range, 1-5 months), while in Group B, the mean interval between the primary and the secondary vitreoretinal surgeries was 3.00 ± 1.61 months (range, 1-6 months). The mean operative time was statistically significantly (P 0.05) and from 1.93 ± 0.74 to 1.55 ± 0.63 in Group B patients (P

  8. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.


    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  9. [Return migrations in the Italian migration system: a reexamination]. (United States)

    Bonifazi, C; Heins, F


    The authors discuss trends in return migration in Italy, with a focus on regional differences. "On a regional level, the effects of return migration are very much connected with socio-economic structure. Only highly developed and autonomous regions can absorb productive investments and changes brought about by return migration. Several southern regions--especially those with greater migration experience--have shown in the last decades a very poor socio-economic development." The study is concerned with both internal and international migration. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  10. Intrahepatic venous collaterals forming via the inferior right hepatic vein in 3 patients with obstruction of the inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayasu, K.; Moriyama, N.; Muramatsu, Y.


    When the inferior vena cava is obstructed, collateral veins enlarge, connecting with the inferior (acessory) right hepatic vein (IRHV) and thence through various hepatic veins to the right atrium. Three such cases are described. In one patient, most contrast material flowed into the IRHV and from there to the left hepatic vein. The second patient had several large collaterals arising from the IRHV and flowing into the right and middle hepatic veins, while the third patient demonstrated anastomoses between the IRHV and the middle hepatic vein. All of these hepatic venous shunts eventually drained into the right atrium. There were no clinical manifestations such as ascites, edema, or dilatation of the abdominal veins. Cavography alone or combined with computed tomography proved to be diagnostic in the assessment of these intrahepatic collaterals

  11. The absent inferior epigastric artery: a unique anomaly and implications for deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps. (United States)

    Rozen, Warren M; Houseman, Nicholas D; Ashton, Mark W


    The abdominal wall is particularly advantageous as a donor site due to the reliability of its vascular supply. Although the cutaneous perforators of the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) and the superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) may show significant individual variability, the DIEA itself has been shown to be ever-present as a vascular pedicle and to be highly dependable. The increasing use of preoperative computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has led to increasing reports of anatomic variability. With the use of preoperative CTA, we describe a unique case of a completely absent DIEA in patient who had not previously undergone any open abdominal surgery. The absence of the DIEA had led to vascular changes throughout the abdominal wall, including dilatation of both SIEAs and the ipsilateral deep superior epigastric artery. Preoperative CTA in this setting helped us identify this anomaly and aided surgical planning. The incidence of this anomaly was subsequently reviewed in 150 consecutive CTA scans performed at our institution.

  12. Boundary Migration in Rutile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliss, S.R.; Ravishankar, N.; Farrer, J.K.; Carter, C.B.


    TiO{sub 2} is a vital material in several technologies including, photocatalysis, gas sensing, biomaterials and optical coatings. Among the several crystal structures of this oxide, rutile has the highest density and microhardness, the highest index of refraction and the highest temperature stability. The processing of dense polycrystalline materials often includes the addition of a liquid-forming phase at higher temperatures. This technique is known as liquid-phase sintering and has been studied extensively. Rutile boundaries containing an amorphous phase have been used to study boundary migration and grain-boundary grooving. Visible-light (VLM), scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in addition to electron-backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and a focused-ion beam (FIB) tool were used to characterize boundary migration in rutile. EBSD analysis was carried out on a Philips XL30 FEG SEM equipped with a DigiView 1612 high-resolution, high-speed CCD camera. A 2.5 cm sample-to-camera distance was used and {approx}70{sup o} sample tilt. A Philips CM30 operated at 300 kV was used for TEM characterization and an FEI DB235 was used for FIB work. Pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) has been used to deposit thin films ({approx}100 nm thick) of silica glass on single-crystals of rutile. The film/substrate assembly is then fabricated into bicrystals of known boundary-plane orientation by hot pressing. Bicrystals were fabricated with boundary planes of nominal surface orientation of (001) and (110). After diffusion bonding a surface perpendicular to the interface is cut and polished. Bicrystals are then heat treated in air at 1650 C for varying lengths of time. Figure 1 is a VLM image of a rutile bicrystal which as been heat treated for 4 hours. During this heat treatment migration of the boundary initiates at parallel grooves contained in the crystal on the right-hand side. EBSD analysis shows that this parallel set of grooves is due to the presence of 3{sup

  13. Exile/political migration


    Loyer, Emmanuelle


    Il est difficile de départager les motivations à l'origine des déplacements des personnes. Usuellement, on aime à distinguer une émigration économique qui a vu le jour dans l'Europe industrielle de la fin du XIXème et n'a cessé de grandir et s'universaliser depuis, et une migration politique qualifiée d'exil : le départ dramatique, l'horizon d'attente centré sur la patrie perdue, la sociabilité intense et réactive des exilés signent une expérience singulière. Pour autant, l'exilé du monde con...

  14. Religion, migration og integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn


    Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i integrationss......Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i...

  15. American Migration Controversies


    Milan Mesić


    The USA has been and has remained the world's most important immigration country. The last quarter of the 20th century has been marked by a new mass immigration wave that in absolute size of the immigration flow can be compared to the highest flows in the previous century. This recent migration, however, differs from traditional immigration to America in that it includes a greater ethnic, religious and cultural diversity. The vast majority of today's immigrants, both legal and clandestine, co...

  16. Enforcement and illegal migration


    Orrenius, Pia


    Border enforcement of immigration laws attempts to raise the costs of illegal immigration, while interior enforcement also lowers the benefits. Border and interior enforcement therefore reduce the net benefits of illegal immigration and should lower the probability that an individual will decide to migrate. While some empirical studies find that border and interior enforcement serve as significant deterrents to illegal immigration, immigration enforcement is costly and carries significant uni...

  17. Migration and stratification. (United States)

    Jasso, Guillermina


    Migration and stratification are increasingly intertwined. One day soon it will be impossible to understand one without the other. Both focus on life chances. Stratification is about differential life chances - who gets what and why - and migration is about improving life chances - getting more of the good things of life. To examine the interconnections of migration and stratification, we address a mix of old and new questions, carrying out analyses newly enabled by a unique new data set on recent legal immigrants to the United States (the New Immigrant Survey). We look at immigrant processing and lost documents, depression due to the visa process, presentation of self, the race-ethnic composition of an immigrant cohort (made possible by the data for the first time since 1961), black immigration from Africa and the Americas, skin-color diversity among couples formed by U.S. citizen sponsors and immigrant spouses, and English fluency among children age 8-12 and their immigrant parents. We find, inter alia, that children of previously illegal parents are especially more likely to be fluent in English, that native-born U.S. citizen women tend to marry darker, that immigrant applicants who go through the visa process while already in the United States are more likely to have their documents lost and to suffer visa depression, and that immigration, by introducing accomplished black immigrants from Africa (notably via the visa lottery), threatens to overturn racial and skin color associations with skill. Our analyses show the mutual embeddedness of migration and stratification in the unfolding of the immigrants' and their children's life chances and the impacts on the stratification structure of the United States.

  18. Migrativity of aggregation functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bustince, H.; Montero, J.; Mesiar, Radko


    Roč. 160, č. 6 (2009), s. 766-777 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/08/0618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Aggregation functions * Associativity * Bisymmetry * Migrativity * Nullnorms * t-Norms * Uninorms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2009

  19. Gender and migration from Albania. (United States)

    Stecklov, Guy; Carletto, Calogero; Azzarri, Carlo; Davis, Benjamin


    This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women's access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where out-migration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when migration began: relatively low levels of inequality within the labor market and educational system-a product of the Communist era-while household relations remained heavily steeped in tradition and patriarchy. We use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study, including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows a dramatic increase in male migration and a gradual and uneven expansion of the female proportion of this international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Using information on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, we show how household-level constraints and incentives affect male and female migration differently. Throughout this period, however, women's migration behavior appears more directly aligned with household-level factors, and there is little evidence to suggest that increased female migration signals rising behavioral independence among Albanian women.

  20. Conservation physiology of animal migration. (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J


    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  1. Conservation physiology of animal migration (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.


    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  2. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber


    We believe that in the present thematic issue we have succeeded in capturing an important part of the modern European research dynamic in the field of migration. In addition to well-known scholars in this field several young authors at the beginning their research careers have been shortlisted for the publication. We are glad of their success as it bodes a vibrancy of this research area in the future. At the same time, we were pleased to receive responses to the invitation from representatives of so many disciplines, and that the number of papers received significantly exceeded the maximum volume of the journal. Recognising and understanding of the many faces of migration are important steps towards the comprehensive knowledge needed to successfully meet the challenges of migration issues today and even more so in the future. It is therefore of utmost importance that researchers find ways of transferring their academic knowledge into practice – to all levels of education, the media, the wider public and, of course, the decision makers in local, national and international institutions. The call also applies to all authors in this issue of the journal.

  3. The Use of Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Pediatric Patients for Pulmonary Embolus Prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Richard A.; Teitelbaum, George P.; Stanley, Philip; Mazer, Murray J.; Tonkin, Ina L.D.; Rollins, Nancy K.


    Purpose: To report our experience with inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in pediatric patients. Methods: Over a 19-month period, eight low-profile percutaneously introducible IVC filters were placed in four male and four female patients aged 6-16 years (mean 11 years). Indications were contraindication to heparin in six patients, anticoagulation failure in one, and idiopathic infrarenal IVC thrombosis in one. Six of the eight devices placed were titanium Greenfield filters. One LGM and one Bird's Nest filter were also placed. Two of the filters were introduced via the right internal jugular vein by cutdown, and the remainder were placed percutaneously via the right internal jugular vein or the right common femoral vein. Patients received follow-up abdominal radiographs from 2 to 13 months after IVC filter placement. Results: All filters were inserted successfully without complication. Three of the patients died during the follow-up period: two due to underlying brain tumors at 2 and 12 months and a third at 6 weeks due to progressive idiopathic renal vein and IVC thrombosis. The remaining five patients were all alive and well at follow-up without evidence of IVC thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, or filter migration. Conclusion: IVC filter placement using available devices for percutaneous delivery is technically feasible, safe, and effective in children

  4. Computed tomographic evaluation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Fujio; Nakada, Gyojiro; Onishi, Tetsuo; Higashi, Yoichiro; Machida, Toyohei


    Renal cell carcinoma not rarely invades the renal vein and inferior vena cava with formation of tumor thrombus. On the other hand, congenital anomalies of these venous channels are occasionally encountered. At the time of surgery of renal cell carcinoma, therefore, preoperative evaluation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava is desirable. In 22 cases of renal cell carcinoma treated at the Jikei University Hospital during 16 months period from Jan. 1979 to apr. 1980, the ranal vein and inferior vena cava were examined by computed tomography (CT). Intravenous tumor thrombus was diagnosed in 4, double inferior vena cava in one and retroaortic left renal vein in one. All these CT diagnosis were confirmed to be correct by surgery. Three of tumor thrombus cases showed involvement of inferior vena cava. CT findings included dilated vein in 4 and filling defect after contrast enhancement in 2. In double inferior vena cava, CT at the level of the upper pole of kidney showed the left inferior vena cava traversing in front of the aorta and conjoining the left inferior vena cava, CT at the level of renal vein the left renal vein draining into the left inferior vena cava and CT at the lower level two round inferior vena cava with the aorta between them. It was a diagnostically useful finding that the left inferior vena cava was markedly stained in CT after contrast enhancement jestas the aorta and the right inferior vena cava. In retroaortic left renal vein, CT showed the left renal vein running behind the aorta and draining into the inferior vena cava. Preoperative information on congenital anomalies of the renal vein and inferior vena cava or tumor thrombus and its extension are very important particularly for radical surgery to be conducted safely without postoperative complications. Computed tomography is quite useful in evaluation of morbid state of the renal vein and inferior vena cava. (author)

  5. Physical Guidance of Cell Migration (United States)

    Losert, Wolfgang

    Cells migrate as individuals or groups, to perform critical functions in life from organ development to wound healing and the immune response. While directed migration of cells is often mediated by chemical or physical gradients, our recent work has demonstrated that the physical properties of the microenvironment can also control and guide migration. I will describe how an underlying wave-like process of the actin scaffolding drives persistent migration, and how such actin waves are nucleated and guided by the texture of the microenvironment. Based on this observation we design textures capable of guiding cells in a single preferred direction using local asymmetries in nano/microtopography on subcellular scales, or altering migration in other ways. This phenomenon is observed both for the pseudopod-dominated migration of Dictyostelium cells and for the lamellipod-driven migration of human neutrophils. The conservation of this mechanism across cell types suggests that actin-wave-based guidance is important in biology and physiology.

  6. Learning from Graded Readers. (United States)

    Wodinsky, Marilyn; Nation, Paul


    A word frequency study of two graded readers and an unsimplified text indicated that graded readers facilitated better foreign-language reading and vocabulary learning than did unsimplified texts. It was found that students needed to read several same-level texts to master vocabulary, and that vocabulary mastery was not necessary for successful…

  7. Experimental study of domestic inferior vena cava filter comparative to Antheor temporary vena cava filter in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoping; Gu Jianping; Lou Wensheng; He Xu; Chen Liang; Su Haobo


    Objective: To evaluate clot capturing efficacy and stability of a new domestic designed inferior vena cava filter (DDIVCF) by comparing with Anthem temporary vena cava filter in vitro. Methods: (1)The DDIVCF and Antheor filter were tested in a flow model simulated the inferior vena cava (IVC) with 20 mm and 25 mm in diameter. The swine clots of four sizes were used: 3 mm x 20 mm, 3 mm x 30 mm, 6 mm x 20 mm, 6 mm x 30 mm. The clot capturing capacity was observed in horizontal position. (2) The stability was observed by measuring the comparative moving distance of 6 mm x 30 mm clots after clot trapping. Results: (1) DDIVCF capture rates were 34%, 56%, 82%, 94% and 26%, 38%, 56%, 86% for the 20 mm and 25 mm IVC models of four different sizes clots respectively, comparing with 54%, 64%, 86%, 96% and 38%, 44%, 68%, 90% respectively of Anthem temporary vena cava filter. The capture rates of DDIVCF and Antheor filter showed no significant differences of 3 mm x 30 mm, 6mm x 20 mm and 6 mm x 30 mm clots in 20 mm and 25 mm IVC models (P>0.05). (2) There was a few caudal migration with no significant difference (P>0.05). The filter migration distances were (0.6±0.3) cm and (1.0±0.1) cm respectively in the 20 mm and 25 mm IVC models with most clots of 6 mm x 30 mm were captured, comparing with (0.4±0.1) cm and (0.8 ±0.3) cm respectively for Antheor filter. Conclusions: DDIVCF is a stable and effective filter in an in-vitro model experiment but application in vivo would rather be further evaluated through more animal experiments. (authors)

  8. Preliminary experimental study of retrievable nitinol inferior vena cava filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Baojie; Zhai Renyou; Ding Jingran; Dai Dingke


    Objective: To evaluate, in vitro and in an animal model together with the placement, stability, clot capturing efficacy, retrieval and safety of a new non-invasive retrievable nitinol inferior vena cava filter (RNIVCF) for temporary or permanent use. Methods: RNIVCF were made by wrapping nitinol monofilament wire on a steel mandrill to form a steric configuration. A 5-F Teflon sheath/dilator was taken for placement and retrieval. In vitro clots' trapping was assessed with size of 2.5/3/4-mm-diameter clots. Twenty adult mongrel dogs were used in this study. 2.5-mm-diameter homologous radiopaque clots (2.5-mm-HRC) were injected into IVC until the experimental animals die of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and then to determine the minimum fatal quantity of clots in 8 dogs. RNIVCFs were introduced into the inferior vena cava in 12 dogs. For 10 animals, 10-ml 2.5-mm-HRC were injected below the filter to test its thrombus-trapping efficacy. The retrieval of filter was attempted on the 7th day after placement in two other dogs. Plain films of the abdomen and chest were made to document the effectiveness of the filter. Results: Initial experimental study showed that the RNIVCF functioned as intended. In vitro all 3 and 4-mm-diameter clots injected in the device simulating IVC flow was trapped by the filter. However, 95%-100% 2.5-mm-diameter clots were also captured by it. More than 10-ml 2.5-mm-HRC with once injection into IVC could cause the death of experimental animals due to acute PE in per-experiment. RNIVCF could be easily and successfully placed percutaneously in the inferior vena cava of the dogs through a 5-F sheath. The filter was accurately positioned in the inferior vena cava by moving the retrieval wire. All 13 RNIVCFs were placed in 12 dogs, one of those has double inferior vena cava and two filters were implanted. The filters trapped these 2.5-mm-diameter clots in the iliac veins of 8 dogs and none of them died of acute PE. But the initial two dogs with two

  9. Vestibular neuritis affects both superior and inferior vestibular nerves. (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael L; McGarvie, Leigh A; Reid, Nicole; Young, Allison S; Halmagyi, G Michael; Welgampola, Miriam S


    To characterize the profiles of afferent dysfunction in a cross section of patients with acute vestibular neuritis using tests of otolith and semicircular canal function sensitive to each of the 5 vestibular end organs. Forty-three patients fulfilling clinical criteria for acute vestibular neuritis were recruited between 2010 and 2016 and studied within 10 days of symptom onset. Otolith function was evaluated with air-conducted cervical and bone-conducted ocular/vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the subjective visual horizontal test. Canal-plane video head impulse tests (vHITs) assessed the function of each semicircular canal. Patterns of recovery were investigated in 16 patients retested after a 6- to 12-month follow-up period. Rates of horizontal canal (97.7%), anterior canal (90.7%), and utricular (72.1%) dysfunction were significantly higher than rates of posterior canal (39.5%) and saccular (39.0%) dysfunction (p vestibular nerve divisions; 18 patients (41.9%) had superior neuritis; and 1 patient (2.3%) had inferior neuritis. A test battery that included horizontal and posterior canal vHIT and the cervical/vestibular evoked myogenic potentials identified superior or inferior neuritis in all patients tested acutely. Eight of 16 patients who were retested at follow-up had recovered a normal vestibular evoked myogenic potential and vHIT profile. Acute vestibular neuritis most often affects both vestibular nerve divisions. The horizontal vHIT alone identifies superior nerve dysfunction in all patients with vestibular neuritis tested acutely, whereas both cervical/vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and posterior vHIT are necessary for diagnosing inferior vestibular nerve involvement. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Impact of Middle vs. Inferior Total Turbinectomy on Nasal Aerodynamics (United States)

    Dayal, Anupriya; Rhee, John S.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.


    Objectives This computational study aims to: (1) Use virtual surgery to theoretically investigate the maximum possible change in nasal aerodynamics after turbinate surgery; (2) Quantify the relative contributions of the middle and inferior turbinates to nasal resistance and air conditioning; (3) Quantify to what extent total turbinectomy impairs the nasal air conditioning capacity. Study Design Virtual surgery and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods Ten patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy were studied. Three-dimensional models of their nasal anatomies were built based on pre-surgery computed tomography scans. Virtual surgery was applied to create models representing either total inferior turbinectomy (TIT) or total middle turbinectomy (TMT). Airflow, heat transfer, and humidity transport were simulated at a 15 L/min steady-state inhalation rate. The surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling was defined as the area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/cm2. Results In both virtual total turbinectomy models, nasal resistance decreased and airflow increased. However, the surface area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/cm2 either decreased (TIT) or did not change significantly (TMT), suggesting that total turbinectomy may reduce the stimulation of cold receptors by inspired air. Nasal heating and humidification efficiencies decreased significantly after both TIT and TMT. All changes were greater in the TIT models than in the TMT models. Conclusion TIT yields greater increases in nasal airflow, but also impairs the nasal air conditioning capacity to a greater extent than TMT. Radical resection of the turbinates may decrease the surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling. PMID:27165673

  11. Impact of Middle versus Inferior Total Turbinectomy on Nasal Aerodynamics. (United States)

    Dayal, Anupriya; Rhee, John S; Garcia, Guilherme J M


    This computational study aims to (1) use virtual surgery to theoretically investigate the maximum possible change in nasal aerodynamics after turbinate surgery, (2) quantify the relative contributions of the middle and inferior turbinates to nasal resistance and air conditioning, and (3) quantify to what extent total turbinectomy impairs the nasal air-conditioning capacity. Virtual surgery and computational fluid dynamics. Academic tertiary medical center. Ten patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy were studied. Three-dimensional models of their nasal anatomies were built according to presurgery computed tomography scans. Virtual surgery was applied to create models representing either total inferior turbinectomy (TIT) or total middle turbinectomy (TMT). Airflow, heat transfer, and humidity transport were simulated at a steady-state inhalation rate of 15 L/min. The surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling was defined as the area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/m(2). In both virtual total turbinectomy models, nasal resistance decreased and airflow increased. However, the surface area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/m(2) either decreased (TIT) or did not change significantly (TMT), suggesting that total turbinectomy may reduce the stimulation of cold receptors by inspired air. Nasal heating and humidification efficiencies decreased significantly after both TIT and TMT. All changes were greater in the TIT models than in the TMT models. TIT yields greater increases in nasal airflow but also impairs the nasal air-conditioning capacity to a greater extent than TMT. Radical resection of the turbinates may decrease the surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  12. ST depression in lead aVL differentiates inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction from pericarditis. (United States)

    Bischof, Johanna E; Worrall, Christine; Thompson, Peter; Marti, David; Smith, Stephen W


    ST-segment elevation (STE) due to inferior STE myocardial infarction (STEMI) may be misdiagnosed as pericarditis. Conversely, this less life-threatening etiology of ST elevation may be confused for inferior STEMI. We sought to determine if the presence of any ST-segment depression in lead aVL would differentiate inferior STEMI from pericarditis. Retrospective study of 3 populations. Cohort 1 included patients coded as inferior STEMI, cohort 2 included patients with a discharge diagnosis of pericarditis who presented with chest pain and at least 0.5 mm of ST elevation in at least 1 inferior lead. We analyzed the presenting electrocardiogram in both populations, with careful assessment of leads II, III, aVF, and aVL. In addition, we retrospectively studied a third cohort of patients with subtle inferior STEMI (pericarditis group, all 49 had some inferior STE but none had any ST-segment depression in lead aVL (specificity, 100%; confidence interval, 91%-100%). In the third cohort, there were 272 inferior MIs with coronary occlusion, of which 54 were "subtle." Of these, 49 had some ST depression in lead aVL. When there is inferior ST-segment elevation, the presence of any ST depression in lead aVL is highly sensitive for coronary occlusion in inferior myocardial infarction and very specific for differentiating inferior myocardial infarction from pericarditis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete inferior rectus muscle transection secondary to orbital blowout fracture. (United States)

    Carrere, Jonathan M; Lewis, Kyle T


    Complete extraocular muscle transection is uncommon in the setting of blunt trauma. We report a case of a 53-year-old male that developed diplopia after hitting his face directly on a concrete slab after a fall. On examination, he had a right hypertropia with a complete infraduction deficit. A CT scan of the face showed an orbital floor blowout fracture with complete inferior rectus transection. On surgical exploration, the distal and proximal ends of the muscle were identified and sutured together, and the floor fracture was repaired. At his post-operative visits, the patient had a persistent infraduction deficit, but subjectively had improved diplopia.

  14. Inferior Vena Cava Duplication: Incidental Case in a Young Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Coco


    Full Text Available A case of a double inferior vena cava (IVC with retroaortic left renal vein, azygos continuation of the IVC, and presence of the hepatic portion of the IVC drained into the right renal vein is reported and the embryologic, clinical, and radiological significance is discussed. The diagnosis is suggested by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT, which reveals the aberrant vascular structures. Awareness of different congenital anomalies of IVC is necessary for radiologists to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and they should be remembered because they can influence several surgical interventions and endovascular procedures.

  15. A Novel Technique for Inferior Vena Cava Filter Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Edward William; Rowe, Luke Michael Morgan; Brookes, Jocelyn; Raja, Jowad; Hague, Julian


    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are used to protect against pulmonary embolism in high-risk patients. Whilst the insertion of retrievable IVC filters is gaining popularity, a proportion of such devices cannot be removed using standard techniques. We describe a novel approach for IVC filter removal that involves snaring the filter superiorly along with the use of flexible forceps or laser devices to dissect the filter struts from the caval wall. This technique has used to successfully treat three patients without complications in whom standard techniques failed

  16. Inferior ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Associated with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Koeth


    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM is usually characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Due to the clinical symptoms which include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated myocardial markers, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is frequently mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the absence of a significant coronary artery disease. Otherwise an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery can produce a typical Takotsubo contraction pattern. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is frequently associated with emotional stress, but to date no cases of STEMI triggering TCM have been reported. We describe a case of a female patient with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by TCM.

  17. Evidence of mirror neurons in human inferior frontal gyrus. (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Neal, Alice; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Friston, Karl J; Frith, Chris D


    There is much current debate about the existence of mirror neurons in humans. To identify mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans, we used a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either executed or observed a series of actions. Here we show that in the IFG, responses were suppressed both when an executed action was followed by the same rather than a different observed action and when an observed action was followed by the same rather than a different executed action. This pattern of responses is consistent with that predicted by mirror neurons and is evidence of mirror neurons in the human IFG.

  18. Amiloidosis renal en paciente con osteomielitis de extremidad inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vicente Santos


    Full Text Available La amiloidosis secundaria (AA sistémica es una entidad frecuente, asociada con enfermedades inflamatorias e infecciones de larga evolución, así como con algunas neoplasias. Presentamos el caso de un varón de 58 años, con antecedente de úlcera en miembro inferior derecho de más de 30 años de evolución y con síndrome nefrótico secundario a amiloidosis AA.

  19. Hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus impacts perception of gravity. (United States)

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Palla, Antonella; Marti, Sarah; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Straumann, Dominik


    Interruption of the dentato-olivary projections, interconnecting the dentate nucleus (DN) and the contralateral inferior olivary nucleus (ION), is predicted to interfere with the DN' role in estimating direction of gravity. In a patient with pendular nystagmus due to hypertrophy of the ION secondary to predominantly right-sided ponto-mesencephalic hemorrhage, perceived vertical shifted from clockwise to counter-clockwise deviations within 4 months. We hypothesize that synchronized oscillations of ION neurons induce a loss of inhibitory control, leading to hyperactivity of the contralateral DN and, as a result, to perceived vertical roll-tilt to the side of the over-active DN.

  20. Omental flap transposition for inferior vena cava filter penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Yamaguchi, MD


    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman presented with uterine malignancy, deep vein thrombosis, and nonmassive pulmonary embolism in both lungs. Gunter-tulip filter was inserted, because she had severe genital bleeding, which is one of the contraindications to anticoagulation therapy. Total hysterectomy was conducted and anticoagulation therapy was started afterward. The thrombus worsened perioperatively, and the filter could not be retrieved. Since there was lymph node recurrence, the second time operation was performed. During operation, the struts were found to be penetrating the inferior vena cava. Omental flap was used to cover the struts, and no associated complications occurred after operation.

  1. Traces of business cycles in credit-rating migrations (United States)

    Boreiko, Dmitri; Kaniovski, Serguei; Pflug, Georg


    Using migration data of a rating agency, this paper attempts to quantify the impact of macroeconomic conditions on credit-rating migrations. The migrations are modeled as a coupled Markov chain, where the macroeconomic factors are represented by unobserved tendency variables. In the simplest case, these binary random variables are static and credit-class-specific. A generalization treats tendency variables evolving as a time-homogeneous Markov chain. A more detailed analysis assumes a tendency variable for every combination of a credit class and an industry. The models are tested on a Standard and Poor’s (S&P’s) dataset. Parameters are estimated by the maximum likelihood method. According to the estimates, the investment-grade financial institutions evolve independently of the rest of the economy represented by the data. This might be an evidence of implicit too-big-to-fail bail-out guarantee policies of the regulatory authorities. PMID:28426758

  2. ILO - International Migration Programme. (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam


    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  3. Population, desertification, and migration. (United States)

    Westing, A H


    When an imbalance develops between population numbers and the carrying capacity of the land, the persons thereby displaced are referred to as environmental refugees. The utilization of the land beyond sustainability leads to land degradation and ultimately, desertification. The social and political impacts of long-term environmental migration can be distinguished: a) at the site of origin of the displaced persons by the residual population; b) at rural sites of destination within the nation between the new arrivals and preestablished populations; c) in the cities within the nation; d) in the nonindustrialized foreign countries; and e) in the industrialized foreign countries. In the event that an area which had previously been devoted to pastoralism is converted to agriculture, the displaced pastoralists might respond through armed rebellion. In some instances, the disenchanted urban squatters become a politically restive and even a destabilizing force, as occurred in Sudan in the 1980s, especially in Khartoum and Port Sudan. The foreign countries to which many of the displaced persons are migrating are subjected to increasing levels of migrant-induced economic, cultural, and political strains. The growing problems associated with south-to-north migration across the Mediterranean Sea have recently led France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain to enter into a consultative arrangement with Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. All foreign aid to the nonindustrialized countries that attempts to ameliorate the problem of desertification must adopt integrated approaches that: a) address population issues; b) support environmental education; c) provide for the protection of biodiversity; d) encourage participatory forms of local and national government; e) provide opportunities for income generation outside the livestock sector; and f) foster political security and facilitate ecogeographical (subregional) cooperation.

  4. Pars plana vitrectomy for the repair of primary, inferior rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated to inferior breaks. A comparison of a 25-gauge versus a 20-gauge system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Omo, Roberto; Barca, Francesco; Tan, H. Stevie; Bijl, Heico M.; Oberstein, Sarit Y. Lesnik; Mura, Marco


    To compare anatomical, functional outcomes and complications of high-speed 25-gauge (G) pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) versus 20-G PPV for the management of primary inferior rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) associated to inferior breaks/holes. Eighty-five eyes from 85 patients with a minimum

  5. Globalization, migration and health. (United States)

    Burnett, Angela


    The term 'globalization' describes the integration of economic systems through improved communication, but it also represents increased insecurity for those with few resources--particularly refugees. This article examines why people migrate, their numbers, constraints on their movement and their particular health care needs. Immigrants have much to contribute to their recipient countries, but at some loss to their homelands. Both economically and morally, more liberal immigration policies would be beneficial. Policies towards asylum seekers should not be more restrictive in the aftermath of 11 September 2001 and detention should be the exception rather than the rule. Globalization should be managed so as to improve people's lives throughout the world.

  6. [Obesity, migration and adolescence]. (United States)

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Shehu-Brovina, Shqipe; Narring, Françoise


    Weight management interventions during adolescence are challenging. Migration adds complexity to this problem, making migrant families more vulnerable. Teenagers confront families to new values transmitted by the host society: opulence, junk food, video games. Obesity should not be seen as a single issue of calories-excess, but must be considered as being part of a larger problem, which takes into account the context of the familial and societal life of the migrants. The caregivers must have an overall view of the situation to provide appropriate approaches to weight management.

  7. Urbanization, Migration, Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin


    Full Text Available In the contemporary world urbanization becomes a large-scale process. Huge flows of people migrate from poorer districts to the cities with a higher level of consumption. It takes migrants about 15-25 years to give up their traditional ascetic way of life. In this period the ‘new citizens’ try to arrange compact settlements with an archaic way of life, insanitary conditions, high criminogenity and an authoritative local self-government. The processes of formation and decay of the ascetic enclave are viewed through the example of the ‘Shanghai’ trading neighborhood in Irkutsk.

