WorldWideScience

Sample records for government severely restricts

  1. Optimal Policy under Restricted Government Spending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Welfare ranking of policy instruments is addressed in a two-sector Ramsey model with monopoly pricing in one sector as the only distortion. When government spending is restricted, i.e. when a government is unable or unwilling to finance the required costs for implementing the optimum policy...... effectiveness canexceed the welfare loss from introducing new distortions. Moreover, it is found that the investment subsidy is gradually phased out of the welfare maximizing policy, which may be a policy combining the two subsidies, when the level of government spending is increased.Keywords: welfare ranking......, indirect and direct policy instruments, restricted government spending JEL: E61, O21, O41...

  2. Consolidated list of products whose consumption and/or sale have been banned, withdrawn, severely restricted or not approved by Governments. 10. issue. (New date only) (March 2001- April 2003). Pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication presents a unique list of restrictive regulatory actions taken by one hundred thirteen Governments on over eleven hundred pharmaceuticals, agricultural and industrial chemicals, as well as consumer products. This comprehensive and informative book was produced in response to General Assembly resolutions aimed at protecting the world against products harmful to health and the environment. The current issue is entirely devoted to Pharmaceuticals

  3. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8559] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Somalia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... prior year Acts with respect to Somalia and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the...

  4. 76 FR 61135 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7627] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign... Somalia and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be reported to the Congress, and...

  5. 78 FR 46672 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8401] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ukraine Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... prior year Acts with respect to Ukraine and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the...

  6. 78 FR 54947 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8452] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... prior year Acts with respect to Afghanistan and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and...

  7. 76 FR 36167 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7506] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Afghanistan Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... respect to Afghanistan, and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be reported to the...

  8. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8471] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the...

  9. Governance, Issuance Restrictions, And Competition In Payment Card Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    2007-01-01

    I discuss the antitrust suit brought by the U.S. Department of Justice against Visa and MasterCard in 1998. Banks that issue Visa cards are free to also issue MasterCard cards, and vice versa, and many banks issue the cards of both networks. However, both Visa and MasterCard had rules prohibiting member banks from also issuing the cards of other networks, in particular American Express and Discover. In addition, most banks are members of both the Visa and MasterCard networks, so governance is...

  10. 76 FR 33019 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7491] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Royal Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... waive the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Royal Government of Cambodia...

  11. 75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs... States to waive the requirements of section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi...

  12. Supporting several levels of restriction in the UML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide; Thomsen, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has provided software developers with an effective and efficient shared language. However, UML is often too restrictive in initial, informal, and creative modelling, and it is in some cases not restrictive enough, e.g., for code generation. Bas....... This approach potentially increases the usability of the UML, and thus ultimately leads to greater quality and adoption of UML models.......The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has provided software developers with an effective and efficient shared language. However, UML is often too restrictive in initial, informal, and creative modelling, and it is in some cases not restrictive enough, e.g., for code generation. Based...

  13. New Approaches to Treatment of Severe Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanar Kurmangali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality due to placental insufficiency. Currently, one of the new approaches to treating this disease is the injection of nutrients to the fetus through intravascular port-systems (catheters.Objective. To assess the impact of nutrient injections as treatment to fetuses with severe growth retardation.Materials and methods. Pregnant women with IUGR (abdominal circumference (AC < 5th percentile with the absence of diastolic flow in the umbilical artery and a fetal gestational age of less than 30 weeks were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group included six pregnant women who had an intravascular port-system for the infusion of nutrients (amino acids and glucose in the umbilical vein of the fetus for 14 ± 3 days. The control group consisted of eight patients who received only traditional dynamic monitoring and delivery at the optimum time of pregnancy. Fetal status was assessed using ultrasound equipment Accuvix V20 (Medison, South Korea by examining indicators of biometry and Doppler study of blood flow in utero, umbilical arteries, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus with fetal vascular resistance index calculation - pulsatility index (PI. Criteria for blood flow disturbances in the vessels were considered PI values above normal values for their gestational age, which were defined as absence or reverse blood flow in a diastole in the umbilical artery.Results. In a comparative analysis of the two groups, the treatment led to a 44.7% increase in AC of the fetus (121.0 ± 11.5 mm and 219.3 ± 18.3 mm, respectively, p ˂ 0.001. In all cases, the profile of blood flow in the umbilical artery had a positive diastolic component. As a result, there was a 45.3% decrease in PI in the umbilical artery (2.14 ± 0.54 and 1.17 ± 0.15, respectively, p < 0.05. Average fetal weight in the study group was not significantly higher than the

  14. Does media governance restrict corporate overinvestment behavior? Evidence from Chinese listed firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using China’s A-share listed firms from 2007 to 2011, this paper empirically tests how media governance affects firms’ levels of overinvestment and whether external supervision and informal institutional mechanisms reduce these levels. We find that media governance and overinvestment are significantly negatively related. When firms are located in a district with a stronger media governance environment their levels of overinvestment are lower, indicating that media governance significantly restricts overinvestment behavior. When internal corporate governance efficiency is low, the negative relationship between the media environment and overinvestment behavior is significantly enhanced, indicating that when internal governance or formal systems have reduced efficacy, an important complementary role is played by external supervision and the informal institutional environment. After considering endogeneity and different measures of overinvestment and other related variables, the conclusions remain unchanged.

  15. 78 FR 16356 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8227] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Somalia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Somalia, and I...

  16. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8279] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Yemen and I...

  17. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8466] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Yemen Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Yemen, and I hereby...

  18. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8469] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Lebanon, and I...

  19. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8282] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Lebanon Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Lebanon and I...

  20. 78 FR 17745 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8245] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cambodia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cambodia and I...

  1. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8230] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Angola Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Angola and I...

  2. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7920] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Angola Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Angola and I...

  3. 48 CFR 1545.309 - Providing Government production and research property under special restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... improvements necessary for installing special tooling, special test equipment, or plant equipment, shall not be... production and research property under special restrictions. 1545.309 Section 1545.309 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Providing...

  4. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8281] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and... United States to waive the requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia...

  5. 75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Pub. L. 111-117) (``the Act''), I hereby determine that it...

  6. Government revenue-expenditure nexus: Evidence from several transitional economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konukcu-Önal Debi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficits and the debate on the sources of deficit finance have been on the agenda of public economics ever since the 1980s. However recently in the post-communist countries fiscal imbalances appear to be an important problem due to prolonged periods of growing poverty resulting from the transition process. Poverty alleviation policies considerably affect the revenue and expenditure decisions of governments, which are subject to hard budget constraints in an open transitional economy and do not have room for departing from sound fiscal policies. The public finance literature provides a vast number of studies analyzing the relationship between public revenues and expenditures. These studies are mostly characterized by efforts to reveal the attitude of the fiscal authority towards maintaining the budget balance. In this respect, budgetary dynamics in which past government revenues have predictive power on the current level of government expenditures are accepted as evidence of the so-called tax-and-spend hypothesis. On the other hand, the revenue-expenditure nexus running from expenditures to revenues is known in the literature as the spend-and-tax hypothesis. The objective of this study is to analyze empirically the relationship between government revenues and expenditures in four of the transitional economies, i.e. Belarus, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Russian Federation. The empirical findings of this study, which are based on Granger causality tests, indicate evidence supporting the tax-and-spend hypothesis in Belarus and the Russian Federation and fiscal synchronization in Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic. The empirical support for the tax-and-spend hypothesis in these economies implies that increasing government revenues may not end up with lower budget deficits due to their stimulating effect on the demand for public goods and services.

  7. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonal A; Chaudhari, Amol; Gupta, Richa; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Kondratov, Roman V

    2016-04-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) increases longevity in many species by unknown mechanisms. The circadian clock was proposed as a potential mediator of CR. Deficiency of the core component of the circadian clock-transcriptional factor BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT [aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator]-like protein 1)-results in accelerated aging. Here we investigated the role of BMAL1 in mechanisms of CR. The 30% CR diet increased the life span of wild-type (WT) mice by 20% compared to mice on anad libitum(AL) diet but failed to increase life span ofBmal1(-/-)mice. BMAL1 deficiency impaired CR-mediated changes in the plasma levels of IGF-1 and insulin. We detected a statistically significantly reduction of IGF-1 in CRvs.AL by 50 to 70% in WT mice at several daily time points tested, while inBmal1(-/-)the reduction was not significant. Insulin levels in WT were reduced by 5 to 9%, whileBmal1(-/-)induced it by 10 to 35% at all time points tested. CR up-regulated the daily average expression ofBmal1(by 150%) and its downstream target genesPeriods(by 470% forPer1and by 130% forPer2). We propose that BMAL1 is an important mediator of CR, and activation of BMAL1 might link CR mechanisms with biologic clocks.-Patel, S. A., Chaudhari, A., Gupta, R., Velingkaar, N., Kondratov, R. V. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms. © FASEB.

  8. Sugammadex use in difficult intubation due to ankylosing spondylitis and severe restrictive respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Tomak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe anesthesia management of a 50-year-old man scheduled for thoracic spinal reconstruction, presenting with severe restrictive respiratory disease and difficult airway due to ankylosing spondilitis. The patient was unable to extend his head, had difficulty in breathing and sleeping in supine position due to thoracal deformities. The patient was intubated using intubating laryngeal mask airway to overcome the difficulties of limited mouth opening and head extension. He was extubated following administration of sugammadex to obtain optimal conditions in terms of respiratory muscle function and to prevent hypersecretion and bronchospasm. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 398-400Key words: Restrictive lung disease, airway management, laryngeal masks, sugammadex, ankylosing spondylitis

  9. Mild Caloric Restriction Decreases Insulin Requirements in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Severe Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cristina Adelia; Cochran, Elaine; Mattingly, Megan; Gorden, Phillip; Brown, Rebecca J

    2015-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects ~10% of the US population, a subset of whom have severe insulin resistance (SIR) (>200 units/d). Treatment of these patients with high-dose insulin presents logistical and compliance challenges. We hypothesized that mild caloric restriction would reduce insulin requirements in patients with T2D and SIR.This was a retrospective study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Inclusion criteria were as follows: T2D, and insulin dose >200 units/d or >2 units/kg/d. The intervention consisted of mild caloric restriction during a 3 to 6-day hospitalization. The major outcomes were change in insulin dose and blood glucose from admission to discharge.Ten patients met inclusion criteria. Baseline glycated hemoglobin A1c was 10.0 ± 1.6% and body mass index 38.8 ± 9.0 kg/m. Food intake was restricted from 2210 ± 371 kcal/d preadmission to 1810 ± 202 during the hospital stay (16.5% reduction). Insulin dose decreased from 486 ± 291 units/d preadmission to 223 ± 127 at discharge (44% reduction, P = 0.0025). Blood sugars decreased nonsignificantly in the fasting state (from 184 ± 85 to 141 ± 42, P = 0.20), before lunch (239 ± 68 to 180 ± 76, P = 0.057), and at bedtime (212 ± 95 to 176 ± 48, P = 0.19), and significantly decreased before dinner (222 ± 92 to 162 ± 70, P = 0.016).Mild caloric restriction, an accessible and affordable intervention, substantially reduced insulin doses in patients with T2D and SIR. Further studies are needed to determine if the intervention and results are sustainable outside of a hospital setting.

  10. Nicotinamide and PNC1 govern lifespan extension by calorie restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rozalyn M; Bitterman, Kevin J; Wood, Jason G; Medvedik, Oliver; Sinclair, David A

    2003-05-08

    Calorie restriction extends lifespan in a broad range of organisms, from yeasts to mammals. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including decreased oxidative damage and altered energy metabolism. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lifespan extension by calorie restriction requires the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, Sir2 (ref. 1). We have recently shown that Sir2 and its closest human homologue SIRT1, a p53 deacetylase, are strongly inhibited by the vitamin B3 precursor nicotinamide. Here we show that increased expression of PNC1 (pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase 1), which encodes an enzyme that deaminates nicotinamide, is both necessary and sufficient for lifespan extension by calorie restriction and low-intensity stress. We also identify PNC1 as a longevity gene that is responsive to all stimuli that extend lifespan. We provide evidence that nicotinamide depletion is sufficient to activate Sir2 and that this is the mechanism by which PNC1 regulates longevity. We conclude that yeast lifespan extension by calorie restriction is the consequence of an active cellular response to a low-intensity stress and speculate that nicotinamide might regulate critical cellular processes in higher organisms.

  11. Severe caloric restriction in young women during World War II and subsequent breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, N; Barchana, M; Linn, S; Keinan-Boker, L

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the impact of WWII-related caloric restriction (CR) on subsequent breast cancer (BC) risk based on individual exposure experiences and whether this effect was modified by age at exposure. We compared 65 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2005-2010 to 200 controls without breast cancer who were all members of various organizations for Jewish WWII survivors in Israel. All participants were Jewish women born in Europe prior to 1945 who lived at least 6 months under Nazi rule during WWII and immigrated to Israel after the war. We estimated CR using a combined index for hunger and used logistic regression models to estimate the association between CR and BC, adjusting for potential confounders. Women who were severely exposed to hunger had an increased risk of BC (OR=5.0, 95% CI= 2.3-10.8) compared to women who were mildly exposed. The association between CR and BC risk was stronger for women who were exposed at a younger age (0-7 years) compared to the risk of BC in women exposed at ≥ 14 years (OR= 2.8, 95% CI=1.3-6.3). Severe exposure to CR is associated with a higher risk for BC decades later, and may be generalized to other cases of severe starvation during childhood that may have long-term effects on cancer in adulthood. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Gender-specific heart rate dynamics in severe intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Hernâni; Bernardes, João; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2013-06-01

    Management of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) remains a major issue in perinatology. The objective of this paper was the assessment of gender-specific fetal heart rate (FHR) dynamics as a diagnostic tool in severe IUGR. FHR was analyzed in the antepartum period in 15 severe IUGR fetuses and 18 controls, matched for gestational age, in relation to fetal gender. Linear and entropy methods, such as mean FHR (mFHR), low (LF), high (HF) and movement frequency (MF), approximate, sample and multiscale entropy. Sensitivities and specificities were estimated using Fisher linear discriminant analysis and the leave-one-out method. Overall, IUGR fetuses presented significantly lower mFHR and entropy compared with controls. However, gender-specific analysis showed that significantly lower mFHR was only evident in IUGR males and lower entropy in IUGR females. In addition, lower LF/(MF+HF) was patent in IUGR females compared with controls, but not in males. Rather high sensitivities and specificities were achieved in the detection of the FHR recordings related with IUGR male fetuses, when gender-specific analysis was performed at gestational ages less than 34 weeks. Severe IUGR fetuses present gender-specific linear and entropy FHR changes, compared with controls, characterized by a significantly lower entropy and sympathetic-vagal balance in females than in males. These findings need to be considered in order to achieve better diagnostic results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Amnioinfusion before 26 weeks' gestation for severe fetal growth restriction with oligohydramnios: preliminary pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuichiro; Iwagaki, Shigenori; Chiaki, Rika; Iwasa, Tomotake; Takenaka, Motoki; Kawabata, Ichiro; Itoh, Mitsuaki

    2014-03-01

    The prognosis for severe fetal growth restriction (FGR) with severe oligohydramnios before 26 weeks' gestation (WG) is currently poor; furthermore, its management is controversial. We report the innovative new management of FGR, such as therapeutic amnioinfusion and tocolysis. For FGR and severe oligohydramnios before 26 WG complicated with absent or reversed umbilical artery end-diastolic flow velocity and/or deceleration by ultrasonography, we performed transabdominal amnioinfusion with tocolysis. Cases with multiple anomalies were excluded. Survival rate and long-term prognosis were analyzed. Among 570 FGR cases, 18 were included in the study. Mean diagnosis and delivery were at 22.6 ± 2.0 and 28.7 ± 3.3 WG. Median birthweight was 625 g (-4.2 standard deviation). Final survival rate was 11/13 (85%). There were five fetal deaths. In seven cases, oligohydramnios improved. Growth was detected in 10/18 fetuses. Furthermore, 8/8 decelerations, 4/12 cases of reversed umbilical artery end-diastolic flow velocity, 7/14 cases of brain-sparing effect, and 6/13 venous Doppler abnormalities were improved. When we detected umbilical cord compression, 8/10 cases were rescued. Eleven infants were followed up for an average of 5 years; one case of cerebral palsy with normal development and 10 cases with intact motor functions without major neurological handicap were confirmed. In cases of extremely severe FGR before 26 WG with oligohydramnios and circulatory failure, amnioinfusion might be a promising, innovative tool. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Circulating cell-derived microparticles in severe preeclampsia and in fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijotas-Reig, Jaume; Palacio-Garcia, Carles; Farran-Codina, Immaculada; Ruiz-Romance, Mar; Llurba, Elisa; Vilardell-Tarres, Miquel

    2012-02-01

    The behavior of the circulating microparticles (cMP) in severe preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) is disputed. METHOD OF STUDY  Non-matched case-control study. Seventy cases of severe PE/HELLP/FGR were compared to 38 healthy pregnant women. Twenty healthy non-pregnant women acted as a control. cMP were analyzed using flow cytometry. Results are given as total (annexin-A5-ANXA5+), platelet (CD41+), leukocyte (CD45+), endothelial (CD144+CD31+//CD41-), and CD41-negative cMP/μL of plasma. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) were analyzed through usual methods. Platelet and endothelial cMP increased in healthy pregnant women. PE whole group (PE±FGR) showed an increase in endothelial and CD41-negative, but not in platelet-derived, cMP. Comparing PE whole group versus healthy pregnant, we found cMP levels of endothelial and CD41- had increased. The cMP results obtained in PE group were similar to those of the PE whole group. Comparing PE group to isolated FGR, significant CD41-negative cMP increase was found in PE. According to its aPL positivity, a trend to decrease in leukocyte and endothelial-derived cMP was found in PE group. Normal pregnancy is accompanied by endothelial and platelet cell activation. Endothelial cell activation has been shown in PE but not in isolated FGR. In PE, aPL may contribute to endothelial and possibly to leukocyte cell activation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Brain-computer interface controlled gaming: evaluation of usability by severely motor restricted end-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Elisa Mira; Höhne, Johannes; Staiger-Sälzer, Pit; Tangermann, Michael; Kübler, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Connect-Four, a new sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) based brain-computer interface (BCI) gaming application, was evaluated by four severely motor restricted end-users; two were in the locked-in state and had unreliable eye-movement. Following the user-centred approach, usability of the BCI prototype was evaluated in terms of effectiveness (accuracy), efficiency (information transfer rate (ITR) and subjective workload) and users' satisfaction. Online performance varied strongly across users and sessions (median accuracy (%) of end-users: A=.65; B=.60; C=.47; D=.77). Our results thus yielded low to medium effectiveness in three end-users and high effectiveness in one end-user. Consequently, ITR was low (0.05-1.44bits/min). Only two end-users were able to play the game in free-mode. Total workload was moderate but varied strongly across sessions. Main sources of workload were mental and temporal demand. Furthermore, frustration contributed to the subjective workload of two end-users. Nevertheless, most end-users accepted the BCI application well and rated satisfaction medium to high. Sources for dissatisfaction were (1) electrode gel and cap, (2) low effectiveness, (3) time-consuming adjustment and (4) not easy-to-use BCI equipment. All four end-users indicated ease of use as being one of the most important aspect of BCI. Effectiveness and efficiency are lower as compared to applications using the event-related potential as input channel. Nevertheless, the SMR-BCI application was satisfactorily accepted by the end-users and two of four could imagine using the BCI application in their daily life. Thus, despite moderate effectiveness and efficiency BCIs might be an option when controlling an application for entertainment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth restriction in gastroschisis: quantification of its severity and exploration of a placental cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Sam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastroschisis patients are commonly small for gestational age (SGA, birth weight [BW] th centile. However, the extent, symmetry and causes of that growth restriction remain controversial. Methods We compared BW, crown-heel length (LT, occipitofrontal circumference (OFC and ponderal index (PI in 179 gastroschisis cases and 895 matched controls by univariate and multiple regression. Fetal ultrasounds (N = 80 were reviewed to determine onset of growth restriction. Placental histology was examined in 31 gastroschisis patients whose placental tissue was available and in 29 controls. Results Gastroschisis cases weighed less than controls (BW = 2400 ± 502 g vs. 2750 ± 532 g, p Conclusions Marked, relatively symmetric intrauterine growth restriction is an intrinsic part of gastroschisis. It begins early in the second trimester, and is associated with placental chorangiosis.

  17. Severe avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and coexisting stimulant treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Alexandra; Couturier, Jennifer; Grant, Christina; Johnson, Natasha

    2016-11-01

    There is a growing body of literature describing the development, clinical course, and treatment of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), a diagnostic category introduced in the DSM-5. However, information surrounding complex cases of ARFID involving coexisting medical and/or psychiatric disorders remains scarce. Here we report on two cases of young patients diagnosed concurrently with ARFID and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who both experienced significant growth restriction following initiation of stimulant medication. The appetite suppressant effect of stimulants exacerbated longstanding avoidant and restrictive eating behaviors resulting in growth restriction and admission to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The implications of ARFID exacerbated by stimulant-treated ADHD are explored, as well as the treatment delivered. These cases suggest that further research is needed to explore management options to counteract the appetite suppression effects of stimulants, while simultaneously addressing attention deficit symptoms and oppositional behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:1036-1039). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Positron and electron energy bands in several ionic crystals using restricted Hartree-Fock method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, A. B.; Waber, J. T.

    1981-08-01

    Using a restricted Hartree-Fock formalism and suitably localized and symmetrized wave functions, both the positron and electron energy bands were calculated for NaF, MgO and NiO. The lowest positron state at Γ 1 lies above the vacuum level and negative work functions are predicted. Positron annihilation rates were calculated and found to be in good agreement with measured lifetimes.

  19. Intrauterine growth restriction and placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia, comparing early-onset and late-onset forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Jaana; Skarp, Sini; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Ryynänen, Markku; Järvenpää, Jouko

    2017-10-26

    To evaluate placental gene expression in severe early- or late-onset preeclampsia with intrauterine growth restriction compared to controls. Chorionic villus sampling was conducted after cesarean section from the placentas of five women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia and five controls for each preeclampsia group. Microarray analysis was performed to identify gene expression differences between the groups. Pathway analysis showed over-representation of gene ontology (GO) biological process terms related to inflammatory and immune response pathways, platelet development, vascular development, female pregnancy and reproduction in early-onset preeclampsia. Pathways related to immunity, complement and coagulation cascade were overrepresented in the hypergeometric test for the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Ten genes (ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G, IL2RB, KRBOX1, LRRC15, METTL7B, MPP5, RFLNB and SLC20A) had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to early controls. There were 362 genes that had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to late-onset preeclampsia group including ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB. There are significant differences in placental gene expression between severe early- and late-onset preeclampsia when both are associated with intrauterine growth restriction. ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB might contribute to the development of early form of severe preeclampsia.

  20. Twin Evils: Government Copyright and Copyright-like Controls Over Government Information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gellman, Robert

    1995-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, several factors work together to allow agencies to deny public access to or effective use of uncopyrighted government information, restrict use of that information, or charge royalties...

  1. Is Fetal Growth Restriction Associated with a More Severe Maternal Phenotype in the Setting of Early Onset Pre-Eclampsia? A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Jane; Tong, Stephen; Palmer, Kirsten R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Both pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction are thought to result from abnormal placental implantation in early pregnancy. Consistent with this shared pathophysiology, it is not uncommon to see growth restriction further confound the course of pre-eclampsia and vice versa. It has been previously suggested that superimposed growth restriction is associated with a more severe pre-eclamptic phenotype, however this has not been a consistent finding. Therefore, we set out to determine whether the presence of fetal growth restriction among women with severe early-onset pre-eclampsia was associated with more severe maternal disease compared to those without a growth-restricted fetus. Methods and Findings We undertook a retrospective cohort study of women presenting to a tertiary hospital with severe early-onset pre-eclampsia (restriction. However, no significant difference was seen in relation to the severity of pre-eclampsia between those with or without a growth-restricted baby. The presence of concomitant growth restriction was however associated with a significantly increased risk of stillbirth (p = 0.003) and total perinatal mortality (p = 0.02). Conclusions The presence of fetal growth restriction among women with severe early-onset pre-eclampsia is not associated with increased severity of maternal disease. However the incidence of stillbirth and perinatal death is significantly increased in this sub-population. PMID:22046419

  2. Severe cell reduction in the future brain cortex in human growth-restricted fetuses and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Grethe B; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bogdanović, Nenad

    2007-01-01

    with controls. The daily increase in brain cells in the future cortex was only half of that of the controls. In the 3 other developmental zones, no significant differences in cell numbers could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR in humans is associated with a severe reduction in cortical growth...

  3. One-Year Behavioral Treatment of Obesity: Comparison of Moderate and Severe Caloric Restriction and the Effects of Weight Maintenance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, Thomas A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compared weight losses of 49 obese women assigned to 52-week behavioral program combined with moderate or severe caloric restriction. Those in severe caloric restriction group lost significantly more weight during first 26 weeks but regained some weight. Reports of binge eating declined in both groups, and no relationship was observed between…

  4. Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhehey, M. A.

    This chapter deals with cases on the allocation of authority and responsibility within the educational structure of the several states, as well as with cases arising out of contractual obligations and other sources of legal rights. School board members, administrators, and teachers need to understand their legal rights and responsibilities if they…

  5. [Perinatal outcome and cardiac dysfunction in preterm growth-restricted neonates in relation to placental impairment severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel Pau, Júlia; Castillo Salinas, Félix; Perapoch López, Josep; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio; Sánchez García, Olga; Llurba Olivé, Elisa

    2016-10-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and prematurity have been associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and also with cardiovascular foetal programming. However, there are few studies on the impact of placenta-related IUGR on perinatal outcomes and cardiovascular biomarkers in pre-term infants. To determine differences in neonatal morbidity, mortality and cord blood biomarkers of cardiovascular dysfunction between pre-term placenta-related IUGR and non-IUGR new-borns, and to analyse their relationship with the severity of IUGR according to foetal Doppler evaluation. Prospective cohort study: pre-term infants with placenta-related IUGR and matched pre-term infants without IUGR. A Doppler scan was performed, and placenta-IUGR was classified according to severity. Comparative analysis of perinatal outcomes, neonatal morbidity and mortality, and cord blood levels of biomarkers of cardiovascular dysfunction was performed. IUGR new-borns present lower weight, length, head circumference, and Apgar score at birth, as well as increased neonatal and cardiovascular dysfunction biomarker levels, compared with pre-term new-borns without IUGR. These differences increase with the severity of IUGR determined by prenatal umbilical artery Doppler scan. Placenta-related-IUGR pre-term infants, irrespective of gestational age, present increased neonatal morbidity and mortality that is significantly proportional to the severity of IUGR. Placental impairment and severity also determine levels of cardiovascular dysfunction biomarkers at birth. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of 24-h severe energy restriction on appetite regulation and ad libitum energy intake in lean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; Burrell, Kirsty; Mynott, Georgina; Creese, Mark; Skidmore, Nicola; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent severe energy restriction (SER) can induce substantial weight loss, but the appetite regulatory responses to SER are unknown and may dictate long-term dietary adherence. We determined the effect of 24-h SER on appetite regulation, metabolism, and energy intake. Eighteen lean men and women completed two 3-d trials in randomized, counterbalanced order. On day 1 subjects consumed standardized diets containing 100% (mean ± SD: 9.3 ± 1.3 MJ; energy balance) or 25% [2.3 ± 0.3 MJ; energy restriction (ER)] of energy requirements. On day 2, a standardized breakfast was consumed, with plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids determined for 4 h. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at lunch and dinner with subjective appetite and resting metabolism assessed throughout. On day 3, ad libitum energy intake was assessed at breakfast and by weighed food records. Energy intake was 7% greater on day 2 (P 0.145). During ER, postprandial concentrations of acylated ghrelin were lower (P < 0.05), whereas glucose (P < 0.05) and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001) were higher. Postprandial glucagon-like peptide 1 7-36 (P = 0.784) and insulin (P = 0.06) concentrations were not significantly different between trials. Energy expenditure was lower during ER in the morning (P < 0.01). In lean young adults, 24-h SER transiently elevated subjective appetite and marginally increased energy intake, but hormonal appetite markers did not respond in a manner indicative of hyperphagia. These results suggest that intermittent SER might be useful to attenuate energy intake and control body weight in this population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov.uk as NCT02696772. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Haploinsufficiency of KDM6A is associated with severe psychomotor retardation, global growth restriction, seizures and cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Amelia M; Hoyos, Tatiana; Talkowski, Michael E; Hanscom, Carrie; Blumenthal, Ian; Chiang, Colby; Ernst, Carl; Pereira, Shahrin; Ordulu, Zehra; Clericuzio, Carol; Drautz, Joanne M; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Velsher, Lea; Pynn, Tania; Vermeesch, Joris; Harris, David J; Gusella, James F; Liao, Eric C; Morton, Cynthia C

    2013-05-01

    We describe a female subject (DGAP100) with a 46,X,t(X;5)(p11.3;q35.3)inv(5)(q35.3q35.1)dn, severe psychomotor retardation with hypotonia, global postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, globally reduced cerebral volume, seizures, facial dysmorphia and cleft palate. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and whole-genome sequencing demonstrated that the X chromosome breakpoint disrupts KDM6A in the second intron. No genes were directly disrupted on chromosome 5. KDM6A is a histone 3 lysine 27 demethylase and a histone 3 lysine 4 methyltransferase. Expression of KDM6A is significantly reduced in DGAP100 lymphoblastoid cells compared to control samples. We identified nine additional cases with neurodevelopmental delay and various other features consistent with the DGAP100 phenotype with copy number variation encompassing KDM6A from microarray databases. We evaluated haploinsufficiency of kdm6a in a zebrafish model. kdm6a is expressed in the pharyngeal arches and ethmoid plate of the developing zebrafish, while a kdm6a morpholino knockdown exhibited craniofacial defects. We conclude KDM6A dosage regulation is associated with severe and diverse structural defects and developmental abnormalities.

