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Sample records for grade 3-4 rrt

  1. Blind RRT: A probabilistically complete distributed RRT

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Cesar; Denny, Jory; Jacobs, Sam Ade; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) have been successful at finding feasible solutions for many types of problems. With motion planning becoming more computationally demanding, we turn to parallel motion planning for efficient solutions. Existing work on distributed RRTs has been limited by the overhead that global communication requires. A recent approach, Radial RRT, demonstrated a scalable algorithm that subdivides the space into regions to increase the computation locality. However, if an obstacle completely blocks RRT growth in a region, the planning space is not covered and is thus not probabilistically complete. We present a new algorithm, Blind RRT, which ignores obstacles during initial growth to efficiently explore the entire space. Because obstacles are ignored, free components of the tree become disconnected and fragmented. Blind RRT merges parts of the tree that have become disconnected from the root. We show how this algorithm can be applied to the Radial RRT framework allowing both scalability and effectiveness in motion planning. This method is a probabilistically complete approach to parallel RRTs. We show that our method not only scales but also overcomes the motion planning limitations that Radial RRT has in a series of difficult motion planning tasks. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Blind RRT: A probabilistically complete distributed RRT

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Cesar

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) have been successful at finding feasible solutions for many types of problems. With motion planning becoming more computationally demanding, we turn to parallel motion planning for efficient solutions. Existing work on distributed RRTs has been limited by the overhead that global communication requires. A recent approach, Radial RRT, demonstrated a scalable algorithm that subdivides the space into regions to increase the computation locality. However, if an obstacle completely blocks RRT growth in a region, the planning space is not covered and is thus not probabilistically complete. We present a new algorithm, Blind RRT, which ignores obstacles during initial growth to efficiently explore the entire space. Because obstacles are ignored, free components of the tree become disconnected and fragmented. Blind RRT merges parts of the tree that have become disconnected from the root. We show how this algorithm can be applied to the Radial RRT framework allowing both scalability and effectiveness in motion planning. This method is a probabilistically complete approach to parallel RRTs. We show that our method not only scales but also overcomes the motion planning limitations that Radial RRT has in a series of difficult motion planning tasks. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  4. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  5. Adapting RRT growth for heterogeneous environments

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory; Morales, Marco; Rodriguez, Samuel; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) are effective for a wide range of applications ranging from kinodynamic planning to motion planning under uncertainty. However, RRTs are not as efficient when exploring heterogeneous environments and do not adapt to the space. For example, in difficult areas an expensive RRT growth method might be appropriate, while in open areas inexpensive growth methods should be chosen. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, Adaptive RRT, that adapts RRT growth to the current exploration area using a two level growth selection mechanism. At the first level, we select groups of expansion methods according to the visibility of the node being expanded. Second, we use a cost-sensitive learning approach to select a sampler from the group of expansion methods chosen. Also, we propose a novel definition of visibility for RRT nodes which can be computed in an online manner and used by Adaptive RRT to select an appropriate expansion method. We present the algorithm and experimental analysis on a broad range of problems showing not only its adaptability, but efficiency gains achieved by adapting exploration methods appropriately. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Adapting RRT growth for heterogeneous environments

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs) are effective for a wide range of applications ranging from kinodynamic planning to motion planning under uncertainty. However, RRTs are not as efficient when exploring heterogeneous environments and do not adapt to the space. For example, in difficult areas an expensive RRT growth method might be appropriate, while in open areas inexpensive growth methods should be chosen. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm, Adaptive RRT, that adapts RRT growth to the current exploration area using a two level growth selection mechanism. At the first level, we select groups of expansion methods according to the visibility of the node being expanded. Second, we use a cost-sensitive learning approach to select a sampler from the group of expansion methods chosen. Also, we propose a novel definition of visibility for RRT nodes which can be computed in an online manner and used by Adaptive RRT to select an appropriate expansion method. We present the algorithm and experimental analysis on a broad range of problems showing not only its adaptability, but efficiency gains achieved by adapting exploration methods appropriately. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. A scalable distributed RRT for motion planning

    KAUST Repository

    Jacobs, Sam Ade

    2013-05-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT), like other sampling-based motion planning methods, has been very successful in solving motion planning problems. Even so, sampling-based planners cannot solve all problems of interest efficiently, so attention is increasingly turning to parallelizing them. However, one challenge in parallelizing RRT is the global computation and communication overhead of nearest neighbor search, a key operation in RRTs. This is a critical issue as it limits the scalability of previous algorithms. We present two parallel algorithms to address this problem. The first algorithm extends existing work by introducing a parameter that adjusts how much local computation is done before a global update. The second algorithm radially subdivides the configuration space into regions, constructs a portion of the tree in each region in parallel, and connects the subtrees,i removing cycles if they exist. By subdividing the space, we increase computation locality enabling a scalable result. We show that our approaches are scalable. We present results demonstrating almost linear scaling to hundreds of processors on a Linux cluster and a Cray XE6 machine. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. A scalable distributed RRT for motion planning

    KAUST Repository

    Jacobs, Sam Ade; Stradford, Nicholas; Rodriguez, Cesar; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT), like other sampling-based motion planning methods, has been very successful in solving motion planning problems. Even so, sampling-based planners cannot solve all problems of interest efficiently, so attention is increasingly turning to parallelizing them. However, one challenge in parallelizing RRT is the global computation and communication overhead of nearest neighbor search, a key operation in RRTs. This is a critical issue as it limits the scalability of previous algorithms. We present two parallel algorithms to address this problem. The first algorithm extends existing work by introducing a parameter that adjusts how much local computation is done before a global update. The second algorithm radially subdivides the configuration space into regions, constructs a portion of the tree in each region in parallel, and connects the subtrees,i removing cycles if they exist. By subdividing the space, we increase computation locality enabling a scalable result. We show that our approaches are scalable. We present results demonstrating almost linear scaling to hundreds of processors on a Linux cluster and a Cray XE6 machine. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Grade 3/4 Dermatitis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated With Concurrent Cetuximab and IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studer, Gabriela; Brown, Michelle; Salgueiro, Eveline Barata; Schmueckle, Hildegard; Romancuk, Natalie; Winkler, Gisela; Lee, Soon Jae; Straeuli, Ariane; Kissling, Beatrix; Dummer, Reinhard; Glanzmann, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the rate of serious (>Grade 2, CTCAE 3.0) dermatitis in our head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concomitant cetuximab (SIB-IMRT-cetuximab). We hypothesized a positive association between the radiation dose to the skin and the degree of dermatitis in patients receiving cetuximab. Methods and Materials: Between April 2006 and December 2009, 99 HNC patients underwent SIB-IMRT-cetuximab. In 69/99 (70%), systemic treatment consisted of concomitant cetuximab only, whereas 30 (30%) were switched from concomitant cisplatin to concomitant cetuximab. Treatment-related dermatitis was prospectively monitored. Ninety-nine patients treated with four to seven concomitant cycles of cisplatin only served as an internal control group. The radiation dose delivered to the skin was measured and related to dermal reactions. Results: Grade 3/4 dermatitis developed in 34% of the cetuximab cohort, which was substantially higher than in the control cohort (3%, p < 0.01). No cases of skin necrosis or other fatal events related to cetuximab have occurred so far. A significantly larger mean skin area was found exposed to high radiation doses in patients with severe cetuximab-related dermatitis, compared with those without (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Concomitant cetuximab resulted in a ∼10-fold increase in the rate of severe transient dermatitis compared with the use of concomitant cisplatin. We found a positive association between the incidence of Grade 3/4 dermatitis and the radiation dose delivered to the skin in patients receiving cetuximab.

  10. The regional response team (RRT): Dynamite or Dinosaur?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.C.; Schultz, H.E.; Athayde, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Government has in place a national oil and hazardous substance spill response system as required under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA) of 1972, as amended, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. The National Contingency Plan (NCP) establishes the National Response Team (NRT), Regional Response Teams (RRTS) and the National Response Center (NRC). This system has been in place since 1971, with NRT and RRT membership including 15 federal agencies having environmental responsibilities, and associated states in thirteen specific regional areas. Initially, when CERCLA-funded support positions were staffed in 1987, the RRT membership interaction proved to be dynamic and highly productive. However, as the organizations matured work emphasis shifted from new initiatives to refinement of existing policies documented. Examination of some of the existing organizational interactions demonstrates shortfalls that must be overcome before any RRT can be rejuvenated. These barriers in high productivity include skewed distribution of CERCLA-funded positions, accountability of CERCLA positions, parochial interests versus cooperation, adequacy of working level resources, duplication of efforts, lack of state funding support, and lack of continuity due to the constant personnel turnover and shortages. Also, in light of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) mandates, in order to better determine if increased RRT productivity is possible, two major questions must be examined: what exactly is the nature of the NRT/RRT relationship and appropriate interaction; and, how should area committees (ACs) and the RRTs interact?

  11. Liveness-Based RRT Algorithm for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Motion Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion planning is a crucial, basic issue in robotics, which aims at driving vehicles or robots towards to a given destination with various constraints, such as obstacles and limited resource. This paper presents a new version of rapidly exploring random trees (RRT, that is, liveness-based RRT (Li-RRT, to address autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs motion problem. Different from typical RRT, we define an index of each node in the random searching tree, called “liveness” in this paper, to describe the potential effectiveness during the expanding process. We show that Li-RRT is provably probabilistic completeness as original RRT. In addition, the expected time of returning a valid path with Li-RRT is obviously reduced. To verify the efficiency of our algorithm, numerical experiments are carried out in this paper.

  12. Development of strontium and magnesium substituted porous hydroxyapatite/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) coating on surgical grade stainless steel and its bioactivity on osteoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Ramya, S; Rajeswari, D; Surendiran, M; Kavitha, L

    2014-02-01

    The present study deals with the successful development of bilayer coatings by electropolymerisation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on surgical grade stainless steel (316L SS) followed by the electrodeposition of strontium (Sr) and magnesium (Mg) substituted porous hydroxyapatite (Sr, Mg-HA). The bilayer coatings were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). Corrosion resistance of the obtained coatings was investigated in Ringer's solution by electrochemical techniques and the results were in good agreement with those obtained from chemical analysis, namely inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Also, the mechanical and biological properties of the bilayer coatings were analyzed. From the obtained results it was evident that the PEDOT/Sr, Mg-HA bilayer exhibited greater adhesion strength than the Sr, Mg-HA coated 316L SS. In vitro cell adhesion test of the Sr, Mg-HA coating on PEDOT coated specimen is found to be more bioactive compared to that of the single substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr or Mg-HA) on the PEDOT coated 316L SS. Thus, the PEDOT/Sr, Mg-HA bilayer coated 316L SS can serve as a prospective implant material for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Drivers’ Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbo Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers’ visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers’ visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers’ visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms.

  14. Drivers' Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingbo; Mei, Tao; Liang, Huawei; Chen, Jiajia; Huang, Rulin; Zhao, Pan

    2016-01-15

    This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers' visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers' visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers' visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms.

  15. Drivers’ Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingbo; Mei, Tao; Liang, Huawei; Chen, Jiajia; Huang, Rulin; Zhao, Pan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers’ visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers’ visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers’ visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms. PMID:26784203

  16. TP-Space RRT – Kinematic Path Planning of Non-Holonomic Any-Shape Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Blanco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous navigation of vehicles typically combines two kinds of methods: a path is first planned, and then the robot is driven by a local obstacle-avoidance controller. The present work, which focuses on path planning, proposes an extension to the well-known rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT algorithm to allow its integration with a trajectory parameter-space (TP-space as an efficient method to detect collision-free, kinematically-feasible paths for arbitrarily-shaped vehicles. In contrast to original RRT, this proposal generates navigation trees, with poses as nodes, whose edges are all kinematically-feasible paths, suitable to being accurately followed by vehicles driven by pure reactive algorithms. Initial experiments demonstrate the suitability of the method with an Ackermann-steering vehicle model whose severe kinematic constraints cannot be obviated. An important result that sets this work apart from previous research is the finding that employing several families of potential trajectories to expand the tree, which can be done efficiently under the TP-space formalism, improves the optimality of the planned trajectories. A reference C++ implementation has been released as open-source.

  17. A Method on Dynamic Path Planning for Robotic Manipulator Autonomous Obstacle Avoidance Based on an Improved RRT Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kun; Ren, Bingyin

    2018-02-13

    In a future intelligent factory, a robotic manipulator must work efficiently and safely in a Human-Robot collaborative and dynamic unstructured environment. Autonomous path planning is the most important issue which must be resolved first in the process of improving robotic manipulator intelligence. Among the path-planning methods, the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm based on random sampling has been widely applied in dynamic path planning for a high-dimensional robotic manipulator, especially in a complex environment because of its probability completeness, perfect expansion, and fast exploring speed over other planning methods. However, the existing RRT algorithm has a limitation in path planning for a robotic manipulator in a dynamic unstructured environment. Therefore, an autonomous obstacle avoidance dynamic path-planning method for a robotic manipulator based on an improved RRT algorithm, called Smoothly RRT (S-RRT), is proposed. This method that targets a directional node extends and can increase the sampling speed and efficiency of RRT dramatically. A path optimization strategy based on the maximum curvature constraint is presented to generate a smooth and curved continuous executable path for a robotic manipulator. Finally, the correctness, effectiveness, and practicability of the proposed method are demonstrated and validated via a MATLAB static simulation and a Robot Operating System (ROS) dynamic simulation environment as well as a real autonomous obstacle avoidance experiment in a dynamic unstructured environment for a robotic manipulator. The proposed method not only provides great practical engineering significance for a robotic manipulator's obstacle avoidance in an intelligent factory, but also theoretical reference value for other type of robots' path planning.

  18. Translating knowledge on best practice into improving quality of RRT care: a systematic review of implementation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Sabine N.; Jager, Kitty J.; Nache, Azri M.; Richardson, Donald; Hegarty, Janet; Couchoud, Cécile; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; Tomson, Charles R. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies showed wide variation in the extent to which guidelines and other types of best practice have been implemented as part of routine health care. This is also true for the delivery of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for ESRD patients. Increasing uptake of best practice within such

  19. Comments and Remarks over Classic Linear Loop-Gain Method for Oscillator Design and Analysis. New Proposed Method Based on NDF/RRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Jimenez-Martin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Present paper describes a new method for designing oscillators based on the Normalized Determinant Function (NDF and Return Relations (RRT . First a review of the loop-gain method will be performed, showing pros, cons and including some examples for exploring wrong so- lutions provided by this method. Wrong solutions, because some conditions have to be previously fulfilled in order to obtain right ones, which will be described and finally, demonstrate that NDF analysis is necessary, including Return Relations (RRT usefulness, which in fact are related with the True Loop-Gain. Finally concluding this paper, steps for oscillator design and analysis, using the proposed NDF/RRT method will be presented, compared to wrong previous solutions pointing out new accuracy achieved on oscillation frequency and QL prediction. Also, more new examples, of plane reference oscillators (Z/Y/rho, will be added for which loop gain method application is clearly difficult or even impossible, solving them with the new proposed NDF/RRT method.

  20. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training, Grades 3--4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references with annotations in English. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: the identification of primary and secondary colors in the environment; recognizing the basic food tastes; the variety of colors that can be made by crushing plant parts; the variety of animal life present in common soil; animal tracks; evidence of plant and animal life in the local environment; recycling, reducing, and composting as alternative means of garbage disposal; waste associated with packaging; paper- recycling principles; and how organic waste can be composted into usable soil. 2 figs.

  1. Temelin 3,4 Siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubanova, Iva; Fuzer, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    In the future the Czech Republic will need new energetic resources in spite of current decrease of electricity consumption due to economical crisis. Nuclear power generation is considered as important part of energetic mix of the Czech Republic and this opinion is newly reflected in new government official statement issued in August 2010. CEZ, a. s. prepares new nuclear power plants projects accordingly governmental expectations. Currently 3 projects are in preparation. Temelin 3, 4 project is in the most advanced status, tender is in progress. Potential construction of Dukovany unit 5 and new Jaslovske Bohunice units are analyzed in feasibility studies. Temelin 3, 4 project activities were started 4 years ago. Preparatory analyses, market investigation, feasibility study including many particular studies were elaborated in years 2006-2008. Later on decision to work on bid invitation specification was done and followed. EIA process was started in July 2008 by Intention Announcement and continues. Public tender for EPC contract was announced in August 2009 and it is in progress accordingly schedule. Siting process is in the initial stage. EIA process started in July 2008 through Intention Announcement in spite of anti - nuclear political climate in the Czech Republic. EIA process is interstate process, Austria and Germany participate. Investigation Process Protocol was issued by Ministry of Environment in February 2009 with 34 main conditions and 165 additional comments, requirements, statements. CEZ, a. s. adopted the positive approach with philosophy to deal with all conditions and requirements properly. Elaboration of EIA documentation took 18 months. In May 2010 CEZ, a. s. handed over the EIA documentation to the Ministry of Environment and consequently all legal steps followed including hand-over of EIA documentation to Austria and Germany. In next weeks and months all comments will be gathered by Ministry of Environment and relevant decisions and legal steps

  2. Condition and perspective of renal replacement therapy (RRT in children in the Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bayko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the incidence, prevalence and outcomes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in children in Belarus, age and gender of patients, etiology of renal diseases leading to ESRD. The study included 121 children, who received RRT as of January 01, 2007 and all subsequent new patients, who started this therapy before December 31, 2016. Results. The incidence of ESRD in  children in Belarus aged 0–14 years for the period 2007–2016 was 7 (6; 8 cases per year (4.8 (4.2; 5.2 per million age related population (pmarp and at the age of 0–17 years for the period 2009–2016 – 11 (9; 12 cases per year (5.6 (4.8; 6.8 pmarp. The prevalence of ESRD during the period from 2007 to 2016 increased by 31.7% in  the group of 0–14 years [from 26 patients (18.3 pmarp to 38 (24.1 pmarp patients], and by 46.7% aged 0–17 [from 37 (21 pmarp to 57 (30.8 pmarp]. The main cause of ESRD was congenital abnormality of kidneys and urinary tract (44.6% of cases. As of December 31, 2016, 75.4% of children were transplanted, 15.8% received peritoneal dialysis and 8.8% – hemodialysis. 5 year RRT mortality rate was 17.9 deaths per 1000 patient-years and main course of death was infection complications (50%. Conclusions. The incidence of ESRD in children in Belarus corresponds to the average of ESPN/ERA–EDTA Register, the prevalence islower, but with a constant growth. The low mortality rate of patients on RRT and high transplantation activity with insufficient number of preemptive transplantations is maintained. 

  3. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Jerrold S Meyer Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Abstract: Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heighten...

  4. Magnets repair for 3-4 sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L; Modena, M

    2009-01-01

    The incident in 3-4 sector has affected some 50 main LHC magnets. Such a scenario was never considered as realistic in the past. Our reserve of magnet has been barely sufficient (some 40 dipoles and 14 SSS, in some cases the reserve magnet types are not compatible with the one damaged). Furthermore the subsequent measurements on other sectors have shown the necessity to replace other magnets. The plan and methods for assessing the damage that occurred to a cold mass and the decision on its substitution, rather than a simple revamping of the magnet itself, will be discussed. The question if the magnets in the sector are adequate for powering and beam operation will be addressed. The implementation of the changes and their traceability will be presented. Finally the spare situation, which includes the plan for repairing and testing of all damaged cold masses of sector 3-4 and the impact on it of the 3-4 incident, is discussed.

  5. 3.4 Environmental impacts: energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The subchapter 3.4 'Environmental impact of the energy industry' of the 7th state of the environment report analyzes the current situation in Austria and briefly describes the following aspects: environmental policy targets, uniform taxation of energy, use of renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy, energy input, electricity supply and input, energy input into space heating and air conditioning systems, and renewable energy. In 2002, the input of final energy was risen by about 5 % in comparison to 1998. During this period, the largest increments in final energy inputs were recorded in the mobility sector with + 9.4 %, and in the private households sector with + 8.3 % . The goods production sector showed a slight decrease of about 1.3 % between 1998 and 2002. The 'goods production', 'mobility' and 'private households' sectors combined require about 87 % of the total final energy input. The final energy input for space heating and hot water in 2001 was 5.7 % above the input in 1998. Energy supply from renewable energy sources rose by about 13.8 % in 2002 compared to 1998. Domestic electricity consumption (excluding consumption for pumped-storage systems) in 2002 was about 10.5 % above consumption in 1998. Physical imports and physical exports in 2002 increased about 32 % and 8.6 % correspondingly compared to 1999. (nevyjel)

  6. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer JS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jerrold S Meyer Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behavior Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA Abstract: Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA. Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse

  7. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jerrold S

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy is a widely used recreational drug that usually consists primarily of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most ecstasy users consume other substances as well, which complicates the interpretation of research in this field. The positively rated effects of MDMA consumption include euphoria, arousal, enhanced mood, increased sociability, and heightened perceptions; some common adverse reactions are nausea, headache, tachycardia, bruxism, and trismus. Lowering of mood is an aftereffect that is sometimes reported from 2 to 5 days after a session of ecstasy use. The acute effects of MDMA in ecstasy users have been attributed primarily to increased release and inhibited reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine, along with possible release of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Repeated or high-dose MDMA/ecstasy use has been associated with tolerance, depressive symptomatology, and persisting cognitive deficits, particularly in memory tests. Animal studies have demonstrated that high doses of MDMA can lead to long-term decreases in forebrain 5-HT concentrations, tryptophan hydroxylase activity, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression, and visualization of axons immunoreactive for 5-HT or SERT. These neurotoxic effects may reflect either a drug-induced degeneration of serotonergic fibers or a long-lasting downregulation in 5-HT and SERT biosynthesis. Possible neurotoxicity in heavy ecstasy users has been revealed by neuroimaging studies showing reduced SERT binding and increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in several cortical and/or subcortical areas. MDMA overdose or use with certain other drugs can also cause severe morbidity and even death. Repeated use of MDMA may lead to dose escalation and the development of dependence, although such dependence is usually not as profound as is seen with many other drugs of abuse. MDMA/ecstasy-dependent patients are treated with standard addiction programs, since there are no specific programs for this substance and no proven

  8. (E-3-(4-Bromophenyl-1-(3,4-dichlorophenylprop-2-en-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Kant

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, C15H9BrCl2O, is shown to be the E isomer, with the 3,4-dichlorobenzoyl and p-bromophenyl substituents in trans positions with respect to the chalcone olefin bond. The molecule is non-planar, the two aromatic rings forming a dihedral angle of 49.58 (1°.

  9. Crystal structure of 4-RbHo(PO3)4, 4-RbTm(PO3)4 and 4-CsEr(PO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, S.I.; Palkina, K.K.; Chibiskova, N.T.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray structural study of 4-RbLn(PO 3 ) 4 (Ln=Mo, Tm) and 4-CsEr(PO 3 ) 4 is carried out. The compounds are crystallized in monoclinic crystal system, sp. gr P2 1 /n. Parameters of their unit cell, atom coordinates, anisotropic heat parameters, interatomic distances and valent angles are given. 4-RbHo(PO 3 ) 4 , 4-RbTm(PO 3 ) 4 , 4-CsEr(PO 3 ) 4 are isostructural to previously studied TlNd(PO 3 ) and 4-RbNd(PO 3 ) 4 . Using as an example the structural type 4-M 1 Ln(PO 3 ) 4 it is shown that the change of the shortest distances Ln-Ln, M 1 -M 1 and M 1 -Ln, as well as of degree of polymorphous chain corrugation to a higher extent depends on rare earth atom dimensions, than on monovalent metal ion dimensions [ru

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-4 - Environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impacts. 960.3-4 Section 960.3-4 Energy... REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-4 Environmental impacts. Environmental impacts shall be... process. The DOE shall mitigate significant adverse environmental impacts, to the extent practicable...

  11. 40 CFR 257.3-4 - Ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ground water. 257.3-4 Section 257.3-4... and Practices § 257.3-4 Ground water. (a) A facility or practice shall not contaminate an underground drinking water source beyond the solid waste boundary or beyond an alternative boundary specified in...

  12. A Case of 3,4-Dimethoxyamphetamine (3,4-DMA) and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Toxicity with Possible Metabolic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darracq, Michael A; Thornton, Stephen L; Minns, Alicia B; Gerona, Roy R

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of "ecstasy" ingestion revealing 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine (3,4-DMA) and absence of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-2D6 MDMA metabolites. A 19-year-old presented following a seizure. Initial vital signs were normal. Laboratories were normal with the exception of sodium 127 mEq/L and urine drugs of abuse screen positive for amphetamines. Twelve hours later, serum sodium was 114 mEq/L and a second seizure occurred. After receiving hypertonic saline (3%), the patient had improvement in mental status and admitted to taking "ecstasy" at a rave prior to her initial presentation. Liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) of serum and urine revealed MDMA, 3,4-DMA, and the CYP-2B6 MDMA metabolites 3,4-methylendioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA). The CYP2D6 metabolites of MDMA, 3,4-dihydromethamphetamine (HHMA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), were detected at very low levels. This case highlights the polypharmacy which may exist among users of psychoactive illicit substances and demonstrates that concurrent use of MDMA and 3,4-DMA may predispose patients to severe toxicity. Toxicologists and other healthcare providers should be aware of this potential toxicity.

  13. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Hövell, W.F.M. van; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were fabricated for the first time. The resulting biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements.

  14. Residuen van diuron en 3,4-dichlooraniline in asperge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goewie; C.E.; Hogendoorn; E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Een vloeistofchromatografische methode voor de gelijktijdige bepaling van het herbicide diuron en zijn voornaamste metaboliet, 3,4- dichlooraniline, op asperges werd ontwikkeld. De methode bestaat uit extractie met dichloormethaan gevolgd door reversed phase chromatografie met UV-detectie. De

  15. Squaroglitter: A 3,4-Connected Carbon Net

    KAUST Repository

    Prasad, Dasari L. V. K.

    2013-08-13

    Theoretical calculations are presented on a new hypothetical 3,4-connected carbon net (called squaroglitter) incorporating 1,4 cyclohexadiene units. The structure has tetragonal space group P4/mmm (No. 123) symmetry. The optimized geometry shows normal distances, except for some elongated bonds in the cyclobutane ring substructures in the network. Squaroglitter has an indirect bandgap of about 1.0 eV. The hypothetical lattice, whose density is close to graphite, is more stable than other 3,4-connected carbon nets. A relationship to a (4,4)nanotube is explored, as is a potential threading of the lattice with metal needles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. trans-Dichloridobis(3,4-dimethylpyridineplatinum(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Chernyshev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, trans-[PtCl2(C7H9N2], the PtII atom is located on an inversion center and is coordinated by two 3,4-dimethylpyridine ligands and two chloride ligands, resulting in a typical slightly distorted square-planar geometry. The crystallographic inversion centre forces the value of the C—N—N—C torsion angle to be linear and the 3,4-dimethyl-pyridine ligands to be coplanar.

  17. (3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT); non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. (NNRTI); docking; autodock; 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline. 1. Introduction. Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most serious pandemic public health chal- lenges since 1981. 1. Human immuno deficiency virus.

  18. Environmentally benign synthesis of sydnone containing 1,3,4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    lop benign synthetic methods for sydnone deriva- tives,. 9 we report here a new series of sydnone containing 1,3,4-thiadiazines by microwave irradia- tion under solvent-free conditions. 2. Experimental. 2.1 General remarks. Melting points were determined by open capillary method and are uncorrected. All compounds were.

  19. 41 CFR 60-3.4 - Information on impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 3-UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 60-3.4 Information... the continuation of patterns of assignments of incumbent employees caused by prior discriminatory... minority or female candidates to be atypical of the normal pool of applicants from that group. Where the...

  20. Reliability of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene strain gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Lillemose, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Steen

    2007-01-01

    We report on the experimentally observed reliability of the piezoresistive effect in strained poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT). PEDT is an intrinsic conductive polymer which can be patterned by conventional Cleanroom processing, and thus presents a promising material for all-polymer Microsy......We report on the experimentally observed reliability of the piezoresistive effect in strained poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDT). PEDT is an intrinsic conductive polymer which can be patterned by conventional Cleanroom processing, and thus presents a promising material for all......-polymer Microsystems. The measurements are made on microfabricated test chips with PEDT resistors patterned by conventional UV-lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). We determine a gauge factor of 3.41 ± 0.42 for the strained PEDT and we see an increase in resistivity from 1.98 · 104 X m to 2.22 · 104 X m when...

  1. Ferrocyanide Safety Project: Subtask 3.4, Aging Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Lumetta, M.R.; Riemath, W.F.; Romine, R.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Ferrocyanide Task Team is addressing issues involving ferrocyanide precipitates in single-shell waste storage tanks (SSTs), in particular the storage of waste in a safe manner. This Task Team, composed of researchers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and outside consultants, was formed in response to the need for an updated analysis of safety questions about the Hanford ferrocyanide tanks. This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by PNL in FY 1992 on Subtask 3.4, Aging Studies, which is part of Task 3, Chemical Nature of Feffocyanide in Wastes. Subtask 3.4 deals with the aging behavior and solubilization of ferrocyanide tank waste sludges in a basic aqueous environment. Investigated were the effects of pH variation, ionic strength, salts present in SSTS, and gamma radiation on solubilization of vendor-prepared Na 2 NiFe(CN) 6

  2. Neurotoxicity of methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Laura E; Collins, Stuart A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2014-02-27

    Amphetamines are a class of psychostimulant drugs that are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, empathogenic and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Subsequent to these acute effects, methamphetamine and 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produce persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals. This review summarizes the numerous interdependent mechanisms including excitotoxicity, mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress that have been demonstrated to contribute to this damage. Emerging non-neuronal mechanisms by which the drugs may contribute to monoaminergic terminal damage, as well as the neuropsychiatric consequences of this terminal damage are also presented. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) have similar chemical structures and pharmacologic properties compared to other abused substances including cathinone (khat), as well as a relatively new class of novel synthetic amphetamines known as 'bath salts' that have gained popularity among drug abusers. © 2013.

  3. MANIA (276-3/4/5). Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciolla, C.M.

    1993-11-01

    This report contains the results of the nuclear calculations performed for the MANIA-276 experiment, sample holders 3, 4 and 5. The codes MICROFLUX-2, GAM, HFR-TEDDI and ORIGEN-S have been used for this analysis. Nuclear constants, dpa, reactivity effect and activity of the samples and of the structural materials have been calculated. The results are given in the tables and appendices of the present report. (orig.)

  4. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning

    OpenAIRE

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-01-01

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ?ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were ...

  5. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, Blaise P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  6. Polymers Containing 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole Rings for Advanced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Dana Damaceanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, properties and potential applications of new polymers containing 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole rings, tacking into account the requirements of the modern technologies. Two classes of polymers containing oxadiazole rings were approached: polyamides and polyimides. All the polymers were characterized with respect to the identification of their chemical structure, solubility, molecular weights, film forming ability, thermal, dielectric and optical properties, and the behaviour of polyoxadiazole films upon irradiation with pulsed KrF laser. All the properties were discussed in correlation with their chemical structure and compared with those of related polymers.

  7. 3,4-Diaminopyridinium 2-carboxy-4,6-dinitrophenolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Hemamalini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C5H8N3+·C7H3N2O7−, the pyridine N atom of the 3,4-diaminopyridine molecule is protonated. The 3,5-dinitrosalicylate anion shows whole-molecule disorder over two orientations with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.875 (4: 0.125 (4. In the crystal, the cations and anions are connected by intermolecular N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  8. Ultraporous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for nanometric electrochemical supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aradilla, David [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Estrany, Francesc [Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, EUETIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, Barcelona E-08036 (Spain); Armelin, Elaine [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Aleman, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.aleman@upc.edu [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Center for Research in Nano-Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Campus Sud, Edifici C' , C/Pasqual i Vila s/n, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Ultrathin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been prepared by electropolymerization on steel and indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates under identical experimental conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy indicate that the substrate affects dramatically both the morphology and topography of films when the polymerization times are very short. An ultraporous three-dimensional network involving ultrathin sticks with a fiber-like morphology was formed on ITO. Asymmetric and symmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated by assembling electrodes of PEDOT deposited on ITO and steel. The specific capacitance, electrochemical stability, supercapacitor behavior and Coulombic efficiency measured for devices with an ITO/steel configuration were similar to those reported for advanced PEDOT-inorganic hybrid composites. Furthermore, the performance of the ITO/steel assembly is higher than those determined for symmetric supercapacitors derived from two identical electrodes of PEDOT deposited on steel or on ITO. The unique properties of the asymmetric supercapacitors have been attributed to the ultraporous structure of the ultrathin films deposited on ITO, which is not significantly perturbed when the device is submitted to a very high number of consecutive oxidation-reduction processes, and the different electroactivities of the two electrodes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrathin poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films show fiber-like morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The porosity of ultrathin PEDOT films induces a very high electrochemical stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asymmetric supercapacitors made of ultrathin PEDOT behave like hybrid nanocomposites.

  9. Ultraporous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) for nanometric electrochemical supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aradilla, David; Estrany, Francesc; Armelin, Elaine; Alemán, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ultrathin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) have been prepared by electropolymerization on steel and indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrates under identical experimental conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy indicate that the substrate affects dramatically both the morphology and topography of films when the polymerization times are very short. An ultraporous three-dimensional network involving ultrathin sticks with a fiber-like morphology was formed on ITO. Asymmetric and symmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated by assembling electrodes of PEDOT deposited on ITO and steel. The specific capacitance, electrochemical stability, supercapacitor behavior and Coulombic efficiency measured for devices with an ITO/steel configuration were similar to those reported for advanced PEDOT-inorganic hybrid composites. Furthermore, the performance of the ITO/steel assembly is higher than those determined for symmetric supercapacitors derived from two identical electrodes of PEDOT deposited on steel or on ITO. The unique properties of the asymmetric supercapacitors have been attributed to the ultraporous structure of the ultrathin films deposited on ITO, which is not significantly perturbed when the device is submitted to a very high number of consecutive oxidation–reduction processes, and the different electroactivities of the two electrodes. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films show fiber-like morphology. ► The porosity of ultrathin PEDOT films induces a very high electrochemical stability. ► Asymmetric supercapacitors made of ultrathin PEDOT behave like hybrid nanocomposites.

  10. 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid as chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, M.D.; Bhandari, C.S.; Dixit, M.K.; Sogani, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    Stability constants of praseodymium chelates of 3,4,5-trihydroxy sodium benzoate are determined by using Bjerrum-Calvin pH titration techniques at constant ionic strength 0.1M-sodium perchlorate and at 28+-0.1 0 C. Values calculated by different methods are in good agreement. The study reveals that during complexation only one proton of the ligand molecule is replaced by the metal and oxygen of adjacent phenolic group acts as a coordinating atom. IR and NMR spectral studies of the ligand reveal that one of the OH groups (in meta position to carboxylic group) remains free while two other phenolic groups are involved in intramolecular hydrogen bonding. One water molecule is found attached in crystalline gallic acid. (author)

  11. 3, 4-methylenedioximethamphetamin reverses anxiety induced by chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrea León A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the effects of subchronic 3, 4 methylenedioximethamphetamine (MDMA on the elevated plusmaze, a widely used animal model of anxiety. Rats exposed to a mild chronic stress (MCS protocol received intracerebroventricular microinjections of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI – fluoxetine (2.0 ug/ul or MDMA, (2.0 ug/ul for seven days. On the eighth day rats were tested in the elevated plus-maze. Our results showed that sub chronic MDMA interacted with MCS leading to a decrease in anxiety related behaviors including: percentage of open arms entries (F [2, 26] = 4.00; p = 0.031, time spent in the open arms (F [2, 26] = 3.656; p = 0.040 and time spent in the open arms extremities (F [2, 26] = 5.842; p = 0.008. These results suggest a potential effect of MDMA in the reversion of the emotional significance of aversive stimuli.

  12. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine's (MDMA's) Impact on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C Michael

    2014-07-01

    Review the current literature assessing the role of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). OVID MEDLINE search (1960-February 2014) using the terms MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Molly, and Ecstasy crossed with posttraumatic stress disorder with backwards citation tracking using references from procured articles. English language studies assessing MDMA in patients with PTSD. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted along with follow-up open-label and extension evaluations. In the 3 RCTs, therapy with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy is promising, with reductions in PTSD rating scale scores (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Severity of Symptoms Scale for PTSD Scale), although 2 of 3 trials did not show significant results, and all three had methodological limitations. The direction of effect for all trials was toward benefit in patients who were refractory to other PTSD therapies; the percentage reductions on rating scores ranged from 23% to 68%; and in 1 trial, the effect was sustained over a long period of time. MDMA ingestion without sustained psychotherapy over a 6- to 8-hour period is unlikely to be beneficial; trying to prolong the duration of effect with supplemental dosing is unlikely to provide additional benefits; and there are adverse effects on blood pressure and heart rate that should be appreciated. These studies used unadulterated MDMA with known and reproducible potency, which may not happen with street purchase of the product. MDMA-assisted psychotherapy may be an effective therapy in refractory PTSD but needs further evaluation to determine its place in contemporary therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Radioenzymatic assay of DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.; Gren, J.M.; Kupiecki, R.

    1978-01-01

    We modified the single-isotope radioenzymatic assay for catecholamines [Life Sci. 21, 625(1977)] to assay 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). DOPA decarboxylase is used to convert DOPA to dopamine, which concurrently is converted to [ 3 H]-3-O-methyldopamine in the presence of catechol-O-methyltransferase and [methyl- 3 H]-S-adenosylmethionine and assayed radioenzymatically. For assay of plasma DOPA, 50 μl of untreated plasma is added directly into the incubation mixture. A duplicate mixture containing an internal standard requires a second 50-μl aliquot of plasma. Because the assay measures both DOPA and endogenous dopamine, two additional aliquots of plasma must be assayed for dopamine in the absence of the decarboxylase by the differential assay; DOPA is estimated by difference. The assay is sensitive to 25 pg (500 ng/liter of plasma). Analysis of DOPA (DOPA plus dopamine) and the concurrent differential assay of catecholamines in at least 10 samples can be done in a single working day. Plasma DOPA concentrations for 42 normotensive adults were 1430 +- 19 ng/liter (mean +- SEM). In contrast, dopamine concentrations for these same subjects averaged 23 +- 20 ng/liter. Values for the 24 women subjects (1510 +- 62 ng/liter) significantly (P = 0.04) exceeded those for the men

  14. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine facilitates fear extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M B; Andero, R; Ressler, K J; Howell, L L

    2015-09-15

    Acutely administered 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') has been proposed to have long-term positive effects on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms when combined with psychotherapy. No preclinical data support a mechanistic basis for these claims. Given the persistent nature of psychotherapeutic gains facilitated by MDMA, we hypothesized that MDMA improves fear extinction learning, a key process in exposure-based therapies for PTSD. In these experiments, mice were first exposed to cued fear conditioning and treated with drug vehicle or MDMA before extinction training 2 days later. MDMA was administered systemically and also directly targeted to brain structures known to contribute to extinction. In addition to behavioral measures of extinction, changes in mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and Fos were measured after MDMA treatment and extinction. MDMA (7.8 mg kg(-1)) persistently and robustly enhanced long-term extinction when administered before extinction training. MDMA increased the expression of Fos in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas increases in Bdnf expression were observed only in the amygdala after extinction training. Extinction enhancements were recapitulated when MDMA (1 μg) was infused directly into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), and enhancement was abolished when BDNF signaling was inhibited before extinction. These findings suggest that MDMA enhances fear memory extinction through a BDNF-dependent mechanism, and that MDMA may be a useful adjunct to exposure-based therapies for PTSD and other anxiety disorders characterized by altered fear learning.

  15. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children.

  16. Subtask 3.4 - Fischer - Tropsch Fuels Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strege, Joshua; Snyder, Anthony; Laumb, Jason; Stanislowski, Joshua; Swanson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Under Subtask 3.4, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) examined the opportunities and challenges facing FischerTropsch (FT) technology in the United States today. Work was completed in two distinct budget periods (BPs). In BP1, the EERC examined the technical feasibility of using modern warm-gas cleanup techniques for FT synthesis. FT synthesis is typically done using more expensive and complex cold-gas sweetening. Warm-gas cleanup could greatly reduce capital and operating costs, making FT synthesis more attractive for domestic fuel production. Syngas was generated from a variety of coal and biomass types; cleaned of sulfur, moisture, and condensables; and then passed over a pilot-scale FT catalyst bed. Laboratory and modeling work done in support of the pilot-scale effort suggested that the catalyst was performing suboptimally with warm-gas cleanup. Long-term trends showed that the catalyst was also quickly deactivating. In BP3, the EERC compared FT catalyst results using warm-gas cleanup to results using cold-gas sweetening. A gas-sweetening absorption system (GSAS) was designed, modeled, and constructed to sweeten syngas between the gasifier and the pilot-scale FT reactor. Results verified that the catalyst performed much better with gas sweetening than it had with warm-gas cleanup. The catalyst also showed no signs of rapid deactivation when the GSAS was running. Laboratory tests in support of this effort verified that the catalyst had deactivated quickly in BP1 because of exposure to syngas, not because of any design flaw with the pilot-scale FT reactor itself. Based on these results, the EERC concludes that the two biggest issues with using syngas treated with warm-gas cleanup for FT synthesis are high concentrations of CO{sub 2} and volatile organic matter. Other catalysts tested by the EERC may be more tolerant of CO{sub 2}, but volatile matter removal is critical to ensuring long-term FT catalyst operation. This subtask was funded through

  17. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  18. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  19. Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-3,4-difluorothiophene Polymer Acceptors for Efficient All-Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Shengjian

    2016-09-16

    Branched-alkyl-substituted poly(thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-alt-3,4-difluorothiophene) (PTPD[2F]T) can be used as a polymer acceptor in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with a low-band-gap polymer donor (PCE10) commonly used with fullerenes. The

  20. Temperature dependent luminescence Cr3+doped GdAl3(BO3)4 and YAl3(BO3)4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malysa, B.; Meijerink, A; Jüstel, Thomas

    Chromium activated YAl3(BO3)4 (YAB) and GdAl3(BO3)4 (GAB) were synthesized and show efficient broad band near infrared emission under excitation in the UV, blue and orange spectral regions. Temperature dependent luminescence measurements for GAB:1%Cr3+ and YAB:1%Cr3+ reveal high quenching

  1. Improved Synthesis of 2',6'-Dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxy Chalcone by Grinding Technique to Synthesize 5-Hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxy Flavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi Susanti VH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 5-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxy flavone can be efficiently synthesized in two steps via the formation of 2',6'-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxy chalcone with good results. 2',6'-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxy chalcone as reactants for synthesis of flavones was prepared through Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction between 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenones,3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde and solid NaOH in mortar for 15 min. The yield of the product (70% is higher than conventional method (65%. This chalcone then oxidatively cyclized with iodine to form 5-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxy flavone (yield 62%. Compounds synthesized were characterized by spectroscopic (IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR.

  2. 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-Dihydroxy-L-proline: An amino acid in toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buku, A.; Faulstich, H.; Wieland, T.; Dabrowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Among the four possible stereoisomers of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline,2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline (IV) had not been found in nature previously. It has now been detected as a component of virotoxins, toxic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms. Because periodate failed to effect an oxidative glycol splitting reaction, the two hydroxyl groups in positions 3 and 4 were expected to be in a trans configuration. Furthermore, the formation of a 4-lactone on treatment with acids pointed to the carboxyl group and the hydroxyl group at position 4 being in a cis configuration. These results are in agreement with structure IV only. Final proof for structure IV was given by NMR spectroscopy and direct comparison with the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline isomer. PMID:16592813

  3. 3' Phosphatase activity toward phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] by voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Takasuga, Shunsuke; Sakata, Souhei; Yamaguchi, Shinji; Horie, Shigeo; Homma, Koichi J; Sasaki, Takehiko; Okamura, Yasushi

    2012-06-19

    Voltage-sensing phosphatases (VSPs) consist of a voltage-sensor domain and a cytoplasmic region with remarkable sequence similarity to phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor phosphatase. VSPs dephosphorylate the 5' position of the inositol ring of both phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P(3)] and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] upon voltage depolarization. However, it is unclear whether VSPs also have 3' phosphatase activity. To gain insights into this question, we performed in vitro assays of phosphatase activities of Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP) and transmembrane phosphatase with tensin homology (TPTE) and PTEN homologous inositol lipid phosphatase (TPIP; one human ortholog of VSP) with radiolabeled PI(3,4,5)P(3). TLC assay showed that the 3' phosphate of PI(3,4,5)P(3) was not dephosphorylated, whereas that of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P(2)] was removed by VSPs. Monitoring of PI(3,4)P(2) levels with the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain from tandem PH domain-containing protein (TAPP1) fused with GFP (PH(TAPP1)-GFP) by confocal microscopy in amphibian oocytes showed an increase of fluorescence intensity during depolarization to 0 mV, consistent with 5' phosphatase activity of VSP toward PI(3,4,5)P(3). However, depolarization to 60 mV showed a transient increase of GFP fluorescence followed by a decrease, indicating that, after PI(3,4,5)P(3) is dephosphorylated at the 5' position, PI(3,4)P(2) is then dephosphorylated at the 3' position. These results suggest that substrate specificity of the VSP changes with membrane potential.

  4. Simultaneous polysubstance use among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and hallucinogen users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Cecilie L; Christoffersen, Maria; Okholm, Mads

    2012-01-01

    To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users.......To describe patterns of simultaneous polysubstance use (SPU) among Danish 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) ("Ecstasy") and hallucinogen users....

  5. Disposition of 238Pu(NO3)4 following inhalation by beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Schirmer, R.E.; Stevens, D.L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to study deposition and translocation up to 1 yr. Preliminary data suggest a greater and more rapid translocation of 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 to bone and liver than was observed for 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4

  6. Studies on high grade cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleehen, N.M.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of attempts in the United Kingdom to improve the results of treatment of high grade (grade 3, 4) supra-tentorial astrocytomas is presented. The radiosensitizer misonidazole failed to improve the results of post-surgical radiotherapy, however, multivariate analysis of data from these patients has provided a prognostic index of use in defining good and poor prognosis patients. An overview study of adjuvant nitrosourea therapy trials has shown a small significant advantage for the chemotherapy. A study of chemosensitization by benznidazole of CCNU treatment of patients in relapse failed to demonstrate any effect. 13 references

  7. Synthesis of (3R)-3-(4-fluorophenylsulfonamido)-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-9-[4-3H] carbazolepropanoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleiss, Ulrich; Radtke, Martin; Schmitt, Peter

    1990-01-01

    (3R)-3-(4-Fluorophenylsulfonamido)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-[4- 3 H]carbazolepropanoic acid ( [ 3 H]BAY u 3405) (5) was synthesized by catalytic reduction of (3R)-3-(4-fluorophenylsulfonamido)-4-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-carbazolepropanoic acid (4) with tritium. The precursor (4) was prepared by esterification and following oxidation of BAY u 3405 with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone. 3 H NMR analysis of the final product showed the formation of [4α- 3 H]BAY us 3405 and [4β- 3 H]BAY u 3405 in a ratio of 1:1. (author)

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure and optical properties of the catena-metaphosphates Ce(PO3)4 and U(PO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppe, Henning A.; Daub, Michi

    2012-01-01

    The catena-metaphosphates of tetravalent cerium and tetravalent uranium were obtained as phase pure crystalline powders by reaction of the respective dioxides with phosphoric acid at 500 C. Ce(PO 3 ) 4 and U(PO 3 ) 4 crystallise in space group C2/c (Z = 16, a Ce = 13.7696(3) Aa, b Ce = 29.7120(7) Aa, c Ce = 8.9269(2) Aa, β Ce = 90.00(1) Aa 3 and a U = 13.786(3) Aa, b U = 29.843(6) Aa, c U = 8.9720(18) Aa, β U = 90.01(3) Aa 3 ). The vibrational and optical spectra of pale yellow Ce(PO 3 ) 4 and emerald-greenish U(PO 3 ) 4 are also reported. (orig.)

  9. AGR-3/4 Irradiation Test Train Disassembly and Component Metrology First Look Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Francine Joyce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The AGR-3/4 experiment was designed to study fission product transport within graphitic matrix material and nuclear-grade graphite. To this end, this experiment consisted of 12 capsules, each fueled with 4 compacts containing UCO TRISO particles as driver fuel and 20 UCO designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles in each compact. The DTF fuel was fabricated with a thin pyrocarbon layer which was intended to fail during irradiation and provide a source of fission products. These fission products could then migrate through the compact and into the surrounding concentric rings of graphitic matrix material and/or nuclear graphite. Through post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the rings (including physical sampling and gamma scanning) fission product concentration profiles within the rings can be determined. These data can be used to elucidate fission product transport parameters (e.g. diffusion coefficients within the test materials) which will be used to inform and refine models of fission product transport. After irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) had been completed in April 2014, the AGR-3/4 experiment was shipped to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for inspection, disassembly, and metrology. The AGR-3/4 test train was received at MFC in two separate shipments between February and April 2015. Visual examinations of the test train exterior did not indicate dimensional distortion, and only two small discolored areas were observed at the bottom of Capsules 8 and 9. No corresponding discoloration was found on the inside of these capsules, however. Prior to disassembly, the two test train sections were subject to analysis via the Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS), which did not indicate that any gross fuel relocation had occurred. A series of specialized tools (including clamps, cutters, and drills) had been designed and fabricated in order to carry out test train disassembly and recovery of capsule components (graphite

  10. AGR-3/4 Irradiation Test Train Disassembly and Component Metrology First Look Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Francine Joyce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The AGR-3/4 experiment was designed to study fission product transport within graphitic matrix material and nuclear-grade graphite. To this end, this experiment consisted of 12 capsules, each fueled with 4 compacts containing UCO TRISO particles as driver fuel and 20 UCO designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles in each compact. The DTF fuel was fabricated with a thin pyrocarbon layer which was intended to fail during irradiation and provide a source of fission products. These fission products could then migrate through the compact and into the surrounding concentric rings of graphitic matrix material and/or nuclear graphite. Through post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the rings (including physical sampling and gamma scanning) fission product concentration profiles within the rings can be determined. These data can be used to elucidate fission product transport parameters (e.g. diffusion coefficients within the test materials) which will be used to inform and refine models of fission product transport. After irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) had been completed in April 2014, the AGR-3/4 experiment was shipped to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for inspection, disassembly, and metrology. The AGR-3/4 test train was received at MFC in two separate shipments between February and April 2015. Visual examinations of the test train exterior did not indicate dimensional distortion, and only two small discolored areas were observed at the bottom of Capsules 8 and 9. No corresponding discoloration was found on the inside of these capsules, however. Prior to disassembly, the two test train sections were subject to analysis via the Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS), which did not indicate that any gross fuel relocation had occurred. A series of specialized tools (including clamps, cutters, and drills) had been designed and fabricated in order to carry out test train disassembly and recovery of capsule components (graphite

  11. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel fused heterocyclic 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagdish K.; Ganguly, Swastika; Kaushik, Atul

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, the synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine including different pharmacophores are aimed at. In this study, a series of 6-aryl-3- (3,4 -dialkoxyphenyl)-7H -[1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b][1,3,4] thiadiazine (7a-7k) was synthesized by condensing 4-amino-5-(3,4-dialkoxyphenyl)-4H-[1,2,4]- triazole-3-thiol (6) with various aromatic carboxylic acids in the presence of phenacyl bromides through one-pot reaction. Eleven fused heterocyclic derivatives were successfully synthesized. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectroscopic studies. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial evaluation. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity. From the present study it may be concluded that synthesized compounds are fruitful in terms of their structural novelty and marked biological activities. These compounds could be further modified to develop potential and safer antifungal agents. PMID:24959418

  12. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  13. Graded manifolds and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with

  14. Social Cognition and Interaction in Chronic Users of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderli, Michael D; Vonmoos, Matthias; Treichler, Lorena; Zeller, Carmen; Dziobek, Isabel; Kraemer, Thomas; Baumgartner, Markus R; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B

    2018-04-01

    The empathogen 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is the prototypical prosocial club drug inducing emotional openness to others. It has recently been shown that acutely applied 3,4-MDMA in fact enhances emotional empathy and prosocial behavior, while it simultaneously decreases cognitive empathy. However, the long-term effects of 3,4-MDMA use on socio-cognitive functions and social interactions have not been investigated yet. Therefore, we examined emotional and cognitive empathy, social decision-making, and oxytocin plasma levels in chronic 3,4-MDMA users. We tested 38 regular but recently abstinent 3,4-MDMA users and 56 3,4-MDMA-naïve controls with the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, the Multifaceted Empathy Test, and the Distribution Game and the Dictator Game. Drug use was objectively quantified by 6-month hair analyses. Furthermore, oxytocin plasma levels were determined in smaller subgroups (24 3,4-MDMA users, 9 controls). 3,4-MDMA users showed superior cognitive empathy compared with controls in the Multifaceted Empathy Test (Cohen's d=.39) and in the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (d=.50), but they did not differ from controls in emotional empathy. Moreover, 3,4-MDMA users acted less self-serving in the Distribution Game. However, within 3,4-MDMA users, multiple regression analyses showed that higher 3,4-MDMA concentrations in hair were associated with lower cognitive empathy (βMDMA=-.34, t=-2.12, P<.05). Oxytocin plasma concentrations did not significantly differ between both groups. We conclude that people with high cognitive empathy abilities and pronounced social motivations might be more prone to 3,4-MDMA consumption. In contrast, long-term 3,4-MDMA use might nevertheless have a detrimental effect on cognitive empathy capacity.