  8. Migration and AIDS. (United States)

    Decosas, J; Kane, F; Anarfi, J K; Sodji, K D; Wagner, H U


    A successful short-term solution to transmission of AIDS in Western Africa by migrants involves provision of accessible and acceptable basic health and social services to migrants at their destination. The aim is to establish a sense of security and community, which is a health requirement. When migrants are excluded from community life or victimized as carriers of HIV infections, they will be driven by basic survival needs and dysfunctional social organization, which results in the rapid spread of HIV. Closing borders and mass deportation may not be an option. The long-term solution is population policy, environmental protection, and economic development. The focus on mapping the spread of AIDS must shift to a consideration of the migrant social conditions that make them vulnerable to AIDS. The issue of migration and AIDS will be addressed at the First European Conference on Tropical Medicine in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany. In Uganda, HIV seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.5% among the stable population to 12.4% among internal migrants moving between villages to 16.3% among migrants from other areas. A World Bank project is operating in Western Africa, which traces seasonal male migration from the Cameroon to Liberia, Senegal to Nigeria, and from the Sahel to the coast during dry seasons. National border rules may influence the routes but not the extent of migration. A major destination place is Cote d' Ivoire, which has 25% of total population comprised of migrants from other countries and one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Western Africa. On plantations prostitutes are brought in. Each prostitute serves about 25 workers. The pattern of sexual mixing contributes to the high HIV rates. Female migration is smaller and usually concentrated in prostitution at place of destination. Illiteracy and poverty drive women migrants into the trade. Their frequent health problems are malaria, pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, vaginal discharge, and genital

  9. Is IMRT Superior or Inferior to 3DCRT in Radiotherapy for NSCLC? A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng Hu

    Full Text Available There are no adequate data to determine whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT is superior to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. This meta-analysis was conducted to compare the clinical outcomes of IMRT and 3DCRT in the treatment of NSCLC.No exclusions were made based on types of study design. We performed a literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library databases from their inceptions to April 30, 2015. The overall survival (OS and relative risk (RR of radiation pneumonitis and radiation oesophagitis were evaluated. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality and extracted data. Publication bias was evaluated by funnel plot using Egger's test results.From the literature search, 10 retrospective studies were collected, and of those, 5 (12,896 patients were selected for OS analysis, 4 (981 patients were selected for radiation pneumonitis analysis, and 4 (1339 patients were selected for radiation oesophagitis analysis. Cox multivariate proportional hazards models revealed that 3DCRT and IMRT had similar OS (HR = 0.96, P = 0.477 but that IMRT reduced the incidence of grade 2 radiation pneumonitis (RR = 0.74, P = 0.009 and increased the incidence of grade 3 radiation oesophagitis (RR = 2.47, P = 0.000.OS of IMRT for NSCLC is not inferior to that of 3DCRT, but IMRT significantly reduces the risk of radiation pneumonitis and increases the risk of radiation oesophagitis compared to 3DCRT.

  10. Can finite element models detect clinically inferior cemented hip implants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, J.; Maher, S.A.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Prendergast, P.J.; Huiskes, R.


    Rigorous preclinical testing of cemented hip prostheses against the damage accumulation failure scenario will reduce the incidence of aseptic loosening. For that purpose, a finite element simulation is proposed that predicts damage accumulation in the cement mantle and prosthetic migration. If the

  11. Inferior turbinate reduction: Diode laser or conventional partial turbinectomy? (United States)

    Doreyawar, Venkatesh; Gadag, Raveendra P; Manjunath, Dandi Narasaiah; Javali, Shivalingappa B; Maradi, Nagaraj; Shetty, Deekshit


    Hypertrophy of the inferior nasal turbinate is one of the most common causes of nasal obstruction. The diode laser has proven to be as effective as other lasers for this indication. Our objective was to study various outcomes associated with the use of the diode laser, such as improvements in nasal obstruction and postoperative pain, reduction in intraoperative bleeding, and rapidity of healing. A nonrandomized, controlled trial was conducted in which outcomes were compared between diode laser turbinate reduction (LTR) and conventional partial inferior turbinectomy (PIT) in 60 patients, 30 who underwent LTR and 30 who underwent PIT. The improvement in nasal obstruction was measured postoperatively up to 6 months. Intraoperative bleeding was measured and postoperative pain scores were assessed each day up to the fifth postoperative day. Rapidity of healing was evaluated until 6 months postoperatively. Subjective relief of nasal obstruction occurred in 90.8% of the LTR group and 65% of the PIT group at 6 months (p diode laser were better and diode LTR caused less morbidity compared with the conventional technique.

  12. Concomitant pulmonary arteriovenous and inferior vena cava malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawass, N.D.; Kolawole, T.M.; Badawi, M.G.


    A case of pulmonary arterio-venous malformation (AVM) presenting with dyspnoea diagnosed by computer tomography (CT) and pulmonary angiography is reported. Venous anomalies in the form of agenesis of the iliac veins and the inferior vena cava (IVC), were discovered through femoral venograms performed after technical difficulties were encountered at pulmonary angiography performed via the femoral route. These venous anomalies co-existed with normal but dilated azygos and hemiazygos systems, and with the azygos appearing as a right hilar mass lesion which showed the 'candy cane sign' on the lateral view on venography. A dilated varix at the confluence of the right renal vein and the IVC collaterals was also noted. This association of a pulmonary AVM and IVC agenesis has not been previously reported in the literature. The embryogenesis of the inferior vena cava and the azygos system is presented in an attempt to explain the rare association of these anomalies. The various techniques of diagnosing the disease entities, expecially by CT, are discussed. The rare co-existence of pulmonary AVM and the absence of the IVC is emphasized. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Günther Mangelsdorff G.


    Full Text Available La complejidad y extensión de las lesiones traumáticas del miembro inferior son muy variables, incluyendo dehiscencias de abordajes quirúrgicos en lesiones cerradas, fracturas expuestas, avulsiones y amputaciones. El aporte de la cirugía plástica en estos pacientes radica especialmente en la reconstrucción mediante la movilización local o a distancia de tejidos vitales bien irrigados. La microcirugía es una herramienta fundamental para lograr reconstrucciones complejas con un diseño versátil, así los colgajos libres otorgan coberturas bien vascularizadas y se adaptan a requerimientos tan diversos. El éxito final de una reconstrucción debe ser evaluado en cuanto a la reinserción del paciente a sus actividades de vida diaria y a su calidad de vida. La coordinación y trabajo con los distintos profesionales necesarios en este proceso permite aproximarse a este objetivo. Revisaremos en este artículo las estrategias de reconstrucción en trauma de extremidad inferior y las técnicas de reconstrucción microquirúrgica más utilizadas.

  14. Ausência de veia cava inferior: relato de caso Absence of the inferior vena cava: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Correia Alves


    Full Text Available A ausência congênita de veia cava inferior é achado incomum e ocasional durante exames complementares ou cirurgias do abdome. Em razão de a maioria dos pacientes sem outras malformações serem assintomáticos, há dificuldade em estimar a prevalência dessas anomalias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar o caso de um paciente de 28 anos, sexo masculino, referido para radiografia de tórax devido a quadro de febre alta (39ºC não-responsiva à medicação. Radiografia de tórax sugeriu dilatação de veia ázigos. Em inquérito dirigido para sintomas cardiovasculares, referiu dor torácica (durante atividade física e em repouso e dispneia ocasionais durante o sono associada ao período em que intensificou a prática de exercícios. Realizada tomografia computadorizada sem contraste e, posteriormente, contrastada. As mesmas não esclareceram o caso, fazendo-se necessário angiotomografia, a qual evidenciou ausência de veia cava inferior torácica.The congenital absence of the inferior vena cava is a rare and occasional finding at complementary exams or abdominal surgeries. As the majority of patients without other malformations are asymptomatic, it is hard to estimate the prevalence of these anomalies. Our goal was to report a case of a 28-year-old patient, male, referred to thorax X-ray due to high fever state (39ºC, nonresponder to medication. The X-ray suggested azygos vein dilatation. The interview about cardiovascular symptoms revealed thoracic pain during both physical exercises and at rest, and occasional dyspnea during sleep related to the period of intensification of physical exercises. Computadorized tomography with and without contrast did not solve the case, what explain the request of an angiotomography, that showed absence of thoracic inferior vena cava.

  15. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  16. Network migration for printers

    CERN Multimedia


    Further to the recent General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation (as announced in the Bulletin - see here), please note that the majority of print devices will be automatically migrated to the new network IP address range on Tuesday 27 September.   This change should be transparent for these devices and therefore end-users, provided you have installed the printers from the Print Service website. A small number of devices will require manual intervention from the Printer Support team in order to migrate correctly. These devices will not change their IP address until the manual intervention, which will be carried out before Monday 3rd October. However, if you have mistakenly connected directly to the printer’s IP address, then your printing will be affected – please uninstall the printer (for help, see: KB3785), and re-install it from the Print Service website (or follow instructions for visitor machines). Please do this as soon as possible in order to avoid printing issues, t...

  17. The challenges of managing migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia


    Migration and urbanisation are driven by economic growth and social change, but also by deepening inequalities. Managing migration should not be equated with curbing it, as this inevitably reduces migrants' rights. But managing population movement whilst respecting the rights of migrants and nonmigrants, supporting the contribution of migration to poverty reduction and economic growth in sending and receiving areas and reducing the human and material costs of movement means that fundamental challenges need to be addressed.

  18. Nordic Migration and Integration Research


    Pyrhönen, Niko; Martikainen, Tuomas; Leinonen, Johanna


    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Migration and integration are currently highly contentious topics in political, public and scientific arenas, and will remain so in the near future. However, many common migration-related prejudices and inefficien¬cies in the integration of the migrant population are due to the lack of sound, tested and accessible scientific research. Therefore, the study of migration – by developing basic research and by properly resourcing novel methodological approaches and interventions ...

  19. Circular Migration and Human Development


    Newland, Kathleen


    This paper explores the human development implications of circular migration — both where it occurs naturally and where governments work to create it. The paper discusses various conceptions and definitions of circular migration, and concludes that circular migration is not intrinsically positive or negative in relation to human development; its impact depends upon the circumstances in which it occurs, the constraints that surround it and—above all—the degree of choice that ind...

  20. Gender and Migration: Overview Report


    Jolly, Susie; Reeves, Hazel; Piper, Nicola


    Abstract. Over the past four decades total numbers of international migrants have more than doubled but the percentage of the world population migrating has remained fairly constant. There are now 175 million international migrants worldwide or approximately 3.5 per cent of the global population – about half of whom are women, despite the common misconception that men are the migrants. This Overview Report on Gender and Migration takes a broad approach to migration – it looks at the gender dy...

  1. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe


    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  2. Migration, distress and cultural identity. (United States)

    Bhugra, Dinesh


    When people migrate from one nation or culture to another they carry their knowledge and expressions of distress with them. On settling down in the new culture, their cultural identity is likely to change and that encourages a degree of belonging; they also attempt to settle down by either assimilation or biculturalism. In this paper, various hypotheses explaining the act of migration and its relationship with mental distress are described. A new hypothesis is proposed suggesting that when sociocentric individuals from sociocentric cultures migrate to egocentric societies they may feel more alienated. In order to assess and manage migrants, the clinicians need to be aware of the pathways into migration.

  3. Substrate curvature regulates cell migration. (United States)

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi


    Cell migration is essential in many aspects of biology. Many basic migration processes, including adhesion, membrane protrusion and tension, cytoskeletal polymerization, and contraction, have to act in concert to regulate cell migration. At the same time, substrate topography modulates these processes. In this work, we study how substrate curvature at micrometer scale regulates cell motility. We have developed a 3D mechanical model of single cell migration and simulated migration on curved substrates with different curvatures. The simulation results show that cell migration is more persistent on concave surfaces than on convex surfaces. We have further calculated analytically the cell shape and protrusion force for cells on curved substrates. We have shown that while cells spread out more on convex surfaces than on concave ones, the protrusion force magnitude in the direction of migration is larger on concave surfaces than on convex ones. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration: geometric constrains bias the direction of the protrusion force and facilitates persistent migration on concave surfaces.

  4. Superior-inferior position of patellar component affects patellofemoral kinematics and contact forces in computer simulation. (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nishitani, Kohei; Ito, Hiromu; Furu, Moritoshi; Matsuda, Shuichi


    Anterior knee pain has been reported as a major postoperative complication after total knee arthroplasty, which may lead to patient dissatisfaction. Rotational alignment and the medial-lateral position correlate with patellar maltracking, which can cause knee pain postoperatively. However, the superior-inferior position of the patellar component has not been investigated. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of the patellar superior-inferior position on patellofemoral kinematics and kinetics. Superior, central, and inferior models with a dome patellar component were constructed. In the superior and inferior models, the position of the patellar component translated superiorly and inferiorly, respectively, by 3mm, relative to the center model. Kinematics of the patellar component, quadriceps force, and patellofemoral contact force were calculated using a computer simulation during a squatting activity in a weight-bearing deep knee bend. In the inferior model, the flexion angle, relative to the tibial component, was the greatest among all models. The inferior model showed an 18.0%, 36.5%, and 22.7% increase in the maximum quadriceps force, the maximum medial patellofemoral force, and the maximum lateral patellofemoral force, respectively, compared with the superior model. Superior-inferior positions affected patellofemoral kinematic and kinetics. Surgeons should avoid the inferior position of the patellar component, because the inferior positioned model showed greater quadriceps and patellofemoral force, resulting in a potential risk for anterior knee pain and component loosening. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Migration of Highly Skilled Asian Workers


    Horáková, Jana


    This thesis is focused on migration of highly skilled workforce. The aim of this work to show current migration flows of highly skilled workers and particularly flows of highly skilled Asian migrants. First chapter explains migration terms and examines highly skilled migration causes through migration theories. Second chapter studies international migration flows and their long-term development. Last chapter is focused on migration flows of highly skilled Asians to OECD countries and within A...

  6. Aneurysm in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery variant: Case report and review of literature. (United States)

    Akhtar, Saad; Azeem, Abdul; Jiwani, Amyna; Javed, Gohar


    There are variations in the anatomy of the vertebrobasilar system amongst which the Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery-Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (AICA-PICA) variant is thought to have a prevalence of 20-24% (based on retrospective studies). Despite this, aneurysms of the AICA-PICA variant are rare. We present a case of an AICA-PICA aneurysm and discuss its presentation and management, along with a review of literature. We describe the case of a 35 year old female who presented with signs of meningismus. On the basis of radiological imaging it was initially misdiagnosed as a thrombosed arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The patient was eventually discharged with a plan of interval imaging and interventional radiology (if required). The patient presented again with similar signs and symptoms. Re-evaluation of imaging revealed an aneurysm of the AICA-PICA variant which was managed surgically. Aneurysms of the AICA-PICA variant are rare. The radiological features and surgical management represent a unique clinical entity and are discussed below. The prevalence of the AICA-PICA variant might be high but aneurysms in this vessel are rare. The scant knowledge available on this subject makes it a diagnostic difficulty. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Les questions de migrations internationales (Questions of International Migrations). (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane


    Education about international migration should (1) utilize a framework of historical evolution; (2) stress the growing interdependence of nations; (3) emphasize universal moral values and the role of the individual in human rights; and (4) consider the complementary or competing portraits of international migration presented by the media. (DMM)

  8. Countering inbreeding with migration 2. Migration from related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of migration rates is judged by the maximum difference ( 1 - k) in inbreeding between a subpopulation, of size N, and a con- ceptual aggregate random ... inbreeding coefficient of a subpopulation (single island) with migration from a very large noninbred population, ll(4M + l). ...... WH Freeman and Company, New York.

  9. Countering inbreeding with migration 1. Migration from unrelated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The eff'ect of migration on inbreeding is moclelled fbr small populations with immigrants from a large unrelated population. Different migration rates and numbers fbr the two sexes are assumed, and a general recursion equation for inbreeding progress derived, which can be shown to lead to an equilibrium inbreeding ...

  10. Abordagem fisioterapêutica do linfedema bilateral de membros inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Mutti Tacani

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O linfedema é um acúmulo de proteína no interstício em virtude de deficiência do sistema linfático, sendo recomendada a utilização da Terapia Física Complexa como forma de tratamento. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos da Terapia Física Complexa no tratamento e na manutenção do linfedema bilateral de membros inferiores. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo sete pacientes com linfedema bilateral nos membros inferiores, de faixa etária entre 59 e 85 anos, os quais foram submetidos a: 1ª avaliação fisioterapêutica, quando permaneceram sem tratamento (período controle; 2ª avaliação, quando receberam o tratamento fisioterapêutico (período tratamento - terapia física complexa - fase de redução; 3ª avaliação, quando receberam alta (período manutenção - terapia física complexa - fase de manutenção; e 4ª avaliação, para acompanhamento desse último período. O intervalo entre cada avaliação foi de 10 a 12 semanas. Os dados da perimetria foram transformados em volume do membro, por meio da fórmula do cone truncado, e a região do tornozelo foi avaliada pelo método da Figura Oito. RESULTADOS: A média da Figura Oito e do volume dos membros foi de 62,32 cm e 6233 ml, 62,57 cm e 6308 ml, 56,75 cm e 5505 ml, 57 cm e 5566 ml, respectivamente para 1ª, 2ª, 3ª e 4ª avaliações. Pelos testes de Friedman e Wilcoxon, observou-se diferença significativa entre a 3ª e a 4ª avaliações, quando comparadas à 1ª e à 2ª (p < 0,001, para ambas as variáveis, mostrando redução significante do linfedema e sua estabilização durante o período de manutenção. CONCLUSÃO: A terapia física complexa foi eficaz no tratamento e na manutenção do linfedema bilateral de membros inferiores.

  11. Effects of the normalizing time and temperature on the impact properties of ASTM A-516 grade 70 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, T.; Cescon, T.


    The influence of normalizing time and temperature, as well as the plate thickness, on the impact properties of ASTM A-516 grade 70 steel, is studied. Results show that different normalizing conditions may lead to equivalent microstructure with different impact properties. Normalizing conditions that cause low cooling rate in the critical zone exhibit banded microstructure with inferior impact properties. (Author) [pt

  12. Nightly Test system migration

    CERN Document Server

    Win-Lime, Kevin


    The summer student program allows students to participate to the Cern adventure. They can follow several interesting lectures about particle science and participate to the experiment work. As a summer student, I had worked for LHCb experiment. LHCb uses a lot of software to analyze its data. All this software is organized in packages and projects. They are built and tested during the night using an automated system and the results are displayed on a web interface. Actually, LHCb is changing this system. It is looking for a replacement candidate. So I was charged to unify some internal interfaces to permit a swift migration. In this document, I will describe shortly the system used by LHCb, then I will explain what I have done in detail.

  13. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements......, and conclude that the currently believed theoretical framework is insufficient to explain the observed performance. The other study investigates the ability of a displaced experienced migrant to navigate back to the normal migration route. It documents the capability, but also finds interesting patterns...

  14. Migration - utopia or myopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Osborne


    Full Text Available Peter Osborne spent a sabbatical in northern America and was surprised that so many scientists and students stated that caribou migration was largely the result of mosquito pressure. He failed however to find any documented evidence of this claim although he was constantly confronted by the well known «facts» that mosquitoes had been observed to drive caribou crazy and even kill juveniles. The issue Osborne wishes to focus is that an experimentally unsubstantiated anthropomorphism appears to have become critical evidence in support of a theory. A recent article in Nature (393, 511-513, 1998 devoted to the uses of 'science in fiction' to stimulate thought and discussion about aspects of academia encouraged him to write the following comment in the form of a parody of ancient Greek dialogues.

  15. Migration issues important -- Mongolia. (United States)


    Migration and urbanization are issues that require increasing attention in Mongolia. Mr. Sodov Sonin, Minister of Health and Social Welfare, stated at the Forum that fertility has declined, but mortality, in particular the mortality of children and mothers, is still too high. In addition, there is a significant gap between the knowledge of and behaviors concerning reproductive health, which is one of the causes of the country's high abortion rates. However, on the positive side, literacy is high among women--70% of the students in Mongolia's higher educational institutions are female and the State recognizes equal rights for women. Moreover, programs that promote health and education, including the National Program on Reproductive Health, are being implemented; but despite all these, Mongolia still lacks the human and financial resources to implement the ICPD Program of Action satisfactorily. The country also needs dramatic changes in mind-set and in terms of capacity building, given its ongoing socioeconomic transition.

  16. Migration: the trends converge. (United States)


    Formerly, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the US have served as permanent destinations for immigrants, while Europe's migrants have moved to more northerly countries to work for a time and then returned home. From 1973-1975 Europe's recruitment of foreign workers virtually ended, although family reunion for those immigrants allowed in was encouraged. Problems resulting from this new settlement migration include low paying jobs for immigrant women, high unemployment, and inadequate education for immigrant children. Illegal migrants from Latin America and the Caribbean enter the US and Canada each year while illegal North African immigrants enter Italy, Spain, and Greece. North America, Australia, and Europe have all received political refugees from Asia and Latin America. Increasingly, these foreigners compete in the labor market rather than simply fill jobs the native workers do not want. All the receiving countries have similar policy priorities: 1) more effective ways for controlling and monitoring inflows and checking illegal immigration; 2) encouraging normal living patterns and accepting refugees; and 3) integrating permanent migrants into the host country. Europe's public immigration encouragement prior to the first oil shock, has left some countries with a labor force that is reluctant to return home. It is unlikely that Europe will welcome foreign labor again in this decade, since unemployment among young people and women is high and family reunion programs may still bring in many immigrants. Less immigration pattern change will probably occur in North America, Australia, and New Zealand since these countries' populations are still growing and wages are more flexible. Immigration, regulated by policy, and emigration, determined by market forces, now are working in the same direction and will likely reduce future migration flows.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș Mitrofan


    Full Text Available  The study of epidemics, especially the ancient ones, has long eluded our scientists. And so, we have tried to use a different approach and different ways of studying the disastrous effects of such an epidemic, in the 2nd  century A.D. The goal of this paper is to analyze aspects such as chronology, expansion, and the effects of the disease, and especially, to raise a question about its presence in the roman provinces of Dacia and Moesia Inferior. Whether the presence of a full scale epidemic can be argued, evidence of disturbance can be found by numerous means .In the end, such scientific approach on epidemics can hold valuable clues regarding the rise and fall of civilizations and empires.      

  18. Auditory recognition memory is inferior to visual recognition memory. (United States)

    Cohen, Michael A; Horowitz, Todd S; Wolfe, Jeremy M


    Visual memory for scenes is surprisingly robust. We wished to examine whether an analogous ability exists in the auditory domain. Participants listened to a variety of sound clips and were tested on their ability to distinguish old from new clips. Stimuli ranged from complex auditory scenes (e.g., talking in a pool hall) to isolated auditory objects (e.g., a dog barking) to music. In some conditions, additional information was provided to help participants with encoding. In every situation, however, auditory memory proved to be systematically inferior to visual memory. This suggests that there exists either a fundamental difference between auditory and visual stimuli, or, more plausibly, an asymmetry between auditory and visual processing.

  19. Evidence of Mirror Neurons in Human Inferior Frontal Gyrus (United States)

    Kilner, James M.; Neal, Alice; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Friston, Karl J.; Frith, Chris D.


    There is much current debate about the existence of mirror neurons in humans. To identify mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans we employed a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either executed or observed a series of actions. Here we show that in the IFG, responses were suppressed both when an executed action was followed by the same rather than a different observed action and when an observed action was followed by the same rather than a different executed action. This pattern of responses is consistent with that predicted by mirror neurons and is evidence of mirror neurons in the human IFG. PMID:19675249

  20. Efficiency of Intraligamentary Anesthesia of Inferior Molars for Endodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.


    Full Text Available The periodontal ligament injection appears to be the most consistently reliable in achieving clinically adequate pulpal anaesthesia. Materials and Methods: 130 inferior molar teeth; technique: The tooth was first cleaned with chlorhexidine 0.2% solution. The penetration of the ligament is performed with special intraligamentary needle (30 G - 9, 17,21 mm “sliding” along the side of the tooth, 300º angle between the needle and the tooth, having taken the care of determining support points which will prevent the needle from twisting. The penetration must be deep enough to obtain the seal required for the injection, injection for each root in particular points; volume of solution per root is 0.2-0.4 ml. Results: In 125 cases the technique was absolutely efficient. In only 5 cases with pulpitis chronica ulcerosa there was need for additional intrapulpal anesthesia. Conclusions: The method could be used as a primary anesthetic method for endodontic treatment.

  1. Recidiva en vena cava inferior de carcinoma suprarrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Orrit


    Full Text Available Paciente de 15 meses sometido a resección de masa suprarrenal derecha. Estudio de extensión negativo e histología de tumor adrenocortical. Dos meses después presenta recidiva tumoral en vena cava inferior (VCI a nivel de venas suprahepáticas que se reseca bajo hipotermia profunda y parada circulatoria (19 min (Fig. 1. Se extrae una masa friable de 25 × 20 mm que ocluye la VCI, sin evidencia de resto tumoral, aunque se considera resección incompleta al estar infiltradas las paredes de VCI. La histología confirma carcinoma suprarrenal (Fig. 2. A los 5 meses sigue quimioterapia sin datos de nueva invasión de VCI.

  2. Modified technique for preservation of inferior alveolar nerve during mandibulectomy. (United States)

    Chen, Min-Jie; Yang, Chi; Huang, Dong; He, Dong-Mei; Wang, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Wen-Hao


    The purpose of this article is to introduce the modified technique of preservation of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) during mandibulectomy for a benign lesion. Five cases of osteofibrous hyperplasia and 3 cases of centricity osteomyelitis were included. During surgery, the IAN was marked using a planned cutting guide. Using an oscillating saw, the depth of the osteotomy along the IAN was controlled until the bone cortex was cut through. After splitting, the bony section was removed, leaving the neurovascular bundle intact. The sensation of the lower lip was evaluated using current perceptive threshold testing during follow-up. After follow-up for 6-27 months, no recurrence or secondary deformity was found. One patient had severe sensory disturbance. With the use of a cutting guide and osteotomy tricks, mandibulectomy with preservation of the IAN can be accurately performed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anatomy and radiology of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimans, J.J.


    This study describes the variations of the Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (AICA) and identifies its types of appearance in normal angiograms as well as in angiograms of patients suffering from posterior fossa tumours or from ischemic lesions in the vertebro-basilar territory. For this purpose a study of 20 normal specimens was undertaken. Four main types of the AICA are distinguished. One hundred normal vertebral angiograms, made between 1976 and 1982 in the Valeriuskliniek and the Academisch Ziekenhuis der Vrije Univesiteit are reviewed. The AICA's are classified in the same way as in the anatomical study. The same classification was used in the analysis of 41 vertebral angiograms of patients with posterior fossa tumours and nine angiograms of patients with ischemic disturbances in the posterior cranial fossa. (Auth.)

  4. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms mimicking vestibular schwannomas. (United States)

    Marchini, Aïda Kawkabani; Mosimann, Pascal J; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Boukobza, Monique; Houdart, Emmanuel


    Unruptured anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysms are rare but potentially lethal cerebellopontine angle (CPA) lesions that may be misdiagnosed as vestibular schwannomas when they present with vestibulo-cochlear symptoms. We report two cases of unruptured but symptomatic AICA aneurysms initially referred to us as atypical vestibular schwannomas requiring surgery. Two discriminant MR features are described. One patient refused treatment. The other was successfully treated by coil occlusion. Caution is advised before suspecting a CPA mass to be a purely extra-canalicular schwannoma, given its extreme rarity. Deafness and cerebellar ischemia may be prevented if AICA aneurysms are correctly identified preoperatively. In the absence of specific arterial imaging, two MR features may distinguish them from vestibular schwannomas: (1) the absence of internal auditory canal enlargement and (2) the "blurry dot sign," representing blood flow artefacts on pre- and postcontrast studies. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  5. Endovascular treatment of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradac, G.B.; Bergui, M. [Neuroradiology, Univ. di Torino, Turin (Italy)


    Aneurysms may arise at various locations along the course of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Brainstem and cranial nerves manipulation make the surgical approach to proximal aneurysms difficult, while the occlusion of the parent vessel is sometimes unavoidable in peripheral aneurysms. Endovascular treatment can be a good alternative, but also with this approach the location of the aneurysm is critical. If occlusion of the parent vessel is planned, anatomical variations and vascular territories of the brainstem should be considered. We report our experience with 18 consecutive aneurysms (12 proximal, 6 peripheral) treated by coils. Complete occlusion was achieved in 14 patients and subtotal in 4. In three patients the parent vessel had to be sacrificed. During treatment two perforations occurred; aneurysms were completely occluded without clinical consequences. Two small asymptomatic cerebellar infarctions were seen on postoperative computed tomography. Clinical outcome was good in 16 patients. (orig.)

  6. Marker-Negative Pheochromocytoma Associated with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Poudyal


    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma associated with inferior vena cava (IVC thrombosis is very rare. A 27-year-old female presented with right flank pain and hypertensive urgency. Contrast-enhanced CT abdomen and gadolinium-contrast MRI abdomen revealed right adrenal mass suspicious of malignancy with invasion and compression to the right IVC wall along with IVC thrombus extending from the level of renal veins to the level of confluence with hepatic veins. Her routine laboratory investigations including 24-hour urine fractionated metanephrines, vanillylmandelic acid, and cortisol were normal. Right adrenalectomy with IVC thrombectomy was done. Perioperative period was uneventful. Histopathology of the mass turned out to be pheochromocytoma with thrombus revealing fibroadipose tissue with fibrin. Pheochromocytoma may present with IVC thrombus as well as normal serum and urinary markers. Thus, clinical suspicion is imperative in perioperative management of adrenal mass.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Torren


    Full Text Available El presente artículo es una síntesis del trabajo "Rasgos Geográficos del Valle del Río Agrio Inferior, el cual es un estudio de base para el conocimiento de la geografía de la región: - apoyando el esfuerzo que está realizando la población del área para lograr una identidad propia y una definitiva integración al contexto provincial; - aportando al proyecto "Rescate Arqueológico en Quili Malal, Neuquén" (subsidiado por CONICET y UNESCO, cuya dirección está a cargo de la profesora Susana Rodríguez de la U.N.C., a través de la confección del mapa geomorfológico del área; y - contribuyendo a los estudios que resultan necesarios ante la construcción de una obra hidroeléctrica de la magnitud de "El Chihuido I", emprendimiento que será llevado a cabo por Agua y Energía eléctrica de la Nación. Los límites del área estudiada fueron establecidos teniendo en cuenta el área del valle inferior del Río Agrio que será completamente inundada por el futuro embalse de la represa "El Chihuido I", a emplazarse 5,5 Km aguas abajo de la confluencia de los ríos Agrio y Neuquén. Además de esta área de afectación directa se tomó también una zona de perilago estrechamente vinculada a la anterior. De esta manera los límites este y oeste quedaron establecidos por la confluencia de los ríos antes mencionados y la localidad de Bajada del Agrio, respectivamente.