  8. Neurocognitive Impairments Are More Severe in the Binge-Eating/Purging Anorexia Nervosa Subtype Than in the Restricting Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Hiroko; Ouchi, Atushi; Chen, Runshu; Miyazawa, Shiho; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Kaneda, Yasuhiro; Sora, Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive function impairment in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) of either the restricting (ANR) or binge-eating/purging (ANBP) subtype. Method: We administered the Japanese version of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery to 22 patients with ANR, 18 patients with ANBP, and 69 healthy control subjects. Our participants were selected from among the patients at the Kobe University Hospital and community residents. Results: Compared to the healthy controls, the ANR group had significantly lower visual learning and social cognition scores, and the ANBP group had significantly lower processing speed, attention/vigilance, visual learning, reasoning/problem-solving, and social cognition scores. Compared to the ANR group, the ANBP group had significantly lower attention/vigilance scores. Discussion: The AN subtypes differed in cognitive function impairments. Participants with ANBP, which is associated with higher mortality rates than ANR, exhibited greater impairment severities, especially in the attention/vigilance domain, confirming the presence of impairments in continuous concentration. This may relate to the impulsivity, an ANBP characteristic reported in the personality research. Future studies can further clarify the cognitive impairments of each subtype by addressing the subtype cognitive functions and personality characteristics.

  9. Fetal kidney programming by severe food restriction: effects on structure, hormonal receptor expression and urinary sodium excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Barbara; Mesquita, Flavia F; Gontijo, Jose A R; Boer, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigates, in 23-day-old and adult male rats, the effect of severe food restriction in utero on blood pressure (BP), and its association with nephron structure and function changes, angiotensin II (AT1R/AT2R), glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor expression. The daily food supply to pregnant rats was measured and one group (n=15) received normal quantity of food (NF) while the other received 50% of that (FR50%) (n=15). Kidneys were processed to AT1R, AT2R, MR, and GR immunolocalization and for western blotting analysis. The renal function was estimated by creatinine and lithium clearances in 12-week-old offspring. By stereological analyses, FR50% offspring present a reduction of nephron numbers (35%) with unchanged renal volume. Expression of AT1R and AT2R was significantly decreased in FR50% while the expression of GR and MR increased in FR50%. We also verified a pronounced decrease in urinary sodium excretion accompanied by increased BP in 12-week-old FR50% offspring. The current data suggest that changes in renal function are conducive to excess sodium tubule reabsorption, and this might potentiate the programming of adult hypertension. It is plausible to arise in the current study an association between decreasing natriuresis, reciprocal changes in renal AngII and steroid receptors with the hypertension development found in FR50% compared with age-matched NF offspring. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Birthrate, Sovereignty and Development: The Restrictive Regulations to Family Planning in the Third Peronist Government (Argentina, 1973-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Alejandra Felitti

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensive growth of the world population during the second postwar period expanded the fear of an imminent depletion of natural resources and the destabilization of the capitalist system. Meanwhile the “population bomb” became a threat in the Cold War context, in Argentina the situation was the opposite, with a persistent birth rate decline. The third Peronist government (1973-1976 included the problem of the demographic fall among its priorities and the originality of its plan of action was that, for the first time in this country, coercive regulations prevented the free access to contraception. In this article we propose to analyze these policies, the contradictions inside the government regarding the best way to proceed, its repercussions and the resistance they produced.

  11. The extent of intrauterine growth restriction determines the severity of cerebral injury and neurobehavioural deficits in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Crystal A; Faulkner, Stuart D; Rumajogee, Prakasham; Beldick, Stephanie; Foltz, Warren; Corrigan, Jennifer; Basilious, Alfred; Jiang, Shangjun; Thiyagalingam, Shanojan; Yager, Jerome Y; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a) reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b) can be used to evaluate new translational therapies. To address these key knowledge gaps, we characterized a chronic placental insufficiency (PI) model, using bilateral uterine artery ligation (BUAL) of dams. This injury model results in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in pups, and animals recapitulate the human phenotype both in terms of neurobehavioural and anatomical deficits. Effects of BUAL were studied using luxol fast blue (LFB)/hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Catwalk neurobehavioural tests. Neuroanatomical analysis revealed regional ventricular enlargement and corpus callosum thinning in IUGR animals, which was correlated with the extent of growth restriction. Olig2 staining revealed reductions in oligodendrocyte density in white and grey matter structures, including the corpus callosum, optic chiasm, and nucleus accumbens. The caudate nucleus, along with other brain structures such as the optic chiasm, internal capsule, septofimbrial and lateral septal nuclei, exhibited reduced size in animals with IUGR. The size of the pretectal nucleus was reduced only in moderately injured animals. MAG/NF200 staining demonstrated reduced myelination and axonal counts in the corpus callosum of IUGR animals. NeuN staining revealed changes in neuronal density in the hippocampus and in the thickness of hippocampal CA2 and CA3 regions. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) revealed regional white and grey matter changes at 3

  12. The extent of intrauterine growth restriction determines the severity of cerebral injury and neurobehavioural deficits in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A Ruff

    Full Text Available Cerebral Palsy (CP is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b can be used to evaluate new translational therapies. To address these key knowledge gaps, we characterized a chronic placental insufficiency (PI model, using bilateral uterine artery ligation (BUAL of dams. This injury model results in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in pups, and animals recapitulate the human phenotype both in terms of neurobehavioural and anatomical deficits.Effects of BUAL were studied using luxol fast blue (LFB/hematoxylin & eosin (H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, and Catwalk neurobehavioural tests.Neuroanatomical analysis revealed regional ventricular enlargement and corpus callosum thinning in IUGR animals, which was correlated with the extent of growth restriction. Olig2 staining revealed reductions in oligodendrocyte density in white and grey matter structures, including the corpus callosum, optic chiasm, and nucleus accumbens. The caudate nucleus, along with other brain structures such as the optic chiasm, internal capsule, septofimbrial and lateral septal nuclei, exhibited reduced size in animals with IUGR. The size of the pretectal nucleus was reduced only in moderately injured animals. MAG/NF200 staining demonstrated reduced myelination and axonal counts in the corpus callosum of IUGR animals. NeuN staining revealed changes in neuronal density in the hippocampus and in the thickness of hippocampal CA2 and CA3 regions. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI revealed regional white and grey matter

  13. Comparative gene expression profiling of placentas from patients with severe pre-eclampsia and unexplained fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurahashi Hiroki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been well documented that pre-eclampsia and unexplained fetal growth restriction (FGR have a common etiological background, but little is known about their linkage at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms underlying pre-eclampsia and unexplained FGR. Methods We analyzed differentially expressed genes in placental tissue from severe pre-eclamptic pregnancies (n = 8 and normotensive pregnancies with or (n = 8 without FGR (n = 8 using a microarray method. Results A subset of the FGR samples showed a high correlation coefficient overall in the microarray data from the pre-eclampsia samples. Many genes that are known to be up-regulated in pre-eclampsia are also up-regulated in FGR, including the anti-angiogenic factors, FLT1 and ENG, believed to be associated with the onset of maternal symptoms of pre-eclampsia. A total of 62 genes were found to be differentially expressed in both disorders. However, gene set enrichment analysis for these differentially expressed genes further revealed higher expression of TP53-downstream genes in pre-eclampsia compared with FGR. TP53-downstream apoptosis-related genes, such as BCL6 and BAX, were found to be significantly more up-regulated in pre-eclampsia than in FGR, although the caspases are expressed at equivalent levels. Conclusions Our current data indicate a common pathophysiology for FGR and pre-eclampsia, leading to an up-regulation of placental anti-angiogenic factors. However, our findings also suggest that it may possibly be the excretion of these factors into the maternal circulation through the TP53-mediated early-stage apoptosis of trophoblasts that leads to the maternal symptoms of pre-eclampsia.

  14. Poorer detection rates of severe fetal growth restriction in women of likely refugee background: A case for re-focusing pregnancy care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Mary Anne; East, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Severe fetal growth restriction (FGR) (Women of refugee background have been found to have poorer perinatal outcomes compared to others and these outcomes can in part be explained by previous history. However, less access to and engagement with pregnancy care may also be contributing factors. This study examined the impact of likely refugee background on severe FGR in a singleton pregnancy undelivered by 40 weeks. A retrospective study was undertaken utilising data on women who gave birth to a severely growth-restricted infant at Monash Health during January 2013-July 2015. Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were undertaken to examine the association between the mother being of likely refugee background and severe FGR in singletons delivered after 40 weeks. There was an association between the mother being of likely refugee background and giving birth to a severely growth-restricted baby after 40 weeks with these mothers at two and half times the odds compared to mothers of non-refugee background (adjusted odds ratio 2.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.44-4.42). While detecting FGR is clinically challenging, our findings suggest that maternity services need to be supported to offer care tailored to the specific needs of vulnerable and disadvantaged populations. Providing quality, culturally responsive and accessible care is fundamental to addressing refugee maternal and perinatal health inequalities. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Variation at local government level in the support for families of severely disabled children and the factors that affect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Rob; McNally, Richard; James, Peter; Crossland, Kevin; Woolley, Mark; Colver, Allan

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine geographical variability in the support for families caring for children with severe disabilities as well as the relationships between this variability and local government social and educational performance indicators. Data were collected from a cross-sectional, self-completed postal survey of the families of 5862 children and young people (aged 0-24 y, mean 10 y 7 mo; 68% male) with severe disabilities resulting in a variety of impairments (21% with autism spectrum disorders, 16% with learning disabilities,* 13% with emotional and behavioural difficulties, and 13% with cerebral palsy [CP]). Data on the severity of intrinsic impairment were assessed using the Health Utilities Index, and the need for support was assessed from the results of a novel parent-completed questionnaire, the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ). These responses were related to data published by local authorities on educational and social policy. Higher levels of unmet need and lack of support, as reported by parents of children and young people with severe disabilities, are associated with greater impairment but not with socioeconomic deprivation. After controlling for impairment and diagnosis, variation at local government level is of the order of 1 to 1.5 ECEQ standard deviation scores. The best- and the worst-performing local authorities--in terms of the averages of the 'support' scores reported by their surveyed residents--cluster in urban areas. For children with CP, a positive correlation was found between the reported unmet educational support requirements in each local authority area and rates of mainstream school placement for children with special educational needs. This indicates that the placement of children with disabilities into mainstream schools is associated with reported unmet need (r=0.60; p=0.01). In the case of children with autism spectrum diagnoses, the provision of additional basic educational support in mainstream

  16. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H-Y; Lee, H-C; Cheng, W-Y; Huang, S-Y

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity has increased worldwide, as well as in Taiwan, particularly in women aged>40 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of a calorie-restriction diet (CR) supplemented with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on women with MetS. A total of 143 eligible female participants were recruited and assigned to four dietary interventions such as 1500-kcal CR, calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet (CRMR), calorie-restriction diet with fish oil supplementation (CRF) and calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet with fish oil supplementation (CRMRF). The changes in anthropometric measures, metabolic profiles, inflammatory response and the Z-score of severity of MetS were evaluated. Among 143 female MetS patients enrolled, 136 patients completed the 12-week study. After the 12-week dietary interventions, we observed reductions in body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in all groups. BMI and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased significantly in the CRMR, CRF and CRMRF groups, but not in the CR group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had significantly improved in all four groups, and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) had significantly decreased in the CRF and CRMRF groups. Following the interventions, the changes in waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 significantly correlated with the reductions in Z-score of MetS severity. Our study results indicate that a calorie-restriction dietary intervention combined with various macronutrients can reduce the severity of MetS in women and increase recovery from MetS by almost twofold in comparison with a CR alone.

  17. Advanced sclerosis of the chest wall skin secondary to chronic graft-versus-host disease: a case with severe restrictive lung defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ödek, Çağlar; Kendirli, Tanil; İleri, Talia; Yaman, Ayhan; Fatih Çakmakli, Hasan; Ince, Elif; İnce, Erdal; Ertem, Mehmet

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). Herein, we describe a patient with severe restrictive lung defect secondary to cGvHD. A 21-year-old male patient was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with pneumonia and respiratory distress. He had a history of aHSCT for chronic myelogeneous leukemia at the age of 17 years. Six months after undergoing aHSCT, he had developed cGvHD involving skin, mouth, eye, lung, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. At the time of PICU admission he had respiratory distress and required ventilation support. Thorax high-resolution computed tomography was consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans. Although bronchiolitis obliterans is an obstructive lung defect, a restrictive pattern became prominent in the clinical course because of the sclerotic chest wall skin. The activity of cGvHD kept increasing despite the therapy and we lost the patient because of severe respiratory distress and massive hemoptysis secondary to bronchiectasis. In conclusion, pulmonary cGvHD can present with restrictive changes related with the advanced sclerosis of the chest wall skin. Performing a fasciotomy or a scar revision for the rigid chest wall in selected patients may improve the patients ventilation.

  18. Risk management communication system between a local government and residents using several network systems and terminal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Takashi; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Takei, Yuichiro; Maeda, Yuji

    2009-05-01

    Most of Japan's local governments utilize municipal disaster-management radio communications systems to communicate information on disasters or terrorism to residents. The national government is progressing in efforts toward digitalization by local governments of these systems, but only a small number (approx. 10%) have introduced such equipment due to its requiring large amounts of investment. On the other hand, many local governments are moving forward in installation of optical fiber networks for the purpose of eliminating the "digital divide." We herein propose a communication system as an alternative or supplement to municipal disaster-management radio communications systems, which utilizes municipal optical fiber networks, the internet and similar networks and terminals. The system utilizes the multiple existing networks and is capable of instantly distributing to all residents, and controlling, risk management information. We describe the system overview and the field trials conducted with a local government using this system.

  19. Feasibility of modified surviving sepsis campaign guidelines in a resource-restricted setting based on a cohort study of severe S. aureus sepsis [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weera Mahavanakul

    Full Text Available The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC guidelines describe best practice for the management of severe sepsis and septic shock in developed countries, but most deaths from sepsis occur where healthcare is not sufficiently resourced to implement them. Our objective was to define the feasibility and basis for modified guidelines in a resource-restricted setting.We undertook a detailed assessment of sepsis management in a prospective cohort of patients with severe sepsis caused by a single pathogen in a 1,100-bed hospital in lower-middle income Thailand. We compared their management with the SSC guidelines to identify care bundles based on existing capabilities or additional activities that could be undertaken at zero or low cost. We identified 72 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock associated with S. aureus bacteraemia, 38 (53% of who died within 28 days. One third of patients were treated in intensive care units (ICUs. Numerous interventions described by the SSC guidelines fell within existing capabilities, but their implementation was highly variable. Care available to patients on general wards covered the fundamental principles of sepsis management, including non-invasive patient monitoring, antimicrobial administration and intravenous fluid resuscitation. We described two additive care bundles, one for general wards and the second for ICUs, that if consistently performed would be predicted to improve outcome from severe sepsis.It is feasible to implement modified sepsis guidelines that are scaled to resource availability, and that could save lives prior to the publication of international guidelines for developing countries.

  20. Genome-wide placental DNA methylation analysis of severely growth-discordant monochorionic twins reveals novel epigenetic targets for intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roifman, Maian; Choufani, Sanaa; Turinsky, Andrei L; Drewlo, Sascha; Keating, Sarah; Brudno, Michael; Kingdom, John; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which refers to reduced fetal growth in the context of placental insufficiency, is etiologically heterogeneous. IUGR is associated not only with perinatal morbidity and mortality but also with adult-onset disorders, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, posing a major health burden. Placental epigenetic dysregulation has been proposed as one mechanism that causes IUGR; however, the spectrum of epigenetic pathophysiological mechanisms leading to IUGR remains to be elucidated. Monozygotic monochorionic twins are particularly affected by IUGR, in the setting of severe discordant growth. Because monozygotic twins have the same genotype at conception and a shared maternal environment, they provide an ideal model system for studying epigenetic dysregulation of the placenta. We compared genome-wide placental DNA methylation patterns of severely growth-discordant twins to identify novel candidate genes for IUGR. Snap-frozen placental samples for eight severely growth-discordant monozygotic monochorionic twin pairs were obtained at delivery from each twin. A high-resolution DNA methylation array platform was used to identify methylation differences between IUGR and normal twins. Our analysis revealed differentially methylated regions in the promoters of eight genes: DECR1, ZNF300, DNAJA4, CCL28, LEPR, HSPA1A/L, GSTO1, and GNE. The largest methylation differences between the two groups were in the promoters of DECR1 and ZNF300. The significance of these group differences was independently validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing, implicating aberrations in fatty acid beta oxidation and transcriptional regulation, respectively. Further analysis of the array data identified methylation changes most prominently affecting the Wnt and cadherin pathways in the IUGR cohort. Our results suggest that IUGR in monozygotic twins is associated with impairments in lipid metabolism and transcriptional regulation as well as cadherin and Wnt

  1. EVERREST prospective study: a 6-year prospective study to define the clinical and biological characteristics of pregnancies affected by severe early onset fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rebecca; Ambler, Gareth; Brodszki, Jana; Diemert, Anke; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacós, Eduard; Hansson, Stefan R; Hecher, Kurt; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Marlow, Neil; Marsál, Karel; Morsing, Eva; Peebles, Donald; Rossi, Carlo; Sebire, Neil J; Timms, John F; David, Anna L

    2017-01-23

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a serious obstetric condition for which there is currently no treatment. The EVERREST Prospective Study has been designed to characterise the natural history of pregnancies affected by severe early onset FGR and establish a well phenotyped bio-bank. The findings will provide up-to-date information for clinicians and patients and inform the design and conduct of the EVERREST Clinical Trial: a phase I/IIa trial to assess the safety and efficacy of maternal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene therapy in severe early onset FGR. Data and samples from the EVERREST Prospective Study will be used to identify ultrasound and/or biochemical markers of prognosis in pregnancies with an estimated fetal weight (EFW) economic impact; psychological impact; neonatal condition, progress and complications; and infant growth and neurodevelopment to 2 years of corrected age in surviving infants. Standardised longitudinal ultrasound measurements are performed, including: fetal biometry; uterine artery, umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler velocimetry; and uterine artery and umbilical vein volume blood flow. Samples of maternal blood and urine, amniotic fluid (if amniocentesis performed), placenta, umbilical cord blood, and placental bed (if caesarean delivery performed) are collected for bio-banking. An initial analysis of maternal blood samples at enrolment is planned to identify biochemical markers that are predictors for fetal or neonatal death. The findings of the EVERREST Prospective Study will support the development of a novel therapy for severe early onset FGR by describing in detail the natural history of the disease and by identifying women whose pregnancies have the poorest outcomes, in whom a therapy might be most advantageous. The findings will also enable better counselling of couples with affected pregnancies, and provide a valuable resource for future research into the causes of FGR. NCT02097667

  2. Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, and Low Platelets, Severe Fetal Growth Restriction, Postpartum Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, and Craniotomy: A Rare Case Report and Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Rezai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP syndrome is a relatively uncommon but traumatic condition occurring in the later stage of pregnancy as a complication of severe preeclampsia or eclampsia. Prompt brain computed tomography (CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a multidisciplinary management approach are required to improve perinatal outcome. Case. A 37-year-old, Gravida 6, Para 1-0-4-1, Hispanic female with a history of chronic hypertension presented at 26 weeks and 6 days of gestational age. She was noted to have hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP syndrome accompanied by fetal growth restriction (FGR, during ultrasound evaluation, warranting premature delivery. The infant was delivered in stable condition suffering no permanent neurological deficit. Conclusion. HELLP syndrome is an uncommon and traumatic obstetric event which can lead to neurological deficits if not managed in a responsive and rapid manner. The central aggravating factor seems to be hypertension induced preeclamptic or eclamptic episode and complications thereof. The syndrome itself is manifested by hemolytic anemia, increased liver enzymes, and decreasing platelet counts with a majority of neurological defects resulting from hemorrhagic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. To minimize adverse perinatal outcomes, obstetric management of this medical complication must include rapid clinical assessment, diagnostic examination, and neurosurgery consultation.

  3. [Clinical anamnestic characteristics in neurological work-related medical rehabilitation : Necessity for a qualitative identification of severe restrictions of work ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heßling, A; Brandes, I; Dierks, M-L; Leniger, T

    2018-02-01

    Severe restrictions of work ability (SRWA) as a condition for participation in neurological work-related medical rehabilitation (WMR) have not been adequately described up to now. Similarly, the applicability of the screening instrument SIMBO-C for evaluating SRWA in neurological rehabilitation has not yet been answered conclusively. Determination of clinical and anamnestic characteristics of neurological SRWA and assessment of the applicability of the screening instrument SIMBO-C in neurological WMR. For the identification of SRWA clinical and anamnestic characteristics of 344 rehabilitants were routinely collected. The clinically and anamnestically determined SRWA was described quantitatively and content-analytically and correlated with SIMBO-C. Of the rehabilitants 66% exhibited SRWA. Apart from the established characteristics of SRWA further person and disease-specific factors were found. The SIMBO-C score was significantly higher in the group with SRWA compared to the group without SRWA (45.6 ± 18.9 vs. 31.5 ± 12.5, p characteristics in the group with SRWA was homogeneous, regardless of the SIMBO-C score. The characteristics of neurological SRWA are mainly qualitatively shaped and may only partly be identified by SIMBO-C. A combined quantitative and qualitative approach is necessary in neurological WMR.

  4. Creating a 'hostile environment for migrants': the British government's use of health service data to restrict immigration is a very bad idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiam, Lucinda; Steele, Sarah; McKee, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In January 2017, the UK Government made public a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Department of Health, National Health Service (NHS) Digital and the Home Office. This Memorandum allows for the more expedited sharing of a patient's non-clinical data, specifically from the NHS England to the Home Office. The Government justified the MoU as in the 'public interest to support effective immigration enforcement'. In this review, we seek to unpack this justification by providing, first, a background to the MoU, placing it in the context of creating a 'hostile environment' for migrants - a project initially sought by Theresa May in her time as Home Secretary. We then explore the potential impact of data sharing on individual health, public health and on health professionals. We conclude that the MoU could threaten both individual and public health, while placing health professionals in an unworkable position both practically and in terms of their duties to patients around confidentiality. As such, we agree with colleagues' position that it should be suspended, at least until a full consultation and health impact assessment can be carried out.

  5. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally......Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...

  6. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with restrictive cardiomyopathy may be heart transplant candidates. The outlook depends on the cause of the ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  7. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  8. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up in the circulatory system. In time, the heart fails. What causes it? Restrictive cardiomyopathy is often caused by diseases in other parts of the body. One known cause is cardiac ... build up in the heart tissue, making the tissue stiff and thickened. Cardiac ...

  9. Tokyo Guidelines 2013 may be too restrictive and patients with moderate and severe acute cholecystitis can be managed by early cholecystectomy too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirthalingam, Vinoban; Low, Jee Keem; Woon, Winston; Shelat, Vishalkumar

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is safe and feasible for patients diagnosed with moderate (grade 2) and severe (grade 3) acute cholecystitis (AC) according to the Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13). Early cholecystectomy is the current accepted standard of care for patients with mild (grade 1) and selected grade 2 AC based on TG13. For selected grade 2 and grade 3 AC, early percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) followed by delayed cholecystectomy is recommended. Patients diagnosed with AC over a 14-month period were identified and divided into three grades of AC based upon chart review using the grading and severity indicators according to TG13. A total of 149 patients underwent emergency LC. Eighty-two (55 %) patients were male. Eighty-four (56.4 %) patients were classified as grade 1 AC, 49 (32.9 %) as grade 2, and 16 (10.7 %) as grade 3. Eighty-three (98.8 %) patients with grade 1 AC underwent emergency LC, and 1 patient (1.2 %) underwent PC followed by emergency LC. The median length of hospital stay for grade 1 AC patients was 2 (1-11) days. There were 2 (2.4 %) readmissions with fever and no additional complications. Among the 65 patients identified with grade 2 or 3 AC, 6 (9.2 %) underwent PC followed by emergency LC. Fifty-nine (90.8 %) patients underwent emergency cholecystectomy: 58 (98.3 %) LC and one (1.7 %) open cholecystectomy. Among the 58 patients with LC, 3 (5.2 %) patients had open conversion and 10 (17.2 %) patients required subtotal cholecystectomy. One patient was converted to open due to bile duct injury and had hepaticojejunostomy repair. Two other patients were converted due to dense adhesions and inability to safely dissect Calot's triangle. The median length of hospital stay was 4 (1-28) days. There was one readmission for ileus. Severity grading of AC is not the sole determinant of early LC. Patient comorbidity also impacts clinical decision. Confirmation in a larger cohort is

  10. Tax Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...

  11. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  12. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private/public spaces...

  13. Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Virtual Reality-Based Paradigm for Upper Limb Rehabilitation in Individuals with Restricted Movements. A Feasibility Study with a Chronic Stroke Survivor with Severe Hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, María Antonia; Borrego, Adrián; Latorre, Jorge; Colomer, Carolina; Alcañiz, Mariano; Sánchez-Ledesma, María José; Noé, Enrique; Llorens, Roberto

    2018-04-02

    Impairments of the upper limb function are a major cause of disability and rehabilitation. Most of the available therapeutic options are based on active exercises and on motor and attentional inclusion of the affected arm in task oriented movements. However, active movements may not be possible after severe impairment of the upper limbs. Different techniques, such as mirror therapy, motor imagery, and non-invasive brain stimulation have been shown to elicit cortical activity in absence of movements, which could be used to preserve the available neural circuits and promote motor learning. We present a virtual reality-based paradigm for upper limb rehabilitation that allows for interaction of individuals with restricted movements from active responses triggered when they attempt to perform a movement. The experimental system also provides multisensory stimulation in the visual, auditory, and tactile channels, and transcranial direct current stimulation coherent to the observed movements. A feasibility study with a chronic stroke survivor with severe hemiparesis who seemed to reach a rehabilitation plateau after two years of its inclusion in a physical therapy program showed clinically meaningful improvement of the upper limb function after the experimental intervention and maintenance of gains in both the body function and activity. The experimental intervention also was reported to be usable and motivating. Although very preliminary, these results could highlight the potential of this intervention to promote functional recovery in severe impairments of the upper limb.

  14. How Harmful are Adaptation Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, K.C.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. Several adaptation restrictions are identified and then simulated in a revised DICE model, extended with ad...

  15. Changing face of care for patients with moderate to severe inflammatory bowel disease: the role of specialist nurses in the governance of anti-TNF prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, W R; Samyue, T; Gibson, P R; Lachal, S; Moore, G T; Macrae, F A; Van Langenberg, D R

    2015-11-01

    Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is highly effective for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but expensive and potentially toxic. Meticulous supervision prior to and during anti-TNF treatment is required to screen and monitor patients for adverse clinical events. In addition, a systematic administrative process is necessary to comply with Australian Medicare requirements and ensure ongoing therapy is uninterrupted. IBD nurses are essential components of multidisciplinary IBD services, but their role in facilitating the safe and timely delivery of anti-TNF drugs is unacknowledged. The aim of the study was to calculate time spent by IBD nurses on anti-TNF drug governance and its indirect cost. Time spent on activities related to anti-TNF governance was retrospectively assessed by questionnaire among IBD nurses employed at Melbourne hospitals. The capacity of IBD clinics at these hospitals was separately evaluated by surveying medical heads of clinics. On average, each Melbourne IBD service handled 150 existing and 40 new anti-TNF referrals in 2013. The average annual time spent by nurses supervising an existing and newly referred anti-TNF patient was 3.5 and 5.25 h respectively, or a minimum of two full working days per week. If clinicians undertook this activity during normal clinic time, the organisational opportunity cost was at least 58%. Anti-TNF therapy governance is an essential quality component of IBD care that is associated with a definite, indirect cost for every patient treated. IBD nurses are best positioned to undertake this role, but an activity-based funding model is urgently required to resource this element of their work. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  17. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  18. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  19. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  20. Leadership, Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts About » Leadership, Governance Leadership national security and energy challenges. Leadership, Governance Ethics, Accountability Los Alamos National . Director's Office terry wallace in leadership, governance Director Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Terry C. Wallace, Jr

  1. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... of governance. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for future work in adapting ST to the e-government context....