  15. Comparative evaluation of conventional RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR for detection of avian metapneumovirus subtype A Comparação entre as técnicas de RT-PCR convencional e RT-PCR em tempo real para a detecção do metapneumovírus aviários subtipo A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lage Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F gene and nucleocapsid (N gene were compared with an established test for the attachment (G gene. All the RT-PCR tested assays were able to detect the AMPV/A. The lower detection limits were observed using the N-, F- based RRT-PCR and F-based conventional RT-PCR (10(0.3 to 10¹ TCID50 mL-1. The present study suggests that the conventional F-based RT-PCR presented similar detection limit when compared to N- and F-based RRT-PCR and they can be successfully used for AMPV/A detection.O metapneumovírus aviário (AMPV pertence ao gênero Metapneumovirus, família Paramyxoviridae. Isolamento viral, sorologia e detecção do RNA genômico são atualmente as técnicas utilizadas para o diagnóstico desse agente. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a detecção de RNA viral de seis isolados de AMPV, subtipo A (AMPV/A, utilizando diferentes métodos de RT-PCR convencional e real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR. Duas novas técnicas de RT-PCR convencional e duas técnicas de RRT-PCR, ambas para a detecção dos genes da nucleoproteína (N e da proteína de fusão (F, foram comparadas com um RT-PCR previamente estabelecido para a detecção do AMPV (gene da glicoproteína -G. Todos esses métodos foram capazes de detectar os isolados AMPV/A. As técnicas RRT-PCR (genes F e N mostraram os menores limites de detecção (10(0.3 to 10¹ TCID50 mL-1. Os resultados sugerem que as técnicas RT-PCR convencional (gene F e as técnicas de RRT-PCR (gene F e N desenvolvidas no presente estudo podem ser utilizadas com sucesso para a detecção do

  16. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  17. Synthesis of 1-Substituted Carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and Carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline Analogs as Potential Antitumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Wang Chern

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1-substituted carbazolyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro- and carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-b-carboline analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activity against human tumor cells including KB, DLD, NCI-H661, Hepa, and HepG2/A2 cell lines. Among these, compounds 2, 6, 7, and 9 exhibited the most potent and selective activity against the tested tumor cells. As for inhibition of topoisomerase II, compounds 1–14 and 18 showed better activity than etoposide. Among them, compounds 3, 4, 7, 9, and 10 exhibited potent activity. The structure and activity relationship (SAR study revealed correlation between carbon numbers of the side chain and biological activities. The molecular complex with DNA for compound 2 was proposed.

  18. Characterizations of a loss-of-function mutation in the Kir3.4 channel subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    and two-electrode voltage-clamp revealed that Kir3.4-G247R basal current was reduced compared to wild-type Kir3.4 and co-expression with the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 2 showed that also the acetylcholine induced current was severely reduced in Kir3.4-G247R, indicating that the mutation...... the lack of clear clinical manifestations and further studies are necessary to elucidate if mutations in Kir3.4 are predisposing AF. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-28...

  19. Radiochemical synthesis of 3-(4-[18F] Fluorophenyl)-8-hydroxy-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydrochromeno [3, 4-c] pyridin-5-one: A putative dopamine D$4 receptor PET imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.C.; Yin, D.Z.; Wang, M.W.; Cheng, D.F.; Wang, Y.X.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The dopamine D 4 receptor has lately received increasing interest since it has been hypothesized to be involved in the pathology and pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia. While this receptor is expressed in lower density in various extrastriatal brain regions and its distribution is still unclear due to the lack of suitable imaging agent and its level change in schizophrenia is controversial. Herein, based on the structure-activity analysis of chromeno[3, 4-c]pyridine- 5-ones as potential dopamine D 4 receptor ligands, a putative D 4 subtype positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand, 3-(4-[ 18 F]fluorophenyl)-8-hydroxy-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydrochromeno [3, 4-c]pyridin-5-one ([ 18 F]FHTP), was designed and synthesized. Methods: The radiochemical synthesis route was shown in Figure 1. [ 18 F]Fluoride was produced with a Cyclone-30 (IBA, Belgium) by 18 O(p, n) 18 F reaction using enriched 18 O-H 2 O and eluted from a Dowex 1-X8 anion-exchange column with aqueous potassium carbonate (20 mg/mL). 4-[ 18 F]Fluorobenzaldehyde was prepared according to the method reported by Alan A. Wilson and et al.. Then, 8-hydroxy-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydrochromeno [3, 4-c]pyridin-5-one, sodium cyanoborohydride, methanol and acetic acid were added to the dry residue, The mixture was then sealed and heated at 120 degree C for 12 min. At the end of the reaction, the mixture was cooled, diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water. The extracted organic layer was passed through a small anhydrous magnesium sulfate column. After removal of the solvents in the mixture at 50 degree C under a stream of nitrogen, the obtained residue was redissolved in methanol and purified with a semi-preparative HPLC system, then the desired product was collected. Results: The radiochemical synthesis of [ 18 F]FHTP took around 110 min at EOS with an overall radiochemical yield 19% (decay-corrected) and its radiochemical purity was higher than 95%. Conclusion: A presumed dopamine D 4 receptor PET

  20. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  1. Diversity of coordination modes in the polymers based on 3,3',4,4'-biphenylcarboxylate ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaodi; Xiao Hongping; Zhou Xinhui; Wu Tao; You Xiaozeng

    2010-01-01

    Four new compounds [Ni 2 (4,4'-bpy)(3,4-bptc)(H 2 O) 4 ] n (1), [Ni(4,4'-bpy)(3,4-H 2 bptc)(H 2 O) 3 ] n (2), [Mn 2 (2,2'-bpy) 4 (3,4-H 2 bptc) 2 ] (3) and {[Mn(1,10-phen) 2 (3,4-H 2 bptc)].4H 2 O} n (4) (3,4-H 4 bptc=3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic acid, 4,4'-bpy=4,4'-bipyridine, 2,2'-bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, 1, 10-phen=1, 10-phenanthroline), have been prepared and structurally characterized. In all compounds, the derivative ligands of 3,4-H 4 bptc (3,4-bptc 4- and 3,4-H 2 bptc 2- ) exhibit different coordination modes and lead to the formation of various architectures. Compounds 1 and 2 display the three-dimensional (3D) framework: 1 shows a 3,4-connected topological network with (8 3 )(8 5 .10) topology symbol based on the coordination bonds while in 2, the hydrogen-bonding interactions are observed to connect the 1D linear chain generating a final 3D framework. 3 exhibits the 2D layer constructed from the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the dinuclear manganese units. Complex 4 shows the double layers motif through connecting the 1D zigzag chains with hydrogen-bonded rings. The thermal stability of 1-4 and magnetic property of 1 were also reported. - Graphical abstract: Four coordination compounds exhibiting four coordination modes of the 3,3',4,4'-biphenylcarboxylate ligand, with three of new in this system, are obtained showing diversified architectures.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and anti cancer activity of some fluorinated 3,6-diaryl-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Chowrasia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorinated 3,6-diaryl-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (2a–2i was synthesized by condensation of various substituted 4-amino-5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols (1a–1i with penta fluoro benzoic acid in good yields (60–80%. The synthesized compounds were screened for anticancer activity against three cancerous cell lines MCF7 (human breast cancer, SaOS-2 (human osteosarcoma and K562 (human myeloid leukemia. The compounds showed moderate to good antiproliferative potency against the studied cell lines. Among these, compound 2b showed higher antiproliferative activity (IC50 22.1, 19 and 15 μM against MCF7, SaOS-2 and K562, respectively while 2a exhibited least antiproliferative activity (IC50 30.2, 39 and 29.4 μM against MCF7, SaOS-2 and K562 cells, respectively. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that fluorine substituted 3,6-diaryl-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles would be a better prospective in the development of anticancer drugs.

  3. Direct regulation of the Akt proto-oncogene product by phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, T F; Kaplan, D R; Cantley, L C; Toker, A

    1997-01-31

    The regulation of the serine-threonine kinase Akt by lipid products of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) was investigated. Akt activity was found to correlate with the amount of phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns-3,4-P2) in vivo, and synthetic PtdIns-3,4-P2 activated Akt both in vitro and in vivo. Binding of PtdIns-3,4-P2 occurred within the Akt pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and facilitated dimerization of Akt. Akt mutated in the PH domain was not activated by PI 3-kinase in vivo or by PtdIns-3, 4-P2 in vitro, and it was impaired in binding to PtdIns-3,4-P2. Examination of the binding to other phosphoinositides revealed that they bound to the Akt PH domain with much lower affinity than did PtdIns-3,4-P2 and failed to increase Akt activity. Thus, Akt is apparently regulated by the direct interaction of PtdIns-3,4-P2 with the Akt PH domain.

  4. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF 7-HYDROXY-3',4'-DIMETHOXYFLAVONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi Susanti VH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of flavones and their derivatives has attracted considerable attention due to their significant pharmaceutical effects. 7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyflavone has been synthesized and its antioxidant activity has been investigated. Flavone was synthesized by oxidative cyclization of chalcone. 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone was prepared by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenones with 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehydes in the presence of aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and ethanol at room temperature. Oxidative cyclization of 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone was done by using I2 catalyst in DMSO to form 7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyflavone. The synthesized compounds were characterized by means of their UV-Vis, IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data. The compound was tested for their antioxidant activities by DPPH method.

  5. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  6. Boronic, diboronic, and α-amino-boronic acids derived from 1-ethynyl-3, 4-dimethoxybenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Toshio; Mishima, Yutaka

    1985-01-01

    This work was undertaken with the intention of synthesizing (α-amino-β-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethylboronic acid. Unfortunately, the goal could not be attained since the isolation of the target compound could not be achieved though some information suggested its existence in the final product. The methods of synthesis used in the second half of the attempted preparation are described here (compounds in the first half have been published elsewhere). In this procedure, (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethenylboronic acid is esterified and azeotropic distillation is conducted to provide diethyl (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethenylboronate. This compound is dissolved in diglyme and diborane gas is introduced. The hydroboration product is then subjected to amination with hydroxylamine-0-sulfonic acid. (β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethyl-α, α-diboronic acid is obtained from the residue of acetone extraction. The acetone extract is concentrated to a solid caramel, from which (α-borono-β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethylammonium tetraphenylborate is formed. Conversion from the tetraphenylborate salt to (α-amino-β-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)) ethylboronic acid hydrochloride is attempted by the double decomposition RH BPh 4 + CsCl -- RH Cl + CsBPh 4 . The product is subjected to demethylation and treated with sodium tetraphenylborate to precipitate (α-borono-β-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)) ethylammonium tetraphenylborate. Conversion of this to the target compound is tried by double decomposition. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Fine tuning the HOMO energy levels of polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene derivatives by incorporation of thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate moiety for photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xiao-Lian; Zuo, Li-Jian; Nan, Ya-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    To lower the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) energy level of polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene (∼−4.5eV), a series of ester-functionalized polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene derivatives (P1–P3) were designed and synthesized by Stille cross coupling reaction. The resulting copolymers exhibited broad...... voltage (Voc) of 0.54V, a short circuit current density (Isc) of 3.3mA/cm2, a fill factor (FF) of 0.57, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.02%. A high Voc up to 0.71V was achieved in the solar cell based on a P3:PCBM blend....

  8. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Long-Chain 3,4-Epoxy-2-alkanones

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, William F.

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone, a major component in the preorbital gland of the African grey duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia), showed antimicrobial activity in preliminary tests. The C11 to C17 homologues of this compound were prepared and their activity against several pathogenic dermal bacteria and fungi was tested. 3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone and 3,4-epoxy-2-tridecanone inhibited the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 25 μg/mL. Moderate inhibition of the growth of the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes...

  9. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of long-chain 3,4-Epoxy-2-alkanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William F

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone, a major component in the preorbital gland of the African grey duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia), showed antimicrobial activity in preliminary tests. The C(11) to C(17) homologues of this compound were prepared and their activity against several pathogenic dermal bacteria and fungi was tested. 3,4-Epoxy-2-dodecanone and 3,4-epoxy-2-tridecanone inhibited the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 25 Îg/mL. Moderate inhibition of the growth of the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and the lipophilic yeast, Pityrosporum ovale, was seen for several of the homologues.

  10. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats after oral administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkel, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas; Schauer, Ute M.D.; Broschard, Thomas H.; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) is an UV-filter frequently used in sunscreens and cosmetics. Equivocal findings in some screening tests for hormonal activity initiated a discussion on a possible weak estrogenicity of 4-MBC. In this study, the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 4-MBC were characterized in rats after oral administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group) were administered single oral doses of 25 or 250 mg/kg bw of 4-MBC in corn oil. Metabolites formed were characterized and the kinetics of elimination for 4-MBC and its metabolites from blood and with urine were determined. Metabolites of 4-MBC were characterized by 1 H NMR and LC-MS/MS as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and as four isomers of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor containing the hydroxyl group located in the camphor ring system with 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor as the major metabolite. After oral administration of 4-MBC, only very low concentrations of 4-MBC were present in blood and the peak concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were approximately 500-fold above those of 4-MBC; blood concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were below the limit of detection. Blood concentration of 4-MBC and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor peaked within 10 h after 4-MBC administration and then decreased with half-lives of approximately 15 h. No major differences in peak blood levels between male and female rats were seen. In urine, one isomer of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor was the predominant metabolite [3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor], the other isomers and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were only minor metabolites excreted with urine. However, urinary excretion of 4-MBC-metabolites represents only a minor pathway of elimination for 4-MBC, since most of the applied dose was recovered in feces as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and, to a smaller extent, as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor

  11. Nickel-catalyzed regio- and enantioselective aminolysis of 3,4-epoxy alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2015-04-08

    The first catalytic regio- and enantioselective aminolysis of 3,4-epoxy alcohols has been accomplished. Under the catalysis of Ni(ClO4)2·6H2O, the C4 selective ring opening of various 3,4-epoxy alcohols proceeded in a stereospecific manner with high regioselectivities. Furthermore, with the Ni-BINAM catalytic system the enantioselective ring opening of 3,4-epoxy alcohols furnished various γ-hydroxy-δ-amino alcohols as products with complete regiocontrol and high enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee).

  12. 2,5-Bis[(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctylsulfanyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Partl

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H8F26N2S3, was obtained by double S-perfluorohexylethylation of dipotassium 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2,5-dithiolate in methanol. The molecule exhibits twofold rotational symmetry, with the S atom lying on the rotation axis. The fluorocarbon chains adopt helical conformations and the F atoms of the two terminal C atoms are disordered over two sets of sites. No directional intermolecular interactions occur in the crystal.

  13. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  14. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  15. trans-2-Phenyl-4-thiophenoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzothiopyran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Pal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine-catalyzed cyclocondensation of cinnamaldehyde and thiophenol yields rapidly trans-2-phenyl-4-thiophenoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzothiopyran in excellent yield with very high diastereoselectivity.

  16. Chlorine- and Sulphur-substituted Pyrrolo[3,4-b]quinolines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorine- and Sulphur-substituted Pyrrolo[3,4-b]quinolines and Related Derivatives .... J. Chem., 2003, 56, 40–46,. . .... It is evident from the above that by judicious selection and application of reagents ...

  17. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  18. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  19. Implementation experiences of NASTRAN on CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.; Hill, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    The implementation of the NASTRAN system on the CDC CYBER 74 SCOPE 3.4 Operating System is described. The flexibility of the NASTRAN system made it possible to accomplish the change with no major problems. Various sizes of benchmark and test problems, ranging from two hours to less than one minute CP time were run on the CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.3, Univac EXEC-8, and CDC CYBER SCOPE 3.4. The NASTRAN installation deck is provided.

  20. Pseudorotaxane capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) detection in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Torres, Beatriz; Pascual, Lluís; Bernardos, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with fluorescein and capped by a pseudorotaxane, formed between a naphthalene derivative and cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+), were used for the selective and sensitive fluorogenic detection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).......Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with fluorescein and capped by a pseudorotaxane, formed between a naphthalene derivative and cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+), were used for the selective and sensitive fluorogenic detection of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)....

  1. A Multi-Center Prospective Study to Validate an Algorithm Using Urine and Plasma Biomarkers for Predicting Gleason ≥3+4 Prostate Cancer on Biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars

    2017-01-01

    a prospective multicenter study recruiting patients from community-based practices. Patients and Methods: Urine and plasma samples from 2528 men were tested prospectively. Results were correlated with biopsy findings, if a biopsy was performed as deemed necessary by the practicing urologist. Of the 2528......Background: Unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) remain a serious healthcare problem. We have previously shown that urine- and plasma-based prostate-specific biomarkers when combined can predict high grade prostate cancer (PCa). To further validate this test, we performed...... of high grade prostate cancer with negative predictive value (NPV) of 90% to 97% for Gleason ≥3+4 and between 98% to 99% for Gleason ≥4+3....

  2. N = 1 supersymmetry algebras in d = 2, 3, 4 and mod 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.W. van; Proeyen, A. van

    1982-01-01

    Poincare, de Sitter and conformal supersymmetry algebras are derived in all dimensions allowing Majorana spinors. Only minimal gradings (N = 1) are considered, and it is shown that these always exist. A brief discussion of fermionic central charges is given. (author)

  3. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate modulation in SHIP2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blero, Daniel; Zhang, Jing; Pesesse, Xavier; Payrastre, Bernard; Dumont, Jacques E; Schurmans, Stéphane; Erneux, Christophe

    2005-05-01

    SHIP2, the ubiquitous SH2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatase, includes a series of protein interacting domains and has the ability to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)]in vitro. The present study, which was undertaken to evaluate the impact of SHIP2 on PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) levels, was performed in a mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) model using SHIP2 deficient (-/-) MEF cells derived from knockout mice. PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) was upregulated in serum stimulated -/- MEF cells as compared to +/+ MEF cells. Although the absence of SHIP2 had no effect on basal PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) levels, we show here that this lipid was significantly upregulated in SHIP2 -/- cells but only after short-term (i.e. 5-10 min) incubation with serum. The difference in PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) levels in heterozygous fibroblast cells was intermediate between the +/+ and the -/- cells. In our model, insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulation did not show this upregulation. Serum stimulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity appeared to be comparable between +/+ and -/- cells. Moreover, protein kinase B, but not mitogen activated protein kinase activity, was also potentiated in SHIP2 deficient cells stimulated by serum. The upregulation of protein kinase B activity in serum stimulated cells was totally reversed in the presence of the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY-294002, in both +/+ and -/- cells. Altogether, these data establish a link between SHIP2 and the acute control of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) levels in intact cells.

  4. Modeling Li-ion conductivity in LiLa(PO3)4 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounir, Ferhi; Karima, Horchani-Naifer; Khaled, Ben Saad; Mokhtar, Férid

    2012-01-01

    Polycrystalline powder and single-crystal of LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 are synthesized by solid state reaction and flux technique, respectively. A morphological description of the obtained product was made based on scanning electron microscopy micrographs. The obtained powder was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Ionic conductivity of the LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 powder was measured and evaluated over a temperature range from 553 to 913 K. Single crystals of LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 structure was found to be isotypic with LiNd(PO 3 ) 4 . It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c and cell parameters: a=16.635(6) Å, b=7.130(3) Å, c=9.913(3) Å, β=126.37(4)°, V=946.72(6) Å 3 and Z=4. The LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 structure was described as an alternation between spiraling chains (PO 3 ) n and (La 3+ , Li + ) cations along the b direction. The small Li + ions, coordinated to four oxygen atoms, were located in the large connected cavities created between the LaO 8 polyhedra and the polyphosphate chains. The jumping of Li + through tunnels of the crystalline network was investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. The close value of the activation energies calculated through the analysis of conductivity data and loss spectra indicate that the transport in the investigated system is through hopping mechanism. The correlation between ionic conductivity of LiLa(PO 3 ) 4 and its crystallographic structure was investigated and the most probably transport pathway model was determined.

  5. Is inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate a new second messenger?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, C.A.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Hormone-stimulated hydrolysis of inositol (Ins) lipids results in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 , the second messenger for intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization. Recently, a more polar inositol phosphate, Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 as well as its probable hydrolysis product Ins(1,3,4)P 3 have been reported to accumulate in carbachol-stimulated brain slices. Vasopressin addition to hepatocytes prelabeled with [ 3 H]-Ins also showed a rapid increase of Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 , which was similar to that of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 , while the accumulation of Ins(1,3,4)P 3 was slower. In order to examine whether Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 has any functional effects on Ca 2+ homeostasis, it was synthesized enzymatically from [ 3 H]-Ins(1,4,5)P 3 using a partially purified phosphoinositol kinase activity from rat brain cortex. [ 3 H]-labeled inositol phosphates were separated by anion exchange chromatography and analyzed by HPLC using ammonium formate/phosphoric acid gradient elution. Preliminary experiments indicate that Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 up to 10 μM does not release Ca 2+ from vesicular pools in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes. It has a slight inhibitory effect on Ins(1,4,5)P 3 -induced Ca 2+ release. The effect of Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 on plasma membrane Ca 2+ fluxes are presently being investigated

  6. Validation of International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading for prostatic adenocarcinoma in thin core biopsies using TROG 03.04 'RADAR' trial clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, B; Egevad, L; Srigley, J R; Steigler, A; Murray, J D; Atkinson, C; Matthews, J; Duchesne, G; Spry, N A; Christie, D; Joseph, D; Attia, J; Denham, J W

    2015-10-01

    In 2014 a consensus conference convened by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) adopted amendments to the criteria for Gleason grading and scoring (GS) for prostatic adenocarcinoma. The meeting defined a modified grading system based on 5 grading categories (grade 1, GS 3+3; grade 2, GS 3+4; grade 3, GS 4+3; grade 4, GS 8; grade 5, GS 9-10). In this study we have evaluated the prognostic significance of ISUP grading in 496 patients enrolled in the TROG 03.04 RADAR Trial. There were 19 grade 1, 118 grade 2, 193 grade 3, 88 grade 4 and 79 grade 5 tumours in the series, with follow-up for a minimum of 6.5 years. On follow-up 76 patients experienced distant progression of disease, 171 prostate specific antigen (PSA) progression and 39 prostate cancer deaths. In contrast to the 2005 modified Gleason system (MGS), the hazards of the distant and PSA progression endpoints, relative to grade 2, were significantly greater for grades 3, 4 and 5 of the 2014 ISUP grading scheme. Comparison of predictive ability utilising Harrell's concordance index, showed 2014 ISUP grading to significantly out-perform 2005 MGS grading for each of the three clinical endpoints.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/2,5-Dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (PEDOT-DMcT) Hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G.; Conte, Sean; Lowe, Michael A.; Gao, Jie; Kiya, Yasuyuki; Henderson, Jay C.; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: Organosulfur Compounds (OSCs) represent an attractive alternative as organic cathode materials for electrochemical energy storage (EES) applications. They intrinsically have high gravimetric capacity (although low volumetric) and are typically inexpensive, since they are composed of abundant elements (i.e. C, N, O, and S). However, OSCs, specifically thiolate-containing OSCs generally suffer from slow charge transfer kinetics. To mitigate the charge transfer limitations, conducting polymers (CPs) such as poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) have been employed as electrocatalysts. In this manuscript, we have covalently modified a PEDOT film with an OSC (i.e. 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole di-lithium salt (Li 2 DMcT)). We have developed a synthetic strategy that employs, for the first time, a post-polymerization modification reaction as a tractable and viable technique to modify organic materials for EES electrodes. Electrochemical characterization, via cyclic voltammetry showed the expected pseudocapacitive response of PEDOT with the superimposed faradaic processes of the covalently bound DMcT. Moreover, spectroscopic characterization using Raman spectroscopy provided mechanistic insights into the electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, we electropolymerized films onto coin-cell electrodes and tested them in half-cell configurations and found that the capacity retention of the films was significantly enhanced, when compared with the PEDOT/DMcT composites (mixed but not covalently bound)

  8. Nonlinear absorption, optical limiting behavior and structural study of a new chalcone derivative-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Shekhara Shetty, T.; Raghavendra, S.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new third order nonlinear optical (NLO) organic material-1-(3, 4-dimethylphenyl)-3-[4(methylsulfanyl) phenyl] prop-2-en-1-one (4DPMS) belonging to chalcone family has been crystallized in acetone solution. The 4DPMS crystals are characterized by CHNS analysis, FTIR, UV-visible spectral and thermal techniques. The single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that 4DPMS crystallizes in monoclinic system with P21/n space group. The linear optical absorption spectrum revealed that the 4DPMS crystals are transparent in the entire visible region. Thermogravimetric data shows absence of phase transition before melting point and from differential scanning calorimetry analysis the melting point of the crystal is found to be 106 °C. Third order nonlinear absorption and optical limiting experiment on 4DPMS was carried out using open aperture Z-scan technique with Nd: YAG laser operating at 532 nm. It was found that the calculated values of excited state absorption cross section for 4DPMS molecules is much greater than the ground state absorption cross section. A decrease in effective nonlinear absorption coefficient was observed with increase in the input irradiance of laser. The observed optical limiting property in 4DPMS is attributed to reverse saturable absorption.

  9. New 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid Schiff base compounds and their complexes: synthesis, characterization and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Khosro; Niad, Mahmood; Jafari, Tahereh

    2014-03-25

    Some new tetradentate Schiff base ligands (H3L) were prepared via condensation of 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde derivatives, such as 3,4-bis((E)-2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(1)), 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(2)) and 3,4-bis((E)-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(4)). Additionally, a tetradentate Schiff base ligand 3,4-bis((E)-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzoic acid (H3L(3)) and its complexes were synthesized. Their metal complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were prepared in good yields from the reaction of the ligands with the corresponding metal acetate. They were characterized based on IR, (1)H NMR, Mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Also, the formation constants of the complexes were measured by UV-Vis spectroscopic titration at constant ionic strength 0.1M (NaClO4), at 25 °C in dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde electropolymerization at carbon paste electrodes : catalytic detection of NADH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delbem Maria Flávia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry was used to study 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (3,4-DHB electropolymerization processes on carbon paste electrodes. The characteristics of the electropolymerized films were highly dependent on pH, anodic switching potential, scan rate, 3,4-DHB concentrations and number of cycles. Film stability was determined in citrate/phosphate buffer solutions at the same pH used during the electropolymerization process. The best conditions to prepare carbon paste modified electrodes were pH 7.8; 0.0 <= Eapl <= 0.25 V; 10 mV s-1; 0.25 mmol L-1 3,4-DHB and 10 scans. These carbon paste modified electrodes were used for NADH catalytic detection at 0.23 V in the range 0.015 <= [NADH] <= 0.21 mmol L-1. Experimental data were used to propose a mechanism for the 3,4--DHB electropolymerization processes, which involves initial phenoxyl radical formation.

  11. Sulfur Bridged Multidentate Ligands Based on (Bipyridyl-(Bi-1,3,4-Thiadiazolyl Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Clasadonte

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a series of mixed (bipyridyl/(bi1,3,4-thiadiazolyl ligands, derived from the condensation of 2-mercapto-5-methylthio-1,3,4-thiadiazole or 5-mercapto-5'-methylthio-2,2'-bi-1,3,4-thiadiazole with 2,6-bis(chloromethylpyridine or 6,6’-bis(chloromethyl-2,2’-bipyridine (compounds L1–L4, and of 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole or 5,5'-dimercapto-2,2'-di-1,3,4-thiadiazole with picolyl chloride hydrochloride or 6-chloromethyl-6'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine (compounds L5–L8 in the presence of triethylamine is described. All new compounds have been characterized by FAB (+ spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. 13C-NMR spectra are crucial to firmly establish the thiol structure of the title ligands.

  12. Crystal structure of CsTb(PO3)4 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkina, K.K.; Maksimova, S.I.; Kuznetsov, V.G.; Chibiskova, N.T.

    1978-01-01

    The X-ray structural study of compounds of the CsLn(PO 3 ) 4 series has been made. Found is the presence of two structural types for CsPr(PO 3 ) 4 (cubic and monoclinic modifications), one type for CsNd(PO 3 ) 4 (cubic modification) and for CsTb(PO 3 ) 4 (monoclinic modification). For the CsTb(PO 3 ) 4 monocrystal the lattice parameters are determined: a=7.032 +- 0.001; b=8.705 +- 0.001; c=9.051 +- 0.001 A; α=90 deg, β=90 deg, γ=100 deg, Z=2, V=545.68 A 3 , dsub(exp)=3.70 g/cm 3 . The structure character is presented as infinite chains of (PO 4 ) tetrahedrons, stretched along the ''C'' period. Tb and Cs atoms are rounded by 8 atoms of oxygen. Tb polyhedron are irregular octaapexes or strongly deformed tetragonal antiprisms. Tb-Tb shortest distance is 6.59 A

  13. Synthesis of novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-selenadiazoles from fatty acid hydrazides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Varshney

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel unsaturated hydroxy and non-hydroxy fatty acid residue substituted 1,3,4-selenadiazoles were described here. These derivatives were synthesized from the reaction of fatty acid hydrazide 1(a–d with acetyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous sodium carbonate in tetrahydrofuran and water at 0 °C, to form N′-acetyl undec-10-enoic hydrazide 2a, N′-acetyl-(9Z-octadec-9-enoic hydrazide 2b, N′-acetyl-(9Z, 12R-12-hydroxy-9-enoic hydrazide 2c, and N′-acetyl-(9R, 12Z-9-hydroxy-12-enoic hydrazide 2d. Then these hydrazines (dicarbonyl compound on reaction with Woollin’s reagent (WR in toluene led to the corresponding 2-(dec-9′-enyl-5-methyl-1,3,4-selenadiazole 3a, 2-[(8′Z-heptadec-8′-enyl]-5-methyl-1,3,4-selenadiazole 3b, 2-[(8′Z, 11′R-11′-hydroxy-octadec-8′-enyl]-5-methyl-1,3,4-selenadiazole 3c, and 2-[(8′R, 11′Z-8′-hydroxy-octadec-11′-enyl]-5-methyl-1,3,4-selenadiazole 3d, respectively. These synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectra and elemental analysis results.

  14. CRA Grade Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...

  15. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  16. Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of the naphthoquinone 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende Kitagawa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Large number of quinones has been associated with antitumor, antibacterial, antimalarial and antifungal activities. In this work we describe the effect of the naphthoquinone, 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin, on murine tumor cells (LP07 and LM2 and its immunomodulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO production on LPS-stimulated macrophages. The results have shown that 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin was a significant inhibitor of LPS-stimulated NO generation from macrophage (inhibition percentage ranged from 97.4 to 98.9% and a strong cytotoxic agent against both tumor cells LP07 and LM2 (CI50 6.2±0.36 µM and 74.6±1.9 µM, respectively. These results indicate that the 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin may show promising activity in the treatment of murine breast and lung cancer by immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities.

  17. Antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of the naphthoquinone 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende Kitagawa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Large number of quinones has been associated with antitumor, antibacterial, antimalarial and antifungal activities. In this work we describe the effect of the naphthoquinone, 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin, on murine tumor cells (LP07 and LM2 and its immunomodulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO production on LPS-stimulated macrophages. The results have shown that 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin was a significant inhibitor of LPS-stimulated NO generation from macrophage (inhibition percentage ranged from 97.4 to 98.9% and a strong cytotoxic agent against both tumor cells LP07 and LM2 (CI50 6.2±0.36 µM and 74.6±1.9 µM, respectively. These results indicate that the 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin may show promising activity in the treatment of murine breast and lung cancer by immunomodulatory and antiproliferative activities.

  18. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ning; Thanan, Raynoo; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El; Hiraku, Yusuke; Amro, EL-Karef; Oikawa, Shinji; Ohnishi, Shiho; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. → iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. → 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. → Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-κB in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-κB activation, leading to tumor development.

  19. Highly Efficient and Stable Novel NanoBiohybrid Catalyst to Avert 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Pollutant in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rasel; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad

    2016-10-10

    The present study reported for the first time covalent immobilization of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (3,4-POD) onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) for degrading the toxic 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) pollutant in water. The F-MWCNTs had a maximum 3,4-POD loading of 1060 μg/mg. Immobilized 3,4 POD had 44% of relative structural changes to its free configurations. Nevertheless, >90% of relative activity and about 50% of catalytic efficiency were retained to the free enzyme. Immobilized 3,4-POD demonstrated higher alkaline stability and thermostability than the free 3,4-POD. The free and immobilized 3,4-POD lost 82% and 66% of relative activities, respectively after 180 min of incubations at 90 °C. Excellent shelf-life was observed for the immobilized 3,4-POD with residual activity of 56% compared with 41% and 39% of the free 3,4-POD at 4 °C and 25 °C over 30 days storage. Immobilized 3,4-POD showed >60% of catalytic activity retention even after ten-cycle uses, defraying the expenses of free 3,4-POD productions for long term uses. Finally, the immobilized 3,4-POD removed 71% of 3,4-DHBA from water in <4 h, paving its future application for water purification with reduced costs and time.

  20. Structural, optical and electronic properties of K2Ba(NO3)4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaenko, L. I.; Korzhneva, K. E.; Goryainov, S. V.; Goloshumova, A. A.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Bekenev, V. L.; Khyzhun, O. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Nitrate crystals reveal nonlinear optical properties and could be considered as converters of laser radiation in the short-wave region. The conditions for obtaining and basic properties of K2Ba(NO3)4 double nitrate crystals were investigated. Crystal growth was implemented by slow cooling in the temperature range of 72-49 °C and low rate evaporation. The structural analysis of K2Ba(NO3)4 formation on the basis of two mixed simple nitrate structures is discussed. The main groups of oscillations in K2Ba(NO3)4 crystal were revealed using Raman and IR spectroscopy, and the table of vibrations for this compound was compiled. The electronic structure of K2Ba(NO3)4 was elucidated in the present work from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. In particular, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed in the present work to measure binding energies of the atoms constituting the titled compound and its XPS valence-band spectrum for both pristine and Ar+ ion-bombarded surfaces. Further, total and partial densities of states of constituent atoms of K2Ba(NO3)4 have been calculated. The calculations reveal that the O 2p states dominate in the total valence-band region of K2Ba(NO3)4 except of its bottom, where K 3p and Ba 5p states are the principal contributors, while the bottom of the conduction band is composed mainly of the unoccupied O 2p states, with somewhat smaller contributions of the N 2p∗ states as well. With respect to the occupation of the valence band by the O 2p states, the present band-structure calculations are confirmed by comparison on a common energy scale of the XPS valence-band spectrum and the X-ray emission O Kα band for the K2Ba(NO3)4 crystal under study. Furthermore, the present calculations indicate that the K2Ba(NO3)4 compound is a direct-gap material.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of novel caged DNA alkylating agents bearing 3,4-epoxypiperidine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Yuji; Kodama, Tetsuya; Miyashita, Kazuyuki; Imanishi, Takeshi; Obika, Satoshi

    2012-07-14

    Previously, we reported that the 3,4-epoxypiperidine structure, whose design was based on the active site of DNA alkylating antitumor antibiotics, azinomycins A and B, possesses prominent DNA cleavage activity. In this report, novel caged DNA alkylating agents, which were designed to be activated by UV irradiation, were synthesized by the introduction of four photo-labile protecting groups to a 3,4-epoxypiperidine derivative. The DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity of the caged DNA alkylating agents were examined under UV irradiation. Four caged DNA alkylating agents showed various degrees of bioactivity depending on the photosensitivity of the protecting groups.

  2. Synthesis of novel pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone derivatives as cytotoxic inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ameur Rahmouni; Anis Romdhane; Malek Besbes; Nicolas Elie; David Touboul; Hichem Ben Jannet

    2014-01-01

    Various α-fonctionalized iminoethers 2 were easily prepared from ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The reaction of iminoethers 2 with ammonia afforded 3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4(5H)-ones 3 which were also synthesized by the addition of formamide to ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The 5-amino-3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H)-ones 4 were obtained from hydrazonolysis of iminoether...

  3. Design and implementation of reliability data system of emergency diesel generator for YGN 3,4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Jang, S. D.; Kim, G. Y.; Kim, T. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Jeong, H. J.; Choi, G. H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of D 2 REAMS that supports management and monitoring of the reliability data of emergency diesel generator of YGN 3,4 nuclear power plant. D2REAMS is the computerized reliability database management system to control the reliability of the emergency diesel generator of nuclear power plant and consists of seven sub-modules. Also, it was developed with intranet technology to eliminate the common problems of conventional client-server architecture. As the result of this implementation, the reliability and unavailability can be automatically computed by D2REAMS with the stored test and operation data of YGN 3,4 nuclear power plant

  4. Improvement of Oil-Vapor Treatment Facility for Wolsong Unit 3,4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Kwon, S. W.; Lee, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    With the purpose to minimize an oil-vapor discharge to the atmosphere and to be an environmentally friendly nuclear power plant by an improvement of mist eliminator for turbine lubricant system at Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3,4, this project - project name : Improvement of Oil-vapor Treatment Facility for Wolsong Unit 3,4 - was conducted for six months (from Apr. 15, 2009 to Oct. 14, 2009). This Project contains Oil-vapor Source and Environmental Regulation, Analysis on the Present Oil-vapor Treatment Facility, Improvement of Oil-vapor Treatment Facility, Test Facility Design, Fabrication, Installation, Test Operation, Evaluation of the Facility

  5. trans-Dichlorido­bis(3,4-dimethyl­pyridine)platinum(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, Alexander N.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Izotova, Youlia A.; Haukka, Matti

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, trans-[PtCl2(C7H9N)2], the PtII atom is located on an inversion center and is coordinated by two 3,4-dimethyl­pyridine ligands and two chloride ligands, resulting in a typical slightly distorted square-planar geometry. The crystallographic inversion centre forces the value of the C—N—N—C torsion angle to be linear and the 3,4-dimethyl-pyridine ligands to be coplanar. PMID:21581530

  6. Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite based thin films for Schottky diode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Bhavana, E-mail: bgupta1206@gmail.com [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Mehta, Minisha, E-mail: mehta.mini@gmail.com [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Melvin, Ambrose [Catalysis Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha, Pune 411008 (India); Kamalakannan, R.; Dash, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Tyagi, A.K. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre of Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Transparent, conductive films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite were synthesized by in-situ oxidative polymerization and investigated for their Schottky diode property. The prepared films were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), surface resistivity, cyclic voltametery, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). SEM reveals the formation of homogeneous and adhesive polymer films while HRTEM confirms the uniform wrapping of polymer chains around the nanotube walls for PEDOT-FWCNT film. Improved thermal stability, conductivity and charge storage property of PEDOT in the presence of FWCNT is observed. Among different compositions, 5 wt. % of FWCNT is found to be optimum with sheet resistance and transmittance of 500 Ω sq{sup −1} and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electronic and junction properties of polymer films were studied and compared by fabricating sandwich type devices with a configuration of Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposite/indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The measured current density-voltage characteristics show typical rectifying behavior for both configurations. However, enhanced rectification ratio and higher forward current density is observed in case of PEDOT-FWCNT based Schottky diode. Furthermore, reliability test depicts smaller hysteresis effect and better performance of PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes. - Highlights: • Single step synthesis of PEDOT and PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposites films via in-situ oxidative polymerization. • Thermal, electrical and electrochemical properties of films show positive effect of FWCNT on PEDOT films. • Schottky diodes based on metal Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT composites/ITO glass are fabricated. • Improved electrical characteristics with better reliability is achieved for PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes.

  7. Methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) induce differential cytotoxic effects in bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Rice, Kenner C; Gannon, Brenda M; Fantegrossi, William E; Gonzalez, Carmen; Paule, Merle G; Ali, Syed F

    2016-08-26

    Designer drugs such as synthetic psychostimulants are indicative of a worldwide problem of drug abuse and addiction. In addition to methamphetamine (METH), these drugs include 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and commercial preparations of synthetic cathinones including 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), typically referred to as "bath salts." These psychostimulants exert neurotoxic effects by altering monoamine systems in the brain. Additionally, METH and MDMA adversely affect the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB): there are no current reports on the effects of MDPV on the BBB. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of METH, MDMA and MDPV on bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells (bBMVECs), an accepted in vitro model of the BBB. Confluent bBMVEC monolayers were treated with METH, MDMA and MDPV (0.5mM-2.5mM) for 24h. METH and MDMA increased lactate dehydrogenase release only at the highest concentration (2.5mM), whereas MDPV induced cytotoxicity at all concentrations. MDMA and METH decreased cellular proliferation only at 2.5mM, with similar effects observed after MDPV exposures starting at 1mM. Only MDPV increased reactive oxygen species production at all concentrations tested whereas all 3 drugs increased nitric oxide production. Morphological analysis revealed different patterns of compound-induced cell damage. METH induced vacuole formation at 1mM and disruption of the monolayer at 2.5mM. MDMA induced disruption of the endothelial monolayer from 1mM without vacuolization. On the other hand, MDPV induced monolayer disruption at doses ≥0.5mM without vacuole formation; at 2.5mM, the few remaining cells lacked endothelial morphology. These data suggest that even though these synthetic psychostimulants alter monoaminergic systems, they each induce BBB toxicity by different mechanisms with MDPV being the most toxic. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic characterization, docking simulation and density functional studies of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) -3-(4-flurophenyl)-propan-1-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamees, Hussien Ahmed; Jyothi, Mahima; Khanum, Shaukath Ara; Madegowda, Mahendra

    2018-06-01

    The compound 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-flurophenyl)-propan-1-one (DFPO) was synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction and the single crystals were obtained by slow evaporation method. Three-dimensional structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction method and exhibiting the triclinic crystal system with space group P-1. The crystal structure is stabilized by Csbnd H⋯O intermolecular and weak interactions. Computed molecular geometry has been obtained by density functional theory (DFT) and compared with experimental results. The spectra of both FT-IR in the range (4000-400 cm-1) and FT- Raman (3500-50 cm-1) of DFPO were recorded experimentally and computed by (DFT) using B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) as basis sets. Intramolecular charge transfer has been scanned using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and revealed the various contribution of bonding and lone pair to the stabilization of molecule. Nonlinear optical activity (NLO) of the title compound has been determined by second harmonic generation (SHG) and computed using DFT method. Hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, hardness, softness electronegativity and others Global reactivity descriptors of DFPO has been calculated and revealed complete picture of chemical reactivity of DFPO. Hirshfeld surface analyses were applied to investigate the intermolecular interactions and revealed that more than two-thirds of the inter contacts are associated with O⋯H, C⋯H and H⋯H interactions. Docking studies of DFPO showed inhibition of Vascular endothelial growth Factor human receptor (VEGFR-2) signalling pathway, which indicates DFPO as anti-angiogenesis, that play pivotal role in cancer, so we suggest it for clinical studies to evaluate its potential to treat human cancers.

  9. Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite based thin films for Schottky diode application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Bhavana; Mehta, Minisha; Melvin, Ambrose; Kamalakannan, R.; Dash, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Transparent, conductive films of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-few walled carbon nanotube (PEDOT-FWCNT) nanocomposite were synthesized by in-situ oxidative polymerization and investigated for their Schottky diode property. The prepared films were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), surface resistivity, cyclic voltametery, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). SEM reveals the formation of homogeneous and adhesive polymer films while HRTEM confirms the uniform wrapping of polymer chains around the nanotube walls for PEDOT-FWCNT film. Improved thermal stability, conductivity and charge storage property of PEDOT in the presence of FWCNT is observed. Among different compositions, 5 wt. % of FWCNT is found to be optimum with sheet resistance and transmittance of 500 Ω sq −1 and 77%, respectively. Moreover, the electronic and junction properties of polymer films were studied and compared by fabricating sandwich type devices with a configuration of Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposite/indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The measured current density-voltage characteristics show typical rectifying behavior for both configurations. However, enhanced rectification ratio and higher forward current density is observed in case of PEDOT-FWCNT based Schottky diode. Furthermore, reliability test depicts smaller hysteresis effect and better performance of PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes. - Highlights: • Single step synthesis of PEDOT and PEDOT-FWCNT nanocomposites films via in-situ oxidative polymerization. • Thermal, electrical and electrochemical properties of films show positive effect of FWCNT on PEDOT films. • Schottky diodes based on metal Al/PEDOT or PEDOT-FWCNT composites/ITO glass are fabricated. • Improved electrical characteristics with better reliability is achieved for PEDOT-FWCNT based diodes

  10. The dephosphorylation pathway of D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in rat brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Erneux, C; Delvaux, A; Moreau, C; Dumont, J E

    1987-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4] was measured in both the soluble and the particulate fractions of rat brain homogenates. Analysis of the hydrolysis of [4,5-32P]Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 showed that for both fractions the 5-phosphate of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 was removed and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4)P3] was specifically produced. In the soluble fraction, Ins(1,3,4)P3 was further hydrolysed at the 1-phosphate position to inositol 3,4-bisphosphate[Ins(3,4)P2]...

  11. Study of gel grown mixed crystals of Bax Ca ((IO3) 4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The growth of mixed crystals of BaCa1–(IO3)4 were carried out with simple gel method. The effect of various parameters such as pH of gel solution, gel concentration, gel setting time, concentration of reactants on the growth was studied. Crystals having different morphologies and habits were obtained. The grown ...

  12. 3,4,5-Tri-dodecyloxybenzoic acid: optimisation and scale-up of the synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersmis, M.C.; Spiering, A.J.H.; Waterval, R.J.M.; Meuldijk, J.; Vekemans, J.A.J.M.; Hulshof, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of tris-O-dodecyl-gallic acid [3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxy)benzoic acid] - a versatile building block for org. liq. cryst. materials - has been selected for fine chem. scale-up. A large-scale procedure of the alkylation of Me gallate with dodecyl bromide was optimized with exptl. design

  13. Synthesis of novel pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone derivatives as cytotoxic inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameur Rahmouni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Various α-fonctionalized iminoethers 2 were easily prepared from ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The reaction of iminoethers 2 with ammonia afforded 3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 3 which were also synthesized by the addition of formamide to ethyl 5-amino-3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate 1. The 5-amino-3-substitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 4 were obtained from hydrazonolysis of iminoethers 2. Otherwise, the condensation of these intermediates 2 with a series of some primary amines and hydroxylamine led respectively, to the corresponding 3,5-disubstitued-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H-ones 5 and the 3-substitued-5-hydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidin-4-(5H-ones 6. The synthesized compounds 1-6 were completely characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and HRMS. Some synthesized compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect using the Human cervical adenocarcinoma Hela cell line.

  14. Isolation and investigation of antimicrobial effect of 3,4,3'-tri-O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3,4,3'-Tri-O-methylflavellagic acid and its glucoside (reported for the first time) were isolated from Anogeissus leocarpus. These compounds were analysed by GC-MS, IR, 1D and 2D-NMR, and also as acetates. Antimicrobial effect of the glucoside on S. aureus, E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and C. albicans show that it possesses ...

  15. Journal for Language Teaching - Vol 36, No 3-4 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shortcomings of the written survey questionnaire for discovering language learner perceptions: reflections of a researcher · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Gary P. Barkhuizen, 259-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jlt.v36i3-4.5991 ...

  16. Relation between linear and nonlinear N=3,4 supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevrin, A.; Thielemans, K.; Troost, W.

    1993-01-01

    The effective actions for d=2, N=3,4 chiral supergravities with a linear and a nonlinear gauge algebra are related to each other by a quantum reduction; the latter is obtained from the former by putting quantum currents equal to zero. This implies that the renormalization factors for the quantum actions are identical

  17. Synthesis of 3,4-Dibenzyltetrahydrofuran Lignans (9,9′-Epoxylignanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Wähälä

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Different strategies for the racemic or enantiospecific total syntheses of plant and mammalian 3,4-dibenzyltetrahydrofuran lignans are reviewed and compared. The multi-step approaches have various key step strategies: Diels–Alder reactions, Stobbe condensations, Michael additions, alkylations, nitrile oxide cycloadditions, radical cyclisations, dianion and oxidative couplings.

  18. Synthesis and structure of Bis(3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolyl-1) ketoxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, V.I.; Davydov, V.V.; Shklyaev, Yu.V.; Kartashova, I.V.; Sergienko, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    The reaction of bis(3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolyl-1)methane with NaNO 2 resulted in the formation of bis(3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolyl-1) ketoxime (I). The crystal and molecular structure of I was determined (x-ray structure analysis, Enraf-Nonius CAD-4, MoK α -radiation, graphite monochromator, θ/2θ scan, 2θ max =58 deg. , 4800 unique reflections; a=10.327(4), b=9.070(5), and c=21.62(1) A; β=94.02(3) deg.; V=2020(1) A 3 ; Z=4; and sp. gr. Pn). In the crystal, I exists in the oxime tautomeric form. Two symmetry-independent molecules are bound into a dimer through the intermolecular N=OH···N cycl 3 hydrogen bond. Both molecules are nonplanar; the dihedral angles between the mean planes of their 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline moieties are 72 deg. and 74 deg. According to IR and electron absorption spectra, the tautomeric form of compound I is also retained in solutions, and the π-conjugation between the 3,4-dihydroisoquinoline fragments of I is actually absent

  19. Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G J H; Sweep, F C G J; van der Steen, R; Hermsen, R; Donders, A R T; Touw, D J; van Gerven, J M A; Buitelaar, J K; Verkes, R J

    2009-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or "ecstasy") is a recreationally used drug with remarkable and characteristic prosocial effects. In spite of abundant attention in the scientific literature, the mechanism of its prosocial effects has not been elucidated in humans. Recently, research in

  20. Bent Shaped 1,3,4-Oxadiazole/Thiadiazole heterocyclic rings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two series of bent shaped 1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole heterocyclic ring containing liquid crystalline (LC) compounds were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H, 13C-NMR and ESI-Mass spectro-scopic techniques. Liquid crystal properties were investigated by polarized optical microscopy and differential scanning ...

  1. The orphan nuclear receptor GCNF recruits DNA methyltransferase for Oct-3/4 silencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Noriko; Kondo, Mitsumasa; Arai, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Somatic DNA methylation patterns are determined in part by the de novo methylation that occurs after early embryonic demethylation. Oct-3/4, a pluripotency gene, is unmethylated in the blastocyst, but undergoes de novo methylation and silencing during gastrulation. Here we show that the transcriptional repressor GCNF recruits DNA methyltransferase to the Oct-3/4 promoter and facilitates its methylation. Although acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (K9) and/or 14 (K14) and methylation of H3 at lysine 4 (K4) decrease during this period, as do Oct-3/4 transcript levels, H3K9 and H3K27 methylation levels remain constant, indicating that DNA methylation does not require repressive histone modifications. We found that GCNF interacts directly with Dnmt3 molecule(s) and verified that this interaction induces the methylation of the Oct-3/4 promoter. Our finding suggests a model in which differentiation-induced GCNF recruits de novo DNA methyltransferase and facilitates the silencing of a pluripotency gene

  2. Influence of southern oscillation and SSTs over Nino-3.4 region on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3.4 region in August and September and CAP WMR to detect a possible relationship and there is a striking positive relation between them. In both of the above cases, the September signal is more significant in the recent four decades than for ...

  3. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine - Vol 13, No 3-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mast Cell Quantification in Orofacial Granulomatosis · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. N N Nwizu, D G Macdonald, 34-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/nqjhm.v13i3-4.12653 ...

  4. Pharmacological Studies of p, N-(3, 4-Methylenedioxy phenyl Benzoic Acid (RRL-1364 - Part-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanukar Sharadini

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed pharmacological investigations of p-N-(3, 4-methylene dioxy phenyl benzoic acid revealed marked hypotensive action which was dose dependent and most marked in cats; it was absent in rats. Atropine could block this hypotensive action, thus suggest-ing cholinomimetic mechanism. Further studies indicated that the hypotension produced was central and possibly medullary in origin.

  5. The leachability of carbon-14-labelled 3,4-benzopyrene from coal ash into aqueous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besemer, A.C.; Kanij, J.