  8. Percutaneous placement of bird's nest inferior vena cava filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Yoon, Hyun Ki


    To describe clinical experiences of the use of Bird's Nest inferior vena cava(IVC) filter. Between August 1991 and August 1997, IVC filter was percutaneously inserted in 51 patients with pulmonary embolism(PE) and deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities. Indications for the placement of this filter were contraindication to anticoagulation in 17 patients, prophylaxis of PE in 17, failed anticoagulation in 11, massive PE with residual floating thrombus in three and complications involving anticoagulation in 3. In order to delineate the location of renal vein and extension of deep vein thrombosis into the IVC, all patients under went inferior vena cavography before filter placement. Thirty filters were inserted through the right femoral vein, 19 through the right internal jugular vein and three through the left femoral vein. The patients involved were followed up for periods ranging from one week to six years (mean 10 months). A Bird's Nest IVC filter was placed in the infrarenal IVC in 44 patients and in the suprarenal IVC in 7. Certain complicatioins ensued. IVC penetration occurred in three patients(5.9%), and in seven(1.37%) the filter wire prolapsed. Except for transient pain, however, there were no serious IVC penetration-related complications and no evidence of recurrence of PE in the cases involving prolapse of the filter wire. During follow up, clinically suspected recurrent PE was noted in two patients(3.9%), but there was no evidence of newly developed occlusion of the IVC. In patients who under went follow up, Bird's Nest IVC filter effectively prevented the development and recurrence of PE, and there were no complications. To prevent of penetration of the IVC and prolapse of the filter, however, technical skill was needed

  9. Anterior and nasal transposition of the inferior oblique muscles. (United States)

    Stager, David R; Beauchamp, George R; Wright, Weldon W; Felius, Joost; Stager, David


    When performing anterior transposition of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle, placement of the posterior suture close to the lateral border of insertion of the inferior rectus (IR) muscle decreases the incidence of antielevation syndrome (AES). We hypothesized that placement of the suture nasal to the IR muscle insertion will convert the IO muscle into an intorter and depressor. Here we present the first series of results obtained with a new procedure for the treatment of elevation in adduction with extorsion and abnormal head postures. Twenty patients with IO muscle overaction, superior oblique (SO) muscle palsy, absent SO muscles, AES, or Duane syndrome were studied. Before surgery, each patient showed at least one, but often more, of the following signs: elevation in adduction, exotropia (XT) in up gaze, abnormal head posture, and extorsion. Each underwent anterior and nasal transposition (ANT) of the IO muscle, with the new insertion typically 2 mm nasal and 2 mm posterior to the nasal border of the IR muscle insertion. Large improvements in ocular alignment, extorsion, and head posture were found in most patients. However, a poor result was noted in a patient with Y-pattern XT, who developed a mild amount of comitant XT after an extreme degree of ANT (4 mm nasal and 3 mm anterior to the nasal border of the IR muscle insertion). In Duane syndrome, ANT corrects upshoot, but downshoot may get worse. Mersilene permanent sutures, rather than dissolving suture materials, are recommended to avoid postoperative retraction of muscle fibers. ANT converts the IO muscle into an intorter and tonic depressor and can significantly improve elevation in adduction. This procedure seems particularly useful in patients with severe or recurrent congenital and acquired SO palsies, particularly as a secondary procedure. Extreme ANT may induce exotropia in the primary position.

  10. Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava related to Ormond's disease. (United States)

    Paetzold, Sascha; Gary, Thomas; Hafner, Franz; Brodmann, Marianne


    A 46-year-old female patient presenting with unspecific lower back pain, diffuse abdominal pain, and slightly elevated body temperature was referred to the hospital. The X-ray of the spine detected an unspecific sclerotic lesion of the third lumbar vertebra; an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan was performed. In this scan, a sheeting of the infrarenal abdominal aorta, a streaky densification of the periaortal fatty tissue, and a nearly complete thrombotic occlusion of the inferior vena cava and both iliac veins was detected. As these findings are typical for acute aortitis and this is a life-threatening disease, the patient was transferred to a university hospital. Imaging work-up including ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and 18-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography were performed after transfer. These examinations showed acute aortitis due to Ormond's disease. Furthermore, there was a thrombotic occlusion of the inferior vena cava due to a compression of the vein by inflamed connective tissue. This is a rare finding in Ormond's disease. We decided to treat our patient with a combined therapy including glucocorticoids and tamoxifen for 2 years. During these 2 years and the further follow-up period, the patient showed no relapse of the inflammatory disease. Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare but increasingly recognized disease characterized by the presence of fibro-inflammatory tissue, usually surrounding the abdominal aorta and the iliac arteries. This fibrotic tissue extends into the retroperitoneum and thus encases structures, for example, the ureters. Retroperitoneal fibrosis is generally idiopathic. It can also be secondary to certain drugs, malignant diseases, infections, surgery, and other triggering factors. Ormond's disease may lead to serious complications like renal failure. This can be avoided by successful treatment when diagnosed early.

  11. Pseudoaneurisma Ventricular Izquierdo en Cara Inferior con Flujo Bidireccional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián J Da Silva-De Abreu


    Full Text Available Los pseudoaneurismas son complicaciones infrecuentes de los infartos del miocardio. Consisten en un saco pericárdico que comunica con la cavidad ventricular a través de un cuello de menor diámetro. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 68 años de edad, con DM II e HTA, sufre Infarto Agudo del Miocardio en Mayo del 2008, presentando disnea y tos por una semana, con diaforesis profusa de inicio súbito y síncope sin dolor precordial. El electrocardiograma reporta zonas de isquemia transmural y subendocárdica en caras inferolateral y lateral alta, respectivamente, y zona eléctricamente inactivable en cara inferior. El ecocardiograma transtorácico muestra el ventrículo izquierdo con dilatación severa, disminución de la fracción de eyección (25% y un pseudoaneurisma de la pared inferior con cuello de 3 mm a través del cual se evidencia flujo bidireccional, de entrada al ventrículo durante la diástole y salida al pseudoaneurisma en sístole. El flujo bidireccional y el gasto cardíaco disminuido contribuyen a evitar el taponamiento cardiaco, sin embargo, en condiciones de mayor demanda el pseudoaneurisma podría perforarse y ocasionar dicha entidad. De ello, la importancia del diagnostico diferencial con los aneurismas verdaderos, lo cual permite llevar a cabo la terapéutica adecuada y evitar tal complicación.

  12. Pseudoaneurisma Ventricular Izquierdo en Cara Inferior con Flujo Bidireccional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián J Da Silva-De Abreu


    Full Text Available Los pseudoaneurismas son complicaciones infrecuentes de los infartos del miocardio. Consisten en un saco pericárdico que comunica con la cavidad ventricular a través de un cuello de menor diámetro. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 68 años de edad, con DM II e HTA, sufre Infarto Agudo del Miocardio en Mayo del 2008, presentando disnea y tos por una semana, con diaforesis profusa de inicio súbito y síncope sin dolor precordial. El electrocardiograma reporta zonas de isquemia transmural y subendocárdica en caras inferolateral y lateral alta; respectivamente, y zona eléctricamente inactivable en cara inferior. El ecocardiograma transtorácico muestra el ventrículo izquierdo con dilatación severa, disminución de la fracción de eyección (25% y un pseudoaneurisma de la pared inferior con cuello de 3 mm a través del cual se evidencia flujo bidireccional: de entrada al ventrículo durante la diástole y salida al pseudoaneurisma en sístole. El flujo bidireccional y el gasto cardíaco disminuido contribuyen a evitar el taponamiento cardiaco, sin embargo, en condiciones de mayor demanda el pseudoaneurisma podría perforarse y ocasionar dicha entidad. De ello, la importancia del diagnostico diferencial con los aneurismas verdaderos, lo cual permite llevar a cabo la terapéutica adecuada y evitar tal complicación. Palabras claves: Pseudoaneurisma, Infarto del Miocardio, Diabetes.

  13. Interrogating the Mediterranean 'Migration Crisis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.


    This Forum aims to uncover the socio-politics of the ‘migration crisis’ in the Mediterranean. The contributions explore the idea of the ‘migration crisis’ or ‘refugee crisis’ in the Mediterranean from the starting point that as scholars of the Mediterranean we can do two things: one, we can look at

  14. Family migration and migrant integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Kraler, A.; Triandafyllidou, A.


    Family migration and integration are intimately related concepts in contemporary policy discourses in major migrant receiving countries. In these discourses, both family related migration as such and the migrant family as an institution are problematised with regard to their relation to integration.

  15. Challenged by migration: Europe's options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constant, Amelie F.; Zimmermann, Klaus F.


    This paper examines the migration and labour mobility in the European Union and elaborates on their importance for the existence of the EU. Against all measures of success, the current public debate seems to suggest that the political consensus that migration is beneficial is broken. This comes with

  16. The Migration Experience of Blacks (United States)

    Long, Larry


    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights, concludes that in many ways northern cities seem to be characterized not so much by excessive migration of blacks from the south, but by inadequate migration from one northern metropolitan area to another. (Author/JM)

  17. Cohort Size Effects and Migration. (United States)

    Wilson, Franklin D.


    Explores whether changes in the size of cohorts entering the labor force affected the propensity within the U.S. labor force to migrate and socioeconomic circumstances of migrants at destination within 1965-76. Suggests that a significant reduction in the volume of migration among members of the baby boom cohort was the primary adjustment…

  18. Migration in birds and fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, J.


    Our knowledge concerning the periodical movements in animals called migrations is chiefly based on observations on birds. By and by, however, a number of facts concerning migration in other animal groups have been assembled and it seems worth while to compare them with those known for birds. There

  19. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.


    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  20. South-South Migration and Remittances


    Ratha, Dilip; Shaw, William


    South-South Migration and Remittances reports on preliminary results from an ongoing effort to improve data on bilateral migration stocks. It sets out some working hypotheses on the determinants and socioeconomic implications of South-South migration. Contrary to popular perception that migration is mostly a South-North phenomenon, South-South migration is large. Available data from nation...

  1. Middle and Inferior Temporal Gyrus Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Chronic Schizophrenia: An MRI Study


    Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Shenton, Martha E.; Salisbury, Dean F.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Kasai, Kiyoto; Toner, Sarah K.; Frumin, Melissa; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; McCarley, Robert W.


    Objective: The middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus subserve language and semantic memory processing, visual perception, and multimodal sensory integration. Functional deficits in these cognitive processes have been well documented in patients with schizophrenia. However, there have been few in vivo structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus in schizophrenia. Method: Middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyru...

  2. Wages, Welfare Benefits and Migration. (United States)

    Kennan, John; Walker, James R


    Differences in economic opportunities give rise to strong migration incentives, across regions within countries, and across countries. In this paper we focus on responses to differences in welfare benefits across States. We apply the model developed in Kennan and Walker (2008), which emphasizes that migration decisions are often reversed, and that many alternative locations must be considered. We model individual decisions to migrate as a job search problem. A worker starts the life-cycle in some home location and must determine the optimal sequence of moves before settling down. The model is sparsely parameterized. We estimate the model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Our main finding is that income differences do help explain the migration decisions of young welfare-eligible women, but large differences in benefit levels provide surprisingly weak migration incentives.

  3. Measuring International Migration in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yüksel


    Full Text Available International migration significantly affects economic, social, cultural, and political factors of the country. Owing to this situation, it can be said that the reasons of international migration should be analyzed in order to control this problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the influencing factors of international migration in Azerbaijan. In this scope, annual data of 11 explanatory variables for the period of 1995–2015 was analyzed via Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS method. According to the results of this analysis, it was identified that people prefer to move other countries in case of high unemployment rates. In addition, the results of the study show that population growth and high mortality rate increases the migration level. While considering these results, it was recommended that Azerbaijan should focus on these aspects to control international migration problem.

  4. Current Migration Movements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zlatković Winter


    Full Text Available After a brief historical review of migrations in Europe, the paper focuses on current migration trends and their consequences. At the end of the 1950s, Western Europe began to recruit labour from several Mediterranean countries – Italy, Spain, Portugal and former Yugoslavia, and later from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Turkey. Some countries, such as France, Great Britain and the Netherlands, recruited also workers from their former colonies. In 1970 Germany had the highest absolute number of foreigners, followed by France, and then Switzerland and Belgium. The total number of immigrants in Western Europe was twelve million. During the 1970s mass recruitment of foreign workers was abandoned, and only the arrival of their family members was permitted, which led to family reunification in the countries of employment. Europe closed its borders, with the result that clandestine migration increased. The year 1989 was a turning point in the history of international migrations. The political changes in Central and Eastern Europe brought about mass migration to the West, which culminated in the so-called “mass movement of 1989–1990”. The arrival of ethnic Germans in Germany, migration inside and outside of the territory of the former Soviet Union, an increase in the number of asylum seekers and displaced persons, due to armed conflicts, are – according to the author – the main traits of current migration. The main part of the paper discusses the causes and effects of this mass wave, as well as trends in labour migration, which is still present. The second part of the paper, after presenting a typology of migrations, deals with the complex processes that brought about the formation of new communities and led to the phenomenon of new ethnic minorities and to corresponding migration policies in Western European countries that had to address these issues.

  5. Strain Distribution in the Anterior Inferior Tibiofibular Ligament, Posterior Inferior Tibiofibular Ligament, and Interosseous Membrane Using Digital Image Correlation. (United States)

    Xu, Daorong; Wang, Yibei; Jiang, Chunyu; Fu, Maoqing; Li, Shiqi; Qian, Lei; Sun, Peidong; Ouyang, Jun


    Ligament repair and augmentation techniques can stabilize syndesmosis injuries. However, little is known about the mechanical behavior of syndesmotic ligaments. The aim of this study was to analyze full-field strain, strain trend under foot rotation, and subregional strain differences of the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL), posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (PITFL), and interosseous membrane (IOM). Eleven fresh-frozen lower limbs were dissected to expose the AITFL, PITFL, and IOM. The foot underwent rotation from 0° to 25° internal and 35° external, with 3 ankle positions (neutral, 15° dorsiflexion, and 25° plantarflexion) and a vertical load of 430 N. Ligament strain was recorded using digital image correlation. The mean strain on the AITFL with 35° external rotation was greater in the proximal portion compared with distal portion in the neutral position ( P = .009) and dorsiflexion ( P = .003). The mean strain in the tibial insertion and midsubstance near tibial insertion were greater when compared with other regions ( P = .018 and P = .009). The subregions of mean strain in the PITFL and IOM groups were not significantly different. The strain trend of AITFL, PITFL, and IOM showed common transformation, just when the foot was externally rotated. The findings of this study show that a significantly high strain was observed on the proximal part and the midsubstance near the Chaput tubercle of the AITFL when the ankle was externally rotated. All 3 ligaments resisted the torque in the syndesmosis by external rotation of the foot. This study allows for better understanding of the mechanical behavior of the syndesmosis ligaments, which could influence the repair technique and AITFL augmentation techniques.

  6. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin


    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  7. The World Economy and Contemporary Migration. (United States)

    Chaney, Elsa M.


    This article discusses international migration as an economic and political concern, comments on recent literature dealing with social aspects of migration, and introduces the articles which follow in this special journal issue dedicated to Caribbean migration to New York. (MC)

  8. Migration of dispersive GPR data (United States)

    Powers, M.H.; Oden, C.P.; ,


    Electrical conductivity and dielectric and magnetic relaxation phenomena cause electromagnetic propagation to be dispersive in earth materials. Both velocity and attenuation may vary with frequency, depending on the frequency content of the propagating energy and the nature of the relaxation phenomena. A minor amount of velocity dispersion is associated with high attenuation. For this reason, measuring effects of velocity dispersion in ground penetrating radar (GPR) data is difficult. With a dispersive forward model, GPR responses to propagation through materials with known frequency-dependent properties have been created. These responses are used as test data for migration algorithms that have been modified to handle specific aspects of dispersive media. When either Stolt or Gazdag migration methods are modified to correct for just velocity dispersion, the results are little changed from standard migration. For nondispersive propagating wavefield data, like deep seismic, ensuring correct phase summation in a migration algorithm is more important than correctly handling amplitude. However, the results of migrating model responses to dispersive media with modified algorithms indicate that, in this case, correcting for frequency-dependent amplitude loss has a much greater effect on the result than correcting for proper phase summation. A modified migration is only effective when it includes attenuation recovery, performing deconvolution and migration simultaneously.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia COJOCARU


    Full Text Available This paper presents recent trends and flows of labor migration and its impact on economic and social life. Main aim of this research sets up the influence of the migration on the European economics and its competitiveness. Methods of research are: method of comparison, analysis method, method of deduction, method of statistics, modeling method. The economic impact of migration has been intensively studied but is still often driven by ill-informed perceptions, which, in turn, can lead to public antagonism towards migration. These negative views risk jeopardising efforts to adapt migration policies to the new economic and demographic challenges facing many countries. Migration Policy looks at the evidence for how immigrants affect the economy in three main areas: The labour market, public purse and economic growth. In Europe, the scope of labour mobility greatly increased within the EU/EFTA zones following the EU enlargements of 2004, 2007 and 2014-2015. This added to labour markets’ adjustment capacity. Recent estimates suggest that as much as a quarter of the asymmetric labour market shock – that is occurring at different times and with different intensities across countries – may have been absorbed by migration within a year.

  10. Psychosocial Aspects of Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Tuzcu


    Full Text Available The incident of migration that occurs as a result of the mobility of individuals between various regions and is considered a social change process brings along various factors. Among these factors, the most important one is the culture of the new society where the immigrant begins to live and the process of adaptation with this culture. Individuals from different cultures are required to live together, cope with differences and overcome the difficulties. The process of adaptation to the new lifestyle might cause the individual to have some feelings such as loneliness, socially isolation, being alienated, being regretful and self-depreciation, and consequently experience a greater stress. Being unable to cope with stress efficiently creates risks in individuals in terms of health problems such as anxiety and depression. Healthcare professionals are required to evaluate life styles, difficulties and coping levels of immigrants in order to protect and develop their mental health. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 56-66

  11. Income Inequality and Migration in Vietnam


    NGUYEN, Tien Dung


    In this paper, we have analyzed the recent trends in income inequality, internal and international migrations and investigated the impact of migration on income distribution in Vietnam. Our analysis shows that the effects of migration on income inequality vary with different types of migration, depending on who migrate and where they migrate. Foreign remittances tend to flow toward more affluent households, and they increase income inequality. By contrast, domestic remittances accrue more to ...

  12. Population commission discusses international migration. (United States)


    At the 30th session of the Commission on Population and Development during February 24-28, 1997, international migration was the main topic, with special linkages between migration and development and on gender issues and the family. New and emerging issues were also considered. Members stressed the need for more reliable data on migration, the direction of migrants flows, and the characteristics of migrants. The Commission requested a task force on basic social services to hold a technical symposium of experts on international migration in 1998. Its chair, Dr. Nafis Sadik, said that migration issues should based on the reality of choice not on coercive measures or quotas. Almost half of the migrants globally are women. The Commission was given a new impetus by the International Conference on Population and Development held at Cairo in 1994. Migration pressures intensified in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s, creating areas of concern: the negative impact of short-term migration on working conditions in host countries; migration pressures emanating from climatic change; the protection of migrant women and their children; the right of receiving countries to regulate access to their territory; the adverse consequences of forced migration; the situation of persons whose asylum claims have been rejected; the trafficking in women and children, prostitution and coercive adoption; and the sudden and massive arrival of refugees in need of international protection. The 1998 session of the Commission will feature the theme of health and mortality, with special emphasis on the linkages between health and development and on gender and age.

  13. MOOC and mechanized grading


    Queinnec, Christian


    4 pages; As many others, we too are developping a Massive Online Open Course or MOOC. This MOOC will teach recursive programming for beginnners and makes an heavy use of an already existing infrastructure for mechanical grading. This paper presents some ideas on how to combine these two components along with some (untested) incentives in order to increase students' involvement.

  14. Grades as Information (United States)

    Grant, Darren


    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  15. Purpose-Driven Grading (United States)

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann


    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  16. Cutting Class Harms Grades (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III


    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  17. Endangered Animals. Second Grade. (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  18. Grading Classroom Participation. (United States)

    Bean, John C.; Peterson, Dean


    Grading class participation can send positive signals to college students about the kind of learning and thinking an instructor values. Various structures for participation (whole-class discussion, cold-calling on students, collaborative learning, electronic mail, journals, student-faculty conferences) call for different approaches to assessment.…

  19. Migration and Fertility in Pakistan




    The phenomena of migration and fertility has not drawn much attention in Pakistan. A few studies based on census data, the National bnpact Survey 1968-69 and the Population Growth Survey 1968-71 showed higher crude birth rates for rural areas than for urban areas. However, recent studies showed higher urban fertility in Pakistan. In view of the increasing rate of rural migration to the urban areas it is important to understand the contribution of migration to popUlation growth. The main objec...

  20. [The productive structure and migration]. (United States)

    Fernandez, M


    The author discusses the possibility of determining the proper approach to the study of migration, with a focus on the importance of global, structural, and historical analysis of the phenomenon. A general theoretical outline is presented that tends to show migration as an integral part of the process of social change. The sociological focus on modernization as a theoretical guide influencing the study of migration in Latin America is evaluated. The concept of overpopulation is explained in relation to the migratory process, with reference to capitalist and non-capitalist forms of production.

  1. Migration of Pu and Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.M.; Fried, A.; Hines, J.; Quarterman, L.


    Results are reported from studies on the mechanisms involved in the migration of long-lived isotopes of Pu and Am released from radioactive waste depositories through fissures or pores in rocks and soils. The surface absorption coefficients of Pu and Am were measured in a static system by equilibrating solid samples of stone (solid cores of Los Alamos tuff and Idaho basalt) of known surface area with solutions of Pu or Am in the appropriate chemical milieu. It was shown that the static coefficients and physical constants of the system were sufficient to predict the distance migrated. A computer model of Pu and Am migration was developed

  2. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...... increased wages and lower unemployment, foreign workers are adversely affected....

  3. Migration aspirations in Ukraine: Human rights violations as migration drivers


    Borshchevska, Yuliya


    Ukraine is ranked highly among emigration countries and in particular among countries supplying labor migrants to the EU and Russia. The slumping economy and deteriorating political situation with an increasing number of authoritarian traits logically evoke the question of how non-economic motivation factors impact migration aspirations in Ukraine. The worsening human rights situation in the country is, in a way, seen as a separate matter and is not always associated with migration. This arti...

  4. Inferior vena cava dimensions in patients with acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Yepes-Hurtado


    Full Text Available Background: Volume contraction frequently contributes to the development of acute kidney injury.  The rapid assessment of volume status in patients with acute kidney injury could improve decision making and outcomes. Methods: The maximum and minimum diameters and percent collapsibility of the inferior vena cava (IVC were measured in 30 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit with laboratory evidence of acute kidney injury.  These measurements were made on the day of admission and 24 hours following admission.  Information about age, gender, body mass index, serum creatinine levels, and fluid balances was recorded. Results: This study included 30 patients with a mean age is 62.4 ±16.0 years.  The mean initial creatinine was 4.3 ± 4.2 mg/dL (range: 1.7 mg/dL to 22.1 mg/dL.  The mean fractional excretion of sodium was 2.06 ± 2.65%.  The mean maximum diameter of inferior vena cava was 1.8 ± 0.5 cm with the range is 0.4-2.65 cm.  The mean percent collapse was 32 ± 20%.  Five patients had evidence of hypovolemia using guidelines from the American Society of Echocardiology; 6 patients had evidence of hypervolemia.  Nineteen patients had measurements between these 2 categories.  There is no significant change in mean diameters following fluid administration for 24 hours.  An initial IVC diameter of 0.94 cm predicted ≥ 30% collapsibility with an area under the curve is 0.748. Discussion: Patients with acute kidney injury based on laboratory measurements had evidence for hypovolemia, euvolemia, and hypervolemia based on IVC measurements.  There was no consistent change in IVC dimensions following fluid administration, even though the creatinine fell in most patients.  Simple bedside measurements of IVC dimensions can facilitate fluid administration decisions but must be used with clinical assessment.

  5. Is 2 mm a safe distance from the inferior alveolar canal to avoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 30, 2015 ... related to implants inserted closer than 2 mm to the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) with those inserted further than 2 ... KEYWORDS: Dental implants, inferior alveolar nerve injury, neurosensory complication. Department of .... such injury occurs, a complete healing is difficult if the extent of the injury is not minor ...

  6. Enlargement of the vena azygos in case of agenesia of the vena cava inferior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetter, G.; Pallapies, V.; Lange, S.


    The article discusses a case of complete agenesia of the vena cava inferior. In compensation of this malformation, the venae azygos and hemiazygos were found to be enlarged. The authors explain the embryogenesis of the vena cava inferior as far as relevant to the case reported. CT and intravenous DSA are the methods that allow an exact classification of the possible agenesias. (orig.) [de

  7. Generalizing Screen Inferiority--Does the Medium, Screen versus Paper, Affect Performance Even with Brief Tasks? (United States)

    Sidi, Yael; Ophir, Yael; Ackerman, Rakefet


    Screen inferiority in performance and metacognitive processes has been repeatedly found with text learning. Common explanations for screen inferiority relate to technological and physiological disadvantages associated with extensive reading on screen. However, recent studies point to lesser recruitment of mental effort on screen than on paper.…

  8. NASTRAN migration to UNIX (United States)

    Chan, Gordon C.; Turner, Horace Q.


    COSMIC/NASTRAN, as it is supported and maintained by COSMIC, runs on four main-frame computers - CDC, VAX, IBM and UNIVAC. COSMIC/NASTRAN on other computers, such as CRAY, AMDAHL, PRIME, CONVEX, etc., is available commercially from a number of third party organizations. All these computers, with their own one-of-a-kind operating systems, make NASTRAN machine dependent. The job control language (JCL), the file management, and the program execution procedure of these computers are vastly different, although 95 percent of NASTRAN source code was written in standard ANSI FORTRAN 77. The advantage of the UNIX operating system is that it has no machine boundary. UNIX is becoming widely used in many workstations, mini's, super-PC's, and even some main-frame computers. NASTRAN for the UNIX operating system is definitely the way to go in the future, and makes NASTRAN available to a host of computers, big and small. Since 1985, many NASTRAN improvements and enhancements were made to conform to the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standards. A major UNIX migration effort was incorporated into COSMIC NASTRAN 1990 release. As a pioneer work for the UNIX environment, a version of COSMIC 89 NASTRAN was officially released in October 1989 for DEC ULTRIX VAXstation 3100 (with VMS extensions). A COSMIC 90 NASTRAN version for DEC ULTRIX DECstation 3100 (with RISC) is planned for April 1990 release. Both workstations are UNIX based computers. The COSMIC 90 NASTRAN will be made available on a TK50 tape for the DEC ULTRIX workstations. Previously in 1988, an 88 NASTRAN version was tested successfully on a SiliconGraphics workstation.

  9. Un primitivo Notonychopidae (Litopterna del Paleoceno inferior de Punta Peligro, Chubut, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J.


    Full Text Available The discovery of a new ungulate species, Requisia vidmari gen. nov., nov. sp. in the lower Paleocene of Punta Peligro, Chubut (Argentine represents the earliest known record of Litopterna. The dental morphology of this new genus is very similar to that known for Notonychops powelli Soria, 1989, differing mainly by its more primitive M3, which is less elongated and less selenodont. Requisia vidmari, together with Wainka tshotshe Simpson, 1948, can be included in the family Notonychopidae, which appear to represent an ancestral grade in the evolution of Litopterna. Because cladogenesis of South American ungulates clearly took place prior to the Punta Peligro fauna and was apparently rapid, phylogenetic interpretation is difficult.Se comunica un nuevo ungulado con dentición pre-selenodonta del Paleoceno inferior, Peligrense, de Patagonia, Argentina. Su morfología dentaria es muy similar a la de Notonychops powelli Soria, 1989, pero con caracteres más primitivos. La morfología de las cúspides, el tipo de desgaste y los caracteres crescentiformes del M3 indican que Requisia vidmari gen. nov., sp. nov. presenta fuertes evidencias del desarrollo de caracteres selenodontos, por lo que se lo considera como el más primitivo representante del orden Litopterna. Requisia vidmari y probablemente Wainka tshotshe Simpson, 1948, son primitivos en relación a Notonychops, pero su similitud morfológica justificaría su inclusión en la misma familia Notonychopidae. Se considera que la radiación adaptativa de los ungulados paleocenos de América del Sur fue precoz, eventualmente rápida, lo que dificulta encontrar un modelo filogenético suficientemente explicativo.

  10. Inferior alveolar nerve cutting; legal liability versus desired patient outcomes. (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min; Lee, Jong Ho


    Mandibular angle reduction or reduction genioplasty is a routine well-known facial contouring surgery that reduces the width of the lower face resulting in an oval shaped face. During the intraoral resection of the mandibular angle or chin using an oscillating saw, unexpected peripheral nerve damage including inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) damage could occur. This study analyzed cases of damaged IANs during facial contouring surgery, and asked what the basic standard of care in these medical litigation-involved cases should be. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 28 patients with IAN damage after mandibular contouring from August 2008 to July 2015. Most of the patients did not have an antipathy to medical staff because they wanted their faces to be ovoid shaped. We summarized three representative cases according to each patient's perceptions and different operation procedures under the approvement by the Institutional Review Board of Seoul National University. Most of the patients did not want to receive any further operations not due to fear of an operation but because of the changes in their facial appearance. Thus, their fear may be due to a desire for a better perfect outcome, and to avoid unsolicited patient complaints related litigation. This article analyzed representative IAN cutting cases that occurred during mandibular contouring esthetic surgery and evaluated a questionnaire on the standard of care for the desired patient outcomes and the specialized surgeon's position with respect to legal liability.

  11. An experimental study of inferior vena caval stent in canine. (United States)

    Zhang, X; Wang, Z; Guo, J


    To investigate the feasibility of our self made inferior vena cave (IVC) stent. Self-expanding, stainless steel, Z-shaped stents were deployed in the IVC of 14 dogs. They were randomly divided into four groups, four dogs in the first three groups, and 2 in the fourth group. IVC specimens were taken at 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks following stent deployment. No anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy was given. All stents were widely stretched out and so was the vessel lumen. No thrombus was present and the patency was 100% in all groups. The stents were completely covered by neointima 2 weeks after stent deployment. The neointimal thickness varied significantly: the thinnest at 2 weeks, the thickest at 4 weeks and becoming thinner at 8 weeks and stable until 16 weeks. The inflammatory reaction was gradually reduced. Under scanning electronic microscopy, the neointima was covered by a layer of endothelial cells 2 weeks following stenting, which were irregularly shaped and aligned. The cells became slender, spindle-shaped and aligned parallel to the direction of bolld flow 4 weeks afterwards. Experimental study indicated that our self-expanding IVC stent was feasible for clinical application.

  12. The inferior cochlear vein: surgical aspects in cochlear implantation. (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, HongLei; Chen, Wei; Zhu, XiaoQuan; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge


    The patency of the inferior cochlear vein (ICV) may be challenged in cochlear implantation (CI) due to its location near the round window (RW). This may be essential to consider during selection of different trajectories for electrode insertion aiming at preserving residual hearing. Venous blood from the human cochlea is drained through the ICV. The vein also drains blood from the modiolus containing the spiral ganglion neurons. Surgical interference with this vein could cause neural damage influencing CI outcome. We analyzed the topographical relationship between the RW and ICV bony channel and cochlear aqueduct (CA) from a surgical standpoint. Archival human temporal bones were further microdissected to visualize the CA and its accessory canals (AC1 and AC2). This was combined with examinations of plastic and silicone molds of the human labyrinth. Metric analyses were made using photo stereomicroscopy documenting the proximal portion of the AC1, the internal aperture of the CA and the RW. The mean distance between the AC1 and the anterior rim of the RW was 0.81 mm in bone specimens and 0.67 mm assessed in corrosion casts. The AC1 runs from the floor of the scala tympani through the otic capsule passing parallel to the CA to the posterior cranial fossa. The mean distance between the CA and AC1 canal was 0.31 and 0.25 mm, respectively.