  2. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  3. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  4. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Namya; Ramé, Christelle; Marchand, Maxime; Staub, Christophe; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Venturi, Éric; Mercerand, Frédéric; Travel, Angélique; Chartrin, Pascal; Lecompte, François; Ma, Linlin; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented. We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens. We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt) unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet) unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition. Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue). In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P hen age. Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  5. Effect of different levels of feed restriction and fish oil fatty acid supplementation on fat deposition by using different techniques, plasma levels and mRNA expression of several adipokines in broiler breeder hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namya Mellouk

    Full Text Available Reproductive hens are subjected to a restricted diet to limit the decline in fertility associated with change in body mass. However, endocrine and tissue responses to diet restriction need to be documented.We evaluated the effect of different levels of feed restriction, with or without fish oil supplementation, on metabolic parameters and adipokine levels in plasma and metabolic tissues of reproductive hens.We designed an in vivo protocol involving 4 groups of hens; RNS: restricted (Rt unsupplemented, ANS: ad libitum (Ad, receiving an amount of feed 1.7 times greater than animals on the restricted diet unsupplemented, RS: Rt supplemented, and AS: Ad supplemented. The fish oil supplement was used at 1% of the total diet composition.Hens fed with the Rt diet had a significantly (P < 0.0001 lower growth than Ad hens, while the fish oil supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Furthermore, the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and the fat ultrasonographic examinations produced similar results to the other methods that required animals to be killed (carcass analysis and weight of adipose tissue. In addition, the Rt diet significantly (P < 0.05 decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, phospholipids, glucose and ADIPOQ, and fish oil supplementation decreased plasma levels of RARRES2. We also showed a positive correlation between insulin values and ADIPOQ or NAMPT or RARRES2 values, and a negative correlation of fat percentage to RARRES2 values. Moreover, the effects of the Rt diet and fish oil supplementation on the mRNA expression depended on the factors tested and the hen age.Rt diet and fish oil supplementation are able to modulate metabolic parameters and the expression of adipokines and their receptors in metabolic tissue.

  6. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  7. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  8. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded…

  9. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  10. Uruguay - Corporate Governance Country Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Uruguay's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Uruguay. The report identifies several key next steps that focus on implementa...

  11. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Uruguay's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Uruguay. The report identifies several key next steps that focus on implementation including: Improving corporate information, particularly ownership disclosure, related party transac...

  12. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  13. Waste governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available of governance in Africa. The next section focuses on regulation, and the status of the regulatory frameworks in different African countries. Shortcomings in the regulatory framework are highlighted through examples in various countries. Specific policy...

  14. Evaluating e-Government and Good Governance Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi Suhardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the achievement of Indonesian government institutions in implementing e-government has been conducted since around a decade ago. Several national assessments are available with almost the same ranking results. There is an agreement that the ultimate goal of e-government implementation is to achieve good government governance (GGG, while success stories of e-government require good governance practices. This study explored the correlation between e-government achievement and GGG achievement in Indonesia. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to characterize the relationship strength between e-government assessment results and good governance assessment results. The data were collected from institutions that participated in e-government and good governance assessments. The results showed that the correlation between these two entities is not very strong. Most cases showed that e-government implementation and the achievement of good governance have only a moderate positive correlation and none of the studied cases indicated a significant connection. This result can be attributed to the lack of emphasis on goals achievement in the assessments. Thus, it is recommended that future Indonesian e-government assessments should involve impact indicators.

  15. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  16. International Religion Indexes: Government Regulation, Government Favoritism, and Social Regulation of Religion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Brian J.; Finke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The study of religion is severely handicapped by a lack of adequate cross-national data. Despite the prominence of religion in international events and recent theoretical models pointing to the consequences of regulating religion, cross-national research on religion has been lacking. We strive to fill this void by developing measurement models and indexes for government regulation, government favoritism, and social regulation of religion. The indexes rely on data from an extensive coding of the 2003 International Religious Freedom Report for 196 countries and territories. Using a series of tests to evaluate the new data and indexes, we find that the measures developed are highly reliable and valid. The three indexes will allow researchers and others to measure the government’s subsidy and regulation of religion as well as the restrictions placed on religion by social and cultural forces beyond the state. PMID:25484633

  17. Do Kids Need Government Censors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Fashioning public policies restricting children's access to entertainment glamorizing violence, sex, drugs, and vulgarity is a complex task. The recently introduced Media Marketing Accountability Act would empower the federal government to regulate advertising of entertainment products to youth. Suggests that this power is undesirable compared to…

  18. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  19. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...

  20. Bank Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ard; Alexander Berg

    2010-01-01

    Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...

  1. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  2. Corporate Governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Andy Knight; David Malone; Faith Mitchell. Finance and Audit Committee. Members: Denis Desautels (Chairman); Ahmed Galal;. Frieda Granot; Elizabeth Parr-Johnston; Andrés Rozental;. Gordon Shirley. Governance Committee. Members: The Honourable Barbara McDougall (Chairman);. Claude-Yves Charron; Denis ...

  3. Open Government and (Linked (Open (Government (Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Philipp Geiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the opening and the free usage of stored public sector data, supplied by state. In the age of Open Government and Open Data it’s not enough just to put data online. It should be rather weighed out whether, how and which supplied public sector data can be published. Open Data are defined as stored data which could be made accessible in a public interest without any restrictions for usage and distribution. These Open Data can possibly be statistics, geo data, maps, plans, environmental data and weather data in addition to materials of the parliaments, ministries and authorities. The preparation and the free access to existing data permit varied approaches to the reuse of data, discussed in the article. In addition, impulses can be given for Open Government – the opening of state and administration, to more transparency, participation and collaboration as well as to innovation and business development. The Open Data movement tries to get to the bottom of current publication processes in the public sector which could be formed even more friendly to citizens and enterprises.

  4. Restricting wolves risks escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Ballard, Warren; Bangs, Ed; Ream, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Implementing the proposal set forth by Licht and colleagues (BioScience 60: 147–153) requires restricting wolves to tiny "islands," areas that are magnitudes smaller than the ranges of most wolf populations. Wolves naturally have large ranges; restricting their spatial needs increases the risk of wolves escaping, exacerbating public relations and political and legal problems.

  5. 25 CFR 213.43 - Relinquishment of Government supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relinquishment of Government supervision. 213.43 Section 213.43 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.43 Relinquishment of Government supervision....

  6. Measuring interoperability maturity in government networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Huijsman, K.L.L.G.; Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create a model that describes the development of interorganisational collaboration in government networks that apply eGovernment. Contrary to several models that describe eGovernment from a government-to-citizen perspective, and primarily emphasise on the front office of eGovernment services, this paper focuses on the collaboration that takes place in the back office to enable successful eGovernment services. A maturity model was developed to describe and asses...

  7. IT Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Šimková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    IT governance (control of information technology) is a frequently discussed topic today which represents current needs to take control of IT, judge impacts of all resolutions and lead up investments running to the information technology. It is very important for both small and large organizations to have IT which encourages business strategy and helps to meet objectives of a company. The theoretical part of this paper is focused on characterization of the main areas, benefits, rules and vario...

  8. Molecular mechanisms of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurugubelli Krishna, Rao; Vishnu Bhat, B

    2017-07-10

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pregnancy specific disease characterized by decreased growth rate of fetus than the normal growth potential at particular gestational age. In the current scenario it is a leading cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. In the last decade exhilarating experimental studies from several laboratories have provided fascinating proof for comprehension of molecular basis of IUGR. Atypical expression of enzymes governed by TGFβ causes the placental apoptosis and altered expression of TGFβ due to hyper alimentation causes impairment of lung function. Crosstalk of cAMP with protein kinases plays a prominent role in the regulation of cortisol levels. Increasing levels of NOD1 proteins leads to development of IUGR by increasing the levels of inflammatory mediators. Increase in leptin synthesis in placental trophoblast cells is associated with IUGR. In this review, we emphasize on the regulatory mechanisms of IUGR and its associated diseases. They may help improve the in-utero fetal growth and provide a better therapeutic intervention for prevention and treatment of IUGR.

  9. A gut-homing, oligoclonal CD4+ T cell population in severe-combined immunodeficient mice expressing a rearranged, transgenic class I-restricted alpha beta T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, J; Rudolphi, A; Spiess, S

    1995-01-01

    We studied the peripheral T cell compartment of H-2b severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice that express a transgenic (tg) alpha beta T cell receptor (TcR) specific for the H-Y (male) epitope presented by the H-2 class I Db molecule. Large populations of CD3+ NK1.1-TCR beta T+ T cells were...

  10. 29 CFR 15.23 - Restrictions on certain claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restrictions noted: (a) Money or currency. Claims may be allowed for loss of money or currency (which includes... currency is limited to an amount which is determined to have been reasonable for the claimant to have had... motor vehicles were required to be used for official Government business (official Government business...

  11. Measuring interoperability maturity in government networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsman, K.L.L.G.; Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create a model that describes the development of interorganisational collaboration in government networks that apply eGovernment. Contrary to several models that describe eGovernment from a government-to-citizen perspective, and primarily emphasise on the front office

  12. Measuring interoperability maturity in government networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsman, K.L.L.G; Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create a model that describes the development of interorganisational collaboration in government networks that apply eGovernment. Contrary to several models that describe eGovernment from a government-to-citizen perspective, and primarily emphasise on the front office

  13. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction.

  14. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  15. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  16. Introducing Children to Democratic Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Janet; Brophy, Jere

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have been studying children's knowledge, thinking, and attitudes about government for several decades. However, the studies focusing on elementary students, and especially primary students, have little or nothing to say about children's ideas about democracy or democratic government. That is because children at these ages have not yet…

  17. Protein restriction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-26

    Protein restriction without malnutrition is currently an effective nutritional intervention known to prevent diseases and promote health span from yeast to human. Recently, low protein diets are reported to be associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality risk of cancers in human. In murine models, protein restriction inhibits tumor growth via mTOR signaling pathway. IGF-1, amino acid metabolic programing, FGF21, and autophagy may also serve as potential mechanisms of protein restriction mediated cancer prevention. Together, dietary intervention aimed at reducing protein intake can be beneficial and has the potential to be widely adopted and effective in preventing and treating cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluación de la severidad, proporcionalidad y riesgo de muerte de recién nacidos de muy bajo peso con restricción del crecimiento fetal: análisis multicéntrico sudamericano An assessment of the severity, proportionality and risk of mortality of very low birth weight infants with fetal growth restriction: a multicenter South American analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Grandi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: 1 evaluar la severidad y la proporcionalidad de los PEG para diferentes grados de prematurez; 2 estimar el riesgo de mortalidad de los PEG según la severidad y proporcionalidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño observacional y analítico. Población: todos los recién nacidos de muy bajo peso (RNMPB entre 25 y 36 semanas que mantiene el grupo NEOCOSUR (n = 1.518. Índices antropométricos: a peso de nacimiento (PN 0,55 y la transformación z del índice ponderal (Ponderal Index, PI = g/cm³ x 100. Restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (RCIU asimétrico: score z OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical severity and proportionality of small for gestational age, very low birth weight neonates (< 1,500 g and to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with the condition of being small for gestational age according to the degree of severity and proportionality. METHODS: Observational design. All of the NEOCOSUR Collaborative Group's very low birth weight infants (25-36 weeks' gestation were included (n = 1,518. Anthropometric indices: birth weight < 3rd and 10th percentile. Severity (fetal growth ratio = observed weight/mean birth weight for gestational age; no growth restriction: fetal growth ratio 0.90-1.10, mild: fetal growth ratio 0.80-0.89, moderate: fetal growth ratio 0.75-0.79 and severe: fetal growth ratio < 0.75. Proportionality: coefficient of bimodality and z score for ponderal index (PI = g/cm³ *100. Neonatal mortality until discharge. RESULTS: < 3rd percentile: 13.5% (p < 0.001; < 10th percentile: 31% (p < 0.001; fetal growth ratio: 0.90±0.21 (p < 0.001, mild restriction: 20.8%, moderate restriction: 8.7% and severe restriction: 32.6%. Coefficient of bimodality: 0.53; PI z score < -1: 8%. Maternal hypertensive disease was systematically associated with being small for gestational age (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 0.86-1.67, fetal growth ratio < 0.89 (aOR 1.71, 1.24-2.36 and PI z score < -1 (aOR 1.60, 1.03-2.41. Adjusted odds ratios

  19. 5 CFR 735.201 - What are the restrictions on gambling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the restrictions on gambling... are the restrictions on gambling? (a) While on Government-owned or leased property or on duty for the Government, an employee shall not conduct or participate in any gambling activity, including operating a...

  20. Intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that the true prevalence of intrauterine growth restriction is 3-10% of all pregnancies, making this fetal condition one of the most frequent obstetric problems, together with premature labor and premature rupture of membranes. The article stresses the importance of early diagnosis because of the associated risks.

  1. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  2. Restricted Variance Interaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortina, Jose M.; Köhler, Tine; Keeler, Kathleen R.

    2018-01-01

    Although interaction hypotheses are increasingly common in our field, many recent articles point out that authors often have difficulty justifying them. The purpose of this article is to describe a particular type of interaction: the restricted variance (RV) interaction. The essence of the RV int...

  3. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  4. 48 CFR 27.404-2 - Limited rights data and restricted computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... restricted computer software. 27.404-2 Section 27.404-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Copyrights 27.404-2 Limited rights data and restricted computer software. (a) General. The basic clause at 52... restricted computer software by withholding the data from the Government and instead delivering form, fit...

  5. Evolutionary genomics and HIV restriction factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndiah, Nitisha; Telenti, Amalio; Rausell, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    To provide updated insights into innate antiviral immunity and highlight prototypical evolutionary features of well characterized HIV restriction factors. Recently, a new HIV restriction factor, Myxovirus resistance 2, has been discovered and the region/residue responsible for its activity identified using an evolutionary approach. Furthermore, IFI16, an innate immunity protein known to sense several viruses, has been shown to contribute to the defense to HIV-1 by causing cell death upon sensing HIV-1 DNA. Restriction factors against HIV show characteristic signatures of positive selection. Different patterns of accelerated sequence evolution can distinguish antiviral strategies--offense or defence--as well as the level of specificity of the antiviral properties. Sequence analysis of primate orthologs of restriction factors serves to localize functional domains and sites responsible for antiviral action. We use recent discoveries to illustrate how evolutionary genomic analyses help identify new antiviral genes and their mechanisms of action.

  6. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this framework and provide the balance for all governance domains. (aut.ref.)

  7. Severe Caloric Restriction in Adolescence and Incidence of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michels, Karin B; Ekbom, Anders

    2004-01-01

    ...; use of the Swedish Inpatient Registry and the Swedish Cancer Registry Subjects 7303 women who were treated for anorexia nervosa requiring hospitalization between 1965 and 1998 Main Outcome Measure...

  8. Employees, Trade Secrets and Restrictive Covenants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, Anselm; Heath, C.

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the protection of trade secrets and the law on post-contractual non-compete clauses (restrictive covenants) in an employment context. The topic is approached on an international and comparative level (chapters 1–3 and 10), and by way of country reports covering several European and

  9. Government influence on international trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections, entitled; introduction (history of uncertainty in the uranium market, opposition to nuclear power); unsatisfactory features of today's trade conditions (including discussion of restrictions in production, exports and imports); desirable principles governing international trade in uranium, apart from the non-proliferation issue (limitation on governmental intervention for economic purposes, reservation of adequate uranium resources in exporting countries, government export price control); desirable principles for achieving balance between security of supply and non-proliferation (need for consensus, reprocessing and fast breeder reactors, principles guiding government controls established for non-proliferation purposes). (U.K.)

  10. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  11. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this

  12. The Monetary Policy – Restrictive or Expansive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy plays an important role in macroeconomic policy of government. There is a question concerning type of this policy expansive or restrictive (easy or tidy monetary policy. Unfortunately, we have a lot of criteria. Each of them gives us other answer. So due to equitation of Irving Fisher we have dominantly expansive monetary policy. This same situation exists when we use nominal value of rediscount interest rate of central bank. Opposite result appears when we use real value of this interest rate or level of obligatory reserve. Taking under consideration liquidity on money market we know, that level of interest rate is too high.

  13. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    relies on sampling based approximations of the log-likelihood gradient. I will present an empirical and theoretical analysis of the bias of these approximations and show that the approximation error can lead to a distortion of the learning process. The bias decreases with increasing mixing rate......Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...... of the applied sampling procedure and I will introduce a transition operator that leads to faster mixing. Finally, a different parametrisation of RBMs will be discussed that leads to better learning results and more robustness against changes in the data representation....

  14. Optimizing Restriction Site Placement for Synthetic Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Pablo; Memelli, Heraldo; Ward, Charles; Kim, Joondong; Mitchell, Joseph S. B.; Skiena, Steven

    Restriction enzymes are the workhorses of molecular biology. We introduce a new problem that arises in the course of our project to design virus variants to serve as potential vaccines: we wish to modify virus-length genomes to introduce large numbers of unique restriction enzyme recognition sites while preserving wild-type function by substitution of synonymous codons. We show that the resulting problem is NP-Complete, give an exponential-time algorithm, and propose effective heuristics, which we show give excellent results for five sample viral genomes. Our resulting modified genomes have several times more unique restriction sites and reduce the maximum gap between adjacent sites by three to nine-fold.

  15. Federalism and multilevel governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wusten, H.; Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.; Secor, A.J.; Sharp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Federalism and multilevel governance both emphasize polycentricity in governing arrangements. With their different intellectual pedigrees, these concepts are discussed in two separate sections. Fragments are now increasingly mixed up in hybrid forms of governance that also encompass originally

  16. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  17. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  18. E-Government Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiyadi, Didi; Suryana, Nana; Cahyana, Ade; Nuryani, Nuryani

    2007-01-01

    Makalah ini mengemukakan E-Government Dimension yang merupakan salah satu hasil TahapanPengumpulan Data, dimana tahapan ini adalah bagian dari penelitian kompetitif di Lembaga Ilmu PengetahuanIndonesia 2007 yang sekarang sedang dilakukan. Data E-Government Dimension ini didapatkan dari berbagaisumber yang meliputi E-Government beberapa Negara di dunia, E-Government yang dibangun oleh beberapapenyedia aplikasi E-Government. E-Government Dimension terdiri dari tiga dimensi yaitu DemocraticDimen...

  19. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE – WAY OF GOVERNANCE FOR MODERN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Through corporate governance is aimed the building of a structure enabling a wide degree of freedom, within the law, and includes several changes of principle in accordance with international standards of transparency. A good governance within an organization mitigate risk, increase performance, pave the way towards financial markets, brings competitive goods and services on market, improves management style, show transparency towards all stakeholders and social responsibility. The lack of some mandatory rules and structures can lead to chaos in business. The paper aims to present the role and the importance of the corporate governance for modern companies, as well as the principles on which this is based. In order to do that we also identified the main ways to quantificate the level of corporate governance, including also the non-financial performance criteria used by investors to assess companies listed on stock exchange.

  20. ECO-generation for some restricted classes of compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Baril

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We study several restricted classes of compositions by giving one-to-one maps between them and different classes of restricted binary strings or pattern avoiding permutations. Inspired by the ECO method \\cite{BDPP99}, new succession rules for these classes are presented. Finally, we obtain generating algorithms in Constant Amortized Time (CAT for theses classes.

  1. 31 CFR 360.48 - Restrictions on reissue; denominational exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; denominational exchange. 360.48 Section 360.48 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... GOVERNING DEFINITIVE UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Reissue and Denominational Exchange § 360.48 Restrictions on reissue; denominational exchange. Reissue is not permitted solely to change denominations. ...

  2. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 57.800 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  3. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Marti, Amelia; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease resulting from a chronic and long-term positive energy balance in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Weight-reduction methods are mainly focused on dietary changes and increased physical activity. However, responses to nutritional intervention programs show a wide range of interindividual variation, which is importantly influenced by genetic determinants. In this sense, subjects carrying several obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) show differences in the response to calorie-restriction programs. Furthermore, there is evidence indicating that dietary components not only fuel the body but also participate in the modulation of gene expression. Thus, the expression pattern and nutritional regulation of several obesity-related genes have been studied, as well as those that are differentially expressed by caloric restriction. The responses to caloric restriction linked to the presence of SNPs in obesity-related genes are reviewed in this chapter. Also, the influence of energy restriction on gene expression pattern in different tissues is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 5 CFR 2641.203 - One-year restriction on any former employee's representations, aid, or advice concerning ongoing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One-year restriction on any former employee's representations, aid, or advice concerning ongoing trade or treaty negotiation. 2641.203 Section 2641.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS POST-EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions §...

  5. 48 CFR 227.7203-5 - Government rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-5 Government rights. The standard license rights in..., or restricted rights. The standard license in computer software documentation conveys unlimited...) Unlimited rights. The Government obtains an unlimited rights license in— (1) Computer software developed...

  6. A Government Action Approach to First Amendment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Suggests focusing on the actions of government that restrict free expression rather than focusing on the values served by freedom of expression. Bases the approach on the premise that the court's function is to determine when a particular government action violates the First Amendment, not whether the expression at issue is entitled to…

  7. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăceanu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.

  8. About 'restriction', 'justified' and 'necessary'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The article is an academic fairy tale about why and how all national corporate tax protection legislation should undergo a 3-part test to ensure its consistency with EU law. Each Member State introduce a compulsory 3-step test for each new (corporate) tax provision. The test is simple: (1) Does...... the tax provision constitute a restriction in the sense of EU law? (2) If the answer is yes: Is the restriction justified? (3) If the answer is yes: Is the restriction necessary?"...

  9. Recommendations of activity restriction in high-risk pregnancy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Jane; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Bergholt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    activity restriction more often than obstetricians in five of the nine scenarios, in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labour, cervical ripening, total placenta praevia, and intrauterine growth restriction, whereas no differences were found in the remaining scenarios. Compared...... to the obstetricians, the midwives also reported that they expected the recommendation to be more effective. Most midwives and obstetricians reported that they thought strict activity restriction was associated with severe or moderate adverse effect, and recommended antithrombotic prophylaxis. Conclusions: Danish...... obstetricians and midwives prescribe activity restriction in most high-risk pregnancies. The degree of activity restriction and the presumed effect vary between clinicians. This may reflect different attitudes and lack of guidelines based on clinical studies of a possible benefit of activity restriction....

  10. Public management and governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bovaird, A. G; Löffler, Elke

    2009-01-01

    ... how the process of governing needs to be fundamentally altered if a government is to retain public trust and make better use of society's resources. Key themes covered include: ■ ■ ■ ■ the challenges and pressures which governments experience in an international context; the changing functions of modern government in the global economy; the 'mixed ec...

  11. Data governance implementation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    This master´s thesis discusses concept of implementation for data governance. The theoretical part of this thesis is about data governance. It explains why data are important for company, describes definitoons of data governance, its history, its components, its principles and processes and fitting in company. Theoretical part is amended with examples of data governance failures and banking specifics. The main goal of this thesis is to create a concept for implementing data governance and its...

  12. Introduction 'Governance for Drought Resilience'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This book is about governance for drought resilience. But that simple sentence alone might rouse several questions. Because what do we mean with drought, and how does that relate to water scarcity? And what do we mean with resilience, and why is resilience needed for tackling drought? And how does

  13. Transitions governance: Towards a new governance paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Frantzeskaki (Niki); D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a framework for governance in the context of large scale and long term societal change (transitions). We argue that existing theories of governance offer interesting descriptive insights for such a framework, but do not present innovative prescriptive ideas

  14. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  15. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  16. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  17. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time ...

  18. Nanomedicine: Governing uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisolino, Antonella

    Nanomedicine is a promising and revolutionary field to improve medical diagnoses and therapies leading to a higher quality of life for everybody. Huge benefits are expected from nanomedicine applications such as in diagnostic and therapeutic field. However, nanomedicine poses several issues on risks to the human health. This thesis aims to defense a perspective of risk governance that sustains scientific knowledge process by developing guidelines and providing the minimum safety standards acceptable to protect the human health. Although nanomedicine is in an early stage of its discovery, some cautious measures are required to provide regulatory mechanisms able to response to the unique set of challenges associated to nanomedicine. Nanotechnology offers an unique opportunity to intensify a major interplay between different disciplines such as science and law. This multidisciplinary approach can positively contributes to find reliable regulatory choices and responsive normative tools in dealing with challenges of novel technologies.

  19. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-06-03

    Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15-49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions - a finding that is relevant to migrant populations and travel

  20. THE IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT POLICY IMPLEMENTATION ON THE LIMITATION OF IMPORT CATTLE TO COMPANY’S STRATEGY IN THE FRAMEWORK OF MAINTAINING COMPANY PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhendra A.V.H.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the company's strategy in order to maintain the company's performance as a result of import cattle quota restriction. The policy of import cattle restriction imposed by the Indonesian government certainly has a significant impact on cattle importing companies, especially PT Karunia Alam Sentosa Abadi (KASA, Lampung - Indonesia. PT Karunia Alam Sentosa Abadi (KASA enforces various-new business strategies to maintain the company performance from quota import policy. The results of the study show that there are several strategies applied by the company such as Volume to Performance Strategy, Average Daily Gain (ADG improvement, Marketing Network Evaluation, Leasing Company Facilities, and Daily Workforce Reduction.

  1. Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Klein, Samuel

    2007-03-07

    Excessive calorie intake and subsequent obesity increases the risk of developing chronic disease and decreases life expectancy. In rodent models, calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake decreases the risk of developing chronic disease and extends maximum life span. To evaluate the physiological and clinical implications of calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake. Search of PubMed (1966-December 2006) using terms encompassing various aspects of calorie restriction, dietary restriction, aging, longevity, life span, adiposity, and obesity; hand search of journals that focus on obesity, geriatrics, or aging; and search of reference lists of pertinent research and review articles and books. Reviewed reports (both basic science and clinical) included epidemiologic studies, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials, with quality of data assessed by taking into account publication in a peer-reviewed journal, number of animals or individuals studied, objectivity of measurements, and techniques used to minimize bias. It is not known whether calorie restriction extends maximum life span or life expectancy in lean humans. However, calorie restriction in adult men and women causes many of the same metabolic adaptations that occur in calorie-restricted rodents and monkeys, including decreased metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and possibly cancer. Excessive calorie restriction causes malnutrition and has adverse clinical effects. Calorie restriction in adult men and women causes beneficial metabolic, hormonal, and functional changes, but the precise amount of calorie intake or body fat mass associated with optimal health and maximum longevity in humans is not known. In addition, it is possible that even moderate calorie restriction may be harmful in specific patient populations, such as lean persons who have minimal amounts of body fat.

  2. 48 CFR 252.227-7037 - Validation of restrictive markings on technical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... However, this clause neither creates nor implies privity of contract between the Government and... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7037 Validation of restrictive markings on... following clause: Validation of Restrictive Markings on Technical Data (SEP 1999) (a) Definitions. The terms...

  3. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Brown, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on corporate social responsibility (CSR)? Government CSR policies have been explained either as a means of substituting or supporting (mirroring) domestic political-economic institutions and policies, or as a means for government...... to promote international competitiveness of domestic businesses. Both sets of explanations see governments as driving CSR policies to meet particular national government goals. Support is found for the thesis that CSR policies are often related to international competitiveness, yet our findings suggest...... that government goals in this regard are not necessarily pre-defined....