    1984-01-01

    The leachability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal ash into aqueous systems was studied. Carbon-14-labeled 3,4-Benzopyrene (BaP) was deposited on coal fly ash by adsorption from the liquid phase in quantities of about 10 ??g/g ash. After a thermal treatment in air at 120??C for 2 hours

  6. Flux synthesis of (3,4)-connected zinc phosphites with different framework topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhien; Dehnen, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Two three-dimensional open-framework zinc phosphites, H 2 aem.Zn 3 (HPO 3 ) 4 .0.5H 2 O (1) and H 2 apm.Zn 3 (HPO 3 ) 4 (2), have been synthesized by a phosphorous acid flux method, where aem=4-(2-aminoethyl)morpholine and apm=4-(3-aminopropyl)morpholine. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, P2 1 /c, a=9.5852(7) A, b=20.3941(8) A, c=10.5339(8) A, β=94.125(9) o , V=2053.8(2) A 3 , Z=4, R 1 =0.0319, wR 2 =0.0628. Compound 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, P2 1 /n, a=8.589(2) A, b=14.020(3) A, c=16.606(3) A, β=97.190(8) o , V=1983.9(7) A 3 , Z=4, R 1 =0.0692, wR 2 =0.1479. Both compounds are based on (3,4)-connected networks with 8- and 12-ring channels, which are constructed from Zn 3 (HPO 3 ) 4 clusters as the same secondary building units. These inorganic clusters are spatially organized by different structure-directing agents into different three-dimensional frameworks. - Graphical abstract: Two three-dimensional open-framework zinc phosphites have been synthesized by a phosphorous acid flux method. The two compounds are constructed from Zn 3 (HPO 3 ) 4 clusters and have noz and pcu topologies, respectively.

  7. Determination of indium(III) with 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorogallein and cetylpyridinium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Itsuo; Fujita, Yoshikazu; Ida, Masako; Enoki, Takehisa

    1976-01-01

    Rapid and highly sensitive methods have been developed for the spectrophotometric and titrimetric determination of indium(III) with 3,4,5,6-tetrachlorogallein(3,4,5,6-T. Cl, Gal.) and cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC) in aqueous solutions of pH 4.2--5.2. The absorbance of the indium(III)-3,4,5,6-T. Cl. Gal. complex at 620 nm and the color change (pure blue - weak violetish red) were used to indicate the end point in the EDTA titration. The calibration curve for the spectrophotometry was linear in the range 0--45.0 μg In(III)/10 ml. According to Sandell's expression, the sensitivity was 0.0032 μg In(III)/cm 2 for an absorbance of 0.001. To the solution containing less than 45.0 μg of indium(III), 2.0 ml of 1.0x10 -2 M CPC solution, 3.0 ml of Walpole buffer solution(pH 4.4; acetic acid-sodium acetate), and 2.0 ml of 1.0x10 -3 M 3,4,5,6-T.Cl.Gal. methanol solution were added and the volume was made up to 10.0 ml with water. The solution was kept at (20--25) 0 C for 30 minutes and then the absorbance was measured at 620 nm against the reagent blank. The mole ratio of indium(III), 3,4,5,6-T.Cl.Gal. and CPC in the complex was estimated to be 1 : 2 : 2 by the continuous variation and the mole ratio methods. (auth.)

  8. One-pot oxidation and bromination of 3,4-diaryl-2,5-dihydrothiophenes using Br2: synthesis and application of 3,4-diaryl-2,5-dibromothiophenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yizhe; Chen, Yi

    2007-08-31

    A class of 3,4-diaryl-2,5-dibromothiophenes (1b-5b) was synthesized by a one-pot reaction of 3,4-diaryl-2,5-dihydrothiophenes with Br2 reagent in excellent yield (83-92%). It was found that Br2 performed a double function (oxidation and bromination) during the conversion of 3,4-diaryl-2,5-dihydrothiophenes to 3,4-diaryl-2,5-dibromothiophenes. The application of 3,4-diaryl-2,5-dibromothiophenes used as building blocks was also investigated. Employing 3,4-diphenyl-2,5-dibromothiophene (1b) as a template, a class of 2,3,4,5-tetraarylthiophenes was prepared by the Suzuki coupling reaction. This provided a new and simple approach to the preparation of 2,3,4,5-tetraarylthiophenes.

  9. Biochemical identification of residues that discriminate between 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde synthase-mediated reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Han, Qian; Ding, Haizhen; Li, Jianyong

    2017-12-01

    In available insect genomes, there are several L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) decarboxylase (DDC)-like or aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) sequences. This contrasts to those of mammals whose genomes contain only one DDC. Our previous experiments established that two DDC-like proteins from Drosophila actually mediate a complicated decarboxylation-oxidative deamination process of dopa in the presence of oxygen, leading to the formation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DHPA), CO 2 , NH 3, and H 2 O 2 . This contrasts to the typical DDC-catalyzed reaction, which produces CO 2 and dopamine. These DDC-like proteins were arbitrarily named DHPA synthases based on their critical role in insect soft cuticle formation. Establishment of reactions catalyzed by these AAAD-like proteins solved a puzzle that perplexed researchers for years, but to tell a true DHPA synthase from a DDC in the insect AAAD family remains problematic due to high sequence similarity. In this study, we performed extensive structural and biochemical comparisons between DHPA synthase and DDC. These comparisons identified several target residues potentially dictating DDC-catalyzed and DHPA synthase-catalyzed reactions, respectively. Comparison of DHPA synthase homology models with crystal structures of typical DDC proteins, particularly residues in the active sites, provided further insights for the roles these identified target residues play. Subsequent site-directed mutagenesis of the tentative target residues and activity evaluations of their corresponding mutants determined that active site His192 and Asn192 are essential signature residues for DDC- and DHPA synthase-catalyzed reactions, respectively. Oxygen is required in DHPA synthase-mediated process and this oxidizing agent is reduced to H 2 O 2 in the process. Biochemical assessment established that H 2 O 2 , formed in DHPA synthase-mediated process, can be reused as oxidizing agent and this active oxygen species is reduced to H 2

  10. The major results of the PISC II RRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Jehenson, P.; McDonald, N.

    1989-01-01

    Non Destructive Testing (NDT) forms part of the in-service inspection (ISI) of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its associated pressure circuit, and the results of the NDT are used in conjunction with fracture mechanics or as part of a code-defined treatment to assess the significance of flaws. Detection, location and sizing of crack-like flaws play an important role in helping to establish the integrity of these reactor steel structures. (orig.)

  11. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  12. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Binh Thi-Cam

    2015-01-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, 'Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program'). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, 'AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses'. The ABAQUS code's finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, 'JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle

  13. Uncertainty Quantification of Calculated Temperatures for the AGR 3/4 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Binh Thi-Cam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation experiments are being conducted within the Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The main objectives of the fuel experimental campaign are to provide the necessary data on fuel performance to support fuel process development, qualify a fuel design and fabrication process for normal operation and accident conditions, and support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes (PLN 3636, “Technical Program Plan for INL Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program”). The AGR 3/4 test was inserted in the Northeast Flux Trap position in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) core at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in December 2011 and successfully completed irradiation in mid-April 2014, resulting in irradiation of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel for 369.1 effective full-power days (EFPDs) during approximately 2.4 calendar years. The AGR 3/4 data, including the irradiation data and calculated results, were qualified and stored in the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS). To support the U.S. TRISO fuel performance assessment and to provide data for validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, the daily as run thermal analysis has been performed separately on each of twelve AGR 3/4 capsules for the entire irradiation as discussed in ECAR-2807, “AGR 3/4 Daily As Run Thermal Analyses”. The ABAQUS code’s finite element-based thermal model predicts the daily average volume average (VA) fuel temperature (FT), peak FT, and graphite matrix, sleeve, and sink temperature in each capsule. The JMOCUP simulation codes were also created to perform depletion calculations for the AGR 3/4 experiment (ECAR-2753, “JMOCUP As-Run Daily Physics Depletion Calculation for the AGR 3/4 TRISO Particle Experiment in ATR

  14. New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Based Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3,4-Oxadiazole based photosensitizers with biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and triphenylamine as the electron-donating moiety were synthesized for solar cell applications. In these photosensitizers, cyano groups were introduced as the electron acceptor and the anchor group because of their high electron-withdrawing ability and strong bonding to the semiconductor. Oxadiazole isomers were used as the π-conjugation system, which bridges the donor-acceptor systems. The electrochemical and optical properties of the sensitizers were investigated both in their native form and upon incorporation into dye sensitized solar cells. The results of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, and photocurrent voltage characteristics indicate that 1,3,4-oxadiazole pi-spacer with the anthracene moiety has the highest efficiency of 2.58%. Density functional theory was employed to optimize the structures of the sensitizers and the TiO2 cluster.

  15. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  16. Preparation of gelatin-assisted polypyrrole-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Eun Jin; Male, Umashankar; Huh, Do Sung [Dept.of Chemistry and Nanosystem Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Conductive polymer composite was synthesized by the polymerization of pyrrole with 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant with different concentrations of gelatin dispersed in aqueous medium along with the polymerization. Differently from pure polypyrrole–poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PPy–PEDOT) copolymer, the gelatin-assisted composites showed good solubility in aqueous media. The prepared PPy–PEDOT/gelatin composites were identified with Fourier-transform infrared, UV–visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Morphological analysis and temperature-dependent direct current conductivity of PPy–PEDOT/gelatin composites were carried out. Obtained results revealed that added gelatin greatly increased conductivity due to the improved mobility of charge carriers.

  17. Characterization of solvated electrons in hydrogen cyanide clusters: (HCN)n- (n=3, 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Li, Ying; Li, Zhuo; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhi-Ru; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2006-02-01

    Theoretical studies of the solvated electrons (HCN)n- (n =3, 4) reveal a variety of electron trapping possibilities in the (HCN)n (n =3, 4) clusters. Two isomers for (HCN)3- and four isomers for (HCN)4- are obtained at the MP2/aug -cc-pVDZ+dBF (diffusive bond functions) level of theory. In view of vertical electron detachment energies (VDEs) at the CCSD(T) level, the excess electron always "prefers" locating in the center of the system, i.e., the isomer with higher coordination number shows larger VDE value. However, the most stable isomers of the solvated electron state (HCN)3- and (HCN)4- are found to be the linear C∞ν and D∞h structures, respectively, but not the fullyl symmetric structures which have the largest VDE values.

  18. N-(5-Benzylsulfanyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-2-(piperidin-1-ylacetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Ismailova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H20N4OS2, was synthesized by the reaction of 2-benzylsulfanyl-5-chloroacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole and piperidine in a 1:2 ratio. The planes of the acetamide and 1,3,4-thiadiazole units are twisted by 10.8 (4°. The thiadiazole S atom and the acetamide O atom are syn-oriented due to a hypervalent S...O interaction of 2.628 (4 Å. In the crystal, molecules form centrosymmetric dimers via N—H...N hydrogen bonds. These dimers are further connected by C—H...O interactions into (100 layers.

  19. Synthesis and crystal structure of novel fluorescent 1,3,4-oxadiazole-containing carboxylate ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Igor E.; Popov, Leonid D.; Tkachev, Valery V.; Aldoshin, Sergey M.; Dushenko, Galina A.; Revinskii, Yurii V.; Minkin, Vladimir I.

    2018-04-01

    Novel chelating ligands, 3-(5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)acrylic acids and their zinc complexes were synthesized and their spectral and luminescent properties studied. The compounds intensively (quantum efficiencies φ = 0.18-0.76) luminesce in nonpolar solvents in the blue-green region (λmaxPL = 458-504 nm) of the spectrum. Molecular and crystal structures of 3-[5-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]acrylic acid were established using X-ray crystallography. In crystal, the infinite chains of the molecules lie in the parallel planes and are arranged by the "head to tail" type to provide for strong π-π stacking interactions between the layers facilitating appearance of high electron transport properties and formation of excimers.

  20. Early effects of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Ragan, H.A.; Watson, C.R.; Stevens, D.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Madison, R.M.; Wierman, E.L.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (4 of 5) at the highest dosage level, 14 to 25 mo postexposure. There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported

  1. Transient increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate during activation of human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traynor-Kaplan, A.E.; Thompson, B.L.; Harris, A.L.; Taylor, P.; Omann, G.M.; Sklar, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    We recently showed that phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3) was present in a unique lipid fraction generated in neutrophils during activation. Here, we demonstrate that the band containing this fraction isolated from thin layer chromatography consists primarily of PIP3 and that only small amounts of radiolabeled PIP3 exist prior to activation. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography of deacylated phospholipids from stimulated cells reveals an increase in a fraction eluting ahead of glycerophosphoinositol 4,5-P2. After removal of the glycerol we found that it coeluted with inositol 1,3,4-P3 when resubjected to high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, we have detected a second, novel form of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in activated neutrophils, PI-(3,4)P2. The elevation of PIP3 through the formyl peptide receptor is blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, implicating mediation of the increase in PIP3 by a guanosine triphosphate-binding (G) protein. The rise in PIP3 is not secondary to calcium elevation. Buffering the rise in intracellular calcium did not diminish the increase in PIP3. The elevation of PIP3 appears to occur during activation with physiological agonists, its level varying with the degree of activation. Leukotriene B4, which elicits many of the same responses as stimulation of the formyl peptide receptor but with minimal oxidant production, stimulates a much attenuated rise in PIP3. Isoproterenol, which inhibits oxidant production also reduces the rise in PIP3. Hence formation of PI(3,4)P2 and PIP3 (presumed to be PI(3,4,5)P3) correlates closely with the early events of neutrophil activation

  2. Discriminative Stimulus Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and Its Enantiomers in Mice: Pharmacokinetic Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Fantegrossi, William E.; Murai, Naoki; Mathúna, Brian Ó.; Pizarro, Nieves; de la Torre, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a drug of abuse with mixed stimulant- and hallucinogen-like effects. The aims of the present studies were to establish discrimination of S(+)-MDMA, R(-)-MDMA, or their combination as racemic MDMA in separate groups of mice to assess cross-substitution tests among all three compounds, to determine the time courses of the training doses, to assess pharmacokinetic variables after single injections and after cumulative dosing, an...

  3. NEURAL AND CARDIAC TOXICITIES ASSOCIATED WITH 3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Michael H.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a commonly abused illicit drug which affects multiple organ systems. In animals, high-dose administration of MDMA produces deficits in serotonin (5-HT) neurons (e.g., depletion of forebrain 5-HT) that have been viewed as neurotoxicity. Recent data implicate MDMA in the development of valvular heart disease (VHD). The present paper reviews several issues related to MDMA-associated neural and cardiac toxicities. The hypothesis of MDMA neurotoxicit...

  4. Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylphenidate on circulating steroid levels in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Seibert Julia; Hysek Cédric M; Penno Carlos A; Schmid Yasmin; Kratschmar Denise V; Liechti Matthias E; Odermatt Alex

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate are widely used psychoactive substances. MDMA primarily enhances serotonergic neurotransmission, and methylphenidate increases dopamine but has no serotonergic effects. Both drugs also increase norepinephrine, resulting in sympathomimetic properties. Here we studied the effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on 24-h plasma steroid profiles. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight men, eight women) were treated with single doses of M...

  5. Studies in the stereoselective synthesis of 1,1-disubstituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Michael Arthur George

    1992-01-01

    Isoquinoline alkaloids and analogs play an important role in today's pharmaceutical industry. The need to synthesize single stereoisomers of these alkaloids is important. Many times only a single stereoisomer exhibits the desired activity, while other stereoisomers of the alkaloid exhibit undesired side effects. The stereoselective synthesis of 1, 1-disubstituted 1,2,3,4- tetrahydroisoquinolines using Reissert compound chemistry containing chiral acyl auxiliaries was studied with the ultimate...

  6. 2-[3-(4-Methoxyphenyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H18N2O2, was derived from 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl-3-(4-methoxyphenylpropane-1,3-dione. The central pyrazole ring forms dihedral angles of 16.83 (5, 48.97 (4 and 51.68 (4°, respectively, with the methoxyphenyl, phenyl and hydroxyphenyl rings. The crystal packing is stabilized by O—H...N hydrogen bonding.

  7. Significant Electronic Thermal Transport in the Conducting Polymer Poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weathers, Annie; Khan, Zia Ullah; Brooke, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Suspended microdevices are employed to measure the in-plane electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient of suspended poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films. The measured thermal conductivity is higher than previously reported for PEDOT and generally increases...... with the electrical conductivity. The increase exceeds that predicted by the Wiedemann–Franz law for metals and can be explained by significant electronic thermal transport in PEDOT....

  8. Pengenalan Doa-doa Pendek Melalui Video Animasi Untuk Anak Usia 3-4 Tahun

    OpenAIRE

    Muriana,; Marmawi R; Sutarmanto

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian tindakan kelas. Sedangkan media yang digunakan adalah video animasi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengenalan doa-doa pendek melalui vodeo animasi untuk anak usia 3-4 tahun. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah anak yang berjumlah 10 orang, yang terdiri 3 anak laki-laki dan 7 anak perempuan. Lokasi penelitian ini adalah TPA Taman Pena Kabupaten Kubu Raya. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan dan hasil analisis data, maka secara ...

  9. Neuropharmacology of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), Its Metabolites, and Related Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael H; Bukhari, Mohammad O; Lehner, Kurt R; Anizan, Sebastien; Rice, Kenner C; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a psychoactive component of so-called bath salts products that has caused serious medical consequences in humans. In this chapter, we review the neuropharmacology of MDPV and related analogs, and supplement the discussion with new results from our preclinical experiments. MDPV acts as a potent uptake inhibitor at plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT) and norepinephrine (NET) in nervous tissue. The MDPV formulation in bath salts is a racemic mixture, and the S isomer is much more potent than the R isomer at blocking DAT and producing abuse-related effects. Elevations in brain extracellular dopamine produced by MDPV are likely to underlie its locomotor stimulant and addictive properties. MDPV displays rapid pharmacokinetics when injected into rats (0.5-2.0 mg/kg), with peak plasma concentrations achieved by 10-20 min and declining quickly thereafter. MDPV is metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxypyrovalerone (3,4-catechol-PV) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxypyrovalerone (4-OH-3-MeO-PV) in vivo, but motor activation produced by the drug is positively correlated with plasma concentrations of parent drug and not its metabolites. 3,4-Catechol-PV is a potent uptake blocker at DAT in vitro but has little activity after administration in vivo. 4-OH-3-MeO-PV is the main MDPV metabolite but is weak at DAT and NET. MDPV analogs, such as α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), display similar ability to inhibit DAT and increase extracellular dopamine concentrations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that MDPV and its analogs represent a unique class of transporter inhibitors with a high propensity for abuse and addiction.

  10. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Peng; Zhang, Xuebo; Xu, Yan; Xu, Gaofei; Liu, Xili; Yang, Xinling; Zhang, Xiaohe; Ling, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Take-all of wheat, caused by the soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is one of the most important and widespread root diseases. Given that take-all is still hard to control, it is necessary to develop new effective agrochemicals. Pyrazole derivatives have been often reported for their favorable bioactivities. In order to discover compounds with high fungicidal activity and simple structures, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline, a biologically active group of natural products, was introduced to pyrazole structure. A series of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were synthesized, and their fungicidal activities were evaluated. The bioassay results demonstrated that the title compounds displayed obvious fungicidal activities at a concentration of 50 μg/mL, especially against V. mali, S. sclerotiorum and G. graminis var. tritici. The inhibition rates of compounds 10d, 10e, 10h, 10i and 10j against G. graminis var. tritici were all above 90 %. Even at a lower concentration of 16.7 μg/mL, compounds 10d and 10e exhibited satisfied activities of 100 % and 94.0 %, respectively. It is comparable to that of the positive control pyraclostrobin with 100 % inhibition rate. A series of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR spectrum and HRMS or elemental analysis. The crystal structure of compound 10g was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Bioassay results indicated that all title compounds exhibited obvious fungicidal activities. In particular, compounds 10d and 10e showed comparable activities against G. graminis var. tritici with the commercial fungicide pyraclostrobin at the concentration of 16.7 μg/mL.Graphical abstractA series of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were designed and synthesized. Bioassay results indicated that all these compounds exhibited obvious fungicidal activities.

  11. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  12. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  13. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  14. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  15. The Fifth Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Michael; And Others

    An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…

  16. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  17. Yb3+:Sr3Y2(BO3)4: A potential ultrashort pulse laser crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shijia; Xu, Jinlong; Wei, Qi; Lou, Fei; Huang, Yisheng; Yuan, Feifei; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; He, Jingliang; Wang, Guofu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A Yb 3+ :Sr 3 Y 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal was grown successfully by Czochralski method. • The crystal has wide absorption and emission bandwidth. • 3.47 W continuous wave laser output with a slope efficiency of 29% was obtained. • The results show that the crystal is a promising ultrashort pulse laser material. - Abstract: A Yb 3+ :Sr 3 Y 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal was grown successfully by the Czochralski method. The polarized spectral properties and continuous wave laser output of this crystal were investigated in detail. The crystal has larger absorption and emission cross sections compared with many mature Yb 3+ -doped borate crystals. The full width at half maximum of the emission bands around 1023 nm are 69 nm (E//a), 61 nm (E//b) and 65 nm (E//c). 3.47 W continuous wave laser output with a slope efficiency of 29% and an optical conversion efficiency of 24% was obtained. The results reveal that Yb 3+ :Sr 3 Y 2 (BO 3 ) 4 crystal is an excellent candidate for ultrashort pulse laser crystal

  18. Measurement and correlation of the solubility of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromothiophene in different solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai; Hu, Yonghong; Yang, Wenge; Guo, Song; Shi, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The solubility of tetrabromothiophene in different solvents was investigated. ► The modified Apelblat equation was more accurate than the van’t Hoff equation and the λh equation. ► Ethyl acetate showed the potential as a better recrystallization solvent to replace trichloromethane. ► The solution process in the selected solvents was endothermic and nonspontaneous. - Abstract: The solubility of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromothiophene were measured in methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, toluene, ethyl formate, ethyl acetate, trichloromethane and oxolane within the temperature range between 278.05 K and 325.15 K under atmospheric pressure by gravimetric method. The solubility of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromothiophene in those selected solvents increased with increasing temperature. The solubility data were correlated with the van’t Hoff equation, the modified Apelblat equation and the λh equation. The thermodynamic properties of the solution process, including the Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated by the van’t Hoff analysis and the Gibbs equation. The experimental results showed that ethyl acetate had the potential as a better solvent in the re-crystallization process of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromothiophene.

  19. Measurement of 3,4-MDMA and related amines in diagnostic and forensic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrinska, Victor A; Gock, Susan B

    2005-01-01

    The phenylalkylamine derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, XTC, Adam), 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA, MDE, Eve), and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), are psychostimulants with hallucinogenic properties. MDA is also a metabolite of both MDMA and MDEA. These drugs are ring-substituted amphetamine derivatives that produce hallucinogenic, entactogenic ('love drug'), and stimulating effects. MDMA was initially developed as an appetite suppressant, however, its use as a therapeutic drug has been very limited. Because of its effects as a hallucinogenic psychostimulant with relatively low toxicity, it has emerged over the last two decades as a common recreational psychostimulant or 'club drug' at 'raves'. MDMA, MDEA, and MDA are often referred to as 'rave' or 'designer' drugs. They are produced in clandestine laboratories and have an increasing presence on the illicit drug market worldwide. Significant adverse health effects have been reported that include: serotonin neurotoxicity, severe psychiatric disorders, renal failure, malignant hyperthermia, hepatitis, rhabdomyolysis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A number of fatal outcomes associated with severe MDMA intoxication have been reported.

  20. Development of the RETRAN input model for Ulchin 3/4 visual system analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Kim, K. D.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Jeong, J. J.; Hwang, M. K.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the Long-Term Nuclear R and D program, KAERI has developed the so-called Visual System Analyzer (ViSA) based on best-estimate codes. The MARS and RETRAN codes are used as the best-estimate codes for ViSA. Between these two codes, the RETRAN code is used for realistic analysis of Non-LOCA transients and small-break loss-of-coolant accidents, of which break size is less than 3 inch diameter. So it is necessary to develop the RETRAN input model for Ulchin 3/4 plants (KSNP). In recognition of this, the RETRAN input model for Ulchin 3/4 plants has been developed. This report includes the input model requirements and the calculation note for the input data generation (see the Appendix). In order to confirm the validity of the input data, the calculations are performed for a steady state at 100 % power operation condition, inadvertent reactor trip and RCP trip. The results of the steady-state calculation agree well with the design data. The results of the other transient calculations seem to be reasonable and consistent with those of other best-estimate calculations. Therefore, the RETRAN input data can be used as a base input deck for the RETRAN transient analyzer for Ulchin 3/4. Moreover, it is found that Core Protection Calculator (CPC) module, which is modified by Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), is well adapted to ViSA

  1. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF FISSION PRODUCT TRANSPORT IN THE AGR-3/4 EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse, Paul W.; Collin, Blaise P.; Hawkes, Grant L.; Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Petti, David A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we describe the ongoing modeling and analysis efforts in support of the AGR-3/4 experiment. AGR-3/4 is intended to provide data to assess fission product retention and transport (e.g., diffusion coefficients) in fuel matrix and graphite materials. We describe a set of pre-test predictions that incorporate the results of detailed thermal and fission product release models into a coupled 1D radial diffusion model of the experiment, using diffusion coefficients reported in the literature for Ag, Cs, and Sr. We make some comparisons of the predicted Cs profiles to preliminary measured data for Cs and find these to be reasonable, in most cases within an order of magnitude. Our ultimate objective is to refine the diffusion coefficients using AGR-3/4 data, so we identify an analytical method for doing so and demonstrate its efficacy via a series of numerical experiments using the model predictions. Finally, we discuss development of a post-irradiation examination plan informed by the modeling effort and simulate some of the heating tests that are tentatively planned.

  2. 29 CFR 3.4 - Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection of weekly payroll records. 3.4 Section 3.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.4 Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll... subcontractor, within seven days after the regular payment date of the payroll period, to a representative of a...

  3. Sprague-Dawley rats display sex-linked differences in the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonsart, Julien; Menet, Marie-Claude; Debray, Marcel; Hirt, Deborah; Noble, Florence; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Decleves, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    The use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has increased in recent years; it can lead to life-threatening hyperthermia and serotonin syndrome. Human and rodent males appear to be more sensitive to acute toxicity than are females. MDMA is metabolized to five main metabolites by the enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2D and COMT. Little is presently known about sex-dependent differences in the pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its metabolites. We therefore analyzed MDMA disposition in male and female rats by measuring the plasma and urine concentrations of MDMA and its metabolites using a validated LC-MS method. MDA AUC last and C max were 1.6- to 1.7-fold higher in males than in females given MDMA (5 mg/kg sc), while HMMA C max and AUC last were 3.2- and 3.5-fold higher, respectively. MDMA renal clearance was 1.26-fold higher in males, and that of MDA was 2.2-fold higher. MDMA AUC last and t 1/2 were 50% higher in females given MDMA (1 mg/kg iv). MDA C max and AUC last were 75-82% higher in males, with a 2.8-fold higher metabolic index. Finally, the AUC last of MDA was 0.73-fold lower in males given 1 mg/kg iv MDA. The volumes of distribution of MDMA and MDA at steady-state were similar in the two sexes. These data strongly suggest that differences in the N-demethylation of MDMA to MDA are major influences on the MDMA and MDA pharmacokinetics in male and female rats. Hence, males are exposed to significantly more toxic MDA, which could explain previously reported sexual dysmorphism in the acute effects and toxicity of MDMA in rats.

  4. Biological activity of 3, 4-benzpyrene-III. Localization of tritiated 3,4-benzpyrene in the rat following intraperitoneal administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delwaide, P A

    1969-01-01

    The distribution of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H- 3,4-benzpyrene (BP) was studied in tissue homogenates of the liver, kidney, adrenals, spleen, testis, and heart, at intervals of 30 min-24 hours after ip admin to immature male albino rats, with measurements made of both total radioactivity and the radioactivity of a petroleum ether extract of each of these homogenates. Both types of measurement were also made in the soluble, microsomal, nuclear, and mitochondrial fractions of the liver cells. As indicated by measurements of total radioactivity, somewhat greater amounts of the tracer were found in the liver, spleen, and kidney, reaching a max within 4 hours and then decreasing slowly, with radioactivity still demonstrable after 24 hours. The conc in the adrenals and heart was also max at 4 hours. It was max in the testis at 6 hours. No clear-cut organ specificity could be demonstrated, although a temporary loading in the spleen was demonstrable at 1 hour (only) in animals receiving a larger dose of BP (20 mg/kg, ip) at the same time as the tracer dose. Following the tracer dose, radioactivity in the petroleum ether extracts decreased progressively throughout the 24-hour observation period, without reaching zero in any case. This phenomenon was intensified in animals receiving the treatment dose. Following the tracer dose, radioactivity in the soluble fraction of the liver cells increased progressively and significantly, paralleled by a decrease in the microsomal fraction. In contrast, the treatment dose markedly increased the radioactivity of the microsomal fraction, at the expense of the soluble fraction. No clear-cut specificity could be demonstrated as concerned any hepatic cellular fraction, with respect to level of activity or speed of fixation. The phenomena observed may be explained as results of the hydroxylation process, and that most of the BP admin was involved in nonspecific processes of fixation and metabolism.

  5. The molecular architecture of QdtA, a sugar 3,4-ketoisomerase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M

    2014-06-01

    Unusual di- and trideoxysugars are often found on the O-antigens of Gram-negative bacteria, on the S-layers of Gram-positive bacteria, and on various natural products. One such sugar is 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-D-glucose. A key step in its biosynthesis, catalyzed by a 3,4-ketoisomerase, is the conversion of thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose to dTDP-3-keto-6-deoxyglucose. Here we report an X-ray analysis of a 3,4-ketoisomerase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum. For this investigation, the wild-type enzyme, referred to as QdtA, was crystallized in the presence of dTDP and its structure solved to 2.0-Å resolution. The dimeric enzyme adopts a three-dimensional architecture that is characteristic for proteins belonging to the cupin superfamily. In order to trap the dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose substrate into the active site, a mutant protein, H51N, was subsequently constructed, and the structure of this protein in complex with the dTDP-sugar ligand was solved to 1.9-Å resolution. Taken together, the structures suggest that His 51 serves as a catalytic base, that Tyr 37 likely functions as a catalytic acid, and that His 53 provides a proton shuttle between the C-3' hydroxyl and the C-4' keto group of the hexose. This study reports the first three-dimensional structure of a 3,4-ketoisomerase in complex with its dTDP-sugar substrate and thus sheds new molecular insight into this fascinating class of enzymes. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  6. Nonlinear pharmacokinetics of (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its pharmacodynamic consequences in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concheiro, Marta; Baumann, Michael H; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Rothman, Richard B; Marrone, Gina F; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused illicit drug that can cause severe and even fatal adverse effects. However, interest remains for its possible clinical applications in posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety treatment. Preclinical studies to determine MDMA's safety are needed. We evaluated MDMA's pharmacokinetics and metabolism in male rats receiving 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg s.c. MDMA, and the associated pharmacodynamic consequences. Blood was collected via jugular catheter at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 hours, with simultaneous serotonin (5-HT) behavioral syndrome and core temperature monitoring. Plasma specimens were analyzed for MDMA and the metabolites (±)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA), (±)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), and (±)-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After 2.5 mg/kg MDMA, mean MDMA Cmax was 164 ± 47.1 ng/ml, HHMA and HMMA were major metabolites, and MDMA was metabolized to MDA. After 5- and 10-mg/kg doses, MDMA areas under the curve (AUCs) were 3- and 10-fold greater than those after 2.5 mg/kg; HHMA and HMMA AUC values were relatively constant across doses; and MDA AUC values were greater than dose-proportional. Our data provide decisive in vivo evidence that MDMA and MDA display nonlinear accumulation via metabolic autoinhibition in the rat. Importantly, 5-HT syndrome severity correlated with MDMA concentrations (r = 0.8083; P MDMA's behavioral and hyperthermic effects may involve distinct mechanisms. Given key similarities between MDMA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans, data from rats can be useful when provided at clinically relevant doses.

  7. Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics of (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Its Pharmacodynamic Consequences in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concheiro, Marta; Baumann, Michael H.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Rothman, Richard B.; Marrone, Gina F.

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused illicit drug that can cause severe and even fatal adverse effects. However, interest remains for its possible clinical applications in posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety treatment. Preclinical studies to determine MDMA’s safety are needed. We evaluated MDMA’s pharmacokinetics and metabolism in male rats receiving 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg s.c. MDMA, and the associated pharmacodynamic consequences. Blood was collected via jugular catheter at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 24 hours, with simultaneous serotonin (5-HT) behavioral syndrome and core temperature monitoring. Plasma specimens were analyzed for MDMA and the metabolites (±)-3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA), (±)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), and (±)-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. After 2.5 mg/kg MDMA, mean MDMA Cmax was 164 ± 47.1 ng/ml, HHMA and HMMA were major metabolites, and MDMA was metabolized to MDA. After 5- and 10-mg/kg doses, MDMA areas under the curve (AUCs) were 3- and 10-fold greater than those after 2.5 mg/kg; HHMA and HMMA AUC values were relatively constant across doses; and MDA AUC values were greater than dose-proportional. Our data provide decisive in vivo evidence that MDMA and MDA display nonlinear accumulation via metabolic autoinhibition in the rat. Importantly, 5-HT syndrome severity correlated with MDMA concentrations (r = 0.8083; P MDMA’s behavioral and hyperthermic effects may involve distinct mechanisms. Given key similarities between MDMA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans, data from rats can be useful when provided at clinically relevant doses. PMID:24141857

  8. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E.; Chan, Benny C.; Lill, Daniel T. de

    2015-01-01

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C 6 H 2 O 5 )(C 6 H 3 O 5 )(H 2 O)] n (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented. - Graphical abstract: A new two-dimensional coordination polymer derived from the in-situ hydrolysis of a furan dimethyl ester with lanthanide(III) ions was obtained in order to study its photophysical behavior when constructed from trivalent Eu and Tb. Quantum yields, lifetime measurements, and singlet/triplet state energies values were obtained. The nature of the material's excited state dynamics is examined and correlated to its structure in order to explain the overall luminescent efficiency of the system. - Highlights: • A new lanthanide–furandicarboxylate coordination polymer is presented. • Eu and Tb compounds display luminescent properties, albeit with low quantum yields. • Photophysical behavior explained through the compound's triplet state and structure. • Nonradiative deactivation of luminescence through high-energy oscillators was noted. • Molecular modeling of the organic moiety was conducted

  9. Luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers synthesized via in-situ hydrolysis of dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greig, Natalie E.; Einkauf, Jeffrey D.; Clark, Jessica M.; Corcoran, Eric J.; Karram, Joseph P.; Kent, Charles A.; Eugene, Vadine E. [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Chan, Benny C. [Department of Chemistry, The College of New Jersey, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Lill, Daniel T. de, E-mail: ddelill@fau.edu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate undergoes hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions with lanthanide (Ln) ions to form two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ln(C{sub 6}H{sub 2}O{sub 5})(C{sub 6}H{sub 3}O{sub 5})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu). The resulting materials exhibit luminescent properties with quantum yields and lifetimes for the Eu(III) and Tb(III) compounds of 1.1±0.3% and 0.387±0.0001 ms, and 3.3±0.8% and 0.769±0.006 ms, respectively. Energy values for the singlet and triplet states were determined for dimethyl-3,4-furandicarboxylate and 3,4-furandicarboxylic acid. Excited state dynamics and structural features are examined to explicate the reported quantum yields. A series of other FDC structures is briefly presented. - Graphical abstract: A new two-dimensional coordination polymer derived from the in-situ hydrolysis of a furan dimethyl ester with lanthanide(III) ions was obtained in order to study its photophysical behavior when constructed from trivalent Eu and Tb. Quantum yields, lifetime measurements, and singlet/triplet state energies values were obtained. The nature of the material's excited state dynamics is examined and correlated to its structure in order to explain the overall luminescent efficiency of the system. - Highlights: • A new lanthanide–furandicarboxylate coordination polymer is presented. • Eu and Tb compounds display luminescent properties, albeit with low quantum yields. • Photophysical behavior explained through the compound's triplet state and structure. • Nonradiative deactivation of luminescence through high-energy oscillators was noted. • Molecular modeling of the organic moiety was conducted.

  10. Poly[[aqua(μ5-3,4,5,6-tetracarboxycyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylatostrontium] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Sr(C12H10O12(H2O]·H2O}n, the SrII ion is coordinated by six O atoms of five symmetry-related 3,4,5,6-tetracarboxycyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate ligands and one water molecule in a slightly distorted monocapped trigonal–prismatic environment. The ligands bridge the SrII ions, forming a two-dimensional structure. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds further connect the structure into a three-dimensional network. The H atoms of two of the carboxyl groups were refined as half-occupancy.

  11. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moger, Manjunath [Mangalore University, Karnataka (India). Department of Chemistry; Satam, Vijay; Paniraj, A.S.; Gopinath, Vadiraj S.; Hindupur, Rama Mohan; Pati, Hari N., E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com [Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 and 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Darshan Raj C. [Department of Bio-Medicinal Research, Vidya Herbs Pvt. Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2014-01-15

    A series of ten novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogs containing dibenzosuberone moiety were synthesized using linear as well as convergent synthesis approach. All the compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among ten analogs, four compounds, namely, 8a, 8d, 8e and 8j were found to be highly active antibacterial and antifungal agents (author)

  12. Synthesis and Bioassay of a New Class of Furanyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galila A. Yacout

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase enzyme is a monophenol monoxygenase enzyme, which plays an important role in human as a rate limiting step enzyme for different specific metabolic pathways, as well as its useful application in industry and agriculture. So this study was carried out to test the effect of newly prepared compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazoles with different substituted groups on tyrosinase enzyme activity, hoping to use them in the treatment of some diseases arising from tyrosinase activity disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, autism, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, and cancer.

  13. Infant Sleep Predicts Attention Regulation and Behavior Problems at 3-4 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; De Marcas, Gali; Guri, Yael; Berger, Andrea; Tikotzky, Liat; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the role of early sleep patterns in predicting attention regulation and behavior problems. Sleep of 43 infants was assessed using actigraphy at 12 months of age and then reassessed when the children were 3-4 years old. During this follow-up, their attention regulation and behavior problems were also assessed using a computerized test and parental reports. Lower quality of sleep in infancy significantly predicted compromised attention regulation and behavior problems. These findings underscore the need to identify and treat early sleep problems.

  14. The effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Scaramal da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenanthracene is a highly toxic organic compound capable of contaminating water and soils, and biodegradation is an important tool for remediating polluted environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on the activity of the protocatechol 3,4-dioxygenase (P3,4O enzyme produced by the isolate Leifsonia sp. in cell-free and immobilized extracts. The isolate was grown in Luria Bertani broth medium (LB amended with 250 mg L-1 of phenanthrene. Various levels of pH (4.0-9.0, temperature (5-80 °C, time (0-90 min, trace elements (Cu2+, Hg2+ and Fe3+, and cations (Mg2+, Mn2+, K+ and NH4+ were tested to determine which conditions optimized enzyme activity. In general, the immobilized extract exhibited higher enzyme activity than the cell-free extract in the presence of trace elements and cations. Adding iron yielded the highest relative activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 16 and 99 %, respectively. Copper also increased enzyme activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 8 and 44 %, respectively. Enzyme activity in the phosphate buffer was high across a wide range of pH, reaching 80 % in the pH range between 6.5 and 8.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity differed for cell-free and immobilized extracts, with maximum enzyme activity observed at 35 ºC for the cell-free extract and at 55 ºC for the immobilized extract. The cell-free extract of the P3,4O enzyme exhibited high activity only during the first 3 min of incubation, when it showed 50 % relative activity, and dropped to 0 % after 60 min of incubation. By contrast, activity in the immobilized extract was maintained during 90 min of incubation. This isolate has important characteristics for phenanthrene biodegradation, producing high quantities of the P3,4O enzyme that forms part of the most important pathway for PAH biodegradation.

  15. Spectroscopy of the 3.3 ad 3.4 micron dust emission features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geballe, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Various unidentified infrared features which have been observed in the interstellar grain medium are thought to be emitted or absorbed by molecules within dust grains. In order to correctly identify these molecules accurate high spectral resolution measurements of the features must be obtained. In order to obtain more accurate profiles, the 3.3 and 3.4 micron features have been observed in the planetary nebula NGC 7027 and in the HII region S106, during June and July 1983, using UKIRT and its 7-channel cooled grating spectrometer. (author)

  16. 2-Isobutyl-6-(4-methoxyphenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H17N3OS, the dihedral angle between the statistically planar imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole fused-ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.002 Å and the methyoxbenzene ring is 4.52 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are arranged into columns and stacked down the a axis. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid separations = 3.6053 (8 and 3.7088 (7 Å].

  17. Synthesis of racemic, S(+)- and R(-)-N-[methyl- [sup 3]H]3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Hirai, Katsumi; Goromaru, Tsuyoshi (Fukuyama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences)

    1990-04-01

    The synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethampetamine (MDMA), a serotonergic neurotoxin, labeled with tritium is described. Labeling was accomplished by N-alkylation of the free base of the corresponding desmethyl compound using [[sup 3]H]methyl iodide. The compound was purified by preparative HPLC. The radiochemical yield was about 60% based on [[sup 3]H]methyl iodide. The radiochemical purity was more than 95% from HPLC and TLC. Furthermore, S(+)- and R(-)-[[sup 3]H]MDMA were completely separated by analytical HPLC with chiral column. (author).

  18. Synthesis of racemic, S(+)- and R(-)-N-[methyl- 3H]3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Hirai, Katsumi; Goromaru, Tsuyoshi

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethampetamine (MDMA), a serotonergic neurotoxin, labeled with tritium is described. Labeling was accomplished by N-alkylation of the free base of the corresponding desmethyl compound using [ 3 H]methyl iodide. The compound was purified by preparative HPLC. The radiochemical yield was about 60% based on [ 3 H]methyl iodide. The radiochemical purity was more than 95% from HPLC and TLC. Furthermore, S(+)- and R(-)-[ 3 H]MDMA were completely separated by analytical HPLC with chiral column. (author)

  19. 5-Bromo-N3-[(E-(6-bromopyridin-2-ylmethylidene]pyridine-3,4-diamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H8Br2N4, is a Schiff base obtained from 6-bromopicolinaldehyde and 5-bromopyridine-3,4-diamine. The molecule has an E configuration about the C=N bond and the dihedral angle between the two pyridine rings is 14.02 (1°. The observed conformation is stabilised by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond. In the crystal, molecules are stacked along the b axis and are linked through N—H...N hydrogen bonds into chains along the c axis.

  20. Structural and theoretical investigations of 3,4,5-triamino-1,2,4-triazolium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Gregory W. [Propulsion Research Laboratory XD22, Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 (United States); Hawkins, Tommy W.; Hall, Leslie A.; Boatz, Jerry A.; Brand, Adam J. [AFRL/PRSP Space and Missile Propulsion Division, 10 East Saturn Boulevard, Edwards AFB, CA 93524 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Reactions using the high nitrogen heterocycle 3,4,5-triamino-1,2,4-triazole (guanazine) with strong acids (HNO{sub 3}, HClO{sub 4}, and ''HN(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}'') resulted in a family of highly stable salts. All of the salts were characterized using spectroscopic as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The X-ray structures were compared to that obtained from theoretical calculations (MP2/6-311+G(d, p) level). Initial safety testing (impact, friction) was carried out on all of the new materials. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Molecular and crystal structure of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-oxo-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuleshova, L.N.; Khrustalev, V.N.; Struchkov, Yu.T.; Soldatenkov, A.T.; Bekro, I.A.; Mamyrbekova, Zh.A.; Soldatova, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The molecular and crystal structure of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-oxo-1-methyl-4-phenylpiperidine was determined. The crystal is orthorhombic: sp. gr. Pca21; a=15.764, b=5.635, and c=25.536 A; and Z=8. The structure was solved by direct methods; R1=0.051, for 2643 unique refections. Symmetry-independent molecules are related by a pseudocenter of symmetry. The piperidine cycle has an asymmetric half-chair conformation. The orientation of substituents is determined. In the crystal, intermolecular OH...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains parallel to the Y-axis

  2. (Z-Ethyl 3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyano-3-(2,6-difluorobenzamidoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoyan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C19H13ClF2N2O3, was prepared by the reaction of (Z-ethyl 3-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyanoacrylate and 2,6-difluorobenzoyl chloride. The dihedral angle between the chlorobenzene and fluorobenzene rings is 37.0 (1°. The ethyl group is disordered over two positions [occupancies = 0.52 (2:0.48 (2]. In addition to intramolecular N—H...O and N—H...F hydrogen bonds, the crystal packing shows the molecules to be connected by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  3. Ge14 Br8 (PEt3 )4 : A Subhalide Cluster of Germanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Tanja; Schrenk, Claudio; Schnepf, Andreas

    2018-04-03

    Heating a metastable solution of Ge I Br to room temperature led to the first structurally characterized metalloid subhalide cluster Ge 14 Br 8 (PEt 3 ) 4 (1). Furthermore 1 can be seen as the first isolated binary halide cluster on the way from Ge I Br to elemental germanium, giving insight into the complex reaction mechanism of its disproportionation reaction. Quantum chemical calculations further indicate that a classical bonding situation is realized within 1 and that the last step of the formation of 1 might include the trapping of GeBr 2 units. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Crystal structure of 4-allylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El Fal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H8N4S, the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine ring system is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation from the mean plane of 0.025 (3 Å. The allyl group is disordered over two sites in a 0.512 (6:0.488 (6 ratio. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(8 graph-set motif.

  5. Enhanced mixing characteristics of GaAs/3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride Schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginev, G; Riedl, T; Parashkov, R; Johannes, H-H; Kowalsky, W

    2003-01-01

    The influences on the mixing properties of GaAs Schottky diodes containing an organic 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride layer were investigated. The frequency conversion ability of the devices was determined by considering the I-V characteristics and high frequency reflection parameters by using a mixing technique operated in the microwave range. The results show that an organic layer with 20 nm thickness enhances the diode conversion gain for mixing applications by 3 dB and lowers the device operating bias voltage by 0.1 V. This process is related to the specific properties of the organic semiconductor and resulting organic-inorganic interface

  6. 1,2,3,3-Tetramethyl-7-nitro-3,4-dihydroisoquinolinium tetrafluoroborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Bouzid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, C13H17N2O2+·BF4−, was prepared by the methylation of the imine with Meerwein salt in dichloromethane. The asymmetric unit comprises a 1,3,3-trimethyl-7-nitro-3,4-dihydroisoquinolinium cation and a tetrafluoroborate anion. The coordination around the boron atom in the tetrafluoroborate anion is tetrahedral. The heterocyclic ring adopts a half-chair conformation. The crystal packing is governed by means of C—H...F contacts, which lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  7. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CERTAIN 2,3,4,5-TETRAHYDROPYRIDAZINONE ANALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav ALANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, six new derivatives of PYridazinone were synthesized and evaluate their anti-bacterial activity. The experimental work involves the synthesis of benzoyl propionic acid (a, then 6-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro pyridazin-3-one (b which was then condensed with various, aldehydes to form respective derivatives, AH the synthesized compounds were identified by IR, 1HNMR and antimicrobial activity was performed on the compounds synthesized against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737, Staphylococcus epidermidis (MTCC 3615, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424 and Escherichia coli (MTCC 1687

  8. Solvent Induced Disulfide Bond Formation in 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    OpenAIRE

    Palanisamy Kalimuthu; Palraj Kalimuthu; S. Abraham John

    2007-01-01

    Disulfide bond formation is the decisive event in the protein folding to determine the conformation and stability of protein. To achieve this disulfide bond formation in vitro, we took 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMcT) as a model compound. We found that disulfide bond formation takes place between two sulfhydryl groups of DMcT molecules in methanol. UV-Vis, FT-IR and mass spectroscopic as well as cyclic voltammetry were used to monitor the course of reaction. We proposed a mechanism for...

  9. 5-Imino-3,4-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatov, Evgeny; Chulkova, Tatiana; Haukka, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C16H12N2O, exists in the crystalline state as the 5-imino-3,4-di­phenyl­-1H-pyrrol-2-one tautomer. The dihedral angles between the pyrrole and phenyl rings are 35.3 (2) and 55.3 (2)°. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds generate a graph-set motif of R 2 2(8) via N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. PMID:24764881

  10. 5-Imino-3,4-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Bulatov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H12N2O, exists in the crystalline state as the 5-imino-3,4-diphenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-one tautomer. The dihedral angles between the pyrrole and phenyl rings are 35.3 (2 and 55.3 (2°. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of N—H...N hydrogen bonds generate a graph-set motif of R22(8 via N—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  11. Elimination of radioactivity after intratracheal instillation of tritiated 3, 4-benzopyrene in hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylev, L N; Roe, F J.C.; Warwick, G P

    1969-01-01

    Injection and recovery experiments of tritiated 3,4-benzopyrene (BaP) injected alone or with particulate carriers into hamsters were performed. After 21 days, asbestos or carbon black carriers had significantly increased the retention of BaP in the lung. Elimination was rapid at first (2 weeks: and little influenced by carrier; slower rate of elimination was noted after that. Carriers increased recoverable macrophages but decreased the amount of radioactivity per macrophage. Radioactivity was similar in all groups for kidney, liver, blood, feces, and urine.

  12. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, M. D.; Ball, J. C.; Wallington, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... to the atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  13. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  14. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  15. Phase II trial of cystemustine, a new nitrosourea, as treatment of high-grade brain tumors in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, H; Cure, H; Adenis, A; Fargeot, P; Terret, C; Lentz, M A; Madelmont, J C; Fumoleau, P; Hanausk, A; Chollet, P

    2000-09-01

    This study included 39 patients (37 evaluable, of whom 30 patients with recurrent gliomas and 7 patients with gliomas untreated by radiotherapy); they were enrolled into a phase II trial using a new nitrosourea, cystemustine, administrated every 2 weeks at 60 mg/m2 as a 15 min-infusion. Pathology at inclusion was (WHO classification): 14 glioblastomas, 20 grade 3-4 astrocytomas and 3 grade 3 oligodendrogliomas. Four partial responses have been obtained, giving an overall response rate of 10.8%. Four additional patients had a partial response, which for various reasons was not confirmed 4 weeks later; 12 patients had a stable disease for at least 8 weeks, 15 patients had progressive disease. Of the 4 responses, 2 were with a grade 3 oligodendroglioma and 2 glioblastoma. Toxicity (WHO grading) was mainly hematological: leukopenia (16.2% grade 3-4), neutropenia (29.7% grade 3-4), thrombopenia (27% grade 3-4). No other toxicity greater than grade 2 was observed. In conclusion, cystemustine at 60 mg/m2 has moderate clinical activity in relapsing glioma. Our results warrant further investigation of this agent with an increased dose or modified scheme.

  16. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Agrebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Several new pyrazolopyrimidine compounds were achieved from aminocyanopyarazole 1. The starting material 1 was initially coupled with orthoester at refluxed with various primary amines, ammonia, hydrazines and hydroxylamine to furnish a series of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines. The reaction of imidate 2a-b with hydrazide derivatives led to the formation of pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-c]pyrimidines. Some of the synthesized compounds 3a and 4c were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and nociceptive activities. We start by studing the toxicity of these two molecules by measuring the corresponding DL50. The DL50 of 3a and 4c are estimated to 1333.2mg / kg and 1593.5mg / kg respectively. Pharmacological evaluation showed that compounds 3a and 4c at doses (5.5-22.2 mg / Kg, i.p exhibited anti-inflammatory activities compared to Ibuprofen (150 mg / Kg, i.p, used as a refer ence drug. Further, our study showed that the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines on hyperthermic animal leads to a decrease in temperature after 1 hours of treatment compared to paracetamol used as reference. In addition, the injection of derived pyrazolopyrimidines at different doses contains a potent nociceptive activity. This effect is dose-dependent compared to aspirin.

  17. Development of the MARS input model for Ulchin 3/4 transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J. J.; Kim, K. D.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Hwang, M. G.