  13. Compression of the inferior vena cava in bowel obstruction. (United States)

    Cina, Alessandro; Zamparelli, Roberto; Venturino, Sara; Gargaruti, Riccardo; Semeraro, Vittorio; Cavaliere, Franco


    We investigated whether (a) the inferior vena cava (IVC) is compressed in bowel obstruction and (b) some tracts are more compressed than others. Two groups of abdominal computed tomography (CT) examinations were collected retrospectively. Group O (N = 69) scans were positive for bowel obstruction, group C (N = 50) scans were negative for diseases. IVC anteroposterior and lateral diameters (APD, LAD) were assessed at seven levels. In group C, IVC section had an elliptic shape (APD/LAD: .76 ± .14), the area of which increased gradually from 1.9 (confluence of the iliac veins) to 3.1 cm²/m² of BSA (confluence of the hepatic veins) with a significant narrowing in the hepatic section. In group O, bowel obstruction caused a compression of IVC (APD/LAD: .54 ± .17). Along its course, IVC section area increased from 1.3 to 2.5 cm²/m². At ROC curve analysis, an APD/LAD ratio lower than 0.63 above the confluence of the iliac veins discriminated between O and C groups with sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 96%. Bowel obstruction caused a compression of IVC, which involved its entire course except for the terminal section. APD/LAD ratio may be useful to monitor the degree of compression.

  14. Compression of the Inferior Vena Cava in Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cina


    Full Text Available Introduction. We investigated whether (a the inferior vena cava (IVC is compressed in bowel obstruction and (b some tracts are more compressed than others. Methods. Two groups of abdominal computed tomography (CT examinations were collected retrospectively. Group O ( scans were positive for bowel obstruction, group C ( scans were negative for diseases. IVC anteroposterior and lateral diameters (APD, LAD were assessed at seven levels. Results. In group C, IVC section had an elliptic shape (APD/LAD: .76 ± .14, the area of which increased gradually from 1.9 (confluence of the iliac veins to 3.1 cm2/m2 of BSA (confluence of the hepatic veins with a significant narrowing in the hepatic section. In group O, bowel obstruction caused a compression of IVC (APD/LAD: .54 ± .17. Along its course, IVC section area increased from 1.3 to 2.5 cm2/m2. At ROC curve analysis, an APD/LAD ratio lower than 0.63 above the confluence of the iliac veins discriminated between O and C groups with sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 96%. Conclusions. Bowel obstruction caused a compression of IVC, which involved its entire course except for the terminal section. APD/LAD ratio may be useful to monitor the degree of compression.

  15. Effect of Preoperative Pain on Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Sharma, Vikram; Sharma, Ritu; Prakash, Venkatachalam; Geethapriya, Nagarajan


    The present study tested the hypothesis that the amount and severity of preoperative pain will affect the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One-hundred seventy-seven adult volunteer subjects, actively experiencing pain in a mandibular molar, participated in this prospective double-blind study carried out at 2 different centers. The patients were classified into 3 groups on the basis of severity of preoperative pain: mild, 1–54 mm on the Heft-Parker visual analog scale (HP VAS); moderate, 55–114 mm; and severe, greater than 114 mm. After IANB with 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine, endodontic access preparation was initiated. Pain during treatment was recorded using the HP VAS. The primary outcome measure was the ability to undertake pulp access and canal instrumentation with no or mild pain. The success rates were statistically analyzed by multiple logistic regression test. There was a significant difference between the mild and severe preoperative pain group (P = .03). There was a positive correlation between the values of preoperative and intraoperative pain (r = .2 and .4 at 2 centers). The amount of preoperative pain can affect the anesthetic success rates of IANB in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. PMID:26650491

  16. Retrocaval ureter and anomalies of inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubogo, Yoshitaka; Hiraoka, Hisaki; Tonariya, Yoshito; Miyamae, Tatsuya; Fujioka, Mutsumi


    We report two cases of retrocaval ureter: one with the usual hook-shaped pattern of the course of ureter (Type 1 according to Kenawi and Williams) and the other with the ureter medially displaced in a large curving fashion without kinking or obstruction. (Type 2). The second case was diagnosed on CT without resorting to any invasive procedure. It can be classified as Type 2 of Kenawi and Williams because of the absence of obstruction and kinking of ureter. The first case is associated with a complicated anomaly of inferior vena cava previously not reported which shows the duplication of infrarenal segment of cava with azygos continuation via the right persistent supracardinal vein. This anomaly is also complicated by the persistent posterior cardinal vein which is continuous with the normal prerenal segment of cava after receiving the right renal vein. This persistent posterior cardinal vein is the cause of retrocaval ureter in this case. It is also stressed that the knowledge of various caval anomalies is important in the interpretation of CT. (author)

  17. Inferior cerebellar peduncular lesion causes a distinct vestibular syndrome. (United States)

    Choi, J-H; Seo, J-D; Choi, Y R; Kim, M-J; Kim, H-J; Kim, J S; Choi, K-D


    The inferior cerebellar peduncle (ICP) contains various fibres to and from the cerebellum relating to the integration of the proprioceptive and vestibular functions. However, the full clinical features of isolated unilateral ICP lesions have not been defined in humans. Eight consecutive patients with isolated unilateral ICP lesions at the pontine level (six with stroke, one with multiple sclerosis and one with brainstem encephalitis) received bedside neurological and neuro-otological evaluations and underwent laboratory tests including measurements of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and ocular torsion, bithermal caloric tests and pure tone audiometry. All patients developed isolated acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) with ipsilesional spontaneous nystagmus (n = 7) and contralesional ocular tilt reaction (OTR) and/or SVV tilt (n = 7). In view of the normal head impulse test in all patients and skew deviation in one, our patients met the criteria for AVS from central lesions. Five patients showed a directional dissociation between the OTR/SVV tilt and body lateropulsion that fell to the lesion side whilst the OTR/SVVtilt was contraversive. A unilateral ICP lesion at the pontine level leads to the development of isolated AVS. However, a negative head impulse test and directional dissociation between OTR/SVV tilt and body lateropulsion may distinguish lesions involving unilateral ICP at the pontine level from those affecting other vestibular structures. © 2015 EAN.

  18. Deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap harvest after full abdominoplasty. (United States)

    Zeltzer, Assaf A; De Baerdemaeker, Randy A; Hendrickx, Benoit; Seidenstücker, Katrin; Brussaard, Carola; Hamdi, Moustapha


    Abdominal scars are no longer a contra-indication for abdominal perforator flap harvesting. Few research data exists about the regeneration potential of the abdominal wall's perforator system. Therefore, previous abdominoplasty with umbilical transposition is an absolute contra-indication for a DIEaP-flap (deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap). A 50-year-old patient required a breast reconstruction of the right breast, 10 years after an abdominoplasty with undermining of the superior abdomen and umbilical transposition. The patient was scheduled for a free lumbar artery perforator (LaP) flap. The preoperative computed tomography-angiography mapping showed nice lumbar perforators and to our surprise a good-sized DIEa perforator in the peri-umbilical region. The DIEa perforator on the right hemi-abdomen, consisting of two veins and one artery, was pulsatile and found suitable in size. A classical flap harvest and transfer was further performed. This case report is the first in which a dominant perforator is found in the area of undermining after a full abdominoplasty with umbilical repositioning. Further investigations regarding the nature and timing of re-permeation or regeneration of perforators after abdominoplasty are to be done. Nevertheless, we are convinced that with appropriate perforator mapping and a suitable plan B, previous abdominoplasty is no longer an absolute but a relative contra-indication for performing DIEaP-flap.

  19. Dopaminergic Input to the Inferior Colliculus in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Nevue


    Full Text Available The response of sensory neurons to stimuli can be modulated by a variety of factors including attention, emotion, behavioral context, and disorders involving neuromodulatory systems. For example, patients with Parkinson’s disease have disordered speech processing, suggesting that dopamine alters normal representation of these salient sounds. Understanding the mechanisms by which dopamine modulates auditory processing is thus an important goal. The principal auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC, is a likely location for dopaminergic modulation of auditory processing because it contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, the sources of dopaminergic input to the IC are unknown. In this study, we iontophoretically injected a retrograde tracer into the IC of mice and then stained the tissue for TH. We also immunostained for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH, an enzyme critical for the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, to differentiate between dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. Retrogradely labeled neurons that were positive for TH were seen bilaterally, with strong ipsilateral dominance, in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF. All retrogradely labeled neurons that we observed in other brain regions were TH-negative. Projections from the SPF were confirmed using an anterograde tracer, revealing TH-positive and DBH-negative anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the IC. While the functional role of this dopaminergic input to the IC is not yet known, it provides a potential mechanism for context dependent modulation of auditory processing.

  20. Regional Pericarditis Mimicking Inferior Myocardial Infarction following Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad T. Alhammouri


    Full Text Available Acute pericarditis is common but illusive, often mimicking acute coronary syndrome in its clinical and electrocardiographic presentation. Regional pericarditis, though rare, presents further challenge with a paucity of published diagnostic criteria. We present a case of postoperative regional pericarditis and discuss helpful electrocardiographic findings. A 66-year-old male with history of open drainage of a liver abscess presented with abdominal pain and tenderness. CT of the abdomen was concerning for pneumatosis intestinalis of the distal descending colon. He underwent lysis of liver adhesions; exploration revealed only severe colonic impaction, for which he had manual disimpaction and peritoneal irrigation. Postoperatively, he developed sharp chest pain. Electrocardiogram revealed inferior ST elevation. Echocardiogram revealed normal left and right ventricular dimensions and systolic function without wall motion abnormalities. Emergent coronary angiography did not identify a culprit lesion, and left ventriculogram showed normal systolic function without wall motion abnormalities. He received no intervention, and the diagnosis of regional pericarditis was entertained. His cardiac troponin was 0.04 ng/dL and remained unchanged, with resolution of the ECG abnormalities in the following morning. Review of his preangiography ECG revealed PR depression, downsloping baseline between QRS complexes, and reciprocal changes in the anterior leads, suggestive of regional pericarditis.

  1. Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine (AIIS) and Subspine Hip Impingement (United States)

    Carton, Patrick; Filan, David


    Summary Background Abnormal morphology of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) and the subspine region of the acetabular rim are increasingly being recognised as a source of symptomatic extra-articular hip impingement. This review article aims to highlight important differences in the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of extra-articular hip impingement from both the AIIS and subspine bony regions, and the outcome following surgical intervention. Methods A literature review was undertaken to examine the supporting evidence for AIIS and subspine hip impingement. A narrative account of the Author’s professional experience in this area, including operative technique for arthroscopic correction, is also presented. Results Abnormal morphology of the AIIS and subspine region has been classified using cadaveric, radiological and arthroscopic means; the clinical presentation and operative treatment has been documented in several case series studies. Dual pathology is often present - recognition and treatment of both intra- and extra-articular components are necessary for good postoperative outcome. Conclusions AIIS and sub-spine hip impingement should be considered as distinct pathological entities, which may also co-exist. Symptom relief can be expected following arthroscopic deformity correction with the treatment of concomitant intra-articular pathology. Failure to recognise and treat the extra-articular component may affect postoperative outcome. Level of evidence V. PMID:28066737

  2. Interregional migration flows in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wajdi, N.; van Wissen, L.J.G.; Mulder, C.H.


    Population Census and Intercensal Population Survey data permit description of the origin–destination patterns that characterize interregional migration flows in Indonesia. Application of the framework of population redistribution proposed by Long (1985) results in indications of over-urbanization,

  3. The migration challenge for PAYG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aslanyan, Gurgen


    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2014), s. 1023-1038 ISSN 0933-1433 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : public pensions * PAYG * unskilled migration Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2014

  4. The migration challenge for PAYG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aslanyan, Gurgen


    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2014), s. 1023-1038 ISSN 0933-1433 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : public pensions * PAYG * unskilled migration Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2014

  5. Quantifying global international migration flows. (United States)

    Abel, Guy J; Sander, Nikola


    Widely available data on the number of people living outside of their country of birth do not adequately capture contemporary intensities and patterns of global migration flows. We present data on bilateral flows between 196 countries from 1990 through 2010 that provide a comprehensive view of international migration flows. Our data suggest a stable intensity of global 5-year migration flows at ~0.6% of world population since 1995. In addition, the results aid the interpretation of trends and patterns of migration flows to and from individual countries by placing them in a regional or global context. We estimate the largest movements to occur between South and West Asia, from Latin to North America, and within Africa.

  6. [International migration: backgrounds and developments]. (United States)

    De Beer, J


    "Net migration [in the Netherlands] has fluctuated strongly during the past decades. In 1983 net migration (including net administrative corrections) was almost zero. In the early 1990s net migration rose to almost 50 thousand per year. In 1994 net migration dropped sharply to a level of 20 thousand, followed by a further decrease in 1995. In 1996 there was a moderate increase. One cause of the strong decline in immigration in the mid-1990s may be the increasingly strict immigration policy. Another explanation of fluctuations in immigration is the business cycle. A regression analysis for the period 1973-1995 shows that there is a negative relationship between immigration of non-Dutch nationals and the unemployment rate in the Netherlands and a positive relationship between emigration and the unemployment rate." (EXCERPT)

  7. Budd-Chiari syndrome: puncturing occlusion of inferior vena cava with blunt wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xinwei; Wu Gang; Ding Pengxu; Gao Xuemei; Ma Nan; Wang Yanli; Guan Sheng


    Objective: To explore the safety of puncturing occlusion of inferior vena cava with blunt wire for Budd-Chiari syndrome. Methods: Under the fluoroscopic guidance, occlusions of inferior vena cava were punctured with blunt wire for 63 patients with membranous occlusion of inferior vena cava and 33 with segmental occlusion of the inferior vena cava; including 15 patients with hepatic vein stenosis or occlusion. Results: 96 patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome were operated successfully. All occlusions of inferior vena cava were punctured with patent rate of 100% and no serious complications occurred. Conclusion: Puncturing occlusion of IVC with blunt guide wire is safe, efficient, no serious complication and simple economic method, worthy to be recommended. (authors)

  8. Panmedullary edema with inferior olivary hypertrophy in bilateral medial medullary infarction. (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuteru; Miyashita, Fumio; Koga, Masatoshi; Yamada, Naoaki; Toyoda, Kazunori; Minematsu, Kazuo


    Bilateral medial medullary infarction (MMI) is a rare type of stroke with poor outcomes. Inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy results from a pathologic lesion in the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. The relationship between inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy and the medullary lesion is obscure. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 autopsy case with unilateral medial medullary infarction that was associated with ipsilateral inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy has been reported. We describe a rare case with acute infarction in the bilateral medial medulla oblongata accompanied by subacute bilateral inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy and panmedullary edema. The hypertrophy appeared to have been caused by local ischemic damage to the termination of the central tegmental tract at the bilateral inferior olivary nucleus. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radar studies of bird migration (United States)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.


    Observations of bird migration with NASA radars were made at Wallops Island, Va. Simultaneous observations were made at a number of radar sites in the North Atlantic Ocean in an effort to discover what happened to those birds that were observed leaving the coast of North America headed toward Bermuda, the Caribbean and South America. Transatlantic migration, utilizing observations from a large number of radars is discussed. Detailed studies of bird movements at Wallops Island are presented.

  10. articles: Describing migration spatial structure


    Andrei Rogers; Frans Willekens; James Raymer; Jani Little


    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a definition in this article, one that draws on the log-linear specification of the geographer's spatial interaction model. We illustrate our definition with observed migration data, we discuss extens...

  11. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: critical role in obesity, insulin resistance, and associated comorbidities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Bucala, R.


    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, disturbed glucose homeostasis, low grade inflammation, and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a crucial role in many

  12. The Adventures of the Gray Whale: An Integrated Approach to Learning about the Long Migration (United States)

    Britton, Stacey; Tippins, Deborah; Cajigal, Aris; Cox, Melissa; Cole, Gerri; Vazquez, Max; Trejo, Martha Cabrera; Guzman, Amelia


    Using migration as a springboard, students can begin to understand patterns of survival and interdependence that exist within nature, as well as humankind's role in modifying these patterns. This mini-unit involves a series of integrated activities designed to take middle school students (fifth through eighth grades) on a journey of the eastern…

  13. Management of displaced inferior patellar pole fractures with modified tension band technique combined with cable cerclage using Cable Grip System. (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Wu, Qinfen; Lai, Chin-Hui; Wang, Xin


    We present a modified tension band technique combined with cable cerclage using Cable Grip System for the treatment of displaced inferior patellar pole fractures and report the knee functional outcome. The patients who had had operative treatment of a displaced inferior patellar pole fracture (AO/OTA 34-A1) between December 2013 and December 2015 were studied retrospectively. Eleven consecutive patients had had open reduction and internal fixation with the modified technique using Cable Grip System, of whom, five males and six females with an average age of 60.9 years (range, 29-81 years). All fractures occurred from direct fall onto the knee. The average time from injury to surgery was 6.1days (range, 2-12days). The range of motion (ROM) was measured in degrees by goniometry at postoperative intervals of 1, 2, 4, 12, and 48 weeks; Knee function was evaluated using the Rasmussen scores at final follow-up. No patients had nonunion, loss of reduction, migration of wire, irritation from the implant and fixation breakage during the follow-up period. Recovery of ROM was achieved at 12 weeks, with the average ROM at 1 week was 72° (range, 65°-78°), 86.4° (range, 78°-92°) at 2 weeks, 115.5° (range, 103°-122°) at 4 weeks, 129.6° (range, 122°-133°) at 12 weeks, 134.5° (range, 129°-139°) at 48 weeks after the operation. Concerning the knee function outcome assessment, all patients showed excellent results at final follow-up. The average Rasmussen scores was 27.9 out of 30 (range, 27-29). The modified tension band technique combined with cable cerclage using Cable Grip System for displaced inferior patellar pole fractures can provide stable fixation with excellent results in knee function, allows for immediate mobilization and early weight-bearing, which is a simple and valuable technique in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. International migration policies: conceptual problems. (United States)

    Kritz, M M


    Kritz reviews national concepts and policies of migration. She examines how nation-states approach migration and how they define who is a migrant. Policies for permanent, temporary, and illegal migrants are examined for selected countries. While the traditional permanent immigration countries--Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US--continue to admit large numbers of permanent migrants, they are also admitting growing numbers of temporary migrants. Other countries, in Europe and the developing world, have different migration histories and use other approaches to admit foreigners--migrants are generally admitted on a temporary basis for work or other purposes. Growing numbers of these temporary migrants, however, do become long-term or permanent settlers, and the distinction between permanent and temporary migration policies becomes a short-term legal one rather than a long-term sociological one. Governments have been seeking those policy instruments that would allow them to improve control over who enters and settles in their territories, and temporary migration policies are the measures to which they are turning. While increasing restriction characterizes the policy stance of most countries toward international migration, this does not necessarily mean that the number of migrants entering is declining. Kritz argues that the concepts employed by countries in their immigration policies frequently do not correspond to the reality, making it necessary to examine the actual context.

  15. Pure Endovascular Management of an Arteriovenous Malformation and an Aneurysm Both Supplied by Anterio-Inferior Cerebellar Artery: A Case Report and a Review of Literature. (United States)

    Khayat, Hassan A; Alshareef, Fawaz; Alshamy, Abdulrahman; Algain, Abdulrahman; Alhejaili, Essam; Alnabihi, Omar; Alzahrani, Saeed; Stendel, Ruediger


    The tendency of posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (pfAVM) to develop associated aneurysms (AA) is a well-known phenomenon with an increased total risk of rupture. Most pfAVM and AA develop in the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery while the involvement of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is extremely rare. We describe an unusual case of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) supplied by the AICA with a "proximal" AA. This unique combination of vascular lesions has been reported in only four cases so far, limiting the available experience that can safely guide the therapeutic intervention. This study describes a 59-year-old female presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage, Hunt and Hess grade 4. Angiography demonstrated an AVM fed mainly by the right AICA and draining superficially into the transverse sinus (Spetzler-Martin grade II). In addition, there was a ruptured proximal AICA aneurysm. An endovascular approach was chosen to coil the aneurysm and obliterate the AVM using ONYX in a multi-staged process. The patient recovered well without residual deficit at 6-month follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a proximal AICA aneurysm and AVM treated by endovascular means. The outcome was very good, considering the technically demanding location. All previously reported cases with exactly similar lesions were managed surgically, with inconclusive outcomes. The data presented in this study are meant to help in decision-making process for similar cases till more data are available.

  16. Towards a new understanding of migration timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Muskens, Gerard; Kruckenberg, Helmut; Glazov, Peter; Weinzierl, Rolf; Nolet, Bart A.; Wikelski, Martin


    According to migration theory and several empirical studies, long-distance migrants are more time-limited during spring migration and should therefore migrate faster in spring than in autumn. Competition for the best breeding sites is supposed to be the main driver, but timing of migration is

  17. Linking Poverty, Irregular Migration and Human Trafficking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Migration literature suggests that poverty, irregular migration and human trafficking are causally linked. However, empirical studies linking these aspects of migration are scarce. This is because, as clandestine activities, data collection on these aspects of migration presents serious challenges. As a result of these ...

  18. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati


    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  19. Subtotal laparoscopic splenectomy in rats with preservation of the inferior pole Esplenectomia subtotal laparoscópica com preservação do polo inferior em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jorge da Silva


    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of subtotal splenectomy by laparoscopy with inferior pole preservation and to determine the viability of the splenic remnant. Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats weighing between 365 g and 474 g (mean 417.92 ± 36.15g SD were operated and randomly assigned to two groups : Group 1 rats were killed on postoperative day 10 (n = 10, and Group 2 on the postoperative day 80 (n = 10. Both the inferior splenic pole and the superior part of the spleen, which was used as a control to measure inferior pole viability, were weighed and morphologically examined. Results: The technique was feasible in all cases. There were two postoperative deaths on immediate postoperative and one not well defined. The average weight percentage of the inferior pole, measured indirectly on the 10th day, was 53.67% ± 11.59% and on the 80th day was 62.69% ± 6.89%. The inferior pole was necrotic, with abscess formation in one case (5.9% and appeared normal in all other cases. Microscopy showed features that were compatible with normality. Conclusions: Subtotal splenectomy with preservation of the inferior pole by laparoscopy was feasible and safety. The lower splenic pole was viable in 94.1% of animals.Objetivo: Avaliar a exequibilidade e a segurança da esplenectomia subtotal com preservação do polo inferior do baço por videolaparoscopia, e a viabilidade do referido polo. Métodos: 20 ratos Wistar, machos, pesando entre 365g e 474g (MA 417,92 ± 36,15g foram operados e distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com a época da retirada do polo inferior para estudo: grupo 1 do 10º dia, (n= 10, grupo 2, do 80º dia (n=10. A porção superior do baço que serviu de controle da viabilidade do pólo inferior e esse remanescente, retirados no término do experimento, foram medidos, pesados e enviados para exame morfológico. Resultados: A técnica foi exeqüível em todos os casos. O peso médio percentual do polo inferior avaliado de

  20. Inferior Glenohumeral Dislocation in a Division One Collegiate Wrestler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Gilmore


    Full Text Available Background: A twenty-two year old male collegiate wrestler with no previous history of any shoulder injuries experienced an inferior glenohumeral dislocation on his right arm during practice. The athlete was in in a front headlock by a teammate who attempted to roll him. The athlete was forced into hyperflexion and abduction. The athlete felt a pop and his arm was “stuck” in approximately ninety degrees of abduction. An obvious deformity was palpable in his armpit. The athlete then proceeded to make his way to the athletic training room where he was able to relax and the dislocation reduced itself. After relocation the athlete had no obvious deformity, immediate swelling, or ecchymosis. He was experiencing very generalized soreness and was tender to palpate. His range of motion was very limited due to pain and we were unable to get a good evaluation on him at the time of injury. The next day he was still pretty sore and experienced pain with internal and external rotation. He was experiencing weakness in his rotator cuff and had diffuse neuropraxia. Differential Diagnosis: Labral Tear, shoulder instability, fracture to the humeral head. Treatment: The athlete saw the team physician the day of injury, was placed in a sling, and followed up with x-rays and a visit with the team physician the next day. No bony abnormalities were shown on the x-rays. The team physician discussed options of surgery or waiting with the athlete, who was pretty set on surgery, which he ended up getting the next week. He saw the team physician one week post-operation where the surgery and pictures were reviewed and explained. Athlete was doing well with no complaints. He had good range of motion for one week post-op. At this point we had to explain to him that he needed to be patient in order to let himself heal. We were told to continue his rehabilitation program of active internal and external rotation, passive supination/pronation, and putty squeezes and that he

  1. C6 glioma cell invasion and migration of rat brain after neural homografting: ultrastructure. (United States)

    Bernstein, J J; Goldberg, W J; Laws, E R; Conger, D; Morreale, V; Wood, L R


    C6 tumor cells (10(6] were grafted as suspensions into freshly made implantation pockets in rat host cerebral cortex. Specimens were prepared for transmission and scanning electron microscopy 1 to 7 days postimplantation (DPI). By 3 DPI vacuolated C6 cells had migrated on or invaded the host brain. C6 cells were observed on the glia limitans on the surface of the brain, in the corpus callosum, subependymal space, and perivascular space and had invaded the cortex under the implantation pocket. In addition to the tumor mass that was observed under the implantation pocket, by 7 DPI individual C6 cells had migrated into the corpus callosum and internal capsule. Migrated C6 cells were observed in a perineuronal position in the hippocampus and other gray matter structures inferior to the corpus callosum. Micropockets were found around each C6 cell and the processes of these cells had replaced host parenchyma. The preferred routes of migration were on basal lamina and parallel and intersecting nerve fiber bundles. Invasion occurred through gray and white matter. The movement of homografted C6 cells in the brain suggests that these cells actively migrate as individual cells in addition to invading as a mass.

  2. The inferior alveolar artery in the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hisanao


    The present study investigated the course of the inferior alveolar artery (IAA) of the mandibular canal (MC), as well as morphological structure of the vascular wall, and the effects of Co-60 gamma irradiation on it. Male Sprague-Dawley strain 7-week-old rats were used as experimental animals. Histopathological changes in the vascular wall were observed by both light and electron microscopy. A single gamma irradiation of 17.82 Gy (TDF 100), 27.97 Gy (TDF 200), or 36.41 Gy (TDF 300) was given to the mandibular area. The IAA/MC ratio on the cross section was 3.4% at the mandibular foramen, 0.1% at the area between the second and third molar teeth, and 0.1% at the mental foramen. The corresponding diameters for these sites were 100 μm, 30 μm, and 20 μm. Morphological examination revealed IAA to be the muscular type of artery. Trichrome staining revealed three layers, including the lamina intima (1.4 μm), lamina media (13.3 μm), and lamina adventitia (11.2 μm). Dilatation of IAA occurred immediately after irradiation, followed by marked contraction on Day 3 after irradiation in the 17.82 Gy group, on Day 5 in the 27.97 Gy group, and on Day 7 in the 36.41 Gy group. During the period between Weeks 2 and 7, however, the 17.82 Gy group showed IAA dilatation. None of radiation injuries, such as rupture, necrosis and stenosis, was seen, but both vacuolation of the lamina intima and media, and irregular arrangement of the fibrous layer were seen. The vasculonervous bundle in MC seemed to be supported with fibrous connective tissues, suggesting an effective buffer effect on the dilatation of the vascular wall and the resistance to traumatic injuries. (N.K.)

  3. Inferior vena cava filters in pulmonary embolism: A historic controversy. (United States)

    Jerjes-Sanchez, Carlos; Rodriguez, David; Navarrete, Aline; Parra-Cantu, Carolina; Joya-Harrison, Jorge; Vazquez, Eduardo; Ramirez-Rivera, Alicia

    Rationale for non-routine use of inferior venous cava filters (IVCF) in pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. Thrombosis mechanisms involved with IVCF placement and removal, the blood-contacting medical device inducing clotting, and the inorganic polyphosphate in the contact activation pathway were analyzed. In addition, we analyzed clinical evidence from randomized trials, including patients with and without cancer. Furthermore, we estimated the absolute risk reduction (ARR), the relative risk reduction (RRR), and the number needed to treat (NNT) based on the results of each study using a frequency table. Finally, we analyzed the outcome of our PE patients that were submitted to thrombolysis with short and long term follow-up. IVCF induces thrombosis by several mechanisms including placement and removal, rapid protein adsorption, and simultaneous surface-induced activation via the contact activation pathway. Also, inorganic polyphosphate has an important role as a procoagulant, reversing the effect of anticoagulants. Randomized control trials included 904 cancer and non-cancer PE patients. In terms of ARR, RRR, and NNT, there is no evidence for routine use of IVCF. In 290 patients with proved PE, extensive thrombotic burden and right ventricular dysfunction under thrombolysis and oral anticoagulation, we observed a favorable outcome in a short- and long-term follow-up; additionally, IVCF was only used in 5% of these patients. Considering the complex mechanisms of thrombosis related with IVCF, the evidence from randomized control trials and ARR, RRR, and NNT obtained from venous thromboembolism patients with and without cancer, non-routine use of IVCF is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparative CFD study of four inferior vena cava filters. (United States)

    López, Josep M; Fortuny, Gerard; Puigjaner, Dolors; Herrero, Joan; Marimon, Francesc


    Computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate the flow of blood within an inferior vena cava (IVC) geometry model that was reconstructed from computed tomography images obtained from a real patient. The main novelty of the present work is that we simulated the implantation of four different filter models in this realistic IVC geometry. We considered different blood flow rates in the range between V in =20 and V in =80cm 3 /s and all simulations were performed with both the Newtonian and a non-Newtonian model for the blood viscosity. We compared the hemodynamics performance of the different filter models and we paid a special attention to the total drag force, F d , exerted by the blood flow on the filter surface. This force is the sum of two contributions: the viscous skin friction force, which was found to be roughly proportional to the filter surface area, and the pressure force, which depended on the particular filter geometry design. The F d force is relevant because it must be balanced by the total force exerted by the filter hooks/struts on the IVC wall at the attachment locations. For the highest V in value investigated, the variation in F d among filters was from 116 to 308 dyne. We also showed how the present results can be extrapolated to obtain good estimates of the drag forces if the blood viscosity levels change, i.e., if the patient with a filter implanted is treated with anticoagulant therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of left posterior inferior temporal cortex in spelling. (United States)

    Rapcsak, Steven Z; Beeson, Pélagie M


    To determine whether damage to left posterior inferior temporal cortex (PITC) is associated with agraphia and to characterize the nature of the spelling impairment. Left angular gyrus may play a critical role in spelling. However, this traditional view is challenged by reports of agraphia after left temporo-occipital lesions and by functional imaging studies demonstrating activation of left PITC during writing in normal individuals. Patients with focal damage to the left temporo-occipital cortex and normal control subjects were administered a comprehensive spelling battery that included regular words, irregular words, and nonwords as stimuli. Although patients performed worse than control subjects in all experimental conditions, the spelling deficit was particularly severe for irregular words, whereas regular word and nonword spelling were less impaired. Additional analyses indicated that orthographic regularity and word frequency had a much more pronounced effect on spelling accuracy in patients compared with control subjects. Most errors on irregular words were phonologically plausible, consistent with reliance on a sublexical phonologic spelling strategy (i.e., phoneme-grapheme conversion). Overall, the spelling impairment of the patients showed the characteristic profile of lexical agraphia. Lesion analyses indicated that the damage in the majority of patients encompassed an area within the left PITC (BA 37/20) where the authors previously obtained evidence of activation in a functional imaging study of writing in normal participants. The behavioral and neuroanatomic observations in the patients are consistent with functional imaging studies of writing in neurologically intact individuals and provide converging evidence for the role of left PITC in spelling. Together, these findings implicate left PITC as a possible neural substrate of the putative orthographic lexicon that contains stored memory representations for the written forms of familiar words.