  4. The Impact of State Preemption of Local Smoking Restrictions on Public Health Protections and Changes in Social Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Mowery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Preemption is a legislative or judicial arrangement in which a higher level of government precludes lower levels of government from exercising authority over a topic. In the area of smoke-free policy, preemption typically takes the form of a state law that prevents communities from adopting local smoking restrictions. Background. A broad consensus exists among tobacco control practitioners that preemption adversely impacts tobacco control efforts. This paper examines the effect of state provisions preempting local smoking restrictions in enclosed public places and workplaces. Methods. Multiple data sources were used to assess the impact of state preemptive laws on the proportion of indoor workers covered by smoke-free workplace policies and public support for smoke-free policies. We controlled for potential confounding variables. Results. State preemptive laws were associated with fewer local ordinances restricting smoking, a reduced level of worker protection from secondhand smoke, and reduced support for smoke-free policies among current smokers. Discussion. State preemptive laws have several effects that could impede progress in secondhand smoke protections and broader tobacco control efforts. Conclusion. Practitioners and advocates working on other public health issues should familiarize themselves with the benefits of local policy making and the potential impact of preemption.

  5. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  6. Government and Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies.......There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies....

  7. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  8. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how de...

  9. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  10. Practice of good governance and corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Bălăceanu Cristina; Predonu Andreea – Monica

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization), in effect re...

  11. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge......An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...

  12. Project governance: selected South African government experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.

  13. Transformative environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  14. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND STAKEHOLDERS’ ACCOUNTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CHIȚIMUȘ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is the system through which companies are directed and controlled but until today academic environment, regulators, corporations couldn’t reach a unanimous definition. Corporate governance provisions suffered changes after several largely covered financial scandals. Entities incur costs when complying with new regulations but not complying impacts the reputation and investors might think twice before bringing their money into the company. Accountability for business decisions, risk management, control that set the economic path of the company is mandatory for proving that the company is run in a fairly and smart way. This study aims to investigate how corporate governance relates to accountability of all parties involved in the current business of companies as any conflict of interest is detrimental to the company and affects in a negative way its performance.

  15. THE ROLE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND DEVELOPMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Emerging trends point to good governance as a panacea towards .... to Third World countries by the western countries after the cold war era between USA and USSR. ... active participation of the citizens with the government in policy making, .... Academic experts in public administration and several American public ...

  16. Sizing of high-pressure restriction orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    Constant up-grading of power plants sometimes requires the modification of components which form part of suppliers' packages. In order to protect technology they have developed, however, the suppliers do not supply their calculation criteria. In order to reduce the costs of such improvements, and so as to be able to undertake the modification without having to rely on the original supplier, this paper describes the basic criteria applicable to the study of high-pressure restriction orifices, which can be considered to be representative of the components in question. The restriction orifices discussed are: - Insert - Multiplates in series with one perforation in each plate - Multiplates in series with several perforations in each plate For each type, an explanation of their sizing is given, together with the equations relating the corresponding flow and pressure drop. (Author)

  17. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilswijk, Marianne; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma. We report on pregnancy outcomes in a woman with symptomatic familial...... hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, type 3. During the patient's first pregnancy with a viable fetus octreotide treatment was instituted in gestational age 23 weeks to prevent severe hypoglycemic incidences. Fetal growth velocity declined, and at 37 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth retardation was evident...... growth velocity was normal. We conclude that octreotide treatment during pregnancy may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction and warrants careful consideration. In some cases of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels can be successfully managed through diet only, also during...

  18. New directions in New Zealand local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McKinlay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a ‘work in progress’ report on some initiatives emerging from local government practice in New Zealand which should help us consider how we think about the role of local government in a world which is undergoing dramatic change. The starting point is work which the writer undertook with the support of Local Government New Zealand (the national association and a number of New Zealand councils considering the ‘proper role’ of local government. The context is an ongoing public debate driven substantially by the New Zealand business community from a perspective that this ‘proper role’ should be restricted to the delivery of local public goods, narrowly defined. This has included argument that local governments themselves should be structured substantially to promote the efficient delivery of services generally within the now well understood prescriptions of the ‘new public management’. One implication which the business sector in particular drew in looking at the workings of local government was that there should be economies of scale through further amalgamation of councils (the local government sector having been through a major amalgamation process in 1989 which eliminated a large number of special purpose authorities and reduced the number of territorial local authorities from more than 200 to 73. Debate continues, with the latest manifestation being the National Party led government's proposals for the restructuring of local government within the Auckland region, New Zealand's major metropolitan area. The initiatives discussed in this paper are partly a response, but more significantly a result of selected local authorities reflecting on the nature of their role, and the opportunities for being proactive in using their statutory privileges in ways that could produce benefits for their communities without any associated increase in the cost of local government itself.

  19. Transforming Government Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    The Danish government has defined an ambitious e-government strategy aiming to increase both citizen centricity and the efficiency of government service production and delivery. This research uses dynamic capability theory to compare a highly successful and a less successful e-government program...... both aiming at realizing this strategy by reengineering back office processes and implement one-stop shopping. The research contributes to the e-government literature by identifying key differences between the two cases in terms of dynamic capabilities, by identifying the importance...

  20. 5 CFR 2641.201 - Permanent restriction on any former employee's representations to United States concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... electronic media, or by any other means. This includes only those communications with respect to which the... personally and substantially. 2641.201 Section 2641.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS POST-EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions § 2641.201 Permanent...

  1. Governance and organizational theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Quintero Castellanos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to propose a way to link the theoretical body that has been weaved around governance and organizational theory. For this, a critical exposition is done about what is the theoretical core of governance, the opportunity areas are identified for the link of this theory with organizational theory. The essay concludes with a proposal for the organizational analysis of administrations in governance. The essay addresses with five sections. The first one is the introduction. In the second one, I present a synthesis of the governance in its current use. In the next one are presented the work lines of the good governance. In the fourth part, I show the organizational and managerial limits in the governance theory. The last part develops the harmonization proposal for the governance and organizational theories.

  2. Can we restrict the health care menu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R

    1994-02-01

    The case of Britain's National Health Service is used to illuminate the cross-national debate about whether the availability of health care should be restricted and, if so, how this should be done. Traditionally, the NHS relied on implicit rationing by clinicians within budgetary constraints set by government. However, the logic of the 1989 reforms appeared to require explicit decisions about the packages of health care to be provided to local populations. In practice, purchasers have refused to define such packages. Explicit rationing remains very much the exception. Exploring the reasons for this suggests that defining a restricted menu of health care, by adopting a cost-utility approach and excluding specific procedures or forms of treatment on the Oregon model, is only one of many policy options. There is a large repertory of policy tools for balancing demands and resources, ranging from diluting the intensity of treatment to its earlier termination. Given that health care is characterised by uncertainty, lack of information about outcomes and patient heterogeneity, it may therefore be more 'rational' to diffuse decision-making among clinicians and managers than to try to move towards a centrally determined menu of entitlements.

  3. Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Democratic Governance through ICTs : Post Election ... has had several consequences, culminating in the disputed general elections of December 2007. ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  4. Governance or Governing – the Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Maria Crăciun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Governance and governing are two distinct concepts, but they intertwine. “Good governing” exercises good influence on development. “Good governance” supposes first a relationship of power focused on a series of reforms structured at three levels: the political – administrative level, the economic level, and the level of civil society. As this dimension is difficult to measure, the qualitative evaluation of the governing act raised the interest of the World Bank researchers, who elaborated and monitored the dynamics of a set of indicators, which includes six major dimensions of the governing. A retrospective concerning the image of governing in Romania during the period from 1996 to 2005 suggests a modest increase of the score: from -0.138 (1996 to 0.008 (2002; that was partially achieved based on the voice and responsibility index and on the political stability index, not on those that measure more directly the administrative performance or the integrity of the governing act. For a comparative study, we chose seven countries for the purposes of analysis (two new European Union member states: Romania and Bulgaria; two older member countries of the European Union: Slovenia and Latvia; three non-member states: Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia, which reveal the quality of the governing from a comparative perspective. Corruption control completes the image created by the analyzed indicators. The mere formal accomplishment of commitments made in the pre-accession activity, doubled by recent internal evolutions, bring doubts about the credibility of the anticorruption reforms, as Romania continues to be considered the country with the highest CPI in the European Union. The pessimism of public opinion and the fact that only 34% of the Romanian people consider that the level of corruption will decrease in the following three years constitutes an alarm signal addressed to the governance, in view of the real reformation of the administration system

  5. Government spending: an economic boost?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    The severe global economic downturn and the large stimulus programs that governments in many countries adopted in response have generated a resurgence in research on the effects of fiscal policy. One key lesson emerging from this research is that there is no single fiscal multiplier that sums up the economic impact of fiscal policy. Rather, the impact varies widely depending on the specific fiscal policies put into effect and the overall economic environment.

  6. Data governance for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronis, Katerina; Moysey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Data governance is characterised from broader definitions of governance. These characteristics are then mapped to a framework that provides a practical representation of the concepts. This representation is further developed with operating models and roles. Several information related scenarios covering both clinical and non-clinical domains are considered in information terms and then related back to the data governance framework. This assists the reader in understanding how data governance would help address the issues or achieve a better outcome. These elements together enable the reader to gain an understanding of the data governance framework and how it applies in practice. Finally, some practical advice is offered for establishing and operating data governance as well as approaches for justifying the investment.

  7. Entry Restrictions, Corruption and Extortion in the Context of Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Cabelkova

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that even temporary barriers to entry present at the very beginning of transition may lead to permanent extortion development. Entry restrictions, if binding, lead to excess profits, which create an incentive to extort. The emergence of extortionists reduces the expected profit from production, making producers expect extortion in the future. If, after this adaptation of expectations, the government removes the barriers to entry, only a few new firms will enter the market. H...

  8. Essays on Currency Competition, Institutional Restrictions and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Arghya

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on currency competition, institutional restrictions and exchange rates. When faced with currency competition, a country's government has two tools at its disposal: reduce the level of inflation or place institutional barriers to the use of foreign currency. In the first chapter, I propose a two-country, two-currency New Monetarist model to study currency competition. I model institutional barriers as a `tax' on the real value of foreign currency hol...

  9. A Stakeholder Approach to Media Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink

    2016-01-01

    Historically, government regulation has significantly impacted the room for manoeuvre enjoyed by media managers, especially in public service media but increasingly also in privately owned firms. Currently stakeholders of many different kinds attempt to influence media industries, using a number...... of the world arguably features the most complex and continuous development in these aspects. Our particular interest investigates media governance, which is not understood as an external given but considered as a premise of strategic management. It is argued that to secure an appropriate remit for an industry...... or firm to that guarantees a longer-term licence to operate, media managers must engage different audiences and authorities in relation to restrictive as well as prescriptive regulation. Achieving that requires approaching media governance from a stakeholder perspective, which inherently involves a broad...

  10. Innovation in City Governments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans

    Innovation has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, with greater pressure on governments to do more with less, and expanding community expectations. Some are now calling this ‘social innovation’ – innovation that is related to creating new services...... that have value for stakeholders (such as citizens) in terms of the social and political outcomes they produce. Innovation in City Governments: Structures, Networks, and Leadership establishes an analytical framework of innovation capacity based on three dimensions: Structure - national governance...... project in Copenhagen, Barcelona and Rotterdam. The book provides major new insights on how structures, networks and leadership in city governments shape the social innovation capacity of cities. It provides ground-breaking analyses of how governance structures and local socio-economic challenges...

  11. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    of democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes...

  12. Governance, Trust, and Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Schrøter Joensen, Juanna; Weihe, Guðrið

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries le...

  13. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  14. Energy Efficiency Governance: Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This handbook has been written to assist EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish effective EE governance structures for their country. The handbook provides readers with relevant information in an accessible format that will help develop comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. For each of the specific topics dealt with (see Figure 1 in the Handbook), the IEA offers guidelines for addressing issues, or directs readers to examples of how such issues have been dealt with by specific countries.

  15. Codes of Good Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene

    2013-01-01

    Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....

  16. Gobernanza Versus Gobierno Governance Versus Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany-Robert Dufour

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El desplazamiento del término moderno de gobierno por el postmoderno de gobernanza, pone de manifiesto un nuevo lenguaje postmoderno en el que se deja entrever que ambas nociones, gobierno y gobernanza, tienden a oponerse. La gobernanza corporativa designa la toma del poder del capitalismo financiero sobre el capitalismo industrial, que no es otra cosa que, por un lado, propender por la rentabilidad máxima para los accionistas, valorizar todo en el mercado sin consideraciones morales, obligar a los actores a la búsqueda de riesgo permanente y flexibilizar las relaciones jerárquicas en la Administración de la empresa; y por el otro, la marginación de la clase obrera. La gobernanza ha llegado a los asuntos políticos convirtiéndose en modelo de gestión pública por excelencia, ella trata que el gobierno reducido a su mínima expresión guie a una sociedad civil que adquiere un papel importante en la creación y seguimiento de las diferentes políticas, es decir, que el gobierno adquiere una forma flexible de regulación, es allá donde la gobernanza política nos conduce, a la supuesta autorregulación de los intereses privados que sumados pasan a configurar el interés general. En realidad se trata de una nueva forma de dominación marcada por un desvanecimiento político, donde la sociedad civil juega en contra del Estado. La gobernanza le está tendiendo una temible trampa a la democracia, en tanto se presenta como una ampliación de la democracia materializada en una mejor participación de la sociedad civil, destruyendo la persona pública que se forma por la unión de todos los otros y convirtiéndola en representante de intereses particulares.The displacement of the modern term of government for the postmodern one of governance, reveals a new postmodern language in which one is left to guess that both notions, government and governance, tend to be opposed. Corporate governance signifies the seizure of power of financial capitalism

  17. Institutional analysis of health system governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimbola, Seye; Negin, Joel; Martiniuk, Alexandra L; Jan, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    It is important that researchers who study health system governance have a set of collective understandings of the meanings of governance, which can then inform the methods used in research. We present an institutional framing and definition of health system governance; that is, governance refers to making, changing, monitoring and enforcing the rules that govern the demand and supply of health services. This pervasive, relational view of governance is to be preferred to approaches that focus primarily on structures of governments and health care organizations, because health system governance involves communities and service users, and because governments in many low- and middle-income countries tend to under-govern. Therefore, the study of health system governance requires institutional analysis; an approach that focuses not only on structures, but also on the rules (both formal and informal) governing demand and supply relations. Using this 'structure-relations' lens, and based on our field experience, we discuss how this focus could be applied to the three approaches to framing and studying health system governance that we identified in the literature. In order of decreasing focus on structures ('hardware') and increasing focus on relations ('software'), they are: (1) the government-centred approach, which focuses on the role of governments, above or to the exclusion of non-government health system actors; (2) the building-block approach, which focuses on the internal workings of health care organizations, and treats governance as one of the several building blocks of organizations; and (3) the institutional approach, which focuses on how the rules governing social and economic interactions are made, changed, monitored and enforced. Notably, either or both qualitative and quantitative methods may be used by researchers in efforts to incorporate the analysis of how rules determine relations among health system actors into these three approaches to health system

  18. E-Government Partnerships Across Levels of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Charbit, Claire; Michalun, Varinia

    2009-01-01

    E-government Partnerships across Levels of Government, is an overview of the challenges and approaches to creating a collaborative and cooperative partnership across levels of government for e-government development and implementation.

  19. Governance, Trust and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter

    This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...

  20. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al. , 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al. , 1990; Ouellette et al. , 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  1. 5 CFR 2641.206 - One-year restriction on any former senior or very senior employee's representations on behalf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One-year restriction on any former senior or very senior employee's representations on behalf of, or aid or advice to, a foreign entity. 2641.206 Section 2641.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS POST-EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST RESTRICTIONS...

  2. Paradoxes around good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2013-01-01

    textabstract Good governance is not a new concept Ambrogio Lorenzetti made his frescoes on good and bad governance already in the years 1338-1340 They can be viewed in the Palazzo Publicco on one of the most beautiful squares of the world, the Piazza del Campo in Siena, Italy I assume many of you

  3. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  4. Partnerships and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark.......Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark....

  5. Educational Governance in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  6. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  7. Benefit from the Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Profijt van de overheid. Income levels are determined to a considerable extent by the government, which exerts an influence through social security and taxation. The traditional purchasing power tables are a reflection of this. However, the influence of the government goes

  8. Global Governance, Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen

    2007-01-01

    In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…

  9. Learning Democratic Global Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a model process of developing knowledge from within different groups and cultures to allow more equitable participation of all world societies in the definition of global governance. Reviews concepts relevant to education's contributions toward learning and creating democratic global governance. Discusses the educational utility of…

  10. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  11. Tax administration good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Végh, Gyöngyi; Gribnau, Hans

    2018-01-01

    There is no doubt that tax administration is a complex matter. It is institutionalised by a governance framework which is strongly influenced by legal traditions, state governance approaches, historical developments, and norms and values of society. While there are many common aspects of national

  12. Australian Government Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...

  13. DOD Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    increase transparency and openness. We encourage you to explore other information on our website to learn Defense Search DOD Open Government: Home Open Government @ DoD Transparency Congressional Inquiries IT Dashboard.gov Regulations.gov Challenge.gov Performance.gov ForeignAssistance.gov Transparency

  14. Negotiating Collaborative Governance Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation.......This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation....

  15. Using IT Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip

    2005-01-01

    The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…

  16. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...

  17. Student Participation in Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    The success of student government activities on any campus is significantly affected by the amount of student participation permitted in the institution's decision-making processes. The traditional" model of government--characterized by tokenism--often results in the separate jurisdictions" model-- characterized by fragmentation and interest…

  18. The governance of adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Dave; Adger, William Neil; Berkhout, Frans; Massey, Eric; Mazmanian, Daniel; Munaretto, Stefania; Plummer, Ryan; Termeer, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The governance of climate adaptation involves the collective efforts of multiple societal actors to address problems, or to reap the benefits, associated with impacts of climate change. Governing involves the creation of institutions, rules and organizations, and the selection of normative

  19. Making Government Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Millo, Yuval; Tuck, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    The financialised character of contemporary rationalities of public governance has been the subject of increased attention within a range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary fields. With this paper we propose a particular analytical framework, focused on the notion of 'governance devices', for ...

  20. Digital Government and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Fountain, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agencys readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, manage...

  1. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  2. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  3. 'Governance' sebagai Pengelolaan Konflik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Noer Arfani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the notion of understanding governance as part of conflict management, or vice versa, of undustanding conflict management aspects as benefiting from governance concepts and practices. Governance, with its much broader meaning than government, suggests diverse relevant and significant clues, hints and ideas in the context of conflict management endeavors. one of which is the idea to involve larger audiences and stakeholders –beyond the conventional institutions such as governmental bodies– in policy making processes and public discourses. Such comprehension and appreciation of governance concepts and practices is certainly parallel with the conflict management philosophies, concepis and practices which based on and oriented toward integrative, non-formal and non-litigative mechanisms.

  4. A new corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of corporate governance has become increasingly important as globalisation has begun to accelerate and the economic and financial turmoil have intensified. Post-crisis context has imposed the need to expand the prospects for analysis over governance and companies, as well as the need to identify new ways of administration and resource management. From this perspective, the author aims to highlight the conditions, factors and events that have generated profound changes within the business environment, while the analysis is focusing on contemporary changes in the systems of corporate governance and economic mutations, especially in terms of the companies. The establishment of new governance rules is demanding a theoretical approach based on new methodological requirements which are needed to reform theoretical foundations and to promote creative and effective shapes and governance systems.

  5. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured ...

  6. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...

  7. Impact of a Restriction in Reimbursement on Proton Pump Inhibitors in Patients with an Increased Risk of Gastric Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Flinterman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Governments have several options to reduce the increasing costs of health care, including restrictions for the reimbursement of medicines. Next to the intended effect of reduced costs for medicines, reimbursement restriction can have unintended effects such as patients refraining from their treatment which may lead to health problems and increased use of health care. An example of a reimbursement restriction is the one for proton pump inhibitors (PPIs that became effective in the Netherlands in January 2012. A major unintended effect of this measure could be that high-risk patients who start with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs or low-dose aspirin (aspirin and who have an increased risk of gastric complications for which they are prescribed PPIs refrain from this PPI treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reimbursement restriction among high-risk users of NSAIDs or aspirin. Do these patients refrain from their PPI treatment and if so do they have an increased risk of gastric complications? Part of the patients starting with NSAIDs or aspirin have an increased risk of gastric complications due to their age, comorbidities, or co-medication. The incidence of PPI use during the 2 years before the reimbursement restriction (2010 and 2011 and 2 years after the introduction of the reimbursement restriction was compared for patients on NSAIDs or aspirin with an increased risk of developing gastric complications. Impact of age, sex, and social economic status (SES was taken into account. Hospital admissions due to gastric complications were studied over the same period (2010–2013. Data were obtained from a large population-based primary care database and a hospital database. The use of PPIs in patients with an increased risk of gastric complications who started NSAID/aspirin increased from 40% in 2010 to 55% in 2013. No impact was found of age, sex, or SES. There was no increase in hospital admissions due

  8. Natalidad, soberanía y desarrollo: las medidas restrictivas a la planificación familiar en el tercer gobierno peronista (Argentina, 1973-1976 Birthrate, sovereignty and development: the restrictive regulations to family planning in the third peronist government (Argentina, 1973-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Alejandra Felitti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El acelerado crecimiento de la población mundial durante la segunda posguerra expandió el temor de un inminente agotamiento de los recursos naturales y la desestabilización del sistema capitalista. Mientras la "explosión demográfica" se convertía en una seria amenaza en tiempos de Guerra Fría, en Argentina se presentaba el problema inverso, una tasa de natalidad en permanente descenso. El tercer gobierno peronista (1973-1976 incluyó este tema entre sus prioridades y la originalidad de su plan de acción fue la implementación, por primera vez en el país, de medidas coercitivas sobre el libre acceso a la anticoncepción. En este artículo nos proponemos analizar estas políticas, las contradicciones al interior del gobierno respecto a las medidas a seguir, sus repercusiones y las resistencias que generaron.The intensive growth of the world population during the second postwar period expanded the fear of an imminent depletion of natural resources and the destabilization of the capitalist system. Meanwhile the "population bomb" became a threat in the Cold War context, in Argentina the situation was the opposite, with a persistent birth rate decline. The third Peronist government (1973-1976 included the problem of the demographic fall among its priorities and the originality of its plan of action was that, for the first time in this country, coercive regulations prevented the free access to contraception. In this article we propose to analyze these policies, the contradictions inside the government regarding the best way to proceed, its repercussions and the resistance they produced.

  9. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Karkošková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is unclear how to achieve them. Cloud computing governance helps to create business value through obtain benefits from use of cloud computing services while optimizing investment and risk. Challenge, which organizations are facing in relation to governing of cloud services, is how to design and implement cloud computing governance to gain expected benefits. This paper aims to provide guidance on implementation activities of proposed Cloud computing governance lifecycle from cloud consumer perspective. Proposed model is based on SOA Governance Framework and consists of lifecycle for implementation and continuous improvement of cloud computing governance model.

  10. Ambidextrous IT Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Svejvig, Per; Tordrup Heeager, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Through a case study at a global technology company, we investigate how organizations can adapt their IT governance approach to the information system at hand. This is done by considering the degree of information system integration and whether the system is related to supporting operational...... efficiency (exploitation) or innovation (exploration). Based on the findings of the case study, we introduce the concept of ambidextrous IT governance to describe how IT governance can be adapted to fit the dual needs of both exploration and exploitation through the use of IS....

  11. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes...

  12. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration.A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product.International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while

  13. Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M.; Graaf, de C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Rossum, van C.T.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between

  14. Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, M; Graaf, C de; Groot, C P G M de; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Kok, F J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between

  15. Diversification and Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); A.A.C.J. van Oijen

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses the impact of governance structure on diversification behavior. Hypotheses are developed regarding the differences in diversification strategy of cooperatives and stock listed companies. The analysis shows that stock listed companies are more diversified than

  16. Governance of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galløe, Lotte Rannveig

    a different future for both parents and children. Thus, the approach to PMTO as a technology of the future indicates its expected prevalence in the future and its attempt to reach in to the future becoming of the child. The technology’s involvement of the relatives and its orientation towards shaping......In my presentation I will explore the concept, ‘technology of the future’, in public governance. Public governance within social services aims at changing the existing conditions for the marginalized citizens including children with special needs. I pose the question: what happens if public...... governance seek to chance the possible future conditions and targets the marginalized child’s relatives? Parent Management Training (PMTO) is studied as a technology of the future that expands and transforms governance. PMTO targets parents with aggressive and asocial children and aims to “create the parent...

  17. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  18. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  19. Lean Government Methods Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  20. Enacting Governance through Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandtner, Christof; Höllerer, Markus A.; Meyer, Renate E.

    2017-01-01

    of strategy documents in city administration addresses these challenges. Our central claim is that strategy documents can be understood as a distinct discursive device through which local governments enact aspired governance configurations. We illustrate our argument empirically using two prominent examples...... that, while showing similar features and characteristics, are anchored in different administrative traditions and institutional frameworks: the city administrations of Sydney, Australia, and Vienna, Austria. The contribution of the paper is to show how strategy documents enact governance configurations...... along four core dimensions: the setting in space and time, the definition of the public, the framing of the res publica and legitimacy issues. Moreover, our comparative analysis of Sydney and Vienna gives evidence of differences in governance configurations enacted through strategy documents....

  1. The government of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2015-01-01

    . Subsequent research on biopolitics and governmentality has tended to separate the concepts, differentiating into distinct research traditions each with different intellectual pathways. We propose to bring these conceptual innovations together to understand contemporary problems of the government of life...... of death power, the interplay of sovereignty, discipline and security, governmentalization through medical normalization, and ‘securitization’ of life as circulations and open series. The article also introduces this special feature on the government of life in which significant scholars explores issues...

  2. Remittances Deteriorate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Z. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    I use a natural experiment of oil-price-driven remittance flows to poor, non-oil-producing Muslim countries to demonstrate that remittances deteriorate the quality of governance, especially in countries with weak democratic institutions. The results indicate that a 1 standard deviation increase in remittances raises corruption by 1.5 index points (on a 6-point scale), which is equivalent to a [dollar]600 decrease in per capita GDP. Concomitantly, remittances may enable governments to reduce t...

  3. Improving Corporate Governance Practices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Huse; J. Gabrielsson; A. Minichilli

    2009-01-01

    Peak performing organizations may benefit from active value creating boards. Suggestions to improve board behaviour and corporate governance practices are presented in this article. The suggestions result from findings in the “Valued Creating Board” research programme. However, active boards working in a shareholder activism framework may destroy rather than support value creation processes within firms. In peak performing organizations corporate governance practices should be designed and de...

  4. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  5. Governance and health in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Rajaie; Khatib, Lina; Cammett, Melani; Sweet, Jeffrey; Basu, Sanjay; Jamal, Amaney; Wise, Paul; Giacaman, Rita

    2014-01-25

    Since late 2010, the Arab world has entered a tumultuous period of change, with populations demanding more inclusive and accountable government. The region is characterised by weak political institutions, which exclude large proportions of their populations from political representation and government services. Building on work in political science and economics, we assess the extent to which the quality of governance, or the extent of electoral democracy, relates to adult, infant, and maternal mortality, and to the perceived accessibility and improvement of health services. We compiled a dataset from the World Bank, WHO, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Arab Barometer Survey, and other sources to measure changes in demographics, health status, and governance in the Arab World from 1980 to 2010. We suggest an association between more effective government and average reductions in mortality in this period; however, there does not seem to be any relation between the extent of democracy and mortality reductions. The movements for changing governance in the region threaten access to services in the short term, forcing migration and increasing the vulnerability of some populations. In view of the patterns observed in the available data, and the published literature, we suggest that efforts to improve government effectiveness and to reduce corruption are more plausibly linked to population health improvements than are efforts to democratise. However, these patterns are based on restricted mortality data, leaving out subjective health metrics, quality of life, and disease-specific data. To better guide efforts to transform political and economic institutions, more data are needed for health-care access, health-care quality, health status, and access to services of marginalised groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Global health governance as shared health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-07-01

    With the exception of key 'proven successes' in global health, the current regime of global health governance can be understood as transnational and national actors pursuing their own interests under a rational actor model of international cooperation, which fails to provide sufficient justification for an obligation to assist in meeting the health needs of others. An ethical commitment to providing all with the ability to be healthy is required. This article develops select components of an alternative model of shared health governance (SHG), which aims to provide a 'road map,' 'focal points' and 'the glue' among various global health actors to better effectuate cooperation on universal ethical principles for an alternative global health equilibrium. Key features of SHG include public moral norms as shared authoritative standards; ethical commitments, shared goals and role allocation; shared sovereignty and constitutional commitments; legitimacy and accountability; country-level attention to international health relations. A framework of social agreement based on 'overlapping consensus' is contrasted against one based on self-interested political bargaining. A global health constitution delineating duties and obligations of global health actors and a global institute of health and medicine for holding actors responsible are proposed. Indicators for empirical assessment of select SHG principles are described. Global health actors, including states, must work together to correct and avert global health injustices through a framework of SHG based on shared ethical commitments.