    2003-12-01

    KAERI has been developing the NSSS transient analyzer based on best-estimate codes.The MARS and RETRAN code are adopted as the best-estimate codes for the NSSS transient analyzer. Among these two codes, the MARS code is to be used for realistic analysis of small- and large-break loss-of-coolant accidents, of which break size is greater than 2 inch diameter. This report includes the MARS input model requirements and the calculation note for the MARS input data generation (see the Appendix) for Ulchin 3/4 plant analyzer. In order to confirm the validity of the input data, we performed the calculations for a steady state at 100 % power operation condition and a double-ended cold leg break LOCA. The results of the steady-state calculation agree well with the design data. The results of the LOCA calculation seem to be reasonable and consistent with those of other best-estimate calculations. Therefore, the MARS input data can be used as a base input deck for the MARS transient analyzer for Ulchin 3/4

  18. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of Drosophila 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Ding, H; Robinson, H; Christensen, B; Li, J

    2010-01-01

    3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses. In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine. The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  19. Evaluation of a redesigned 3/4-inch uranium hexafluoride cylinder valve stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonner, L.A.; Wamsley, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a redesigned 3/4-in. uranium hexafluoride cylinder valve stem has been evaluated at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Prototypes, machined from Monel bar stock and having a 45 0 tip angle instead of the 15 0 tip angle of the standard valve stem, were fabricated. Tests included: cyclic leak evaluation; flow restriction determination; wear testing with uranyl fluoride deposits in the valve seat; stress corrosion testing; field testing (in previously rejected valve bodies); and production leak testing. Because their overall test performance was excellent, actual production usage of the redesigned stems was initiated. The in-service performance of valves fitted with redesigned stems has been significantly superior to that of valves having the standard stems: rejection rates have been 0.7 and 16.6 percent, respectively. Recommendations are made to replace all 15 0 angle tip stems presently in service with new stems having a 45 0 angle tip and to specify the new stem tip design for future 3/4-in. valve purchases

  20. Organic impurity profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) synthesised from catechol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Erin; Shimmon, Ronald; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2015-03-01

    This work examines the organic impurity profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that has been synthesised from catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), a common chemical reagent available in industrial quantities. The synthesis of MDMA from catechol proceeded via the common MDMA precursor safrole. Methylenation of catechol yielded 1,3-benzodioxole, which was brominated and then reacted with magnesium allyl bromide to form safrole. Eight organic impurities were identified in the synthetic safrole. Safrole was then converted to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using two synthetic methods: Wacker oxidation (Route 1) and an isomerisation/peracid oxidation/acid dehydration method (Route 2). MDMA was then synthesised by reductive amination of MDP2P. Thirteen organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 1 and eleven organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 2. Overall, organic impurities in MDMA prepared from catechol indicated that synthetic safrole was used in the synthesis. The impurities also indicated which of the two synthetic routes was utilised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of pyridinium-tailored pyrazoles bearing 1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a series of pyridinium-tailored 5-trifluoromethylpyrazoles containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were constructed through coupling key pharmaceutical fragments of pyridinium, pyrazole, and 1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffolds in single molecular architecture. Antimicrobial results suggested that this kind of compounds exhibited significant activities against three types of pathogenic bacteria and six fungal strains in vitro. The minimal EC50 values of designed compounds against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri could reach to 0.467, 1.04, and 0.600 μg/mL, respectively, through tuning and optimizing N-substituents, bridging atom, and alkyl length of the tailor. Antifungal assays revealed that all title molecules possessed considerable activity against Botrytis cinerea with the minimal EC50 value up to 2.71 μg/mL; and compounds I-8, I-10, I-12, II-12, and IV-12 showed the strongest growth suppression toward Rhizoctonia solani with EC50 values ranging from 10.2 to 24.0 μg/mL. Given the above results, this kind of compounds could serve as new lead compounds in the research of antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  2. Crystal structure of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase of riboflavin biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, D.-I.; Calabrese, J.C.; Wawrzak, Z.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B. (DuPont); (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    3,4-Dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase catalyzes a commitment step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. On the enzyme, ribulose 5-phosphate is converted to 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate and formate in steps involving enolization, ketonization, dehydration, skeleton rearrangement, and formate elimination. The enzyme is absent in humans and an attractive target for the discovery of antimicrobials for pathogens incapable of acquiring sufficient riboflavin from their hosts. The homodimer of 23 kDa subunits requires Mg{sup 2+} for activity. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 1.4 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on Escherichia coli protein crystals containing gold. The protein consists of an {alpha} + {beta} fold having a complex linkage of {beta} strands. Intersubunit contacts are mediated by numerous hydrophobic interactions and three hydrogen bond networks. A proposed active site was identified on the basis of amino acid residues that are conserved among the enzyme from 19 species. There are two well-separated active sites per dimer, each of which comprise residues from both subunits. In addition to three arginines and two threonines, which may be used for recognizing the phosphate group of the substrate, the active site consists of three glutamates, two aspartates, two histidines, and a cysteine which may provide the means for general acid and base catalysis and for coordinating the Mg{sup 2+} cofactor within the active site.

  3. Functional analysis of α1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan; Qiao, Shouyi; Wu, Yanhua

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. ► Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. ► FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. ► FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The α1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of α1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe x were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  4. Photocrosslinkable Star Polymers via RAFT-Copolymerizations with N-Ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Vana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Z-RAFT-star copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate (BA and N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAm, respectively, with N-ethylacrylate-3,4-dimethylmaleimide (1.1, a monomer carrying a UV-reactive unit that undergoes photocrosslinking. Addition of 1.1 slows down the polymerization rate both for BA and for NIPAm polymerization. Double star formation due to radical attack to the 3,4-dimethylmaleimide moiety was found in the case of BA. Dead polymer formation, presumably due to aminolysis as side-reaction, was pronounced in the NIPAm system. These two effects broadened the molar mass distributions, but did not impede the formation of functional star polymers. The composition of the copolymers as well as the reactivity ratios for the applied comonomers were determined via NMR spectroscopy (BA-co-1.1 r1.1 = 2.24 rBA = 0.95; NIPAm-co-1.1 r1.1 = 0.96 rNIPAm = 0.05. In both cases, the comonomer is consumed preferably in the beginning of the polymerization, thus forming gradient copolymer stars with the UV-reactive units being located in the outer sphere.

  5. 5-(4-Bromophenyl-2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H15BrO3S, crystallizes with four molecules in the asymmetric unit. The 4-bromophenyl rings are rotated out of the benzofuran planes, with dihedral angles for the four molecules of 20.8 (2, 17.8 (2, 23.5 (4 and 23.9 (4°. The dihedral angles between the 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl ring and the benzofuran plane are 13.5 (2, 7.1 (2, 18.6 (3 and 14.2 (3° in the four molecules. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak nonclassical intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure also exhibits intermolecular aromatic π–π interactions between the benzene and furan rings and between the 4-bromophenyl and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl rings from molecules of the same type; the centroid–centroid distances are 3.92 (1 and 3.79 (1, 3.91 (1, 3.77 (1 and 3.77 (1, and 3.79 (1 and 3.75 (1Å in the four molecules.

  6. 3,4-Dimethoxybenzohydrazide derivatives as antiulcer: Molecular modeling and density functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Zaki, Hamizah Mohd; Wadood, Abdul; Anouar, El Hassane; Imran, Syahrul; Yamin, Bohari M; Rahim, Fazal; Ali, Muhammad; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    3,4-Dimethoxybenzohydrazide derivatives (1-25) have been synthesized and evaluated for their urease inhibitory potential. Among the series, compounds 2, 3, 4 and 5 with IC 50 values 12.61 ± 0.07, 18.24 ± 0.14, 19.22 ± 0.21, and 8.40 ± 0.05 µM, respectively, showed excellent urease inhibitory potentials when compared with standard thiourea (IC 50 value 21.40 ± 0.21 µM). Compounds 1, 6, 8, 18, 19 and 20 also showed good to moderate inhibition, while the remaining compounds were found to be completely inactive. The structures of compounds 6 and 25 were confirmed through X-ray crystallography while the structures of remaining compounds were confirmed through ESI-MS and 1 H NMR. Molecular docking studies were performed understand the binding interactions with enzyme active site. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity and found to be nontoxic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward Ultraintense Compact RBS Pump for Recombination 3.4 nm Laser via OFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckewer, S.; Ren, J.; Li, S.; Lou, Y.; Morozov, A.; Turnbull, D.; Avitzour, Y.

    In our presentation we overview progress we made in developing a new ultrashort and ultraintensive laser system based on Raman backscattering (RBS) amplifier /compressor from time of 10th XRL Conference in Berlin to present time of 11th XRL Conference in Belfast. One of the main objectives of RBS laser system development is to use it for pumping of recombination X-ray laser in transition to ground state of CVI ions at 3.4 nm. Using elaborate computer code the processes of Optical Field Ionization, electron energy distribution, and recombination were calculated. It was shown that in very earlier stage of recombination, when electron energy distribution is strongly non-Maxwellian, high gain in transition from the first excited level n=2 to ground level m=1 can be generated. Adding large amount of hydrogen gas into initial gas containing carbon atoms (e.g. methane, CH4) the calculated gain has reached values up to 150-200 cm-2 Taking into account this very encouraging result, we have proceed with arrangement of experimental setup. We will present the observation of plasma channels and measurements of electron density distribution required for generation of gain at 3.4 nm.

  8. Spontaneous and stimulated emission in Sm3+-doped YAl3(BO3)4 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryba-Romanowski, Witold; Lisiecki, Radosław; Beregi, Elena; Martín, I.R.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 doped with trivalent samarium were grown by the top-seeded high temperature solution method and their absorption and emission spectra were investigated. Optical pumping into prominent absorption band around 405 nm feeds the 4 G 5/2 metastable level giving rise to intense visible luminescence distributed in several spectral lines with the most intense line around 600 nm characterized by a branching ratio of 0.42 and peak emission cross section of 0.25×10 −20 cm 2 . Optical amplification at 600 nm with a gain coefficient of 2.9 cm −1 was achieved during a pump-and-probe experiment. - Highlights: • YAB:Sm crystal grown by the top-seeded high temperature solution method. • Spectroscopic qualities relevant for visible laser operation. • YAB:Sm single crystal used in a pump-and-probe experiment. • Optical amplification properties of samarium doped YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4

  9. Crystal structure and substrate specificity of Drosophila 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase (DDC, also known as aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, catalyzes the decarboxylation of a number of aromatic L-amino acids. Physiologically, DDC is responsible for the production of dopamine and serotonin through the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. In insects, both dopamine and serotonin serve as classical neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, and dopamine is also involved in insect cuticle formation, eggshell hardening, and immune responses.In this study, we expressed a typical DDC enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster, critically analyzed its substrate specificity and biochemical properties, determined its crystal structure at 1.75 Angstrom resolution, and evaluated the roles residues T82 and H192 play in substrate binding and enzyme catalysis through site-directed mutagenesis of the enzyme. Our results establish that this DDC functions exclusively on the production of dopamine and serotonin, with no activity to tyrosine or tryptophan and catalyzes the formation of serotonin more efficiently than dopamine.The crystal structure of Drosophila DDC and the site-directed mutagenesis study of the enzyme demonstrate that T82 is involved in substrate binding and that H192 is used not only for substrate interaction, but for cofactor binding of drDDC as well. Through comparative analysis, the results also provide insight into the structure-function relationship of other insect DDC-like proteins.

  10. PENGEMBANGAN KREATIVITAS DAN MINAT BELAJAR ANAK USIA 3-4 TAHUN MELALUI PERMAINAN KONSTRUKTIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Roni Indira Astriya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan kreativitas dan minat belajar anak usia 3-4 tahun melalui permainan konstruktif yakni bermain balok dan play dough di TK Izzul Islam Maraqitta’limat dalam memperbaiki proses pembelajaran dengan beberapa perlakuan dalam siklus. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas dengan tahap perencanaan, tindakan, observasi dan refleksi. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 11 anak. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya peningkatan kreativitas anak pada siklus III yakni ada 7 anak pada kriteria BSB. Artinya tujuh anak tersebut mampu menyelesaikan tugasnya tepat waktu membuat bangunan dengan cukup rapi, menggunakan lebih dari 6 ragam bentuk dan ukuran balok, mengungkapkan ide sebelum bermain balok maupun play dough, menceritakan bangunannya secara detail, membuat bangunan dengan ide dan cara sendiri. Mampu membuat lebih dari 7 bentuk dari adonan tepung dengan ide dan cara sendiri, menggunakan 5-6 cetakan kue beragam, menghiasinya dengan hiasan kue dan menceritakan semua hasil karyanya. Sedangkan minat belajar anak ada 7 anak pada kriteria BSB. Artinya tujuh anak tersebut menyukai kegiatan bermain balok dan play dough, melakukannya dengan cukup senang, bersemangat dan aktif, memperhatikan penjelasan dan mendengar perintah, arahan dari guru, mencari tahu kegiatan belajar, dan masuk kelas atas keinginan sendiri dan mandiri serta mengikuti kegiatan pembelajaran sampai selesai. Kata Kunci: kreativitas, minat belajar, usia 3-4 tahun, permainan konstrukif, bermain balok, play dough (bermain adonan.   DEVELOPING 3-4 YEAR OLD CHILDREN’S CREATIVITY AND LEARNING INTERESTS THROUGH CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY Abstract The purpose of this reasearch is to develop creativity and interest in learning of children aged 3-4 years through constructive play using blocks and dough in kindergarten Izzul Islam Maraqitta'limat Wanasaba. This was classroom action research with the planning, action, observation and reflection stages. This

  11. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  12. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  13. Comparison of Biochemical Recurrence-Free Survival after Radical Prostatectomy Triggered by Grade Reclassification during Active Surveillance and in Men Newly Diagnosed with Similar Grade Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Clarissa P; Landis, Patricia; Carter, H Ballentine; Epstein, Jonathan I; Mamawala, Mufaddal

    2017-09-01

    We compared biochemical recurrence between men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy triggered by grade reclassification and men diagnosed with similar grade disease treated with immediate radical prostatectomy. We retrospectively analyzed the records of men who underwent surgery from 1995 to 2015 at our institution. We identified 4 groups, including 94 and 56 men on active surveillance who underwent radical prostatectomy following reclassification to Gleason 7 (3 + 4) or greater (grade groups 2 or greater) and Gleason 7 (3 + 4) (grade group 2), and 3,504 and 1,979 in the immediate prostatectomy group diagnosed with grade group 2 or greater and 2, respectively. Biochemical recurrence was assessed by Kaplan-Meir analysis and a multivariable Cox model. Men on active surveillance had a lower incidence of biochemical recurrence than men in the immediate radical prostatectomy groups for biopsy grade groups 2 or greater and 2 (each p <0.05). One, 5 and 10-year biochemical recurrence-free survival for men in the active surveillance group vs the immediate radical prostatectomy group was 97.9% vs 85.5%, 76.6% vs 65.1% and 69.0% vs 54.2% in biopsy grade groups 2 or greater (p = 0.009) and 96.4% vs 91.2%, 89.6% vs 74.0% and 89.6% vs 63.9%, respectively, in biopsy grade group 2 (p = 0.071). For biopsy grade groups 2 or greater there was no significant difference in the risk of biochemical recurrence between the groups after adjusting for age, biopsy extent of cancer and prostate specific antigen density. Patients on active surveillance reclassified to grade groups 2 or greater are at no greater risk for treatment failure than men newly diagnosed with similar grades. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 3&4D Geomodeling Applied to Mineral Resources Exploration - A New Tool for Targeting Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Jean-Jacques; Mejia, Pablo; Caumon, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    3 & 4D geomodeling, a computer method for reconstituting the past deformation history of geological formations, has been used in oil and gas exploration for more than a decade for reconstituting fluid migration. It begins nowadays to be applied for exploring with new eyes old mature mining fields and new prospects. We describe shortly the 3&4D geomodeling basic notions, concepts, and methodology when applied to mineral resources assessment and modeling ore deposits, pointing out the advantages, recommendations and limitations, together with new challenges they rise. Several 3D GeoModels of mining explorations selected across Europe will be presented as illustrative case studies which have been achieved during the EU FP7 ProMine research project. It includes: (i) the Cu-Au porphyry deposits in the Hellenic Belt (Greece); (ii) the VMS in the Iberian Pyrite Belt including the Neves Corvo deposit (Portugal) and (iii) the sediment-hosted polymetallic Cu-Ag (Au, PGE) Kupferschiefer ore deposit in the Foresudetic Belt (Poland). In each case full 3D models using surfaces and regular grid (Sgrid) were built from all dataset available from exploration and exploitation including geological primary maps, 2D seismic cross-sections, and boreholes. The level of knowledge may differ from one site to another however those 3D resulting models were used to pilot additional field and exploration works. In the case of the Kupferschiefer, a sequential restoration-decompaction (4D geomodeling) from the Upper Permian to Cenozoic was conducted in the Lubin- Sieroszowice district of Poland. The results help in better understanding the various superimposed mineralization events which occurred through time in this copper deposit. A hydro-fracturing index was then calculated from the estimated overpressures during a Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene up-lifting, and seems to correlate with the copper content distribution in the ore-series. These results are in agreement with an Early Paleocene

  15. Amino methylation of 2-R-6-R_1-imidazo-[2.1-B]-1.3.4-thiadiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, D.K.; Rakhmonov, R.O.; Khodzhiboev, Yu.; Kukaniev, M.A.; Bandaev, S.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to amino methylation of 2-R-6-R_1-imidazo-[2.1-B]-1.3.4-thiadiazole. The reaction of new modifications of derivatives of imidazo-[2.1-B]-1.3.4-thiadiazoles-2-bromine-6-p-bromophenyl and 2-alkyl alkylene sulfonyl-6-phenyl imidazo--[2.1-B]-1.3.4-thiadiazole on Mannich with secondary and heterocyclic amines was studied.

  16. Synthesis of 1-13C-1-indanone and 2-13C-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.E.; Wysocki, M.A.; Eisenbraun, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of 2- 13 C-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (5) via 1- 13 C-3-phenylpropanoic acid (1), 1- 13 C-1-indanone (2), 1- 13 C-1-indanone hydrazone (3) and 2- 13 C-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone (4) proceeded in 78, 96, 95, 79, and 85% individual yields respectively for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 61% overall yield of the latter from 1. (author)

  17. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives as new potential PET SKCa channel imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingzhang; Wang, Min; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2008-02-01

    Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SKCa) channels play an important role in many functions such as neuronal communication and behavioral plasticity, secretion, and cell proliferation. SKCa channel modulation is associated with various brain, heart, and cancer diseases. N-methyl-laudanosine and its structurally related derivatives, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums, are reversible and selective SKCa channel blockers. Carbon-11 labeled N-methyl-laudanosine and its tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives may serve as new probes for positron emission tomography (PET) to image SKCa channels in the brain, heart, and cancer. The key intermediates, substituted isoquinolines (3a-c), were synthesized using a modification of the Pomeranz-Fritsch procedure. The precursors, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (8a-c), and their corresponding reference standards, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums (9a-c), were synthesized from compounds 3a-c with 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl chloride (2) in multiple steps with moderate to excellent chemical yields. The precursor 6,7-dimethoxy-1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (10) was commercially available, and the methylation of compound 10 with methyl iodide provided N-methyl-laudanosine (11). The target quaternary ammonium tracers, carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums ([11C]9a-c and [11C]11), were prepared by N-[11C]methylation of the tertiary amine precursors (8a-c and 10) with [11C]methyl triflate and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification using a SiO2 or cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge in 40-65% radiochemical yields.

  18. An enantioselective approach toward 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin through the bromocyclization of styrene-type carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Zhou, Ling; Tan, Chong Kiat; Yeung, Ying-Yeung

    2012-01-20

    A facile and enantioselective approach toward 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin was developed. The method involved an amino-thiocarbamate catalyzed enantioselective bromocyclization of styrene-type carboxylic acids, yielding 3-bromo-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins with good yields and ee's. 3-Bromo-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins are versatile building blocks for various dihydroisocoumarin derivatives in which the Br group can readily be modified to achieve biologically important 4-O-type and 4-N-type 3,4-dihydroisocoumarin systems. In addition, studies indicated that, by refining some parameters, the synthetically useful 5-exo phthalide products could be achieved with good yields and ee's.

  19. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Egevad, Lars; Amin, Mahul B; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Humphrey, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    of 10, it implies that their prognosis is intermediate and contributes to their fear of having a more aggressive cancer. Also, in the literature and for therapeutic purposes, various scores have been incorrectly grouped together with the assumption that they have a similar prognosis. For example, many classification systems consider Gleason score 7 as a single score without distinguishing 3+4 versus 4+3, despite studies showing significantly worse prognosis for the latter. The basis for a new grading system was proposed in 2013 by one of the authors (J.I.E.) based on data from Johns Hopkins Hospital resulting in 5 prognostically distinct Grade Groups. This new system was validated in a multi-institutional study of over 20,000 radical prostatectomy specimens, over 16,000 needle biopsy specimens, and over 5,000 biopsies followed by radiation therapy. There was broad (90%) consensus for the adoption of this new prostate cancer Grading system in the 2014 consensus conference based on: (1) the new classification provided more accurate stratification of tumors than the current system; (2) the classification simplified the number of grading categories from Gleason scores 2 to 10, with even more permutations based on different pattern combinations, to Grade Groups 1 to 5; (3) the lowest grade is 1 not 6 as in Gleason, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of indolent cancer; and (4) the current modified Gleason grading, which forms the basis for the new grade groups, bears little resemblance to the original Gleason system. The new grades would, for the foreseeable future, be used in conjunction with the Gleason system [ie. Gleason score 3+3=6 (Grade Group 1)]. The new grading system and the terminology Grade Groups 1-5 have also been accepted by the World Health Organization for the 2016 edition of Pathology and Genetics: Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs.

  20. l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine induces ptosis through a GPR143-independent mechanism in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Ueda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Through its conversion to dopamine by aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA replenishes depleted brain dopamine in Parkinson's disease patients. We recently identified GPR143 as a candidate receptor for l-DOPA. In this study, we investigated the behavioral actions of l-DOPA in wild type (wt and Gpr143-deficient mice. l-DOPA dose-dependently (10–100 mg/kg, i.p. induced ptosis under treatment with 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine, a centrally acting AADC inhibitor. This effect was not mimicked by 3-O-methyldopa. l-DOPA-induced ptosis in Gpr143-deficient mice to a similar extent as in wt mice. These results suggest that l-DOPA induces ptosis in a GPR143-independent fashion in mice.

  1. Poly[triaqua(μ-butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylatodicadmium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sheng Yan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title CdII coordination polymer, [Cd2(C8H6O8(H2O3]n, contains two crystallographically independent CdII cations, one-half each of two independent anionic butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylate units (L and three water molecules. Both anionic units lie on inversion centers. One of the CdII ions is six-coordinated by four carboxylate O atoms from four L anions and two water O atoms in a distorted octahedral coordination environment. The other CdII ion is eight-coordinated by seven carboxylate O atoms from four L anions and one water O atom. The anionic units bridge neighboring CdII centers, forming a three-dimensional framework. O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions between the water molecules and carboxylate O atoms further stabilize the structure.

  2. Development of Thermal Performance Analysis Computer Program on Turbine Cycle of Yoggwang 3,4 Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.Y.; Choi, K.H.; Jee, M.H.; Chung, S.I. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the study ''Development of Thermal Performance Analysis Computer Program on Turbine Cycle of Yonggwang 3,4 Units'' is to utilize computerized program to the performance test of the turbine cycle or the analysis of the operational status of the thermal plants. In addition, the result can be applicable to the analysis of the thermal output at the abnormal status and be a powerful tool to find out the main problems for such cases. As a results, the output of this study can supply the way to confirm the technical capability to operate the plants efficiently and to obtain the economic gains remarkably. (author). 27 refs., 73 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Achieving efficient poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based supercapacitors by controlling the polymerization kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jen-Hsien [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chih-Wei, E-mail: gchu@gate.sinica.edu.t [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we have prepared a series of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with various molecular weight by using an inhibitor, imidazole (Im). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the PEDOT with larger molecular weight enhances the polymer chain ordering and stacking which leads to higher conductivity. With increasing the amount of Im, the conductivity of PEDOT can be increased from 4.01 S cm{sup -1} (Im = 0.0 M) to 153.6 S cm{sup -1} (Im = 1.8 M). Comparisons of the cyclic voltammetry (CV), it enables correlation between the conductivity and specific capacitance, which is important for understanding the electrochemical capacitive behavior of conjugated polymer for pseudo-capacitor application. The PEDOT prepared with 1.8 M Im shows a specific capacitance of 124 F g{sup -1}, which is 2.2 times larger than the one without Im (57 F g{sup -1}).

  4. All-textile flexible supercapacitors using electrospun poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforgue, Alexis [Functional Polymer Systems Group, Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council Canada, 75, de Mortagne Blvd, Boucherville, Quebec J4B 6Y4 (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers were obtained by the combination of electrospinning and vapor-phase polymerization. The fibers had diameters around 350 nm, and were soldered at most intersections, providing a strong dimensional stability to the mats. The nanofiber mats demonstrated very high conductivity (60 {+-} 10 S cm{sup -1}, the highest value reported so far for polymer nanofibers) as well as improved electrochemical properties, due to the ultraporous nature of the electrospun mats. The mats were incorporated into all-textile flexible supercapacitors, using carbon cloths as the current collectors and electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous membranes as the separator. The textile layers were stacked and embedded in a solid electrolyte containing an ionic liquid and PVDF-co-HFP as the host polymer. The resulting supercapacitors were totally flexible and demonstrated interesting and stable performances in ambient conditions. (author)

  5. Liquid poison injection system (LPIS) for KAIGA 1, 2 and RAPP 3, 4, 220 MWe PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, K.L.; Aparna; Mohan, L.R.; Nema, M.K.; Mahajan, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    LPIS is the modified version of existing Bulk Addition Mode (BAM) of the Automatic Liquid Poison Addition System (ALPAS). This BAM mode of ALPAS serves as slow acting supplementary shutdown system to PSS or SS as the case may be and hence it becomes a part of reactor safety system. The system (LPIS) has been envisaged to perform similar functions of ALPAS mode BAM. Now this is a self standing system. This feature of the system eliminates need of Gravity Addition of Boron System (GRAB). As the concept evolved is to be introduced for first time for the power reactors (from KAIGA-1, 2 and RAPP-3, 4 onwards), it has become necessary to check and verify its working by carrying out the necessary experimental and developmental work

  6. Structural and thermodynamic properties of new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frizzo, Clarissa P., E-mail: clarissa.frizzo@yahoo.com.br [Núcleo de Química de Heterociclos (NUQUIMHE), Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Maria, UFSM, CEP: 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Villetti, Marcos A. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Santa Maria, UFSM, CEP: 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Tier, Aniele Z.; Gindri, Izabelle M.; Buriol, Lilian; Rosa, Fernanda A. [Núcleo de Química de Heterociclos (NUQUIMHE), Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Maria, UFSM, CEP: 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Claramunt, Rosa M.; Sanz, Dionisia [Departamento de Química Orgánica y Bio-Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Martins, Marcos A.P. [Núcleo de Química de Heterociclos (NUQUIMHE), Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Maria, UFSM, CEP: 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • New 4-substituted-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazinones were synthesized. • Kinetic parameters were determined by Friedmam and Ozawa–Flynn–Wall (OFW) methods. • Compound 2a was more stable than the 2d independent of the model used. • Degradation reaction of 2a and 2d occurs in a single-step. • Amorphous content of 2a and 2d was 48% and 74%, respectively. - Abstract: This work describes the synthesis of new 4-substituted-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazinones (R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, 4-F-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, benzofur-2-yl, CF{sub 3}, 4-NO{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}) from the reaction of dicarbonylpyrazoles with hydrazine hydrate. Solid and solution-state NMR were used to unequivocally assign the structure and identification of the byproduct formed when R = 4-NO{sub 2}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}. Geometrical features and the intermolecular interactions of compounds were described using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal behavior of the compounds was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Kinetic parameters, such as the activation energy (E{sub a}) and pre-exponential factor (A), were determined as a function of the conversion degree for the thermal decomposition of two compounds, by using the isoconversional methods of Friedman and Ozawa–Flynn–Wall (OFW). The results showed that the E{sub a} for thermal decomposition of compound with R = CF{sub 3} is always higher than for compound with R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, independent of the model used (Friedman or OFW), indicating that the former is more stable than the latter. Furthermore, the E{sub a} values for compounds with R = C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and CF{sub 3} are practically constant for all α values from 0.1 to 0.9, indicating the existence of a single-step degradation reaction. The kinetics results also reveal the linear dependence of E{sub a} on the pre-exponential factor. In addition, the 4-substituted-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyridazinones studied have two types of thermal

  7. Alternative [SU(3]4 model of leptonic color and dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Kownacki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The alternative [SU(3]4 model of leptonic color and dark matter is discussed. It unifies at MU∼1014 GeV and has the low-energy subgroup SU(3q×SU(2l×SU(2L×SU(2R×U(1X with (u,hR instead of (u,dR as doublets under SU(2R. It has the built-in global U(1 dark symmetry which is generalized B–L. In analogy to SU(3q quark triplets, it has SU(2l hemion doublets which have half-integral charges and are confined by SU(2l gauge bosons (stickons. In analogy to quarkonia, their vector bound states (hemionia are uniquely suited for exploration at a future e−e+ collider.

  8. Improved electrical and optical properties of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) via ordered microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Wei; Li Yu; Wu Jun; Noda, Hideki; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2007-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanorods (80-150 nm in diameter) and nanospheres were synthesized through a self-assembly method using ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) and ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidants, respectively, and camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) as the dopant. The PEDOT nanorods showed broader absorption bands, higher crystallinity and much higher room-temperature conductivity (approximately 300 S cm -1 ) than the PEDOT nanospheres. Such obviously distinct properties of these products were considered to be due to the much lower rate of polymerization with FeCl 3 than APS, which made the growth of PEDOT according to the suggested cylinder micelles more moderate and regular; as a result, the morphology of the microstructure changed and the crystallinity, the doping level, the molecular orderliness and the conductivity of PEDOT synthesized under lower rate of polymerization improved intensely at the same time

  9. Interspecies In Vitro Evaluation of Stereoselective Protein Binding for 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Raihana Wan Aasim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA is becoming more common worldwide. To date, there is no information available on stereoselectivity of MDMA protein binding in humans, rats, and mice. Since stereoselectivity plays an important role in MDMA’s pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, in this study we investigated its stereoselectivity in protein binding. The stereoselective protein binding of rac-MDMA was investigated using two different concentrations (20 and 200 ng/mL in human plasma and mouse and rat sera using an ultrafiltration technique. No significant stereoselectivity in protein binding was observed in both human plasma and rat serum; however, a significant stereoselective binding (p<0.05 was observed in mouse serum. Since the protein binding of MDMA in mouse serum is considerably lower than in humans and rats, caution should be exercised when using mice for in vitro studies involving MDMA.

  10. Opo lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases in the 3 - 4 μm spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskii, Oleg A.; Sadovnikov, Sergey A.; Kharchenko, Olga V.; Yakovlev, Semen V.

    2018-04-01

    The applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3-4 μm is studied in this work. A technique developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG) is based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases. The numerical simulation performed shows that a KTA-based OPO laser is a promising source of radiation for remote DIAL-DOAS sounding of the TAGs under study along surface tropospheric paths. A possibility of using a PD38-03-PR photodiode for the DIAL gas analysis of the atmosphere is shown.

  11. Characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate conductive polymer microelectrodes for transmitter detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Vreeland, Richard F.; Heien, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    applications such as capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, and constant potential amperometry at living cells. Band electrodes with widths down to 3 μm were fabricated on polymer substrates using UV lithographic methods. The electrodes are electrochemically stable in a range......In this paper we investigate the physical and electrochemical properties of micropatterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) microelectrodes for neurochemical detection. PEDOT:tosylate is a promising conductive polymer electrode material for chip-based bioanalytical...... between −200 mV and 700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl and show a relatively low resistance. A wide range of transmitters is shown to oxidize readily on the electrodes. Kinetic rate constants and half wave potentials are reported. The capacitance per area was found to be high (1670 ± 130 μF cm−2) compared to other thin...

  12. Mini hydro electric power stations Lukar 1,2,3,4: Public enterprise (JP) Komunalec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanova, Blagica

    2004-01-01

    The role of the Public enterprises in improving entire living conditions of the citizens, not only by its services towards the citizenship such as: water supplying and public hygiene but the opportunity to produce the electric power by the Mini hydro electric-power stations built on the main city water supply pipes. The paper presents experiences of building the mini hydro electric power stations Lukar 1,2,3,4. The successful completion of this project should be a motivation for building more electric power stations because there are great water potential in the Republic of Macedonia i.e. there have been recorded more than a hundred places suitable for construction of power electric stations. This will contribute not only for clean ecological energy but will have a direct influence on the total economic development of the Republic of Macedonia. (Author)

  13. Improvement of the electrochemical properties via poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) oriented micro/nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu.; Wang, Bichen; Chen, Huimin; Feng, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-05-01

    Arrays of oriented poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) micro/nanorods are synthesized by electrochemical galvanostatic method at the current density of 1 mA cm{sup -2} in the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) aqueous solution whose pH value is 1. The CTAB is used both as the surfactant and the supporting salt in the electrolyte solution. The electrochemical properties of PEDOT films are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge techniques, which indicate that the arrays of oriented PEDOT micro/nanorods can be applied as the electrode materials of supercapacitors. In addition, the cycling performance of PEDOT micro/nanorods is much better than that of traditional PEDOT particles. The effects of the concentration of CTAB, the current density, and pH value of electrolyte solutions on the morphologies and electrochemical properties of PEDOT films are investigated. The mechanism of different morphologies formation is discussed in this study as well. (author)

  14. Silica-gel Catalyzed Facile Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Sameer; Aware, Umesh; Patil, Amit; Rohera, Vinita; Jain, Mukul; Patel, Pankaj; Ghate, Manjunath

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a mild and highly effective procedure for the one-pot synthesis of substituted dihydropyrimidinones in high yields using silica gel as a green, highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. Our approach can be applied to the preparation of a wide range of synthetic analogues for structure-activity studies. Investigations in this direction are ongoing. The pyrimidinone ring is a basic substructure of numerous biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical products. These cores are regarded as one of the most important groups of drug-like scaffolds. 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones above are known to exhibit variety of pharmacological activity such as calcium channel modulation, mitotic kinesin Eg5 inhibition, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity, etc

  15. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymer coatings facilitate smaller neural recording electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kip A.; Langhals, Nicholas B.; Joseph, Mike D.; Richardson-Burns, Sarah M.; Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Kipke, Daryl R.

    2011-02-01

    We investigated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to lower the impedance of small, gold recording electrodes with initial impedances outside of the effective recording range. Smaller electrode sites enable more densely packed arrays, increasing the number of input and output channels to and from the brain. Moreover, smaller electrode sizes promote smaller probe designs; decreasing the dimensions of the implanted probe has been demonstrated to decrease the inherent immune response, a known contributor to the failure of long-term implants. As expected, chronically implanted control electrodes were unable to record well-isolated unit activity, primarily as a result of a dramatically increased noise floor. Conversely, electrodes coated with PEDOT consistently recorded high-quality neural activity, and exhibited a much lower noise floor than controls. These results demonstrate that PEDOT coatings enable electrode designs 15 µm in diameter.

  16. Photophysical behavior of some aromatic poly(1,3,4-oxadiazole-ether)s derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipate, A M; Homocianu, M; Hamciuc, C; Airinei, A; Bruma, M

    2014-04-05

    The change in electronic absorption and emission spectra of two fluorinated poly(1,3,4-oxadiazole-ether)s in neat and binary solvent mixtures has been studied. The optical properties, absorption and photoluminescence of these polymers were investigated in solution and in solid state. The results were discussed as a function of solvent nature, excitation wavelength and local solvent composition, X2. The Catalan solvent scale was used for describing the solvatochromic shifts of the absorption and emission bands. The following binary solvent mixtures were used: chloroform-N,N'-dimethylformamide (CHCl3-DMF), chloroform-dimethyl sulfoxide (CHCl3-DMSO), and dimethylformamide-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMF-DMSO) and the influence of their composition on the absorption and emission maxima has been analyzed. The preferential solvation parameters such as local mole fraction (X2(L)), excess function (δs2) and preferential solvation constant (KPS) were determined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGIC PROPERTIES OF SOME 1-(ALCHYLPHENYL-3-(4-(3-(PYRIDIN-2-ILACRYLOYLPHENYLTHIOUREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Popusoi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describe the synthesis of some 1-(alchylaril-3-(4-(3-pyridin-2-il acryloylphenylthiourea obtained by condensation of 2-pyridincarboxaldehide with some derivatives of 4-acetylphenilthioureas in basic medium or by addition of aliphatic and aromatic amines to the correspondingisothiocyanatopropenones. 12 new compounds were obtained and their biological properties were analysed. The substituted thioureas by pyridine radicals, morpholine and phenol show a maximum bacteriostatic activity for Gram positive microorganisms like: Staphylococcus Aureus and Enterococcus Faecalis at the minimum inhibitory concentration 9.37-37.5 μM. Antifungal activity for Candida Albicans, Aspergillus Niger, AspergillusFumigatus, Penicillium is weak, in minimum inhibitory concentration 600->600 μM. The leukemia activity like inhibitor (HL-60, is 84-96.9% at the concentration 10-5mol/l and 15- 20% and at the concentrations 10-6, 10-7mol/l.

  18. Neutron diffraction analysis of HRh[P(C6H5)3]4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, R.; Stevens, R.C.; McLean, M.; Koetzle, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    We have collected neutron diffraction data on a large single crystal of the title compound. The most surprising result is an extremely short Rh-H distance of 1.31(8) A, presumably caused by steric interactions involving the bulky triphenyl phosphine ligands. Crystallographic details: HRh[P(C 6 H 5 ) 3 ] 4 . 1 / 2 C 6 H 6 crystallizes in the space group Pa3, with a = b = c = 22.776(3) A, Z = 8. Data were collected at the Brookhaven High Flux Beam reactor at a temperature of -23 0 C, λ = 1.15882(7) A -1 . Least-squares refinement (in which the phenyl rings were treated as rigid groups) resulted in an R factor [based on data with f > 4σ(F)] of 0.12 for 914 reflections and 95 parameters. 10 refs

  19. 1,3-Diphenyl-3,4-dihydrobenzo[b][1,6]naphthyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Seebacher

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H18N2, is the first structural example containing the 3,4-dihydrobenzo[b][1,6]naphthyridine fragment. It was synthesized from 2,4,6,8-tetraphenyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one and was crystallized from a methanol–ethanol solution over two years as a racemate. The C=N double bond [1.2868 (15 Å] is bent significantly out of the plane of the aromatic bicyclic ring system [N—C—C—C = −157.63 (12°] and out of the plane of the phenyl ring bonded at the 1-position [N—C—C—C = 41.15 (16°].

  20. Strongly oxidizing perylene-3,4-dicarboximides for use in water oxidation photoelectrochemical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, Rebecca J.; Phelan, Brian T.; Reynal, Anna; Margulies, Eric A.; Shoer, Leah E.; Durrant, James R.; Wasielewski, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Perylene-3,4-dicarboximide (PMI) based chromophores have demonstrated the ability to inject electrons into TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell applications and to accept electrons from metal complexes relevant to water oxidation, but they are nearly unexplored for use in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) for solar fuels generation. A series of related PMIs with high oxidation potentials and carboxylate binding groups was synthesized and investigated for this purpose. Charge injection and recombination dynamics were measured using transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy on the picosecond to second timescales. The dynamics and electron injection yields were correlated with the PMI energetics and structures. Injection began in less than 1 ps for the dye with the best performance and a significant charge-separated state yield remained at long times. Finally, this chromophore was used to oxidize a covalently bound water oxidation precatalyst following electron injection into TiO2 to demonstrate the utility of the dyes for use in PECs.

  1. Design and synthesis of 4-heteroaryl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines as triple reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Zha, Congxiang; Nacro, Kassoum; Hu, Min; Cui, Wenge; Yang, Yuh-Lin; Bhatt, Ulhas; Sambandam, Aruna; Isherwood, Matthew; Yet, Larry; Herr, Michael T; Ebeltoft, Sarah; Hassler, Carla; Fleming, Linda; Pechulis, Anthony D; Payen-Fornicola, Anne; Holman, Nicholas; Milanowski, Dennis; Cotterill, Ian; Mozhaev, Vadim; Khmelnitsky, Yuri; Guzzo, Peter R; Sargent, Bruce J; Molino, Bruce F; Olson, Richard; King, Dalton; Lelas, Snjezana; Li, Yu-Wen; Johnson, Kim; Molski, Thaddeus; Orie, Anitra; Ng, Alicia; Haskell, Roy; Clarke, Wendy; Bertekap, Robert; O'Connell, Jonathan; Lodge, Nicholas; Sinz, Michael; Adams, Stephen; Zaczek, Robert; Macor, John E

    2014-07-10

    A series of 4-bicyclic heteroaryl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT) was discovered. The synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs) will be discussed. Compound 10i (AMR-2), a very potent inhibitor of SERT, NET, and DAT, showed efficacy in the rat forced-swim and mouse tail suspension models with minimum effective doses of 0.3 and 1 mg/kg (po), respectively. At efficacious doses in these assays, 10i exhibited substantial occupancy levels at the three transporters in both rat and mouse brain. The study of the metabolism of 10i revealed the formation of a significant active metabolite, compound 13.

  2. Silica-gel Catalyzed Facile Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sameer; Aware, Umesh; Patil, Amit; Rohera, Vinita; Jain, Mukul; Patel, Pankaj [Zydus Research Centre, Sarkhej-Bavla N.H., Ahmedabad (India); Ghate, Manjunath [Nirma University, Ahmedabad (India)

    2012-02-15

    We have developed a mild and highly effective procedure for the one-pot synthesis of substituted dihydropyrimidinones in high yields using silica gel as a green, highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. Our approach can be applied to the preparation of a wide range of synthetic analogues for structure-activity studies. Investigations in this direction are ongoing. The pyrimidinone ring is a basic substructure of numerous biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical products. These cores are regarded as one of the most important groups of drug-like scaffolds. 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones above are known to exhibit variety of pharmacological activity such as calcium channel modulation, mitotic kinesin Eg5 inhibition, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity, etc.

  3. Alternative [SU(3)]4 model of leptonic color and dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Popov, Oleg; Zakeri, Mohammadreza

    2018-03-01

    The alternative [ SU (3) ] 4 model of leptonic color and dark matter is discussed. It unifies at MU ∼1014 GeV and has the low-energy subgroup SU(3)q × SU(2)l × SU(2)L × SU(2)R × U(1)X with (u , h) R instead of (u , d) R as doublets under SU(2)R. It has the built-in global U (1) dark symmetry which is generalized B- L. In analogy to SU(3)q quark triplets, it has SU(2)l hemion doublets which have half-integral charges and are confined by SU(2)l gauge bosons (stickons). In analogy to quarkonia, their vector bound states (hemionia) are uniquely suited for exploration at a future e-e+ collider.

  4. Analysis of a station blackout transient at the Kori units 3/4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Hho Jung

    1992-01-01

    A transient analysis of station blackout accident is performed to evaluate the plant specific capability to cope with the accident at the Kori Units 3/4. The RELAP5/MOD3/5m5 code and full three loop modelling scheme are used in the calculation. The leak flow from reactor coolant system due to a failure of reactor coolant pump seal following the accident is assumed to be 25 gpm and the turbine driven aux feedwater unavailable. As a result, it is found that no core uncovery occurs in the plant until 7100 sec following a station blackout, the steam generator has a decay heat removal capability until 3100 sec, and the natural circulation over the reactor coolant loop until the complete loop seal voiding are observed. And the Nuclear Plant Analyzer is used and found to be effective in improving the phenomenological understanding on the accident

  5. "Utuslah Aku": Eksposisi Yunus Pasal 3-4 Tentang Pengutusan Nabi Yunus Berdasarkan Perspektif Allah Menyesal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peniel C.D. Maiaweng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available mereka yang seharusnya dipanggilTuhan untuk pergi ke Niniwe (1:1-2, tetapi melarikan diri ke Tarsis (1:4-14, dan saat ini sedang berdoa dalam perut ikan besar dengankebingungannya (Yun. 2:1-9, akan kembali kepada panggilannya, yaituberbalik arah menuju ke Niniwe (3:1-2, untuk melaksanakanpelayanannya (3:4-9, karena Allah yang memanggil, walaupun Iadisebut Allah yang menyesal, tetapi Ia adalah Allah yang menyerukananugerah, Allah menerima pertobatan, dan diakui dalam pemberitaanPerjanjian Lama. Sebagai Allah yang menyesal, Ia adalah Allah yangterbuka terhadap orang-orang yang belum diselamatkan; Ia adalah Allahyang berdaulat untuk melakukan yang terbaik bagi manusia; Ia adalahAllah yang Mahatahu yang mengantisipasi segala perubahan sikap hidupmanusia di masa yang akan datang; Ia adalah Allah yang konsistenterhadap firman yang telah dinyatakan-Nya; dan Ia adalah Allah yangkonsisten terhadap sifat-sifat-Nya, sebagai Allah yang penyayang danpengasih serta panjang sabar dan berlimpah kasihs setia (4:2.

  6. A new look into conformational, vibrational and electronic structure analysis of 3,4-dimethoxybenzonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Devi, L; Remya, P; Mohan, S

    2013-09-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 3,4-dimethoxybenzonitrile (34DMBN) have been analysed. Quantum chemical studies were performed with B3LYP method using 6-311++G(d,p), 6-31G(d,p) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The electron donating effect of -OCH3 and electron withdrawing effect of -C≡N groups on the ring parameters were thoroughly analysed. The structural parameters, energies, thermodynamic properties, vibrational frequencies and the NBO charges of 34DMBN were determined. The (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts with respect to TMS were investigated and also calculated theoretically using the gauge independent atomic orbital method and compared with the experimental data. The delocalisation energy of different types of bonding interactions was investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Eight-Element Antenna Array for LTE 3.4-3.8 GHz Mobile Handset Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingsheng; Ji, Ming; Cheng, Biyu; Ni, Bo

    2017-05-01

    In this letter, an eight-element Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system for LTE mobile handset applications is proposed. The antenna array consists of eight 3D inverted F-shaped antennas (3D-IFA), and the measured -10 dB impedance bandwidth is 3.2-3.9 GHz which can cover the LTE bands 42 and 43 (3.4-3.8 GHz). By controlling the rotation of the antenna elements, no less than 10 dB isolation between antenna elements can be obtained. After using the specially designed meandered slots on the ground as decoupling structures, the measured isolation can be further improved to higher than 13 dB between the antenna elements at the whole operating band.

  8. 3-4.5 μm continuously tunable single mode VECSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Zogg, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present continuously tunable Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) in the mid-infrared. The structure based on IV-VI semiconductors is epitaxially grown on a Si-substrates. The VECSEL emit one single mode, which is mode hop-free tunable over 50-100 nm around the center wavelength. In this work, two different devices are presented, emitting at 3.4 μm and 3.9 μm, respectively. The lasers operate near room temperature with thermoelectric stabilization. They are optically pumped, yielding an output power >10 mWp. The axial symmetric emission beam has a half divergence angle of <3.3∘.

  9. Crystal structure of tetraethylammonium chloride 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Viger-Gravel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Equimolar quantities of tetraethylammonium chloride (Et4NCl and 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene (o-DITFB or o-C6F4I2 have been co-crystallized in a solution of dichloromethane yielding a pure halogen-bonded compound, 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene–tetraethyl ammonium chloride (2/1, Et4N+·Cl−·2C6F4I2, in the form of translucent needles. [(Et4NCl(o-C6F4I22] packs in the C2/c space group. The asymmetric unit includes one molecule of DITFB, one Et4N+ cation located on a twofold rotation axis, and one chloride anion also located on a twofold rotation symmetry axis. This compound has an interesting halogen-bonding environment surrounding the halide. Here, the chloride anion acts as a tetradentate halogen bond acceptor and forms a distorted square-pyramidal geometry, with I...Cl−...I angles of 80.891 (6 and 78.811 (11°, where two crystallographically distinct iodine atoms form halogen bonds with the chloride anion. Resulting from that square-pyramidal geometry are short contacts between some of the adjacent F atoms. Along the b axis, the halogen-bonding interaction results in a polymeric network, producing a sheet in which the two closest chloride ions are 7.8931 (6 Å apart. The Et4N+ cation alternates in columns with the halide ion. The expected short contacts (shorter than the sum of their van der Waals radii are observed for the halogen bonds [3.2191 (2 and 3.2968 (2 Å], as well as almost linear angles [170.953 (6 and 173.529 (6°].

  10. A Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System: A Validated Alternative to the Gleason Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jonathan I.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Nelson, Joel B.; Egevad, Lars; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Vickers, Andrew J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.; Eastham, James A.; Wiklund, Peter; Han, Misop; Reddy, Chandana A.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Nyberg, Tommy; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite revisions in 2005 and 2014, the Gleason prostate cancer (PCa) grading system still has major deficiencies. Combining of Gleason scores into a three-tiered grouping (6, 7, 8–10) is used most frequently for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. The lowest score, assigned 6, may be misunderstood as a cancer in the middle of the grading scale, and 3 + 4 = 7 and 4 + 3 = 7 are often considered the same prognostic group. Objective To verify that a new grading system accurately produces a smaller number of grades with the most significant prognostic differences, using multi-institutional and multimodal therapy data. Design, setting, and participants Between 2005 and 2014, 20 845 consecutive men were treated by radical prostatectomy at five academic institutions; 5501 men were treated with radiotherapy at two academic institutions. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Outcome was based on biochemical recurrence (BCR). The log-rank test assessed univariable differences in BCR by Gleason score. Separate univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards used four possible categorizations of Gleason scores. Results and limitations In the surgery cohort, we found large differences in recurrence rates between both Gleason 3 + 4 versus 4 + 3 and Gleason 8 versus 9. The hazard ratios relative to Gleason score 6 were 1.9, 5.1, 8.0, and 11.7 for Gleason scores 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9–10, respectively. These differences were attenuated in the radiotherapy cohort as a whole due to increased adjuvant or neoadjuvant hormones for patients with high-grade disease but were clearly seen in patients undergoing radiotherapy only. A five–grade group system had the highest prognostic discrimination for all cohorts on both univariable and multivariable analysis. The major limitation was the unavoidable use of prostate-specific antigen BCR as an end point as opposed to cancer-related death. Conclusions The new PCa grading system has these benefits: more

  11. D-6-Deoxy-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, a mimic of D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate: biological activity and pH-dependent conformational properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, Graeme; Maechling, Clarisse; Fleig, Andrea; Hirata, Masato; Penner, Reinhold; Spiess, Bernard; Potter, Barry V.L.

    2004-01-01

    D-6-Deoxy-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [D-6-deoxy-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 ] 3 is a novel deoxygenated analogue of D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 ] 2, a central and enigmatic molecule in the polyphosphoinositide pathway of cellular signalling. D-6-Deoxy-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 is a moderate inhibitor of Ins(1,4,5)P 3 5-phosphatase [1.8 μM] compared to Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 [0.15 μM] and similar to that of L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 [1.8 μM]. In displacement of [ 3 H] Ins(1,4,5)P 3 from the rat cerebellar Ins(1,4,5)P 3 receptor, while slightly weaker [IC 50 =800 nM] than that of D-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 [IC 50 =220 nM], 3 is less markedly different and again similar to that of L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 [IC 50 =660 nM]. 3 is an activator of I CRAC when inward currents are measured in RBL-2H3-M1 cells using patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques with a facilitation curve different to that of Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 . Physicochemical properties were studied by potentiometric 31 P and 1 H NMR titrations and were similar to those of Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 apart from the observation of a biphasic titration curve for the P1 phosphate group. A novel vicinal phosphate charge-induced conformational change of the inositol ring above pH 10 was observed for D-6-deoxy-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 that would normally be hindered because of the central stabilising role played by the 6-OH group in Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 . We conclude that the 6-OH group in Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 is crucial for its physicochemical behaviour and biological properties of this key inositol phosphate

  12. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 2,5-Bisubstituted Derivatives of 1,3,4-Thiadiazol-2,5-dithiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Zhivotova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazol-2,5-dithiol with different organohalogens, chlorides of carboxylic acids, acrylic acid derivatives, alkaloids, and secondary amines, various derivatives of 2,5-bi-substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole were synthesized, and biological properties of some of them were studied.