  6. Distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome after acoustic neuroma surgery. (United States)

    Hegarty, Joseph L; Jackler, Robert K; Rigby, Peter L; Pitts, Lawrence H; Cheung, Steven W


    To define a clinicopathologic syndrome associated with persistent cerebellar dysfunction after acoustic neuroma (AN) excision. Case series derived from radiographic and clinical chart review. Tertiary referral center. In 12 patients with AN, persistent cerebellar dysfunction developed after AN removal. Each case demonstrated abnormality in the ipsilateral cerebellar peduncle on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebellar function and ambulatory status over the first postoperative year. On magnetic resonance imaging scans, the extent of cerebellar peduncle infarcts was variable. It ranged from focal brain injury (2 cm) spanning the full thickness of the peduncle. Peduncular infarcts were associated with large tumor size (average 3.8 cm, range 2.0-5.5 cm diameter). The long-term functional outcomes (>1 yr) varied. Dysmetria was unchanged or improved in over half of the patients (6 of 11 patients). Gait recovered to normal or to preoperative levels in 5 patients. In the 6 patients with persistent impaired mobility, 2 had mild gait disturbance, 3 required regular use of a cane, and 1 has been dependent on a walker. One patient had sustained mild motor weakness. Three of 11 patients remained dependent on others for activities of daily living. Peduncle injury most likely stems from interruption of distal branches of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA). These small vessels are intimately related to the capsule of the tumor and may supply both the neoplasm and the brain parenchyma. It has long been recognized that interruption of the proximal segment of the AICA results in severe injury to the pons, with devastating neurologic sequelae. A limited AICA syndrome caused by loss of its distal ramifications seems a more plausible explanation for peduncular infarction than either venous insufficiency or direct surgical trauma.

  7. "Mini-Flow-Through" Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap for Breast Reconstruction with Preservation of Both Internal Mammary and Deep Inferior Epigastric Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Satake


    Full Text Available This procedure was developed for preservation of the rectus muscle components and deep inferior epigastric vessel after deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP flap harvesting. A 53-year-old woman with granuloma caused by silicone injection underwent bilateral nipple-sparing mastectomies and immediate reconstruction with "mini-flow-through" DIEP flaps. The flaps were dissected based on the single largest perforator with a short segment of the lateral branch of the deep inferior epigastric vessel that was transected as a free flap for breast reconstruction. The short segments of the donor deep inferior epigastric vessel branch are primarily end-to-end anastomosed to each other. A short T-shaped pedicle mini-flow-through DIEP flap is interposed in the incised recipient's internal mammary vessels with two arterial and four concomitant venous anastomoses. Although it requires multiple vascular anastomoses and a short pedicle for the flap setting, the mini-flow-through DIEP flap provides a large pedicle caliber, enabling safer microsurgical anastomosis and well-vascularized tissue for creating a natural breast without consuming time or compromising the rectus muscle components and vascular flow of both the deep inferior epigastric and internal mammary vessels.

  8. International migration: a global challenge. (United States)

    Martin, P; Widgren, J


    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  9. [Patterns and Influential Factors of Inter-Regional Migration of New and Experienced Nurses in 2011~2015]. (United States)

    Park, Bohyun; Kim, Se Young


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the migration patterns of new nurses and experienced nurses and to identify the factors influencing inter-regional migration for solving regional imbalances of clinical nurses in South Korea. This study involved a secondary analysis of data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis. New nurses tended to migrate from Kyunggi to Seoul. However, experienced nurses tended to migrate from Seoul and Chungchung to Kyunggi. Significant predictors of inter-regional migration among new nurses were location and nurse staffing grade of hospitals. Significant predictors of inter-regional migration among experienced nurses were location, hospital type, nurse staffing grade, ownership of hospitals and age of nurses. Inter-regional migration occupied a small portion of total hospital movement among clinical nurses. The regional imbalances of nurses were not caused by the migration from non-metropolitan areas to Seoul. Nurse shortage problems in the small and medium hospitals of the non-metropolitan area can be solved only through improvement of work environment. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  10. Let's End the Grading Game. (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie


    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  11. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven


    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral...

  12. Primary research on direct multi-slice spiral CT venography in inferior vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Peiyou; Liu Fengli; Ma Xianying; Zhao Li; Wang Liping; Li Xuehua; Li Jian


    Objective: To investigate the superiority of direct multi-slice spiral CT venography in inferior vena cava. Methods: Twenty-eight patients performed MSCT venography in inferior vena cava, including 2 cases with both indirect and direct venography, 10 cases with indirect venography, 20 cases with direct venography through unilateral or bilateral lower extremity venous injection. The image quality and enhancement degree of the inferior vena cava were compared in double-blind method. Results: Of 10 cases with indirect venography of inferior vena cava, 1 case was failed due to mild enhancement in inferior vena cava. Image quality was good in 2 cases, poor in 7 cases, no excellent case. Of 20 cases with direct venography of inferior vena cava, the enhancement degree was scored 1, 2 degree in 16, 4 cases respectively and no case was scored 3 degree, the image quality was excellent, good in 16, 4 cases and no case was bad. The success rate was 100%. Conclusion: The image quality of direct MSCT venography in inferior vena cava is better than that of indirect method. (authors)

  13. Assessment of inferior wall in 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial SPECT in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Yasuhisa; Ohta, Jun; Osono, Ken; Saitou, Miyoko; Suzuki, Mituaki; Nakajima, Toshiki


    A phantom experiment and a clinical assessment have been made with the purpose of investigating the causes of low accumulation and deficiency of the inferior wall in 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial SPECT and the method for its evaluation. By the phantom experiment, assessments were made regarding (1) influence of the liver positioned adjacently; and (2) involvement of absorption and attenuation of the inferior wall. For the clinical assessment, 84 patients with diabetes in whom no abnormality was observed by exercise myocardial SPECT ( 201 TlCl) and 5 cases of inferior myocardial infarction (OMI group) were adopted as subjects. The inferior walls were evaluated as visually deficient because of the adjacently-positioned liver, but no low value was exhibited by quantitative evaluation. By pulmonary mediastinal phantom (-), improvement of the inferior wall was observed visually and quantitatively, compared with pulmonary mediastinal phantom (+). By quantitative evaluation, the patients were classified into normal MIBG group (N group); segmentally deficient group (S group); and non-accumulated group (DH group). In addition, S group was classified by severity score into those from S 1 to S 4 groups. No significant difference was observed in Relative Regional Uptake (RRU) in the inferior wall between S 4 group and OMI group. To sum up, we considered the causes for low accumulation and deficiency of the inferior wall, (1) adjacently-positioned liver; (2) absorption and attenuation; and (3) the lesion itself. Visual evaluation is not sufficient as the evaluating method. Quantitative evaluation becomes necessary. (author)

  14. Labor migration in Russia - problem or prospect?




    The article shows that international labor migration is an important part of the internationalization process of international economic life. So, the migration processes of the population should be carefully monitored and analyzed in order to develop effective state migration policy. Population mass migration became one of the characteristic phenomena of the second part of XX century world society life. Labor power international migration from this time appears to be the important part of int...

  15. Environmental Change and Human Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić


    Full Text Available The 30th anniversary of the journal Migration and Ethnic Themes (MET is an occasion to announce a new key issue in the modern world’s future, which, in the authors’ opinion, is becoming the central theme within multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field of migration studies. This concerns the displacement of people in the local and national context as well as migration across national borders, at the regional and global level, which are directly or indirectly caused by environmental change. The recent genetic studies on the origins and development of the human race further confirm that the human ecological migrations are the first and the oldest type of migrations at all. In addition, as archaeological and other findings suggest, just this type of migration sometimes played a key role in the emergence, decay and changing of ancient civilizations. It seems that the early researchers of migration studies had a lot in mind considering changes in natural environment as an important determinant of human spatial movements. The interest for this topic in the social sciences had trailed off until the re-emergence in the second half of the 1980s. The authors accept the classification on the causal categories of “environmental migration” as: a “natural” disasters; b “urban-industrial” disasters, and c exploitation and degradation of resources. Further, they deal with the definition of basic concepts, first of all with disputes about the definition of “environmental refugees” as opposed to “environmental migrants”. Finally, the authors systematize two major competing approaches to migration and migrants caused by environmental change. The first one is “the alarmist” and the second one “the sceptic” approach. Luckily, the Sceptics are able (for now to prove that deterrent worse-case scenarios on increasingly powerful and unstoppable “waves” of environmental migrants (refugees have not been achieved. This serves them as

  16. Detecting and accounting for violations of the constancy assumption in non-inferiority clinical trials. (United States)

    Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Hobbs, Brian P


    Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials are the gold standard for evaluating a novel therapeutic agent. In some instances, it may not be considered ethical or desirable to complete a placebo-controlled clinical trial and, instead, the placebo is replaced by an active comparator with the objective of showing either superiority or non-inferiority to the active comparator. In a non-inferiority trial, the experimental treatment is considered non-inferior if it retains a pre-specified proportion of the effect of the active comparator as represented by the non-inferiority margin. A key assumption required for valid inference in the non-inferiority setting is the constancy assumption, which requires that the effect of the active comparator in the non-inferiority trial is consistent with the effect that was observed in previous trials. It has been shown that violations of the constancy assumption can result in a dramatic increase in the rate of incorrectly concluding non-inferiority in the presence of ineffective or even harmful treatment. In this paper, we illustrate how Bayesian hierarchical modeling can be used to facilitate multi-source smoothing of the data from the current trial with the data from historical studies, enabling direct probabilistic evaluation of the constancy assumption. We then show how this result can be used to adapt the non-inferiority margin when the constancy assumption is violated and present simulation results illustrating that our method controls the type-I error rate when the constancy assumption is violated, while retaining the power of the standard approach when the constancy assumption holds. We illustrate our adaptive procedure using a non-inferiority trial of raltegravir, an antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV.

  17. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA]. (United States)

    Alba, F


    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  18. International nurse migrations: Global trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marija


    Full Text Available This paper presents global trends of migration of nurses, as specific qualified personnel in high demand. In the last couple of decades, and especially in the last couple of years, many countries have faced the problem of insufficient healthcare workers, particularly nurses. Reasons for this occurrence might be found in the deficiencies of their education systems, as well as the population aging of northern and western countries. As a response to this deficiency, those countries have begun intensive recruitment of foreign qualified female healthcare workers, which has led to the point that nurse migration today presents a very intense, and by many accounts specific migration flow. Female migrating work force is often in pursuit of low-wage and lowqualified work. Nurse migration is actually an example of motion of qualified female migrants in pursuit for better employment opportunities. While such a way of filling up the vacant positions works for the “importing” countries as a temporary solution, departure of trained female personnel presents a significant loss for the originating countries. In this paper we pay special attention to the countries who are the main “importers”, but also to those who are “exporters” of nursing personnel, and to specific national strategies these countries have applied.

  19. The Reconstruction Choice for Giant Phyllodes Tumor of Breast: Bi-pedicled Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap. (United States)

    Fang, Chien-Liang; Hsu, Chin-Hao; Tu, Chin-Wen


    Phyllodes tumors of the breast are the rarest of all breast neoplasms. Giant phyllodes tumors (>10 cm) of the breast have been less discussed in the literature. Reconstruction of the large defect created after wide excision (safety margin >1 cm) is a challenge in these patients. We present one technique using a bi-pedicled deep inferior epigastric perforator flap for post-mastectomy breast reconstruction for giant phyllodes tumors. We treated three patients with giant phyllodes tumors between 2013 and 2016. The histological characteristics were benign and borderline; tumor sizes were 18 × 13 × 12, 20 × 16 × 9.5, and 18 × 15 × 9 cm. Immediate post-mastectomy reconstruction was performed using bi-pedicled deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. Flap sizes measured 30 × 11, 28 × 12, and 28 × 13 cm. Total operative time, including that for mastectomy, was 285, 425, and 410 min. The duration of hospital stay was 12, 13, and 9 days. No local recurrence or distant metastasis occurred in the first two patients over a follow-up period of 3 years and in the third patient over a follow-up period of 6 months. A higher local recurrence rate was associated with positive margins, histological grade, tumor size, and necrosis. Immediate post-mastectomy breast reconstruction may become the preferred option for treatment of giant phyllodes tumors. A bi-pedicled deep inferior epigastric perforator flap conferred adequate leverage for wide excision and resolved scar contracture of the axilla. Good functional and cosmetic results were achieved. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

  20. Bilateral, Mirror-imaged, Postero-inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysms: Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Sharma


    Full Text Available A 60-year-old right-handed lady presented with the features of subarachnoid haemorrhage. The CT angiogram showed a pair of very rare bilateral, mirror-imaged distal postero-inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. Both aneurysms were clipped via the midline posterior fossa craniectomy under general anaesthesia. The literatures is reviewed on the incidence, presentation, management and outcome of bilateral distal posterior-inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. Keywords: bilateral mirror image, distal postero-inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms, posterior fossa craniectomy, microsurgical clipping

  1. Isquemia aguda de miembros inferiores secundaria a ergortismo Acute ischemia of lower limbs secondary to ergotism


    Franco J Vallejo; Juan F Gómez; Natalia Tamayo


    Paciente de género femenino, de 21 años de edad, quien ingresó por dolor progresivo e intenso en miembros inferiores, y refirió antecedente reciente de ingestión de derivados del ergot. Al examen físico se observó ausencia de pulsos en ambos miembros inferiores. Por angiotomografia se documentó disminución severa, generalizada y bilateral, del calibre de los vasos arteriales de miembros inferiores. Se diagnosticó isquemia arterial aguda secundaria a ergotismo y se inició tratamiento con vasod...

  2. [Massive inferior vena cava thrombosis in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic hepatorenal disease]. (United States)

    Peces, R; Gil, F; Costero, O; Pobes, A


    We report a 68-year-old man with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, who developed multiple venous thromboses (inferior vena cava, left renal vein and iliofemoral veins) caused by local compression of the intrahepatic inferior vena cava by hepatic cysts. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of inferior vena cava thrombosis caused by hepatic cysts compression. Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were effective in documenting the venous thromboses and the underlying lesions non-invasively. Long-term anticoagulation was an efficient and safe treatment.

  3. Isolated congenital absence of inferior pubic rami ossification: a case report. (United States)

    VandenBerg, Curtis; Novais, Eduardo


    Previously reported cases of congenital absence of the pubic rami have been associated with urogenital and musculoskeletal anomalies. Presented here is the case of an 11-year-old female who presented to the outpatient clinic and was incidentally found to have absence of inferior pubic rami ossification in the setting of otherwise normal pelvic, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal development. Radiographic, computed tomography, and MRI studies are shown and demonstrate normal musculoskeletal anatomy and a cartilaginous anlage in the location of the inferior pubic rami. Isolated absence of inferior pubic rami ossification can be present in an otherwise typically developing child with normal function.

  4. Automation of Flexible Migration Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk von Suchodoletz


    Full Text Available Many digital preservation scenarios are based on the migration strategy, which itself is heavily tool-dependent. For popular, well-defined and often open file formats – e.g., digital images, such as PNG, GIF, JPEG – a wide range of tools exist. Migration workflows become more difficult with proprietary formats, as used by the several text processing applications becoming available in the last two decades. If a certain file format can not be rendered with actual software, emulation of the original environment remains a valid option. For instance, with the original Lotus AmiPro or Word Perfect, it is not a problem to save an object of this type in ASCII text or Rich Text Format. In specific environments, it is even possible to send the file to a virtual printer, thereby producing a PDF as a migration output. Such manual migration tasks typically involve human interaction, which may be feasible for a small number of objects, but not for larger batches of files.We propose a novel approach using a software-operated VNC abstraction layer in order to replace humans with machine interaction. Emulators or virtualization tools equipped with a VNC interface are very well suited for this approach. But screen, keyboard and mouse interaction is just part of the setup. Furthermore, digital objects need to be transferred into the original environment in order to be extracted after processing. Nevertheless, the complexity of the new generation of migration services is quickly rising; a preservation workflow is now comprised not only of the migration tool itself, but of a complete software and virtual hardware stack with recorded workflows linked to every supported migration scenario. Thus the requirements of OAIS management must include proper software archiving, emulator selection, system image and recording handling. The concept of view-paths could help either to automatically determine the proper pre-configured virtual environment or to set up system

  5. Radionuclide migration through fractured granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grondin, D.M.; Vandergraaf, T.T.; Drew, D.J.


    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fractures in granite blocks of up to 30 cm in length. Results are reported for four migration experiments involving synthetic groundwaters containing tritiated water, 95m Tc, 75 Se, 137 Cs, or 60 Co-labelled natural colloids, which were injected into the fractures at flow rates of 0.4-0.45 mL/h, giving residence times in the fractures of up to 15 h. Also presented are the results of the post-experiment analyses, including an autoradiograph of one of the fracture surfaces, and the spatial distribution of the sorbed radionuclides determined by γ-scanning and selective chemical extractions

  6. Business cycles, migration and health. (United States)

    Halliday, Timothy J


    We investigate the proposition that illness poses as an obstacle to one's ability to use migration to hedge the business cycle. We employ data on migration, regional unemployment rates and health status from 10 years (1984-1993) of the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our results provide considerable for support this proposition. The evidence is the strongest for men, but we also find weaker evidence for married women. These results suggest that--ceterus paribus--aggregate health outcomes in an area should improve when the regional economy expands.

  7. Voluntary income redistribution with migration. (United States)

    Crane, R


    This study is concerned with the welfare magnet problem, in which disparities in transfer policies across states are believed to encourage recipient and possibly resource migration. "This study clarifies the terms of the debate by showing how the value of redistributing local resources depends not only on the value of income to each group, but also on the cost of the transfer in erosion of the resource base through migration and through the general equilibrium effects of such activity on local prices." The geographical focus is on the United States. excerpt

  8. Women’s football migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    What is intriguing about women’s football as a cultural phenomenon is that unlike men’s football the finances and media interest for the game are sparse. Nevertheless we have found that migration of female football players is growing steadily and women’s football is becoming global in nature....... The question is then what drives this globalization process? According to our study of women’s football migration into Scandinavia, one of the centers of women’s football, transnational networks play a crucial role in mobilizing global migratory moves. Using the concept of friends-of-friends networks from Bale...

  9. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.


    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on, in and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account, by decision makers, when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository

  10. Retirement migration and military retirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report addresses questions relevant to a socioeconomic assessment system for southern Nevada. They point to an understanding of the magnitude of impacts which may occur if the Yucca Mountain Project were to affect the decision-making process which leads these groups to migrate to southern Nevada. This is an important but somewhat elusive topic lacking in standard data sources. However, the topic may be addressed and analyzed systematically. This report presents the results of efforts to develop a data base and begin development of a model to address the migration, income and expenditure dimensions of these groups. 1 fig., 62 tabs

  11. [International migration in the Americas: intraregional migration grows]. (United States)

    Zlotnik, H


    The principal destinations for intraregional migrants in South America in recent decades have been Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela, while in North America the U.S. has exerted a growing attraction since 1965. Intraregional migration in Latin America has been irregular and difficult to quantify, and reliable statistics on migratory flows are nonexistent. Census data indicate that most migration to Argentina and Brazil occurred before 1960, while most migration to Venezuela occurred during the 1970s. Between 1960 and 1980, the proportion of migrants from other Latin American countries showed a tendency to increase, despite decreases in the overall level of immigration. The effect of the economic crisis of the 1980s on immigration from Latin American countries will become more apparent as census data for the 1990s become available. Selectivity according to country of origin is an important characteristic of intraregional migration in South America. The U.S. has, however, been the principal destination of Latin American migrants for the past three decades. Between 1965 and 1991 the U.S. granted resident status to more than 7.4 million persons of Latin American and Caribbean origin, and they constituted 47% of immigrants during those years. The great majority of the Latin American immigrants in the U.S. are Mexican. The 3.5 million Mexicans admitted to the U.S. as immigrants between 1965 and 1991 accounted for 22% of all immigrants during this period.

  12. Are inferior vena cava filters effective for prophylaxis of critical pulmonary embolism in patients with cancer and coexisting venous thromboembolism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Juno; Nagayoshi, Mikiko; Onozuka, Atsuko


    Cancer sometimes causes venous thromboembolisms (VTE) including pulmonary embolisms (PE), which impedes aggressive treatment such as chemotherapy. From January 2003 to March 2007, there were 120 hospitalized patients with existing VTE in The University of Tokyo Hospital. Among them we reviewed 39 patients with cancer who required aggressive chemoradiotherapy and examined whether inferior vena cava (IVC) filtration was necessary in addition to ordinary anticoagulant therapy. The clinical stage of cancer was stage I in 7, stage II in 4, stage III in 11, and stage IV in 17. Most were advanced cancer. Of the 39, 9 underwent an IVC filter placement (filter group) and 30 did not (no-filter group). All of them received regular anticoagulant therapy. In the long-term follow up averaging 16.9 months, one patient of the filter group required discontinuation of chemotherapy due to symptomatic PE, but there was no such a case in the no-filter group. Filter-related complications such as IVC occlusion or migration did not occur. Computed tomography showed VTE in the long-term course in 27 out of 39 patients, and suggested increased thrombi in cases of recurrent cancer and those with poor outcome. Seventeen died of cancer but no one died of PE during the study. This study showed that IVC filters offered no beneficial effect for the patients with existing VTE who receive aggressive chemotherapy. (author)

  13. The Role of Remittances in Migration Decision: Evidence from Turkish Migration


    Sule Akkoyunlu; Boriss Siliverstovs


    In this study we analyse the impact of workers' remittances on the decision to migrate by means of cointegration analysis. In traditional migration theories, especially in human capital models, the decision to migrate is based upon comparison of expected future incomes in the sending and the receiving countries adjusted for the cost of migration. By contrast, the new economics of labour migration suggests that the migration decision is made jointly by the migrant and his family. One important...

  14. [Family reunification, family-formation migration, and return migration of Turks and Moroccans]. (United States)

    De Beer, J; Kuijper, H; Noordam, R


    The authors analyze migration patterns to the Netherlands from Turkey and Morocco for the period 1977-1989. Three distinct phases emerge: labor migration, family-reunification migration, and family-formation migration. The rise in migration from Turkey and Morocco during the second half of the 1980s is attributed to family-formation migration, which is defined as a member of the second generation marrying a partner from the country of origin. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  15. Some essential considerations in the design and conduct of non-inferiority trials (United States)

    Fleming, Thomas R; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Rothmann, Mark D; Shen, Yuan Li


    Background Suppose a standard therapy (Standard) has been established to provide a clinically important reduction in risk of irreversible morbidity or mortality. In that setting, the safety and efficacy of an experimental intervention likely would be assessed in a clinical trial providing a comparison with Standard rather than a placebo arm. Such a trial often is designed to assess whether the efficacy of the experimental intervention is not unacceptably worse than that of Standard, and is called a non-inferiority trial. Formally, the non-inferiority trial usually is designed to rule out a non-inferiority margin, defined as the minimum threshold for what would constitute an unacceptable loss of efficacy. Purpose Even though the literature has many important articles identifying various approaches to the design and conduct of non-inferiority trials, confusion remains especially regarding key considerations for selecting the non-inferiority margin. The purpose of this article is to provide improved clarity regarding these considerations. Methods We present scientific insights into many factors that should be addressed in the design and conduct of non-inferiority trials to enhance their integrity and reliability, and provide motivation for key considerations that guide the selection of non-inferiority margins. We also provide illustrations and insights from recent experiences. Results Two considerations are essential, and should be addressed in separate steps, in the formulation of the non-inferiority margin. First, the margin should be formulated using adjustments to account for bias or lack of reliability in the estimate of the effect of Standard in the non-inferiority trial setting. Second, the non-inferiority margin should be formulated to achieve preservation of an appropriate percentage of the effect of Standard. Limitations The considerations, in particular regarding the importance of preservation of effect, might not apply to settings where it would be ethical

  16. Is 2 mm a safe distance from the inferior alveolar canal to avoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Conclusion: When 2 mm is considered as a safety distance, the distance of the implants to the IAC did not yield any statistical difference regarding postoperative neurosensory complications. Keywords: Dental implants, inferior alveolar nerve ...

  17. A Bayesian non-inferiority test for two independent binomial proportions. (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yohei; Miyaoka, Etsuo


    In drug development, non-inferiority tests are often employed to determine the difference between two independent binomial proportions. Many test statistics for non-inferiority are based on the frequentist framework. However, research on non-inferiority in the Bayesian framework is limited. In this paper, we suggest a new Bayesian index τ = P(π₁  > π₂-Δ₀|X₁, X₂), where X₁ and X₂ denote binomial random variables for trials n1 and n₂, and parameters π₁ and π₂ , respectively, and the non-inferiority margin is Δ₀> 0. We show two calculation methods for τ, an approximate method that uses normal approximation and an exact method that uses an exact posterior PDF. We compare the approximate probability with the exact probability for τ. Finally, we present the results of actual clinical trials to show the utility of index τ. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Incidental Finding of Inferior Vena Cava Atresia Presenting with Deep Venous Thrombosis following Physical Exertion


    Koppisetty, Shalini; Smith, Alton G.; Dhillon, Ravneet K.


    Inferior vena cava atresia (IVCA) is a rare but well described vascular anomaly. It is a rare risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT), found in approximately 5% of cases of unprovoked lower extremity (LE) DVT in patients

  19. Frequency of acute right ventricular myocardial infarction in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.A.; Shah, I.; Rauf, M.A.; Khan, N.; Khan, S.B.; Hafizullah, M.


    Objective: To determine the frequency of acute right ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI) in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction. Methodology: This prospective case series study was conducted at Cardiology Department in a period from May to October 2009. A total of 174 patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction were evaluated for the presence of acute right ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI). Results: Male patients were 135 (77.6%) and females 39 (24.4%). Patient's age ranged from 28 to 82 years with majority in the age group 40 to 60 years. Frequency of RVMI was 27% among patients presenting with acute inferior myocardial infarction. Among patients presenting with acute RVMI, 64 % patients received thrombolysis. Overall 65% patients of RVMI had hospital stay of more than 4 days. Conclusion: Frequency of RVMI among inferior MI patients was 27 % with longer hospital stay. (author)

  20. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.304 Grades and grade requirements for canola. Grading factors Grades, U.S. Nos...

  1. Radiological evidence of double inferior vena cava in a young adult male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevruz, O.; Ural, U.; Kirici, Y.; Kilic, C.; Bozlar, U.


    The development of the inferior vena cava IVC is a complex process comprising the formation and regression of some anastomoses, so various anomalies may occur during embryogenesis. These variations can increase the difficulty of aneurysm resection as well as the risk of venous injury and subsequent excessive bleeding during retroperitoneal and thoracic surgical interventions. Here, we report a patient with double inferior vena cava by radiographically during his investigation for the etiology of pancytopenia. (author)

  2. Spontaneous alignment of crowded inferior incisives after the extractionof temporary canines


    Orellana Manrique, Tomás Oriel; Calderón Cortez, Iván; Orellana Manrique, Martín


    This investigation evaluated the behavior of permanent inferior incisives after the primary canine’s extractions. The study was carried out in the Pediatric Clinic of Dental Faculty of San Marcos University. The sample was conformed by 10 patients, male and female children, between 8 and 9 years of age, with good general health, having Class I malocclusion and severe crowding of the inferior incisives. It was taken Cephalometric and Panoramic radiographies, as well as models to make the ortho...

  3. [The effect of weakening inferior oblique muscles on the status of ocular torsion]. (United States)

    Mai, Guang-Huan; Yu, Xin-Ping; Yu, Huan-Yun; Chen, Jing-Chang; Deng, Da-Ming; Lin, Xiao-Ming; Kang, Ying; Wu, He-Ping


    To understand the clinical significance of subjective and objective examination of cyclodeviations and investigate the effect of weakening inferior oblique muscles on the status of ocular torsion. Twenty patients (40 eyes) with overacting inferior oblique muscles underwent bilateral myotomy or partial myectomy of inferior oblique muscles. Subjective cyclodeviations were measured before surgery as well as one week, two months after surgery by double maddox rod test (DMRT). Objective cyclodeviations were assessed by fundus photography before and 7 days after surgery in 15 cases. The photograph was transferred to a computer, and the fovea-disc angle was measured by means of drawing picture software. Nine patients with primary overaction of inferior oblique muscles were negative with DMRT before surgery, and only one case revealed incyclotropia 5.0 degrees tested two months after surgery. Four out of 11 patients with secondary overaction of inferior oblique muscles showed excyclotropia 2.5 degrees - 5.0 degrees with DMRT before surgery, and all patients indicated no subjective cyclotropia with DMRT two months after surgery. Fundus photography determination of the right eye revealed extorsion 16.83 degrees +/- 6.39 degrees, the left eye 14.92 degrees +/- 4.51 degrees before surgery. The reduction of the cyclodeviations by weakening inferior oblique muscle for the right and left eye was 13.07 degrees +/- 3.38 degrees and 10.54 degrees +/- 3.75 degrees respectively. The comparison of objective ocular torsion for both eyes showed high significant differences (P < 0.01) pre- and post-operatively. The results of subjective and objective examination of cyclodeviations in patients with primary or secondary overacting inferior oblique muscle early after birth were not consistent. Weakening inferior oblique muscle could correct excyclodeviation. There exist complicated compensatory mechanisms for subjective change of ocular torsion after surgery. The changes of subjective and

  4. Sample Size Estimation for Non-Inferiority Trials: Frequentist Approach versus Decision Theory Approach. (United States)

    Bouman, A C; ten Cate-Hoek, A J; Ramaekers, B L T; Joore, M A


    Non-inferiority trials are performed when the main therapeutic effect of the new therapy is expected to be not unacceptably worse than that of the standard therapy, and the new therapy is expected to have advantages over the standard therapy in costs or other (health) consequences. These advantages however are not included in the classic frequentist approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials. In contrast, the decision theory approach of sample size calculation does include these factors. The objective of this study is to compare the conceptual and practical aspects of the frequentist approach and decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials, thereby demonstrating that the decision theory approach is more appropriate for sample size calculation of non-inferiority trials. The frequentist approach and decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials are compared and applied to a case of a non-inferiority trial on individually tailored duration of elastic compression stocking therapy compared to two years elastic compression stocking therapy for the prevention of post thrombotic syndrome after deep vein thrombosis. The two approaches differ substantially in conceptual background, analytical approach, and input requirements. The sample size calculated according to the frequentist approach yielded 788 patients, using a power of 80% and a one-sided significance level of 5%. The decision theory approach indicated that the optimal sample size was 500 patients, with a net value of €92 million. This study demonstrates and explains the differences between the classic frequentist approach and the decision theory approach of sample size calculation for non-inferiority trials. We argue that the decision theory approach of sample size estimation is most suitable for sample size calculation of non-inferiority trials.