  7. Impacts, risks, and governance of climate engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate engineering is a potential alternative method to curb global warming, and this discipline has garnered considerable attention from the international scientific community including the Chinese scientists. This manuscript provides an overview of several aspects of climate engineering, including its definition, its potential impacts and risk, and its governance status. The overall conclusion is that China is not yet ready to implement climate engineering. However, it is important for China to continue conducting research on climate engineering, particularly with respect to its feasible application within China, its potential social, economic, and environmental impacts, and possible international governance structures and governing principles, with regard to both experimentation and implementation.

  8. National governance of archetypes in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljosland Bakke, Silje

    2015-01-01

    Norwegian National ICT has implemented a national governance scheme for archetypes. The scheme uses openEHR, and is possibly the first of its kind worldwide. It introduces several new processes and methods for crowd sourcing clinician input. It has spent much of its first year establishing practical processes and recruiting clinicians, and only a few archetypes has been reviewed and approved. Some non-reusable archetypes have emerged while the governance scheme has established itself, which demonstrates the need for a centralised governance. As the mass of clinician involvement reached a critical point at the end of 2014, the rate of archetype review and approval increased.

  9. THE EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF IT GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pérez Lorences

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to propose a general procedure to evaluate and improve the Information Technology (IT Governance in an organization, considering the Business–IT alignment and risk management. The procedure integrates management tools such as business processes management, risk management, strategic alignment and the balanced scorecard. Additionally, to assess the IT Governance level we proposed an indicator based on the process maturity. The concepts and ideas presented here had been applied in four case studies, verifying their implementation feasibility. The results indicate a low level of IT governance and the existence of several problems primarily in the Plan and Organize and Monitor and Evaluate domains.

  10. Governance of Clubs and Firms with Cultural Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, J.R.; Ruys, P.H.M.; Semenov, R.

    1999-01-01

    The neoclassical way to cope with firms providing services, or with clubs procuring services, is restricted by the lack of institutional features. An institutional approach is introduced that requires a cooperative governance to realize the potential value-production by firms, or to realize the

  11. [Restricted motion after total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T; Urban, K; Karpas, K; Sponer, P

    2007-10-01

    patients. In these, the average value of knee flexion increased by 17 degrees only and, in the patients suffering from excessive adhesion production, this value remained almost unchanged. Revision TKA was carried out in four patients, in whom knee joint flexion increased on average by 35 degrees to achieve an average flexion of 83 degrees. Restricted motion after TKA has been reported to range from 1.3 % to 12.0 %, but consistent criteria have not been set up. In our study it was 4.14 %. In agreement with the literature data, one of the reasons was pre-operative restricted motion, which was recorded in 16 of 32 patients. Similarly, also in our patients, biological predisposition to excessive production of fibrocartilage associated with adhesions in all knee joint compartments was the major therapeutic problem. Intra-operative fractures, ligament tears requiring post-operative fixation and unremoved dorsal osteophytes lead to the restriction of knee joint motion. By inadequate resection of articular surface, the original joint line may be at a higher level; this results in an increased tension of the posterior cruciate ligament and patella infera development, both influencing knee flexion. In our study, three patients were affected. Knee joint stiffness can also develop in patients declining physical therapy or in whom this is not correctly performed, often for insufficient analgesia. In contrast to the data reported in the literature, 17 of 32 patients in this study had no need for surgical treatment of restricted knee joint motion. Redress under general anesthesia was not effective. For markedly restricted motion of the knee joint, reimplantation can be recommended or, in less severe cases, an intervention on adjacent soft tissues. Restricted motion of the knee joint after TKA is difficult to treat and, therefore, prevention is recommended. This should include thorough conservative treatment of gonarthrosis, early indication for surgery, prevention of elevation in the

  12. INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNANCE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri L.F. de GROOT

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ineffective institutions and bad governance increase transaction costs and reduce international transport flows. In this paper, we empirically investigate this basic notion, and we show that it can account for several, so far, somewhat puzzling results in the empirical literature estimating gravity equations of bilateral trade. More specifically, we show that differences in the quality and effectiveness of institutions offer an explanation for the tendency of OECD countries to trade disproportionately with each other, and with non-OECD countries, as well as for the positive effect of GDP per capita on bilateral trade.

  13. Monitoring personal budgets and restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ab van der Torre; Ingrid Ooms; Mirjam de Klerk

    2013-01-01

    The personal budget is a sum of money which recipients can use to arrange and pay for their own care provider. Since its introduction, demand for this provision, which is funded through the Exceptional Medical Expenses Act (AWBZ) has grown rapidly, prompting the Dutch government to take a number

  14. E-Government for Good Governance in Developing Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    E-Government and E-Governance Benefits ..... Morocco's central government promotes the use of ICT in the public sector in order to enhance ...... The project's mission is to develop low-cost laptops with educational value for African children.

  15. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. It is an update of the 2005 Corporate Governance ROSC. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, helps to protects mino...

  16. TRENDS IN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Maria Tinjala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The debate concerning sustainability has been present in economic literature for the last decades. However, the concept remains ambiguous for both specialists and the general public. For the last years, corporate sustainability reporting has evolved, but it has yet to use a homogenous approach, therefore making it difficult for stakeholders to use the information being reported. This study focuses on the evolution of corporate sustainability reporting on governance issues, with particular interest on two non-financial indicators: board independence and the separation of board chairman and chief executive officer. Through content analysis from both annual reports and company websites, courtesy of the firm Sustainalytics, we assessed the evolution of the above - mentioned indicators for 2894 companies based in developed and emerging Markets, as per the MSCI market classification. For the selected time period, 2011-2014, the general number of companies that publish sustainability related information has increased, attracting a similar evolution in the reporting of the two analysed indicators. This research also highlights the several countries that have demonstrated a particular concern for governance issues, as well as the laggards. We conclude by proposing a number of important attributes for possible future governance reporting standards based on best reporting companies.

  17. The influence of corporate governance on project governance

    OpenAIRE

    Gonda, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This work identifies the interaction between corporate governance and project management in project governance. It begins with introduction of basics of corporate governance and various principles of corporate governance in chosen countries and organizations. Further it introduces theoretical background of project governance and its connection and to corporate governance. In practical part work analyzes the level of compliancy with Swiss codex of best praxis in chosen company. The results con...

  18. Dangerous Liaisons? Governments, companies and Internet governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Private actors in the information technology sector are currently playing an increasingly important role in content mediation, as well as in regulation of online forms of expression, with implications for both internet rights and economic freedom. The “privatisation of internet governance” (DeNardis, 2010, is not a new dynamic; however, in a scenario in which users are taking advantage of increasingly sophisticated technology, the centralisation and concentration characterising today’s most widespread internet services are contributing to the accentuation of this tendency. The 'inherently political' qualities of search engine algorithm development, video content removals, blocking of domain names – actions that originate and rest with the private sector’s handling of the internet’s infrastructure – should not be neglected in our assessment of the field of internet governance today.

  19. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Hungry for an Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined in several ways, but in general describes a condition in which the fetus exhibits poor growth in utero. This complication of pregnancy poses a significant public health burden as well as increased morbidity and mortality for the offspring. In human IUGR, alteration in fetal glucose and insulin homeostasis occurs in an effort to conserve energy and survive at the expense of fetal growth in an environment of inadequate nutrient provision. Several animal models of IUGR have been utilized to study the effects of IUGR on fetal glucose handling, as well as the postnatal reprogramming of energy metabolite handling, which may be unmasked in adulthood as a maladaptive propensity for cardiometabolic disease. This developmental programming may be mediated in part by epigenetic modification of essential regulators of glucose homeostasis. Several pharmacological therapies and nonpharmacological lifestyle modifications have shown early promise in mitigating the risk for or severity of adult metabolic phenotypes but still require further study of unanticipated and/or untoward side effects. PMID:26889018

  20. Screening, diagnosis, and management of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausman, Andrea; McCarthy, Fergus P; Walker, Melissa; Kingdom, John

    2012-01-01

    To provide comprehensive background knowledge relevant to the SOGC Maternal-Fetal Medicine Committee-approved guideline entitled "Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Screening, Diagnosis, and Management." Publications in English were retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in January 2011 using appropriate controlled vocabulary via MeSH terms (fetal growth restriction and small for gestational age) and any key words (fetal growth, restriction, growth retardation, intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], low birth weight, small for gestational age). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials, and high-quality prospective and retrospective observational studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Evidence obtained from at least one properly randomized controlled trial, Cochrane Reviews, and high quality cohort data have been combined to provide clinicians with evidence to optimize their practice for screening, diagnosis, and management of intrauterine growth restriction. Considerable advances have been made to improve clinicians' ability to screen, diagnose, and manage pregnancies with suspected IUGR more effectively, including several properly randomized controlled trials. Pregnancies with late-onset IUGR may be managed equally effectively by early delivery or delayed delivery (with increased surveillance) anticipating favourable outcomes. By contrast, many aspects of the management of early-onset IUGR require further clinical trials.

  1. Romanian government bond market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia POP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian government bond market segment, as part of the country financial market. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romania are short, based on the secondary data offered by the official bodies involved in the process of issuing and trading the Romanian government bonds (Romanian Ministry of Public Finance, Romanian National Bank and Bucharest Stock Exchange, and also on secondary data provided by the Federation of European Stock Exchanges.To enhance the market credibility as a benchmark, a various combination of measures is necessary; among these measures are mentioned: the extension of the yield curve; the issuance calendars in order to improve transparency; increasing the disclosure of information on public debt issuance and statistics; holding regular meetings with dealers, institutional investors and rating agencies; introducing a system of primary dealers; establishing a repurchase (repo market in the government bond market. These measures will be discussed based on the evolution presented inside the paper.The paper conclude with the fact that, until now, the Romanian government bond market did not provide a benchmark for the domestic financial market and that further efforts are needed in order to increase the government bond market transparency and liquidity.

  2. Climate change governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knieling, Joerg [HafenCity Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Urban Planning and Regional Development; Leal Filho, Walter (eds.) [HAW Hamburg (Germany). Research and Transfer Centre Applications of Life Science

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is a cause for concern both globally and locally. In order for it to be tackled holistically, its governance is an important topic needing scientific and practical consideration. Climate change governance is an emerging area, and one which is closely related to state and public administrative systems and the behaviour of private actors, including the business sector, as well as the civil society and non-governmental organisations. Questions of climate change governance deal both with mitigation and adaptation whilst at the same time trying to devise effective ways of managing the consequences of these measures across the different sectors. Many books have been produced on general matters related to climate change, such as climate modelling, temperature variations, sea level rise, but, to date, very few publications have addressed the political, economic and social elements of climate change and their links with governance. This book will address this gap. Furthermore, a particular feature of this book is that it not only presents different perspectives on climate change governance, but it also introduces theoretical approaches and brings these together with practical examples which show how main principles may be implemented in practice.

  3. Novel host restriction factors implicated in HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dibya; Rai, Madhu; Gaur, Ritu

    2018-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is known to interact with multiple host cellular proteins during its replication in the target cell. While many of these host cellular proteins facilitate viral replication, a number of them are reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication at various stages of its life cycle. These host cellular proteins, which are known as restriction factors, constitute an integral part of the host's first line of defence against the viral pathogen. Since the discovery of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G) as an HIV-1 restriction factor, several human proteins have been identified that exhibit anti-HIV-1 restriction. While each restriction factor employs a distinct mechanism of inhibition, the HIV-1 virus has equally evolved complex counter strategies to neutralize their inhibitory effect. APOBEC3G, tetherin, sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain 1 (SAMHD1), and trim-5α are some of the best known HIV-1 restriction factors that have been studied in great detail. Recently, six novel restriction factors were discovered that exhibit significant antiviral activity: endoplasmic reticulum α1,2-mannosidase I (ERManI), translocator protein (TSPO), guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5), serine incorporator (SERINC3/5) and zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP). The focus of this review is to discuss the antiviral mechanism of action of these six restriction factors and provide insights into the probable counter-evasion strategies employed by the HIV-1 virus. The recent discovery of new restriction factors substantiates the complex host-pathogen interactions occurring during HIV-1 pathogenesis and makes it imperative that further investigations are conducted to elucidate the molecular basis of HIV-1 replication.

  4. Effectiveness of electro-fencing for restricting the ranging behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we assessed the effectiveness of electro-fencing for restricting movement patterns of several wild ungulates in Akagera National Park (NP), Rwanda. Following the turmoil of the Rwandan genocide and civil war (1991–1995), large numbers of returning war refugees brought about an increasing pressure on land use, ...

  5. Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African coastal marine invertebrates. RJ Scott, CL Griffiths, TB Robinson. Abstract. Southern Africa supports a rich marine biota of 12 734 currently described marine species. Although the distribution and overall species-richness patterns of several component ...

  6. Restrictive partially blind signature for resource-constrained information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Weidong; Gong, Zheng; Liu, Bozhong; Long, Yu; Chen, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    Restrictive partially blind signature, which is designed for privacy oriented information systems, allows a user to obtain a blind signature from a signer whilst the blind message must obey some certain rules. In order to reduce storage and communication costs, several public-key cryptosystems are

  7. Calvin's Restrictions on Interest : Guidelines for the Credit Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Calvin’s view on the legitimacy of interest has had a great impact on the economic development of Western society. Although Calvin took a fundamentally positive attitude to interest, he also proposed several restrictions on the charging of interest. In this article, we investigate the relevance of

  8. Data Input and Content Exploration in Scenarios with Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractAs technology evolves, new devices and interaction techniques are developed. These transformations create several challenges in terms of usability and user experience. Our research faces some challenges for data input or content exploration in scenarios with restrictions. It is not our

  9. Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Woltjer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    I. Theoretical Reflections on Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society 1. Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society in Indonesia Ronald Holzhacker, Rafael Wittek and Johan Woltjer 2. Good Governance Contested: Exploring Human Rights and Sustainability as Normative Goals

  10. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  11. Four logics of governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke

    unintended consequences. Theoretically, we draw on different management and governance theories, e.g. performance management. Empirically, the study is based on surveys to teachers and students at all Danish vocational colleges and interviews with school leaders, teachers and students at six colleges (cases...... and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges......For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...

  12. Electoral Governance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Marchetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electoral governance has increasingly more frequently been the object of study of the comparative politics literature. This article examines the electoral governance institutional model adopted in Brazil and its consequences for political/electoral competition. It is argued herein that Brazil’s Electoral Justice System, motivated by the institutional design, has ended up becoming one of the main actors of the country’s recent democratic consolidation, being decisive not only with regard to rule adjudication and application, but also to rulemaking. With the purpose of assessing this governance model in action, three important recent rulings by Brazil’s Electoral Justice System are analysed here: verticalization of the coalitions, reduction in the number of councillors, and party loyalty.

  13. Measuring Innovation in Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahroum, S.

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been growing interest in supporting innovation in the public sector as a means of increasing the efficiency and quality of government services. Generally speaking, innovation in government could be defined as “The creation and implementation of new processes, products, services and methods of delivery which result in significant improvements in outcome efficiency, effectiveness or quality’’ [3]. A ‘Process Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing ‘efficiency’. A ‘Product or Service Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing the ‘effectiveness’ of government. A ‘Policy Innovation’ is mainly oriented at enhancing outcomes. These categorisations are important for identifying and selecting the metrics of measurement and to make distinctions between inputs, outputs, and outcomes. (Author)

  14. 'Joined Up' Local Governments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnå, Hilde; Casale, Donatella; Hajnal, Gyorgy

    eforms inspired by NPM have raised many challenges to governments, such as time lags between implementation and (any) results, fragmentation due to unbundling monolithic organizations and mediocre support from public sector stakeholders (Christensen/Lægreid 2007, Dunleavy et al. 2006, Hood...... measures (6 2004). JUG involves an emphasis on coordinating governmental activities, for example through partnerships and horizontal governing approaches, to eliminate contradictions between different policies, and to deliver integrated and seamless services from a citizen’s perspective (Lægreid et al......, for example one-stop-shops, often combined with e-government solutions (Norway, Italy, Hungary and Germany), public sector recentralisation and de-agencification (Ireland) or refined strategies for steering the ‘landscape of corporatized organizations‘ (Hungary and Austria)....

  15. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  16. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching, Germany (near Munich) on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in...

  17. Managing e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Persson, John Stouby; Heeager, Lise Tordrup

    2015-01-01

    Public sector managers take much of the responsibility for selecting, commissioning, implementing and realising benefits from information technology (IT) projects. However, e-Government initiatives often suffer from complexity, vision failure, lack of goal clarity and insufficient commitment....... These problems may stem from value traditions that are deeply ingrained in managers' cultural environments but not always in harmony with each other. A first step towards working with value complexity is to understand it; we synthesise a model of value positions for e-Government derived from major traditions...... in the public administration literature. Four value positions relevant to e-Government together with their IT assumptions are identified; they reflect the ideals of professionalism, efficiency, service and engagement. A qualitative investigation of Danish local authority managers displays both value congruence...

  18. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  19. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN INDIA: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Thapar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a process, relation and mechanism set up for the corporations and firms based on certain guidelines and principles by which a company is controlled and directed. The principles provided in the system ensure that the company is governed in a way that it is able to set and achieve its goals and objectives in the context of the social, regulatory and market environment, and is able to maximize profits and also benefit those whose interest is involved in it, in the long run. The division and distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders and inclusion of the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs are identified with the help of Corporate Governance mechanism and guidelines. The need to make corporate governance in India transparent was felt after the high profile corporate governance failure scams like the stock market scam, the UTI scam, Ketan Parikh scam, Satyam scam, which were severely criticized by the shareholders. Thus, Corporate Governance is not just company administration but more than that and includes monitoring the actions, policies, practices, and decisions of corporations, their agents, and affected stakeholders thereby ensuring fair, efficient and transparent functioning of the corporate management system. By this paper, the authors intend to examine the concept of corporate governance in India with regard to the provisions of corporate governance under the Companies Act 2013. The paper will highlight the importance and need of corporate governance in India. We will also discuss the important case laws which contributed immensely in the emergence of corporate governance in India.

  20. Parenting and restrictions in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Scherphof, C.; Carpay, J.A.; Augustijn, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: From the overprotection literature, the predictive and interactional (moderation) effects of controlling and indulgent parenting on restrictions in children with epilepsy were examined. Methods: Parents of 73 children with epilepsy completed questionnaires on parenting, restrictions, and

  1. 76 FR 76477 - Notice of Proposal To Extend the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Understanding Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Peru... Certain Ethnological Material From the Colonial Period of Peru The Government of the Republic of Peru has... Republic of Peru Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from Pre...

  2. Tactics of the governed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2017-01-01

    Abandonment has become a performative idiom in Andean Peru, where it retains its purchase despite the investments of the state. Local development is tied to the desire to be governed. In spite of prolonged state presence, the villages’ relationship to authorities is continuously and persistently...... figured as one of abandonment: villages are abandoned because someone is deliberately holding them in such unfortunate conditions. To figure abandonment in village politics is to draw on this idiom as an effective means of both communicating the historical experience of governance and putting forward...

  3. Governing IT outsourcing relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung The dynamics of the relationship between service recipient and service provider in IS outsourcing relationships recently gained increased attention as relationships are believed to have a considerable influence on IS outsourcing success. This study adds to this growing field of interest by developing an IS outsourcing relationship framework in the form of a process model. Three rather disjointed areas of research, namely contractual governance, relational norms, and control, have been set in a common context by interrelating them as the three main governance modes

  4. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context....... They exhibit three novelties: they address strategic long-term problems in a holistic manner, set substantive output-oriented goals, and are implemented through new organizational structures. After characterizing the different types of current PDPs and the context in which they emerged, the paper examines...

  5. Why Governments Intervene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    for this phenomenon. Research has tended either to rely on cross-country comparisons that generalize tendencies within given countries; or to over-generalize global trends. The current paper analyzes particular CSR policies in two countries – Denmark and the United Kingdom. We find that the rationales for government...... initiatives on CSR are neither consistent across countries or within them. Instead, CSR policies are utilized to address multiple issues crossing various areas of governance, including domestic social policy, global competitiveness policies and foreign policy....

  6. Making Migrants Governable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    2012-01-01

    This paper will investigate the production of knowledge regarding the number of illegalized migrants. Estimation of the number has been the common frame for production of this kind of knowledge, performed by social scientists, government officials, NGOs and others, but now biometric technology...... by biometric technology will produce increased objectivity and depolitization in numbers of irregular migrants which could not be obtained in the field of estimation. The level of truth reflects the level of control and surveillance fixed as a strategy of government of mobility in the biometric technology....

  7. Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Sandra; Kaumanns, Patrick; Buschhorn, Sabine B.; Dittmar, Matthias T.

    2005-01-01

    We have characterized envelope protein pseudotyped HIV-2 particles derived from two HIV-2 isolates termed prCBL23 and CBL23 in order to define the role of the envelope protein for the Lv2-mediated restriction to infection. Previously, it has been described that the primary isolate prCBL23 is restricted to infection of several human cell types, whereas the T cell line adapted isolate CBL23 is not restricted in these cell types. Molecular cloning of the two isolates revealed that the env and the gag gene are responsible for the observed phenotype and that this restriction is mediated by Lv2, which is distinct from Ref1/Lv1 (Schmitz, C., Marchant, D., Neil, S.J., Aubin, K., Reuter, S., Dittmar, M.T., McKnight, A., Kizhatil, K., Albritton, L.M., 2004. Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope. J. Virol. 78 (4), 2006-2016). We generated pseudotyped viruses consisting of HIV-2 (ROD-AΔenv-GFP, ROD-AΔenv-RFP, or ROD-AΔenv-REN) and the prCBL23 or CBL23 envelope proteins as well as chimeric proteins between these envelopes. We demonstrate that a single amino acid exchange at position 74 in the surface unit of CBL23-Env confers restriction to infection. This single point mutation causes tighter CD4 binding, resulting in a less efficient fusion into the cytosol of the restricted cell line. Prevention of endosome formation and prevention of endosome acidification enhance infectivity of the restricted particles for GHOST/X4 cells indicating a degradative lysosomal pathway as a cause for the reduced cytosolic entry. The described restriction to infection of the primary isolate prCBL23 is therefore largely caused by an entry defect. A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E)

  8. 5 CFR 2641.202 - Two-year restriction on any former employee's representations to United States concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Two-year restriction on any former employee's representations to United States concerning particular matter for which the employee had official responsibility. 2641.202 Section 2641.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS POST-EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF...

  9. 5 CFR 2641.205 - Two-year restriction on any former very senior employee's representations to former agency or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Two-year restriction on any former very senior employee's representations to former agency or certain officials concerning any matter, regardless of prior involvement. 2641.205 Section 2641.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS POST-EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT...

  10. 49 CFR 383.95 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the skills test and the restriction, air brakes shall include any braking system operating fully or...; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Vehicle Groups and Endorsements § 383.95 Restrictions. (a) Air brake restrictions... skills test in a vehicle not equipped with air brakes, the State must indicate on the CDL, if issued...

  11. 9 CFR 92.3 - Movement restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement restrictions. 92.3 Section 92... ANIMAL PRODUCTS: PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING RECOGNITION OF REGIONS § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever... exist and the EC imposes prohibitions or other restrictions on the movement of animals or animal...

  12. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22 or...

  13. Local government`s pollution prevention program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D. [Boulder Country Pollution Prevention Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The pollution prevention program operated by the Health Department of Boulder County is called Business Partners for a Clean Environment (Business Partners). It is a cooperative effort among local businesses, the City of Boulder, Boulder County, and the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. This nonregulatory, incentive-based program provides industry with pollution prevention information and technical assistance necessary to reduce and/or eliminate environmental waste. This paper provides an overview of the program development, creation of partnerships and trust, and some of the results from implementation of the program. Following the first 18 months of the program, 35 businesses were recognized as Business Partners. The Business Partners program has also received an achievement award from the National Association of Counties for promoting {open_quotes}responsible, responsive, and effective government{close_quotes} and two governor`s awards from the State of Colorado. Participating businesses have demonstrated that a pollution prevention program can reduce environmental waste, increase employee safety, and decrease costs. 4 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. The Russia Corporate Governance Manual : Part I. Corporate Governance Introduced

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; U.S. Department of Commerce

    2004-01-01

    The Russia corporate governance manual has been divided into and is published in six parts: (i) corporate governance introduced; (ii) good board practices; (iii) shareholder rights; (iv) information disclosure and transparency; (v) special focus section; and (vi) annexes model corporate governance documents. The first four parts contain chapters that focus on core corporate governance issu...

  15. Global Food Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Globalisation in food production and consumption is fundamentally transforming a wide variety of social practices at different levels in society. Simply adding another level of governance will therefore not solve the problems related to food production and consumption in global modernity. Different

  16. Governing Logistics Information Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.; Aldewereld, H.M.; Knol, A.; Tan, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Extended Single Window (ESW) project aims to support goods flows by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Specifically, the project takes the concept of Single Windows (often used in the sense that governments offer a single portal or interface to which businesses can submit

  17. Ethics in Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…

  18. Data Quality Assurance Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Gonzalez; Stephanie Suhr

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable describes the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE Quality Management Strategy, addressing EXCELERATE Ethics requirement no. 5 on Data Quality Assurance Governance. The strategy describes the essential procedures and practices within ELIXIR-EXCELERATE concerning planning of quality management, performing quality assurance and controlling quality. It also depicts the overall organisation of ELIXIR with emphasis on authority and specific responsibilities related to quality assurance.

  19. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen WAGENER

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there are sufficiently differentiated success stories to test the hypothesis: it was good governance that is responsible for success and bad governance for failure. The empirical results support the “Lorenzetti hypothesis”: where freedom, security and trust prevail, the economy flourishes, where they are lacking, the costs of long-term investment are too high. The initial conditions of transition countries seem to be quite similar, nevertheless, even there one can discern good and bad governance. The extent of socialist lawfulness, planning security, cronyism and corruption differed widely between East Berlin and Tashkent. And a good deal of such variations can be found in the pre-socialist history of these countries. However, the main conclusion is that the co-evolution hypothesis states that both, welfare and good governance, go together.

  20. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... a risk that taxpayer funds will be spent on contracts that are wasteful, inefficient, subject to... mission. In such cases, the agency must ensure that the risks associated with noncompetitive contracts are...

  1. Governing the water user

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, Edwin; Wester, Flip

    2017-01-01

    This article traces a policy shift that makes the ‘water user’ the main subject of water governance. From a Foucauldian perspective on governmentality these new subjectivities accompany neo-liberal governmental technologies to devolve autonomy from state institutions to an active user base, whilst

  2. Corporate governance through codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haxhi, I.; Aguilera, R.V.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The UK's 1992 Cadbury Report defines corporate governance (CG) as the system by which businesses are directed and controlled. CG codes are a set of best practices designed to address deficiencies in the formal contracts and institutions by suggesting prescriptions on the preferred role and

  3. Getting Port Governance Right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Langen, Peter; Saragiotis, Periklis

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the relevance of ports for economic development and next identifies port governance as a critical determinant of a well-functioning port industry. While in the past decades privately owned terminal operating companies have emerged and contributed to more efficient supply ch...

  4. Contractual Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Companies have the choice to deviate from their national corporate governance standards by opting into another system. They can do so via contractual devices – such as cross-border mergers and acquisitions, (re)incorporations, and cross-listings – which enable firms to choose their preferred level

  5. Corporate Media Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate

  6. Decentralized environmental governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tula

    Human Development, a Road to the. Future. Systematization of ... Opportunities for Sustainability and Natural Resources Access for Poor. Rural Areas ... natural resource management. Under this ... Governance is defined as the formal and informal ... approval of the Environmental Impact Study, the strong oppo- sition of the ...

  7. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill

  8. A New Frontier for LIS Programs: E-Government Education, Library/Government Partnerships, and the Preparation of Future Information Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo; Shuler, John A.; McGilvray, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of the continued growth of e-government information, communication, and services for Library and Information Science programs in the United States in light of the development of e-government educational programs and library/government partnerships. The implementation of e-government raises several important…

  9. E-Government Maturity Model for Sustainable E-Government Services from the Perspective of Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusp Raj Joshi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric government (e-government projects in developing countries are facing many challenges to deliver sustainable e-government services. From the existing literature, we found that most of the studies considered lack of technology, and limitations in budgets and human resources as the main hurdles in effective implementation of e-government services. Along with these limitations, we found that the e-government maturity models adopted by developing countries are failing to provide an appropriate strategic plan to deploy sustainable e-government services. While assessing the existing e-government maturity model, we made several observations on the lack of detail, the technology-centric nature, the emphasis on implementation, and the lack of an adoption strategy. This work contributes toward the proposition of a new e-government maturity model that would address the limitations of exiting e-government maturity models, and would support governments in developing countries to achieve sustainable e-government services. To achieve this goal, we considered five determinants—a detailed process, streamlined services, agile accessibility, use of state-of-the-art technology, and trust and awareness. The proposed model was validated by employing an empirical investigation through case-study and survey methods. We found that both the implementers (government and adopters (users of the e-government services benefited from the proposed model, resulting in an increased sustainability of e-government services.