  13. Dopamine-induced SULT1A3/4 promotes EMT and cancer stemness in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Juan; Li, Hong; Huang, Qianling; Liu, Xiaomin; Qi, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Ying; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2017-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma has the second highest incidence rate among malignant cancers in China. Hepatocellular carcinoma development is complex because of the metabolism disequilibrium involving SULT1A3/4, a predominant sulfotransferase that metabolizes sulfonic xenobiotics and endogenous catecholamines. However, the correlation between SULT1A3/4 and hepatocellular carcinoma progression is unclear. By utilizing immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis, we found that in nine hepatocellular carcinoma clinical specimens, SULT1A3/4 was abundantly expressed in tumor tissues compared to that in the adjacent tissues. Moreover, liver cancer cells (HepG2, MHCC97-L, and MHCC97-H) had higher basal expression of SULT1A3/4 than immortalized liver cells (L02 and Chang liver). Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay results further revealed that the concentration of dopamine (a substrate of SULT1A3/4) was negatively correlated with SULT1A3/4 protein expression. As a transcriptional regulator of SULT1A3/4 in turn, dopamine was used to induce SULT1A3/4 in vitro. Interestingly, dopamine significantly induced SULT1A3/4 expression in liver cancer HepG2 cells, while decreased that in L02 cells. More importantly, the expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition biomarkers (N-cadherin and vimentin) and cell stemness biomarkers (nanog, sox2, and oct3/4) considerably increased in HepG2 with dopamine-induced SULT1A3/4, whereas in L02, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-associated proteins were contrarily decreased. Furthermore, invasion and migration assays further revealed that dopamine-induced SULT1A3/4 dramatically stimulated the metastatic capacity of HepG2 cells. Our results implied that SULT1A3/4 exhibited bidirectional effect on tumor and normal hepatocytes and may thus provide a novel strategy for hepatocellular carcinoma clinical targeting. In addition, SULT1A3/4 re-expression could serve as a biomarker for

  14. PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 is a regulator of myosin-X localization and filopodia formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plantard, Laure; Arjonen, Antti; Lock, John G

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] is a key regulator of cell signaling that acts by recruiting proteins to the cell membrane, such as at the leading edge during cell migration. Here, we show that PtdIns (3,4,5)P3 plays a central role in filopodia formation via the bindi...... endosomal vesicles. Given that the localization of Myo10 was dynamically restored to filopodia upon reinstatement of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-binding, our results indicate that PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 binding to the Myo10-PH2 domain is involved in Myo10 trafficking and regulation of filopodia dynamics....

  15. Pharmacokinetic, Ambulatory, and Hyperthermic Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-Methylcathinone (Methylone in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Štefková

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone is a synthetic cathinone analog of the recreational drug ecstasy. Although it is marketed to recreational users as relatively safe, fatalities due to hyperthermia, serotonin syndrome, and multi-organ system failure have been reported. Since psychopharmacological data remain scarce, we have focused our research on pharmacokinetics, and on a detailed evaluation of temporal effects of methylone and its metabolite nor-methylone on behavior and body temperature in rats. Methylone [5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg subcutaneously (s.c.] and nor-methylone (10 mg/kg s.c. were used in adolescent male Wistar rats across three behavioral/physiological procedures and in two temporal windows from administration (15 and 60 min in order to test: locomotor effects in the open field, sensorimotor gating in the test of prepulse inhibition (PPI, and effects on rectal temperature in individually and group-housed rats. Serum and brain pharmacokinetics after 10 mg/kg s.c. over 8 h were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Serum and brain levels of methylone and nor-methylone peaked at 30 min after administration, both drugs readily penetrated the brain with serum: brain ratio 1:7.97. Methylone dose-dependently increased overall locomotion. It also decrease the amount of time spent in the center of open field arena in dose 20 mg/kg and additionally this dose induced stereotyped circling around the arena walls. The maximum of effects corresponded to the peak of its brain concentrations. Nor-methylone had approximately the same behavioral potency. Methylone also has weak potency to disturb PPI. Behavioral testing was not performed with 40 mg/kg, because it was surprisingly lethal to some animals. Methylone 10 and 20 mg/kg s.c. induced hyperthermic reaction which was more pronounced in group-housed condition relative to individually housed rats. To conclude, methylone increased exploration and

  16. Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibits complement activation by cleaving complement component 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiichi Mawatari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is mediated in part by viral proteins that abrogate the host immune response, including the complement system, but the precise mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated whether HCV proteins are involved in the fragmentation of complement component 4 (C4, composed of subunits C4α, C4β, and C4γ, and the role of HCV proteins in complement activation. METHODS: Human C4 was incubated with HCV nonstructural (NS 3/4A protease, core, or NS5. Samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then subjected to peptide sequencing. The activity of the classical complement pathway was examined using an erythrocyte hemolysis assay. The cleavage pattern of C4 in NS3/4A-expressing and HCV-infected cells, respectively, was also examined. RESULTS: HCV NS3/4A protease cleaved C4γ in a concentration-dependent manner, but viral core and NS5 did not. A specific inhibitor of NS3/4A protease reduced C4γ cleavage. NS3/4A protease-mediated cleavage of C4 inhibited classical pathway activation, which was abrogated by a NS3/4A protease inhibitor. In addition, co-transfection of cells with C4 and wild-type NS3/4A, but not a catalytic-site mutant of NS3/4A, produced cleaved C4γ fragments. Such C4 processing, with a concomitant reduction in levels of full-length C4γ, was also observed in HCV-infected cells expressing C4. CONCLUSIONS: C4 is a novel cellular substrate of the HCV NS3/4A protease. Understanding disturbances in the complement system mediated by NS3/4A protease may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying persistent HCV infection.

  17. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  18. Scaffold Hopping Toward Agomelatine: Novel 3, 4-Dihydroisoquinoline Compounds as Potential Antidepressant Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ang, Wei; Long, Haiyue; Chang, Ying; Li, Zicheng; Zhou, Liangxue; Yang, Tao; Deng, Yong; Luo, Youfu

    2016-10-01

    A scaffold-hopping strategy toward Agomelatine based on in silico screening and knowledge analysis was employed to design novel antidepressant agents. A series of 3, 4-dihydroisoquinoline compounds were selected for chemical synthesis and biological assessment. Three compounds (6a-1, 6a-2, 6a-9) demonstrated protective effects on corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Compound 6a-1 also displayed low inhibitory effects on the growth of HEK293 and L02 normal cells and it was further evaluated for its potential antidepressant effects in vivo. The forced swim test (FST) results revealed that compound 6a-1 remarkably reduced the immobility time of rats and the open field test (OFT) results indicated a better general locomotor activity of the rats treated with compound 6a-1 than those with Agomelatine or Fluoxetine. Mechanism studies implied that compound 6a-1 can significantly reduce PC12 cell apoptosis by up-regulation of GSH and down-regulation of ROS in corticosterone-induced lesion of PC12 cells. Meanwhile, the down-regulation of calcium ion concentration and up-regulation of BDNF level in PC12 cells may account for the neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, compound 6a-1 can increase cell survival and cell proliferation, promote cell maturation in the rat hippocampus after chronic treatment. The acute toxicity data in vivo indicated compound 6a-1 exhibited less hepatotoxicity than Agomelatine.

  19. Flammable gas production in Land 2 and Land 3/4 radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    Geological, radiolytic and microbiological sources of gas are considered in relation to Land 2 and Land 3/4 type radioactive waste repositories. Geological sources are potentially the most troublesome and it is concluded that site investigation work should be designed to detect gas trap structures, reservoir lithologies or source rocks. Known source and reservoir lithologies should not be considered as suitable for the siting of waste repositories. Radiolytic and microbiological sources will depend on waste characteristics. A detailed review of the literature on radiolytic gas generation is presented and conclusions from this work indicate that water in waste and matrix should be kept to a minimum. Similarly, the level of radioactivity stored in each waste container should be kept to the minimum compatible with the storage design. Microbiological gas sources will be reduced by maintaining the cellulose content of the waste at a minimum. It is suggested that the removal of organics from the waste stream would be beneficial in terms of potential gas production. (author)

  20. Conjugation of 3, 4-benzpyrene and 1, 2-benzanthracene with plant peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durmishidze, A.S.V.; Chrikishvili, D.I.; Devdariani, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    It is known that one of the main pathways in the biotransformation of certain xenobiotics is their conjugation with endogenous compounds of the plant cell. This work presents the results on the establishment of pathway of conjugation of BP and BA with endogenous compounds of the cell. Ten-day corn and pea seedlings, grown under sterile conditions, were incubated in aqueous solutions of [7,10 14 C]-3,4-benzpyrene and [9 14 C]-1,2-benzanthracene. The specific radioactivity of aqueous solutions of [7,10 14 C]-BP and [9 14 C]-BA was 2112·10 4 and 2006·10 4 Bq/ml, respectively. Individual highly radioactive conversion products of BP and BA were subjected to acid hydrolysis and qualitative analysis of the radioactive and nonradioactive compounds of the hydrolysates. An analysis of the nonradioactive components showed that they are peptides with various amino acid compositions. Thus, the investigated conversion products are conjugation products of hydroxy derivatives of BP and BA with endogenous cell peptides. The conversion products of BP and BA were investigated to detect conjugates with endogenous carbohydrates. Despite careful searches, the conjugates of interest could not be detected

  1. Unraveling the Order and Disorder in Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Poly(styrenesulfonate) Nanofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2015-08-03

    Conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) exhibits a tunable conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 4380 S·cm–1 under different doping and/or dedoping strategies. However, the dependence of macroscopic electrical properties on the evolution of the microstructure is not clearly understood. This is the first study that systematically investigated the spatial arrangement of the ordered and disordered phases in PEDOT/PSS nanofilms by bright-field (BF), high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and element-thickness mapping. Our observations clarify how amorphous PSS hinders electrical transport at various length scales in the PEDOT/PSS films. Moreover, the mechanism for an enhancement in 3 orders of magnitude in electrical conductivity was proved by TEM investigation, which is mainly due to a more uniform dispersion by dedoping that opens PEDOT nanoparticle clusters in PEDOT/PSS films. Our microstructural and electrical studies show that the change in spatial arrangement and interaction of small PEDOT domains plays a considerable role in the final electron transport.

  2. DNA interaction studies of sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxyphenol) food additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Soheila; Tahmasian Ghobadi, Ameneh; Roshanfekr, Hamideh; Shariati, Zohreh

    2013-02-01

    The interaction of native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxyphenol) in Tris-HCl buffer at neutral pH 7.4 was monitored by absorption spectrophotometry, viscometry and spectrofluorometry. It is found that sesamol molecules could interact with DNA outside and/or groove binding modes, as are evidenced by: hyperchromism in UV absorption band, very slow decrease in specific viscosity of DNA, and small increase in the fluorescence of methylene blue (MB)-DNA solutions in the presence of increasing amounts of sesamol, which indicates that it is able to partially release the bound MB. Furthermore, the enthalpy and entropy of the reaction between sesamol and CT-DNA showed that the reaction is enthalpy-favored and entropy-disfavored (ΔH = -174.08 kJ mol(-1); ΔS = -532.92 J mol(-1) K(-1)). The binding constant was determined using absorption measurement and found to be 2.7 × 10(4) M(-1); its magnitude suggests that sesamol interacts to DNA with a high affinity.

  3. 3,4,5,6-Tetrafluorophenylnitren-2-yl: a ground-state quartet triradical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Dirk; Finke, Christopher; Kossmann, Simone; Neese, Frank; Sander, Wolfram

    2010-04-19

    The photochemistry of 2-iodo-3,4,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl azide (7 d) has been investigated in argon and neon matrices at 4 K, and the products characterized by IR and EPR spectroscopy. The primary photochemical step is loss of a nitrogen molecule and formation of phenyl nitrene 1 d. Further irradiation with UV or visible light results in mixtures of 1 d with azirine 5 d', ketenimine 6 d', nitreno radical 2 d, and azirinyl radical 9. The relative amounts of these products strongly depend on the matrix and on the irradiation conditions. Nitreno radical 2 d with a quartet ground state was characterized by EPR spectroscopy. Electronic structure calculations in combination with the experimental results allow for a detailed understanding of the properties of this unusual new type of organic high-spin molecules. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effects of (± 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA on Sleep and Circadian Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una D. McCann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of stimulant drugs invariably leads to a disruption in sleep-wake patterns by virtue of the arousing and sleep-preventing effects of these drugs. Certain stimulants, such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, may also have the potential to produce persistent alterations in circadian regulation and sleep because they can be neurotoxic toward brain monoaminergic neurons involved in normal sleep regulation. In particular, MDMA has been found to damage brain serotonin (5-HT neurons in a variety of animal species, including nonhuman primates, with growing evidence that humans are also susceptible to MDMA-induced brain 5-HT neurotoxicity. 5-HT is an important modulator of sleep and circadian rhythms and, therefore, individuals who sustain MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity may be at risk for developing chronic abnormalities in sleep and circadian patterns. In turn, such abnormalities could play a significant role in other alterations reported in abstinent in MDMA users (e.g., memory disturbance. This paper will review preclinical and clinical studies that have explored the effects of prior MDMA exposure on sleep, circadian activity, and the circadian pacemaker, and will highlight current gaps in knowledge and suggest areas for future research.

  5. Transcriptomic configuration of mouse brain induced by adolescent exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Jung Woo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Noh, Ji Heon; Jung, Kwang Hwa; Kim, Jeong Kyu; Bae, Hyun Jin; Xie Hongjian; Ryu, Jae Chun; Ahn, Young Min; Min, Jin-Hye; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Rhee, Gyu Seek; Nam, Suk Woo

    2009-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a synthetic amphetamine analogue used recreationally to obtain an enhanced affiliative emotional response. MDMA is a potent monoaminergic neurotoxin with the potential to damage brain serotonin and/or dopamine neurons. As the majority of MDMA users are young adults, the risk that users may expose the fetus to MDMA is a concern. However, the majority of studies on MDMA have investigated the effects on adult animals. Here, we investigated whether long-term exposure to MDMA, especially in adolescence, could induce comprehensive transcriptional changes in mouse brain. Transcriptomic analysis of mouse brain regions demonstrated significant gene expression changes in the cerebral cortex. Supervised analysis identified 1028 genes that were chronically dysregulated by long-term exposure to MDMA in adolescent mice. Functional categories most represented by this MDMA characteristic signature are intracellular molecular signaling pathways of neurotoxicity, such as, the MAPK signaling pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, long-term potentiation, and the long-term depression signaling pathway. Although these resultant large-scale molecular changes remain to be studied associated with functional brain damage caused by MDMA, our observations delineate the possible neurotoxic effects of MDMA on brain function, and have therapeutic implications concerning neuro-pathological conditions associated with MDMA abuse.

  6. The Prosocial Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): Controlled Studies in Humans and Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar-Britt, Philip; Bedi, Gillinder

    2015-01-01

    Users of ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ‘ecstasy’) report prosocial effects such as sociability and empathy. Supporting these apparently unique social effects, data from controlled laboratory studies indicate that MDMA alters social feelings, information processing, and behavior in humans, and social behavior in rodents. Here, we review this growing body of evidence. In rodents, MDMA increases passive prosocial behavior (adjacent lying) and social reward while decreasing aggression, effects that may involve serotonin 1A receptor mediated oxytocin release interacting with vasopressin receptor 1A. In humans, MDMA increases plasma oxytocin and produces feelings of social affiliation. It decreases identification of negative facial expressions (cognitive empathy) and blunts responses to social rejection, while enhancing responses to others’ positive emotions (emotional empathy) and increasing social approach. Thus, consistent with drug folklore, laboratory administration of MDMA robustly alters social processing in humans and increases social approach in humans and animals. Effects are consistent with increased sociability, with mixed evidence about enhanced empathy. These neurobiologically-complex prosocial effects likely motivate recreational ecstasy use. PMID:26408071

  7. The ANGPTL3-4-8 model, a molecular mechanism for triglyceride trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren

    2016-04-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme for hydrolysing circulating triglycerides (TG) into free fatty acids that are taken up by peripheral tissues. Postprandial LPL activity rises in white adipose tissue (WAT), but declines in the heart and skeletal muscle, thereby directing circulating TG to WAT for storage; the reverse is true during fasting. However, the mechanism for the tissue-specific regulation of LPL activity during the fed-fast cycle has been elusive. Recent identification of lipasin/angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8), a feeding-induced hepatokine, together with Angptl3 and Angptl4, provides intriguing, yet puzzling, insights, because all the three Angptl members are LPL inhibitors, and the deficiency (overexpression) of any one causes hypotriglyceridaemia (hypertriglyceridaemia). Then, why does nature need all of the three? Our recent data that Angptl8 negatively regulates LPL activity specifically in cardiac and skeletal muscles suggest an Angptl3-4-8 model: feeding induces Angptl8, activating the Angptl8-Angptl3 pathway, which inhibits LPL in cardiac and skeletal muscles, thereby making circulating TG available for uptake by WAT, in which LPL activity is elevated owing to diminished Angptl4; the reverse is true during fasting, which suppresses Angptl8 but induces Angptl4, thereby directing TG to muscles. The model suggests a general framework for how TG trafficking is regulated. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Micro-structured electrochromic device based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutschmann, T; Oesterschulze, E

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in consumer electronics, e.g. smartphones, tablet PCs or compact cameras, demand the development of very compact, active, optical microsystems. Because of their low power consumption, low operation voltage and cheap fabrication, voltage-controlled electrochromic devices (ECDs) based on polymer materials are promising candidates. However, the broad application of ECDs is still hindered by crucial technological obstacles. In this paper, we address two main issues: the structuring of the electrochromic material (ECM) and its underlying transparent conductive electrode on a microscale and additionally, the assembly of the ECD as an electrochemical cell with the challenges of airtight sealing, appropriate chemical stability, electrical insulation and the necessity of defining a compartment to hold the liquid electrolyte inside the cell. We first introduce a technological sequence consisting of batch processes (UV lithography and dry and wet etching) to render the microscale structuring of the ECM possible. Furthermore, we exploit the outstanding properties of the thick film dry photoresist Ordyl SY 300 to complete the assembly of ECDs with single-layer technology. As a proof of principle, we present the first results of an ECD device based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) material that works as an aperture stop with three coaxial segments, each individually controlled by an external voltage. (paper)

  9. Source biases in midlatitude magnetotelluric transfer functions due to Pc3-4 geomagnetic pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin S.; Egbert, Gary D.

    2018-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method for imaging the electrical conductivity structure of the Earth is based on the assumption that source magnetic fields can be considered quasi-uniform, such that the spatial scale of the inducing source is much larger than the intrinsic length scale of the electromagnetic induction process (the skin depth). Here, we show using EarthScope MT data that short spatial scale source magnetic fields from geomagnetic pulsations (Pc's) can violate this fundamental assumption. Over resistive regions of the Earth, the skin depth can be comparable to the short meridional range of Pc3-4 disturbances that are generated by geomagnetic field-line resonances (FLRs). In such cases, Pc's can introduce narrow-band bias in MT transfer function estimates at FLR eigenperiods ( 10-100 s). Although it appears unlikely that these biases will be a significant problem for data inversions, further study is necessary to understand the conditions under which they may distort inverse solutions.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Ganoboninketals A-C, Antiplasmodial 3,4-seco-27-Norlanostane Triterpenes from Ganoderma boninense Pat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Ren, Jinwei; Han, Junjie; Bao, Li; Li, Li; Yao, Yijian; Sun, Chen; Zhou, Bing; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-08-22

    Three new nortriterpenes, ganoboninketals A-C (1-3), featuring rearranged 3,4-seco-27-norlanostane skeletons and highly complex polycyclic systems were isolated from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma boninense. The structures of the new metabolites were established by spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations in 1-3 were assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 1-3 showed antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 4.0, 7.9, and 1.7 μM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 3 also displayed weak cytotoxicity against A549 cell line with IC50 values of 47.6 and 35.8 μM, respectively. Compound 2 showed weak cytotoxicity toward HeLa cell line with an IC50 value of 65.5 μM. Compounds 1-3 also presented NO inhibitory activity in the LPS-induced macrophages with IC50 values of 98.3, 24.3, and 60.9 μM, respectively.

  11. Spectroscopic studies and quantum chemical investigations of (3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) propanedinitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ujval; Kumar, Vinay; Singh, Vivek K; Kant, Rajni; Khajuria, Yugal

    2015-04-05

    The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultra-Violet Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis of (3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene) propanedinitrile have been carried out and investigated using quantum chemical calculations. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, Mulliken charges, natural atomic charges and thermodynamic properties in the ground state have been investigated by using Hartree Fock Theory (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) using B3LYP functional with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Both HF and DFT methods yield good agreement with the experimental data. Vibrational modes are assigned with the help of Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) program. UV-Visible spectrum was recorded in the spectral range of 190-800nm and the results are compared with the calculated values using TD-DFT approach. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results obtained from the studies of Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) are used to calculate molecular parameters like ionization potential, electron affinity, global hardness, electron chemical potential and global electrophilicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A positron emission tomograph designed for 3/4 mm resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInytre, J.A.; Allen, R.D.; Aguiar, J.; Paulson, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    Two factors of the design for a positron tomograph affect the magnitude of the tomograph spatial resolution: the gamma ray detector width and the analogue measurement of the scintillator location. In the tomograph design reported here the analogue measurement is eliminated and the detector transaxial width factor is reduced to 3/4 mm. The analogue measurement is eliminated by transmitting the scintillation light from each individual scintillator through optical fibers to four photo-multipliers (PMT's); the identities of the PMT's then provide a digital address for the scintillation location. Plastic scintillators are used to provide enough scintillation light for transmission through the optical fibers. Bonuses from the use of plastic scintillators are first, the reduction of the scintillator dead time to about 10 nsec, second, a large reduction of cross-talk between neighboring scintillators, third, the reduction of resolution loss from off-axis gamma rays and, fourth, the ability to sample the axial image at one-eighth the axial resolution distance of 2.5 mm. The designed tomograph incorporates 20 rings. Two of the 32 tomograph 20-ring modules have been constructed to measure the resolution and other characteristics of the tomographs

  13. Residual effects of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on low level visual processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; Bruno, Raimondo; Brown, John

    2012-03-01

    'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) induces impaired functioning in the serotonergic system, including the occipital lobe. This study employed the 'tilt aftereffect' paradigm to operationalise the function of orientation-selective neurons among ecstasy consumers and controls as a means of investigating the role of reduced serotonin on visual orientation processing. The magnitude of the tilt aftereffect reflects the extent of lateral inhibition between orientation-selective neurons and is elicited to both 'real' contours, processed in visual cortex area V1, and illusory contours, processed in V2. The magnitude of tilt aftereffect to both contour types was examined among 19 ecstasy users (6 ecstasy only; 13 ecstasy-plus-cannabis users) and 23 matched controls (9 cannabis-only users; 14 drug-naive). Ecstasy users had a significantly greater tilt magnitude than non-users for real contours (Hedge's g = 0.63) but not for illusory contours (g = 0.20). These findings provide support for literature suggesting that residual effects of ecstasy (and reduced serotonin) impairs lateral inhibition between orientation-selective neurons in V1, which however suggests that ecstasy may not substantially affect this process in V2. Multiple studies have now demonstrated ecstasy-related deficits on basic visual functions, including orientation and motion processing. Such low-level effects may contribute to the impact of ecstasy use on neuropsychological tests of visuospatial function. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Involvement of autophagy upregulation in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy')-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, I-Hsun; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Kao, Tzu-Jen; Lin, Yang-Yi; Weng, Shao-Ju; Yen, Ting-Yin; Chen, Lih-Chi; Huang, Yuahn-Sieh

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that autophagy plays pathogenetic roles in cerebral ischemia, brain trauma, and neurodegenerative disorders. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is an illicit drug that causes long-term serotonergic neurotoxicity in the brain. Apoptosis and necrosis have been implicated in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, but the role of autophagy in MDMA-elicited serotonergic toxicity has not been investigated. The present study aimed to examine the contribution of autophagy to neurotoxicity in serotonergic neurons in in vitro and in vivo animal models challenged with MDMA. Here, we demonstrated that in cultured rat serotonergic neurons, MDMA exposure induced LC3B-densely stained autophagosome formation, accompanying by a decrease in neurite outgrowth. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly attenuated MDMA-induced autophagosome accumulation, and ameliorated MDMA-triggered serotonergic neurite damage and neuron death. In contrast, enhanced autophagy flux by rapamycin or impaired autophagosome clearance by bafilomycin A1 led to more autophagosome accumulation in serotonergic neurons and aggravated neurite degeneration. In addition, MDMA-induced autophagy activation in cultured serotonergic neurons might be mediated by serotonin transporter (SERT). In an in vivo animal model administered MDMA, neuroimaging showed that 3-MA protected the serotonin system against MDMA-induced downregulation of SERT evaluated by animal-PET with 4-[(18)F]-ADAM, a SERT radioligand. Taken together, our results demonstrated that MDMA triggers upregulation of autophagy in serotonergic neurons, which appears to be detrimental to neuronal growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxytocin, cortisol and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: neurohormonal aspects of recreational 'ecstasy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C

    2016-12-01

    Most research into 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has debated its psychobiological effects in relation to neurotransmission. This article debates the contributory roles of the neurohormones oxytocin and cortisol for their psychobiological effects in humans. The empirical literature on these neurohormones is reviewed and suggestions for future research outlined. Acute MDMA or 'ecstasy' can generate increased levels of oxytocin and cortisol, and these neurohormonal changes may be important for its mood-enhancing and energy-activation effects in humans. However, an initial finding of enhanced sociability correlating with oxytocin levels has not been replicated. Potential reasons are debated. There may be dynamic interactions between the two neurohormones, with greater activation under cortisol, facilitating stronger positive feelings under oxytocin. Chronic regular use of MDMA can adversely affect cortisol in several ways. Regular users show increased cortisol in 3-month hair samples, changes to the cortisol awakening response, and indications of greater daily stress. Furthermore, these cortisol findings suggest changes to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The effects of chronic MDMA usage on oxytocin still need to be investigated. It is concluded that the neurohormones oxytocin and cortisol contribute in various ways to the psychobiological effects of recreational ecstasy/MDMA.

  16. Recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or 'ecstasy': Current perspective and future research prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C; Downey, Luke A; Roberts, Carl A; Montgomery, Cathy; Bruno, Raimondo; Fox, Helen C

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to debate current understandings about the psychobiological effects of recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'), and recommend theoretically-driven topics for future research. Recent empirical findings, especially those from novel topic areas were reviewed. Potential causes for the high variance often found in group findings were also examined. The first empirical reports into psychobiological and psychiatric aspects from the early 1990s concluded that regular users demonstrated some selective psychobiological deficits, for instance worse declarative memory, or heightened depression. More recent research has covered a far wider range of psychobiological functions, and deficits have emerged in aspects of vision, higher cognitive skill, neurohormonal functioning, and foetal developmental outcomes. However, variance levels are often high, indicating that while some recreational users develop problems, others are less affected. Potential reasons for this high variance are debated. An explanatory model based on multi-factorial causation is then proposed. A number of theoretically driven research topics are suggested, in order to empirically investigate the potential causes for these diverse psychobiological deficits. Future neuroimaging studies should study the practical implications of any serotonergic and/or neurohormonal changes, using a wide range of functional measures.

  17. Counterbalancing of morphology and conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate based flexible devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woongsik; Ahn, Sunyong; Park, Soyun; Park, Jong Hyeok; Wang, Dong Hwan

    2016-12-01

    The importance of conductive polymer electrodes with a balance between the morphology and electrical conductivity for flexible organic photovoltaic properties has been demonstrated. Highly transparent PEDOT:PSS anodes with controlled conductivity and surface properties were realized by insertion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and a fluorosurfactant (Zonyl) as efficient additives and used for flexible organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) which are based on a bulk-heterojunction of polythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene (PTB7):[6,6]phenyl-C 71 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC 71 BM). We investigated the correlation between the electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS electrodes and their influences on the surface morphology of the active materials (PTB7:PC 71 BM). When the device was prepared from the PEDOT:PSS layer functioning as an anode of OPV through an optimized ratio of 5 vol% of DMSO and 0.1 wt% of fluorosurfactant, the devices exhibited improved fill factor (FF) due to the enhanced coverage of PEDOT:PSS films. These results correlate with reduced photoluminescence and increased charge extraction as seen through Raman spectroscopy and electrical analysis, respectively. The conductive polymer electrode with the balance between the morphology and electrical conductivity can be a useful replacement for brittle electrodes such as those made of indium tin oxide (ITO) as they are more resistant to cracking and bending conditions, which will contribute to the long-term operation of flexible devices.

  18. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes as electrode materials for a high-powered supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ran; Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Sang Bok

    2008-01-01

    We report the fast charging/discharging capability of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanotubes during the redox process and their potential application to a high-powered supercapacitor. PEDOT nanotubes were electrochemically synthesized in a porous alumina membrane, and their structures were characterized using electron microscopes. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the specific capacitance of the PEDOT nanotubes at various scan rates. A type I supercapacitor (two symmetric electrodes) based on PEDOT nanotube electrodes was fabricated, and its energy density and power density were evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at various current densities. We show that the PEDOT-nanotube-based supercapacitor can achieve a high power density of 25 kW kg -1 while maintaining 80% energy density (5.6 W h kg -1 ). This high power capability is attributed to the fast charge/discharge of nanotubular structures: hollow nanotubes allow counter-ions to readily penetrate into the polymer and access their internal surfaces, while the thin wall provides a short diffusion distance to facilitate the ion transport. Impedance spectroscopy shows that nanotubes have much lower diffusional resistance to charging ions than solid nanowires shielded by an alumina template, providing supporting information for the high charging/discharging efficiency of nanotubular structures

  19. 3,4-Disubstituted Polyalkylthiophenes for High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors and Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Ko, Sangwon

    2011-10-26

    We demonstrate that poly(3,4-dialkylterthiophenes) (P34ATs) have comparable transistor mobilities (0.17 cm2 V-1 s-1) and greater environmental stability (less degradation of on/off ratio) than regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes) (P3ATs). Unlike poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), P34ATs do not show a strong and distinct π-π stacking in X-ray diffraction. This suggests that a strong π-π stacking is not always necessary for high charge-carrier mobility and that other potential polymer packing motifs in addition to the edge-on structure (π-π stacking direction parallel to the substrate) can lead to a high carrier mobility. The high charge-carrier mobilities of the hexyl and octyl-substituted P34AT produce power conversion efficiencies of 4.2% in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices. An enhanced open-circuit voltage (0.716-0.771 eV) in P34AT solar cells relative to P3HT due to increased ionization potentials was observed. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Cerebral (1)H MRS alterations in recreational 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L; Ernst, T; Grob, C S; Poland, R E

    1999-10-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an illicit drug that has been associated with serotonergic axonal degeneration in animals. This study evaluates neurochemical abnormalities in recreational MDMA users. Twenty-two MDMA users and 37 normal subjects were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) in the mid-frontal, mid-occipital, and parietal brain regions. (1)H MRS showed normal N-acetyl (NA) compounds in all brain regions. The myo-inositol (MI) concentration (+16.3%, P = 0.04) and the MI to creatine (CR) ratio (+14.1%, P = 0. 01) were increased in the parietal white matter of MDMA users. The cumulative lifetime MDMA dose showed significant effects on [MI] in the parietal white matter and the occipital cortex. The normal NA concentration suggests a lack of significant neuronal injury in recreational MDMA users. However, the usage-related increase in MI suggests that exposure to MDMA, even at recreational doses, may cause increased glial content. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 1999;10:521-526. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. (E-1-(2-Aminophenyl-3-(4-chlorophenylprop-2-en-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Abonia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The title chalcone (E-1-(2-aminophenyl-3-(4-chlorophenylprop-2-en-1-one was prepared with an excellent yield from a Claisen–Schmidt condensation reaction between o-aminoacetophenone and p-chlorobenzaldehyde. This product will be used as a key precursor for the development of an alternative route for the total synthesis of dubamine and graveoline alkaloids. Single crystals of the title compound suitable for X-ray diffraction were grown via slow evaporation in ethanol at room temperature. A complete crystallographic study was performed in depth to unequivocally confirm its structure and determine some interesting supramolecular properties. The crystal structure of the title o-aminochalcone, C15H12ClNO, shows two molecules per asymmetric unit (Z′ = 2 and adopts an E configuration about the C=C double bond. In the title compound, the mean plane of the non-H atoms of the central chalcone fragment C—C(O—C—C—C is as follows: [r.m.s. deviation = 0.0130 Å for A-B and 0.0043 for C-D molecules]. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...N and C—H...O, hydrogen bonds forming edge-fused R66(46 rings parallel to (100. Additionally, N—H...O hydrogen bonds generate a three-dimensional network.

  2. Asymmetric syntheses of 3,4-disubstituted tetrahydroquinoline derivatives using (+)- sparteine-mediated electrophilic substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Soo; Kang, Kyoung Hee; Park, Yong Sun

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydroquinolines bearing substituents are frequently found as a substructure in a number of alkaloids and natural products. Since their individual stereoisomers displays different biological activities, it is desirable to develop a highly stereoselective synthetic method for tetrahydroquinolines. While some progress has recently been made toward the development of asymmetric synthetic methods for tetrahydroquinolines, it is still a challenging topic in organic synthesis. In order to investigate the source of diastereoselection attained in the substitution reaction with a racemic epoxide, we examined the substitution of 2 with an excess amount of racemic p-chlorophenyl-substituted oxirane. We have developed a novel method for the asymmetric synthesis of trans-3,4-diaryl-substituted tetrahy- droquinolines from ortho-substituted N-pivaloyl anilines. The enantioselective process includes (+)-sparteine-mediated stereoselective lithiati on, kinetic resolution of epoxides in substitution, and stereospecific Mitsu nobu cyclization as the key reactions. The simple protocol can provide highly functionalized tetrahydroqu inoline rings and would allow their further functionalization to access more complex target molecules

  3. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-(diethoxyphosphoryl-2-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Schubert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H27O8P, was prepared by Michaelis–Arbuzov reaction of ethyl 2-bromo-2-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenylacetate and triethyl phosphite. Such compounds rarely crystallize, but single crystals were recovered after the initial oil was left for approximately 10 years. The bond angle of the sp3-hybridized C atom connecting the benzene derivative with the phospho unit is widened marginally [112.5 (2°]. The terminal P—O bond length of 1.464 (2 Å clearly indicates a double bond, whereas the two O atoms of the ethoxy groups connected to the phosphorous atom have bond lengths of 1.580 (2 Å and 1.581 (3 Å. The three methoxy groups emerge out of the benzene-ring plane due to steric hindrance [C—C—O—C torsion angles = −179.9 (3°, −52.9 (4° and 115.3 (4°]. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H...O=P hydrogen bonds generate R22(14 loops. The chosen crystal was modelled as a non-merohedral twin.

  4. 1,3,4-Tri-O-acetyl-2-N-(trifluoroacetyl-β-l-fucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. McCutcheon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H18F3NO8, was produced through conjugation of 1,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-2-azidodeoxy-α,β-l-fucose with trifluoroacetyl chloride in the presence of bis(diphenylphosphinoethane in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. The X-ray crystal structure reveals that the β-anomer of the product mixture crystallizes from ethyl acetate/hexanes. The compound exists in a typical chair conformation with the maximum possible number of substituents, four out of five, located in the sterically preferred equatorial positions. The major directional force facilitating packing of the molecules are N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the amide moieties of neighboring molecules, which connect molecules stacked along the a-axis direction into infinite strands with a C11(4 graph-set motif. Formation of the strands is assisted by a number of weaker C—H...O interactions involving the methine and methyl H atoms. These strands are connected through further C—H...O and C—H...F interactions into a three dimensional network

  5. 3,4-Phenylenedioxythiophene (PheDOT) Based Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Bai-Xue; Zhang, Fang-Shuai; Yu, Hui-Juan; Ma, Shuang; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Shao, Guang; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-04-05

    Two new electron-rich molecules based on 3,4-phenylenedioxythiophene (PheDOT) were synthesized and successfully adopted as hole-transporting materials (HTMs) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). X-ray diffraction, absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra, electrochemical properties, thermal stabilities, hole mobilities, conductivities, and photovoltaic parameters of PSCs based on these two HTMs were compared with each other. By introducing methoxy substituents into the main skeleton, the energy levels of PheDOT-core HTM were tuned to match with the perovskite, and its hole mobility was also improved (1.33×10(-4)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) , being higher than that of spiro-OMeTAD, 2.34×10(-5)  cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1)). The PSC based on MeO-PheDOT as HTM exhibits a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 18.31 mA cm(-2) , an open-circuit potential (Voc ) of 0.914 V, and a fill factor (FF) of 0.636, yielding an encouraging power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.64 % under AM 1.5G illumination. These results give some insight into how the molecular structures of HTMs affect their performances and pave the way for developing high-efficiency and low-cost HTMs for PSCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthesis of Poly(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate) dendrimers from Polyphenols and Their Chemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Dai Il; Song, Ju Hyun; Shin, Eun Hye; Kim, Yun Young; Lee, Do Hun; Choi, Soon Kyu; Hahn, Jung Tai

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenol dendrimers were synthesized to obtain a strong CL compound, and their CL intensities were found to be considerably stronger than the CL intensity of GA. The esterification of the hydroxyl groups of GA in the dendrimer was very effective in developing a strong CL. Further, the relationship between the CL intensity and structure of polyphenol dendrimers must be clarified to understand the reason behind the strong light emission of high-per-branch compounds such as poly(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate ester) dendrimers. Polyphenol CL dendrimers can be used for a wide variety of CL assays by utilizing the hydroxyl groups of the polyphenol for forming a hydrogen bond with oxygen in the analyte structure. Dendrimer chemistry is rapidly expanding both for fundamental reasons as well as due to requirements in technological applications. A recent interesting development in dendrimer chemistry concerns the coordination of metal ions by interior branches or exterior units. Dendrimers containing photoactive units are particularly interesting for two reasons: (1) cooperation among the photoactive components can allow the dendrimer to perform specific functions, and (2) changes in the properties of photoactive components can be exploited to monitor the participation of dendrimers in chemical processes

  7. Bisphenol A 3,4-quinone induces the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Satoru; Nakanishi, Masahiko; Morinaga, Kazuhiro; Fujitake, Mihoyo; Wada, Shun-ichi; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the influence of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A 3,4-quinone (BPAQ) on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) into xanthine oxidase (XO) in the rat liver in vitro. BPA up to 100 micromol/L did not affect the XO and XD activities in the partially purified cytosolic fraction from rat liver, whereas BPAQ (2-10 micromol/L) dose-dependently enhanced the XO activity concomitant with a decrease in the XD activity, implying that BPAQ, but not BPA, can convert XD into the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing the form XO. Furthermore, it was found that BPAQ could increase the generation of ROS and oxidize the guanine moiety of deoxyguanosine in the DNA of primary rat hepatocyte cultures. These results suggest that BPAQ has the potential to convert XD into XO in the liver, which in turn may lead to ROS generation and oxidative DNA damage in this region. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electron paramagnetic resonance and optical properties of Cr3+ doped YAl3(BO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Jon-Paul R; Yamaga, Mitsuo; Han, Thomas P J; Honda, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    We report on the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of YAl 3 (BO 3 ) 4 single crystals doped with 0.2 mol% of trivalent chromium. From EPR we determine that the Cr 3+ ions reside in sites of essentially octahedral symmetry with an orthorhombic distortion. The ground state 4 A 2 splitting is determined to be 2√D 2 + 3E 2 ∼ 1.05 ± 0.04 cm -1 , where D and E are fine-structure parameters, and we can attribute this splitting to the combined effect of a low-symmetry distortion and spin-orbit coupling. The g-values and fine-structure parameters D and E of the ground state 4 A 2 are measured to be g x ∼ g y ∼ g z = 1.978 ± 0.005, vertical bar D vertical bar = 0.52 ± 0.02 cm -1 and vertical bar E vertical bar 0.010 ± 0.005 cm -1 respectively. From 10 K optical absorption we have measured the position and crystal-field splittings of the 2 E, 2 T 1 , 4 T 2 , 2 T 2 and 4 T 1 states with the 4 T 2 and 4 T 1 levels appearing as vibronically broadened bands

  9. Theoretical study on molecular packing and electronic structure of bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Haitao; Bai, Fuquan; Jia, Xiaoshi; Cao, Di; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Qu, Songnan; Bai, Binglian; Zhang, Hongxing; Li, Min

    2014-01-01

    The molecular aggregation structure of 5,5′-bis(naphthalen-2-yl)-2,2′-bi(1,3,4-oxadiazole) (BOXD-NP) was studied by computing the intermolecular interaction potential energy surface (PES) at density functional theory level based on a dimer model. All B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and M062x functionals can yield a reliable isolated molecular geometry. The conformation of BOXD-NP obtained with all methods is perfectly planar, indicating good conjugation ability between oxadiazole and naphthalene rings. The vibrational frequencies of BOXD-NP were also calculated using the B3LYP/6-311+G∗∗ method, which showed great consistency with the experimental observations and makes the assignments of the IR spectra more solid. It was revealed that the lowest excited state of BOXD-NP should be assigned as a highly allowed π-π∗ state by TD-DFT calculation. Considering the non-covalent interactions in molecular aggregates, the M062x functional was applied in the construction of the PES. Besides the packing structure found in the crystals, PES also predicted several stable structures, indicating that PES has great ability in guiding molecular self-assembly. Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) analysis on these energy-minimum molecular stacking structures revealed that London dispersion forces are the strongest attractive component in the binding. This journal is

  10. Unraveling the Order and Disorder in Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Poly(styrenesulfonate) Nanofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Lubineau, Gilles; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    Conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) exhibits a tunable conductivity ranging from 0.1 to 4380 S·cm–1 under different doping and/or dedoping strategies. However, the dependence of macroscopic electrical properties on the evolution of the microstructure is not clearly understood. This is the first study that systematically investigated the spatial arrangement of the ordered and disordered phases in PEDOT/PSS nanofilms by bright-field (BF), high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and element-thickness mapping. Our observations clarify how amorphous PSS hinders electrical transport at various length scales in the PEDOT/PSS films. Moreover, the mechanism for an enhancement in 3 orders of magnitude in electrical conductivity was proved by TEM investigation, which is mainly due to a more uniform dispersion by dedoping that opens PEDOT nanoparticle clusters in PEDOT/PSS films. Our microstructural and electrical studies show that the change in spatial arrangement and interaction of small PEDOT domains plays a considerable role in the final electron transport.

  11. Asymmetric syntheses of 3,4-disubstituted tetrahydroquinoline derivatives using (+)- sparteine-mediated electrophilic substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Soo; Kang, Kyoung Hee; Park, Yong Sun [Dept. of Chemistry, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Tetrahydroquinolines bearing substituents are frequently found as a substructure in a number of alkaloids and natural products. Since their individual stereoisomers displays different biological activities, it is desirable to develop a highly stereoselective synthetic method for tetrahydroquinolines. While some progress has recently been made toward the development of asymmetric synthetic methods for tetrahydroquinolines, it is still a challenging topic in organic synthesis. In order to investigate the source of diastereoselection attained in the substitution reaction with a racemic epoxide, we examined the substitution of 2 with an excess amount of racemic p-chlorophenyl-substituted oxirane. We have developed a novel method for the asymmetric synthesis of trans-3,4-diaryl-substituted tetrahy- droquinolines from ortho-substituted N-pivaloyl anilines. The enantioselective process includes (+)-sparteine-mediated stereoselective lithiati on, kinetic resolution of epoxides in substitution, and stereospecific Mitsu nobu cyclization as the key reactions. The simple protocol can provide highly functionalized tetrahydroqu inoline rings and would allow their further functionalization to access more complex target molecules.

  12. Why Psychiatry Needs 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: A Child Psychiatrist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Ben

    2017-07-01

    Since the late 1980s the psychoactive drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has had a well-known history as the recreationally used drug ecstasy. What is less well known by the public is that MDMA started its life as a therapeutic agent and that in recent years an increasing amount of clinical research has been undertaken to revisit the drug's medical potential. MDMA has unique pharmacological properties that translate well to its proposed agent to assist trauma-focused psychotherapy. Psychological trauma-especially that which arises early in life from child abuse-underpins many chronic adult mental disorders, including addictions. Several studies of recent years have investigated the potential role of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, with ongoing plans to see MDMA therapy licensed and approved within the next 5 years. Issues of safety and controversy frequently surround this research, owing to MDMA's often negative media-driven bias. However, accurate examination of the relative risks and benefits of clinical MDMA-in contrast to the recreational use of ecstasy-must be considered when assessing its potential benefits and the merits of future research. In this review, the author describes these potential benefits and explores the relatives risks of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the context of his experience as a child and adolescent psychiatrist, having seen the relative limitations of current pharmacotherapies and psychotherapies for treating complex post-traumatic stress disorder arising from child abuse.

  13. Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Patient Utterances in a Psychotherapeutic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Vicka Rael; Pisano, Vincent D; Halpern, John H

    2016-07-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) administered as an adjunct to talk therapy influences patient speech content and increases improvement in treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data came from the recordings of Mithoefer et al. (2011). In the third therapeutic session studied, patients were assigned, double blind, to an MDMA or a placebo group. Condition-blind scorers listened to therapy recordings and scored utterances where patients initiated topics that were empathic (regarding others' emotions), entactic (requesting or appreciating physical touch), or ensuic (describing a change in their sense of themselves). Patients who received MDMA produced high levels of ensuic, empathic, and entactic utterances compared with those who received the placebo. Interrater discourse scoring was reliable. The relationship between the number of scored utterances and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale scores measuring PTSD severity after the treatment was significant, and reanalysis grouped bimodally into "many" or "few" such utterances remained significant. MDMA assisted these patients in having meaningful and disorder-resolving thoughts and discourse in talk therapy.

  14. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Poly(styrenesulfonate) Interlayer Insertion Enables Organic Quaternary Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xue-Feng; Hou, Xiang; Qian, Wen-Hu; He, Jing-Hui; Xu, Qing-Feng; Li, Hua; Li, Na-Jun; Chen, Dong-Yun; Lu, Jian-Mei

    2017-08-23

    Herein, for the first time, quaternary resistive memory based on an organic molecule is achieved via surface engineering. A layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) was inserted between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and the organic layer (squaraine, SA-Bu) to form an ITO/PEDOT-PSS/SA-Bu/Al architecture. The modified resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices achieve quaternary memory switching with the highest yield (∼41%) to date. Surface morphology, crystallinity, and mosaicity of the deposited organic grains are greatly improved after insertion of a PEDOT-PSS interlayer, which provides better contacts at the grain boundaries as well as the electrode/active layer interface. The PEDOT-PSS interlayer also reduces the hole injection barrier from the electrode to the active layer. Thus, the threshold voltage of each switching is greatly reduced, allowing for more quaternary switching in a certain voltage window. Our results provide a simple yet powerful strategy as an alternative to molecular design to achieve organic quaternary resistive memory.

  15. Atypical dopamine efflux caused by 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) via the human dopamine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Aparna; Aguilar, Jenny I; Galli, Greta; Cozzi, Nicholas V; Brandt, Simon D; Ruoho, Arnold E; Baumann, Michael H; Matthies, Heinrich J G; Galli, Aurelio

    2017-10-01

    Synthetic cathinones are similar in chemical structure to amphetamines, and their behavioral effects are associated with enhanced dopaminergic signaling. The past ten years of research on the common constituent of bath salts, MDPV (the synthetic cathinone 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone), has aided the understanding of how synthetic cathinones act at the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT). Several groups have described the ability of MDPV to block the DAT with high-affinity. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a new mode of action of MDPV, namely its ability to promote DAT-mediated DA efflux. Using single cell amperometric assays, we determined that low concentrations of MDPV (1nM) can cause reverse transport of DA via DAT. Notably, administration of MDPV leads to hyperlocomotion in Drosophila melanogaster. These data describe further how MDPV acts at the DAT, possibly paving the way for novel treatment strategies for individuals who abuse bath salts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Graphene Nanosheets/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanotubes Composite Materials for Electrochemical Biosensing Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tzu-Yen; Kung, Chung-Wei; Wang, Jen-Yuan; Lee, Min-Han; Chen, Lin-Chi; Chu, Chih-Wei; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel composite materials contain 2D rGO nanosheets and 1D PEDOT nanotubes. • 3D nanocomposite film effectively improved the sensitivity for analyte detection. • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film shows good catalytic activities toward hydrazine and H 2 O 2 . • The rGO/PEDOT NTs film also exhibits high selectivity from the interference test. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: In this study, we developed the novel composite materials containing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanotubes (PEDOT NTs) for electrochemical biosensing applications. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy suggested that the rGO nanosheets cover the substrate uniformly, and the PEDOT NTs act as a conducting bridge to connect the rGO sheets. By combining the two materials, it's expected to enhance the conductivity of the film and improve the surface coverage. We applied the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite for electrochemical detection of hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide; noticeable improvements in electrochemical activity and reactivity were observed compared to those of the pristine rGO and PEDOT NTs electrodes. This may be attributed to the better surface coverage of the rGO/PEDOT NTs modified electrode with superior conductivity. Furthermore, interference tests indicate that the rGO/PEDOT NTs composite film exhibits high selectivity toward the analyte. The rGO/PEDOT NTs composite thus provides a potential platform for biosensing applications

  17. Initial Gamma Spectrometry Examination of the AGR-3/4 Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Stempien, John D.

    2016-11-01

    The initial results from gamma spectrometry examination of the different components from the combined third and fourth US Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development TRISO-coated particle fuel irradiation tests (AGR-3/4) have been analyzed. This experiment was designed to provide information about in-pile fission product migration. In each of the 12 capsules, a single stack of four compacts with designed-to-fail particles surrounded by two graphitic diffusion rings (inner and outer) and a graphite sink were irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory’s Advanced Test Reactor. Gamma spectrometry has been used to evaluate the gamma-emitting fission product inventory of compacts from the irradiation and evaluate the burnup of these compacts based on the activity of the radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) in the compacts. Burnup from gamma spectrometry compares well with predicted burnup from simulations. Additionally, inner and outer rings were also examined by gamma spectrometry both to evaluate the fission product inventory and the distribution of gamma-emitting fission products within the rings using gamma emission computed tomography. The cesium inventory of the scanned rings compares acceptably well with the expected inventory from fission product transport modeling. The inventory of the graphite fission product sinks is also being evaluated by gamma spectrometry.

  18. 3,4-Disubstituted Polyalkylthiophenes for High-Performance Thin-Film Transistors and Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Ko, Sangwon; Verploegen, Eric; Hong, Sanghyun; Mondal, Rajib; Hoke, Eric T.; Toney, Michael F.; McGehee, Michael D.; Bao, Zhenan

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that poly(3,4-dialkylterthiophenes) (P34ATs) have comparable transistor mobilities (0.17 cm2 V-1 s-1) and greater environmental stability (less degradation of on/off ratio) than regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophenes) (P3ATs). Unlike poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), P34ATs do not show a strong and distinct π-π stacking in X-ray diffraction. This suggests that a strong π-π stacking is not always necessary for high charge-carrier mobility and that other potential polymer packing motifs in addition to the edge-on structure (π-π stacking direction parallel to the substrate) can lead to a high carrier mobility. The high charge-carrier mobilities of the hexyl and octyl-substituted P34AT produce power conversion efficiencies of 4.2% in polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices. An enhanced open-circuit voltage (0.716-0.771 eV) in P34AT solar cells relative to P3HT due to increased ionization potentials was observed. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Memory performance in abstinent 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth-Marnat, Gary; Howchar, Hennedy; Marsh, Ali

    2007-02-01

    Research with animals and humans has suggested that acute and subacute use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA "ecstasy") may lead to memory impairment. However, research is limited by (1) low power due to small sample sizes, (2) the possible confound of polydrug use, and (3) the failure to consider intelligence as a covariate. The present study compared the memory performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale-III of 26 abstinent (2-wk. minimum) recreational MDMA users with 26 abstinent (2-wk. minimum) recreational polydrug users. Despite significantly greater polydrug use amongst these MDMA users, no significant group differences in memory were observed. Regression of total lifetime amount of MDMA use also did not predict memory performance after accounting for intelligence. In addition, the length of time since abstinence (at least 2 wk.) was not associated with an increase in memory performance. Greater total lifetime cocaine use, rather than total lifetime MDMA use, was significantly associated with greater decrements in General Memory and Delayed Verbal Memory performance.

  20. The determination of molar volumes of uranous nitrate and nitric acid in systems of U(NO3)4-HNO3-H2O and U(NO3)4-HNO3-30% TBP kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Chengying

    1986-01-01

    The data of molar volumes of uranous nitrate and nitric acid are necessary for the calculation of the changes in phase volume during the extraction in U(NO 3 ) 4 -HNO 3 /30%TBP-kerosene system. However, the data of the partial molar volume of U(NO 3 ) 4 are not available in literature. In the present work, the molar volumes of U(NO 3 ) 4 and HNO 3 are calculated by linear fitting of the experimental data. The result of the molar volume of HNO 3 is consistent with those in literature

  1. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...... have been profiled in the news. The model is provided to ensure that degree candidates are academic experts in their field, having earned the credential through rigorous study....

  2. Evolution of design of PSS from NAPP to RAPP-3,4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, K.B.; Kapoor, H.; Biswas, G.