  5. Spontaneous tilting after placement of the gunther-tulip inferior vena caval filter: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Seol, Hae Young; Park, Cheol Min [Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Tilting of a deployed filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a particular kind of periprocedural complication and this can reduce the filter's clot-trapping ability and increase the occlusion of the IVC at a later period. The authors report here on a case of spontaneous tilting of an inferior vena caval filter that was associated with thrombosis in the IVC within 2 weeks of the initially successful placement of the filter without tilting.

  6. Spontaneous tilting after placement of the gunther-tulip inferior vena caval filter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Seol, Hae Young; Park, Cheol Min


    Tilting of a deployed filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a particular kind of periprocedural complication and this can reduce the filter's clot-trapping ability and increase the occlusion of the IVC at a later period. The authors report here on a case of spontaneous tilting of an inferior vena caval filter that was associated with thrombosis in the IVC within 2 weeks of the initially successful placement of the filter without tilting

  7. [International migration in the Middle East]. (United States)

    Beauge, G


    This special issue contains a selection of 12 papers by various authors on aspects of international migration to the Middle East. Papers are included on the impact of migration on socioeconomic development, income distribution, and rural capitalization in Egypt; migration from rural Lebanon; the effect of emigration on Pakistan; Indian workers in Oman; inter-Arab migration and development; the role of the state in migration in the Arab peninsula; the dynamics of manpower in Kuwait; the Iraqi model and Arab unity; and the impact of this migration on the concept of the New Economic Order.

  8. Trade and migration: the case of NAFTA. (United States)

    Martin, P L


    "This article provides background information on NAFTA [the North American Free Trade Agreement], reviews data on its economic effects, and summarizes studies and projections of NAFTA's likely effects on Mexico-to-U.S. migration. Migration factors (demand-pull, supply-push, and networks) are examined to determine whether NAFTA's effect on economic development particularly in the border areas will accelerate or retard migration. The conclusion is that NAFTA is likely to produce a temporary migration hump, slightly raising already high migration levels in the 1990s, but reducing the volume of Mexico-to-U.S. migration that would otherwise occur over subsequent decades." excerpt

  9. Anterior and nasal transposition of inferior oblique muscle in cases of superior oblique palsy. (United States)

    Saxena, Rohit; Sharma, Medha; Singh, Digvijay; Sharma, Pradeep


    To report long-term outcome of inferior oblique anterior and nasal transposition in superior oblique palsy. The medical records of patients with superior oblique palsy who underwent inferior oblique anterior nasal transposition were reviewed retrospectively. A comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, including prism bar cover test and measurement of torsion, was performed for all cases. One-year postoperative results were evaluated for alignment in primary gaze, contralateral gaze, and upgaze; reduction in inferior oblique overaction and changes in fundus torsion to assess long-term outcome of the procedure. A total of 12 patients were included. Three cases also underwent horizontal muscle surgery. Mean age at the time of surgery was 20.6 years. The median preoperative hypertropia was 21.5 Δ (range, 12 Δ -36 Δ ), corrected to 4.5 Δ (range, 2 Δ -10 Δ ) at 12 months postoperatively (P = 0.002). Median inferior oblique overaction decreased from +3 (range, +1 to +4) to 0 (range, -1 to +1). Preoperative fundus extorsion was 19.2° ± 6.7°; postoperative, 0.58° ± 1.8° (P Extorsion was eliminated and head tilt improved in all patients. Inferior oblique anterior and nasal transposition resulted in good long-term outcomes in our patients with superior oblique palsy presenting with hypertropia, inferior oblique overaction, and extorsion in primary gaze. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Convergence and migration among provinces. (United States)

    Helliwell, J F


    "Have regional disparities in Canada changed over the past thirty years? This paper assesses the robustness of earlier findings of convergence in the levels and growth rates of provincial per capita GDP, and then estimates the extent to which interprovincial and international migration is being influenced by regional differences in incomes and employment." excerpt

  11. Long migration flights of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Mark


    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight. (paper)

  12. Irregular migration: an international perspective. (United States)

    Tomasi, S M


    Despite the heightened awareness of irregular migrations worldwide, a certain misappreciation or underestimation of the saliency of irregular migration issues persists. Conflict in the strife-torn Indian state of Assam, for example, has been widely publicized, but its roots in immigration issues linked to communal tensions are insufficiently understood. Conflict around the globe seems increasingly to involve, both as cause and effect, migrants in irregular status whose problematical or illegitimate presence itself is at issue. The global recession prompted governments in immigration-welcoming countries to adopt more restrictive stances vis-a-vis immigration at a time when global migratory pressures were expanding enormously. As if by a process of demonstration effect, 1 country after another began to view migratory flows with alarm--flows which previously had been regarded as benign or quantitatively unimportant. Part I of this special issue examines a variety of public responses to irregular migration. Part II looks at legalization issues in a number of national contexts. Part III contains 3 comparative reflections on immigration reform in industrial democracies. Part IV provides an overview and sampling of recent empirical and survey research findings on irregular status migrants, primarily in the US. This special issue is intended to encourage further research on irregular migration, foster better understanding of this complex phenomenon, and contribute to enlightened public policy-making.

  13. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role...

  14. Les questions de migrations internationales (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane


    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  15. Job Migration: A Collaborative Effort (United States)

    Wagoner, Cynthia L.


    Music teachers often change jobs several times during their careers. Reasons for job changes vary, but regardless, these changes bring a different set of challenges. Sharing knowledge and learning are part and parcel of collaboration. So what if, as education professionals, music teachers decided to collaborate during job migrations? For all music…

  16. The OECD and International Migration. (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The document focuses on various aspects of the social, economic, and policy implications of migration in Europe based on the actions undertaken by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). A discussion of issues which may remedy the disequilibrium between the relative portions of the factors of production is presented: (1)…

  17. [Migration of dentists within Hungary]. (United States)

    Balázs, Péter


    Concerning the human resource management in the health care, Hungarian analysts focus mainly on cross-national migration, which was instigated considerably by joining the European Union in 2004. Contrasted to other health care professionals, dentists emphasized also the importance of in-country migration (mobility) indicating serious dangers of developing inequalities in the dental service. From the point of view of health system planning, the main problem is to balance the needs and the number of professionals in regions and areas with extremely different socio-economic conditions. Under dictatorial governments, this "balancing" (which was experienced also in Hungary) is a forced allocation of young professionals to the target regions. In political freedom and free market economy, these measures are unthinkable. The present domestic area distribution, concerning also the supply through vacancies by old age inactivity and cross-national migration, is ruled by personal decisions of actually graduated and immigrant professionals respectively. Therefore, it is unavoidable to investigate the interrelation of factors (dentists' births place, study migration and decisions for practice allocation) ruling the in-country geographic patterns of dental practices. This evidence-based knowledge can only explain the present situation and provide guidelines for health policy decision makers.

  18. Marriage migration in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen Sterckx; Jaco Dagevos; Willem Huijnk; Jantine van Lisdonk


    Original title: Huwelijksmigratie in Nederland When a man or woman living in the Netherlands embarks on a relationship with a partner from another country and the couple decide to build a married life together in the Netherlands, we call this marriage migration. The foreign partner who moves to

  19. Migrating Partial Seizures of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available A national surveillance study in conjunction with the British Paediatric Neurology Unit was undertaken to further define the clinical, pathological and molecular genetic features of migrating partial seizures of infancy (MPSI, a rare early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with poor prognosis.

  20. Long migration flights of birds (United States)

    Denny, Mark


    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight.

  1. [Haitian migration to Santo Domingo]. (United States)

    Latortue, P R


    This work examines the history of Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic, the central role of Haitian migration in Dominican society, working conditions of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic, and the relationship of the migration to economic development on the island of Hispaniola. Lack of data, the difficulty of measuring illegal movement, and the problem of defining Haitians in Santo Domingo have impeded understanding of migration to the Dominican Republic. It is believed by many authorities that Haitian migration to Santo Domingo is considerable and perhaps exceeds that to the US. Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic began after 1915 with the fall of the Haitian president, a worsening of economic conditions partly caused by stagnation in the agricultural sector, and the newly dominant role of the US in Haitian economic affairs. The Great Depression of the 1930s was a direct antecedent of the massacre of Haitians by Dominican police in which some 30 thousand persons were killed; the economic recession of the early 1980s has also caused an outburst of antiHaitian feeling in the Dominican Republic although 80% of laborers in the sugar industry are Haitians. Sugar is extremely important to the Dominican economy: in 1974, sugar covered 12% of cultivated land, produced 40% of foreign exchange earnings, and was responsable for 21% of taxable income. Dominicans however refuse to work in sugar plantations under the current technological. conditions and wage system. Although the government periodically demands the Dominicanization of the sugar work force, no such changes have been made. Sugar will probably continue to play a decisive role in the generation of foreign exchange despite introduction of more technologically advanced sectors which benefit from better prices in the international market. Possibilities of mechanizing sugar production in the Dominican Republic appear remote, and failure to modernize an important sector of the economy has

  2. Functionally Graded Materials Database (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki


    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  3. Mechanics of Graded Wrinkles (United States)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; Boyce, Mary


    Shark skin is known for its anti-fouling and self-cleaning properties. In attempts to mimic this pattern for getting similar properties, different surface patterns such as Sharklet and wrinkles have been previously introduced. Wrinkled patterns have gained importance in applications such as microfluidics, wetting and adhesion. Through buckling of a thin film of stiff material on a substrate of softer material, and maintaining symmetric geometries, ordered wrinkled patterns can be created. However, it can be shown that using the same principle, by changing the geometry of the surface, the dimensions of the wrinkles can be altered. This alteration turns ordered wrinkles into graded wrinkles which have more resemblance to shark skin than the ordered wrinkles, maintaining the same wave length while each wave having different amplitude. Here using finite element models, experiments and analytical solutions, the relations between different geometries and the resulting patterns were investigated.

  4. Zn graded differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.


    The properties of differential algebras generated by an operator d satisfying the property d N = 0 instead of d 2 = 0 as in the usual case were investigated. The commutation relations for the generalized differentials ensuring the desired property can be put into the cyclic form a 1 a 2 a 3 ... a N = q a N a 1 a 2 ... a N-1 , where q is a primitive N-th root of unity. Examples of realizations of such differential algebras are given, either in the space of Z N -graded N x N matrix algebras, or as generalized differential calculus on manifolds. A generalization of gauge theories based on such differential calculus is briefly discussed. (author). 10 refs

  5. Migration Theories and Mental Health in Toni Morrison's Jazz


    Leila Tafreshi Motalgh; Wan Roselezam Wan Yahya


    This article aims to elaborate the relationship between migration and mental health problems that are evident in migrant women in Toni Morrison's Jazz (1992). To this end, pre-migration, migration and post-migration stress factors are identified in the novel based on Danish Bhugra's theory of migration. It seems that pre-migration stress factors and traumas are associated with the push theory of migration, while post-migration stresses are associated with the pull theory of migration. Despite...

  6. [Migration patterns of health professionals]. (United States)

    Kingma, Mireille


    The past three decades have seen the number of international migrants double, to reach the unprecedented total of 175 million people in 2003. National health systems are often the biggest national employer, responsible for an estimated 35 million workers worldwide. Health professionals are part of the expanding global labour market. Today, foreign-educated health professionals represent more than a quarter of the medical and nursing workforces of Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Destination countries, however, are not limited to industrialised nations. For example, 50 per cent of physicians in the Namibia public services are expatriates and South Africa continues to recruit close to 80% of its rural physicians from other countries. International migration often imitates patterns of internal migration. The exodus from rural to urban areas, from lower to higher income urban neighbourhoods and from lower-income to higher-income sectors contributes challenges to the universal coverage of the population. International migration is often blamed for the dramatic health professional shortages witnessed in the developing countries. A recent OECD study, however, concludes that many registered nurses in South Africa (far exceeding the number that emigrate) are either inactive or unemployed. These dire situations constitute a modern paradox which is for the most part ignored. Shared language, promises of a better quality of life and globalization all support the continued existence of health professionals' international migration. The ethical dimension o this mobility is a sensitive issue that needs to be addressed. A major paradigm shift, however, is required in order to lessen the need to migrate rather than artificially curb the flows.

  7. Mediterranean Migrations: Regionalisms Versus Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baldwin-Eduards


    Full Text Available This paper challenges the claim of globalisation as a cause ofimmigration into Southern Europe and, on an empirical basis, identifies regionalisation as being the primary issue, along with networked migratory patterns. However, the changing patterns of immigration do present challenges to both state and society. It is argued here that recent policy responses in Portugal, Italy and Spain have been inconsistent and irrational – reflecting more the ‘securitisation’ of migration than European reality. Earlier policy innovations are identified, by country and date: most of these have now been abandoned. It is suggested that all of Southern Europe has converged onto a statist, restrictionist model of immigration control that was formerly held only by Greece. The principal characteristics of this model are outlined, along with a migration flowchart and indicative data for migrant flows and sub-flows in Italy and Spain. In the final section, I try to show that the needs of the economy cannot be predicted, immigration cannot becontrolled in the manner currently being enforced across Southern Europe, and attempts to do so will damage rather than improve economic productivity and growth. The concept of an accomodating immigration policy is advanced, whereby the state tries to manage the needs of both employers and potential migrants. Six guidelines for policy development are suggested – most of which have alreadybeen successfully carried out in the European Union. These are the following: migration in order to find a job; circular cross-border migration; EU level negotiation of readmission agreements; the need for a variety of migration-for-employment schemes; legal residence should not depend upon continuity of employment; and discreet legalisation will still be needed in Southern Europe.

  8. Sedimentary record of erg migration (United States)

    Porter, M. L.


    The sedimentary record of erg (eolian sand sea) migration consists of an idealized threefold division of sand-sea facies sequences. The basal division, here termed the fore-erg, is composed of a hierarchy of eolian sand bodies contained within sediments of the flanking depositional environment. These sand bodies consist of eolian strata deposited by small dune complexes, zibars, and sand sheets. The fore-erg represents the downwind, leading edge of the erg and records the onset of eolian sedimentation. Basin subsidence coupled with erg migration places the medial division, termed the central erg, over the fore-erg strata. The central erg, represented by a thick accumulation of large-scale, cross-stratified sandstone, is the product of large draa complexes. Eolian influence on regional sedimentation patterns is greatest in the central erg, and most of the sand transported and deposited in the erg is contained within this region. Reduction in sand supply and continued erg migration will cover the central-erg deposits with a veneer of back-erg deposits. This upper division of the erg facies sequence resembles closely the fore-erg region. Similar types of eolian strata are present and organized in sand bodies encased in sediments of the upwind flanking depositional environment(s). Back-erg deposits may be thin due to limited eolian influence on sedimentation or incomplete erg migration, or they may be completely absent because of great susceptibility to postdepositional erosion. Tectonic, climatic, and eustatic influences on sand-sea deposition will produce distinctive variations or modifications of the idealized erg facies sequence. The resulting variants in the sedimentary record of erg migration are illustrated with ancient examples from western North America, Europe, southern Africa, and South America.

  9. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler


    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses...... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...... the causal effect of blind grading, exploiting two separate identification strategies. The first derives from a unique full cohort natural experiment with a grading reform, providing exogenous variation in blind grading. The other strategy derives from a field experiment where the exact same exam papers...

  10. Grade Retention and Unobserved Heterogeneity


    Robert J. Gary-Bobo; Marion Gousse; Jean-Marc Robin


    We study the treatment effect of grade retention using a panel of French junior high-school students, taking unobserved heterogeneity and the endogeneity of grade repetitions into account. We specify a multistage model of human-capital accumulation with a finite number of types representing unobserved individual characteristics. Class-size and latent student-performance indices are assumed to follow finite mixtures of normal distributions. Grade retention may increase or decrea...

  11. Depth migration and de-migration for 3-D migration velocity analysis; Migration profondeur et demigration pour l'analyse de vitesse de migration 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assouline, F.


    3-D seismic imaging of complex geologic structures requires the use of pre-stack imaging techniques, the post-stack ones being unsuitable in that case. Indeed, pre-stack depth migration is a technique which allows to image accurately complex structures provided that we have at our disposal a subsurface velocity model accurate enough. The determination of this velocity model is thus a key element for seismic imaging, and to this end, migration velocity analysis methods have met considerable interest. The SMART method is a specific migration velocity analysis method: the singularity of this method is that it does not rely on any restrictive assumptions on the complexity of the velocity model to determine. The SMART method uses a detour through the pre-stack depth migrated domain for extracting multi-offset kinematic information hardly accessible in the time domain. Once achieved the interpretation of the pre-stack depth migrated seismic data, a kinematic de-migration technique of the interpreted events enables to obtain a consistent kinematic database (i.e. reflection travel-times). Then, the inversion of these travel-times, by means of reflection tomography, allows the determination of an accurate velocity model. To be able to really image geologic structures for which the 3-D feature is predominant, we have studied the implementation of migration velocity analysis in 3-D in the context of the SMART method, and more generally, we have developed techniques allowing to overcome the intrinsic difficulties in the 3-D aspects of seismic imaging. Indeed, although formally the SMART method can be directly applied to the case of 3-D complex structures, the feasibility of its implementation requires to choose well the imaging domain. Once this choice done, it is also necessary to conceive a method allowing, via the associated de-migration, to obtain the reflection travel-times. We first consider the offset domain which constitutes, still today, the strategy most usually used

  12. 4 Gy versus 24 Gy radiotherapy for patients with indolent lymphoma (FORT): a randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial. (United States)

    Hoskin, Peter J; Kirkwood, Amy A; Popova, Bilyana; Smith, Paul; Robinson, Martin; Gallop-Evans, Eve; Coltart, Stewart; Illidge, Timothy; Madhavan, Krishnaswamy; Brammer, Caroline; Diez, Patricia; Jack, Andrew; Syndikus, Isabel


    Follicular lymphoma has been shown to be highly radiosensitive with responses to doses as low as 4 Gy in two fractions. This trial was designed to explore the dose response for follicular lymphoma comparing 4 Gy in two fractions with 24 Gy in 12 fractions FORT is a prospective randomised, unblinded, phase 3 non-inferiority study comparing radiotherapy given as 4 Gy in two fractions with a standard dose of 24 Gy in 12 fractions. Entry criteria included all patients aged over 18 years, having local radiotherapy for radical or palliative local control, with follicular lymphoma or marginal zone lymphoma, who had received no previous treatment for at least 1 month before. The primary outcome was time to local progression analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Randomisation was centralised through the Cancer Research UK and University College London Cancer Trials Centre. Radiotherapy target sites were randomised (1:1) with minimisation stratified by histology (follicular lymphoma vs marginal zone lymphoma), treatment intent (palliative or curative) and centre. This trial is registered with number, NCT00310167. 299 sites were randomly assigned to 24 Gy and 315 sites to 4 Gy between April 7, 2006, and June 8, 2011, at 43 centres in the UK. After a median follow-up of 26 months (range 0·39-75·4), 91 local progressions had been recorded (21 in the 24 Gy group and 70 in the 4 Gy group). Time to local progression with 4 Gy was not non-inferior to 24 Gy (hazard ratio 3·42, 95% CI 2·09-5·55, p<0·0001). Eight (3%) of 282 patients in the 24 Gy group and four (1%) of 300 in the 4 Gy group had acute grade 3-4 toxic effects. Four (1%) patients in the 24 Gy group and four (1%) patients in the 4 Gy group had late toxic effects. Mucositis was the most common event in the 24 Gy group (two patients with acute mucositis and two with late mucositis; all grade 3) and was not reported in the 4 Gy group. The most common acute effect was pain at the site of

  13. Study of 99Tcm-annexin V distribution in inferior vena cava thrombus models of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dayong; Zhang Wenyan; Bian Yanzhu; Hu Yujing


    To study 99 Tc m -Annexin V distribution in inferior vena cava thrombus models of rabbits and uptake of 99 Tc m -Annexin V in fresh and old venous thrombus. Rabbits (n=15) were randomly grouped into 3 groups (the fresh thrombus group, old thrombus group, and control group). The rabbits of two thrombus groups developed inferior vena cava thrombus models by operations. The control group received sham operation. The fresh thrombus group and control group rabbits were injected 99 Tc m -Annexin V after operating 1 d; the old thrombus group 14 d. After 1 h all rabbits were killed by injecting overdose pentobarbital sodium. The thrombus (or the inferior vena cava about 3 cm below inferior pole of right kidney level in the control group rabbits), blood, thrombus area inferior vena cava, head lateral inferior vena cava (except the control group), thigh muscle, stomach, myocardium, pulmonary, liver, kidney, spleen, bone and small intestine were obtained from all group rabbits. The ex tissue and blood were weighed and measured by a Well-type detector. The percentage of the injected dose per gram of ex tissue (or blood) was calculated by the above data. The thrombus to blood, thrombus area inferior vena cava, head lateral inferior vena cava and thigh muscle ratios were calculated by percentage of the injected dose per gram of ex tissue (or blood). The test was used to compare the fresh thrombus group and old thrombus group by SPSS 17.0. The percentage of' the injected dose per gram of thrombi (0.01894± 0.002 16% ID/g) in the fresh thrombus group was higher than the old thrombus group (0.00473±0.001 28% ID/g), P<0.05. The thrombus to blood, thrombus area inferior vena cava, head lateral inferior vena cava and muscle ratios (3.42±1.06, 26.32±13.60, 31.23 ±16.00, 111.62±52.23) in the fresh thrombus group were higher than the old thrombus group (0.98±0.09, 5.12±2.01, 6.25±2.38, 21.82±5.93), P<0.05 for all. All the thrombi of the fresh thrombus group were confirmed

  14. Some recent progress of nuclide migration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuanfang


    The recent progress of nuclide migration studies relevant to geological disposal of radioactive waste is reviewed briefly. Important nuclides, migration chemistry, natural analogue, and influences of organic compounds and microbes are discussed

  15. Migration aspirations and migration cultures : A case study of Ukrainian migration towards the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.; Snel, Erik; Hemmerechts, Kenneth; Timmerman, Christiane


    An abundant body of research focused on macrolevel, mesolevel, and microlevel factors explaining why individuals move across international borders. In this paper, we aim to complement the existing literature by exploring how, within a single country, mesolevel factors differently impact migration

  16. Mechanism for the tilting of Geunther Tulip inferior vena cava filter inserted via femoral vein: an experimental study in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Liang; Shen Jing; Huang Desheng; Xu Ke


    Objective: To clarify the mechanism causing the tilting of Geunther Tulip inferior Vena Cava filter (GTF) which is inserted via femoral vein access by means of the experiment in vitro. Methods: The caval model was established by placing one 25 mm × 10 cm Dacron graft and two 10 mm × 20 cm Dacron grafts into a transparent bifurcate glass tube. The study consisted of two groups: right straight group (G RS ) (n=100) and left straight group (G LS ) (n=100). The distance (D CH ) between the caval right wall and the hook was measured. The degree of tilting (DT) was classified into 5 grades and the data were recorded. Before and after the GTF was released, the angle (A CM1,2 ) between the axis of IVC and the metal mount, the distance (D CM1,2 ) between the caval right wall and the metal mount, the angle (A CF ) between the axis of IVC and the axis of the filter and the diameter of IVC (D IVC ) were measured separately. Results: The degree of GTF tilting in each group revealed a divergent tendency. In Group RS, the apex of the filter tended to be grade Ⅲ compared that in Group LS (59% vs 36%, P=0.003). The differences in most variables between G RS and G LS were considered as statistical significance. Significant positive correlation existed between A CM1 and A CF , A CM1 -A CM2 and D CH1 -D CH2 in each group, respectively, while significant negative association was also existed between D CH1 and A CF in each group. Conclusion: The tilting angle of GTF filter axis before it is released is a major cause of the occurrence of femoral GTF filter tilting. (authors)

  17. Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016, Third Edition


    World Bank Group


    The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016 attempts to present numbers and facts behind the stories of international migration and remittances, drawing on authoritative, publicly available data. It provides a snapshot of statistics on immigration, emigration, skilled emigration, and remittance flows for 210 countries and 15 regional and income groups. The Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016 updates the 2011 edition of the Factbook with additional data on bilateral migration and remittanc...

  18. Internal migration in Germany, 1995-2010


    Sander, Nikolaus


    "Over the last two decades, patterns of internal migration in Germany have been discussed under the headings of East-West movements and sub- and re-urbanisation. This paper argues that the intense scientific and public debate that ignited about the possible causes and consequences of internal migration should be based on a clear understanding of how internal migration flows impact on regional population change. Using the German Internal Migration (GIM) database, a unique new dataset that hold...

  19. Capitalist development and internal migration in Nigeria. (United States)

    Akor, R I; Mou, D


    The authors analyze internal migration trends in Nigeria by examining individual household strategies and how they have adapted to structural changes brought about by colonial rule and capitalist development. The first section of this article describes the structural changes that started the process of labor migration. The second section deals with post-independence industrialization and the consequent rural-urban migration. The final section analyzes the consequences of these migration patterns for urban growth and rural productivity.

  20. Globalization and formal sector migration in Brazil


    Aguayo-Tellez, Ernesto; Muendler, Marc-Andreas; Poole, Jennifer Pamela


    We use novel linked employer–employee data to study the relationship between globalization and formal sector interstate migration for Brazil. We estimate the worker’s multichoice migration problem and document that previously unobserved employer covariates are significant predictors associated with migration flows. Our results provide support for the idea that globalization acts on internal migration through the growth of employment opportunities at locations with a high concentration of fore...

  1. Juridical structures: refugees and migration. (United States)

    Veiter, T


    The juridical problems in regard to the concepts of refugee, expulsion, and migration are complicated. If one speaks about migration in Europe, one must 1st distinguish between Eastern and Western Europe. In the communist states of Eastern Europe the refugee problem does not exist officially, with the only existing refugee problem in Yugoslavia, which has signed and ratified the Geneva Refugee Convention of 1951. In the other East European states the right to asylum exists, but refugees are granted asylum only if they are persecuted in their country of origin for their communist ideas and activities. In speaking of migration, one must distinguish between migration, forced migration, mass migration, emigration, immigration, the shift of populations, and refugees. In the communist countries of Eastern Europe the right to emigration is not respected, although certain exceptions, as in Poland or Yugoslavia do exist. Generally, in the communist states emigration is not allowed and illegal emigration is punished as "Flight from the Republic." With a few exceptions, political and other persecutions are no longer so typical within Europe. In the last decades, the refugee problem has changed to other continents: Afghanistan/Pakistan, Iran, Sri Lanka, East Timor, Lebanon, Palestine, Sudan, Tchad, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Angola. The refugee problem in Europe consists mainly in the large afflux of refugees coming from places with other cultural (and religious) attributes. The Islamic immigrants declare themselves regularly as political refugees and hope to be acknowledged as such by the receiving state. The fear of the governments and populations of the receiving countries is that it would not be possible to assimilate such aliens who do not belong to the Christian culture of Europe. Formerly, refugees came mostly from the Christian countries of Eastern Europe with the same race identity and the same religion. For years now, more and more foreign workers are a kind of migrant

  2. Step-Wise Migration : Evidence from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardede, Elda; McCann, Philip; Venhorst, Viktor


    The objective of this paper is to study multiple internal migration trajectories in Indonesia, with special attention to step-wise migration. Step-wise migration involves moves with smaller steps from village to nearby small town, to larger town, and then to big cities rather than a direct move from

  3. Migration on Wings Aerodynamics and Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kantha, Lakshmi


    This book is an effort to explore the technical aspects associated with bird flight and migration on wings. After a short introduction on the birds migration, the book reviews the aerodynamics and Energetics of Flight and presents the calculation of the Migration Range. In addition, the authors explains aerodynamics of the formation flight and finally introduces great flight diagrams.

  4. [Urban employment and internal migration in Peru]. (United States)

    Cotlear, D


    The relationship between internal migration and employment problems in Peru is examined. The author argues that regional differences in income distribution are the primary causes of migration, particularly to urban areas. A model of the migration process is developed and tested using data from official sources, surveys, and the published literature.

  5. American Indian Migration and Economic Opportunities. (United States)

    Sandefur, Gary D.


    Explores the determinants of interstate migration and the impact of migration on labor force participation for American Indians, in comparison to White and intermarried Indian/White couples. Interstate migration was much lower for endogenous American Indian couples, but its effect on labor force participation was the same for all couples. (ETS)

  6. The Planets Approach to Migration Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; van Wijk, Caroline


    This paper discusses the Planets approach to migration tool development. The approach consists of enhancing existing migration tools rather than developing tools from scratch. This pragmatic approach is based on the Planets view of the current situation for migration tools and two claims. The first...



    Ayhan GENCLER


    Though globalization suggests an international exchange of people besides goods and capital, developed countries often tended to put forward some restrictions on the migration of workers from developed countries. However, there has been an increase in skilled international migration especially during the last two decades. Skilled international migration or brain drain points out the emigration of educated and highly skilled workers. It seems tha...

  8. Migration Flows: Measurement, Analysis and Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; White, Michael J.


    This chapter is an introduction to the study of migration flows. It starts with a review of major definition and measurement issues. Comparative studies of migration are particularly difficult because different countries define migration differently and measurement methods are not harmonized.