  10. Which type of government revenue leads government expenditure?

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Zeinab; Masih, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    This Malaysia is a developing Islamic state that faced government budget deficit since 1998. It is undeniable that a budget deficit or inability to cover government spending is not positively seen by external parties. The optimum level of government budget is the state where government spending is totally offset by government revenue and that can be achieved through an increase in tax revenue or decrease in spending. The paper aims to discover the existence of a theoretical relationship betwe...

  11. Restricted Predicates for Hypothetical Datalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sáenz-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical Datalog is based on an intuitionistic semantics rather than on a classical logic semantics, and embedded implications are allowed in rule bodies. While the usual implication (i.e., the neck of a Horn clause stands for inferring facts, an embedded implication plays the role of assuming its premise for deriving its consequence. A former work introduced both a formal framework and a goal-oriented tabled implementation, allowing negation in rule bodies. While in that work positive assumptions for both facts and rules can occur in the premise, negative assumptions are not allowed. In this work, we cover this subject by introducing a new concept: a restricted predicate, which allows negative assumptions by pruning the usual semantics of a predicate. This new setting has been implemented in the deductive system DES.

  12. Corporate Governance and Shareholder Litigation

    OpenAIRE

    Kalchev, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    The probability for shareholder litigation is studied and how corporate governance characteristics and other factors explain it. Shareholder litigation results from failure of corporate governance. Thus a better quality of corporate governance is hypothesized to decrease the litigation probability. Corporate governance index is constructed based on principal components. It is found to be a significant predictor of shareholder litigation.

  13. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  14. Applying Conjoint Analysis to Study Attitudes of Thai Government Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natee Suriyanon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the application of choice-based conjointanalysis to analyse the attitude of Thai government organisationstowards the restriction of the contractor’s right to claimcompensation for unfavourable effects from undesirable events.The analysis reveals that the organisations want to restrict only 6out of 14 types of the claiming rights that were studied. The rightthat they want to restrict most is the right to claim for additionaldirect costs due to force majeure. They are willing to pay between0.087% - 0.210% of the total project direct cost for restricting eachtype of contractor right. The total additional cost for restrictingall six types of rights that the organisations are willing to pay is0.882%. The last section of this article applies the knowledgegained from a choice based conjoint analysis experiment to theanalysis of the standard contract of the Thai government. Theanalysis reveals three types of rights where Thai governmentorganisations are willing to forego restrictions, but the presentstandard contract does not grant such rights.

  15. eGovernment in Local Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2016-01-01

    problems that reduce productivity gains. These problems persist even though they might seem trivial and easily remedied. They are however symptoms of a more general challenge: Difficulties achieving a proper alignment between IT and organizational processes. This alignment gap is related to the way service......Public sector organizations are supposed to increase productivity by large-scale investments in IT. This research investigates the municipalities’ capabilities to increase productivity through IT investments, and what major challenges must be overcome to do so. The research identifies several...

  16. Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short. Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.

  17. Over a barrel: Government influence and mergers and acquisitions in the petroleum industry. The case of Sun Oil Company, 1938-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, W.P. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation examines the nature of government business relations, as perceived by the owners and managers of the Sun Oil Company, a large integrated oil and gas producer, transporter, refiner, and marketer. Sun has had a long and profitable career in the oil industry, success which came despite a complex, often bitter relationship with government in its regulatory and antitrust capacity. The founding Pew family has historically been quite outspoken in its opposition to what they perceived to be the government's chronic, unwelcome intrusion into the affairs of business. Sun's almost one hundred year history can be readily divided into two distinct phases. The first, the period from 1938-1947, could best be characterized as the time when Sun Company officials fought bitterly against what they thought to be excessive government domination over their industry, fearing either the government's outright takeover, or its imposition of burdensome restrictions. After freeing themselves from the government's oppression, Sun management then set out to build a growing, profitable oil concern. From 1938 to the present, Sun has undertaken several transactions that have established the firm as a highly successful petroleum company, including a merger, an aborted takeover, and a successful acquisition. Sun's survival in an endeavor where many perish, either purchased or driven out, provides the focus of this dissertation.

  18. Governance, resource curse and donor

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Plan Part 1. Governance What is good governance? Why is it important? How can we measure good governance? Part 2. The resource curse and the importance of governance in resource rich countries Focus on political economy (PE) models of the resource curse Policy implications Some donor initiatives Transparency and the EITI Petroleum related aid - Window dressing initiatives or research based? Conclusion Governance, resource curse and donor

  19. Auditing IT Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Mihai ILIESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective IT governance helps ensure that IT supports business goals, optimizes business investment in IT, and appropriately manages IT-related risks and opportunities. Organizations that realize the IT is no longer a support process and embeds value and risks need a structured approach for better managing Information Technology, enable its capability to deliver added value enterprise wide and for setting up a risk management program to address new risks arising for usage of IT in business processes. In order to assess if IT Governance is in line with industry practices, IT Auditors need a good understanding of processes and applicable standards, particular audit work programs and experience in assessing potential problem indicators.

  20. Whole of Government Accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Chow, Danny; Day, Ronald

    In our comparative study, we surveyed an emerging literature on the use of consolidation in government accounting and develop a research agenda. We find heterogeneous approaches to the development of consolidation models across the five countries (Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada and Sweden...... of financial reporting (GAAP)-based reforms when compared with budget-centric systems of accounting, which dominate government decision-making. At a trans-national level, there is a need to examine the embedded or implicit contests or ‘trials of strength’ between nations and/or institutions jockeying...... for influence. We highlight three arenas where such contests are being played out: 1. Statistical versus GAAP notions of accounting value, which features in all accounting debates over the merits and costs of ex-ante versus ex-post notions of value (i.e., the relevance versus reliability debate); 2. Private...

  1. Website Quality in Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørum, Hanne; Andersen, Kim Normann; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    . Social implications – The overall digital enabled transformation of government appears to be guided by a rather heterogeneous set of quality standards. While a variance of quality standards might stimulate innovation in websites, it can also lead to a substantial difference in digital services provided...... to citizens. Thus, the authors' research stimulates the awareness of diversity of quality parameters and could have as an implication that national and international standards beyond accessibility standards are more explicitly shared and debated. Originality/value – The aim of this paper is to provide......Purpose – The objective of this paper is to investigate how webmasters within government bodies explain quality of websites. Despite the central position for advancing the communication, bridging usability tests and design, there are surprisingly few studies on how webmasters perceive, experience...

  2. Governance by algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are increasingly often cited as one of the fundamental shaping devices of our daily, immersed-in-information existence. Their importance is acknowledged, their performance scrutinised in numerous contexts. Yet, a lot of what constitutes 'algorithms' beyond their broad definition as “encoded procedures for transforming input data into a desired output, based on specified calculations” (Gillespie, 2013 is often taken for granted. This article seeks to contribute to the discussion about 'what algorithms do' and in which ways they are artefacts of governance, providing two examples drawing from the internet and ICT realm: search engine queries and e-commerce websites’ recommendations to customers. The question of the relationship between algorithms and rules is likely to occupy an increasingly central role in the study and the practice of internet governance, in terms of both institutions’ regulation of algorithms, and algorithms’ regulation of our society.

  3. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives...... on the firm. While there has been little direct discussion between the main proponents of these perspectives, both claim that they are reaching for a "strategic theory of the firm". Such a theory would not only shed light on the classical questions considered in the theory of the firm (e.g. why firms exist......, what determines their boundaries and internal organization), but would also be helpful for informing strategy issues, such as understanding strategic flexibility, strategic options, and the sources of competitive advantage. This volume brings together prominent voices on competence, governance...

  4. The Effects of Calorie Restriction in Depression and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Changhong; Zhao, Yinghao; Zhang, Xingyi; Li, Bingjin; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Depression, also called major depressive disorder, is a neuropsychiatric disorder jeopardizing an increasing number of the population worldwide. To date, a large number of studies have devoted great attention to this problematic condition and raised several hypotheses of depression. Based on these theories, many antidepressant drugs were developed for the treatment of depression. Yet, the depressed patients are often refractory to the antidepressant therapies. Recently, increasing experimental evidences demonstrated the effects of calorie restriction in neuroendocrine system and in depression. Both basic and clinical investigations indicated that short-term calorie restriction might induce an antidepressant efficacy in depression, providing a novel avenue for treatment. Molecular basis underlying the antidepressant actions of calorie restriction might involve multiple physiological processes, primarily including orexin signaling activation, increased CREB phosphorylation and neurotrophic effects, release of endorphin and ketone production. However, the effects of chronic calorie restriction were quite controversial, in the cases that it often resulted in the long-term detrimental effects via inhibiting the function of 5-HT system and decreasing leptin levels. Here we review such dual effects of calorie restriction in depression and potential molecular basis behind these effects, especially focusing on antidepressant effects.

  5. Local Governance and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Marius PROFIROIU; Tudorel ANDREI; Gheorghe POPESCU; Alina PROFIROIU

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of ...

  6. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  7. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  8. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Karkošková; George Feuerlicht

    2016-01-01

    Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is uncle...

  9. The roles of government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigrain, P.

    1988-01-01

    The author chooses to address his talk to governments as a broad category, not differentiating the more centralized, socialized, federal, or for that matter the role of smaller governmental entities within countries, and the role they can have in impacting science. He chooses to try to say what governments should do, and with a few exceptions, what they should avoid doing, in order to support the development of physics, and for that matter other sciences within their countries. The major role is in education, where governments can prepare people for work in these disciplines, and also present the disciplines in an interesting manner so that the best minds can be attracted to these areas. The second major role is in the support of basic research in high technology areas. Some of this involves very large resource investments, but not all areas are equally expensive to support. There is a particular pitfall when governments become the consumer for basic research, for example in the case of national defense concerns, when the consumer can have a profound effect on the research effort in a country, not always for the betterment of science or society. Fiscal matters are equally important, not only in the support of the individual worker, support of the basic research, support of education, but also in the general attititude to supporting physics high tech work in the private sector within countries. Governmantal fiscal policies can have profound influences on the way private capital flows into such initiatives. Finally he touches on the need for those in basic research and high tech work to have contacts, all kinds of contacts, which foster the exchange of information and ideas, and the development of new approaches to old and new problems

  10. The governance of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Whitman

    2007-01-01

    Despite the promises made for nanotechology, its direction and momentum as it has developed to date already pose very considerable problems of regulation and control in quite fundamental ways. This article will review these difficulties under four themes. First, the principal agents for framing governance agreements (states) are also the principal proponents of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Second, the speed of new advances in nanotechnology and the reach of their implications are already o...

  11. Government Is Whose Problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Jon D. Wisman

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the political meaning of President Ronald Reagan's 1981 declaration that "government is the problem." Whereas historically the state had been used by elites to extract as much surplus as possible from producers, with democratization of the franchise, the state became the sole instrument that could limit, or even potentially end, the extraction of workers' surplus. Once control of the state is in principle democratized by the ballot box, the fortunes of the elite depend ...

  12. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching (near Munich), Germany on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in Chile. The Director-General receiv...

  13. Capital Structure, Strategic Competition, and Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.T. Nguyen (Thuy Thu)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis consists of four studies on the interactions of capital structure and product market competition, and on several aspects of governance, firm financing and growth. The first study investigates how competitive behavior and market uncertainty affect the capital structure of a

  14. Activity restriction induced by fear of falling and objective and subjective measures of physical function: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E Jeffrey; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2008-04-01

    To examine whether activity restriction specifically induced by fear of falling (FF) contributes to greater risk of disability and decline in physical function. Prospective cohort study. Population-based older cohort. Six hundred seventy-three community-living elderly (> or = 65) participants in the Invecchiare in Chianti Study who reported FF. FF, fear-induced activity restriction, cognition, depressive symptoms, comorbidities, smoking history, and demographic factors were assessed at baseline. Disability in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and performance on the Short Performance Physical Battery (SPPB) were evaluated at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. One-quarter (25.5%) of participants did not report any activity restriction, 59.6% reported moderate activity restriction (restriction or avoidance of or = 3 activities). The severe restriction group reported significantly higher IADL disability and worse SPPB scores than the no restriction and moderate restriction groups. Severe activity restriction was a significant independent predictor of worsening ADL disability and accelerated decline in lower extremity performance on SPPB over the 3-year follow-up. Severe and moderate activity restriction were independent predictors of worsening IADL disability. Results were consistent even after adjusting for multiple potential confounders. In an elderly population, activity restriction associated with FF is an independent predictor of decline in physical function. Future intervention studies in geriatric preventive care should directly address risk factors associated with FF and activity restriction to substantiate long-term effects on physical abilities and autonomy of older persons.

  15. Rare earth - no case for government intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Zachmann

    2010-01-01

    China has officially restricted exports of rare earth for several years and announced this year it will further tighten exports. Rare earth is a group of 17 different metals, usually found clustered together. These metals have hundreds of different industry applications. For example, they are used in certain high capacity magnets, batteries and lasers. As the rare earth elements are used in sectors that are assumed to have an over-proportionate growth potential (eg. green-technology), policy ...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.103-2 - Restriction on personal convenience items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience items. 101-26.103-2 Section 101-26.103-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.103-2 Restriction on personal convenience items. Government... type items intended solely for the personal convenience or to satisfy the personal desire of an...

  17. 48 CFR 252.227-7019 - Validation of asserted restrictions-Computer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., creates or implies privity of contract between the Government and the Contractor's subcontractors or... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.227-7019 Validation of asserted restrictions..., unless otherwise specifically indicated, the term “Contractor” means the Contractor and its...

  18. 77 FR 11384 - Removal of Oman from the Restricted Destinations List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 110 [NRC-2011-0264] RIN 3150-AJ06 Removal of Oman from... regulations by removing Oman from the list of restricted destinations. This amendment is necessary to conform... regard to U.S. Government law and policy on Oman. The Executive Branch recommended, in light of current...

  19. 7 CFR 57.700 - Prohibition on disposition of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on disposition of restricted eggs. 57.700... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  20. 7 CFR 57.900 - Requirements for importation of restricted eggs into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of restricted eggs into... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing...

  1. What governs governance, and how does it evolve? The sociology of governance-in-action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nick J; Ward, Katie J

    2008-09-01

    Governance addresses a wide range of issues including social, economic and political continuity, security and integrity, individual and collective safety and the liberty and rights to self-actualization of citizens. Questions to be answered include how governance can be achieved and sustained within a social context imbued with cultural values and in which power is distributed unevenly and dynamically, and how governance impacts on individuals and institutions. Drawing on Gramscian notions of hegemony and consent, and recent political science literatures on regulation and meta-regulation, this paper develops a sociological model of governance that emphasizes a dynamic and responsive governance in action. Empirical data from a study of pharmaceutical governance is used to show how multiple institutions and actors are involved in sustaining effective governance. The model addresses issues of how governance is sustained in the face of change, why governance of practices varies from setting to setting, and how governance is achieved without legislation.

  2. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  3. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-06-11

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  4. Nanotechnology and the need for risk governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Roco, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    After identifying the main characteristics and prospects of nanotechnology as an emerging technology, the paper presents the general risks associated with nanotechnology applications and the deficits of the risk governance process today, concluding with recommendations to governments, industry, international organizations and other stakeholders. The International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) has identified a governance gap between the requirements pertaining to the nano- rather than the micro-/macro- technologies. The novel attributes of nanotechnology demand different routes for risk-benefit assessment and risk management, and at present, nanotechnology innovation proceeds ahead of the policy and regulatory environment. In the shorter term, the governance gap is significant for those passive nanostructures that are currently in production and have high exposure rates; and is especially significant for the several 'active' nanoscale structures and nanosystems that we can expect to be on the market in the near future. Active nanoscale structures and nanosystems have the potential to affect not only human health and the environment but also aspects of social lifestyle, human identity and cultural values. The main recommendations of the report deal with selected higher risk nanotechnology applications, short- and long-term issues, and global models for nanotechnology governance

  5. PUBLIC GOVERNANCE AND STRATEGIC RESPONSIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Luminiţa Gabriela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the actual context, where globalization is moreover dynamic, the concept of solid state, well defined and territorialised is becoming diffuse while the traditional social connections (labour relations, community solidarity are becoming weaker and more fragile. The economic individualisation, migration and cultural fragmentation hold a devastating impact upon the living environment, namely significant growth of anonymity, distrust and discontent. As effect of those realities, the governments are searching responses to these processes of “social liquefaction”. Taking into consideration the fact that that the governance tools based on authority, hierarchy and bureaucracy are becoming useless due to the lack of effectiveness and legitimacy, we witness the emergence of new modes of public governance, in light to reconfigure solid ground, adequate for interventions. The design of a new type of governance should take into consideration its dual character. One component aims accountable community, as the traditional society has demonstrated that it is not able to generate spontaneously neither trust nor social capital. The second component is focused on identifying those strategies providing that accountability should be taken jointly by the public authorities and the other actors such as companies, third sector organisations and citizens. The accomplishment of such a model means to overcome several challenges. On the one hand, are the members of the community aware of the importance of their commitment? Are they truly motivated to participate in such a structure? On the other hand, how prepared are the political representatives and public authorities to accept cooperation with various categories of actors at community level? The space of strategic responsiveness introduced by the current research provides a possible scenario for responding to the above questions. Additionally, the research attempts to provide an answer to a special question

  6. Digital government and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm.

  7. Governing Board of the Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its 133rd and 134th meetings on 20 April and 17 May respectively. The President of the CERN Council, Professor E. Iarocci, attended part of the first of these two meetings in order to inform the members of the Governing Board in person of the decisions affecting the Pension Fund taken at the March Session of Council. He underlined that the Council, meeting in Restricted Session, had approved an amendment to the procedure for the appointment of the Chairman of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund as well as the setting of a limit on the terms of office of members of the Board. He further informed the Board that the Council had unanimously decided to set up a new Working Group, "Osnes II", composed of four Council representatives (Professor E. Osnes, (Chair), Professor J. Niederle, Mr C. Van Riel and Mr P. Williams) and of four Fund members: one member appointed by the Director-General (Dr E. Chiaveri); one member appointed by the Staff Association (Dr J.-P. Math...

  8. Intrauterine growth restriction - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-12-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) infants have been classically defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age, whereas intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined as a rate of foetal growth that is less than normal for the population and for the growth potential of a specific infant. SGA infants have more frequent problems such as perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, polycythaemia and many more when compared with their appropriate for gestational age counterpart. They too have growth retardation and various major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, with higher rates of perinatal and neonatal mortality. With the advent of newer technologies, even though the perinatal diagnosis of these SGA/IUGR foetuses has increased, but still perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher than normal foetuses and infants. In this part, we have covered neonatal IUGR classification, postnatal diagnosis, short-term and long-term complications faced by these IUGR infants.

  9. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    institutions; and (d) making international agreements and partnerships. Several possibilities for improving the governance of converging technologies in the global self-regulating ecosystem are recommended: using open-source and incentive-based models, establishing corresponding science and engineering platforms, empowering the stakeholders and promoting partnerships among them, implementing long-term planning that includes international perspectives, and institute voluntary and science-based measures for risk management.

  11. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    institutions; and (d) making international agreements and partnerships. Several possibilities for improving the governance of converging technologies in the global self-regulating ecosystem are recommended: using open-source and incentive-based models, establishing corresponding science and engineering platforms, empowering the stakeholders and promoting partnerships among them, implementing long-term planning that includes international perspectives, and institute voluntary and science-based measures for risk management

  12. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2008-01-15

    institutions; and (d) making international agreements and partnerships. Several possibilities for improving the governance of converging technologies in the global self-regulating ecosystem are recommended: using open-source and incentive-based models, establishing corresponding science and engineering platforms, empowering the stakeholders and promoting partnerships among them, implementing long-term planning that includes international perspectives, and institute voluntary and science-based measures for risk management.

  13. Integrative environmental governance: enhancing governance in the era of synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visseren-Hamakers, I.J.

    2015-01-01

    The issue of regime complexity in global environmental governance is widely recognized. The academic debate on regime fragmentation has itself however been rather fragmented, with discussions circling around different concepts, including inter-organizational relations, polycentric governance,

  14. BARRIER MARKET RESTRICTIONS, THEIR ECONOMIC NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimova Ekaterina Yurievna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Subject: indicators of modern economic growth in construction, published by the government agencies, reflect individual directions of growth. At the same time, the analysis of the reasons for the unachieved results is conducted by various researchers primarily from the standpoint of the inadequacy of economic and other resources. This article deals with the problem of ensuring the growth of construction enterprises from the viewpoint of systemic barriers, and in this regard, these barriers are defined as the subject of the present research. Research objectives: studying the concept of barrier market restrictions, their impact on the activities of construction companies. Materials and methods: statistical data in the field of housing construction, provided by the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation and Rosstat, is examined to solve the given tasks set. The content of state programs and activities of state institutions in the field of support and development of construction activities is considered. Based on investigations of sustainable economic development, an understanding of the constraints and incentives for development is revealed. Results: we have identified the content of barrier market restrictions, which are not possible to overcome only by involving additional economic resources in the turnover. The ways of confronting these restrictions are shown. Conclusions: it was shown that implementation of promising activities is impossible without overcoming various systemic constraints. Their structure is described in sufficient detail. Principles of economic sustainable development are proposed. It was proved that the reserve system can serve as an effective way to overcome market barriers.

  15. Brexit and government procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Dawar, Kamala

    2017-01-01

    This briefing paper looks at some of the legal issues that will affect the UK’s public procurement laws and policies following Brexit. For, once the UK revokes the European Communities Act 1972, it will no longer be obligated to follow the EU Procurement Directives, nor will it be subject to the commitments the EU has signed up to on behalf of the UK in the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) and in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Additionally, under the Devolution Settlement of ...

  16. World governance for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerebel, C.; Keppler, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    As energy is a strategic stake for industrial societies through supply security, economical competitiveness and environmental performance, it is well-founded and useful to consider the way that energy production and consumption are organized. This document introduces the notion of energy governance and its different interpretations, then analyses its stakes and challenges (petroleum, natural gas, investment needs), and discusses some of the debates already in progress, such as the UNO's negotiations on greenhouse gas emission reduction or the impact of the WTO talks on energy exchanges

  17. Curves of restricted type in euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Kılıç Bayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submanifolds of restricted type were introduced in [7]. In the present study we consider restricted type of curves in Em. We give some special examples. We also show that spherical curve in S2(r C E3 is of restricted type if and only if either ƒ(s is constant or a linear function of s of the form ƒ(s = ±s + b and every closed W - curve of rank k and of length 2(r in E2k is of restricted type.

  18. Governing Forest Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Environmental Governance: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Adhikari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Governing forest ecosystem services as a forest socio-ecological system is an evolving concept in the face of different environmental and social challenges. Therefore, different modes of ecosystem governance such as hierarchical, scientific–technical, and adaptive–collaborative governance have been developed. Although each form of governance offers important features, no one form on its own is sufficient to attain sustainable environmental governance (SEG. Thus, the blending of important features of each mode of governance could contribute to SEG, through a combination of both hierarchical and collaborative governance systems supported by scientifically and technically aided knowledge. This should be further reinforced by the broad engagement of stakeholders to ensure the improved well-being of both ecosystems and humans. Some form of governance and forest management measures, including sustainable forest management, forest certification, and payment for ecosystem services mechanisms, are also contributing to that end. While issues around commodification and putting a price on nature are still contested due to the complex relationship between different services, if these limitations are taken into account, the governance of forest ecosystem services will serve as a means of effective environmental governance and the sustainable management of forest resources. Therefore, forest ecosystem services governance has a promising future for SEG, provided limitations are tackled with due care in future governance endeavors.

  19. Smart governance for smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiara, Dewi; Yuniarti, Siti; Pratama, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    Some of the local government in Indonesia claimed they already created a smart city. Mostly the claim based of IT utilization for their governance. In general, a smart city definition is to describe a developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. For public services, the law guarantees good governance by setting the standard for e-government implicitly including for local government or a city. Based on the arguments, this research tries to test the condition of e-government of the Indonesian city in 34 provinces. The purpose is to map e-government condition by measuring indicators of smart government, which are: transparent governance and open data for the public. This research is departing from public information disclosure law and to correspond with the existence law. By examining government transparency, the output of the research can be used to measure the effectiveness of public information disclosure law and to determine the condition of e-government in local government in which as part of a smart city.

  20. The Problems in Chinese Government Financial Information Disclosure and Relevant Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Wang

    2016-01-01

    Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.

  1. China's International Education Initiatives and View of Its Role in Global Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sharon X.

    2012-01-01

    China is becoming an increasingly important actor in global governance. This paper contends that China participates by promoting its own global governance concepts on the one hand and by complying with the established global norms on the other. The paper introduces several key global governance concepts of the Chinese government and argues that…

  2. The Problems in Chinese Government Financial Information Disclosure and Relevant Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.

  3. The Twilight Zone: Post-Government Employment Restrictions Affecting Retired/Former Department of Defense Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stone, Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    .... An examination of these five statutes reveals that four of them should be repealed as obsolete to the congressional goal of safeguarding the integrity of the DOD procurement process in that they...

  4. Government restrictions to the right to information in the modern globalized world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Korshun

    2014-11-01

    Ukraine, with its powerful intellectual potential is obliged to provide the widest right to access to information for all citizens. Legislation should provide the maximum assistance for the free flow of information. The fundamental rejection of attempts to monopolize information technology has become another very important issue.

  5. Steuern und Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Müller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: Taxation, in the modern state, has long been a mass phenomenon with an interdisciplinary outlook. On the macro level of the state, a new generation of administrative reforms has crystallized under the label “good public governance”. These reforms seek to resolve regulatory interdependence of state and non - state actors by way of cooperation and interaction. In parallel, on the micro level of businesses, “corporate governance” – voluntary compliance with legal and ethical standards – has become an increasingly important issue. With a view to tax law and tax collection, these developments open up new possibilities to raise tax compliance by means of consensual and cooperative instruments and, accordingly, address taxation as a mass phenomenon. DEUTSCH: Besteuerung ist im modernen Staat ein Massenphänomen und längst interdisziplinär ausgerichtet. Auf der Makro-Ebene des Staates hat sich unter dem Begriff Good Public Governance eine neue Generation von Staats- und Verwaltungsreformen herausgebildet, die Regelungsbeziehungen von staatlichen und nichtstaatlichen Akteuren durch Kooperationen und Interaktionen zu lösen versucht. Parallel dazu hat auf der Mikro-Ebene der Unternehmen mit dem Thema Corporate Governance die freiwillige Einhaltung von rechtlichen und ethischen Regeln an Bedeutung gewonnen. Für das Steuerrecht und den Steuervollzug resultieren aus diesen Entwicklungen neue Möglichkeiten, durch Nutzung konsens- und kooperationsorientierter Instrumente die Tax Compliance zu erhöhen und so dem Massenphänomen Besteuerung gerecht zu werden.

  6. Effects of Government Grassland Conservation Policy on Household Livelihoods and Dependence on Local Grasslands: Evidence from Inner Mongolia, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Bingzhen; Zhen, Lin; Yan, Huimin; Groot, de Dolf

    2016-01-01

    Grassland degradation intensifies human-environment conflicts and adversely affects local residents’ livelihoods. To reduce grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia, China, the government has enforced (since 1998) a series of grassland conservation and management policies that restrict the use of

  7. Government regulation to promote healthy food environments--a view from inside state governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, J; Mavoa, H; Allender, S; Lawrence, M; Sacks, G; Peeters, A; Crammond, B; Swinburn, B

    2012-02-01

    Food policy interventions are an important component of obesity-prevention strategies and can potentially drive positive changes in obesogenic environments. This study sought to identify regulatory interventions targeting the food environment, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organizations (n =45) to examine participants' (i) suggestions for regulatory interventions for healthier food environments and (ii) support for pre-selected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Data were analysed using thematic and constant comparative analyses. Interventions commonly suggested by participants were regulating unhealthy food marketing; limiting the density of fast food outlets; pricing reforms to decrease fruit/vegetable prices and increase unhealthy food prices; and improved food labelling. The most commonly supported pre-selected interventions were related to food marketing and service. Primary production and retail sector interventions were least supported. The dominant themes were the need for whole-of-government and collaborative approaches; the influence of the food industry; conflicting policies/agenda; regulatory challenges; the need for evidence of effectiveness; and economic disincentives. While interventions such as public sector healthy food service policies were supported by participants, marketing restrictions and fiscal interventions face substantial barriers including a push for deregulation and private sector opposition. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. How Harmful are Adaptation Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de K.C.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e.