    1997-01-01

    Primary Shut off System (PSS) is a fast acting system which shuts down the reactor from normal as well as accident conditions. Cadmium tube sandwiched between stainless steel 304L grade tubes is used as neutron absorbing element at fourteen locations on the reactor vessel. The elements are dropped there in the reactor with the help of drive mechanisms. This system was used for the first time in NAPS and was indigenously designed and manufactured. Based on experience in commissioning and operation, this has further been improved for subsequent projects at Kakrapar, Kaiga and RAPP-3 and 4. The improvement include change of rope drum to sheave type rope winding system, use of higher capacity indigenous specially designed electromagnetic clutch, use of higher dia wire rope, elimination of spiral springs, use of large size dash pot, reduction in number of components, incorporation of mechanical seals in place of O rings, modification of guide tube. With the above modifications the reliability of the system has been enhanced and chances of failure of components have been minimized due to higher factor of safety

  3. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Dai; Ueda, Atsushi; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Koide, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction

  4. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Dai; Ueda, Atsushi; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Koide, Hiroshi, E-mail: hkoide@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2015-04-10

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction.

  5. Material Property Correlations: Comparisons between FRAPCON-3.4, FRAPTRAN 1.4, and MATPRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Geelhood, Kenneth J.

    2010-08-01

    Sections 3 and 4, respectively. In addition to describing the material property correlations used in the subroutines of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN, this report also provides a variety of comparisons between material property correlations and data. Although they are frequently identical, comparisons are made between the material property correlations used in the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes. Comparisons are also made between the material property correlations used in MATPRO, a compilation of fuel and cladding material property correlations with an extensive history of used with various fuel performance and severe accident codes. For a number of reasons, consistency between the material property correlations in FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO has never been complete. However, the current versions of FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN use a relatively consistent set of correlations for the properties that are used by both codes. The material property correlations in the most recent version of MATPRO are documented in Volume 4 of NUREG/CR-6150. In addition to comparison of the various correlations, correlation-to-data comparisons are also made with FRAPCON-3, FRAPTRAN, and MATPRO. All comparisons made in this report are based on the material property correlations used in the most recent version of the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN codes, FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4. The source code for each material property correlation discussed will be provided for FRAPCON-3.4 and FRAPTRAN 1.4 (see appendix) as well as a range of applicability and an estimate of uncertainty where possible.

  6. Design of acid-responsive polymeric nanoparticles for 7,3',4'-trihydroxyisoflavone topical administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang PH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pao-Hsien Huang,1,* Stephen Chu-Sung Hu,2,3,* Chiang-Wen Lee,4,5 An-Chi Yeh,6 Chih-Hua Tseng,7 Feng-Lin Yen1,8,9 1Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 3Department of Dermatology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, 4Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kweishan, Taoyuan, 5Department of Nursing, Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chia-Yi, 6Department of Cosmetics and Fashion Styling, Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 8Lipid Science and Aging Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 9Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: 7,3',4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone (734THIF is a secondary metabolite of daidzein and has been recently found to possess antioxidant, melanin inhibition, and skin cancer chemopreventive activities. However, the poor water solubility of 734THIF impedes its absorption and skin penetration and, therefore, limits its pharmacological effects when applied topically to the skin. We seek to use the nanoprecipitation method to prepare optimal eudragit E100 (EE–polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-loaded 734THIF nanoparticles (734N to improve its physicochemical properties and thereby increase its water solubility, skin penetration, and biological activities. EE–PVA-loaded 734THIF nanoparticles (734N were prepared, and their morphology and particle size were evaluated using a particle size analyzer and by electron microscopy. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiencies and in vitro solubility were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrogen

  7. CalcHEP 3.4 for collider physics within and beyond the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Christensen, Neil D.; Pukhov, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    We present version 3.4 of the CalcHEP software package which is designed for effective evaluation and simulation of high energy physics collider processes at parton level. The main features of CalcHEP are the computation of Feynman diagrams, integration over multi-particle phase space and event simulation at parton level. The principle attractive key-points along these lines are that it has: (a) an easy startup and usage even for those who are not familiar with CalcHEP and programming; (b) a friendly and convenient graphical user interface (GUI); (c) the option for the user to easily modify a model or introduce a new model by either using the graphical interface or by using an external package with the possibility of cross checking the results in different gauges; (d) a batch interface which allows to perform very complicated and tedious calculations connecting production and decay modes for processes with many particles in the final state. With this features set, CalcHEP can efficiently perform calculations with a high level of automation from a theory in the form of a Lagrangian down to phenomenology in the form of cross sections, parton level event simulation and various kinematical distributions. In this paper we report on the new features of CalcHEP 3.4 which improves the power of our package to be an effective tool for the study of modern collider phenomenology. Program summaryProgram title: CalcHEP Catalogue identifier: AEOV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 78535 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 818061 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C. Computer: PC, MAC, Unix Workstations. Operating system: Unix. RAM: Depends on process under study

  8. Synthesis of carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives as new potential PET SK{sub Ca} channel imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Mingzhang; Wang Min [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1345 West 16th Street, L-3 Room 202, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Zheng Qihuang [Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1345 West 16th Street, L-3 Room 202, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)], E-mail: qzheng@iupui.edu

    2008-02-15

    Small conductance Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} (SK{sub Ca}) channels play an important role in many functions such as neuronal communication and behavioral plasticity, secretion, and cell proliferation. SK{sub Ca} channel modulation is associated with various brain, heart, and cancer diseases. N-methyl-laudanosine and its structurally related derivatives, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums, are reversible and selective SK{sub Ca} channel blockers. Carbon-11 labeled N-methyl-laudanosine and its tetrahydroisoquinolinium derivatives may serve as new probes for positron emission tomography (PET) to image SK{sub Ca} channels in the brain, heart, and cancer. The key intermediates, substituted isoquinolines (3a-c), were synthesized using a modification of the Pomeranz-Fritsch procedure. The precursors, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines (8a-c), and their corresponding reference standards, substituted 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums (9a-c), were synthesized from compounds 3a-c with 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl chloride (2) in multiple steps with moderate to excellent chemical yields. The precursor 6,7-dimethoxy-1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-methyl-1,2,3, 4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (10) was commercially available, and the methylation of compound 10 with methyl iodide provided N-methyl-laudanosine (11). The target quaternary ammonium tracers, carbon-11 labeled 1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoliniums ([{sup 11}C]9a-c and [{sup 11}C]11), were prepared by N-[{sup 11}C]methylation of the tertiary amine precursors (8a-c and 10) with [{sup 11}C]methyl triflate and isolated by a simplified solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification using a SiO{sub 2} or cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge in 40-65% radiochemical yields.

  9. Variability in the 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine content of 'ecstasy' tablets in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David Michael; Stribley, Vasoulla; Dargan, Paul Ivor; Davies, Susannah; Holt, David W; Ramsey, John

    2011-09-01

    Toxicity, such as hyperpyrexia, associated with the use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') appears to be related to serum MDMA concentrations. However, there does not appear to be a similar association with the number of tablets ingested, suggesting variation in the tablet content of MDMA. Although work has shown this variation in other areas of the world, no studies have reported on the variation of MDMA content in UK ecstasy tablets. Ecstasy tablets seized from individuals attending nightclubs were analysed qualitatively to determine if they contained MDMA and quantitatively to determine the MDMA content per tablet. The mean amount of MDMA hydrochloride in 101 seized ecstasy tablets was 58.7±22.9 mg per tablet, with a range of 20 mg to 131 mg per tablet. The majority (96.0%) of tablets contained less than 100 mg MDMA per tablet. There appeared to be a bimodal distribution of MDMA content at approximately 20-40 mg per tablet and 60-80 mg per tablet. There is variability in the MDMA content of ecstasy tablets in the UK. This variability could potentially put users at increased risk of acute harm due to inadvertent excess ingestion of MDMA, as they are unaware of the differences in the MDMA content. Repeat sampling and quantification of MDMA content of ecstasy tablets in the UK will allow better education of users about the potential harms associated with the variability in the MDMA content. In addition, it will provide information to allow the monitoring of changes in not only the MDMA content, but also other adulterants, in ecstasy tablets.

  10. Preparations, structures and properties of heterobimetallic complexes based on tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Tian-Jing; Li, Shu-Mu; Cao, Wei; Li, Li-Cun; Zheng, Xiang-Jun; Yuan, Da-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Transition heterobimetallic metal-organic frameworks based on tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylicate (FTA), namely [M(H 2 O) 6 ][Cu 2 M(FTA) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ]·4H 2 O [M=Mn (1), Co (2)], and [CuZn(FTA)(H 2 O) 5 ]·H 2 O (3) have been synthesized and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that complexes 1 and 2 are isomorphic. In 1 and 2, FTA ligand links the metal ions to a 2-D wave-like negative-charged layer with a topology of (4;6 2 ) 2 (4;6 3 ;8 2 ) 2 (6). They possess 1-D channels with [M(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ and lattice water molecules enclathrated. While in the complex 3, Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ ions are bridged by FTA to a 2-D neutral layer structure with a (8) 2 (8 4 ;12 2 ) topology. Magnetic properties of 1–3 were analyzed in connection with their structures, which show that there exist weak antiferromagnetic interactions between metal ions. - Graphical abstract: Three heterobimetallic MOFs were constructed through the size-selectivity of TFA coordination sites for different transition metal ions based on the concept of “Hard and Soft Acids and Bases”. Highlights: ► Complexes 1 and 3 contain 2-D wave-like negative-charged layers. ► Complex 2 is a 2-D neutral layer structure with a (8) 2 (8 4 ;12 2 ) topology. ► Complexes 1–3 are the first example of heterobimetallic MOFs based on FTA. ► The coordination sites of FTA show size-selectivity to metal ions

  11. Cinetica de oxidacion de polimeros conductores: poli-3,4- etilendioxitiofeno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Romero, Maria

    Films of poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) perchlorate used as electrodes in liquid electrolytes incorporate anions and solvent during oxidation for charge and osmotic balance: the film swells. During reduction the film shrinks, closes its structure trapping counterions getting then rising conformational packed states by expulsion of counterions and solvent. Here by potential step from the same reduced initial state to the same oxidized final state the rate coefficient, the activation energy and reaction orders related to the counterion concentration in solution and to the concentration of active centers in the polymer film, were attained following the usual methodology used for chemical and electrochemical kinetics. Now the full methodology was repeated using different reduced-shrunk or reduced-conformational compacted initial states every time. Those initial states were attained by reduction of the oxidized film at rising cathodic potentials for the same reduction time each. Rising reduced and conformational compacted states give slower subsequent oxidation rates by potential step to the same anodic potential every time. The activation energy, the reaction coefficient and reaction orders change for rising conformational compacted initial states. Decreasing rate constants and increasing activation energies are obtained for the PEDOT oxidation from increasing conformational compacted initial states. The experimental activation energy presents two linear ranges as a function of the initial reduced-compacted state. Using as initial states for the oxidation open structures attained by reduction at low cathodic potentials, activation energies attained were constant: namely the chemical activation energy. Using as initial states for the oxidation deeper reduced, closed and packed conformational structures, the activation energy includes two components: the constant chemical energy plus the conformational energy required to relax the conformational structure

  12. The hyperthermia mediated by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is sensitive to sex differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyeth, Richard P.; Mills, Edward M.; Ullman, Alison; Kenaston, M. Alexander; Burwell, Johanna; Sprague, Jon E.

    2009-01-01

    Female subjects have been reported to be less sensitive to the hyperthermic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamine (MDMA) than males. Studies were designed to examine the cellular mechanisms involved in these sex sensitive differences. Gonadectomized female and male rats were treated with a 200 μg 100 μL -1 of estrogen or 100 μg 100 μL -1 of testosterone respectively every 5 days for a total of three doses. Rats were then challenged with either saline or MDMA (20 mg kg -1 , sc). Rats were then euthanized and aortas were constricted, in vitro, by serial phenylephrine (Phe) addition with or without the inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, g-nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl Ester (L-NAME). Skeletal muscle uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression was measured as well as plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels. All males but no females developed hyperthermia following MDMA treatment. The EC 50 for Phe dose response curves increased only in the females treated with MDMA and T max for Phe increased following L-NAME only in the females. Both males and females demonstrated an increase in plasma NE following MDMA treatment; however, males displayed a significantly greater NE concentration. Skeletal muscle UCP3 expression was 80% less in females than in males. These results suggest that the inability of MDMA to induce a thermogenic response in the female subjects may be due to four sex-specific mechanisms: 1) Female subjects have reduced sympathetic activation following MDMA challenge; 2) Female vasculature is less sensitive to α 1 -AR stimulation following MDMA challenge; 3) Female vasculature has an increased sensitivity to NO; 4) UCP3 expression in skeletal muscle is less in females

  13. Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine administration on retinal physiology in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Martins

    Full Text Available 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy is known to produce euphoric states, but may also cause adverse consequences in humans, such as hyperthermia and neurocognitive deficits. Although MDMA consumption has been associated with visual problems, the effects of this recreational drug in retinal physiology have not been addressed hitherto. In this work, we evaluated the effect of a single MDMA administration in the rat electroretinogram (ERG. Wistar rats were administered MDMA (15 mg/kg or saline and ERGs were recorded before (Baseline ERG, and 3 h, 24 h, and 7 days after treatment. A high temperature (HT saline-treated control group was also included. Overall, significantly augmented and shorter latency ERG responses were found in MDMA and HT groups 3 h after treatment when compared to Baseline. Twenty-four hours after treatment some of the alterations found at 3 h, mainly characterized by shorter latency, tended to return to Baseline values. However, MDMA-treated animals still presented increased scotopic a-wave and b-wave amplitudes compared to Baseline ERGs, which were independent of temperature elevation though the latter might underlie the acute ERG alterations observed 3 h after MDMA administration. Seven days after MDMA administration recovery from these effects had occurred. The effects seem to stem from specific changes observed at the a-wave level, which indicates that MDMA affects subacutely (at 24 h retinal physiology at the outer retinal (photoreceptor/bipolar layers. In conclusion, we have found direct evidence that MDMA causes subacute enhancement of the outer retinal responses (most prominent in the a-wave, though ERG alterations resume within one week. These changes in photoreceptor/bipolar cell physiology may have implications for the understanding of the subacute visual manifestations induced by MDMA in humans.

  14. Effects of salicylate on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, S Y

    1997-11-01

    The drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a serotonergic neurotoxicant that causes hyperthermia and depletion of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxy-indole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) in the central nervous system. Formation of neurotoxic metabolites of MDMA, e.g., 2,4,5-trihydroxy-methamphetamine and 2,4,5-trihydroxyamphetamine, involves hydroxyl and/or superoxide free radicals. The present study was designed to determine whether the hydroxyl free-radical-trapping agent salicylate could provide protection against MDMA neurotoxicity in rats. In the acute studies, sodium salicylate (12.5-400 mg/kg, calculated as free acid) was injected interperitoneally (i.p.) 1 h before subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of MDMA (20 mg/kg as base). In the chronic studies, sodium salicylate (3.1-100 mg/kg) was injected i.p. 1 h before repeated s.c. injections of MDMA (10 mg/kg as base, twice daily, at 0830 and 1730 h for 4 consecutive days). Repeated MDMA administration depleted contents of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Coadministration of salicylate plus MDMA did not significantly alter MDMA-induced depletion of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in these tissues. Thus, salicylate, a hydroxyl free-radical-trapping agent, does not protect against MDMA-induced hyperthermia and depletion of 5-HT and 5-HIAA. These observations suggest that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity may occur mainly through the production of superoxide or other radicals rather than hydroxyl free radicals. Salicylate actually potentiated MDMA-induced hyperthermia and lethality, findings that might be of clinical relevance.

  15. Measurements of particulate matter and 3,4-benzopyrene in Zurich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waibel, M; Wanner, H U

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of particulate matter and 3,4 benzoyrene were carried out at six measuring points in and around Zurich in 1971/72. The measuring points differed according to their immediate surroundings; they were subdivided into industrial zone, heavy traffic spots, residential area, and recreation ground. The correlations were calculated to clarify the connections between emissions and meteorological influences including temperature, inversions, humidity, air pressure, wind strength, visibility, and sunlight. The annual average values for the aerosol concentration were highest (160-181 microgram/cu m) where traffic is very heavy. An industrial center and a residential area of the old part of the city assumed a middle position. The modern residential section of Triemli measured the lowest concentration, 100 micrograms/cu m. The annual average concentrations for BaP were 5.3 ng/cu m for the industrial center, 5.5 and 7/7 ng/cu m for Paradeplatz and Albisriederplatz and 4.1 ng/cu m for Triemli. A high BaP concentration of 6.4 ng/cu m was measured in the old residential section. A correlation between the aerosol concentration of the air and the mortality from stomach cancer was found. Particularly pronounced was the influence of air pollution on mortality due to respiratory diseases. It tripled from the zone with lowest aerosol concentration (less than 80 micrograms/cu m) to the zone with highest air pollution (more than 135 micrograms/cu m). Compared to West German and U.S. cities the aerosol and BaP concentrations measured in Zurich were rather high.

  16. Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can affect both neurotransmitter and neurohormonal activity. This review will debate the role of the metabolic activation hormone cortisol for the psychobiological effects of ecstasy/MDMA. Methods The empirical literature on cortisol release following acute MDMA administration and cortisol functioning in drug-free recreational ecstasy/MDMA users will be reviewed. This will be followed by an overview of cortisol as a bioenergetic stress neurohormone, and a debate on how it could be modulating the acute and chronic psychobiological effects of MDMA. Results Cortisol release is increased by stimulatory factors, including physical activity, thermal stress and stimulant drugs. In laboratory studies MDMA leads to an acute cortisol increase of around 150% in sedentary humans. In MDMA-using dance clubbers, the cortisol levels are increased by around 800%, possibly due to the combined factors of stimulant drug, physical exertion and psychosocial stimulation. Regular ecstasy/MDMA users also demonstrate changes in baseline cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, with compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Nonpharmacological research has shown how cortisol is important for psychological aspects such as memory, cognition, sleep, impulsivity, depression and neuronal damage. These same functions are often impaired in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users, and cortisol may be an important modulatory co-factor. Conclusions The energizing hormone cortisol is involved in the psychobiology of MDMA, probably via its effects on energy metabolism. Acute cortisol release may potentiate the stimulating effects of MDMA in dance clubbers. Chronically, cortisol may contribute to the variance in functional and structural consequences of repeated ecstasy usage. PMID:19893332

  17. Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylphenidate on circulating steroid levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Julia; Hysek, Cédric M; Penno, Carlos A; Schmid, Yasmin; Kratschmar, Denise V; Liechti, Matthias E; Odermatt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate are widely used psychoactive substances. MDMA primarily enhances serotonergic neurotransmission, and methylphenidate increases dopamine but has no serotonergic effects. Both drugs also increase norepinephrine, resulting in sympathomimetic properties. Here we studied the effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on 24-hour plasma steroid profiles. 16 healthy subjects (8 men, 8 women) were treated with single doses of MDMA (125 mg), methylphenidate (60 mg), MDMA + methylphenidate, and placebo on 4 separate days using a cross-over study design. Cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, and testosterone were repeatedly measured up to 24 h using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. MDMA significantly increased the plasma concentrations of cortisol, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone and also tended to moderately increase aldosterone levels compared with placebo. MDMA also increased the sum of cortisol + cortisone and the cortisol/cortisone ratio, consistent with an increase in glucocorticoid production. MDMA did not alter the levels of cortisone, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, or testosterone. Methylphenidate did not affect any of the steroid concentrations, and it did not change the effects of MDMA on circulating steroids. In summary, the serotonin releaser MDMA has acute effects on circulating steroids. These effects are not observed after stimulation of the dopamine and norepinephrine systems with methylphenidate. The present findings support the view that serotonin rather than dopamine and norepinephrine mediates the acute pharmacologically induced stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the absence of other stressors. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Core Mediator structure at 3.4 Å extends model of transcription initiation complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Kayo; Schneider, Thomas R; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-05-11

    Mediator is a multiprotein co-activator that binds the transcription pre-initiation complex (PIC) and regulates RNA polymerase (Pol) II. The Mediator head and middle modules form the essential core Mediator (cMed), whereas the tail and kinase modules play regulatory roles. The architecture of Mediator and its position on the PIC are known, but atomic details are limited to Mediator subcomplexes. Here we report the crystal structure of the 15-subunit cMed from Schizosaccharomyces pombe at 3.4 Å resolution. The structure shows an unaltered head module, and reveals the intricate middle module, which we show is globally required for transcription. Sites of known Mediator mutations cluster at the interface between the head and middle modules, and in terminal regions of the head subunits Med6 (ref. 16) and Med17 (ref. 17) that tether the middle module. The structure led to a model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cMed that could be combined with the 3.6 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the core PIC (cPIC). The resulting atomic model of the cPIC-cMed complex informs on interactions of the submodules forming the middle module, called beam, knob, plank, connector, and hook. The hook is flexibly linked to Mediator by a conserved hinge and contacts the transcription initiation factor IIH (TFIIH) kinase that phosphorylates the carboxy (C)-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II and was recently positioned on the PIC. The hook also contains residues that crosslink to the CTD and reside in a previously described cradle. These results provide a framework for understanding Mediator function, including its role in stimulating CTD phosphorylation by TFIIH.

  19. Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT as a micro-neural interface material for electrostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth J Wilks

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic microstimulation-based devices are being investigated to treat conditions such as blindness, deafness, pain, paralysis and epilepsy. Small area electrodes are desired to achieve high selectivity. However, a major trade-off with electrode miniaturization is an increase in impedance and charge density requirements. Thus, the development of novel materials with lower interfacial impedance and enhanced charge storage capacity is essential for the development of micro-neural interface-based neuroprostheses. In this report, we study the use of conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (PEDOT as a neural interface material for microstimulation of small area iridium electrodes on silicon-substrate arrays. Characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrodeposition of PEDOT results in lower interfacial impedance at physiologically-relevant frequencies, with the 1kHz impedance magnitude being 23.3 ± 0.7 kΩ compared to 113.6 ± 3.5 kΩ for iridium oxide (IrOx on 177μm2 sites. Further, PEDOT exhibits enhanced charge storage capacity at 75.6 ± 5.4 mC/cm2 compared to 28.8 ± 0.3 mC/cm2 for IrOx, characterized by cyclic voltammetry (50 mV/s. These improvements at the electrode interface were corroborated by observation of the voltage excursions that result from constant current pulsing. The PEDOT coatings provide both a lower amplitude voltage and a more ohmic representation of the applied current compared to IrOx. During repetitive pulsing, PEDOT-coated electrodes show stable performance and little change in electrical properties, even at relatively high current densities which cause IrOx instability. These findings support the potential of PEDOT coatings as a micro-neural interface material for electrostimulation.

  20. Ligational, analytical and biological applications on oxalyl bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene) hydrazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Asmy, Ahmed A.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Radwan, H. A.; Ghazy, S. E.

    2010-09-01

    The molecular modeling and parameters have been calculated to confirm the geometry of oxalyl bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene) hydrazone, H 6L. The metal complexes of Cr 3+, VO 2+, ZrO 2+, HfO 2+, UO 22+ and MoO 22+ with H 6L have been prepared and characterized by partial elemental analysis, spectral studies (electronic; IR), thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. The data suggest the formation of polymer complexes with a unit [Cr(H 4L)(H 2O) 3Cl]·H 2O, [VO(H 4L)(H 2O) 2], [Hf(H 4L)(H 2O)]·H 2O [UO 2(H 4L)(H 2O) 2]·2H 2O [MoO 2(H 4L)] and [(ZrO) 2(H 2L)-(C 2H 5OH) 2]. The ligand behaves as a dibasic bidentate in all complexes except ZrO 2+ which acts as a tetrabasic tetradentate with the two ZrO 2+ ions. An octahedral geometry was proposed for the Cr 3+, HfO 2+, MoO 22+and UO 22+ complexes and square pyramid for VO 2+. The Cr 3+ is necessary to degrade the DNA of eukaryotic subject completely; the other complexes have little effect. H 6L was found suitable as a new reagent for the separation and preconcentration of ZrO 2+ ions from different water samples using flotation technique with satisfactory results.

  1. Bed net ownership in Kenya: the impact of 3.4 million free bed nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulule John

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In July and September 2006, 3.4 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs were distributed free in a campaign targeting children 0-59 months old (CU5s in the 46 districts with malaria in Kenya. A survey was conducted one month after the distribution to evaluate who received campaign LLINs, who owned insecticide-treated bed nets and other bed nets received through other channels, and how these nets were being used. The feasibility of a distribution strategy aimed at a high-risk target group to meet bed net ownership and usage targets is evaluated. Methods A stratified, two-stage cluster survey sampled districts and enumeration areas with probability proportional to size. Handheld computers (PDAs with attached global positioning systems (GPS were used to develop the sampling frame, guide interviewers back to chosen households, and collect survey data. Results In targeted areas, 67.5% (95% CI: 64.6, 70.3% of all households with CU5s received campaign LLINs. Including previously owned nets, 74.4% (95% CI: 71.8, 77.0% of all households with CU5s had an ITN. Over half of CU5s (51.7%, 95% CI: 48.8, 54.7% slept under an ITN during the previous evening. Nearly forty percent (39.1% of all households received a campaign net, elevating overall household ownership of ITNs to 50.7% (95% CI: 48.4, 52.9%. Conclusions The campaign was successful in reaching the target population, families with CU5s, the risk group most vulnerable to malaria. Targeted distribution strategies will help Kenya approach indicator targets, but will need to be combined with other strategies to achieve desired population coverage levels.

  2. Preparations, structures and properties of heterobimetallic complexes based on tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Tian-Jing; Li, Shu-Mu; Cao, Wei [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Li-Cun [College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zheng, Xiang-Jun, E-mail: xjzheng@bnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yuan, Da-Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2013-05-01

    Transition heterobimetallic metal-organic frameworks based on tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylicate (FTA), namely [M(H₂O)₆][Cu₂M(FTA)₂(H₂O)₂]·4H₂O [M=Mn (1), Co (2)], and [CuZn(FTA)(H₂O)₅]·H₂O (3) have been synthesized and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that complexes 1 and 2 are isomorphic. In 1 and 2, FTA ligand links the metal ions to a 2-D wave-like negative-charged layer with a topology of (4;6²)₂(4;6³;8²)₂(6). They possess 1-D channels with [M(H₂O)₆]²⁺ and lattice water molecules enclathrated. While in the complex 3, Cu²⁺ and Zn²⁺ ions are bridged by FTA to a 2-D neutral layer structure with a (8)₂(8⁴;12²) topology. Magnetic properties of 1–3 were analyzed in connection with their structures, which show that there exist weak antiferromagnetic interactions between metal ions. - Graphical abstract: Three heterobimetallic MOFs were constructed through the size-selectivity of TFA coordination sites for different transition metal ions based on the concept of “Hard and Soft Acids and Bases”. Highlights: • Complexes 1 and 3 contain 2-D wave-like negative-charged layers. • Complex 2 is a 2-D neutral layer structure with a (8)₂(8⁴;12²) topology. • Complexes 1–3 are the first example of heterobimetallic MOFs based on FTA. • The coordination sites of FTA show size-selectivity to metal ions.

  3. Controllable molecular aggregation and fluorescence properties of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Min

    2015-10-14

    The molecular self-assembly behaviour of 2,2’-Bis-(4-hexyloxyphenyl)-bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole (BOXD-6) in solution, on surfaces and in bulk crystals, and its photo-physical properties were studied via a combination of experimental techniques and theoretical calculations. It is found that BOXD-6 molecules self-assemble into both H- and J-aggregates at moderate concentration (~10-4 M) and then transit to exclusive J-aggregates at higher concentration (~10-3 M) in tetrahydrofuran. In H-aggregation (α polymorph), BOXD-6 adopts a linear conformation and forms a one- dimensional layered structure; in J-aggregation (β polymorph), it adopts a Z-shaped conformation and form a more ordered two-dimensional layered structure. A π-stacking structure is observed in both cases, and adjacent molecules in the J-aggregation show larger displacement along the molecular long axis direction than that in H-aggregation. Although J-aggregates are almost the only component in concentrated solutions (10-3 M), both H- and J-aggregates can be obtained if concentrated solution is transformed onto substrates through a simple drop-casting method. Such a phase transition during film formation can be easily avoided by adding water as precipitator; a film with pure J-aggregates is then obtained. In order to get more information on molecular self-assembly, intermolecular interaction potential energy surfaces (PES) were evaluated via theoretical calculations at the DFT level (M062x/6-31G**). The PES not only confirm the molecular stacking structures found in crystals but also predict some other likely structures, which will be the target of future experiments.

  4. The origin of the 3.4 micron feature in Wild 2 cometary particles and in ultracarbonaceous interplanetary dust particles

    OpenAIRE

    Matrajt, Graciela; Flynn, George; Brownlee, Don; Joswiak, Dave; Bajt, Sasa

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 2 ultra-carbonaceous interplanetary dust particles and 2 cometary Wild 2 particles with infrared spectroscopy. We characterized the carrier of the 3.4 micron band in these samples and compared its profile and the CH2/CH3 ratios to the 3.4 micron band in the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM), in the insoluble organic matter (IOM) from 3 primitive meteorites, in asteroid 24 Themis and in the coma of comet 103P/Hartley 2. We found that the 3.4 micron band in both Wild 2 and IDPs is ...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of new 3-(4,5-dihydro-5-arylisoxazol-3-yl-4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H-ones and 3-(4-styrylisoxazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4(5H-one derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarveswari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 4-hydroxy-3-(3-arylacryloylquinolin-2(1H-ones were synthesized from 3-acetyl-4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H-one by microwave assisted synthesis, which in turn converted into their corresponding 3-(4,5-dihydro-5-arylisoxazol-3-yl-4-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H-ones and 3-(4-styrylisoxazolo[4,5-c]quinolin-4(5H-one derivatives.

  6. Synthesis, spectral and antimicrobial activity of [3-(4-chloro-phenoxy-2,4-diisopropyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3l5-benzo[e][1,3,2]diazaphosphepin-3-ylidene]-alkyl-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Usha Nagalakshmi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available 3-(4-chlorophenoxy-2,4-diisopropyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[e][1,3,2]diaza-phosphepine was synthesized starting from 1,2-bis(bromomethylbenzene by reacting with 2 equimolar isopropyl amine, one equimolar PBr3 and then one equimolar 4-chlorophenol, respectively. The Staudinger reaction of the diazaphphosphine with a series of alkyl azides gave the corresponding iminophosphoranes. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized iminophosphoranes were screened

  7. Construction of 1,3,4-Oxadiazole and 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Library with a High Level of Skeletal Diversity Based on Branching Diversity-Oriented Synthesis on Solid-Phase Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ji-Eun; Yang, Seung-Ju; Gong, Young-Dae

    2018-02-12

    An efficient solid-phase synthetic route for the construction of 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole libraries based on branching diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) has been developed in this study. The core skeleton resins, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole, were obtained through desulfurative and dehydrative cyclizations of thiosemicarbazide resin, respectively. Various functional groups have been introduced to the core skeleton resins, such as aryl, amine, amide, urea, thiourea, and an amino acid. Most of the libraries were purified by simple trituration without extraction or column chromatography after cleavage of the products from the solid-supported resin. As a result, we obtained high yields of pure 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives (total numbers = 128). Finally, we confirmed the drug-like properties of our library by calculation of physicochemical properties, displays of the skeletal diversities of the library in 3D-space, and occupation of a broad range of areas by their functional groups.

  8. Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong Lau; And Others

    This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

  9. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  10. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (filters and power converters.

  11. Results of the Accord 12/0405- prodige 2 randomized test in the rectum cancers of stage T(2) 3-4 NX M0; Resultat de l'essai randomise Accord 12/0405-prodige 2 dans les cancers du rectum de stade T(2) 3-4 NX M0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, J.P.; Benezery, K. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Azria, D.; Gourgou-Bourgade, S. [CRLCC Val d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, 34 - Montpellier (France); Martel-Laffay, I. [Centre Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Hennequin, C. [Hopital St-Louis, 75 - Paris (France); Etienne, P.L. [Clinique Armoricaine de Radiologie, 22 - Saint-Brieuc (France); Vendrely, V. [CHU, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Nancy (France); Montoto-Grillot, C. [FNCLCC-BECT, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-10-15

    The Capox 50 protocol increase the early toxicity without reducing the possibilities of surgery. It does not increase neither the sphincter conservation rate nor the surgery complications. It improves noticeably the histological tumor response (ypT) and the negative circumferential margin rate. The Star Italian protocol randomized for similar patients exclusively oxaliplatin, without increasing the histological tumor response rate and with 25% of grade 3 or 4 early toxicity. In comparison between the tests Accord 12 and Star it is possible to propose as neoadjuvant treatment of these rectum cancers (stage T3-4 Mo) a Cape 50 protocol associating a 50 Gy radiotherapy in 25 fractions and five weeks and a concomitant chemotherapy (capecitabine: 1600 mg/M{sup 2}/d). The oxaliplatin can be proposed out of radiotherapy to eradicate the infra clinical metastases. (N.C.)

  12. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): interindividual differences due to polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, S.J.; Hondebrink, L.; Westerink, R.H.S.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical outcome following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) intake ranges from mild entactogenic effects to a life-threatening intoxication. Despite ongoing research, the clinically most relevant mechanisms causing acute MDMA-induced adverse effects remain largely unclear. This complicates

  13. Detection of the 3.4- and 2.8-micron emission features in Comet Bradfield (1987s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, T.Y.; Tokunaga, A.T.; Knacke, R.F.; Owen, T.C.; Mumma, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Comet Bradfield's 3.4-micron C-H emission feature at 3.4 microns, as well as the emission feature near 2.8 microns, exhibit spectral shapes similar to those noted in Comets Halley and Wilson; the derived abundances of the C-H bonds in all three comets are also comparable (within water production rate uncertainties). These data support the hypothesis that the species responsible for the 3.4- and 2.8-micron features may be common to all comets. Beyond this, the widely differing ages of the three comets suggest that the 3.4-micron feature-emitting organics are not the product of surface irradiation processes after the comets' formation. 25 refs

  14. [Correction of psychophysical development of preschool children 3-4 year old with movement disorders by means of Bobath therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhovets, B.O.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the definition of efficiency application means Bobath therapy as main correction psychophysical development method of preschool age 3 -4 years children, who have movement disorders.

  15. The characterization of dielectric properties of platinum-Nafion-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Seok

    The generation of electrical energy by piezoelectric polymer when mechanically stressed has motivated the investigation of poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoro ethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) devices as implantable physiological power supplies. The fragility, specific weight, and rigidity of traditional piezoelectric ceramics used have limited their applicability, although the concept of using piezoelectric elements as mechanically actuated electric power generators for implanted organs has been exploited to some extent. In contrast, piezoelectric polymers are flexible, light, resistant to mechanical fatigue, and efficient as voltage generators. Thus, they can be considered as a source for generating, through mechanical deformation, the electric power needed to fuel implanted artificial organs or to trigger assisting devices such as cardiac pacemakers. This study demonstrates the feasibility of power generation devices that create current from mechanical deformation. One type of power generating device is PVDF-TrFE copolymer and, when built on the pacemaker's lead, can use the motion of the heart as its power source. The other type of device is a Pt-Nafion-PEDOT (PNP) composite device which is fabricated using Perfluorosulfonate ionomeric polymer (Nafion) and conductive polymer, Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), by electrochemical synthesis. The device will enable passive location-specific stimulation, thus mimicking the contraction signal of the normal heart. It can generate its own power and may therefore make the battery-lifetime longer. In other applications of these materials is an ultrasound transducer and receiver. Ultrasound transducer/receivers using PNP composite and PVDF as a reference transducer/receiver were studied in order to detect and locate the depth of material (alloy metal, polymer gel) by a pulse-echo method. In a time of flight (TOF) measurement, a transmitter emits short packets of ultrasound waves toward the surface of object in tissue, where they are

  16. A temperate exo-Earth around a quiet M dwarf at 3.4 parsec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, X.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Díaz, R.; Almenara, J.-M.; Forveille, T.; Bouchy, F.; Delfosse, X.; Lovis, C.; Mayor, M.; Murgas, F.; Pepe, F.; Santos, N. C.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Wünsche, A.

    2018-05-01

    The combination of high-contrast imaging and high-dispersion spectroscopy, which has successfully been use to detect the atmosphere of a giant planet, is one of the most promising potential probes of the atmosphere of Earth-size worlds. The forthcoming generation of extremely large telescopes (ELTs) may obtain sufficient contrast with this technique to detect O2 in the atmosphere of those worlds that orbit low-mass M dwarfs. This is strong motivation to carry out a census of planets around cool stars for which habitable zones can be resolved by ELTs, i.e. for M dwarfs within 5 parsec. Our HARPS survey has been a major contributor to that sample of nearby planets. Here we report on our radial velocity observations of Ross 128 (Proxima Virginis, GJ447, HIP 57548), an M4 dwarf just 3.4 parsec away from our Sun. This source hosts an exo-Earth with a projected mass m sini = 1.35 M⊕ and an orbital period of 9.9 days. Ross 128 b receives less than 1.5 times as much flux as Earth from the Sun and its equilibrium ranges in temperature between 269 K for an Earth-like albedo and 213 K for a Venus-like albedo. Recent studies place it close to the inner edge of the conventional habitable zone. An 80-day long light curve from K2 campaign C01 demonstrates that Ross 128 b does not transit. Together with the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) photometry and spectroscopic activity indices, the K2 photometry shows that Ross 128 rotates slowly and has weak magnetic activity. In a habitability context, this makes survival of its atmosphere against erosion more likely. Ross 128 b is the second closest known exo-Earth, after Proxima Centauri b (1.3 parsec), and the closest temperate planet known around a quiet star. The 15 mas planet-star angular separation at maximum elongation will be resolved by ELTs (>3λ/D) in the optical bands of O2. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under the programme IDs 072.C-0488(A), 183.C-0437(A), and 191.C-0873(A

  17. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Substituted Piperazinyl-quinazolin-3(4H-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Raghavendra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several substituted-quinazolin-3(4H-ones were synthesized by condensation of 2-chloro-N-(4-oxo-substituted-quinazolin-3(4H-yl-acetamides with various substituted piperazines through single step reaction. Elemental analysis, IR, 1HNMR and mass spectral data confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. Synthesized quinazolin-4-one derivatives were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  18. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9662 Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical...-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI) (PMN P-95-1825; CAS No. 126213-50-1) is subject to reporting under...

  19. Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of Some New Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R. A. Abdellatif

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 3,6-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazin-4-one (3 was prepared by hydrolysis of ethyl 5-amino-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (1 to afford the corresponding carboxylic acid 2, which was reacted with acetic anhydride to give 3. The pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,3]oxazin-4-one 3 was reacted with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, urea, thiourea, thiosemicarbazide, phenylhydrazine and aromatic amines to afford the corresponding pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-ones 4, 5a,b, 6, 7, 8a–e, respectively. Condensation of pyrazoloxazine derivative 3 with 99% hydrazine hydrate afforded the 5-aminopyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine derivative 9. Coupling of 9 with aromatic aldehydes yielded a series of 3,6-dimethyl-5-(4-substitutedbenzylideneamino-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- 4-ones 10a–e. The new compounds were tested for their antitumor activity on the MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. Almost all the tested compounds revealed antitumor activity, especially 3,6-dimethyl-5-(4-nitrobenzylideneamino-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one (10e which displayed the most potent inhibitory activity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 11 µM.

  20. Apoptotic cell death through inhibition of protein kinase CKII activity by 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde purified from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bang Hyo; Yoon, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Yun-Sook; Kim, Sang Kook; Moon, Byong Jo; Bae, Young-Seuk

    2008-01-01

    The CKII inhibitory compound was purified from the fruit of Xanthium strumarium by organic solvent extraction and silica gel chromatography. The inhibitory compound was identified as 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde by analysis with FT-IR, FAB-Mass, EI-Mass, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde inhibited the phosphotransferase activity of CKII with IC(50) of about 783 microM. Steady-state studies revealed that the inhibitor acts as a competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ATP. A value of 138.6 microM was obtained for the apparent K(i). Concentration of 300 microM 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde caused 50% growth inhibition of human cancer cell U937. 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde-induced cell death was characterised with the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and procaspase-3. Furthermore, the inhibitor induced the fragmentation of DNA into multiples of 180 bp, indicating that it triggered apoptosis. This induction of apoptosis by 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde was also confirmed by using flow cytometry analysis. Since CKII is involved in cell proliferation and oncogenesis, these results suggest that 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde may function by inhibiting oncogenic disease, at least in part, through the inhibition of CKII activity.

  1. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of some new pyrazole, pyrazoline and chromeno[3,4-c]pyrazole derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abunada, Nada M.; Miqdad, Omar A. [Al-Aqsa University, Gaza (Palestinian Territory, Occupied). Faculty of Applied Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry; Hassaneen, Hamdi M. [Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science. Dept. of Chemistry; Samaha, Ahmed S. M. Abu [Al-Aqsa University, Gaza (Palestinian Territory, Occupied). Faculty of Applied Sciences. Dept. of Biology

    2009-07-01

    Some new pyrazole-5-carbonitrile derivatives 8,9 and pyrazole-5-carboxamide 13 were synthesized by the cycloaddition reaction of nitrilimines 3,4 to alpha-cyanocinnamonitriles 5a-f and alpha-cyanocinnamamide 12a,b respectively. On the other hand 3,4 add to ethyl alpha-cyanocinnamate 14a-f to give ethyl 2-pyrazoline-5-carboxylate derivatives 15,16. Also, cycloaddition of 3,4 to 3-cyanocoumarin 19a or 3-phenylsulphonylcoumarin 19b or 3-bromocoumarin 19c give chromeno[3,4-c]pyrazol-4(3H)-one derivatives 20. In the same direction, the cycloaddition of 3,4 to 3-acetylcoumarin 22 and 3-benzoylcoumarin 23 gives the corresponding dihydrochromeno[3,4-]pyrazol-4(3H)-one 24 and 25 respectively. Oxidation of 24 and 25 give 20. Most of the prepared compounds showed good to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities. (author)

  2. Pre-operative radio-chemo-thermotherapy for advanced (T3-4) and/or recurrent rectal carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wust, P.; Gremmler, M.; Rau, B.; Loeffel, J.; Gellermann, J.; Stahl, H.; Vogl, T.; Riess, H.; Schlag, P.; Felix, R.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies suggest that pre-operative radio-chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer can increase resectability and local control (T4 stages), and might facilitate sphincter-preserving surgery (T3 stages). However, response rates are still unsatisfactory for radiotherapy alone, and are only slightly better for radio-chemotherapy. Radiofrequency hyperthermia has now achieved a technical stage already suitable for treating this tumor entity effectively in clinical practice. Therefore, a trimodal pre-operative approach for T3-4 rectal carcinomas has been investigated in a phase I/II study. Materials and Methods: A phase I/II study was conducted on 30 pts with advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer. (7(30)) pts had recurrences, (9(30)) uT3, (14(30)) T4-stage of the primary. Initial tumor stage was assessed by endosonography, CT and occasionally MRI (T1-w ± Echovist, T2-w, proton density). Radiotherapy was delivered in prone position using a belly-board, three-field technique, standard blocks, 5x1.8 → 45 Gy in 5 weeks. In parallel, 5-FU (300-350 mg/kg, dose escalation) and folinic acid (50 mg) on days 1-5 and days 22-28. Regional hyperthermia was administered using the annular phased array applicator SIGMA-60 once a week. Index temperatures T x were deduced from thermal mapping scans in endocavitary/intratumoral catheters. Re-staging was done by endosonography and CT. Four weeks after radiotherapy, surgery was performed with preference to continence preserving operations. If the tumor remained unresectable, a boost to a total tumor dose of 60 Gy was claimed. Results: (7(30)) pts (23%) did not undergo resection because their tumors remained technically non-resectable: 4 pts with persistent local control of 12-18 mts, 2 pts with progressive disease, 1 pt with too short observation time. (23(30)) pts underwent surgery: only 1 R2-resection, 22 R0-resections. The patho-histological analysis documented 4 CR (17%) at the primary tumor, 12 PR

  3. Prognostic significance of Gleason score 7 (3+4 and Gleason score 7 (4+3 in prostatic adenocarcinoma in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognosis and choice of treatment of adenocarcinoma of the prostate (ADCP directly depend on the numerous of predictive factors, among which the most important are summary histological tumor grade (Gleason score, which is the sum of the first and second dominant histological grade and clinical stage. According to recent research these factors include androgen tissue status and degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The importance of the first and second dominant histological grade becomes particularly important in ADCP Gleason score 7. Tumors with worse prognosis considered to be ADCP of higher Gleason score, the advanced clinical stage, androgen independent tumors and tumors that show a higher degree of neuroendocrine differentiation. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive significance of ADCP Gleason score 7 (3+4 and ADCP Gleason score 7 (4+3 in relation to clinical stage, androgen tissue status and degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. The study included 33 ADCP of Gleason score 7,26 (78.79% ADCP 7 (3+4 and 7 (21.21% ADCP 7 (4+3. All tumors are most often diagnosed with stage D2, when there are already distant metastases. ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 were diagnosed more often at this stage, among them there are more androgen independent tumors and they show a greater degree of focal neuroendocrine differentiation. All the results are in accordance with data from the literature suggesting that ADCP of Gleason score 7 (4+3 have a worse prognosis than ADCP of Gleason score 7 (3 +4.

  4. Does the Compliance of the Bladder Affect the Grade of Vesicoureteral Reflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kilinc

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We retrospectively reviewed videourodynamic outcomes in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of this study to evaluate the relationship between vesicoureteral reflux grade and bladder compliance. Material and Method: Videourodynamic traces of 53 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux investigated between January 2004 and January 2012 were reviewed. The detrusor pressures of the point when the reflux started were recorded. The detrusor pressures 10 cmH2O or less at that point was accepted as normal compliance (Group 1, the detrusor pressures more than10 cm H2O was accepted as hipocompliance (Group 2. The reflux grades were divided into two grades, low-grade reflux (grades 1 and 2, high-grade reflux (grades 3, 4 and 5. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: Patients’ ages ranged between 5 and 11 years (mean 7.09±1.81 years. Of the 53 patients, 29 (54.7% had normal compliance (Group 1, 24 (45.3% had hipocompliance (Group 2. Twenty-four (82.8% patients in-group 1 had a low-grade reflux, 5 (17.2% patients had a high-grade reflux. In group 2, 8 (33.3% patients had a low-grade reflux, 16 (66.7% patients had a high-grade reflux. The detected high-grade reflux in-group 2 was significantly higher than in-group 1 (p<0.001. Discussion: The physicians should be considering the bladder compliance at the point when the reflux started in primary vesicoureteral reflux cases. The bladder hipocompliance may play a secondary role in reflux grade.

  5. Prospective validation of a surgical complications grading system in a cohort of 2114 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeh, Haggi; Cohen, Oded; Mizrahi, Ido; Hamburger, Tamar; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Abu-Wasel, Bassam; Alaiyan, Bilal; Freund, Herbert R; Eid, Ahmed; Nissan, Aviram

    2014-05-01

    We recently reported a grading system for surgical complications. This system proved to have a high sensitivity for recording minor but meaningful complications prolonging hospital stay in patients after colorectal surgery. We aimed to prospectively validate the complication grading system in a general surgery department over 1 year. All surgical procedures and related complications were prospectively recorded between January 1st and December 31st, 2009. Surgical complications were graded on a severity scale of 1-5. The system classifies short-term outcome by grade emphasizing intensity of therapy required for treatment of the defined complication. During the study period, 2114 patients underwent surgery. Elective and oncological surgeries were performed in 1606 (76%) and 465 (22%) patients, respectively. There were 422 surgical complications in 304 (14%) patients (Grade 1/2: 203 [67%]; Grade 3/4: 90 [29%]; Grade 5: 11 [4%]). Median length of stay correlated significantly with complication severity: 2.3 d for no complication, 6.2 and 11.8 d for Grades 1/2 and 3/4, respectively (P 2 (OR 2.07, P Grade (OR 1.85, P = 0.001), oncological (OR 2.82, P 120 min (OR 2.08, P grading surgical complications permits standardized reporting of surgical morbidity according to the severity of impact. Prospective validation of this system supports its use in a general surgery setting as a tool for surgical outcome assessment and quality assurance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 3',4'-Dihydroxyflavonol reduces superoxide and improves nitric oxide function in diabetic rat mesenteric arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Huei Leo

    Full Text Available 3',4'-Dihydroxyflavonol (DiOHF is an effective antioxidant that acutely preserves nitric oxide (NO activity in the presence of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS. We hypothesized that DiOHF treatment (7 days, 1 mg/kg per day s.c. would improve relaxation in mesenteric arteries from diabetic rats where endothelial dysfunction is associated with elevated oxidant stress.In mesenteric arteries from diabetic rats there was an increase in ROS, measured by L-012 and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide levels, assayed by lucigenin chemiluminescence, were also significantly increased in diabetic mesenteric arteries (diabetes, 4892±946 counts/mg versus normal 2486±344 counts/mg, n = 7-10, p<0.01 associated with an increase in Nox2 expression but DiOHF (2094±300 counts/mg, n = 10, p<0.001 reversed that effect. Acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of mesenteric arteries was assessed using wire myography (pEC(50 = 7.94±0.13 n = 12. Diabetes significantly reduced the sensitivity to ACh and treatment with DiOHF prevented endothelial dysfunction (pEC(50, diabetic 6.86±0.12 versus diabetic+DiOHF, 7.49±0.13, n = 11, p<0.01. The contribution of NO versus endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF to ACh-induced relaxation was assessed by evaluating responses in the presence of TRAM-34+apamin+iberiotoxin or N-nitro-L-arginine+ODQ respectively. Diabetes impaired the contribution of both NO (maximum relaxation, R(max diabetic 24±7 versus normal, 68±10, n = 9-10, p<0.01 and EDHF (pEC(50, diabetic 6.63±0.15 versus normal, 7.14±0.12, n = 10-11, p<0.01 to endothelium-dependent relaxation. DiOHF treatment did not significantly affect the EDHF contribution but enhanced NO-mediated relaxation (R(max 69±6, n = 11, p<0.01. Western blotting demonstrated that diabetes also decreased expression and increased uncoupling of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. Treatment of the

  7. β-Secretase BACE1 Promotes Surface Expression and Function of Kv3.4 at Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Stephanie; Zheng, Fang; Kyncl, Michele C; Karch, Sandra; Voelkl, Kerstin; Zott, Benedikt; D'Avanzo, Carla; Lomoio, Selene; Tesco, Giuseppina; Kim, Doo Y; Alzheimer, Christian; Huth, Tobias

    2018-04-04

    The β-secretase β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is deemed a major culprit in Alzheimer's disease, but accumulating evidence indicates that there is more to the enzyme than driving the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein. For example, BACE1 has emerged as an important regulator of neuronal activity through proteolytic and, most unexpectedly, also through nonproteolytic interactions with several ion channels. Here, we identify and characterize the voltage-gated K + channel 3.4 (Kv3.4) as a new and functionally relevant interaction partner of BACE1. Kv3.4 gives rise to A-type current with fast activating and inactivating kinetics and serves to repolarize the presynaptic action potential. We found that BACE1 and Kv3.4 are highly enriched and remarkably colocalized in hippocampal mossy fibers (MFs). In BACE1 -/- mice of either sex, Kv3.4 surface expression was significantly reduced in the hippocampus and, in synaptic fractions thereof, Kv3.4 was specifically diminished, whereas protein levels of other presynaptic K + channels such as K Ca 1.1 and K Ca 2.3 remained unchanged. The apparent loss of presynaptic Kv3.4 affected the strength of excitatory transmission at the MF-CA3 synapse in hippocampal slices of BACE1 -/- mice when probed with the Kv3 channel blocker BDS-I. The effect of BACE1 on Kv3.4 expression and function should be bidirectional, as predicted from a heterologous expression system, in which BACE1 cotransfection produced a concomitant upregulation of Kv3.4 surface level and current based on a physical interaction between the two proteins. Our data show that, by targeting Kv3.4 to presynaptic sites, BACE1 endows the terminal with a powerful means to regulate the strength of transmitter release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The β-secretase β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is infamous for its crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, but its physiological functions in the intact nervous system are only gradually

  8. Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline var...