  9. Relationship of distraction rate with inferior alveolar nerve degeneration-regeneration shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hua Zhao


    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is an important technique for the treatment of maxillofacial abnormities and defects. However, distraction osteogenesis may cause the injury of the inferior alveolar nerve. The relationship between distraction rate and nerve degeneration-regeneration shift remains poorly understood. In this study, 24 rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. To establish the rabbit mandibular distraction osteogenesis model, the mandibles of rabbits in distraction osteogenesis groups were subjected to continuous osteogenesis distraction at a rate of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm/d, respectively, by controlling rounds of screwing each day in the distractors. In the sham group, mandible osteotomy was performed without distraction. Pin-prick test with a 10 g blunt pin on the labium, histological and histomorphometric analyses with methylene blue staining, Bodian's silver staining, transmission electron microscopy and myelinated fiber density of inferior alveolar nerve cross-sections were performed to assess inferior alveolar nerve conditions. At 28 days after model establishment, in the pin-prick test, the inferior alveolar nerve showed no response in the labium to a pin pricks in the 2 mm/d group, indicating a severe dysfunction. Histological and histomorphometric analyses indicated that the inferior alveolar nerve suffered more degeneration and injuries at a high distraction rate (2 mm/d. Importantly, the nerve regeneration, indicated by newborn Schwann cells and axons, was more abundant in 1.0 and 1.5 mm/d groups than in 2.0 mm/d group. We concluded that the distraction rate was strongly associated with the inferior alveolar nerve function, and the distraction rates of 1.0 and 1.5 mm/d had regenerative effects on the inferior alveolar nerve. This study provides an experimental basis for the relationship between distraction rate and nerve degeneration-regeneration shift during distraction osteogenesis, and may facilitate reducing nerve

  10. Reliability-based decision making for selection of ready-mix concrete supply using stochastic superiority and inferiority ranking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Ongkowijoyo, Citra Satria


    Corporate competitiveness is heavily influenced by the information acquired, processed, utilized and transferred by professional staff involved in the supply chain. This paper develops a decision aid for selecting on-site ready-mix concrete (RMC) unloading type in decision making situations involving multiple stakeholders and evaluation criteria. The uncertainty of criteria weights set by expert judgment can be transformed in random ways based on the probabilistic virtual-scale method within a prioritization matrix. The ranking is performed by grey relational grade systems considering stochastic criteria weight based on individual preference. Application of the decision aiding model in actual RMC case confirms that the method provides a robust and effective tool for facilitating decision making under uncertainty. - Highlights: • This study models decision aiding method to assess ready-mix concrete unloading type. • Applying Monte Carlo simulation to virtual-scale method achieves a reliable process. • Individual preference ranking method enhances the quality of global decision making. • Robust stochastic superiority and inferiority ranking obtains reasonable results

  11. A Giant Mesenteric Desmoid Tumor Revealed by Acute Pulmonary Embolism due to Compression of the Inferior Vena Cava (United States)

    Palladino, Elisa; Nsenda, Joseph; Siboni, Renaud; Lechner, Christian


    Patient: Male, 69 Final Diagnosis: Mesenteric desmoid tumor Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Intra-abdominal fibromatosis is a benign rare tumor of fibrous origin with a significant potential for local invasion and no ability to metastasize, but it can recur. The etiology of desmoid tumors is unknown. It is often associated with conditions such as familial adenomatous polyposis and Gardner syndrome. Case Report: We report the case of a 69-year-old man who presented to our hospital with an acute pulmonary embolism. The patient had a past history of colic surgery for a polyp with a high-grade dysplasia. Pulmonary angiography showed partial occlusion of the right superior lobe artery and partial occlusion of the middle lobe artery. The patient was given thrombolytic therapy. Abdominal computerized tomography revealed a mesenterial giant mass with compression of the inferior vena cava (IVC). A biopsy of the mass, confirming aggressive fibromatosis. A laparotomy was performed, which revealed a massive growth occupying the abdomen and attached to the previous ileocolic anastomosis. One day after surgery, his condition deteriorated. Conclusions: This report underlines the potential of imaging investigations of abdomen and vena cava if pulmonary embolism is suspected, especially when there is no evidence of peripheral venous thrombosis or other predisposing factors. Unfortunately, data on the surgical management of desmoid tumor is scarce. Therefore, the standard of treatment is a surgical resection for resectable tumors. PMID:25180474

  12. Multidetector CT venography and contrast-enhanced MR venography of the inferior mesenteric vein in paediatric extrahepatic portal vein obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chennur, Vikash SrinivasaiahSetty; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas


    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is a common cause of paediatric portal hypertension and the only permanent treatment is shunt surgery. The inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) is a portal venous channel that can be used for the shunt when the splenic vein/superior mesenteric vein is thrombosed or when a lienorenal shunt is not possible. To compare MDCT venography (MDCTV) and contrast-enhanced MR venography (CEMRV) for visualisation of the IMV in children with EHPVO. This was a prospective study of 26 children (4-12 years, median 10 years) who underwent MDCTV and CEMRV. The IMV visualisation was graded using 4- and 2-point scales and the difference in visualisation was assessed by calculating the exact significance probability (P). The IMV was visualised in all children on MDCTV and 25/26 children on CEMRV (96%). The images were diagnostic in 23/26 children (88%) on MDCTV and in 18/26 (69%) children on CEMRV (P = 0.063). MDCTV and CEMRV are comparable for IMV visualisation with a tendency toward MDCTV being superior. (orig.)

  13. Multidetector CT venography and contrast-enhanced MR venography of the inferior mesenteric vein in paediatric extrahepatic portal vein obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chennur, Vikash SrinivasaiahSetty; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar [All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Department of Radiology, New Delhi (India); Bhatnagar, Veereshwar [AIIMS, Department of Paediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas [AIIMS, Department of Biostatistics, New Delhi (India)


    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is a common cause of paediatric portal hypertension and the only permanent treatment is shunt surgery. The inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) is a portal venous channel that can be used for the shunt when the splenic vein/superior mesenteric vein is thrombosed or when a lienorenal shunt is not possible. To compare MDCT venography (MDCTV) and contrast-enhanced MR venography (CEMRV) for visualisation of the IMV in children with EHPVO. This was a prospective study of 26 children (4-12 years, median 10 years) who underwent MDCTV and CEMRV. The IMV visualisation was graded using 4- and 2-point scales and the difference in visualisation was assessed by calculating the exact significance probability (P). The IMV was visualised in all children on MDCTV and 25/26 children on CEMRV (96%). The images were diagnostic in 23/26 children (88%) on MDCTV and in 18/26 (69%) children on CEMRV (P = 0.063). MDCTV and CEMRV are comparable for IMV visualisation with a tendency toward MDCTV being superior. (orig.)

  14. Population connectivity: dam migration mitigations and contemporary site fidelity in arctic char (United States)


    Background Animal feeding and spawning migrations may be limited by physical barriers and behavioral interactions. Dam constructions (e.g. hydropower) commonly include gateways for fish migrations to sustain ecological connectivity. Relative genetic impacts of fish passage devices versus natural processes (e.g. hybrid inferiority) are, however, rarely studied. We examined genetic (i.e. microsatellite) population connectivity of highly migrating lake-dwelling Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), introduced 20 generations ago, across and within two subalpine lakes separated by a dam with a subterranean tunnel and spill gates after 7 generations. Due to water flow regime, the time window for fish migration is highly restricted. Results Char populations, with similar genetic structuring and diversity observed across and within lakes, were admixed across the dam with fishways during feeding. For spawning, however, statistically significant, but very low population differentiation (θ; 0.002 - 0.013) was found in nine out of ten reproductive site comparisons, reflecting interactions between extensive migration (mean first generation (F0) = 10.8%) and initial site fidelity. Simulations indicated that genetic drift among relatively small effective populations (mean Ne = 62) may have caused the observed contemporary differentiation. Novel Bayesian analyses indicated mean contributions of 71% F0 population hybrids in spawning populations, of which 76% had maternal or paternal native origin. Conclusions Ecological connectivity between lakes separated by a dam has been retained through construction of fishways for feeding migration. Considerable survival and homing to ancestral spawning sites in hybrid progeny was documented. Population differentiation despite preceding admixture is likely caused by contemporary reduced reproductive fitness of population hybrids. The study documents the beginning stages of population divergence among spatial aggregations with recent common

  15. The cost of migration: spoonbills suffer higher mortality during trans-Saharan spring migrations only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, T.; Overdijk, O.; Piersma, T.


    Explanations for the wide variety of seasonal migration patterns of animals all carry the assumption that migration is costly and that this cost increases with migration distance. Although in some studies, the relationships between migration distance and breeding success or annual survival are

  16. Japanese Migration and the Americas: An Introduction to the Study of Migration. (United States)

    Mukai, Gary; Brunette, Rachel

    This curriculum module introduces students to the study of migration, including a brief overview of some categories of migration and reasons why people migrate. As a case study, the module uses the Japanese migration experience in the United States, Peru, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay. The module introduces students to…

  17. Creep transients in a nuclear-grade ODS ferritic steel (United States)

    Evans, R. W.; Preston, J.; Wilshire, B.; Little, E. A.


    Inflexions are detected in the steady state creep regime of a nuclear-grade 13% Cr oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy when tested at 700-725°C in an annealed condition. This anomalous response can be suppressed by using a two-stage annealing plus ageing heat treatment designed to fully precipitate a stable chi-phase intermetallic. Mechanisms directly related to observed creep-induced precipitation of chi-phase cannot account for the creep transients, but a tentative explanation based on localized grain boundary migration is in accord with the experimental observations.

  18. Tumor Grade versus Expression of Invasion-Related Molecules in Astrocytoma. (United States)

    Virga, József; Bognár, László; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Zahuczky, Gábor; Csősz, Éva; Kalló, Gergő; Tóth, Judit; Hutóczki, Gábor; Reményi-Puskár, Judit; Steiner, László; Klekner, Almos


    Peritumoral infiltration is characteristic of astrocytomas even in low-grade tumors. Tumor cells migrate to neighbouring tissue and cause recurrence. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a role in tumor invasion; expression levels of its components' have been linked to tumor invasion. This study determines the mRNA and protein expression of 20 invasion-related ECM components by examining non-tumor brain; grade I-II-III astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples. Expression levels were measured by QRT-PCR and mass-spectroscopy. The connection between the expression pattern and tumor grade is statistically analyzed. During the analysis of data, key molecules (brevican, cadherin-12, fibronectin and integrin-β1) correlating the most with tumor grade were selected. While the mRNA level of brevican, ErbB2, fibronectin, integrin-β1 and versican discriminates low-grade from high-grade gliomas, of proteins RHAMM, integrin-α1 and MMP2 seems important. The expression pattern was found to be distinctive for tumor grade, as statistical classifiers are capable of identifying an unknown sample's grade using them. Furthermore, normal brain and glioma expression patterns, along with low-grade astrocytoma and glioblastoma samples, differ the most. Determining the invasion-related molecules' expression profile provides extra information regarding the tumor's clinical behavior. Additionally, identifying molecules playing a key role in glioma invasion could uncover potential therapeutic targets in the future.


    CERN Multimedia


    Restricted services from 3 to 7 November 2001 Due to the migration of the Oracle HR application to the Web, some services which rely on the application's availability may be disturbed from Friday 2 November at 17:30 until Thursday 8 November at 08:30. Amongst those services: HR Division: records office, recruitment, claims and benefits. FI Division: personnel accounting, advances and claims. ST Division: registration office (access cards). SPL Division: external firm staff records. EP Division: users' office. Experiments' secretariats: PIE, Greybook. Divisional secretariats: externals, internal addresses. All information concerning this migration is available at: We apologize for any inconvenience and thank you in advance for your understanding.

  20. Nuclide-migration field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdal, B.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Johnstone, J.K.; Erickson, K.L.; Friedman, A.M.; Fried, S.; Hines, J.J.


    When considering groundwater flow and radionuclide retention in the complex flow systems that can occur in geologic formations, one has a serious problem in determining if laboratory studies are being performed under conditions appropriate to natural systems. This document is the project plan for a program designed to begin to address these problems. The project is being carried out jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Argonne National Laboratory. The work has three principal objectives: (1) to develop the experimental, instrumental, and safety techniques necessary to conduct controlled, small-scale radionuclide migration field experiments, including those involving actinides; (2) to use these techniques to define radionuclide migration through rock by performing generic, at-depth experiments under closely monitored conditions; and (3) to determine whether available lithologic, geochemical, and hydrologic properties together with existing or developing transport models are sufficient and appropriate to describe real field conditions

  1. Physicists' Forced Migrations under Hitler (United States)

    Beyerchen, Alan


    When the Nazis came to power in early 1933 they initiated formal and informal measures that forced Jews and political opponents from public institutions such as universities. Some physicists retired and others went into industry, but most emigrated. International communication and contact made emigration a viable option despite the desperate economic times in the Great Depression. Another wave of emigrations followed the annexation of Austria in 1938. Individual cases as well as general patterns of migration and adaptation to new environments will be examined in this presentation. One important result of the forced migrations was that many of the physicists expelled under Hitler played important roles in strengthening physics elsewhere, often on the Allied side in World War II.

  2. The migration of university graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Nielsen, Kristian

    Several studies have documented that highly educated citizens contribute to regional economic performance (Moretti, 2013; Faggian and McCann,2009b; Sterlacchini 2008). Moreover, Åstebro et al. (2012) emphasize the importance of promoting start-up by recent university graduates. Thus, the retention...... of university graduates is an important issue for regional policy makers. The present paper analyzes the migration patterns of university graduates from two very different regions in Denmark: the Greater Capital region around Copenhagen and the peripheral region of North Denmark. Studies of the migration...... of university graduates have been carried out in several countries. These studies are typically based on extensive surveys among recent graduates. The present analysis differs from such studies through its application of register data for all individuals and companies in Denmark, which allows us to identify...

  3. Portable Library of Migratable Sockets


    Bubak, Marian; Żbik, Dariusz; Albada, Dick van; Iskra, Kamil; Sloot, Peter


    Efficient load balancing is essential for parallel distributed computing. Many parallel computing environments use TCP or UDP through the socket interface as a communication mechanism. This paper presents the design and development of a prototype implementation of a network interface that can preserve communication between processes during process migration. This new communication library is a substitution for the well-known socket interface. It is implemented in user — space; it is portable,...

  4. Migration and Trade Union Rights


    Baudassé, Thierry; Bazillier, Rémi


    We study in this paper both theoretically and empirically the influence of trade union rights in origin countries on bilateral migration flows. Theoretically, we propose two complementary models. In the first model, trade union rights are supposed to increase the bargaining power of workers. We model these rights as a transfer from high-skilled workers to low-skilled workers, assuming that this latter category of workers will benefit more from freedom of association and collective bargaining....

  5. Incentives and disincentives: international migration. (United States)

    Bhagwati, J N


    International migration is largely controlled by disincentives, or quotas, on immigration rather than checks on emigrations. Societies generally feel they have a right to exclude others from their boundaries, but they also usually feel that they do not have a right to control emigration. The single-planetary approach holds that people have the right to live wherever they like on the planet, and the cosmopolitan-utilitarian approach believes the same for reasons of world efficiency. The current feeling that societies have the right to exclude others may be explained best by territoriality in human animals. People also believe that their culture will be diluted if too many outsiders enter. In many cases, immigration systems cannot really control immigration, as in the cases of long landlocked borders between the US and Mexico and between Bangladesh and Assam. Immigration systems also contain legal loopholes. For example, in the US it is easier to get a student visa and convert to immigrant status than to gain immigrant status directly. Loopholes lead to plugs, which lead in turn to more loopholes. An upsurge in requests for political asylum followed increased restrictions on immigration in Western Europe. The US has investigated foreign aid and foreign investments to Mexico and Haiti to curb the flow of illegal migrants. The author suggests that foreign investments may lead to more migration because of the creation of a new proletariat used to the ways of developed countries. An estimate of what would happen if all immigration control were removed worldwide concludes that efficiency and income distribution would improve worldwide. Most migration from developing to developed countries currently consists of the migration of skilled professionals, the brain drain. The author proposes a tax on these professionals to be paid to the country of origin to compensate them for the loss in education and training. The author summarizes the differences between the West German

  6. International nurse migrations: Global trends


    Ivković Marija


    This paper presents global trends of migration of nurses, as specific qualified personnel in high demand. In the last couple of decades, and especially in the last couple of years, many countries have faced the problem of insufficient healthcare workers, particularly nurses. Reasons for this occurrence might be found in the deficiencies of their education systems, as well as the population aging of northern and western countries. As a response to this deficiency, those countries have be...

  7. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors. (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank


    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (design of miniature filters and power converters.

  8. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction


    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M


    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  9. Nonpunitive Grading Practices and Policies. (United States)

    Elsner, Paul A.; Brydon, Charles W.

    Information pertaining to the overall grading standards and practices within the five Peralta Colleges is compiled and analyzed here. The report is presented in three parts. The first part deals with the historical background of traditional and non-punitive grading, the national trends toward innovation and experimentation with various forms of…

  10. Influences of environmental cues, migration history and habitat familiarity on partial migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik


    to their home lake population, and individuals translocated from the lake without migration opportunity migrated when given the opportunity, suggesting that partial migration is phenotypically plastic and triggered by lake-specific environmental cues. We found temperature to be a proximate cue for migration......The factors that drive partial migration in organisms are not fully understood. Roach (Rutilus rutilus), a freshwater fish, engage in partial migration where parts of populations switch between summer habitats in lakes and winter habitats in connected streams. To test if the partial migration trait...... is phenotypically plastic or has genetic components, we translocated roach from 2 populations with different opportunities for migration to a lake with migration opportunity, containing a local roach population. This enabled monitoring of partial migration of fish in 3 different situations: 1) previous opportunity...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Illegal migration is a mobile phenomenon, which ignores national borders, a threat that originates outside the community and extends to Western societies. This phenomenon is becoming larger and irregular migrants are often in a precarious situation and exposed to the criminals involved in various manifestations of organized crime. The future risk factors of the illegal migration are the demographic bomb, because the population is decreasing in European countries and increasing rapidly in poorer countries, droughts, floods, deforestation, that cause conflicts between climate refugees , extreme poverty, totalitarian regimes, epidemics, can trigger millions of people, the elderly and the working population imbalance which leads to the permanent import of immigrants To combat this phenomenon, states must engage and cooperate with each other. Measures taken by states must balance their integration policy for immigrants, legally residents and asylum policy to comply with international conventions. Also, states must adopt anti-immigrant policies, consisting of subordination visa policy to the interests of international security and exchange of information and, not least, to continue the Schengen process, as a value of humanitarian law applied in the field. The aim of the research is to characterize this dangerous phenomenon for the society and the goal is to identify strategies to combat illegal migration.

  12. Water and contaminant movement: migration barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.J.; Nyhan, J.W.


    Migration barriers are used in shallow land burial facilities to slow or stop the movement of water and contaminants and are discussed here as a single component embedded in a complex environmental system. Analytical solutions to solute transport equations are used to approximate the behavior of migration barriers and to derive design criteria for control of subsurface water and contaminant migration. Various types of migration barriers are compared and design recommendations are made for shallow land burial trench caps and liners. Needed improvements and suggested field experiments for future designs of migration barriers are then discussed relative to the management of low-level radioactive wastes

  13. Why Migrate: For Study or for Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise S. Brezis


    Full Text Available Over the past decades, globalization has led to a huge increase in the migration of workers, as well as students. This paper develops a simple two-step model that describes the decisions of an individual vis-à-vis education and migration, and presents a unified model, wherein the two migration decisions are combined into a single, unique model. This paper shows that under the plausible assumption that costs of migration differ over the human life cycle, the usual brain drain strategy is sub-optimal. With an increase in globalization, the brain drain strategy will be replaced by the strategy of migration of students.

  14. Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.


    Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive [ 3 H]AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors

  15. Contemporary techniques in inferior turbinate reduction: survey results of the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. (United States)

    Feldman, Evan M; Koshy, John C; Chike-Obi, Chuma J; Hatef, Daniel A; Bullocks, Jamal M; Stal, Samuel


    Nasal airway obstruction is a frequently-encountered problem, often secondary to inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Medical treatment can be beneficial but is inadequate for many individuals. For these refractory cases, surgical intervention plays a key role in management. The authors evaluate the current trends in surgical management of inferior turbinate hypertrophy and review the senior author's (SS) preferred technique. A questionnaire was devised and sent to members of the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) to determine their preferred methods for assessment and treatment of inferior turbinate hypertrophy. One hundred and twenty-seven physicians responded to the survey, with 85% of surveys completed fully. Of the responses, 117 (92%) respondents were trained solely in plastic surgery and 108 (86.4%) were in private practice. Roughly 81.6% of respondents employ a clinical exam alone to evaluate for airway issues. The most commonly-preferred techniques to treat inferior turbinate hypertrophy were a limited turbinate excision (61.9%) and turbinate outfracture (35.2%). Based on the results of this study, it appears that limited turbinate excision and turbinate outfracture are the most commonly-used techniques in private practice by plastic surgeons. Newer techniques such as radiofrequency coblation have yet to become prevalent in terms of application, despite their current prevalence within the medical literature. The optimal method of management for inferior turbinate reduction should take into consideration the surgeon's skill and preference, access to surgical instruments, mode of anesthesia, and the current literature.

  16. Adaptive Designs for Non-inferiority Trials with Multiple Experimental Treatments. (United States)

    Xu, Wenfu; Hu, Feifang; Cheung, Siu Hung


    The increase in the popularity of non-inferiority clinical trials represents the increasing need to search for substitutes for some reference (standard) treatments. A new treatment would be preferred to the standard treatment if the benefits of adopting it outweigh a possible clinically insignificant reduction in treatment efficacy (non-inferiority margin). Statistical procedures have recently been developed for treatment comparisons in non-inferiority clinical trials that have multiple experimental (new) treatments. An ethical concern for non-inferiority trials is that some patients undergo the less effective treatments; this problem is more serious when multiple experimental treatments are included in a balanced trial in which the sample sizes are the same for all experimental treatments. With the aim of giving fewer patients the inferior treatments, we propose a response-adaptive treatment allocation scheme that is based on the doubly adaptive biased coin design. The proposed adaptive design is also shown to be superior to the balanced design in terms of testing power.

  17. Restoration of diaphragmatic function after diaphragm reinnervation by inferior laryngeal nerve; experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Barros Angelique


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To assess the possibilities of reinnervation in a paralyzed hemidiaphragm via an anastomosis between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve in rabbits. Reinnervation of a paralyzed diaphragm could be an alternative to treat patients with ventilatory insufficiency due to upper cervical spine injuries. Material and method Rabbits were divided into five groups of seven rabbits each. Groups I and II were respectively the healthy and the denervated control groups. The 3 other groups were all reinnervated using three different surgical procedures. In groups III and IV, phrenic nerve was respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the trunk of the inferior laryngeal nerve. In group V, the fifth and fourth cervical roots were respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the nerve of the sternothyroid muscle (originating from the hypoglossal nerve. Animals were evaluated 4 months later using electromyography, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements, sonomicrometry and histological examination. Results A poor inspiratory activity was found in quiet breathing in the reinnervated groups, with an increasing pattern of activity during effort. In the reinnervated groups, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements and sonomicrometry were higher in group III with no significant differencewith groups IV and V. Conclusion Inspiratory contractility of an hemidiaphragm could be restored with immediate anastomosis after phrenic nerve section between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve.

  18. Hepatic Scintigraphic Findings of Budd-Chiari Syndrome due to Inferior Vena Caval Obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Sung Yong; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee


    Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare clinical entity characterized by post-sinusoidal portal hypertension caused by the obstruction to the hepatic vein outflow. The diagnosis is suggested by hepatic scintigraphy and is usually confirmed by hepatic venography, inferior vena cavography and biopsy. The scintigraphic finding of BCS caused by the obstruction of main hepatic vein has been reported to consist typically of hypertrophy of the caudate lobe with increased radionuclide accumulation. Such a typical finding has been accounted for by the fact that the venous outflow from the caudate lobe is preserved when the main hepatic vein is obstructed. But usually, the hepatic venous outflow from the caudate lobe is also obstructed in BCS due to inferior vena caval obstruction. So hepatic scintigraphic findings of BCS due to inferior vena caval obstruction show different findings as compared with the BCS due to hepatic vein obstruction. We evaluate the hepatic scintigrams of the 13 cases of BCS due to inferior vena caval obstruction and review the literatures. The results are as follows: 1) We cannot observe the caudate lobe hypertrophy with increased uptake, which is known as a classic finding in BCS due to hepatic vein obstruction. 2) The most prominent hepatic scintigraphic findings of BCS are nonhomogenous uptake in the liver with extrahepatic uptake in the all cases. 3) We can see cold areas at the superior aspect of right hepatic lobe in 7 cases (54%). This is a useful finding suggesting BCS due to inferior vena caval obstruction.


    Fujinami, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Tadamasa; Mori, Kenichi; Shin, Toshitaka; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Fuminori; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Sato, Yoshiyasu; Matsubara, Takanori; Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Kamei, Noritaka; Hongo, Tetsuo


    A 87-year-old man received radical nephroureterectomy for right renal pelvic cancer in 2009 and left cutaneous ureterostomy after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in 2013. He visited the hospital for exchanging a 7 or 8 Fr single-J catheter every 2 to 4 weeks. Eleven months after the 2nd operation, massive bleeding from the stoma occurred when ureteral catheter was exchanged. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed that left inferior epigastric artery was located close to left ureter. Angiography of the left inferior epigastric artery didn't show an obvious fistula, but revealed the stoma was surrounded by ramified new blood vessels from left inferior epigastric artery. We suspected a rupture of the vessels and performed embolization for the branch of inferior epigastric artery to left ureter. This embolization made it possible for the bleeding to be controlled. Massive bleeding from the branch of inferior epigastric artery is very rare, and we report the case and review the literature.

  20. Peritoneal fluid causing inferior attenuation on SPECT thallium-201 myocardial imaging in women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rab, S.T.; Alazraki, N.P.; Guertler-Krawczynska, E.


    On SPECT thallium images, myocardial left ventricular (LV) anterior wall attenuation due to breast tissue is common in women. In contrast, in men, inferior wall counts are normally decreased compared to anterior counts. The purpose of this report is to describe cases of inferior wall attenuation of counts in women caused by peritoneal fluid, not myocardial disease. Twelve consecutive SPECT thallium myocardial studies performed in women on peritoneal dialysis, being evaluated for kidney transplant, were included in this study. For all studies, 3.5 mCi 201Tl were injected intravenously. Thirty-two images were acquired over 180 degrees (45 degrees RAO progressing to 45 degrees LPO) at 40 sec per stop. SPECT images were reviewed in short axis, horizontal long and vertical long axes. Data were also displayed in bullseye format with quantitative comparison to gender-matched normal files. Ten of 12 female patients studied had inferior wall defects on images, confirmed by bullseye display. All patients had approximately 2 liters of peritoneal fluid. Review of planar rotational views showed diaphragm elevation and fluid margin attenuations affecting left ventricular inferior wall. Thus, peritoneal fluid is a cause of inferior attenuation on 201Tl cardiac imaging.

  1. Growth in the area of the inferior dental foramen of rats. (United States)

    Engel, G; West, V C


    The object of the present investigation was to see if the bone around the inferior dental nerve remodelled during mandibular growth and development. The investigation was carried out by injecting 27 albino Lewis rats with three fluorescent bone seeking dyes--oxytetracycline HCl (OTC), alizarin red S (ARS), and 2,4 bis-[N,N'-di' (carbomethyl-aminomethyl)] fluorescein (DCAF)--and then studying the bone around the inferior dental foramen. The mandibles of the animals were studied both macroscopically and microscopically under ultraviolet light to investigate the growth processes occurring and to see if the inferior dental foramen was relocated during growth. A quantitative analysis utilizing two specimens was also carried out for the same purpose. The results of both the qualitative and the quantitative analyses showed that the bone around the inferior dental nerve remodeled during mandibular growth. The mandible grew in an upward and backward direction, and the inferior dental foramen was correspondingly relocated in an upward and backward direction to maintain exactly the same position relative to the condyle and the posterior border of the ramus. This study, then, supports Moss's concept of the "unloaded" nerve, and is in keeping with his view of mandibular growth based on the functional matrix theory.

  2. Emerging Transnational migration from Romanian villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Sandu


    Full Text Available This article presents the first results of a community census (December 2001 on temporary external migration at the level of all Romanian villages. Local key informants filled in the questionnaire on international temporary migration and its sociodemographic profile. As function of the key destinations, the Romanian villages cluster into six major migration fields: Germany, Hungary, Italy, Turkey, Yugoslavia and Spain. At a more detailed level, considering multiple destinations, those fields break into 15 regions of migration.Village-level analysis of the phenomenon indicates a strong selectivity of migration depending on village characteristics. About 4 percent of the total villages of the country account for more than 60 percent of the total return migration from abroad. These are villages of a high probability of transnationalism. Circular or transnational migration is shown to be connected with the basic characteristics of the migration system of the country: the villages where village to city commuting declined sharply after 1990 and where return migration from cities was high recorded a higher propensity for circular migration abroad. A set of about 2700 villages of high migration prevalence is described as «probable transnational communities».

  3. Inferior ST-Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction or an Inferior-Lead Brugada-like Electrocardiogram Pattern Associated With the Use of Pregabalin and Quetiapine? (United States)

    Brunetti, Natale D; Ieva, Riccardo; Correale, Michele; Cuculo, Andrea; Santoro, Francesco; Guaricci, Andrea I; De Gennaro, Luisa; Gaglione, Antonio; Di Biase, Matteo


    The Brugada electrocardiogram pattern is characterized by coved-type ST-elevation (>2 mm) in the right precordial leads. We report the case of a 62-year-old man, with bipolar disorder, admitted to the emergency department because of dyspnea and chest discomfort. The patient was on treatment with pregabalin and quetiapine. Unexpectedly, electrocardiogram at admission showed diffuse ST-elevation, more evident in inferior leads, where a Brugada-like pattern was present. The patient underwent coronary angiography with a diagnosis of suspected acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography, however, showed mild coronary artery disease not requiring coronary angioplasty. Echocardiography did not reveal left ventricular dysfunction or pericardial effusion. Troponin levels remained normal over serial controls. Eventually, chest radiography showed lung opacities and consolidation suggestive for pneumonia. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first cases showing a transient Brugada-like electrocardiogram pattern in inferior leads, probably amplified by the administration of pregabalin and quetiapine.

  4. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico. (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R


    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  5. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola


    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) out......-of sample forecasts and to the assumption of invariance of migration behavior across a space that previous studies had to hold. Results of the econometric analyses reveal the importance of controlling for pairs of countries unobserved heterogeneity. Preliminary results regarding the predictions of future...... gross and net migration flows show that the magnitude of the estimated gross and net migration flows is relatively high and lower, respectively, compared to forecasts from previous studies. Such a development in gross and net migration flows indicates that migration from the new EU member countries...

  6. Plume capture by a migrating ridge: Analog geodynamic experiments (United States)

    Mendez, J. S.; Hall, P.


    Paleomagnetic data from the Hawaii-Emperor Seamount Chain (HESC) suggests that the Hawaiian hotspot moved rapidly (~40 mm/yr) between 81 - 47 Ma but has remained relatively stationary since that time. This implies that the iconic bend in the HESC may in fact reflect the transition from a period of rapid hotspot motion to a stationary state, rather than a change in motion of the Pacific plate. Tarduno et al. (2009) have suggested that this period of rapid hotspot motion might be the surface expression of a plume conduit returning to a largely vertical orientation after having been “captured” and tilted by a migrating mid-ocean ridge. We report on a series of analog fluid dynamic experiments designed to characterize the interaction between a migrating spreading center and a thermally buoyant mantle plume. Experiments were conducted in a clear acrylic tank (100 cm x 70 cm x 50 cm) filled with commercial grade high-fructose corn syrup. Plate-driven flow is modeled by dragging two sheets of Mylar film (driven by independent DC motors) in opposite directions over the surface of the fluid. Ridge migration is achieved by moving the point at which the mylar sheets diverge using a separate motor drive. Buoyant plume flow is modeled using corn syrup introduced into the bottom of the tank from an external, heated, pressurized reservoir. Small (~2 mm diameter), neutrally buoyant Delrin spheres are mixed into reservoir of plume material to aid in visualization. Plate velocities and ridge migration rate are controlled and plume temperature monitored using LabView software. Experiments are recorded using digital video which is then analyzed using digital image analysis software to track the position and shape of the plume conduit throughout the course of the experiment. The intersection of the plume conduit with the surface of the fluid is taken as an analog for the locus of hotspot volcanism and tracked as a function of time to obtain a hotspot migration rate. Experiments are

  7. Importance of human right inferior frontoparietal network connected by inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus tract in corporeal awareness of kinesthetic illusory movement. (United States)

    Amemiya, Kaoru; Naito, Eiichi


    It is generally believed that the human right cerebral hemisphere plays a dominant role in corporeal awareness, which is highly associated with conscious experience of the physical self. Prompted by our previous findings, we examined whether the right frontoparietal activations often observed when people experience kinesthetic illusory limb movement are supported by a large-scale brain network connected by a specific branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus fiber tracts (SLF I, II, and III). We scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while nineteen blindfolded healthy volunteers experienced illusory movement of the right stationary hand elicited by tendon vibration, which was replicated after the scanning. We also scanned brain activity when they executed and imagined right hand movement, and identified the active brain regions during illusion, execution, and imagery in relation to the SLF fiber tracts. We found that illusion predominantly activated the right inferior frontoparietal regions connected by SLF III, which were not substantially recruited during execution and imagery. Among these regions, activities in the right inferior parietal cortices and inferior frontal cortices showed right-side dominance and correlated well with the amount of illusion (kinesthetic illusory awareness) experienced by the participants. The results illustrated the predominant involvement of the right inferior frontoparietal network connected by SLF III when people recognize postural changes of their limb. We assume that the network bears a series of functions, specifically, monitoring the current status of the musculoskeletal system, and building-up and updating our postural model (body schema), which could be a basis for the conscious experience of the physical self. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Pars plana vitrectomy for the repair of primary, inferior rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated to inferior breaks. A comparison of a 25-gauge versus a 20-gauge system. (United States)

    Dell'Omo, Roberto; Barca, Francesco; Tan, H Stevie; Bijl, Heico M; Oberstein, Sarit Y Lesnik; Mura, Marco


    To compare anatomical, functional outcomes and complications of high-speed 25-gauge (G) pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) versus 20-G PPV for the management of primary inferior rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) associated to inferior breaks/holes. Eighty-five eyes from 85 patients with a minimum follow-up of 3 months were retrospectively evaluated. Forty-one patients underwent 25-G and 44 patients underwent 20-G PPV. All patients underwent PPV with fluid-air exchange, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) 20 % gas tamponade and laser or cryo retinopexy. The mean follow-up interval was 6.51(± 2.32) and 6.63 (± 2.58) months in the 25-G and 20-G groups respectively. Single-operation success rate was 92.7 % for the 25-G group and 81.8 % for the 20-G group (P = 0.24). Post-operative hypotony was observed in no case. Redetachment occurred in 3 eyes operated on with 25-G and in 8 eyes operated on with 20-G system. All retinas were attached at final follow-up. Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity significantly improved from 0.69 ± 0.76 to 0.33 ± 0.37 in the 25-G and from 0.47 ± 0.59 to 0.21 ± 0.28 in the 20-G group (P = 0.0007 and P < 0.0001 respectively). High-speed PPV and SF6 gas tamponade using either 25-G or 20-G PPV system, yields similar single operation anatomical success rates for the repair of uncomplicated, primary inferior RRDs associated to inferior breaks.