  9. Trialogue model for ecosystem governance.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hattingh, J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available form and timescale to ensure good governance. In essence, good governance promotes democratic management of ecosystems and, by inference, prudentwater resourcemanagement. Consequently, it is likely that the type of governance that occurs most often... that, unless the imperative for civic science to support democratic governance is institutionalised through policy and strategy, it is unlikely that there will be sufficient human and financial investment in civic science as a means to promote...

  10. Corporate Governance in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines corporate governance practices in Costa Rica. First, it estimates corporate governance charter measures using firm-level data for 87 Costa Rican firms and studies their impact on the firms` performance; here, the mean of the corporate governance charters for the publicly traded firms is equal to 56. 14. Second, new evidence is presented on de jure and de facto corporate governance charter measures at the firm level and on their effect on the performance of the firm. The re...

  11. Theoretical Framework for Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu Cristina Elena

    2012-01-01

    History has revealed that there is a never-ending evolution of theories or models of corporate governance. Companies are trying to instill the sense of governance into their corporate structure. This article is a review of literature on the range of theories in corporate governance. The fundamental theories in corporate governance began with the agency theory, expanded into stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolved to transaction cost theory. However, these theories address the ca...

  12. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  13. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  14. Characterizing Government Social Media Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    As research on government social media continues to grow in quantity and scope, this area calls for mapping and systematization, in order to stimulate better-informed studies in the future. This paper draws on a comprehensive review of government social media literature in the e...... a four-point research agenda for future government social media research....

  15. Government, Money, and International Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Hans-Hermann

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author deals with: (1) Definition of government; incentive structure under government: taxation, war and territorial expansion. (2) Origin of money; government and money; the devolution of money from commodity to fiat money. (3) International politics and monetary regimes; monetary imperialism and the drive toward a one-world central bank and fiat currency.

  16. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.

  17. Responsibility with accountability: A FAIR governance framework for performance accountability of local governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Shah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of local governments in bringing about fair, accountable, incoorruptible and responsive (FAIR governance. Local governments around the world have done important innovations to earn the trust of their residents and their comparative performance is of great interest yet a comprehensive framework to provide such benchmarking is not available. This paper attempts to fill this void, by developing a general framework for performance accountability of local governments and by relating real world practices to aspects of this framework. The proposed rating framework requires several types of assessments: (a their compliance with due process and law; (b monitoring of fiscal health for sustainability; (c monitoring of service delivery ; and (d citizens’ satisfaction with local services. The approach yields key indicators useful for benchmarking performance that can be used in selfevaluation and improvement of performance. t From an analysis of practices in local government performance monitoring and evaluation, the paper concludes that ad hoc ad-on self standing monitoring and evaluation systems are more costly and less useful than built-in tools and mechanisms for government transparency, self–evaluation and citizen based accountability such as local government output budgeting and output based fiscal transfers to finance local services.

  18. Calorie Restriction, Stem Cells, and Rejuvenation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging may be defined as the time-dependent deterioration in function of an organism associated with or responsible for the increase in susceptibility to disease and probability of death with advancing age (Harman, 1981; Cefalu, 2011. Generally, the aging organisms are characterized by both biochemical and functional declines. Declining of basal metabolism rates, protein turnover, glucose tolerance, reproductive capacity, telomere shortening, and oxidative phosphorylation are related to the biochemical. Whilst, lung expansion volume, renal glomerular and tubular capacities, cardiovascular performance, musculoskeletal system, nerve conduction velocity, endocrine and exocrine systems, immunological defenses, and sensory systems are associated with the physiological declining (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. Some evidences indicated that, although members of a species develop into adults in the same way, even genetically similar or identical individuals, raised in identical conditions and eating identical food, but they may age differently (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. These aging differences are attributable to the life style particularly calorie and dietary restriction intakes, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and thus its implication on severity of damage, repair capacity, and error accumulation in cellular genetic material (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015; Mihaylova et al., 2014; Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Therefore, in molecular terms, aging can be defined as a decline of the homeostatic mechanisms that ensure the function of cells, tissues, and organs systems (Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Accordingly, if the homeostatic mechanism can be repaired, the result is rejuvenation.

  19. Calorie restriction in rodents: Caveats to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  1. Universal Cycles of Restricted Classes of Words

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Arielle; Godbole, Anant

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that Universal Cycles of $k$-letter words on an $n$-letter alphabet exist for all $k$ and $n$. In this paper, we prove that Universal Cycles exist for restricted classes of words, including: non-bijections, equitable words (under suitable restrictions), ranked permutations, and "passwords".

  2. Freedom and Restrictions in Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    Since freedom of thought and expression is essential in a democracy, censorship of language is rightly regarded as a threat to all other freedoms. Still, it is inevitable that certain restrictions will occasionally be imposed on language in America and in other societies. Restrictions on language date back to the Ten Commandments, which condemned…

  3. Protein restriction in chronic renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ECHTEN, JEKT; NAUTA, J; HOP, WCJ; de Jong, MCJ; REITSMABIERENS, WCC; VANAMSTEL, SLBP; VANACKER, KJ; NOORDZIJ, CM; WOLFF, ED

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a protein restricted diet on renal function and growth of children with chronic renal failure. In a multicentre prospective study 56 children (aged 2-18 years) with chronic renal failure were randomly assigned to the protein restricted (0.8-1.1

  4. Relationship Between Calorie Restriction, Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the brain of the caloric restricted rats, there was little or no change in the tGSH and GSH, although the GSSG and GSSG/GSH% ratio were increased significantly. These results suggest that aging of rats had been decelerated by caloric restriction due to the decrease in the peroxidative damage in the lungs and brain.

  5. Eclampsia despite strict dietary sodium restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delemarre, F.M.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Berendes, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The classic indication for prescribing dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy has been the prevention of eclampsia. We describe a case of intrapartum eclampsia in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman. A strongly sodium restricted diet was prescribed because of pre-eclampsia. Compliance to the diet was

  6. 7 CFR 3430.205 - Funding restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.205 Section 3430.205... Funding restrictions. (a) Prohibition against construction. Funds made available under this subpart shall not be used for the construction of a new building or facility or the acquisition, expansion...

  7. 28 CFR 804.3 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions. 804.3 Section 804.3 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS § 804.3 Restrictions. (a) The Agency is not authorized to accept gifts of money, stock...

  8. Government by standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Since 2009, all Danish hospitals have been subjected to a comprehensive, mandatory accreditation system, the so-called Danish Quality Model (DDKM), in order to assure the quality of hospital services. So far there is no evidence of DDKM’s positive effects on clinical outcome and it may even be co......, it is argued that the accreditation system is hard to refuse because it promises to increase the quality of hospital services and, more importantly, because the procedural standards espoused by DDKM work through the structured and accountable freedom of medical staff....... be contributing to accountability overload. This article seeks to provide an explanation for why hospital staff seems to accept, albeit grudgingly and partially, the imposition of a new, comprehensive accountability system with questionable clinical merits. Inspired by Michel Foucault’s analytics of government...

  9. Local Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PROFIROIU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of the level of corruption level and on its impact on the growing rate of the GDP (Mauro [1995]1, Abed and Davoodi2, Krueger [1974]3, on the impact upon some of the national economical sectors (Tanzi [1998]4, Shang-Jin Wei [2001]5, or on the decentralization processes (Shah [2006]6.

  10. Privatization Of Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Biersteker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Biersteker graduated from Chicago University (BF in Political Science and MIT (MA in Political Science and got PhD in Political Science in MIT as well. Later professor Biersteker lectured in Yale University (1976-1985, South Carolina University (1985-1992 and Brown University (1992-2006. He could be described as a constructivist focusing his research on global governance, international organizations and transnational policy networks, construction of sovereignty and regimes of targeted sanctions. Professor Birsteker kindly agreed to give an interview to the “MGIMO Review of International Relations” during a seminar within the research project - Grant of RFBR No. 16-23-41004. The seminar was also attended by M.M. Lebedeva, Yu.A. Nikitin, A.I. Nikitin, I.A. Istomin.

  11. Tourism and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses tourism education for sustainability with a particular focus on the challenges and opportunities associated with preparing students to work within complex tourism governance settings. It takes the position that the development of tourism within a sustainability framework...... requires that tourism professionals effectively engage in dynamic social discourses where difficult trade-offs are made between competing demands. The challenge for tourism education is therefore to prepare graduates to work in these complex, value-laden, socio-political environments where they can...... proactively and positively contribute to developing forms of tourism that progress the objectives of sustainable development. This chapter explores this challenge in terms of a philosophic tourism practitioner education, and in doing so, discusses three key dimensions of this education: historical antecedents...

  12. Governing the Conflicted Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sareen, Siddharth

    for collective decision-making. This makes them the natural institution of choice to nurture democratic practice among the Ho people of Jharkhand’s West Singhbhum district, whose village communities form the focus of this study. However, Jharkhand’s state laws are at odds with national ones, and decentralisation...... works more along administrative than democratic lines. This limits the extent to which the village assemblies can nurture democratisation in the implementation of development schemes. One village assembly is far more successful at governing natural resources than the other. This is shown to be due...... to proactive leadership, a cohesive community and local social mobilisation within the successful village assembly, in contrast to the co-option of benefits by some village inhabitants in the other. Based on these cases, it is concluded that while a local deliberative institution is essential for nurturing...

  13. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal org...... to Anna Grandori for numerous excellent comments on anearlier draft. The standard disclaimer applies.Keywords: Knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, governance, organizationaleconomics, organizational behavior.......An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...... organizational practices in order to foster knowledge sharing andcreation. Theoretically, we unfold this argument by relying on key ideas oforganizational economics and organizational behaviour studies. We put forwarda number of refutable propositions derived from this reasoning.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful...

  14. Reinventing government: Reinventing Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeda, J.T.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1943 as one of the three original Manhattan Project locations involved in the development of atomic weapons. It continued as a defense production center until 1988, when its mission changed to environmental restoration and remediation. The Hanford Site is changing its business strategy and in doing so, is reinventing government. This new development has been significantly influenced by a number of external sources. These include: the change in mission, reduced security requirements, new found partnerships, fiscal budgets, the Tri-Party agreement and stakeholder involvement. Tight budgets and the high cost of cleanup require that the site develop and implement innovative cost saving approaches to its mission. Costeffective progress is necessary to help assure continued funding by Congress

  15. Pension Fund governing board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...

  16. Knowledge and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Assumptions about the knowledge held by economic agents have been an integral part of the theory of economic organization since its inception. However, recent work—here called “knowledge governance”—has more explicitly highlighted knowledge as both an independent and dependent variable. Thus......, knowledge may also be seen as being caused by governance mechanisms and structures; specifically, incentives, allocations of decision rights, organizational structure and so on influence the search for knowledge, and the creation, sharing and integration of knowledge. More philosophically, the concern...... with the role of knowledge in the context of economic organization prompts a reevaluation of a number of the fundamental assumptions that are often used to guide theory-building in the economics of organization (e.g., Bayesian and game theoretical foundations)....

  17. Mediatization and Government Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo; Valentini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    do not tend to get a media coverage that matches the EU’s considerable influence on European citizens’ daily lives. This study, which is based on in-depth interviews with European Parliament press officers, concludes that these professionals are indeed attuned to a “media logic......Social actors see exposure in the news media as attractive for publicity purposes and are under pressure to adapt their press work to a “media logic” to be attractive sources for journalists and editors. This article investigates the European Parliament’s press officers’ professional practices...... in the light of mediatization and government communication theories. Without one pan-European public sphere, the European Parliament, like the other European Union (EU) institutions, competes with national actors for the news media’s attention in the EU’s twenty-eight national public spheres, where EU affairs...

  18. Corporate Governance: Can Universities Learn from the Private Sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Raphaela

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance has several objectives: growth, transparency, leadership, social responsibility and trust, as well as the protection of shareholders and company assets. It also plays a key role in determining a company's control environment. In this article, the author takes a closer look at corporate governance in the private sector,…

  19. Restricted gravity: Abelian projection of Einstein's theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.M.

    2013-01-01

    Treating Einstein's theory as a gauge theory of Lorentz group, we decompose the gravitational connection Γμ into the restricted connection made of the potential of the maximal Abelian subgroup H of Lorentz group G and the valence connection made of G/H part of the potential which transforms covariantly under Lorentz gauge transformation. With this we show that Einstein's theory can be decomposed into the restricted gravity made of the restricted connection which has the full Lorentz gauge invariance which has the valence connection as gravitational source. The decomposition shows the existence of a restricted theory of gravitation which has the full general invariance but is much simpler than Einstein's theory. Moreover, it tells that the restricted gravity can be written as an Abelian gauge theory,

  20. Local Government System in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Redko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of the activities of the local government of Japan. Particular attention is drawn to the legal framework and the material basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies. The system of local self-government is considered as a special form of self-government with a specific functional and meaning; system of municipal management and delegation of authority, as well as features of interaction between civil and imperious levels. The allocation of the city with a special status, as well as the financial structure of the local government of Japan, is considered in detail.

  1. Digital governance and institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlæger, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Coal allocation in China is a seminal case of e-government in the political economy. The empirical phenomenon of market supporting e-government has not been systematically analysed. By developing and applying a digital governance model this article examines institutional change in a case of coal...... allocation reform in China. The case shows how the central state used e-government to get rid of planning overload. Coal allocation meetings were abolished in favour of an ecology of online market solutions. The findings suggest that further research on Chinese e-government would benefit from attention...

  2. Government-to-Government E-Government: A Case Study of a Federal Financial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faokunla, Olumide Adegboyega

    2012-01-01

    The problem with the study of the concept of electronic government (e-Gov) is that scholars in the field have not adequately explored various dimensions of the concept. Literature on e-Gov is replete with works on the form of government to consumer e-Gov. Much less work had been done on the government to government (G2G) e-Gov. This qualitative…

  3. EMPLOYEES’ RIGHTS IN THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Emil Moise

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent redrafting of the corporate governance legal frame at the European level, with emphasis on its functions of valorization and security of shareholders’ rights, maximizing profits and minimizing risks, raises the balance issue between the above stated goals and the necessity for compliance with employees’ rights. In this context, we intend to analyze the possibility for the labour regulations to be completed or substituted by the “soft-law” regulations, product of corporate governance, to identify the degree of stability, transparency and predictability of the employer-employee relationship and to identify the reconciliation methods between the apparently differing objectives of corporate governance and protection of employees’ rights. The study performs an analysis of the cases in which relevant provision form both corporate law and labour law are applicable, providing also practical examples from the real business environment, a comparative analysis of the relevant legal provisions from the principal EU member states and also an examination of the relevant doctrine. The research results indicate the negative effect of the poor implementation of the corporate governance rules over employees’ rights, but also the fact that compliance with employees’ rights can be and should be an instrument of the effective and transparent corporate governance rather than a barrier, providing several directions for improving the labour relations in the corporate environment.

  4. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  5. Research governance: new hope for ethics committees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Deborah; Martlew, Ainsley

    2007-01-01

    For many years there has been discussion regarding the problems confronting our current ethics review system. Commentators have identified numerous issues that threaten the sustainability of Australia's voluntary HREC system. Various ad hoc solutions to these problems have been posed, but have not resulted in any significant advances. However, in recent years, discourse regarding research governance has become prominent in the Australian research environment. The application of research governance principles is gaining momentum amongst the regulators of research, including research institutions and their governing bureaucracies. We argue that this is potentially the most significant development in several years towards creating a sustainable HREC system in Australia. The recognition by research institutions and their governing bureaucracies that the responsibility for overall research governance lies with them, rather than solely with their HRECs, is leading to a range of initiatives which should significantly lessen the burden on Australian ethics committees, and improve their ability to undertake their core task of reviewing the ethical aspects of research proposals.

  6. R Factor-Controlled Restriction and Modification of Deoxyribonucleic Acid: Restriction Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Robert; Roulland-Dussoix, Daisy; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1972-01-01

    Restriction mutants of two different R factor-controlled host specificities (RI and RII) were isolated. All of the restriction mutants examined had a normal modification phenotype. No complementation was observed between the RI and RII host specificities. It is concluded that for each host specificity no protein subunit is shared by the restriction endonuclease and modification methylase. PMID:4565538

  7. Measuring the Restrictiveness of Living Environments for Children and Youth: Reconceptualizing Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Doucette, Ann; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The "Restrictiveness of Living Environment Scale" has long been the primary way to conceptualize the "restrictiveness" of a child's living situation. However, changes in systems of care and other factors have created a need to revisit how restrictiveness is conceptualized and measured. A measure was created to assess an environment's level of…

  8. Local Government Internal Audit Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local government councils (LGC rely on a number of funding sources including state and federal governments as well as their community constituents to enable them to provide a range of public services. Given the constraints on these funding sources councils need to have in place a range of strategies and policies capable of providing good governance and must appropriately discharge their financial accountabilities. To assist LGC with meeting their governance and accountability obligations they often seek guidance from their key stakeholders. For example, in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW, the Office of Local Government has developed a set of guidelines, the Internal Audit Guidelines. In 2010 the NSW Office of Local Government issued revised guidelines emphasising that an internal audit committee is an essential component of good governance. In addition, the guidelines explained that to improve the governance and accountability of the councils, these committees should be composed of a majority of independent members. To maintain committee independence the guidelines indicated that the Mayor should not be a member of the committee. However these are only guidelines, not legislated requirements and as such compliance with the guidelines, before they were revised, has been demonstrated to be quite low (Jones & Bowrey 2013. This study, based on a review of NSW Local Government Councils’ 2012/2013 reports, including Annual Reportsrelation to internal audit committees, to determine if the guidelines are effective in improving local government council governance.

  9. Petra Governance Handbook - WP7 – Governance structures & business models : D7.3: Governance Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.; Hirschhorn, F.; Klievink, A.J.; Steenhuisen, B.M.; van der Voort, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    This document represents the governance handbook on mobility data platforms for the PETRA project. The governance handbook provides metropolitan authorities contemplating the implementation of a mobility data platform in line with the PETRA project about governance issues and design.
    The

  10. Governing the Nexus for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Sina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the challenges of and requirements for effective governance of the water, energy and food nexus. With global dynamics such as climate change, urbanization and changing consumption patterns, governing resources in a coherent manner becomes both more complex and more relevant for sustainable development. Governance challenges include nexus economics (costs and benefits of different approaches to resource management, institutional design (like questions of how decision-making should be best distributed and good governance (how to make sure that nexus governance adheres to certain agreed upon principles and values. In terms of economics, a balance between sector specific actions and nexus governance is required. For effective decision-making it is important that power among different institutions is both distributed and coordinated. Good nexus governance requires targets that can be monitored to make sure that basic principles are followed and to examine whether progress toward sustainable development is being made.

  11. Neurosurgery for management of severe head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, K.; Richter, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Neurosurgery as a treatment of severe head injuries is not restricted to invasive surgery but also includes peri-operative intensive care medicine. Thanks to the technological progress and advanced diagnostic tools, especially drug treatments and their efficiency as well as risks can be far better monitored and analysed today. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Improving computer security for authentication of users: influence of proactive password restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert W; Lien, Mei-Ching; Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Schultz, E Eugene; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2002-05-01

    Entering a username-password combination is a widely used procedure for identification and authentication in computer systems. However, it is a notoriously weak method, in that the passwords adopted by many users are easy to crack. In an attempt to improve security, proactive password checking may be used, in which passwords must meet several criteria to be more resistant to cracking. In two experiments, we examined the influence of proactive password restrictions on the time that it took to generate an acceptable password and to use it subsequently to long in. The required length was a minimum of five characters in Experiment 1 and eight characters in Experiment 2. In both experiments, one condition had only the length restriction, and the other had additional restrictions. The additional restrictions greatly increased the time it took to generate the password but had only a small effect on the time it took to use it subsequently to long in. For the five-character passwords, 75% were cracked when no other restrictions were imposed, and this was reduced to 33% with the additional restrictions. For the eight-character passwords, 17% were cracked with no other restrictions, and 12.5% with restrictions. The results indicate that increasing the minimum character length reduces crackability and increases security, regardless of whether additional restrictions are imposed.

  13. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  14. Trans-European transport network and cross-border governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    for coordinating knowledge, efforts and solutions across several national systems. In order to understand this governance setting, one needs to understand the specific quality of transnational governance in the EU, which is neither purely international nor federally integrated. The transport corridor between Malmö......This article looks at the implementation of trans-European transport corridors in the EU and the influence it has on governance within EU member-states. It considers the implementation of such a scheme in the context of cross-border cooperation and discusses the system of governance necessary...

  15. Alignment between business process governance and IT governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles; Hvam, Lars

    2014-01-01

    frameworks to enable business-IT strategic alignment, efficient process and IT requirements specification, and IT-enabled business value realization. We examine the actuality of this alignment in practice through a case study conducted in a relatively mature multinational corporation. The findings indicate......The importance of business processes and the increasing centrality of IT to an organization's performance have called for a specific focus on business process governance and IT governance in contemporary enterprises. Despite the wide scope of business process management, which covers both business...... and IT domains, and the profound impact of IT on process innovations, the association between business process governance and IT governance remains under-explored. Analyzing the constituting elements of the two governance concepts, we propose the necessity of alignment between business process and IT governance...

  16. Financial Reporting by Selected Defense Agencies of Government Property in the Custody of Contractors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ... over the $92 billion of Government property in the custody of contractors. After several years of planning, DoD has not developed a standard accounting system for recording, tracking, and reporting Government property in the custody of contractors...

  17. Project governance: "Schools of thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Christiaan Bekker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.

  18. Governance for sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Loorbach (Derk)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractSustainable development is rapidly moving from the periphery to the mainstream of politics, business, and science. Over the past several years, a strong consensus has started to emerge that some of the major global problems can only be overcome through large-scale concerted action.

  19. Democracy over governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Correa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of institutional economics are available to evaluate varieties of capitalism. These methodologies dig behind preferences and technology to arrive at the ground on which agents make choices. The individual is at the foundation of these edifices, neoclassical and otherwise. Consequently, the denouement of all these models is that the market knows best in the absence of effective counterfactuals. A natural corollary is that the task of the government is to set effective mechanisms in place in order to approach the best outcomes. In contrast, we propose a framework which contends with the modern economy as an aggregate that evolves in historical time. Problems like effective demand failures are endemic to capitalist economies. Therefore, systematic State intervention is essential to their functioning. In particular, political economy teaches us that intervention must be in the interest of wage earners. In contrast to the earlier model, the fabric of norms and conventions that facilitate the growth and development of economies must emerge from the consciousness and practices of the working class.

  20. Happiness, Sadness and Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duncan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policy-making that re-presents – as objects of concern and by means of statistics – the suffering or depression and the happiness of populations indicates an evolving form of governance that examines and reshapes subjectivity itself. Never before have states of subjectivity been acted upon, through surveys, statistical and policy analysis, and scientific disciplines, to the extent seen today. This article: Documents changing epistemic co-ordinates, especially in psychology and economics, that first occluded happiness in the interests of objectivity, but, in recent decades, marked out a renewed ‘science’ of happiness.Examines changes in the discursive formulation of depression, as a counterpart to happiness.Argues that, seen in terms of bio-power, contemporary concerns for happiness and depression are consistent – rather than incompatible – with one another. How can so many claim to be happy when so many, we are told, are depressed, anxious or suffering emotional pain? There is no underlying contradiction here, for two reasons: Happiness and depression are manifestations of the same political discourse (or aspects of a political subjectivity characterized by dis-inhibition, consumer self-indulgence and performance anxiety. And, just as we needed madness in order to understand ‘sanity,’ or the prison in order to view ourselves as ‘free,’ so we rely upon concerns about depression in order to understand and act upon ourselves as subjects capable of unlimited happiness.

  1. Decoding restricted participation in sequential electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.

  2. Investigation of restricted baby Skyrme models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Wereszczynski, A.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.

    2010-01-01

    A restriction of the baby Skyrme model consisting of the quartic and potential terms only is investigated in detail for a wide range of potentials. Further, its properties are compared with those of the corresponding full baby Skyrme models. We find that topological (charge) as well as geometrical (nucleus/shell shape) features of baby Skyrmions are captured already by the soliton solutions of the restricted model. Further, we find a coincidence between the compact or noncompact nature of solitons in the restricted model, on the one hand, and the existence or nonexistence of multi-Skyrmions in the full baby Skyrme model, on the other hand.

  3. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea S; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-31

    Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47%) and sport-related (56%). Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%), or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%), or content (22%). Public health professionals (47%) appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%). Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and 'nannyist', or inessential to government policy. Support varied among

  4. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. Methods We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Results Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47%) and sport-related (56%). Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%), or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%), or content (22%). Public health professionals (47%) appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%). Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and ‘nannyist’, or inessential to government

  5. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarty Andrea S

    2012-08-01

    inessential to government policy. Support varied among news-actors, with public health professionals (94% more supportive than the public (68%, community-based organisations (76%, the government (72%, and the sports (16%, drinks (3%, or advertising (4% industries. Conclusion Restrictions on alcohol advertising currently have low newsworthiness as a standalone issue. Future advocacy might better define the exact nature of required restrictions, anticipate vocal opposition and address forms of advertising beyond televised sport if exposure to advertising, especially among children, is to be reduced.

  6. Internet Governance amp Cyber Crimes In UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Al Neyadi; Alia Al Kaabi; Laila Al Kaabi; Mariam Al Ghufli; Maitha Al Shamsi; Dr. Muhammad Khan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most people in UAE dont feel safe while they are use the Internet because most internet users have been a victim for cyber crime. Cyber crime threat rate has increased which has targeted on citizen privacy property and governments also the reputation problems. There are many criminal activities such as indecent acts Copyright issues Terrorist Acts State security and Contempt of religion. Cyber crimes due to several reasons such as they have lack of social intelligence they are being ...

  7. Italian asset management companies: products and governance

    OpenAIRE

    Arcuri, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the asset management sector has prompted many studies to highlight the need to promote its growth and development. This is even more so following the recent financial crisis, considered by many authors the most severe recession after World War II. Contributions existing in literature have emphasized the importance of investigating the corporate governance system of the Asset Management Companies (AMCs), considering that the Italian financial system is characterized by a "...

  8. A Standardization Framework for Electronic Government Service Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantis, Demetrios; Tsiakaliaris, Christos; Lampathaki, Fenareti; Charalabidis, Yannis

    Although most eGovernment interoperability frameworks (eGIFs) cover adequately the technical aspects of developing and supporting the provision of electronic services to citizens and businesses, they do not exclusively address several important areas regarding the organization, presentation, accessibility and security of the content and the electronic services offered through government portals. This chapter extends the scope of existing eGIFs presenting the overall architecture and the basic concepts of the Greek standardization framework for electronic government service portals which, for the first time in Europe, is part of a country's eGovernment framework. The proposed standardization framework includes standards, guidelines and recommendations regarding the design, development and operation of government portals that support the provision of administrative information and services to citizens and businesses. By applying the guidelines of the framework, the design, development and operation of portals in central, regional and municipal government can be systematically addressed resulting in an applicable, sustainable and ever-expanding framework.

  9. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  10. The role of local governments in traditional market revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastyawan, A.; Isbandono, P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the discussion the role of local government in traditional market revitalization. It is obvious that traditional market contributes economically into a certain region. However, the existence of the traditional market is decreasing since there are modern markets that are fully facilitated by the government. In order to increase the economic standard of the traders, the government and the legislative revitalized the improper traditional market, without the participation of the society and the stakeholders. Government’s intention to revitalize the market is to increase local revenue. While the Legislative Council considered politically motivated by profit, rent-seeking. Restrictions on the aspirations of the traders in the revitalization cause resistance to the government. The traders wished to be recognized as part of the stakeholder. In the future, the market revitalization activities should involve the traders as the main actors who have received services from the government. Government as policy makers should consider as it partners in developing business traders and increase local revenues.

  11. INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENT SECURITIES: SPECIFIC FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Versal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It’s disclosed the features of the international government securities market during 1993 – 2012: main players are the developed countries (Western Europe, Canada, USA with the increasing role of developing countries; debt crises have the negative impact as on the development of the international government securities market, but also on the international capital market as a whole; debt crises are not a spontaneous phenomenon, and usually occur as a result of inadequate growth in GDP increasing government debt.

  12. Corporate governance of the environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Purvis, B.

    2005-01-01

    The global pursuit of a more sustainable future cannot be achieved without the active engagement of the business community. The challenge for business has been to strategically engage with and embed environmental responsibility within their wider corporate governance to create effective corporate governance of the environment. The assumption would appear to be, that we have already witnessed the construction of such governance, delivered through the attainment of a paradigmatic shift in corpo...