  9. Characterization of Organic Materials in the Xenolithic Clasts in Sharps (H3.4) Meteorite Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Kebukawa, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Graphitization of carbon is an irreversible process which alters the structure of graphitic materials in response to the increase in metamorphic grade (temperature and/or pressure). Carbonaceous materials offer a reliable geothermometer as their Raman spectra change systematically with increasing metamorphic grade. In this study, we identified carbonaceous materials in the xenolithic clasts in Sharps and interpreted their metamorphic history by revealing the structural organization (order) of the polyaromatic organic phases using micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Characterization of Organic Materials in the Xenolithic Clasts in Sharps (H3.4) Meteorite Using Microraman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Kebukawa, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Graphitization of carbon is an irreversible process which alters the structure of graphitic materials in response to the increase in metamorphic grade (temperature and/or pressure). Carbonaceous materials offer a reliable geothermometer as their Raman spectra change systematically with increasing metamorphic grade [1-3]. In this study, we identified carbonaceous materials in the xenolithic clasts in Sharps and interpreted their metamorphic history by revealing the structural organization (order) of the polyaromatic organic phases using µ-Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Holocord low grade astrocytoma - Role of radical irradiation and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, S.; Puri, T.; Julka, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal intradural tumors, especially those extending along the entire length of the spinal cord, termed as ‘holocord’ tumors are uncommon. Most of these are gliomas, with astrocytomas (low grade) predominating in children and ependymomas in adults. Other histologies, though reported, are even rarer. Management is debatable, with both surgery and radiotherapy of such extensive tumors posing challenges. We describe a case of a 14-year-old girl with holocord astrocytoma extending from cervicomedullary junction till lumbar spine, who recovered full neurological function following radical irradiation of entire spine followed by temozolomide-based chemotherapy. No grade 3/4 bone marrow morbidity was seen. Five years following treatment, she maintained normal neurological function and apparently normal pubertal and skeletal growth despite residual disease visible on imaging. Literature review of existing reports of holocord astrocytomas highlighting management and outcome is presented.

  12. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 3-(2-Furanyl-6-Aryl-1,2,4-Triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4 –Thiadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Yi Zhang

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available 3-(2-Furanyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (1 was prepared from 2-furoic acid through a multi-step reaction sequence. Compound 1 reacted with aromatic acids in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride to give 3-(2-furanyl-6-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (2. The structures of all the newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectra. The bioassay indicated most of the title compounds possess significant growth promoting effects on mung bean radicles.

  13. Acute toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in the anxious mood of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suxia Li; Jing Li; Xue Wang; Weihong Kuang; Zugui Peng; Mingsheng Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term neurotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) mainly caused by repeated exposure to MDMA or a single big dose of MDMA, which results in degeneration of serotonin terminal of central nervous system, and someone believe that the great release of serotonin transmitter in central nervous system will lead to anxious mood.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of anxiety related behaviors in rats after single administration of different doses of MDMA.DESIGN: A randomized control study.SETTING: Laboratory of Psychopharmacology of the Mental Health Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.MATERIALS: Thirty male adult Wistar rats, weighing (251.3±18.34) g, were used. MDMA were obtained from the National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, and dissolved in saline. All the doses of the drug were administered in a volume of 1 mg/kg.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Psychopharmacology of the Mental Health Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University in July 2003. ①The rats were randomly divided into control group (n=6) and experimental group (n=24), and then those in the latter were randomly assigned into four subgroups of MDMA 3, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg groups, with 6 rats in each, which were administrated by single intraperitoneal injection of MDMA 3, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg respectively, and those in the control group were administrated by single intraperitoneal injection of saline of the same volume. ② The open field test,elevated plus-maze test and social interaction test were performed immediately after administration. For the open field test, the apparatus was situated in a darkened room, illuminated by a single 60 W white light bulb located approximately 60 cm above the center of the open field. Before administration, all the rats were placed into the open field to be familiar with the open field for 5 minutes. They were observed for 45 minutes after administration. The

  14. Optimizing the performance of neural interface devices with hybrid poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-chen

    This thesis describes methods for improving the performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a direct neural interfacing material. The chronic foreign body response is always a challenge for implanted bionic devices. After long-term implantation (typically 2-4 weeks), insulating glial scars form around the devices, inhibiting signal transmission, which ultimately leads to device failure. The mechanical mismatch at the device-tissue interface is one of the issues that has been associated with chronic foreign body response. Another challenge for using PEDOT as a neural interface material is its mechanical failure after implantation. We observed cracking and delamination of PEDOT coatings on devices after extended implantations. In the first part of this thesis, we present a novel method for directly measuring the mechanical properties of a PEDOT thin film. Before investigating methods to improve the mechanical behavior of PEDOT, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties of PEDOT thin film is required. A PEDOT thin film was machined into a dog-bone shape specimen with a dual beam FIB-SEM. With an OmniProbe, this PEDOT specimen could be attached onto a force sensor, while the other side was attached to OmniProbe. By moving the OmniProbe, the specimen could be deformed in tension, and a force sensor recorded the applied load on the sample simultaneously. Mechanical tensile tests were conducted in the FIB-SEM chamber along with in situ observation. With precise force measurement from the force sensor and the corresponding high resolution SEM images, we were able to convert the data to a stress-strain curve for further analysis. By analyzing these stress-strain curves, we were able to obtain information about PEDOT including the Young's modulus, strength of failure, strain to failure, and toughness (energy to failure). This information should be useful for future material selection and molecular design for specific applications. The second

  15. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  16. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  17. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  18. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments. Exp...

  19. Cracks in functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, H.-A.; Balke, H.; Fett, T.; Hofinger, I.; Kirchhoff, G.; Munz, D.; Neubrand, A.; Semenov, A.S.; Weiss, H.-J.; Yang, Y.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The weight function method is described to analyze the crack growth behavior in functionally graded materials and in particular materials with a rising crack growth resistance curve. Further, failure of graded thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) under cyclic surface heating by laser irradiation is modeled on the basis of fracture mechanics. The damage of both graded and non-graded TBCs is found to develop in several distinct stages: vertical cracking→delamination→blistering→spalling. This sequence can be understood as an effect of progressive shrinkage due to sintering and high-temperature creep during thermal cycling, which increases the energy-release rate for vertical cracks which subsequently turn into delamination cracks. The results of finite element modeling, taking into account the TBC damage mechanisms, are compatible with experimental data. An increase of interface fracture toughness due to grading and a decrease due to ageing have been measured in a four-point bending test modified by a stiffening layer. Correlation with the damage observed in cyclic heating is discussed. It is explained in which way grading is able to reduce the damage

  20. Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xigeng Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.

  1. Structure determination, electronic and optical properties of rubidium holmium polyphosphate RbHo(PO3)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Chen, Hui; Wang, Yude; Guan, Hongtao; Xiao, Xuechun

    2012-12-01

    Structural, optical, and electronic properties of a new alkali metal-rare earth polyphosphate, RbHo(PO3)4, have been investigated by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, power X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and spectral measurement. RbHo(PO3)4 crystallizes in the monoclinic with space group P21/n and Z = 4. It is described as a three-dimensional (3D) architecture built up of PO4 double spiral chains and HoO8 polyhedra by corner-sharing. The 11-coordinated rubidium atoms are located in infinite tunnels. Additionally, in order to gain further insight into the relationship between property and structure of RbHo(PO3)4, theoretical calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT) was performed using the total-energy code CASTEP.

  2. AGR-3/4 Final Data Qualification Report for ATR Cycles 151A through 155B-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Binh T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report provides the qualification status of experimental data for the entire Advanced Gas Reactor 3/4 (AGR 3/4) fuel irradiation. AGR-3/4 is the third in a series of planned irradiation experiments conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification Program, which supports development of the advanced reactor technology under the INL ART Technology Development Office (TDO). The main objective of AGR-3/4 irradiation is to provide a known source of fission products for subsequent transport through compact matrix and structural graphite materials due to the presence of designed-to-fail fuel particles. Full power irradiation of the AGR 3/4 test began on December 14, 2011 (ATR Cycle 151A), and was completed on April 12, 2014 (end of ATR Cycle 155B) after 369.1 effective full power days of irradiation. The AGR-3/4 test was in the reactor core for eight of the ten ATR cycles between 151A and 155B. During the unplanned outage cycle, 153A, the experiment was removed from the ATR northeast flux trap (NEFT) location and stored in the ATR canal. This was to prevent overheating of fuel compacts due to higher than normal ATR power during the subsequent Powered Axial Locator Mechanism cycle, 153B. The AGR 3/4 test was inserted back into the ATR NEFT location during the outage of ATR Cycle 154A on April 26, 2013. Therefore, the AGR-3/4 irradiation data received during these 2 cycles (153A and 153B) are irrelevant and their qualification status isnot included in this report. Additionally, during ATR Cycle 152A the ATR core ran at low power for a short enough duration that the irradiation data are not used for physics and thermal calculations. However, the qualification status of irradiation data for this cycle is still covered in this report. As a result, this report includes data from 8 ATR Cycles: 151A, 151B, 152A, 152B, 154A, 154B, 155A, and 155B, as recorded in the Nuclear Data Management and

  3. Hardwood log grades and lumber grade yields for factory lumber logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland F. Hanks; Glenn L. Gammon; Robert L. Brisbin; Everette D. Rast

    1980-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Standard Grades for Hardwood Factory Lumber Logs are described, and lumber grade yields for 16 species and 2 species groups are presented by log grade and log diameter. The grades enable foresters, log buyers, and log sellers to select and grade those log suitable for conversion into standard factory grade lumber. By using the apropriate lumber...

  4. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  5. Synthesis of 4-aryl-3,4-dihydrocoumarin derivatives catalyzed by NbCl{sub 5}; Sintese de derivados 4-aril-3,4-di-hidrocuraminicos catalisada por NbCl{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Willian Henrique dos; Siqueira, Mayara de Souza; Silva-Filho, Luiz Carlos da, E-mail: lcsilva@fc.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias

    2013-11-01

    Multicomponent reactions between phenols, {beta}-diesters and benzaldehydes for the synthesis of 4-aryl-3,4-dihydrocoumarin derivatives were carried out under mild conditions (room temperature) and presented moderate yields (38-88%) and reasonable reaction times (2-4 days), using niobium pentachloride as a catalyst. (author)

  6. Inadequate-1D and dynamic NMR of mesoion 3-phenyl-1-thio-2,3,4-triazole-5-methylides; INADEQUATE-1D i dynamiczny NMR mezojonowych 3-fenylo-1-tio-2,3,4-triazolo-5-metylidow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocian, W.; Stefaniak, L. [Inst. Chemii Organicznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The chemical shifts and coupling constants have been measured in series of mesoionic triazoles by means of inadequate atoms and dynamic NMR techniques. The electronic structure and other parameters of C5-C6 chemical bond in different derivatives of mesoionic 3-phenyl-1-thio-2,3,4-triazole-5 methyls have been determined. 14 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of n-(5-(o-tolyl)-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, J.Y.; Sun, N.B.; Wu, H.K.

    2013-01-01

    A new 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole compound, N-(5-(o-tolyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl) cyclopropanecarboxamide, was synthesized and its structure was confirmed by 1H NMR, MS and HRMS. The single crystal structure of the title compound was determined by X-ray diffraction. The preliminary biological test showed that the synthesized compound has moderate herbicidal activity against Brassica campestris and fungicidal activities against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum(Lib.) de Bary, Rhizoctonia solanii, Fusarium oxysporum, Corynespora cassiicola, and Botrytis cinerea. (author)

  8. A Switchable Molecular Dielectric with Two Sequential Reversible Phase Transitions: [(CH3)4P]4[Mn(SCN)6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Shi, Ping-Ping; Ye, Qiong; Wang, Hui-Ting; Wu, De-Hong; Ye, Heng-Yun; Fu, Da-Wei; Zhang, Yi

    2015-11-16

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid switchable and tunable dielectric compound, [(CH3)4P]4[Mn(SCN)6] (1), exhibits three distinct dielectric states above room temperature and undergoes two reversible solid-state phase transitions, including a structural phase transition at 330 K and a ferroelastic phase transition with the Aizu notation of mmmF2/m at 352 K. The variable-temperature structural analyses disclose that the origin of the phase transitions and dielectric anomalies can be ascribed to the reorientation or motion of both the [(CH3)4P](+) cations and [Mn(SCN)6](4-) anions in solid-state crystals.

  9. Purification and properties of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from Chaetomium piluliferum induced with p-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaś-Wasilewska, M; Trojanowski, J

    1980-01-01

    1. Protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (protocatechuate : oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase, EC 1.13.11.3) was isolated from mycelium of Chaetomium piluliferum induced with p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The enzyme was purified about 80-fold by ammonium sulphate fractionation and DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 chromatography, and was homogeneous on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. The enzyme showed high substrate specificity; its pH optimum was 7.5-8.0, and molecula weight about 76 000 as determined by filtration on Sephadex G-200. The Michaelis constant for protocatechuic acid was 11.1 microM.

  10. [Changes in mineral metabolism in stage 3, 4, and 5 chronic kidney disease (not on dialysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Sellares, V; Torregrosa, V

    2008-01-01

    replacement therapy or with advanced chronic kidney disease. It is indicated in patients with fractures or risk factors for osteoporosis. Bone biopsy: The "gold standard" for diagnosis of bone disease. With improved knowledge of the value of noninvasive parameters, its use is infrequent. Pathological fractures in the presence or absence of minor trauma. Symptomatic patients in the presence of incongruent clinical parameters. A typical case is the presence of unexplained hypercalcemia from systemic disease, with inconclusive serum PTH values (between 120-450 pg/mL as an estimated range). Evaluation and follow-up of cardiovascular calcifications There are no consensuated clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation and follow-up of extraosseal calcifications in CKD. The clinical tools for evaluation and follow-up of cardiovascular disease are used based on clinical judgment. The periodicity of follow-up has not been established . 3. Recommended biochemical values The biochemical values recommended in clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation of bone mineral metabolism are summarized in Figure 3. The recommended PTH values do not fully coincide with the K/DOQI guidelines. The wide variability in PTH values depending on the assays used has led us to expand the recommended PTH range in stage 3 and 4 CKD. 4. Treatment 4.1. Diet. The recommended diet for the patient with CKD is traditionally based on protein restriction and phosphorus restriction for control of mineral metabolism. A favorable circumstance is that there is a close relationship between protein and phosphorus intake. In CKD stages 3, 4 and 5, it is recommended to restrict phosphorus intake to between 0.8-1 g/day when serum levels of phosphorus and PTH are above the recommended range. This is approximately equivalent to a diet of 50-60 g of protein. This reasonable antiproteinuric strategy that also restricts phosphorus intake is nutritionally safe. What should we tell them to eat? In a practical and

  11. On the Vertex-Distinguishing Proper Edge-coloring of K3,4 ∨ Kt%图K3,4∨Kt的点可区别正常边染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏甲静; 王治文; 陈祥恩

    2012-01-01

    Let f be a proper edge coloring of G. For each x ∈ V(G), let S(x) denote the set of all colors of the edges incident with x. If (A) u, v∈ V(G), u ≠ v, we have S(u)≠ S(v), then f is called a vertex distinguishing proper edge coloring of G. The minimum number k for which there exists a vertex distinguishing proper edge coloring of G using k colors is called the vertex distinguishing proper edge chromatic number of G and denoted by x's(G). In this paper, we discuss vertex-distinguishing proper edge colorings of K3,4∨Kt. By using symmetry of regular polygons to construct coloring and methods of combinatorial analysis, we showed that for t is even with t ≥ 2 or t is odd with 3 ≤ t ≤ 25, we have x's(K3,4 ∨ Kt) =t+7; for t is odd with t ≥ 27, we have X's(K3,4∨Kt)=t+8.%设f是图G的一个正常边染色.对任意x∈V(G),令S(x)表示与点x相关联的边的颜色所构成的集合.若对任意u,v∈V(G),u≠v,有S(u)≠S(v),则称f是图G的一个点可区别正常边染色.对一个图G进行点可区别正常边染色所需的最少的颜色的数目称为G的点可区别正常边色数,记为x's(G).讨论了图K3,4 ∨Kt的点可区别正常边染色及其色数,利用正多边形的对称性构造染色以及组合分析的方法,确定了图K3,4 ∨Kt的点可区别正常边色数,得到了当t是大于等于2的偶数以及t是奇数且3≤t≤25时,x's(K3,4 ∨Kt)=t+7;当t是奇数且t≥27时,x's(K3,4∨Kt)=t+8.

  12. Kint3-4 protein from human plasminogen delays Ehrlich tumor growth in mice Efeito da proteína Kint3-4 do plasminogênio humano no crescimento do tumor de Ehrlich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria de Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Kint3-4 protein, originated from a genetic recombination of K1-3 and K1-4 human plasminogen segments, is recognized for its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory potential. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Kint3-4 protein on tumor development in Swiss mice previously inoculated with Ehrlich tumor cells. METHODS: The protein fragment was obtained from Pichia pastoris cloning and transformation. After tumor cell inoculation three different protocols were used to assess tumor growth: beginning (0-6 days, peak (0-12 days and after peak (0-18 days. We analyzed tumor growth, histomorphological characteristics and immunohistochemistry by use of CDC47 (cellular proliferation marker and CD31 (blood vessel marker. RESULTS: Animals treated with Kint3-4 protein (150 µg/kg/48 h showed lower tumor growth in all protocols. Based on histological assessment, inflammation and tumor areas were also reduced. Moreover, both the lowest rate of tumor cell proliferation and low microvessel density were observed in animals treated with Kint3-4 protein compared with the untreated control group. CONCLUSION: The effect of Kint3-4 recombinant protein on tumor angiogenesis and control of malignant cell proliferation enhances the prospects of its use in clinical and antiangiogenic treatment.INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: A proteína Kint3-4 originou-se a partir de uma recombinação genética dos segmentos K1-3 e K1--4 do plasminogênio humano e é reconhecida por seu potencial anti-inflamatório e antiangiogênico. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da proteína Kint3-4 no desenvolvimento de tumores em camundongos inoculados com células do tumor de Ehrlich. MÉTODOS: O fragmento de proteína foi obtido por uma técnica de clonagem e transformação de Pichia pastoris. Três diferentes protocolos foram avaliados após a inoculação das células tumorais: no início (0-6 dias, no pico (0-12 dias e após o pico (0-18 dias de

  13. HLA-G 3′UTR Polymorphisms Predict Drug-Induced G3-4 Toxicity Related to Folinic Acid/5-Fluorouracil/Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) Chemotherapy in Non-Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garziera, Marica; Virdone, Saverio; De Mattia, Elena; Scarabel, Lucia; Cecchin, Erika; Polesel, Jerry; D’Andrea, Mario; Pella, Nicoletta; Buonadonna, Angela; Favaretto, Adolfo; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes might not completely explain inter-individual differences in toxicity profiles of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) that receive folinic acid/5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4). Recent data indicate that the immune system could contribute to FOLFOX4 outcomes. In light of the immune inhibitory nature of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule, we aimed to identify novel genomic markers of grades 3 and 4 (G3-4) toxicity related to FOLFOX4 therapy in patients with CRC. We retrospectively analyzed data for 144 patients with stages II-III CRC to identify HLA-G 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) polymorphisms and related haplotypes and evaluate their impact on the risk of developing G3-4 toxicities (i.e., neutropenia, hematological/non-hematological toxicity, neurotoxicity) with logistic regression. The rs1610696-G/G polymorphism was associated with increased risk of G3-4 neutropenia (OR = 3.76, p = 0.015) and neurotoxicity (OR = 8.78, p = 0.016); rs371194629-Ins/Ins was associated with increased risk of neurotoxicity (OR = 5.49, p = 0.027). HLA-G 3′UTR-2, which contains rs1610696-G/G and rs371194629-Ins/Ins polymorphisms, was associated with increased risk of G3-4 neutropenia (OR = 3.92, p = 0.017) and neurotoxicity (OR = 11.29, p = 0.009). A bootstrap analysis confirmed the predictive value of rs1610696 and rs371194629, but the UTR-2 haplotype was validated only for neurotoxicity. This exploratory study identified new HLA-G 3′UTR polymorphisms/haplotypes as potential predictive markers of G3-4 toxicities in CRC. PMID:28653974

  14. HLA-G 3′UTR Polymorphisms Predict Drug-Induced G3-4 Toxicity Related to Folinic Acid/5-Fluorouracil/Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4 Chemotherapy in Non-Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Garziera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes might not completely explain inter-individual differences in toxicity profiles of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC that receive folinic acid/5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4. Recent data indicate that the immune system could contribute to FOLFOX4 outcomes. In light of the immune inhibitory nature of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G, a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I molecule, we aimed to identify novel genomic markers of grades 3 and 4 (G3-4 toxicity related to FOLFOX4 therapy in patients with CRC. We retrospectively analyzed data for 144 patients with stages II-III CRC to identify HLA-G 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR polymorphisms and related haplotypes and evaluate their impact on the risk of developing G3-4 toxicities (i.e., neutropenia, hematological/non-hematological toxicity, neurotoxicity with logistic regression. The rs1610696-G/G polymorphism was associated with increased risk of G3-4 neutropenia (OR = 3.76, p = 0.015 and neurotoxicity (OR = 8.78, p = 0.016; rs371194629-Ins/Ins was associated with increased risk of neurotoxicity (OR = 5.49, p = 0.027. HLA-G 3′UTR-2, which contains rs1610696-G/G and rs371194629-Ins/Ins polymorphisms, was associated with increased risk of G3-4 neutropenia (OR = 3.92, p = 0.017 and neurotoxicity (OR = 11.29, p = 0.009. A bootstrap analysis confirmed the predictive value of rs1610696 and rs371194629, but the UTR-2 haplotype was validated only for neurotoxicity. This exploratory study identified new HLA-G 3′UTR polymorphisms/haplotypes as potential predictive markers of G3-4 toxicities in CRC.

  15. Synthesis of 3-Bromotetronamides via Amination of 3,4-Dibromofuran-2(5H)-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Silvio; Oliveira, Caio C., E-mail: silviodc@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia (INCT) em Energia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Sabino, Jose R. [Universidade Federal de Goias (IF/UFG), Goiania (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the direct synthesis of 3-bromotetronamides in good yields through the reaction of 3,4-dibromofuran-2(5H)-one, obtained from furfural, with primary and secondary amines. Aromatic amines were more tolerated than aliphatic and heteroaromatic ones. The X-ray structures of five derivatives are described. (author)

  16. In vitro metabolism and stability of the actinide chelating agent 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taylor A; Furimsky, Anna M; Swezey, Robert; Bunin, Deborah I; Byrge, Patricia; Iyer, Lalitha V; Chang, Polly Y; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-05-01

    The hydroxypyridinonate ligand 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) is currently under development for radionuclide chelation therapy. The preclinical characterization of this highly promising ligand comprised the evaluation of its in vitro properties, including microsomal, plasma, and gastrointestinal fluid stability, cytochrome P450 inhibition, plasma protein binding, and intestinal absorption using the Caco-2 cell line. When mixed with active human liver microsomes, no loss of parent compound was observed after 60 min, indicating compound stability in the presence of liver microsomal P450. At the tested concentrations, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) did not significantly influence the activities of any of the cytochromal isoforms screened. Thus, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) is unlikely to cause drug-drug interactions by inhibiting the metabolic clearance of coadministered drugs metabolized by these enzymes. Plasma protein-binding assays revealed that the compound is protein-bound in dogs and less extensively in rats and humans. In the plasma stability study, the compound was stable after 1 h at 37°C in mouse, rat, dog, and human plasma samples. Finally, a bidirectional permeability assay demonstrated that 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) is not permeable across the Caco-2 monolayer, highlighting the need to further evaluate the effects of various compounds with known permeability enhancement properties on the permeability of the ligand in future studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c3-4 - Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Counter Markets § 240.15c3-4 Internal risk management control systems for OTC derivatives dealers. (a) An... derivatives dealer's internal risk management control system shall include the following elements: (1) A risk... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal risk management...

  18. Effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on gait in spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Salm, Arjan; Veltink, Petrus H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Nene, A.V.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of electrical stimulation of hamstrings and L3/4 dermatome on the swing phase of gait. Materials and Methods. Five subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) with spasticity were included. Two electrical stimulation methods were investigated, i.e.,

  19. Evaluation of mutagenicity and metabolism-mediated cytotoxicity of the naphthoquinone 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin from Paepalanthus latipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo R. Kitagawa

    Full Text Available A large number of quinones have been associated with antitumor, antibacterial, antimalarial, and antifungal activities. Results of previous studies of 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin, a naphthoquinone isolated from Paepalanthus latipes Silveira, Eriocaulaceae, revealed antitumor, antibacterial, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant activities. In this study, we assessed the mutagenicity and metabolism-mediated cytotoxicity of 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin by using the Ames test and a microculture neutral red assay incorporating an S9 fraction (hepatic microsomal fraction and cofactors, respectively. We also evaluated the mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA98, TA102, and TA97a, as well as the cytotoxic effect on McCoy cells with and without metabolic activation in both tests. Results indicated that naphthoquinone does not cause mutations by substitution or by addition and deletion of bases in the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence with and without metabolic activation. As previously demonstrated, the in vitro cytotoxicity of 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin to McCoy cells showed a significant cytotoxic index (CI50 of 11.9 μg/ml. This index was not altered by addition of the S9 fraction, indicating that the S9 mixture failed to metabolically modify the compound. Our results, allied with more specific biological assays in the future, would contribute to the safe use of 5-methoxy-3,4-dehydroxanthomegnin, compound that has showed in previous studies beneficial properties as a potential anticancer drug.

  20. Immobilization of platinum nanoparticles on 3,4-diaminobenzoyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube and its electrocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kang, Ji-Ye; Jeon, In-Yup; Eo, Soo-Mi; Tan, Loon-Seng; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2012-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are functionalized at the sp 2 C–H defect sites with 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid by a “direct” Friedel–Crafts acylation reaction in a mild polyphosphoric acid/phosphorous pentoxide medium. Owing to enhanced surface polarity, the resulting 3,4-diaminobenzoyl-functionalized MWCNTs (DAB-MWCNT) are highly dispersible in polar solvents, such as ethanol, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and methanesulfonic acid. The absorption and emission properties of DAB-MWCNT in solution state are qualitatively shown to be sensitive to the pH in the environment. The DAB-MWCNT is used as a stable platform on which to deposit platinum nanoparticles (PNP). The PNP/DAB-MWCNT hybrid displays high electrocatalytic activity with good electrochemical stability for an oxygen reduction reaction under an alkaline condition.Graphical AbstractMulti-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid to produce 3,4-diaminobenzoyl-functionalized MWCNT (DAB-MWCNT). Platinum nanoparticles (PNP) were deposited to DAB-MWCNT. The resulting PNP/DAB-MWCNT hybrid displayed high electrocatalytic activity.

  1. Differential roles of phase I and phase II enzymes in 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine-induced cytotoxicity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antolino Lobo, I.; Meulenbelt, J.; Nijmeijer, S.M.; Scherpenisse, P.; van den Berg, M.; van Duursen, M.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolism plays an important role in the toxic effects caused by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Most research has focused on the involvement of CYP2D6 enzyme in MDMA bioactivation, and less is known about the contribution of other cytochrome P450 (P450) and phase II metabolism. In this

  2. S-Alkylated/aralkylated 2-(1H-indol-3-yl-methyl)-1,3,4- oxadiazole-5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ylmethyl)-1,3,4- oxadiazole-5-thiol derivatives. Methods: 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetic acid (1) was reacted with absolute ethanol and catalytic amount of sulfuric acid to form ethyl 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetate (2) which was transformed to 2-(1H-indol-3- ...

  3. Five-membered heterocycles. Part II. Crystal structures and HOMA index calculations for selected 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, A.; Karolak-Wojciechowska, J.; Amiel, P.; Barbe, J.

    2000-06-01

    Crystal structures of four bisubstituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives were determined. Detailed description of the five-membered heteroring geometry is enabled thorough analysis of ring aromaticity. For this purpose the HOMA index was used as a quantitative measure of aromaticity. The calculated HOMA indices evidenced the role of substituents. In particular, increase in the substituent electrophilicity brings about increase in aromaticity.

  4. S-Alkylated/aralkylated 2-(1H-indol-3-yl-methyl)-1,3,4- oxadiazole-5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antibacterial, enzyme-inhibitory and hemolytic activities of Salkylated/aralkylated 2-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-5-thiol derivatives. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the compounds were evaluated using broth dilution method in 96 well plates. Enzyme inhibitory activities assays were ...

  5. Large electrically induced height and volume changes in poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) /poly(styrenesulfonate) thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charrier, D.S.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kemerink, M.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate large, partly reversible height and volume changes of thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on the anode of interdigitating gold electrodes under ambient conditions by applying an electrical bias. The height and volume changes were monitored

  6. 40 CFR 3.4 - How does this part affect enforcement and compliance provisions of Title 40?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electronic document to a State, tribe, or local government under an authorized program and fails to comply... PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CROSS-MEDIA ELECTRONIC REPORTING General Provisions § 3.4 How does this part affect... person submits an electronic document to EPA under this part that fails to comply with the provisions of...

  7. Conformal coverage of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films with tunable nanoporosity via oxidative chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Im, S.G.; Kusters, D.J.N.; Choi, W.; Baxamusa, S.H.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Gleason, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Novel nanoporous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films with basalt-like surface morphology are successfully obtained via a one-step, vapor phase process of oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) by introducing a new oxidant, CuCl2, The substrate temperature of the oCVD process is a

  8. Organocatalytic Enantioselective Pictet-Spengler Approach to Biologically Relevant 1-Benzyl-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Olalla, A.; Würdemann, M.A.; Wanner, M.J.; Ingemann, S.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Hiemstra, H.

    2015-01-01

    A general procedure for the synthesis of 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines was developed, based on organocatalytic, regio- and enantioselective Pictet-Spengler reactions (86-92% ee) of N-(o-nitrophenylsulfenyl)-2-arylethyl-amines with arylacetaldehydes. The presence of the

  9. Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of 1-Aryl-3,4-Dihydroisoquinolines Using a Cp*Ir(TsDPEN) Complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavíková Vilhanová, B.; Budinská, A.; Václavík, Jiří; Matoušek, V.; Kuzma, Marek; Červený, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 34 (2017), s. 5131-5134 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08992S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : 1-Aryl-3 * 4-dihydroisoquinolines * Asymmetric synthesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.834, year: 2016

  10. Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of 1-Aryl-3,4-Dihydroisoquinolines Using a Cp*Ir(TsDPEN) Complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavíková Vilhanová, B.; Budinská, Alena; Václavík, Jiří; Matoušek, V.; Kuzma, M.; Červený, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 34 (2017), s. 5131-5134 ISSN 1434-193X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 1-aryl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolines * asymmetric synthesis * hydrogenation * iridium * phosphoric acid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.834, year: 2016

  11. Synthesis of 3-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-1-YL)propyltriethoxysilane bound Ru(II) complex bearing viologen segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbuz, N.; Seckin, T.; Ozdemir, I.; Cetinkaya, B.

    2005-01-01

    The nanostructured metallopolymers consisting of the partially quaternized 3-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-1-yl)propyl having the viologen group linked covalently through the alkyl spacer its Ru(II) complex have been prepared by sol-gel method. Structural elucidation was done with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and differential thermal analysis (DTA) [ru

  12. Isotope dilution/mass spectrometry of serum cholesterol with [3,4-13C]cholesterol: proposed definitive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, O.; Wright, L.A.; Breckenridge, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a new gas-chromatographic/mass-spectrometric (GC/MS) isotope-dilution method for determination of serum cholesterol. The method has been fully optimized and documented to provide the high accuracy and precision expected for a Definitive Method. In the presence of [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol, cholesteryl esters in serum are hydrolyzed under optimum conditions and the entire cholesterol pool is extracted and derivatized to silyl ethers. The cholesterol derivatives are resolved from other sterols by gas-liquid chromatography on a fused silica column, and selected ions characteristic of cholesterol and the [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol are monitored with a GC/MS quandrupole system. We estimated the cholesterol content of samples by bracketing each sample with standards of comparable cholesterol concentration that also contained the [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol. The procedure was highly reproducible (CV less than 0.5%), better accuracy and precision being obtained with [3,4- 13 C]cholesterol than with heptadeuterated cholesterol. Mean values per gram of dry serum for one serum pool assayed by this method and that of the National Bureau of Standards differed by 0.5%. We conclude that the method satisfies the criteria for a Definitive Method

  13. SKENARIO TENGGANG WAKTU SST NINO 3.4 TERHADAP CURAH HUJAN UNTUK MENINGKATKAN AKURASI PREDIKSI KALMAN FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Tresnawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediksi curah hujan bulanan menggunakan prediktor SST (Sea Surface Temperature Nino 3.4 harus diketahui apakah secara langsung dalam waktu bersamaan mempengaruhi curah hujan. Pada penelitian ini, skenario tenggang waktu (time lag diujicobakan untuk meningkatkan akurasi prediksi curah hujan bulanan dengan Kalman Filter. Pada tahap pertama, SST Nino 3.4 pada lag 0, lag 1, lag 2 diprediksi menggunakan ARIMA. Kemudian hasil ini digunakan sebagai salah satu prediktor dalam Kalman Filter. Penelitian diujicobakan terhadap validasi prediksi curah hujan bulanan di daerah Purbalingga selama periode tiga tahun kebelakang (hindcast 2006, 2007, 2008. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa tenggang waktu diperlukan dalam prediksi.   Monthly rainfall forecasting using Sea Surface Temperature (SST Nino 3.4 as predictor must be known of how directly effect on rainfall. In this paper, time lag scenarios are proposed for increase prediction accurately of Kalman Filter. First, SST Nino 3.4 on lag 0, lag 1, and lag 2 are predicted by ARIMA. Then, this result is used as one of predictor in the Kalman Filter Prediction. This method is attempted for validation of monthly rainfall forecasting in Purbalingga by three-year period (2006,2007,2009 of hind cast. Experimental results show that time lag are needed in Monthly rainfall forecasting.

  14. Environment Module. Test Booklet. Test Items for Booklets 1, 2, 3, 4=Libro de prueba. Modulo del medio ambiente. Itemes de prueba para los libros 1, 2, 3, 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  15. Culture and Social Organization Module. Test Booklet. Test Items for Booklets 1, 2, 3, 4=Libro de prueba. Modulo de cultura y organizacion social. Itemes de prueba para los libros 1, 2, 3, 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  16. Defining the functional domain of programmed cell death 10 through its interactions with phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Dibble

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM are vascular abnormalities of the central nervous system predisposing blood vessels to leakage, leading to hemorrhagic stroke. Three genes, Krit1 (CCM1, OSM (CCM2, and PDCD10 (CCM3 are involved in CCM development. PDCD10 binds specifically to PtdIns(3,4,5P3 and OSM. Using threading analysis and multi-template modeling, we constructed a three-dimensional model of PDCD10. PDCD10 appears to be a six-helical-bundle protein formed by two heptad-repeat-hairpin structures (alpha1-3 and alpha4-6 sharing the closest 3D homology with the bacterial phosphate transporter, PhoU. We identified a stretch of five lysines forming an amphipathic helix, a potential PtdIns(3,4,5P3 binding site, in the alpha5 helix. We generated a recombinant wild-type (WT and three PDCD10 mutants that have two (Delta2KA, three (Delta3KA, and five (Delta5KA K to A mutations. Delta2KA and Delta3KA mutants hypothetically lack binding residues to PtdIns(3,4,5P3 at the beginning and the end of predicted helix, while Delta5KA completely lacks all predicted binding residues. The WT, Delta2KA, and Delta3KA mutants maintain their binding to PtdIns(3,4,5P3. Only the Delta5KA abolishes binding to PtdIns(3,4,5P3. Both Delta5KA and WT show similar secondary and tertiary structures; however, Delta5KA does not bind to OSM. When WT and Delta5KA are co-expressed with membrane-bound constitutively-active PI3 kinase (p110-CAAX, the majority of the WT is co-localized with p110-CAAX at the plasma membrane where PtdIns(3,4,5P3 is presumably abundant. In contrast, the Delta5KA remains in the cytoplasm and is not present in the plasma membrane. Combining computational modeling and biological data, we propose that the CCM protein complex functions in the PI3K signaling pathway through the interaction between PDCD10 and PtdIns(3,4,5P3.

  17. CT prediction of the Fuhrman grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC): towards the development of computer-assisted diagnostic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhdanpaa, Hannu; Hwang, Darryl; Cen, Steven; Quinn, Brian; Nayyar, Megha; Zhang, Xuejun; Chen, Frank; Desai, Bhushan; Liang, Gangning; Gill, Inderbir; Duddalwar, Vinay

    2015-10-01

    There are distinct quantifiable features characterizing renal cell carcinomas on contrast-enhanced CT examinations, such as peak tumor enhancement, tumor heterogeneity, and percent contrast washout. While qualitative visual impressions often suffice for diagnosis, quantitative metrics if developed and validated can add to the information available from standard of care diagnostic imaging. The purpose of this study is to assess the use of quantitative enhancement metrics in predicting the Fuhrman grade of clear cell RCC. 65 multiphase CT examinations with clear cell RCCs were utilized, 44 tumors with Fuhrman grades 1 or 2 and 21 tumors with grades 3 or 4. After tumor segmentation, the following data were extracted: histogram analysis of voxel-based whole lesion attenuation in each phase, enhancement and washout using mean, median, skewness, kurtosis, standard deviation, and interquartile range. Statistically significant difference was observed in 4 measured parameters between grades 1-2 and grades 3-4: interquartile range of nephrographic attenuation values, standard deviation of absolute enhancement, as well as interquartile range and standard deviation of residual nephrographic enhancement. Interquartile range of nephrographic attenuation values was 292.86 HU for grades 1-2 and 241.19 HU for grades 3-4 (p value 0.02). Standard deviation of absolute enhancement was 41.26 HU for grades 1-2 and 34.66 HU for grades 3-4 (p value 0.03). Interquartile range was 297.12 HU for residual nephrographic enhancement for grades 1-2 and 235.57 HU for grades 3-4 (p value 0.02), and standard deviation of the same was 42.45 HU for grades 1-2 and 37.11 for grades 3-4 (p value 0.04). Our results indicate that absolute enhancement is more heterogeneous for lower grade tumors and that attenuation and residual enhancement in nephrographic phase is more heterogeneous for lower grade tumors. This represents an important step in devising a predictive non-invasive model to predict the

  18. The Initial Test Programme Features for the Advanced Korean NPPs (Shin–Kori NPP Units 3&4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sul, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    Korea has developed the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400), an evolutionary pressurised water reactor and has obtained the standard design approval in 2002. As of 2014, eight nuclear power plants (NPPs) are in preparation for operation or under construction, four in Korea (SKN 3&4, SUN 1&2) and four in UAE (BNPP 1, 2, 3&4), and four NPPs are in planning in Korea (SKN 5&6, SUN 3&4). Especially, SKN Units 3&4 are the first construction NPPs for the APR1400 and are currently in the final stage to get Operating Licence (OL). The initial test programme for NPPs begins as systems and components are turned over to the startup organization and ends with completion of the Power Ascension Tests (PATs). For SKN Unit 3, the Pre-core Hot Functional Testing has been successfully completed and the initial fuel loading would proceed after getting OL. The SKN Unit 4 is preparing for the CHT (Cold Hydrostatic Test). The SKN 3&4 has many new and advanced design features and so has developed the test programmes to demonstrate that those advanced design features can be safely operated and the performance levels can be maintained in accordance with approved safety requirements. Among those test programs, the examples of test programs, newly introduced ones compared to the previous NPPs are as follows; – SIT (Safety Injection Tank) Blowdown Test with FD (Fluidic Device) – IRWST (In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank) In-Plant Test – POSRV (Pilot Operated Safety Relief Valve) Test – Low Power Physics Testing and PAT considering FOAK (First Of A Kind) unit – Safe Shutdown Test with DCS (Distrubuted Control System) Fail and CMF (Common Mode Failure) for Safety Instrumentation and Control System. (author)

  19. Improving patient safety via automated laboratory-based adverse event grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Joyce C; Stiller, Tracey; Neat, Jennifer; Londrc, Adina; Johnson, Dina; Pannoni, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The identification and grading of adverse events (AEs) during the conduct of clinical trials is a labor-intensive and error-prone process. This paper describes and evaluates a software tool developed by City of Hope to automate complex algorithms to assess laboratory results and identify and grade AEs. We compared AEs identified by the automated system with those previously assessed manually, to evaluate missed/misgraded AEs. We also conducted a prospective paired time assessment of automated versus manual AE assessment. We found a substantial improvement in accuracy/completeness with the automated grading tool, which identified an additional 17% of severe grade 3-4 AEs that had been missed/misgraded manually. The automated system also provided an average time saving of 5.5 min per treatment course. With 400 ongoing treatment trials at City of Hope and an average of 1800 laboratory results requiring assessment per study, the implications of these findings for patient safety are enormous.

  20. Functionally Graded Mo sintered steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cisneros-Belmonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM, the multi-materials, strive to satisfy the numerous requirements demanded of parts in a given combination of compositions and microstructures. The required material compatibility lead the manufacturing process and the achieving of an interface, not always diffuse. Powder metallurgy is one of the techniques used in manufacturing functionally graded materials, in particular the compaction matrix of the possible techniques for forming these materials. In this paper, a process of forming a functionally graded steel based on the use of a high molybdenum steel with cooper and other steel with copper, without molybdenum, is proposed with the aim of concentrating this element to the surface of the workpiece, increasing the mechanical strength. The study is completed with the evaluation of physical properties (density and porosity distribution, mechanical properties (hardness, tensile strength and elongation and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may...

  2. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  3. 1-(4a,8-Dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-octahydronaphthalen-2-yl-3-(4-methylphenylprop-2-en-1-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Tebbaa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H28O, was isolated from the aerial part of Inula viscosa (L Aiton [or Dittrichia viscosa (L Greuter]. The cyclohexene ring has a half-chair conformation, whereas the cyclohexane ring displays a chair conformation being substituted at position 2 by a 3-(4-methylphenylprop-2-enoyl group. In the crystal, weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds link molecules into chains in the [010] direction.

  4. Design and synthesis of selective CDK8/19 dual inhibitors: Discovery of 4,5-dihydrothieno[3',4':3,4]benzo[1,2-d]isothiazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Koji; Banno, Hiroshi; Okaniwa, Masanori; Hirayama, Takaharu; Iwamura, Naoki; Hikichi, Yukiko; Murai, Saomi; Hasegawa, Maki; Hasegawa, Yuka; Yonemori, Kazuko; Hata, Akito; Aoyama, Kazunobu; Cary, Douglas R

    2017-04-15

    To develop a novel series of CDK8/19 dual inhibitors, we employed structure-based drug design using docking models based on a library compound, 4,5-dihydroimidazolo[3',4':3,4]benzo[1,2-d]isothiazole 16 bound to CDK8. We designed various [5,6,5]-fused tricyclic scaffolds bearing a carboxamide group to maintain predicted interactions with the backbone CO and NH of Ala100 in the CDK8 kinase hinge region. We found that 4,5-dihydrothieno[3',4':3,4]benzo[1,2-d]isothiazole derivative 29a showed particularly potent enzymatic inhibitory activity in both CDK8/19 (CDK8 IC 50 : 0.76nM, CDK19 IC 50 : 1.7nM). To improve the physicochemical properties and kinase selectivity of this compound, we introduced a substituted 3-pyridyloxy group into the scaffold 8-position. The resulting optimized compound 52h showed excellent in vitro potency (CDK8 IC 50 : 0.46nM, CDK19 IC 50 : 0.99nM), physicochemical properties, and kinase selectivity (only 5 kinases showed DMG activation loop. In vitro pharmacological evaluation of 52h revealed potent suppression of phosphorylated STAT1 in various cancer cells. The high oral bioavailability found for this compound enabled in vivo studies, in which we demonstrated a mechanism-based in vivo PD effect as well as tumor growth suppression in an RPMI8226 human hematopoietic and lymphoid xenograft model in mouse [T/C: -1% (2.5mg/kg, qd)]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Eight. Mastery Testing Program. Series 3 & 4 Supplements to Introduction and Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    Continuing a series of short tests aimed at measuring student mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, this supplementary volume includes teachers' notes, a users' guide and inspection copies of test items 27 to 50. Answer keys and test scoring statistics are provided. The items are designed for grades 7 through 10, and a list of the…

  6. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available -3146. [50] X. Jin, L. Wu, L. Guo, H. Yu, and Y. Sun, ?Experimental investigation of the mixed-mode crack propagation in ZrO2/NiCr functionally graded materials,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol. 76(12), (2009), pp. 1800-1810. [51] Z. Cheng, D. Gao... by stable crack growth,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics, vol.72(15), (2005), pp. 2359-2372. [47] Z.-H. Jin, and R.H. Dodds Jr, ?Crack growth resistance behavior of a functionally graded material: computational studies,? Engineering Fracture Mechanics...

  7. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  8. 4s24p3--4s4p4 and 4s24p3--4s2fp25s transitions in Y VII, Zr VIII, Nb IX, and MoX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reader, J.; Acquista, N.

    1981-01-01

    Spectra of ionized Y, Zr, Nb, and Mo have been observed in sliding-spark and triggered-spark discharges on 10.7-m normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, D. C. From these observations the 4s 2 4p 3 --4s4p 4 transitions in Y VII, Zr VIII, Nb IX, and Mo X have been identified. The 4s 2 4p 3 --4s 2 4p 2 5s transitions in Y VII-Mo X, previously identified by Rahimullah et al. [Phys. Scr. 14, 221--223 (1976); 18, 96--106 (1978)], have been confirmed. In Y VII the 4s 2 4p 3 --4s 2 4p 2 6s and 4s4p 4 --4p 5 transition also have been found. The parameters obtained from least-squares fits to the energy levels are compared with Hartree--Fock calculations. Preliminary values of the ionization energies have been determined as 110.02 +- 0.15 eV for Y VII, 133.7 +- 0.5 eV for Zr VIII, 159.2 +- 0.7 eV for Nb IX, and 186.4 +- 1.2 eV for Mo X

  9. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine destroy serotonin terminals in rat brain: quantification of neurodegeneration by measurement of [3H]paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, G.; Yeh, S.Y.; O'Hearn, E.; Molliver, M.E.; Kuhar, M.J.; De Souza, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the effects of repeated systemic administration (20 mg/kg s.c., twice daily for 4 days) of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) on levels of brain monoamines, their metabolites and on the density of monoamine uptake sites in various regions of rat brain. Marked reductions (30-60%) in the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were observed in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus and midbrain at 2 weeks after a 4-day treatment regimen of MDMA or MDA; less consistent reductions in serotonin (5-HT) content were observed in these brain regions. In addition, both MDMA and MDA caused comparable and substantial reductions (50-75%) in the density of [ 3 H]paroxetine-labeled 5-HT uptake sites in all brain regions examined. In contrast, neither MDMA nor MDA caused any widespread or long-term changes in the content of the catecholaminergic markers (i.e., norepinephrine, dopamine, 3,4 dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid) or in the number of [ 3 H]mazindol-labeled norepinephrine or dopamine uptake sites in the brain regions examined. These data demonstrate that MDMA and MDA cause long-lasting neurotoxic effects with respect to both the functional and structural integrity of serotonergic neurons in brain. Furthermore, our measurement of reductions in the density of 5-HT uptake sites provides a means for quantification of the neurodegenerative effects of MDMA and MDA on presynaptic 5-HT terminals

  10. Two new three-dimensional zinc phosphites templated by piperazine: [H2pip][Zn3(HPO3)4(H2O)2] and K[H2pip]0.5[Zn3(HPO3)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Guo-Ming; Wang, Zong-Hua; Wang, Ying-Xia; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Two three-dimensional open-framework zinc phosphites with the same organically templated, [H2pip][Zn3(HPO3)4(H2O)2] (1) and K[H2pip]0.5[Zn3(HPO3)4] (2) (pip = piperazine), have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by IR, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Compound 1 consists of ZnO4 tetrahedra, [HPO3] pseudopyramids and [ZnO4(H2O)2] octahedra, which are linked through their vertexes to generate three-dimensional architecture with intersecting 8-membered channels along the [1 0 0], [0 0 1] and [1 0 1] directions. Compound 2 is constructed from strictly alternating ZnO4 tetrahedra and [HPO3] pseudopyramids, and exhibits (3,4)-connected inorganic framework with 8-, and 12-membered channels, in which the K+ and diprotonated H2pip2+ extra-framework cations reside, respectively. The coexistence of inorganic K+ and organic piperazine mixed templates in the structure is unique and, to the best of our knowledge, firstly observed in metal-phosphite materials. In addition, the participation of left-handed and right-handed helical chains in construction of the puckered 4.82 sheet structure in 2 is also noteworthy.

  11. Grading of vestibular schwannomas and corresponding tumor volumes: ramifications for radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindermann, T; Schlegel, I

    2013-01-01

    Patients with vestibular schwannomas (VS) are either assigned to watchful waiting, microsurgical resection, or radiosurgery. Decision making on how to proceed is based on parameters such as age, tumor growth, loss of hearing, and the tumor's Koos grading. In order to correlate Koos grading with tumor volume, patient records of 235 patients with VS who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) were retrospectively reviewed. From 1994 to 2009, 235 consecutive patients underwent GKRS for sporadic VS at the Zurich Gamma Knife Center. Median follow up was 62.8 ± 33.0 months. Of the 235 tumors, 32 (13.6 %) were graded Koos I with a volume of 0.25 ± 0.3 cc; 71 (30.2 %) were graded Koos II with a volume of 0.57 ± 0.54 cc; 70 (29.8 %) were graded Koos III with a volume of 1.82 ± 1.88 cc; and 62 (26.4 %) were graded Koos IV with a volume of 4.17 ± 2.75 cc. Tumor progression was defined as a volume increase > 20 % at 2 years or later following GKRS. Overall tumor progression occurred in 21/235 (8.9 %) patients at 3.4 ± 0.9 years. Tumor progression did not differ statistically significantly in the various Koos grades: 1/32 (3.1 %) patients with VS Koos Grade I, 7/71 (9.8 %) patients with VS Koos Grade II, 6/70 (8.6 %) patients with VS Koos Grade III, and 7/62 (11.3 %) patients with VS Koos Grade IV. To our knowledge, this is the first work correlating the various Koos grades of VS to their respective tumor volumes. In our patients, tumor volumes of VS Koos Grade IV were limited because all of our patients were eligible for radiosurgery. In our series, the outcome following GKRS for patients with VS Koos Grade IV tumors did not differ from patients with VS Koos Grades I-III. We therefore suggest to limit Koos Grade IV VS to tumor volumes 6 cc that may not be eligible for radiosurgery.

  12. Concurrent radiotherapy with temozolomide vs. concurrent radiotherapy with a cisplatinum-based polychemotherapy regimen. Acute toxicity in pediatric high-grade glioma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Clemens; Kortmann, Rolf D.; Bueren, Andre O. von; Bojko, Sabrina; Hoffmann, Marion; Kramm, Christof M.; Pietsch, Torsten; Gielen, Gerrit H.; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Bison, Brigitte

    2018-01-01

    As the efficacy of all pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG) treatments is similar and still disappointing, it is essential to also investigate the toxicity of available treatments. Prospectively recorded hematologic and nonhematologic toxicities of children treated with radiochemotherapy in the HIT GBM-C/D and HIT-HGG-2007 trials were compared. Children aged 3-18 years with histologically proven HGG (WHO grade III and IV tumors) or unequivocal radiologic diagnosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) were included in these trials. The HIT-HGG-2007 protocol comprised concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide, while cisplatinum/etoposide (PE) and PE plus ifosfamide (PEI) in combination with weekly vincristine injections were applied during radiochemotherapy in the HIT GBM-C/D protocol. Regular blood counts and information about cellular nadirs were available from 304 patients (leukocytes) and 306 patients (thrombocytes), respectively. Grade 3-4 leukopenia was much more frequent in the HIT GBM-C/D cohort (n = 88, 52%) vs. HIT-HGG-2007 (n = 13, 10%; P <0.001). Grade 3-4 thrombopenia was also more likely in the HIT GBM-C/D cohort (n = 21, 12% vs. n = 3,2%; P <0.001). Grade 3-4 leukopenia appeared more often in children aged 3-7 years (n = 38/85, 45%) than in children aged 8-12 years (n = 39/120, 33%) and 13-18 years (24/100, 24%; P =0.034). In addition, sickness was more frequent in the HIT GBM-C/D cohort (grade 1-2: 44%, grade 3-4: 6% vs. grade 1-2: 28%, grade 3-4: 1%; P <0.001). Radiochemotherapy involving cisplatinum-based polychemotherapy is more toxic than radiotherapy in combination with temozolomide. Without evidence of differences in therapeutic efficacy, the treatment with lower toxicity, i. e., radiotherapy with temozolomide should be used. (orig.) [de

  13. Synthesis and crystal structures of nitratocobaltates Na2[Co(NO3)4], K2[Co(NO3)4], and Ag[Co(NO3)3] and potassium nitratonickelate K2[Ni(NO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I. V.; Fedorova, A. A.; Albov, D. V.; Kuznetsova, N. R.; Romanov, I. A.; Rybakov, V. B.; Troyanov, S. I.