  9. The impact of Chilean migration on employment in Patagonia. (United States)

    Cariola Sanz, L


    This paper discusses the employment situation of Chilean migrant workers, their impact on labor markets in Patagonia, Argentina, and the government's past and projected responses to this phenomenon. In 1980, Chilean inhabitants of patagonia comprised 11% of the area's population. Chilean migration to patagonia was closely linked to economic activities that began to flourish in the 20th century, such as livestock raising, fruit and vegetable cultivation, and mining for coal and petroleum. No Chilean migrants work in a wide range of sectors. In Patagonia's southern provinces availability and ability to withstand rigorous climate conditions are the main factors which account for the prevalence of Chilean manpower. Chilean migrants do not in general displace local manpower. Legislation and the permeability of the border ensure that most workers enter the country as tourists. Clandestine migration is not an issue. Illegal migrants have provoked negative reactions for several reasons: 1) they comprise a marginal population without formal citizenship; 2) being employed as clandestine workers, they pay no social security, nor do their employers; 3) being illegal, they are obliged to accept lower wages and inferior working conditions which creates unfair competition within labor markets; and 4) as a result of these conditions, xenophobic and endophobic attitudes in relations with Argentine nationalists are reinforced. The government has attempted to solve these problems through various measures. Beginning in 1934, most foreigners entered Argentina with a tourist visa, becoming illegal when they stayed beyond authorized limits. Several measures over the years provided amnesty to illegal migrants. Currently, the law promotes immigration, monitors the admission of foreigners to the country and stipulates their rights and obligations. The law lists 115 articles on immigration promotion and on regulation of the movements of foreigners. Because of the present economic crisis in

  10. TVT-O vs. TVT for the treatment of SUI: a non-inferiority study. (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Jiang, Min; Chen, Xinliang; Tong, Xiaowen; Li, Huaifang; Qiu, Jin; Shao, Lingyun


    This study aimed to prospectively compare, in terms of efficacy and safety, the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and the transobturator vaginal tape inside-out (TVT-O) procedure for stress urinary incontinence. A cough stress test was applied to the objective outcomes, while urinary incontinence-specific quality of life questionnaire was applied to the subjective outcomes. A test for non-inferiority was carried out for detecting the success rate between the two groups. The objective success rates were found to be 95.4% (62/65) in the TVT group and 96.4% (108/112) in the TVT-O group. No significant difference was found between these two groups in the success rate by non-inferiority test (P 0.05). In the study, the TVT-O procedure could be defined to be identical to the TVT approach in success rate by non-inferiority test.

  11. Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava: importance of multiplanar imaging methods: an iconographic essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Sergio Lopes; Mendonca, Jose Luiz Furtado de; Freitas, Flavia Mendes Oliveira


    The inferior vena cava is the result of a complex embryologic process which takes place between 6 and 8 weeks of intra-uterine life. Several variations can occur during this process, and a defective embryogenesis of this vessel may lead to the development of anatomic variants. Although many of these variants are asymptomatic, the radiologist should be aware of them and of the potential medico-legal issues involved, especially in cases in which abdominal surgery or hemodynamic procedures are contemplated. In this paper, the major congenital anomalies involving the inferior vena cava are reviewed under the form of a pictorial essay, highlighting the role of the multiplanar imaging methods (volumetric computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) in their diagnosis. Keywords: Congenital variations; Inferior vena cava; Renal veins; Computed tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging. author)

  12. Acute retroperitoneal bleeding due to inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrón JA


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA, although uncommon, are increasingly being detected. We describe a case of spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage from a ruptured IMA aneurysm associated with stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA and celiac trunk, successfully treated with surgery. Methods A 65-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock. Abdominal CT scan showed an aneurysm of the inferior mesenteric artery with retroperitoneal hematoma. In addition, an obstructive disease of the superior mesenteric artery and celiac axis was observed. Results Upon emergency laparotomy a ruptured inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm was detected. The aneurysm was excised and the artery reconstructed by end-to-end anastomosis. Conclusions This report discusses the etiology, presentation, diagnosis and case management of inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms.

  13. Variação anatômica venosa rara em membros inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andreia de Moraes Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo A anatomia do sistema venoso dos membros inferiores é uma das mais complexas no corpo humano. Devido a essa condição, é de extrema importância saber identificar variações que possam acometê-la, como as malformações congênitas. Em casos de agenesia de veias profundas, como uma malformação vascular rara, o quadro clínico pode manifestar-se com insuficiência venosa crônica, que pode evoluir com edema, hiperpigmentação e úlcera de membro inferior. Assim, em muitos casos, torna-se uma doença incapacitante e de difícil tratamento. Apresenta-se um caso de agenesia de segmento venoso femoropoplíteo no membro inferior direito em paciente de 36 anos de idade, que cursou com edema e varizes de grosso calibre no membro acometido.

  14. Comparison of dynamic ultrasound and stress radiology for assessment of inferior glenohumeral laxity in asymptomatic shoulders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.C.; Wallace, W.A.; Hulse, D.; Fairbairn, K.J.; Clarke, M.


    To determine the level of agreement between dynamic ultrasound imaging and stress radiography used for the measurement of inferior glenohumeral laxity in asymptomatic shoulders, and to determine the repeatability of the dynamic ultrasound technique. Using a custom-made stress device to apply an inferior displacement force of 90 N, we assessed 20 asymptomatic male subjects for inferior glenohumeral laxity, using stress radiography and dynamic ultrasound. Paired differences between the two methods were evaluated by the 95% limits of agreement method. At a separate session, 19 subjects had inferior glenohumeral laxity assessed by two observers, using dynamic ultrasound. Inter- and intra-observer repeatability was determined for the ultrasound technique. The mean [± standard deviation (SD)] inferior translation was 4.7 ± 4.1 mm by stress radiography and 4.4 ± 2.3 mm by dynamic ultrasound. The 95% limits of agreement showed good agreement between the two methods. The paired difference between the two measurement methods varied with the magnitude of the measurement (P < 0.001). Intra-observer repeatability of dynamic ultrasound was determined by the use of intra-class correlation coefficients and was 0.94 and 0.89 for the two investigators. Inter-observer repeatability was 0.85. The standard error of the measurement was 0.60 mm and 0.66 mm, for repeated measurements by the two investigators, and 0.85 mm between investigators. Repeatability coefficients demonstrated excellent consistency of measurement between sessions and good consistency between observers. Dynamic ultrasound is a valid and reproducible method for the assessment and quantification of inferior glenohumeral laxity. (orig.)

  15. Connexin 43 contributes to ectopic orofacial pain following inferior alveolar nerve injury. (United States)

    Kaji, Kaori; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Unno, Syumpei; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Iwata, Koichi


    Clinically, it is well known that injury of mandibular nerve fiber induces persistent ectopic pain which can spread to a wide area of the orofacial region innervated by the uninjured trigeminal nerve branches. However, the exact mechanism of such persistent ectopic orofacial pain is not still known. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of connexin 43 in the trigeminal ganglion on mechanical hypersensitivity in rat whisker pad skin induced by inferior alveolar nerve injury. Here, we examined changes in orofacial mechanical sensitivity following inferior alveolar nerve injury. Furthermore, changes in connexin 43 expression in the trigeminal ganglion and its localization in the trigeminal ganglion were also examined. In addition, we investigated the functional significance of connexin 43 in relation to mechanical allodynia by using a selective gap junction blocker (Gap27). Long-lasting mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin and the upper eyelid skin, and activation of satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion, were induced after inferior alveolar nerve injury. Connexin 43 was expressed in the activated satellite glial cells encircling trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the whisker pad skin, and the connexin 43 protein expression was significantly increased after inferior alveolar nerve injury. Administration of Gap27 in the trigeminal ganglion significantly reduced satellite glial cell activation and mechanical hypersensitivity in the whisker pad skin. Moreover, the marked activation of satellite glial cells encircling trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the whisker pad skin following inferior alveolar nerve injury implies that the satellite glial cell activation exerts a major influence on the excitability of nociceptive trigeminal ganglion neurons. These findings indicate that the propagation of satellite glial cell activation throughout the trigeminal ganglion via gap junctions, which are composed of connexin 43, plays a

  16. Inferior oblique weakening surgery on ocular torsion in congenital superior oblique palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinho Lee


    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate changes in fundus excyclotorsion after inferior oblique myectomy or myotomy.METHODS:The records of 21 patients undergoing strabismus surgery by a single surgeon between 2009 and 2012 were examined. Only patients who had undergone an inferior oblique myectomy or myotomy, with or without horizontal rectus muscle surgery, were evaluated. Digital fundus photographs were obtained, and the angle formed by a horizontal line passing through the optic disc center and a reference line connecting the foveola and optic disc center was measured. Associated clinical factors examined include age at the time of surgery, presence or absence of a head tilt, degree of preoperative vertical deviation, torsional angle, inferior oblique muscle overaction/superior oblique muscle underaction, and surgery laterality. Whether the procedure was performed alone or in combination with a horizontal rectus muscle surgery was also examined.RESULTS:Mean preoperative torsional angle was 12.0±6.4°, which decreased to 6.9±5.7° after surgery (P<0.001, paired t-test. Torsional angle also decreased from 15.1±7.0° to 6.2±4.3° in the myectomy group (P<0.001, paired t-test but there were no significant changes in the myotomy group (P=0.093, Wilcoxon signed rank test. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that preoperative torsional angle, degree of inferior oblique overaction, and age at surgery independently and significantly affected postoperative torsional angle.CONCLUSION:Mean torsional angle decreased after inferior oblique myectomy. Degree of preoperative torsional angle, inferior oblique overaction, and age at surgery influence postoperative torsional angle.

  17. Operative techniques in robotic thoracic surgery for inferior or posterior mediastinal pathology. (United States)

    Cerfolio, Robert James; Bryant, Ayesha S; Minnich, Douglas J


    Thoracic surgeons are performing robotic resections for anterior mediastinal tumors; however, tumors located in the posterior and especially the inferior chest can be difficult to approach robotically. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the robot for resection of these tumors. We performed a retrospective review of the evolution and outcomes of our surgical technique for inferior or posterior mediastinal pathology. During a 30-month period, 153 patients underwent robotic surgery for pathology in the mediastinum, located in the inferior or posterior mediastinum in 75 of these patients. The most common indications for surgery were posterior mediastinal mass or lymph node in 41 patients, esophageal or bronchogenic cysts in 11 patients, esophageal leiomyoma in 7 patients, and diaphragmatic elevation in 7 patients. The median tumor size was 4.4 cm, and the median length of stay was 1 day. One patient was converted to thoracotomy, but no patients were converted for bleeding. Morbidity occurred in 9 patients (12%), major in 1 patient (a delayed esophageal leak after epiphrenic diverticulectomy). There was no mortality. Technical improvements included using robotic arm 3 posteriorly for retraction, side-docking, or coming over the back of the patient for tumors inferior to the inferior pulmonary vein and for diaphragmatic plication and using the lateral decubitus position for extraction of tumors larger than 3 cm via an access port over the tenth rib above the diaphragmatic fibers. The robot affords safe access using a completely portal approach for resection of and surgical intervention for inferior and posterior chest pathology and for anterior tumors. Specific techniques can be used to improve the operation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  18. Study of the inferior alveolar canal and mental foramen on digital panoramic images. (United States)

    Pria, Carlos M; Masood, Farah; Beckerley, Joy M; Carson, Robert E


    To study the radiographic location of the mental foramen and appearance of the inferior alveolar canal and the relationship between image gray values and the clarity of inferior alveolar canal on the digital panoramic images and to evaluate if the histogram equalization of the digital image would improve the visualization of the inferior alveolar canal outline on the digital panoramic images in the mandible. Five hundred digital panoramic images were evaluated by two examiners using a specific inclusion criteria. Only the right side of the mandible was studied. Chi-square analyses were used for comparisons of distributions. Mean and median pixel values were analyzed separately with a one-way analysis of variance. Also, percentages were calculated to report the usefulness of the histogram equalization for visualization of canal. RESULTS show variation in location of mental foramen. Most frequent location of the mental foramen was reported as first and second premolar region. Chi-square analysis showed that the frequency of occurrence of the mental foramen was equally probable for any of the three locations. The study did not find significant usefulness of the gray values obtained from the histogram equalization in predicting the clarity of inferior alveolar canal outlines. Knowing the normal relationship and the anatomical variation of the maxillofacial structures for each patient is important for surgical implant treatment planning to avoid future complications. It is also important to be familiar with the advantages and limitations of diagnostic aids available before making treatment planning decisions based on such findings. Digital imaging, Panoramic, Inferior alveolar canal, Mental foramen. How to cite this article: Pria CM, Masood F, Beckerley JM, Carson RE. Study of the Inferior Alveolar Canal and Mental Foramen on Digital Panoramic Images. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(4):265-271. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  19. The curious case of the disappearing IVC: A case report and review of the aetiology of Inferior Vena Cava Agenesis (United States)

    Paddock, Michael; Robson, Nicola


    We report the case of a previously well 18-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department with lower limb pain. An ultrasound demonstrated extensive left sided deep vein thrombosis and computed tomography demonstrated inferior vena cava agenesis, leading to the diagnosis of inferior vena cava agenesis associated deep vein thrombosis. The aetiology of inferior vena cava agenesis is explored in depth. PMID:24967034

  20. Congenital inferior vena cava anomalies: a review of findings at multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging


    Yang, Catherine; Trad, Henrique Simão; Mendonça, Silvana Machado; Trad, Clovis Simão


    Inferior vena cava anomalies are rare, occurring in up to 8.7% of the population, as left renal vein anomalies are considered. The inferior vena cava develops from the sixth to the eighth gestational weeks, originating from three paired embryonic veins, namely the subcardinal, supracardinal and postcardinal veins. This complex ontogenesis of the inferior vena cava, with multiple anastomoses between the pairs of embryonic veins, leads to a number of anatomic variations in the venous return fro...

  1. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM


    Full Text Available material is needed that will serve the purpose of the original bio-tissue. The ideal candidate for this application is functionally graded material. FGM has find wide range of application in dental [36] and orthopedic applications for teeth and bone... of Aluminium/Steel functionally graded material,? Materials Sciences and Applications, vol. 2, (2011), pp. 1708-1718. [15] F. Watari, A. Yokoyama, H. Matsuno, R. Miyao, M. Uo, T. Kawasaki, M. Omori, and T. Hirai, ?Fabrication of functionally graded implant...

  2. Comparison of far lateral approach versus presigmoidal approach for exposing inferior clivus by virtual reality technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke TANG


    Full Text Available Objective To compare the three-dimensional anatomic differences of far lateral approach versus presigmoidal approach to expose inferior clivus by virtual reality technique. Methods CT and MRI image data of 15 cadaver heads (30 sides were inputted into Vitrea virtual reality system to establish three-dimensional anatomy model of posterior cranial fossa. Three points including anterior edges of bilateral tubercula jugulare and tubercula pharyngeum were selected to form a plane. The region of inferior clivus was defined as area under the aforementioned plane. The anterior edge of intersection curve between the plane and the clivus was selected as skull base landmark to expose. The mastoidale and posterior edge of occipital condyle articular surface were selected as craniotomy landmarks of presigmoidal and far lateral approaches. Cylinder with 1 cm diameter was outlined to simulate surgical approach, of which the axis passed through the aforementioned craniotomy landmarks. The superior edge of bottom surface of cylinder on the side of skull base was located in the aforementioned landmark of skull base. Anatomic exposures of the above two approaches were compared by paired t test. Results The far lateral approach located at the lateral edge of foramen magnum, anterior to the cerebellum, lateral to the brain stem, medial to the jugular bulb, lateral and inferior to the accessory nerve, involved hypoglossal nerve and reached inferior clivus. Bone drilling through presigmoidal approach began with mastoidale. The approach passed through inferior edge of jugular bulb, anterior to the sigmoid sinus, inferior to the accessory nerve, involved hypoglossal nerve at the lateral edge of foramen magnum, reached inferior clivus anterior to the brain stem. The volumes of surgical route [(4629.80 ± 81.00 mm3 vs. (2622.60 ± 72.58 mm3; t = 91.532, P = 0.000] and route involving hypoglossal nerve [(10.15 ± 0.17 mm3 vs. (7.15 ± 0.20 mm3; t = 52.413, P = 0

  3. Immediate endovascular treatment of an aortoiliac aneurysm ruptured into the inferior vena cava. (United States)

    Kopp, Reinhard; Weidenhagen, Rolf; Hoffmann, Ralf; Waggershauser, Tobias; Meimarakis, Georgios; Andrassy, Joachim; Clevert, Dirk; Czerner, Stephan; Jauch, Karl-Walter


    An aortocaval fistula is a severe complication of an aortoiliac aneurysm, usually associated with high perioperative morbidity and mortality during open operative repair. We describe the successful endovascular treatment of a symptomatic infrarenal aortic aneurysm ruptured into the inferior vena cava with secondary interventional coiling of a persistent type II endoleak because of retrograde perfusion of the inferior mesenteric artery. Endovascular exclusion of ruptured abdominal aneurysms seems to be a valuable treatment option for selected patients even with complicated vascular conditions like an aortocaval fistula.

  4. Hepatic Veins and Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis in a Child Treated by Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Santos, Aline Cristine Barbosa; Tannuri, Uenis; Cerri, Giovanni Guido


    We report the case of a 9-year-old boy with portal hypertension, due to Budd-Chiari syndrome, and retrohepatic inferior vena cava thrombosis, submitted to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) by connecting the suprahepatic segment of the inferior vena cava directly to the portal vein. After 3 months, the withdrawal of anticoagulants promoted the thrombosis of the TIPS. At TIPS revision, thrombosis of the TIPS and the main portal vein and clots at the splenic and the superior mesenteric veins were found. Successful angiography treatment was performed by thrombolysis and balloon angioplasty of a severe stenosis at the distal edge of the stent.

  5. Rango de movimiento de la extremidad inferior en atletas de duatlón


    Cejudo, A.; Ruiz, I.; Sainz de Baranda Andújar, Pilar; Ayala, Francisco; Santoja, F.


    El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar la flexibilidad de la musculatura de la extremidad inferior en una muestra de atletas sénior de duatlón. Para ello, se evaluó el rango de movimiento de las principales articulaciones. 15 atletas (edad: 32,7±7,85 años; peso: 67,1±4,8 Kg; talla: 172,9±2,8 cm) tomaron parte en este estudio. Se valoró la flexibilidad de los principales grupos musculares de la extremidad inferior (gemelo, sóleo, isquiosurales, cuádriceps, psoas iliaco, glúteo ...

  6. [A case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the sigmoid colon with inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis]. (United States)

    Otsuka, Ryota; Maruyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Hajime; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Natsume, Toshiyuki; Miyazaki, Akinari; Sato, Yayoi; Sazuka, Tetsutaro; Yamamoto, Yuji; Yoshioka, Takafumi; Kanada, Yoko; Yanagihara, Akitoshi; Yokoyama, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Shinichiro


    A 63-year-old man who had been admitted to another institute with sepsis and renal failure was referred to our hospital after computed tomography (CT) findings showed thickening of the walls in the sigmoid colon and a defect in contrast enhancement in the portal and inferior mesenteric veins. Emergency sigmoid colon resection with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed after detection of perforation due to sigmoid colon cancer. The histopathological diagnosis was adenosquamous carcinoma, pSS, int, INF b, ly1, v0, pN2, pStage IIIband inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis. He was discharged on day 12, and we administered anticoagulant warfarin therapy.

  7. Estudo comparativo entre dois protocolos anestésicos envolvendo bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior convencional e de Vazirani-Akinosi para exodontia de terceiro molar inferior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Paula Ribeiro Borges

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior (BNAI apresenta alta porcentagem de falha na Odontologia. A fim de melhorar esse índice, vêm-se estudando diferentes alternativas, como diferentes técnicas e soluções anestésicas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar duas diferentes técnicas - técnica convencional e de Vazirani-Akinosi - para o bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior, bem como compará-las quanto à sua efetividade e quantificar o percentual de aspirações positivas nas duas diferentes técnicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 160 pacientes de ambos os sexos, sendo 80 submetidos ao bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior de Vazirani-Akinosi e bloqueio do nervo bucal (G1, e 80 submetidos ao bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior convencional e ao bloqueio do nervo bucal (G2. Em ambos os grupos, utilizou-se a combinação de articaína 4% com epinefrina 1:100.000 para bloqueio do nervo bucal, e lidocaína 2% com epinefrina 1:100.000 para bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior. Foram avaliados: a quantidade de aspirações positivas, a eficácia da anestesia e o momento em que ocorreu a falha anestésica durante o procedimento cirúrgico. RESULTADO: Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes (p = 0,2453 entre os grupos G1 e G2 observando-se a eficácia e o índice de aspirações positivas, e o momento em que ocorreu a falha anestésica, observando-se uma maior eficácia de ambas as técnicas, quando comparadas com a literatura (90% CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença significativa entre o BNAI pela técnica convencional e o BNAI pela técnica de Vazirani-Akinosi quanto a quantidade de aspirações positivas e eficácia, sendo que o uso da articaína 4% com epinefrina 1:100.000 no bloqueio do nervo bucal possivelmente aumentou a eficácia anestésica de ambas as técnicas.

  8. Return migration as failure or success? : The determinants of return migration intentions among Moroccan migrants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, H.; Fokkema, T.; Fihri, M.F.


    Different migration theories generate competing hypotheses with regard to determinants of return migration. While neoclassical migration theory associates migration to the failure to integrate at the destination, the new economics of labour migration sees return migration as the logical stage after

  9. Prospective randomised non-inferiority trial of pelvic drain placement vs no pelvic drain placement after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. (United States)

    Chenam, Avinash; Yuh, Bertram; Zhumkhawala, Ali; Ruel, Nora; Chu, William; Lau, Clayton; Chan, Kevin; Wilson, Timothy; Yamzon, Jonathan


    To determine if eliminating the prophylactic placement of a pelvic drain (PD) after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) affects the incidence of early (90-day) postoperative adverse events. In this parallel-group, blinded, non-inferiority trial, we randomised patients planning to undergo RARP to one of two arms: no drain placement (ND) or PD placement. Patients with demonstrable intraoperative leakage upon bladder irrigation were excluded. Randomisation sequence was determined a priori using a computer algorithm, and included a stratified design with respect to low vs intermediate/high D'Amico risk classifications. Surgeons remained blinded to the randomisation arm until final eligibility was verified at the end of the RARP. The primary endpoint was overall incidence of 90-day complications which, based on our standard treatment using PD retrospectively, was estimated at 13%. The non-inferiority margin was set at 10%, and the planned sample size was 312. An interim analysis was planned and conducted when one-third of the planned accrual and follow-up was completed, to rule out futility if the delta margin was in excess of 0.1389. From 2012 to 2016, 189 patients were accrued to the study, with 92 patients allocated to the ND group and 97 to the PD group. Due to lower than expected accrual rates, accrual to the study was halted by regulatory entities, and we did not reach the intended accrual goal. The ND and PD groups were comparable for median PSA level (6.2 vs 5.8 ng/mL, P = 0.5), clinical stage (P = 0.8), D'Amico risk classification (P = 0.4), median lymph nodes dissected (17 vs 18, P = 0.2), and proportion of patients receiving an extended pelvic lymph node dissection (70.7% vs 79.4%, P = 0.3). Incidence of 90-day overall and major (Clavien-Dindo grade >III) complications in the ND group (17.4% and 5.4%, respectively) was not inferior to the PD group (26.8% and 5.2%, respectively; P < 0.001 and P = 0.007 for difference of proportions <10%, respectively

  10. [Separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella]. (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jiang, X Y; Huang, X W


    To investigate the clinical efficacy and outcomes of two separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella. From January 2013 to January 2015, 15 consecutive patients (mean age 54.5 years) with inferior pole fractures of the patella were retrospectively included in this study. All the patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation by separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire through longitudinal incision, 4.5 d (range: 3.1-5.9 d) after initial injury. A safety check for early knee range of motion was performed before wound closure. The complications including infection, nonunion, loss of fixation and any wire breakage or irritation from implant were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral views of the knee joint obtained during the follow-up were used to assess bony union based on the time when the fracture line disappeared. At the time of the final outpatient follow up, functional evaluation of the knee joint was conducted by Bostman system. The follow-up time was 13.1 months (range: 12-19 months) after surgery on average, immediate motion without immobilization in all the cases was allowed and there was no case of reduction loss of the fracture and wire breakage. There was no case of irritation from the implant. At the final follow-up, the average range of motion (ROM) arc was 126.7° (range: 115°-140°), the average ROM lag versus contralateral healthy leg was 10.3° (range: 0°-35°). The mean Bostman score at the last follow-up was 28.9 (range: 27-30), and graded excellent in most cases. Two separate vertical wiring is an easy and effective method to reduce the displaced inferior pole fracture of patella. Augmentation of separate vertical wiring with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in these patients provides enough strength to protected the early exercise of the knee joint and

  11. TRPV2 mediates adrenomedullin stimulation of prostate and urothelial cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Oulidi

    Full Text Available Adrenomedullin (AM is a 52-amino acid peptide initially isolated from human pheochromocytoma. AM is expressed in a variety of malignant tissues and cancer cell lines and was shown to be a mitogenic factor capable of stimulating growth of several cancer cell types. In addition, AM is a survival factor for certain cancer cells. Some data suggest that AM might be involved in the progression cancer metastasis via angiogenesis and cell migration and invasion control. The Transient Receptor Potential channel TRPV2 is known to promote in prostate cancer cell migration and invasive phenotype and is correlated with the stage and grade of bladder cancer. In this work we show that AM induces prostate and urothelial cancer cell migration and invasion through TRPV2 translocation to plasma membrane and the subsequent increase in resting calcium level.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Goodell; J. Walton; P.J. Rodriguez


    The pathway to the accessible environment at Yucca Mountain contains volcanic rocks and alluvial fill. Transport properties in alluvial fill, specifically retardation and dispersivity, may be significant in determining the overall performance of the repository. Prior relevant studies, with the exception of the Nye County Tracer Test, are almost entirely in bedrock material. The proposed study will provide field data on radionuclide migration in alluvial material. High grade uranium ore was mined at the Nopal I deposit. This mined ore (60,000 tons) was moved in 1994 to its present site as open piles on an alluvial fan in the Boquilla Colorada Microbasin. Precipitation is approximately 20 cm/year, and has caused migration of radionuclides into the subsurface. We propose partial removal of an ore pile, excavation into the alluvial fan, sampling, and determination of radionuclide mobilities from the uranium decay chain. The proposed research would be taking advantage of a unique opportunity with a known time frame for migration.

  13. Insertion of an active fixation lead in the inferior interatrial septum via a 9.0 Fr guiding catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumpei Mori, MD


    Full Text Available Placing an atrial lead in the inferior interatrial septum (IAS reportedly reduces the incidence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF and slows the progression to chronic AF; however, in certain cases, inferior IAS pacing is technically difficult. When this procedure is unsuccessful, insertion of the lead in the right atrial appendage can be considered, but it is associated with a risk of cardiac perforation. Here, we describe a technique for lead insertion in the inferior IAS via a 9.0 Fr guiding catheter, which may serve as an alternative technique for inferior IAS pacing when the conventional stylet-guided insertion is not successful.

  14. Portable Library of Migratable Sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Bubak


    Full Text Available Efficient load balancing is essential for parallel distributed computing. Many parallel computing environments use TCP or UDP through the socket interface as a communication mechanism. This paper presents the design and development of a prototype implementation of a network interface that can preserve communication between processes during process migration. This new communication library is a substitution for the well-known socket interface. It is implemented in user — space; it is portable, and no modifications of user applications are required. TCP/IP is applied for internal communication, which guarantees relatively high performance and portability.

  15. Asian student migration to Australia. (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L


    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  16. Migration, Acculturation and Political Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bocancea


    Full Text Available Contemporary migration flows create deep processes of acculturation whose consistency, stability and finality are based on a symbolical and subjective arsenal, represented by the democratic values promoted by the Western world. Besides the demographic and economic changes brought by the current population movements (real or virtual there is also a noticeable cultural change which affects the depths of societies (regardless of whether these movements are emigrations or immigrations and which refer to the birth or the consolidation of a lifestyle based on the aspiration to prosperity, personal freedom and democracy, beyond racial, ethnic, religious, etc. differences.

  17. Migrating Applications to IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan


    If IPv6 is to be adopted on a large scale, the applications running on desktop systems, laptops, and even mobile devices need to work just as well with this protocol as they do with IPv4. This concise book takes you beyond the network layer and helps you explore the issues you need to address if you are to successfully migrate your apps to IPv6. It's ideal for application developers, system/network architects, product managers, and others involved in moving your network to IPv6. Explore changes you need to make in your application's user interfaceMake sure your application is retrieving corre

  18. Prognostic implications of 2005 Gleason grade modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Brasso, Klaus


    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the 2005 modification of the Gleason classification on risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe), 2,574 men assessed with the original Gleason classification and 1...... incidence and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess difference in BCR. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of BCR was lower using the modified compared to the original classification: GGG2 (16% vs. 23%), GGG3 (21% vs. 35%) and GGG4 (18% vs. 34%), respectively. Risk...... of BCR was lower for modified versus original classification, GGG2 Hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, (95%CI 0.49-0.88), GGG3 HR 0.57 (95%CI 0.38-0.88) and GGG4 HR 0.53 (95%CI 0.29-0.94). CONCLUSION: Due to grade migration following the 2005 Gleason modification, outcome after RP are more favourable. Consequently...

  19. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications. (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  20. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William


    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.