  13. Corporate Governance Disclosure in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    ONG, Wei Jiin

    2006-01-01

    This research provides evidence on corporate governance disclosure in Malaysia based on a sample of 25 Malaysian public listed companies on the Kuala Lumpur Composite Index (KLCI) in the year 1998 and 2005 that are listed on the Bursa Malaysia. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine whether after the launch of the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (HLFC, 2000) following the 1997/98 financial crisis, corporate governance in Malaysia has improved in terms of disclosure information ...

  14. Interorganizational Care needs Horizontal Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Spierenburg, Monique; van de Schoot, Rian

    2016-01-01

    Interorganizational Governance isn’t a theme for research yet. Because of the complexity of problems of (new) clients there is an urgent need to cooperate in networks of welfare, care, initiatives of citizens, general practitioners and others. And because of the policy of the (local) government, the transition of the healthcare systems, with the vision to help people close by. In these practice we see new ideas and forms of governance.What’s the problem? Decentralization, integration and pers...

  15. Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Horhoianu, I A; Dumitrascu, M C; Horhoianu, V

    2014-06-15

    The assessment of fetal growth represents a fundamental step towards the identification of the true growth restricted fetus that is associated to important perinatal morbidity and mortality. The possible ways of detecting abnormal fetal growth are taken into consideration in this review and their strong and weak points are discussed. An important debate still remains about how to discriminate between the physiologically small fetus that does not require special surveillance and the truly growth restricted fetus who is predisposed to perinatal complications, even if its parameters are above the cut-off limits established. In this article, we present the clinical tools of fetal growth assessment: Symphyseal-Fundal Height (SFH) measurement, the fetal ultrasound parameters widely taken into consideration when discussing fetal growth: Abdominal Circumference (AC) and Estimated Fetal Weight (EFW); several types of growth charts and their characteristics: populational growth charts, standard growth charts, individualized growth charts, customized growth charts and growth trajectories.

  16. distribution, abundance and properties of restriction enzymes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA of granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) I and II with a view to ... properties for manipulation of the genes for production of modified starch. .... procurement, storage and handling of the ..... been made on restriction enzymes of potato,.

  17. Health Benefits of Fasting and Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Daiber, Andreas; Korac, Bato; Li, Huige; Essop, M Faadiel; Laher, Ismail

    2017-10-23

    Obesity and obesity-related diseases, largely resulting from urbanization and behavioral changes, are now of global importance. Energy restriction, though, is associated with health improvements and increased longevity. We review some important mechanisms related to calorie limitation aimed at controlling of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes. Calorie restriction triggers a complex series of intricate events, including activation of cellular stress response elements, improved autophagy, modification of apoptosis, and alteration in hormonal balance. Intermittent fasting is not only more acceptable to patients, but it also prevents some of the adverse effects of chronic calorie restriction, especially malnutrition. There are many somatic and potentially psychologic benefits of fasting or intermittent calorie restriction. However, some behavioral modifications related to abstinence of binge eating following a fasting period are crucial in maintaining the desired favorable outcomes.

  18. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy...... restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL. Methods: 35 adults (age......: 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting...

  19. Restricted Coherent Risk Measures and Actuarial Solvency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E. Kountzakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a general dual representation form for restricted coherent risk measures, and we apply it to a minimization problem of the required solvency capital for an insurance company.

  20. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  1. The welfare effects of mobility restrictions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2003), s. 685-696 ISSN 1094-2025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : mobility restriction * partnership * search Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2003

  2. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clouse, Katherine N; Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2006-01-01

    ...) functions in the localization and translational regulation of grk mRNA. The purpose of this project is to identify factors that function with Sqd to produce spatially-restricted Egfr activation...

  3. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) functions in the localization and translational regulation of grk mRNA. The purpose of this project is to identify factors that function with Squid to produce spatially-restricted EGFR activation...

  4. A topological insight into restricted Boltzmann machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, D.C.; Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Liotta, A.

    Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and models derived from them have been successfully used as basic building blocks in deep artificial neural networks for automatic features extraction, unsupervised weights initialization, but also as density estimators. Thus, their generative and discriminative

  5. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clouse, Katherine N; Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2006-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During cogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster local Egfr activation by the spatially-restricted TGFalpha-like ligand Gurken (Grk...

  6. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, local EGFR activation by the spatially restricted TGF alpha-like ligand, Gurken (Grk...

  7. Clinical governance and external audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, S G; Buchanan, J G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a model of clinical governance that was developed at South Auckland Health during the period 1995 to 2000. Clinical quality and safety are core objectives. A multidisciplinary Clinical Board is responsible for the development and publicising of sound clinical policies together with monitoring the effects of their implementation on quality and safety. The Clinical Board has several committees, including an organization-wide Continuous Quality Improvement Committee to enhance the explicit nature of the quality system in terms of structure, staff awareness and involvement, and to develop the internal audit system. The second stream stems from the Chief Medical Officer and clinical directors in a clinical management sense. The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors covers both clinical and financial audit. The reporting lines back to that committee are described and the role of the external auditor of clinical standards is explained. The aim has been to create a supportive culture where quality initiatives and innovation can flourish, and where the emphasis is not on censure but improvement.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea Corina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a key element of today’s economic reality being more and more present in many countries around the world. This paper has two main objectives. The first one is to offer more insight into the concept of corporate governance by a thorough literature review and by presenting and analyzing a framework of corporate governance. The second objective of this paper is to investigate the corporate governance situation in three developing economies (Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary. The World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development published a series of reports on corporate governance. The present study uses data from these reports in order to illustrate how these developing economies are dealing with corporate governance. Based on ROSC Reports a corporate governance score was calculated. As this score shows, there is room for improvement for all three developing economies. This study is important because it shows the differences in corporate governance among developing economies and the need to study these nations at the individual country level. Corporate governance has many benefits for developing economies. It helps developing economies to register sustainable growth rates, to increases investors’ confidence in the national economy, and to increase the ability of capital markets to mobilize savings.

  9. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akramov, Kamiljon T

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, the study explores how different categories of aid affect economic growth, whether the quality of governance is significant in explaining differences in economic growth, and whether...

  10. Afghanistan: Government Formation and Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    .... However, ethnic disputes remain confined largely to political debate and competition, enabling President Karzai to focus on improving governance, reversing security deterioration, and his re-election...

  11. Dawn of e-government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Helle Zinner; Damsgaard, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Most countries have defined strategies for e-government. The objectives for implementing e-government are often defined but the means for fuelling the adoption and diffusion of e-government are typically less well clear in the policy statements. The present study assesses the impact of latest...... internally and externally. The e-Day initiative represents a drastic change in the former policy statements concerning IT adoption and diffusion in Danish government. The policy statements had previously been based on voluntary adoption focusing on visions and pedagogical intervention in governmental...

  12. 76 FR 32011 - Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the United States of America and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Bolivia Notice of Proposal to... Government of the Republic of Bolivia Concerning the Imposition of Import Restrictions on Archaeological Material from the Pre-Columbian Cultures and Certain Ethnological Material from the Colonial and Republican...

  13. Public Investment, Revenue Shocks, and Borrowing Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Wildasin, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper lays out a theory of taxation and public investment in an intertemporal setting under conditions of revenue shocks. Without borrowing restrictions, the optimal policy is characterized by smooth time paths of taxes and public investment. While the introduction of formal borrowing restrictions leads to some precautionary savings, it gives rise to fluctuations in public investment in response to adverse but also favorable revenue shocks. This theoretical result is tested empirically u...

  14. Governance of Higher Education--Implementation of Project Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheridis, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on coordination between governance actors in higher education. The object of the study is a department at a public university, seen as a multi-project environment. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and analyze project governance as a tool that allows departmental management to coordinate with the authorities, the…

  15. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…

  16. Adopting service governance governing portfolio value for sound corporate citzenship

    CERN Document Server

    AXELOS, AXELOS

    2015-01-01

    Adopting Service Governance provides a useful umbrella for a number of frameworks including ITIL®, TOGAF®, COBIT®, ITSM, BSM, Business Analysis, Programme Management, Management of Value, Management of Portfolios and Management of Risk by establishing the top-down governance of an organisation through services.

  17. Good government and good governance: record keeping in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the challenges that arise when record keeping systems are advocated as a necessary under-pinning for good government and good governance. The relationship between record keeping and accountability is analysed and contextualised in relation to transparency and Freedom of Information ...

  18. Governing Towards Sustainability-Conceptualizing Modes of Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, P. de; Driessen, P.P.J.; Sauer, A.; Bornemann, B.; Burger, P.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing scientific debate regarding the suitability of certain modes of governance for promoting sustainable development (SD). However, thus far there is neither agreement on ways to meaningfully distinguish and understand governance modes nor a foundation of the aspects to be chosen

  19. A baseline understanding of state laws governing e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, C K; Chriqui, J F; Chaloupka, F J

    2014-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been available for purchase in the USA since 2007, and have grown rapidly in popularity. Currently, there are no federal restrictions on e-cigarettes; therefore, any regulations are under the purview of state and/or local governments. This study examines state laws governing e-cigarettes through youth access restrictions, smoke-free air requirements and/or excise taxation. Codified statutory and administrative laws, attorney general opinions, executive orders, and revenue notices and rulings effective as of 15 November 2013 for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, were compiled using Boolean searches in Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw. All laws were analysed by two study authors to determine the presence and components of relevant provisions. Two categories of laws were identified; (1) explicit e-cigarette laws and (2) laws focused on tobacco-derived and/or nicotine-containing products. Thirty-four states' laws address e-cigarettes either explicitly or as part of language applying to tobacco-derived or nicotine-containing products. Laws explicitly addressing e-cigarettes primarily focus on youth access (22 states) or smoke-free air (12 states); only Minnesota imposes an excise tax on e-cigarettes. Similarly, tobacco-derived or nicotine-containing products are primarily regulated through youth access restrictions (6 states), smoke-free air laws (5 states), or excise taxation (2 states). In the current absence of federal law governing e-cigarettes, more than one-half of the states have taken the initiative to regulate these products. The opportunity exists for the remaining states to incorporate e-cigarette-related restrictions into their pre-existing tobacco control laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Corporate Governance and Equity Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between corporate governance and equity returns from the small investors view point. A primary survey has been conducted to gather the data required to examine the link. Preliminary result of the study shows that the four elements of governance: board structure, transparency, fairness and responsibility are positively related with equity returns.

  1. Corporate Governance Frequently Asked Questions

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2016-01-01

    This guidebook is designed to address common questionson corporate governance that are frequently asked byowners and managers of companies in the Middle Eastand North Africa (MENA) region. It familiarizes readerswith the basic concepts of corporate governance,providing a comprehensive overview of the subject matter,using case studies as practical examples of corporategovernance application...

  2. The Business of Governing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    In September 2015, the Secretary of State for Education asked for more business involvement in schools, and in particular for business leaders' help to improve failing schools. This article questions the twenty-year campaign by all governments to engage business expertise and values in the governance of schools.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Improving Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap de Visser

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This book is a compilation of ten essays on local government with an introductory and concluding chapter. The themes discussed include metropolitan governance, the role of community leadership, the value of best practice as an administration technique, indigenous knowledge, intergovernmental relations, public-private partnerships and local management.

  4. An international corporate governance index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Wright, M.; Siegel, D.; Keasey, K.; Filatotchev, I.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a comparative analysis of corporate governance regulatory systems and their development since 1990 in the United States and in 30 European countries. It introduces a proposed methodology that would help create detailed corporate governance indices which describe the primary

  5. Faculty Communication with Governing Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Hans-Joerg

    2013-01-01

    College and university governance works best when every constituency within the institution has a clear understanding of its role with respect to the other constituencies. It works best when communication among the governing board, the administration, and the faculty (not to mention the staff and students) is regular, open, and honest. Too often…

  6. Hungary : Corporate Governance Country Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the corporate governance policy framework and enforcement and compliance practices in Hungary. Hungary has already invested considerable resources in upgrading its legislation to meet European Union Directives, and the legislative and regulatory framework dealing with corporate governance issues is robust. The major issues identified by this review include: (1) the gen...

  7. 76 FR 2001 - Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... change ``approval of the NASA Industrial Property Officer to ``approval of the Plant Clearance Officer... equipment), demolition, or management of real property. 0 3. Subpart 1845.3 is added to read as follows...-Government) use of any NASA equipment. 1845.302 Use of Government property on contracts with foreign...

  8. Recent Literature on Government Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to provide government information scholars and students with a broad overview of recent publications about government information from the literature of librarianship, archives, information technology management, public policy and law. Given the volume of literature produced in this field, a columnist cannot claim…

  9. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    issues of tax jurisdiction, revenue allocation, intergovernmental relations ... The 1999 Nigeria constitution stipulates the functions and powers of the ... systems of government, is characterized with diverse ethnic groups, ... states perceived to be an attempt by the federal government to relate directly to ..... excise taxes on oil.

  10. How to govern the cloud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Diamond, S.; Wainwright, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies economic governance theory to the cloud computing industry. We analyze which governance institution may be best suited to solve the problems stemming from asymmetric information about the true level of data protection, security, and accountability offered by cloud service

  11. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-12-15

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems. (author)

  12. Calvin on church and government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Dreyer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Calvin’s understanding of civil govern- ment as well as the relationship between church and govern- ment against the background of radical political change during the sixteenth century. It becomes clear that Calvin had an organic understanding of church, government and people. These three entities are interwoven and interact on the basis of the covenant and civil contract. Calvin’s approach, however, is not limited to the covenant, but has a surprising richness and diversity. He integrated theological, juristic and philosophical concepts in his understanding of the state. It is further shown that Calvin’s high regard for civil government, entrenched the corpus christianum, even though he clearly distinguished between ecclesiastical and civil governance. It is also shown that Calvin had a fundamental influence on many of the political concepts which are generally accepted within modern democra- cies.

  13. Practice Governance 101, v. 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David F

    2013-03-01

    Consensus governance is a principal weakness leading to group malfunction and failure. Inadequate group governance produces inadequate decisions, leading to inconsistent patient care, inadequate responses to marketplace challenges, and disregard for customers and strategic partners. The effectiveness of consensus management is limited by the pervasive incomplete knowledge and personal biases of partners. Additional structural weaknesses of group behavior include information cascade, the wisdom of the crowd, groupthink, pluralistic ignorance, analysis paralysis, peer pressure, and the herding instinct. Usual corporate governance is, by necessity, the governance model of choice. Full accountability of the decider(s) is the defining requirement of all successful governance models. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Government`s response to the competitiveness problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.; Carayannis, E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of how the US government responded to the concern in the 1980`s that US companies were experiencing problems of competitiveness in international markets. By the mid 1980`s there was great and growing concern throughout the US that US companies were experiencing difficulties in international competition. Pressure on Congress to take action came from constituents seeking jobs and companies that would directly benefit (this usually means receive public money) from programs that Congress might initiate. The fact that most constituent calls to Congress were about job creation was lost in the on-rush of R&D performers seeking funds for their favorite R&D project. In response, Congress created the Advanced Technology Program, the Technology Transfer Initiative, and the Technology Reinvestment Project, expanded the responsibilities of ARPA/DARPA, increased funding for the Small Business Initiative, expanded the Manufacturing Extension Partnership, funded SEMATECH, and increased NSF funding for basic research at universities. Many of these programs were later criticized for being industrial welfare and several were cut-back or stopped. Retrospective analysis shows that few of these programs addressed the root cause of competitiveness difficulties. In fact, by the time most of these programs were in place, US companies were well on their way to correcting their competitiveness problems. In addition, few were relevant to companies` often expressed concerns about workforce training, regulatory costs, and access to foreign markets. Twenty percent reductions in health care costs, regulatory costs, and education costs could annually pump $500 billion into the US economy and make companies operating in the US much more competitive in international markets.

  15. National Governance Approach for Agriculture Land in Natura 2000 Areas. Evidence from Plovdiv District, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Yanka KAZAKOVA-MATEVA

    2018-01-01

    The designation and implementation of Natura 2000 sites faced many challenges across most of the member states in the EC. Some related to consultation and involvement of stakeholders, funding the conservation objectives and providing compensation to land owners, farmers and foresters for restrictions on their land use. The national governments adopted different approaches to address these issues. The aim of the paper is to assess the governance approach for agricultural land in Natura 2000 in...

  16. Open government and municipalities: Beyond e-governement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Cruz Meléndez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article’s purpose is to analyze egovernment and open government as tolos to strengthen the role of municipal government. It reviews the evolution of both tolos in Mexico and contains a conceptual analysis of both terms to gain an understanding of their meaning and of the reason why they are promoted for the benefit of local governments. Finally, it explores the availability of these tools in the municipalities, and how they contribute to each municipality in the fulfillment of its responsibilities.

  17. Cellular Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Is an Important Dengue Virus Restriction Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannoni, Federico; Damonte, Elsa B.; Garc?a, Cybele C.

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic antiviral defense is based on cellular restriction factors that are constitutively expressed and, thus, active even before a pathogen enters the cell. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) are discrete nuclear foci that contain several cellular proteins involved in intrinsic antiviral responses against a number of viruses. Accumulating reports have shown the importance of PML as a DNA virus restriction factor and how these pathogens evade this antiviral activity....

  18. A political economy of China's export restrictions on rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pothen, Frank [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Kilian [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany)

    2015-04-20

    We investigate why governments restrict exports of exotic raw materials taking rare earth elements as a case study. Trade restrictions on exotic materials do not have immediate macroeconomic effects. Relocating rare earth intensive industries is found to be the main reason behind China's export barriers. They are part of a more extensive strategy aiming at creating comparative advantages in these sectors and at overcoming path dependencies. Moreover, export barriers serve as a second-best instrument to reduce pollution and to slow down the depletion of exhaustible resources. Growing domestic rare earth consumption renders those increasingly ineffective. Rising reliance on mine-site regulation indicates that this fact is taken into account. Rare earth extraction is dominated by a few large companies; the demand side is dispersed. That speaks against successful lobbying for export restrictions. It appears as if the export barriers are set up to compensate mining firms.

  19. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Münk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors. Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors.

  1. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Münk, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors. PMID:22069525

  2. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents.

  3. Model of adipose tissue cellularity dynamics during food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, H A; Géloën, A; Soulage, C O

    2015-01-07

    Adipose tissue and adipocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to obesity. Size of fat cells depends on the balance of synthesis and mobilization of lipids and can undergo important variations throughout the life of the organism. These variations usually occur when storing and releasing lipids according to energy demand. In particular when confronted to severe food restriction, adipocyte releases its lipid content via a process called lipolysis. We propose a mathematical model that combines cell diameter distribution and lipolytic response to show that lipid release is a surface (radius squared) limited mechanism. Since this size-dependent rate affects the cell׳s shrinkage speed, we are able to predict the cell size distribution evolution when lipolysis is the only factor at work: such as during an important food restriction. Performing recurrent surgical biopsies on rats, we measured the evolution of adipose cell size distribution for the same individual throughout the duration of the food restriction protocol. We show that our microscopic model of size dependent lipid release can predict macroscopic size distribution evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Better understanding flow-restricted environments from hideout return analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollar, Ph.; Viricel-Honorez, L.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding and controlling the chemical phenomena in flow-restricted areas of the secondary side of steam generators (SG) is a key point in fighting against corrosion (IGA) in these areas. Hence, more than 150 hideout returns from French plants are used to assess the chemical environment in flow-restricted areas. The influence of several parameters such as tube support plates design, SG blowdown flowrate and temperature at the end of hideout returns, on returned weights and on flow-restricted environments predicted by modelling are examined. A correlation between different operating and returned chemistry indexes (molar ratios), and IGA is sought: no link is found between IGA and Na/Cl molar ratio at the beginning of hideout returns. However, as IGA extends, the returned weights of sodium and chloride seem to decrease, suggesting a greater hideout and a lower hideout return efficiency, perhaps due to SG fouling, and/or a smaller hideout/hideout return thanks to an improved operating chemistry. Using the pH computed from hideout return data as an index for the presence of IGA is also studied: no correlation is found between the two. Improving plants chemistry is finally proposed, based on an optimization of hideout returns. (authors)

  5. Governance and Institutional Autonomy: Governing and Governance in Portuguese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at looking at governance instruments beyond managerial technicality. It intends to do so by analysing the impact of governance reforms on the universities autonomy assumed as a regulation instrument to politically steer systems and institutions. The regulation efforts undertaken at the European and national levels reflect a trend…

  6. Why Can Modern Governments Tax So Much?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Saez, Emmanuel

    penalties and low audit rates. Embedding this agency model into the standard Allingham-Sandmo tax evasion model, we show that third-party reporting improves tax enforcement if the government disallows self-reported losses or audits such losses more stringently, which fits with actual tax policy practices....... We also embed the agency model into a simple macroeconomic growth model where the size of firms grows with exogenous technological progress. In early stages of development, firms are small, tax rates are severely constrained by enforcement, and the size of government is too small. As firm size......This paper presents a simple agency model to explain why third-party income reporting by employers dramatically improves income tax enforcement. Modern firms have a large number of employees and carry out complex production tasks, which requires the use of accurate business records. Because...

  7. Theoretical Ideas of Local Government and State Government Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay I. Churinov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the characteristic of a theoretical component of model of interaction of local government bodies with the central government, and also development of scientific base in the course of history is given. Relevance to this subject in the conditions of the Russian reality is added by federalism of a state system of Russia, namely a thin side in questions of competences between bodies of one hierarchy. This article, will be useful to those who deal with issues in the field of the theory of the state and the right and the municipal right. Historic facts in the form of the regulatory legal acts adopted earlier which subsequently, were a source for development of theoretical ideas of local self-government and the government are given in article.

  8. Government Services Information Infrastructure Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.

  9. Russian Initiatives in Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of Russian initiatives concerning its participation in international system of Internet governance. In the research, conceptual and theoretic basis for participation of state governments in Internet governance is given, academic discourse of this issue is assessed, the review of main Russian initiatives made from 2005 (since the second stage of the World Summit on Information Society till the present day is carried out. The conclusion is made that the most successful Internet governance initiative of Russia is the implementation of cyrillic top level domains. Much less successful are Russian attempts to reconstruct existing organizational structure of Internet governance. Russian policy is assessed as a policy of preferring loud statements and PR rather than real influence on development of Internet technologies. Russia consideres Internet as political resource and tries to increase its influence on decision making process on a political, not operational level of Internet governance. The author states that federal government of the United States of America has fully lost the control on the domain name systems. These functions are going to be given to the private sector, while ICANN, which was established according to the Memorandum of Understanding/Joint Project Agreement with U.S. Department of Commerce, is becoming a truly independent international organization. Considering this, the author comes to the conclusion that political transformations for the sake of Russia are already made. He also forecast that next initiatives of Russia will be directed to the segmentation of the Internet.

  10. 48 CFR 52.237-8 - Restriction on Severance Payments to Foreign Nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of... 2003) (a) The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), at 31.205-6(g)(6), limits the cost allowability of...

  11. Interoperability, Enterprise Architectures, and IT Governance in Government

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl , Hans ,; Kubicek , Herbert; Cimander , Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Part 4: Architecture, Security and Interoperability; International audience; Government represents a unique, and also uniquely complex, environment for interoperation of information systems as well as for integration of workflows and processes across governmental levels and branches. While private-sector organizations by and large have the capacity to implement “enterprise architectures” in a relatively straightforward fashion, for notable reasons governments do not enjoy such luxury. For thi...

  12. Metabolic Regulation of Methionine Restriction in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Gao, Jing; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Tiejun; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-30

    Although the effects of dietary methionine restriction have been investigated in the physiology of aging and diseases related to oxidative stress, the relationship between methionine restriction and the development of metabolic disorders has not been explored extensively. This review summarizes studies of the possible involvement of dietary methionine restriction in improving insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and inflammation, with an emphasis on the fibroblast growth factor 21 and protein phosphatase 2A signals and autophagy in diabetes. Diets deficient in methionine may be a useful nutritional strategy in patients with diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Sight Restrictions in Maghrib Muslim Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben Hamouche

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Sight in Islamic culture is subject to legal restrictions that aim at preserving moral consciousness in Muslim societies. These restrictions have a direct impact on architecture in traditional Muslim cities. Details such as placement of doors and windows, the use of balconies and rooftops, and building heights were shaped by legal reasoning based on sight restrictions. The present study aims at highlighting this legal reasoning system by analyzing legal opinions that were continuously advocated by jurists in response to daily practices, and the legal principles on which these opinions were based. This is expected to contribute in developing a new intellectual discourse on Muslim architecture that could go beyond the present design theories.

  14. Recent Challenges Facing US Government Climate Science Access and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Carter, J. M.; Licker, R.

    2017-12-01

    Climate scientists have long faced politicization of their work, especially those working within the US federal government. However, political interference in federal government climate change science has escalated in the current political era with efforts by political actors to undermine and disrupt infrastructure supporting climate science. This has included funding changes, decreased access to climate science information on federal agency websites, restrictions on media access to scientific experts within the government, and rolling back of science-based policies designed to incorporate and respond to climate science findings. What are the impacts of such changes for both the climate science community and the broader public? What can be done to ensure that access to and application of climate change-related research to policy decisions continues? We will summarize and analyze the state of climate change research and application in the US government. The impacts of political interference in climate change science as well as opportunities the scientific community has to support climate science in the US government, will be discussed.

  15. Strong dietary restrictions protect Drosophila against anoxia/reoxygenation injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vigne

    Full Text Available Reoxygenation of ischemic tissues is a major factor that determines the severity of cardiovascular diseases. This paper describes the consequences of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R stresses on Drosophila, a useful, anoxia tolerant, model organism.Newly emerged adult male flies were exposed to anoxic conditions (<1% O2 for 1 to 6 hours, reoxygenated and their survival was monitored.A/R stresses induced a transient increase in mortality which peaked at the time of reoxygenation. Then flies recovered low mortality rates similar to those of control flies. A/R induced mortality was strongly dependent on dietary conditions during the 48 h that preceded anoxia. Well fed flies were anoxia sensitive. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protected flies against A/R injuries. The tolerance to anoxia was associated to large decreases in glycogen, protein, and ATP contents. During anoxia, anoxia tolerant flies produced more lactate, less phosphate and they maintained more stable ATP levels than anoxia sensitive flies. Moderate dietary restrictions, which increased the longevity of normoxic flies, did not promote resistance to A/R stresses. Diet dependent A/R injuries were still observed in sigma loss of function mutants and they were insensitive to dietary rapamycin or resveratrol. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribose-furanoside, an activator AMP kinase decreased A/R injuries. Mutants in the insulin signalling pathway were more anoxia tolerant in a fed state.Long A/R stresses induce a transient increase in mortality in Drosophila. This mortality is highly dependent on dietary conditions prior to the stress. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protect flies against A/R injuries, probably by inducing a major remodelling of energy metabolism. The results also indicate that mechanistically different responses develop in response to dietary restrictions of different strengths. AMP kinase and the insulin signalling

  16. Governance matters: an ecological association between governance and child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-09-01

    Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control. We obtained indicators of six dimensions of governance (perceptions of voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption) and national under-5 mortality rates for 149 countries between 1996 and 2010. We applied a semi-parametric generalized additive mixed model to examine associations after controlling for the effects of development factors (urbanization level and economy), disease control factors (hygienic conditions and vaccination rates), health expenditures, air quality, and time. Governance, development, and disease control showed clear inverse relations with the under-5 mortality rate (pcountry's need for better governance is as important as improvements in development and disease control. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN CONSUMPTION BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ZAMFIR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will follow the involvement that the government has,through its expenses, on the consumption behavior. The involvement that the government has inthe consumption behavior is made through fees and taxes that are applied on income. Fees andtaxes are applied to the different forms of income but in this article we will be focused only onthe influence of them on wages. In order to analyze the involvement of government expenses onconsumption behavior an utility model will be used.

  18. Corporate governance cycles during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C.; Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    -sures for restructuring produce strong impulses for ownership changes. There is limited possibility for external finance because of the embryonic development of the banking system and the capital markets during early transition. The governance cycle is also influenced by specific features of the institutional, cultural...... is faster in Estonia and this can be explained by the relatively fast pace of institutional change and evolution of important gov-ernance institutions, including tough bankruptcy legislation and advances in the financial system. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 Keywords: corporate governance, life...

  19. Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its...... antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test...... a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively....

  20. IT Management in Local Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2010-01-01

    The use of information technology (IT) is increasingly important for local governments (municipalities) in adhering to their responsibilities for providing services to citizens and this requires effective IT management. We present an engaged scholarship approach to formulating the IT management...... problems with local government – not for local government. We define such engaged problem formulation as joint learning and definition of a contemporary and complex problem by researchers and those who experience and know the problem. This engaged problem formulation process was carried out...