    2008-01-01

    The cobalt(II) and nickel(II) nitrate complexes with an island structure (Na 2 [Co(NO 3 ) 4 ] (I) and K 2 [Co(NO 3 ) 4 ] (II)] and a chain structure [Ag[Co(NO 3 ) 3 ] (III) and K 2 [Ni(NO 3 ) 4 ] (IV)] are synthesized and investigated using X-ray diffraction. In the anionic complex [Co(NO 3 ) 4 ] 2− of the crystal structure of compound I, the Co coordination polyhedron is a twisted tetragonal prism formed by the O atoms of four asymmetric bidentate nitrate groups. In the anion [Co(NO 3 ) 4 ] 2− of the crystal structure of compound II, one of the four NO 3 groups is monodentate and the other NO 3 groups are bidentate (the coordination number of the cobalt atom is equal to seven, and the cobalt coordination polyhedron is a monocapped trigonal prism). The crystal structures of compounds III and IV contain infinite chains of the compositions [Co(NO 3 ) 2 (NO 3 ) 2/2 ] − and [Ni(NO 3 ) 3 (NO 3 ) 2/2 ] 2− , respectively. In the crystal structure of compound III, seven oxygen atoms of one monodentate and three bidentate nitrate groups form a dodecahedron with an unoccupied vertex of the A type around the Co atom. In the crystal structure of compound IV, the octahedral polyhedron of the Ni atom is formed by five nitrate groups, one of which is terminal bidentate. The data on the structure of Co(II) coordination polyhedra in the known nitratocobaltates are generalized.

  14. Synthesis and crystal structures of nitratocobaltates Na2[Co(NO3)4], K2[Co(NO3)4], and Ag[Co(NO3)3] and potassium nitratonickelate K2[Ni(NO3)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I. V.; Fedorova, A. A.; Albov, D. V.; Kuznetsova, N. R.; Romanov, I. A.; Rybakov, V. B.; Troyanov, S. I.

    2008-01-01

    The cobalt(II) and nickel(II) nitrate complexes with an island structure (Na 2 [Co(NO 3 ) 4 ] (I) and K 2 [Co(NO 3 ) 4 ] (II)] and a chain structure [Ag[Co(NO 3 ) 3 ] (III) and K 2 [Ni(NO 3 ) 4 ] (IV)] are synthesized and investigated using X-ray diffraction. In the anionic complex [Co(NO 3 ) 4 ] 2- of the crystal structure of compound I, the Co coordination polyhedron is a twisted tetragonal prism formed by the O atoms of four asymmetric bidentate nitrate groups. In the anion [Co(NO 3 ) 4 ] 2- of the crystal structure of compound II, one of the four NO 3 groups is monodentate and the other NO 3 groups are bidentate (the coordination number of the cobalt atom is equal to seven, and the cobalt coordination polyhedron is a monocapped trigonal prism). The crystal structures of compounds III and IV contain infinite chains of the compositions [Co(NO 3 ) 2 (NO 3 ) 2/2 ] - and [Ni(NO 3 ) 3 (NO 3 ) 2/2 ] 2- , respectively. In the crystal structure of compound III, seven oxygen atoms of one monodentate and three bidentate nitrate groups form a dodecahedron with an unoccupied vertex of the A type around the Co atom. In the crystal structure of compound IV, the octahedral polyhedron of the Ni atom is formed by five nitrate groups, one of which is terminal bidentate. The data on the structure of Co(II) coordination polyhedra in the known nitratocobaltates are generalized

  15. The fractal geometry of nutrient exchange surfaces does not provide an explanation for 3/4-power metabolic scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Page R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prominent theoretical explanation for 3/4-power allometric scaling of metabolism proposes that the nutrient exchange surface of capillaries has properties of a space-filling fractal. The theory assumes that nutrient exchange surface area has a fractal dimension equal to or greater than 2 and less than or equal to 3 and that the volume filled by the exchange surface area has a fractal dimension equal to or greater than 3 and less than or equal to 4. Results It is shown that contradicting predictions can be derived from the assumptions of the model. When errors in the model are corrected, it is shown to predict that metabolic rate is proportional to body mass (proportional scaling. Conclusion The presence of space-filling fractal nutrient exchange surfaces does not provide a satisfactory explanation for 3/4-power metabolic rate scaling.

  16. Electro-oxidation of chlorophenols on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulphonate) composite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigani, L.; Musiani, M.; Pirvu, C.; Terzi, F.; Zanardi, C.; Seeber, R.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of chlorinated phenols on Pt/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene,LiClO 4 and on Pt/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene,poly(sodium-4-styrenesulphonate) electrodes has been investigated in phosphate buffer solution. Poly(sodium-4-styrenesulphonate) exerts remarkable effect against the electrode fouling induced by oxidation of chlorophenols, allowing us to record the relevant anodic response even after repeated potential cycles. Hypotheses about the role exerted by poly(sodium 4-styrenesulphonate) are made, on the basis of evidences provided by several techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrochemical microgravimetry and atomic force microscopy. Thanks to the fact that different chlorophenols show differences in the voltammetric responses, depending on number and position of the chloro substituents on the aromatic ring, applications of the modified electrode in the analysis of mixtures of chlorinated phenols are possible

  17. Electrosyntheses and characterizations of a new soluble conducting copolymer of 5-cyanoindole and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Guangming; Qu Liangyan; Xu Jingkun; Zhang Shusheng

    2008-01-01

    The copolymerization of 5-cyanoindole (CNIn) and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) was successfully performed electrochemically in acetonitrile containing tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate by direct oxidation of monomer mixtures. The electrochemical properties of the copolymers were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The influence of applied polymerization potential on the synthesis of copolymer was investigated. This novel copolymer owns the advantages of poly(5-cyanoindole) (PCNIn) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), i.e., good redox activity, good thermal stability and high conductivity. The copolymer was soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide. The fluorescence spectra indicate that the copolymer is a good blue-light emitter. The structure and morphology of the copolymers were investigated by UV-vis, infrared spectroscopy, 1 H NMR spectra and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively

  18. Synthesis of Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxy thiophene)-Poly(Styrene-4-Sulfonate) Composites for Support Fuel Cell Catalyst Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Sulistiyono; Murni Handayani

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene)-poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) composites for support fuel cell catalyst layer are synthesis composites which become fuel cell catalyst support so that catalyst has optimal performance. Main function of composites is support platinum particle for application in fuel cell. This article explains the result of composites production process from ( 3,4 Ethylenedioxy thiophene) and Sodium poly( styrene - 4-sulfonate) using two methods Jingning Shan method (method 1) and Zhigang Qi and Peter G.Pickup method (method 2). Analysis of the synthesis results used Scanning Electron Microscopic –Electron Dispersive X – Ray Spectrophotometer (SEM-EDS ). The analysis result show that both methods produce polymer agglomerate into a sponge-like morphology. Composite from method 1 has morphology, pores and proton transport better than composite produced by method 2. (author)

  19. Electrochemical and SEM studies of tetra-ammine platinum (II) (Pt(NH3)4)(OH)2 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Jeffrey Basirun

    2002-01-01

    Electrochemical studies include cyclic voltammetry with microelectrodes were done on a solution of tetra-ammine platinum (II) (Pt(NH 3 ) 4 )(OH) 2 at pH 13 and showed that the electrochemical reduction of this compound was no different from the tetra-ammine platinum (II) (Pt(NH 3 ) 4 )(HPO 4 ) at pH 10.4. The solution was instable to high temperatures and results have shown that electroplating can be done at a limited temperature range for longer periods of time or at higher temperatures for short periods of time. Scanning electron microscopy was done on some of the constant current electrodeposited samples at high temperatures and result obtained was satisfactory. (Authors)

  20. Synthesis, herbicidal, fungicidal and insecticidal evaluation of 3-(dichlorophenyl)- isocoumarins and (±)-3-(dichlorophenyl)-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, Ghulam; Rama, Nasim Hasan; Fan, Zhi-Jin; Liu, Bin; Liu, Xiu-Feng

    2007-01-01

    This is the first report showing that 3-(dichlorophenyl)isocoumarins and (±)-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins are plant and plant fungus growth inhibitors. 3-Dichlorophenylisocoumarins were synthesized by condensation of homophthalic acid with dichlorobenzoyl chlorides. The alkaline hydrolysis of these isocoumarins afforded keto acids. Racemic 3-(Dichlorophenyl)-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins were obtained by reduction of keto acids to racemic hydroxy acids, followed by cyclodehydration using acetic anhydride. The herbicidal, fungicidal and insecticidal activities of the synthesized compounds have been evaluated. Some of the synthesized compounds show excellent herbicidal and fungicidal activities but none of the synthesized compounds presented any insecticidal effects on the test insects. The findings of this study suggest that isocoumarins and related compounds may serve as lead compounds towards the design of bioactive herbicides and fungicides. (author)

  1. Core damage frequency prespectives for BWR 3/4 and Westinghouse 4-loop plants based on IPE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Camp, S.; LaChance, J.; Mary Drouin

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the core damage frequency (CDF) insights gained by analyzing the results of the Individual Plant Examinations (IPES) for two groups of plants: boiling water reactor (BWR) 3/4 plants with Reactor Core Isolation Cooling systems, and Westinghouse 4-loop plants. Wide variability was observed for the plant CDFs and for the CDFs of the contributing accident classes. On average, transients-with loss of injection, station blackout sequences, and transients with loss of decay heat removal are important contributors for the BWR 3/4 plants, while transients, station blackout sequences, and loss-of-coolant accidents are important for the Westinghouse 4-loop plants. The key factors that contribute to the variability in the results are discussed. The results are often driven by plant-specific design and operational characteristics, but differences in modeling approaches are also important for some accident classes

  2. Surface polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) probed by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy on Au(111) in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shahzada; Carstens, Timo; Berger, Rüdiger; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Endres, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The electropolymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) to poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was investigated in the air and water-stable ionic liquids 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate [HMIm]FAP and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) amide [EMIm]TFSA. In situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) results show that the electropolymerization of EDOT in the ionic liquid can be probed on the nanoscale. In contrast to present understanding, it was observed that the EDOT can be oxidised in ionic liquids well below its oxidation potential and the under potential growth of polymer was visualized by in situ STM. These results serve as the first study to confirm the under potential growth of conducting polymers in ionic liquids. Furthermore, ex situ microscopy measurements were performed. Quite a high current of 670 nA was observed on the nanoscale by conductive scanning force microscopy (CSFM).

  3. Synthesis, crystal structures, fluorescence and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of pyrazole-based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, De-Qiang; Yu, Chuan-Ming; You, Jin-Zong; Yang, Guang-Hui; Wang, Xue-Jie; Zhang, Yi-Ping

    2015-11-01

    A series of pyrazole-based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were rationally designed and synthesized in good yields by following a convenient route. All the newly synthesized molecules were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. Eight compounds were structurally determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The fluorescence properties of all the compounds were investigated in dimethyl sulfoxide media. In addition, these newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against commercial enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) by measuring the formation of uric acid from xanthine. Among the compounds synthesized and tested, 3d and 3e were found to be moderate inhibitory activity against commercial XO with IC50 = 72.4 μM and 75.6 μM. The studies gave a new insight in further optimization of pyrazole-based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with excellent fluorescence properties and XO inhibitory activity.

  4. Immobilization of styrene-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles into thermoreversible luminescent organogels and their unexpected photocatalyzed rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumur, Frédéric; Contal, Emmanuel; Wantz, Guillaume; Phan, Trang N T; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier

    2013-01-21

    A series of styrene-substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles has been designed and investigated as new low-molecular-weight organogelators. The photophysical properties of the resulting thermoreversible organogels have been characterized by UV/Vis absorption and luminescence spectroscopies. Surprisingly, the gelation ability of the oxadiazoles depended on the presence of the styrene moiety as gelation of the investigated oxadiazoles did not take place in its absence. Gel formation was accompanied by a modification of the fluorescence of the organogelators in the supramolecular state. UV irradiation of the gels caused a rearrangement of the immobilized 1,3,4-oxadiazoles bearing a styrene moiety by a tandem [4+2] and [3+2] cascade reaction. Structure modification and color change of the gels were also evident upon irradiation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A Pilot Study on Applying Option 2 to Two Systems in the UCN 3, 4 - HPSI, ESWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Kang, D. I.; Hwang, M J.; Yang, J. E.

    2005-04-01

    This report describes the Option 2 method applied to high pressure safety injection system(HPSI) and essential service water system(ESW) UCN 3,4 based on the U.S NEI 00-04 Option 2 methodology. Thus, in the Option 2 applications under the 10 CFR 50.69 requirement, the special treatment requirements for 'RISC-3' SSCs could be relaxed, while the regulartory requirements for 'RISC-2' SSCs will be enhanced. The results of Option 2 applications for the two systems of UCN 3,4 show that 161 out of 277 safety related SSCs can be treated with relaxed requirements in the HPSI, while 20 non-safety related SSCs should be treated with special treatment requirements. Also, in the ESW, special treatment requirements for the 121 out of 238 safety related SSCs can be relaxed, and new special treatments are required for 4 non-safety related SSCs

  6. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  7. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  8. Attendance Policies and Student Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risen, D. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The details described in this case study examine the issues related to attendance policies and how such policies might be legally used to affect student grades. Concepts discussed should cause graduate students in educational administration to reflect on the issues presented from various points of view when the students complete an analysis of the…

  9. Grading Rubrics: Hoopla or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to offer some quantitative, multivariate evidence concerning the impact of grading rubric use on academic outcome among American higher education students. Using a pre-post, quasi-experimental research design, cross-sectional data were derived from undergraduates enrolled in an elective during spring and fall 2009 at…

  10. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  11. Synthesis of new 4-methyl-2-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines as potent antifungal compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Leonor Y. Vargas [Universidad Santo Tomas, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales; Zacchino, Susana A. [Universidad Nacional del Rosario, (Argentina). Lab. de Farmacognosia; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V. [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia). Lab. de Quimica Organica y Biomolecular

    2010-07-01

    Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological results of new series of 2-(4-pyridyl)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines and their closer precursors, -N-aryl-N-[1-(4-pyridyl)but-3-enyl] amines are reported. It was found that both g-pyridyl substituted precursors and final products, tetrahydroquinolines, showed very good antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseun, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (author)

  12. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Doped with Carbon Materials for High-Performance Supercapacitor: A Comparison Study

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Zainol Abidin, Shariffah Nur Jannah; Azman, Nur Hawa Nabilah; Kulandaivalu, Shalini; Sulaiman, Yusran

    2017-01-01

    A comparative study of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), graphene oxide (GO), and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) as a dopant in the preparation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- (PEDOT-) based hybrid nanocomposites was presented here. The hybrid nanocomposites were prepared via the electrochemical method in aqueous solution. The FTIR and Raman spectra confirmed the successful incorporation of dopants (MWCNT, GO, and NCC) into PEDOT matrix in the process of formation of the hybrid nanoc...

  13. Eosin Y Catalyzed Visible-light-promoted One –Pot Facile Synthesis of 1,3,4- Thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Srivastava

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel one-pot visible light irradiated synthesis of 1,3,4-thiadiazole from aldehydes and thioacyl hydrazides have been reported in presence of eosin Y as an organophotoredox catalyst at room temperature under aerobic condition. This synthesis includes application of air and visible light as inexpensive, readily available, non-toxic and sustainable regents, which fulfils the basic principle of green chemistry.

  14. In Vitro Metabolism and Stability of the Actinide Chelating Agent 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO)

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Taylor A.; Furimsky, Anna M.; Swezey, Robert; Bunin, Deborah I.; Byrge, Patricia; Iyer, Lalitha V.; Chang, Polly Y.; Abergel, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    The hydroxypyridinonate ligand 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) is currently under development for radionuclide chelation therapy. The preclinical characterization of this highly promising ligand comprised the evaluation of its in vitro properties, including microsomal, plasma, and gastrointestinal fluid stability, cytochrome P450 inhibition, plasma protein binding, and intestinal absorption using the Caco-2 cell line. When mixed with active human liver microsomes, no loss of parent compound was observed a...

  15. Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its main metabolites on cardiovascular function in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Charles W; Thorndike, Eric B; Blough, Bruce E; Tella, Srihari R; Goldberg, Steven R; Baumann, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects produced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') contribute to its acute toxicity, but the potential role of its metabolites in these cardiovascular effects is not known. Here we examined the effects of MDMA metabolites on cardiovascular function in rats. Radiotelemetry was employed to evaluate the effects of s.c. administration of racemic MDMA and its phase I metabolites on BP, heart rate (HR) and locomotor activity in conscious male rats. MDMA (1-20 mg·kg(-1)) produced dose-related increases in BP, HR and activity. The peak effects on HR occurred at a lower dose than peak effects on BP or activity. The N-demethylated metabolite, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), produced effects that mimicked those of MDMA. The metabolite 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA; 1-10 mg·kg(-1)) increased HR more potently and to a greater extent than MDMA, whereas 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA) increased HR, but to a lesser extent than HHMA. Neither dihydroxy metabolite altered motor activity. The metabolites 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA) did not affect any of the parameters measured. The tachycardia produced by MDMA and HHMA was blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Our results demonstrate that HHMA may contribute significantly to the cardiovascular effects of MDMA in vivo. As such, determining the molecular mechanism of action of HHMA and the other hydroxyl metabolites of MDMA warrants further study. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Behavioral, Thermal and Neurochemical Effects Of Acute And Chronic 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“Ecstasy”) Self-Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Reveron, Maria Elena; Maier, Esther Y.; Duvauchelle, Christine L.

    2009-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a popular methamphetamine derivative associated with young adults and all-night dance parties. However, the enduring effects of MDMA at voluntary intake levels have not been extensively investigated. In this study, MDMA-influenced behaviors and core temperatures were assessed over the course of 20 daily MDMA self-administration sessions in rats. In vivo microdialysis techniques were used in a subsequent MDMA challenge test session to determine extra...

  17. 40. Polish Seminar on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Its Applications. Cracow, 3-4 December 2007. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Report comprises abstracts of 59 communications presented during the 40. Polish Seminar on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Its Applications, held on December 3-4, 2007 in Cracow (PL). They cover a variety of research fields, including magnetic resonance imaging in vivo, applications of NMR spectroscopy to medical diagnosis, studies on molecular properties of different materials as well as quantum chemical calculations of NMR parameters.

  18. Crystal structure of 1-methyl-4-methylsulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed El Fal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C7H8N4S, the non-H atoms of the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine ring system and the methylsulfanyl group lie on a crystallographic mirror plane. In the crystal, molecules are linked via a number of π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances vary from 3.452 (7 to 3.6062 (8 Å], forming a three-dimensional structure.

  19. Chiral Plasma Pharmacokinetics of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its Phase I and II Metabolites following Controlled Administration to Humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Steuer Andrea E; Schmidhauser Corina; Schmid Yasmin; Rickli Anna; Liechti Matthias E; Kraemer Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Generally, pharmacokinetic studies on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in blood have been performed after conjugate cleavage, without taking into account that phase II metabolites represent distinct chemical entities with their own effects and stereoselective pharmacokinetics. The aim of the present study was to stereoselectively investigate the pharmacokinetics of intact glucuronide and sulfate metabolites of MDMA in blood plasma after a controlled single MDMA dose. Plasma samples fr...

  20. Synthesis of Tetraphenylstannacyclopentadienes (Stannoles). II. Derivatives and Adducts of 1,1-Dihalo-2,3,4,5-tetraphenylstannoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-15

    Organotin compounds with high molecular weight (over 700) would often not give consistent analyses. Tin was determined gravimetri - cally as the oxide...0.05 mol) wire. A red solution formed after 10 minutes and a yellow solid precipitated . The slurry was added rapidly to a solution of phenyltin... precipitation achieved by cooling the green solution to -780C in Dry Ice. The white solid product (m.p. 156-158*C) was identified as 1,2,3,4

  1. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of novel Pyrazolo [3, 4-B] quinoline based heterocyclic azo compounds and their dyeing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaokar, Sanjay F.; Patel, Dinesh M.; Patel, Manish P.; Patel, Ranjan G.

    2007-01-01

    3-Amino-6-methyl-1H- pyrazolo [3, 4-B] quinoline was synthesized in good yield. Monoazo compounds were prepared using this intermediate as diazo component with various heterocyclic coupling components. All the azo compounds were characterized by their percentage yield, melting point, elemental analysis, UV-visible spectra, IR-spectra and dyeing performance on nylon and polyester fibres and by their antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. (author)

  2. Refractive properties of imidazolium ionic liquids with alanine anion [C n mim][Ala] ( n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cai-bin; Li, Jing; Yi, Zhe; Ai, Hong-jun

    2017-10-01

    Imidazolium ionic liquids with alanine anion, [C n mim][Ala] ( n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), were prepared and characterized. The standard addition method was used to measure refractivity of the synthesized ionic liquids in order to eliminate the effect of water traces in the ionic liquids. The molar refraction and molecular polarizability were also calculated by Lorentz-Lorenz's method. Using liner extrapolation, the semiempirical estimation method for optical properties of other ionic liquids with amino acid anions was established.

  3. Tetraammineplatinum(II) aquapentachloroiridate(III) dihydrate, [Pt(NH3)4][IrCl5(H2O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, E.; Bele, M.

    1994-01-01

    The crystal is built up from planar Pt(NH 3 ) 4 2+ cations, octahedral IrCl 5 (H 2 O) 2- anions and two H 2 O molecules. The coordination of these ions is 6/6, thus leading to a NaCl crystal structure. Electrostatic interactions and N..Cl, N..O and N..N short contacts (possible hydrogen bonds) take part in the packing of the structure and form a three-dimensional network. (orig.)

  4. Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of 3,4-Unsubstituted Thiochromenes through Sulfa-Michael/Julia-Kocienski Olefination Cascade Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simlandy, Amit Kumar; Mukherjee, Santanu

    2017-05-05

    A highly enantioselective cascade sulfa-Michael/Julia-Kocienski olefination reaction between 2-mercaptobenzaldehydes and β-substituted vinyl PT-sulfones has been realized for the synthesis of 3,4-unsubstituted 2H-thiochromenes. This reaction, catalyzed by diphenylprolinol TMS ether, proceeds through an aromatic iminium intermediate and furnishes a wide range of 2-substiuted 2H-thiochromenes with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99:1 er).

  5. 40. Polish Seminar on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Its Applications. Cracow, 3-4 December 2007. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Report comprises abstracts of 59 communications presented during the 40. Polish Seminar on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Its Applications, held on December 3-4, 2007 in Cracow (PL). They cover a variety of research fields, including magnetic resonance imaging in vivo, applications of NMR spectroscopy to medical diagnosis, studies on molecular properties of different materials as well as quantum chemical calculations of NMR parameters

  6. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effect of (S)-3,4-dicarboxyphenylglycine against seizures induced in immature rats by homocysteic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Druga, Rastislav; Haugvicová, Renata; Mareš, Pavel; Otáhal, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2008), s. 665-675 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/02/1238; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : DL-homocysteic acid induced seizures * mGluR8 agonist (S)-3,4-DCPG * protection Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2008

  7. Sr2+ and Cs+ ion exchange properties of KLn(PO3)4: Ln = Ce and Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samatha, B.; Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K.; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Chandramouleeswaran, S.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to study the potential of layered phosphates as ion exchangers two stoichiometric compositions as KLn(PO 3 ) 4 with Ln = Ce and Eu were prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction method. The Cs + and Sr 2+ exchange properties of both materials were investigated using standard solutions of Sr 2 + or Cs + in low acidic aqueous medium

  8. Value of 18F-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine PET/MR image fusion in pediatric supratentorial infiltrative astrocytomas: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morana, Giovanni; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Milanaccio, Claudia; Puntoni, Matteo; Nozza, Paolo; Cama, Armando; Zefiro, Daniele; Cabria, Massimo; Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa

    2014-05-01

    Infiltrative astrocytomas (IAs) represent a group of astrocytic gliomas ranging from low-grade to highly malignant, characterized by diffuse invasion of the brain parenchyma. When compared with their adult counterpart, pediatric IAs may be considered biologically distinct entities; nevertheless, similarly to those in adults they represent a complex oncologic challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role, clinical contribution, and prognostic value of fused (18)F-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) PET/MR images in pediatric supratentorial IAs. Pediatric patients with supratentorial IAs involving at least 2 cerebral lobes, either newly diagnosed or with suspected disease progression, prospectively underwent (18)F-DOPA PET and conventional MR imaging, performed within 10 d of each other. (18)F-DOPA PET data were interpreted qualitatively and semiquantitatively, fusing images with MR images. PET scans were classified as positive if tumors identified on MR imaging exhibited tracer uptake above the level of the corresponding contralateral normal brain. Maximum standardized uptake values, tumor-to-normal contralateral tissue ratios, and tumor-to-normal striatum ratios were calculated for all tumors. Correlations between the degree and extent of (18)F-DOPA uptake, MR imaging tumor characteristics, and histologic results were investigated. The contribution of (18)F-DOPA PET/MR image fusion was considered relevant if it enabled one to select the most appropriate biopsy site, discriminate between disease progression and treatment-related changes, or influence treatment strategy. The patient's outcome was finally correlated with (18)F-DOPA uptake. Thirteen patients (8 boys and 5 girls) were included (5 diffuse astrocytomas, 2 anaplastic astrocytomas, 5 gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 glioblastoma multiforme). The (18)F-DOPA uptake pattern was heterogeneous in all positive scans (9/13), revealing metabolic heterogeneities within each tumor. Significant

  9. Study on pharmacokinetics of 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran in rats by ultra-fast liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chen-Xiao; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Yu, Sheng; Chai, Chuan; Wen, Hong-Mei; Wang, Xin-Zhi; Sun, Xue

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Divanillyltetrahydrofuran is the main active ingredient of nettle root which can increase steroid hormones in the bloodstream for many of bodybuilders. To better understand its pharmacological activities, we need to determine its pharmacokinetic profiles. In this study, a rapid and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran in the plasma of rats. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column at 40°C, with a gradient elution consisting of methanol and water containing 0.3% (v/v) formic acid at a flow rate of 0.8mL/min. The detection was performed using an electrospray triple-quadrupole MS/MS via positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode. The lower limits-of-quantification determined were 0.5ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) was found to be within 15% and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -4.0% to 7.0%. This simple yet sensitive method was fully validated and could be successfully applied to the study on pharmacokinetics of 3, 4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological evaluation of different 1,3,4-oxadiazole and acetamide derivatives of ethyl nipecotate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Nafeesa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new series of N-substituted derivatives of 2-[(5-{1-[(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl]-3-piperidinyl}-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylsulfanyl]acetamide (6a-w has been designed and synthesized with multifunctional moieties. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and anti-enzymatic potential supported by % hemolytic activity. The synthesized compound 5-(1-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-3-piperidinyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (3 was stirred with synthesized electrophiles as N-aryl/alkyl/aralkyl-2-bromoacetamide (5a-w in an aprotic solvent under basic conditions to acquire the target molecules, 6a-w. The spectral analytical techniques of IR, EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C-NMR were utilized for structural elucidation of synthesized molecules. The antibacterial screening against certain bacterial strains of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria rendered compound 6i as good inhibitor of gram-negative bacterial strains. The enzyme inhibition revealed low potential against lipoxygenase (LOX enzyme. The hemolytic study provided valuable information about cytotoxic behavior of synthesized molecules. Keywords: 1,3,4-Oxadiazole, Acetamide, Antibacterial activity, Hemolytic activity, Lipoxygenase inhibition

  11. Methyl 3-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-2-methyl glycidate: an ecstasy precursor seized in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael; Heagney, Aaron; Cordaro, Frank; Odgers, David; Tarrant, Gregory; Stewart, Samantha

    2007-07-01

    Five 44 gallon drums labeled as glycidyl methacrylate were seized by the Australian Customs Service and the Australian Federal Police at Port Botany, Sydney, Australia, in December 2004. Each drum contained a white, semisolid substance that was initially suspected to be 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis demonstrated that the material was neither glycidyl methacrylate nor MDMA. Because intelligence sources employed by federal agents indicated that this material was in some way connected to MDMA production, suspicion fell on the various MDMA precursor chemicals. Using a number of techniques including proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C NMR), GC/MS, infrared spectroscopy, and total synthesis, the unknown substance was eventually identified as methyl 3-[3',4'(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-2-methyl glycidate. The substance was also subjected to a published hydrolysis and decarboxylation procedure and gave a high yield of the MDMA precursor chemical, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone, thereby establishing this material as a "precursor to a precursor."

  12. Chemical vapor deposition of NiSi using Ni(PF3)4 and Si3H8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Muramoto, I.; Machida, H.; Imai, S.; Ogura, A.; Ohshita, Y.

    2007-01-01

    NiSi x films were deposited using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with a Ni(PF 3 ) 4 and Si 3 H 8 /H 2 gas system. The step coverage quality of deposited NiSi x was investigated using a horizontal type of hot-wall low pressure CVD reactor, which maintained a constant temperature throughout the deposition area. The step coverage quality improved as a function of the position of the gas flow direction, where PF 3 gas from decomposition of Ni(PF 3 ) 4 increased. By injecting PF 3 gas into the Ni(PF 3 ) 4 and Si 3 H 8 /H 2 gas system, the step coverage quality markedly improved. This improvement in step coverage quality naturally occurred when PF 3 gas was present, indicating a strong relationship. The Si/Ni deposit ratio at 250 deg. C is larger than at 180 deg. C. It caused a decreasing relative deposition rate of Ni to Si. PF 3 molecules appear to be adsorbed on the surface of the deposited film and interfere with faster deposition of active Ni deposition species

  13. Biodegradation of 3,4 dichloroaniline by fungal isolated from the preconditioning phase of winery wastes subjected to vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2014-02-28

    A hazardous contaminant, 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) is widespread in the environment due to its extensive use in the manufacture of chemicals and its application in different sectors. The ability of fungi grow on in winery wastes in the preconditioning period of vermicomposting to degrade DCA was investigated. Three filamentous fungi (F1, F2, and F3) were isolated and one identified as Aspergillus niger and two as Fusarium sp. strains. The culture media with the fungus alone or in consortium (Fmix) with DCA as the nitrogen source were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The fastest degradation rate was measured in Fmix with a DT50 of 0.85day(-1). Fusarium sp. and A. niger differed in the metabolism of DCA. Five metabolites were identified as a result of oxidation, co-denitrification, N-acetylation, and polymerization reactions. The major metabolites were 3,4-dichloroacetanilide and dichloroquinolines. The azo-metabolites tetrachloroazobenzene and tetracloroazoxybenzene and 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene were found in minor amounts but appeared to be the most persistent in the Fusarium cultures (half-lives ranging from 8.3 to 30.9 days). This study highlights the metabolic potential of microorganisms in the preconditioning period of the vermicomposting process and its possible application for in situ bioremediation strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nature of potential barrier in (Ca 1/4,Cu 3/4)TiO 3 polycrystalline perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, V. P. B.; Bueno, P. R.; Simões, A. Z.; Cilense, M.; Varela, J. A.; Longo, E.; Leite, E. R.

    2006-04-01

    The nonohmic electrical features of (Ca 1/4,Cu 3/4)TiO 3 perovskite ceramics, which have very strong gigantic dielectric is believed originate from potential barriers at the grain boundaries. In the present study, we used the admittance and impedance spectroscopy technique to investigate (Ca 1/4,Cu 3/4)TiO 3 perovskite ceramics with low nonohmic electrical properties. The study was conducted under two different conditions: on as-sintered ceramics and on ceramics thermally treated in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The results confirm that thermal treatment in oxygen-rich atmospheres influence the nonohmic properties. Annealing at oxygen-rich atmospheres improve the nonohmic behavior and annealing at oxygen-poor atmospheres decrease the nonohmic properties, a behavior already reported for common metal oxide nonohmic devices and here firstly evidenced for the (Ca 1/4,Cu 3/4)TiO 3 perovskite related materials. The results show that oxygen also influences the capacitance values at low frequencies, a behavior that is indicative of the Schottky-type nature of the potential barrier.

  15. Implications of a Cognitive Science Model Integrating Literacy in Science on Achievement in Science and Reading: Direct Effects in Grades 3-5 with Transfer to Grades 6-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romance, Nancy; Vitale, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reported are the results of a multiyear study in which reading comprehension and writing were integrated within an in-depth science instructional model (Science IDEAS) in daily 1.5 to 2 h daily lessons on a schoolwide basis in grades 3-4-5. Multilevel (HLM7) achievement findings showed the experimental intervention resulted in significant and…

  16. Smartphone-based grading of apple quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Apple quality grading is a critical issue in apple industry which is one economical pillar of many countries. Artificial grading is inefficient and of poor accuracy. Here we proposed to develop a portable, convenient, real-time, and low cost method aimed at grading apple. Color images of the apples were collected with a smartphone and the grade of sampled apple was assessed by a customized smartphone app, which offered the functions translating RGB color values of the apple to color grade and translating the edge of apple image to weight grade. The algorithms are based on modeling with a large number of apple image at different grades. The apple grade data evaluated by the smartphone are in accordance with the actual data. This study demonstrated the potential of smart phone in apple quality grading/online monitoring at gathering and transportation stage for apple industry.

  17. (4S)-4-(3,4-Dichloro?phen?yl)-1?-methyl-4?-phenyl-3,4-dihydronaphthalene-2-spiro-3?-pyrrolidine-2?-spiro-1??-acenaphthyl?ene-1,2??(2H,1??H)-dione

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan, R.; Gunasekaran, B.; Narayanan, S. Sriman; Manivannan, V.

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C37H27Cl2NO2, the 3,4-dichloro?phenyl ring makes a dihedral angle of 46.66?(6)? with the phenyl ring. The mol?ecular structure is stabilized by weak intra?molecular C?H?O inter?actions and the crystal structure is stabilized by weak inter?molecular C?H?O inter?actions. The C?C?C?C?C five-membered ring is planar, while the C?C?C?C?N five-membered ring adopts a half-chair conformation.

  18. Marine Bromophenol Derivative 3,4-Dibromo-5-(2-bromo-3,4-dihydroxy-6-isopropoxymethyl benzylbenzene-1,2-diol Protects Hepatocytes from Lipid-Induced Cell Damage and Insulin Resistance via PTP1B Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Luo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 3,4-Dibromo-5-(2-bromo-3,4-dihydroxy-6-isopropoxymethyl benzylbenzene-1,2-diol (HPN is a bromophenol derivative from the marine red alga Rhodomela confervoides. We have previously found that HPN exerted an anti-hyperglycemic property in db/db mouse model. In the present study, we found that HPN could protect HepG2 cells against palmitate (PA-induced cell death. Data also showed that HPN inhibited cell death mainly by blocking the cell apoptosis. Further studies demonstrated that HPN (especially at 1.0 μM significantly restored insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IR and IRS1/2, and inhibited the PTP1B expression level in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the expression of Akt was activated by HPN, and glucose uptake was significantly increased in PA-treated HepG2 cells. Our results suggest that HPN could protect hepatocytes from lipid-induced cell damage and insulin resistance via PTP1B inhibition. Thus, HPN can be considered to have potential for the development of anti-diabetic agent that could protect both hepatic cell mass and function.

  19. Simultaneous determination of 3,3',4',5,7-pentamethylquercetin and its possible metabolite 3,3',4',7-tetramethylquercetin in dog plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to preclinical pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaomei; Li, Dongyan; Hu, Yan; Jin, Manwen; Zhou, Liping; Peng, Kelong; Zheng, Heng

    2011-08-01

    A sensitive, simple and rapid ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)-ESI-MS/MS method was established for the simultaneous determination of 3,3',4',5,7-pentamethylquercetin (PMQ) and its possible metabolite 3,3',4',7-tetramethylquercetin (TMQ) in dog plasma using 4',5,7-trimethylapigenin (TMA) as the internal standard. The plasma sample was pretreated with acetonitrile for protein precipitation and the analytes were separated on an Ultimate XB-CN column (5 μm, 2.1 mm × 150 mm) with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (2:1, v/v). Detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer under a positive multiple reaction-monitoring mode (MRM). The mass transition ion-pair was followed as m/z 373.1-312.1 for PMQ, 359.1-344.0 for TMQ and 313.1-298.1 for TMA. The validated concentration ranged from 1.272 to 3060 ng/mL for PMQ and from 10.35 to 1725 ng/mL for TMQ. The lower limit of quantifications for PMQ and TMQ were 1.272 ng/mL and 10.35 ng/mL, respectively. The developed-method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic study of PMQ and its metabolite TMQ in dogs following a single oral dose. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Poly(3,3-dibenzyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxepine/Platinum Composite Films as Potential Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chuan Chou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, poly(3,3-dibenzyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxepine/platinum composite films (PProDOT-Bz2/Pt were used as counter electrodes (CEs in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The composite films were prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass by radio frequency (RF sputtering to deposit platinum (Pt for 30 s. Afterwards, PProDOT-Bz2 was deposited on the Pt–FTO glass via electrochemical polymerization. The electron transfer process of DSSCs was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The DSSCs with 0.05 C/cm2 PProDOT-Bz2-Pt composite films showed an open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.70 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc of 7.27 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (F.F. of 68.74%. This corresponded to a photovoltaic conversion efficiency (η of 3.50% under a light intensity of 100 mW/cm2.

  1. Anaplasia and grading in medulloblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Charles G; Burger, Peter C

    2003-07-01

    The variable clinical outcomes of medulloblastoma patients have prompted a search for markers with which to tailor therapies to individuals. In this review, we discuss clinical, histological and molecular features that can be used in such treatment customization, focusing on how histopathological grading can impact both patient care and research on the molecular basis of CNS embryonal tumors. Medulloblastomas span a histological spectrum ending in overtly malignant large cell/anaplastic lesions characterized by increased nuclear size, marked cytological anaplasia, and increased mitotic and apoptotic rates. These "high-grade" lesions make up approximately one quarter of medulloblastomas, and recur and metastasize more frequently than tumors lacking anaplasia. We believe anaplastic change represents a type of malignant progression common to many medulloblastoma subtypes and to other CNS embryonal lesions as well. Correlation of these histological changes with the accumulation of genetic events suggests a model for the histological and molecular progression of medulloblastoma.

  2. Gradings on simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Elduque, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of E_8 as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.

  3. Grading of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present Manual provides guidance and illustrative examples for applying a method by which graded quality assurance requirements may be determined and adapted to the items and services of a nuclear power plant in conformance with the requirements of the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) Code and Safety Guides on quality assurance. The Manual replaces the previous publication IAEA-TECDOC-303 on the same subject. Various methods of grading quality assurance are available in a number of Member States. During the development of the present Manual it was not considered practical to attempt to resolve the differences between those methods and it was preferred to identify and benefit from the good practices available in all the methods. The method presented in this Manual deals with the aspects of management, documentation, control, verification and administration which affect quality. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Novel histone deacetylase 8-selective inhibitor 1,3,4-oxadiazole-alanine hybrid induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidugu, Vijaya Rao; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Kalle, Arunasree M; Satya, Alapati Krishna

    2017-11-01

    Identification of isoform-specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) is a significant advantage to overcome the adverse side effects of pan-HDACi for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. We have designed, and synthesized novel 1,3,4 oxadiazole with glycine/alanine hybrids as HDAC8-specific inhibitors and preliminary evaluation has indicated that 1,3,4 oxadiazole with alanine hybrid [(R)-2-amino-N-((5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl)propanamide (10b)] to be a potent HDAC8 inhibitor. In the present study, the in vitro efficacy of the molecule in inhibiting the cancer cell proliferation and the underlying molecular mechanism was studied. 10b inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells, with a lower IC 50 of 230 and 1000 nM, respectively, compared to K562, COLO-205 and HepG2 cells and was not cytotoxic to normal breast epithelial cells, MCF10A. 10b was specific to HDAC8 and did not affect the expression of other class I HDACs. Further, a dose-dependent increase in H3K9 acetylation levels demonstrated the HDAC-inhibitory activity of 10b in MDA-MB-231 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated a dose-dependent increase and decrease in the percent apoptotic cells and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively, when treated with 10b. Immunoblot analysis showed a modulation of Bax/Bcl2 ratio with a decrease in Bcl2 expression and no change in Bax expression. 10b treatment resulted in induction of p21 and inhibition of CDK1 proteins along with cytochrome c release from mitochondria, activation of caspases-3 and -9 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase leading to apoptotic death of MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated the efficacy of 10b as an anticancer agent against breast cancer.

  5. The combined effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and selected substituted methcathinones on measures of neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Nicholas B; O'Callaghan, James P; Phillips, Tamara J; Janowsky, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    The rise in popularity of substituted methcathinones (aka "bath salts") has increased the focus on their neurotoxic effects. Two commonly abused methcathinones, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone, MDMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), are often concomitantly ingested with the illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). To examine potential neurotoxic effects of these drug combinations, C57BL/6J mice were administered 4 i.p. injection of the drugs, at 2h intervals, either singularly: MDMA 15 or 30mg/kg, methylone 20mg/kg, MDPV 1mg/kg; or in combination: methylone/MDMA 20/15mg/kg, MDPV/MDMA 1/15mg/kg. Drug effects on thermoregulation were characterized and striatal tissue analyzed after 2 or 7days for dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Two days following drug administration, DA and TH were decreased only in the MDMA 30mg/kg group, whereas GFAP expression was dose-dependently increased by MDMA alone. While the combination of the methcathinones with the lower MDMA dose did not affect DA or TH levels, both blocked the MDMA-induced increase in GFAP expression. Seven days following drug administration, there were no significant differences in DA, TH, or GFAP for any treatment group, indicating that changes in DA, TH, and GFAP were transient. Five of the six drug groups exhibited acute hypothermia followed by gradually increasing temperatures. Animals treated with MDPV did not exhibit these biphasic temperature changes, and resembled the saline group. These results indicate that specific effects of both methylone and MDPV on DA depletion or astrocyte activation in the striatum are not additive with effects of MDMA, but block astrogliosis caused by MDMA alone. Additionally, MDPV modulates thermoregulation through a different mechanism than methylone or MDMA. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Anticholesterolemic effect of 3,4-di(OH)-phenylpropionic amides in high-cholesterol fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon-Ja; Bok, Song-Hae; Lee, Sangku; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2005-01-01

    Two amide synthetic derivatives of 3,4-di(OH)-hydrocinnamate (HC), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic (L-serine methyl ester) amide (E030) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic (L-aspartic acid) amide (E076), were investigated to compare their lipid-lowering efficacy with HC. Male rats were fed a 1 g/100 g high-cholesterol diet for 6 weeks with supplements of either clofibrate (0.02%, w/w), HC (0.025%, w/w), E030 (0.039%, w/w) or E076 (0.041%, w/w). The clofibrate supplement was used as a positive control for the lipid-lowering efficacy. The food intakes and body weight gains were not significantly different among the groups. The plasma and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower in clofibrate, HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups compared to the control group. The supplementation of HC and its amide derivatives was as effective as clofibrate in increasing the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total plasma cholesterol and reducing the atherogenic index (AI). The hepatic cholesterol level in the HC and E076 groups was significantly lower than that in the clofibrate group. The hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase) and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activities were significantly lower in the all test groups than in the control group. The excretion of neutral sterol was significantly higher in the HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups compared to the control group. The plasma AST and ALT activities, indirect indexes of hepatic toxicity, were significantly lower in the HC, E030, and E076-supplemented groups than in the control group. Accordingly, the current results suggest that E030 and E076, two amide synthetic derivatives of HC, are effective in lowering lipid activity

  7. Morphology and Doping Level of Electropolymerized Biselenophene-Flanked 3,4- Ethylenedioxythiophene Polymer: Effect of Solvents and Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Vikash; Shahjad; Bhardwaj, Dinesh; Bhargav, Ranoo; Sharma, Gauri Datt; Bhardwaj, Ramil Kumar; Patra, Asit; Chand, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biselenophene-flanked 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene polymer films were obtained by electrochemical polymerization. • Supporting electrolyte has significant effect on the doping level, whereas electropolymerized solvent has a major effect on morphology of the polymer films. • Optoelectronic properties and morphology of the electropolymerized films were studied. • Density functional theory (DFT) calculation has been made for optoelectronic properties. - Abstract: Biselenophene-flanked 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) based polymer films were obtained by electrochemical polymerization. The effects of polymerization conditions such as supporting electrolytes and solvents on doping level, optical property and morphology of the polymer films were systematically studied. Interestingly, we found that polymer prepared by using different supporting electrolytes (TBAPF 6 , TBABF 4 and TBAClO 4 ) has significant effects on the doping level of the polymer films, whereas electropolymerized solvents (acetonitrile and dichloromethane) has no such effects on doping level. The polymer films show reversible dedoping and doping behavior upon treatment with hydrazine hydrate and iodine respectively. Biselenophene-flanked EDOT polymer shows a band gap of about 1.6 eV which is comparable to poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and parent polyselenophene, whereas fine-tuning of HOMO and LUMO energy levels has been found. In contrast, we observed that electropolymerized solvent has a major effect on morphology of the polymer films, while supporting electrolyte has very minor effects on the morphology. The surface morphologies of the polymer films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) techniques. We also present an efficient synthesis of bisthiophene-flanked bridged EDOT (ETTE), and biselenophene-flanked bridged EDOT (ESeSeE), and their electrochemical polymerization, characterizations and throughout comparison

  8. Force via integrins but not E-cadherin decreases Oct3/4 expression in embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uda, Yuhei [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01, Aramaki-aoba, Aoba-ward, Sendai City (Japan); Poh, Yeh-Chuin; Chowdhury, Farhan; Wu, Douglas C. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Tanaka, Tetsuya S. [Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Sato, Masaaki [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01, Aramaki-aoba, Aoba-ward, Sendai City (Japan); Wang, Ning, E-mail: nwangrw@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force via integrins or cadherins induces similar cell stiffening responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force via integrins but not cadherins induces cell spreading. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force via integrins but not cadherins induces differentiation of embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that mechanical factors play a critical role in fate decisions of stem cells. Recently we have demonstrated that a local force applied via Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides coated magnetic beads to mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells increases cell spreading and cell stiffness and decreases Oct3/4 (Pou5f1) gene expression. However, it is not clear whether the effects of the applied stress on these functions of ES cells can be extended to natural extracellular matrix proteins or cell-cell adhesion molecules. Here we show that a local cyclic shear force applied via fibronectin or laminin to integrin receptors increased cell spreading and stiffness, downregulated Oct3/4 gene expression, and decreased cell proliferation rate. In contrast, the same cyclic force applied via cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin (Cdh1) had no effects on cell spreading, Oct3/4 gene expression, and the self-renewal of mouse ES cells, but induced significant cell stiffening. Our findings demonstrate that biological responses of ES cells to force applied via integrins are different from those to force via E-cadherin, suggesting that mechanical forces might play different roles in different force transduction pathways to shape early embryogenesis.

  9. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Jan R.; Peresetsky, Anatoly A.

    2018-01-01

    Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly. PMID:29375449

  10. Grade Expectations: Rationality and Overconfidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (overconfidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (overconfidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.

  11. Molecular docking and spectroscopic investigations aided by density functional theory of Parkinson's drug 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlin, Y. Sheeba; Vijayakumar, T.; Roy, S. D. D.; Jayakumar, V. S.

    2018-05-01

    Molecular geometry of Parkinson's drug 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine hydrochloride (Dopamine, DA) has been evaluated and compared with experimental XRD data. Molecular docking and vibrational spectral analysis of DA have been carried out using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra aided by Density Functional Theory at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p). The present investigation deals with the analysis of structural and spectral features responsible for drug activities, nature of hydrogen bonding interactions of the molecule and the correlation of Parkinson's nature with its molecular structural features.

  12. Kinetic analysis of thermogravimetric data of thorium-all-cis-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramarao, G.A.; Nair, P.K.R.; Srinivasulu, K.

    1979-01-01

    Thorium (IV) forms 1:1 complex with all-cis-1,2,3,4-cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (CPTA). Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that it undergoes primarily a two step decomposition of one corresponding to loss of water and another to the decomposition of the complex. Apparent activation energy, frequency factor and activation entropy were determined. Using the experimental data, the reaction order and activation energy were calculated by Freeman-Carroll method and also by Doyle method as modified by J. Zsako, by calculation of standard deviation instead of curve fitting method. (author)

  13. A Preliminary Study on the Containment Integrity following BIT Removal for Kori NPP Unit 3,4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sup [KEPRI, Nuclear Power Generation Laboratory, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Jong Young [ENERGEO Inc., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The Boron Injection Tank (BIT) is to provide high concentrated boric acid to the reactor in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated Main Steam Line Break accidents (MSLB). Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, pipe clog, precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. This paper is for the feasibility study of containment integrity using CONTEMPT code for BIT removal of Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit 3, 4.

  14. A Preliminary Study on the Containment Integrity following BIT Removal for Kori NPP Unit 3,4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dong Soo; Byun, Choong Sup; Jo, Jong Young

    2008-01-01

    The Boron Injection Tank (BIT) is to provide high concentrated boric acid to the reactor in order to mitigate the consequences of postulated Main Steam Line Break accidents (MSLB). Although BIT plays an important role in mitigating the accident, high concentration of 20,000ppm causes valve leakage, pipe clog, precipitation and continuous heat tracing have to be provided. This paper is for the feasibility study of containment integrity using CONTEMPT code for BIT removal of Kori Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Unit 3, 4

  15. Butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid–1,10-phenanthroline–water (1/2/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-lin Zhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C12H8N2·C8H10O8·2H2O, contains one 1,10-phenanthroline molecule, one half-molecule of butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid (H4BTC and a water molecule, with the complete tetra-acid generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. Intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.672 (2 and 3.708 (2 Å form an extensive three-dimensional network, which consolidates the crystal packing.

  16. Observation of soft phonon mode in TbFe3(BO3)4 by inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovskiy, M. S.; Shaykhutdinov, K. A.; Wu, L. S.; Ehlers, G.; Temerov, V. L.; Gudim, I. A.; Shinkorenko, A. S.; Podlesnyak, A.

    2018-02-01

    The phonon dispersion in terbium iron borate TbFe3(BO3)4 has been measured by inelastic neutron scattering in a temperature range 180

  17. The Constitutional Review Chamber of the Republic of Estonia : judgment 3-4-1-4-02 (10 April 2002)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Riigikohtu lahendi 3-4-1-4-02 (Tallinna Halduskohtu taotlus jätta kohaldamata Tallinna Linnavolikogu 10. 12. 98 määrus nr. 43 p. 4.6, Tallinna Kesklinna Valitsuse 31. 03. 95 korraldus nr. 386 ja Tallinna Kesklinna vanema 28. 03. 00 korraldus nr. 123 kui üldaktid nende vastulolu tõttu Põhiseaduse § 3 lg-ga 3, §-ga 31, §-ga 113 ja § 154 lg-ga 1) tekst inglise keeles

  18. Organic-inorganic semiconductor devices and 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride: an early history of organic electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, S R

    2003-01-01

    The demonstration, over 20 years ago, of an organic-inorganic heterojunction (OI HJ) device along with investigations of the growth and physical properties of the archetypal crystalline molecular organic semiconductor 3, 4, 9, 10 perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride are discussed. Possible applications of OI HJ devices are introduced and the dramatic change in conductive properties of these materials when exposed to high-energy ion beams is described. The past and future prospects for hybrid organic-on-inorganic semiconductor structures for use in electronic and photonic applications are also presented

  19. Behavioral Effects and Pharmacokinetics of (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) after Intragastric Administration to Baboons

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Amy K.; Mueller, Melanie; Shell, Courtney D.; Ricaurte, George A.; Ator, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) is a popular drug of abuse. We aimed to characterize the behavioral effects of intragastric MDMA in a species closely related to humans and to relate behavioral effects to plasma MDMA and metabolite concentrations. Single doses of MDMA (0.32–7.8 mg/kg) were administered via an intragastric catheter to adult male baboons (N = 4). Effects of MDMA on food-maintained responding were assessed over a 20-hour period, whereas untrained behaviors...

  20. The ground state hydrogen conformations and vibrational analysis of 2-, 3-, 4- and 5- dihydroxybenzaldehyde: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirak, C.; Saglam, A.; Ucun, F.

    2010-01-01

    The ground state hydrogen conformations of 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde have been investigated using density functional theory (B3LYP) methods with 6-31G (d,p) basis set. The calculations have indicated that the compounds in the ground state exist with the carbonyl group O atom linked intra molecularly by the two hydrogen bonds of the two hydroxyl groups. The vibrational analyses of the ground state conformers of all the compounds were done and their optimized geometry parameters were given.