The Danish government has defined an ambitious e-government strategy aiming to increase both citizen centricity and the efficiency of government service production and delivery. This research uses dynamic capability theory to compare a highly successful and a less successful e-government program...... both aiming at realizing this strategy by reengineering back office processes and implement one-stop shopping. The research contributes to the e-government literature by identifying key differences between the two cases in terms of dynamic capabilities, by identifying the importance...
... Canada. 93.218 Section 93.218 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... service to and from Canada. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, international slots...'Hare in the Winter season. (c) Any modification to the slot base by the Government of Canada or the...
Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.
The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.
Primmer, Eeva; Jokinen, Pekka; Blicharska, Malgorzata; Barton, David N.; Bugter, Rob; Potschin, Marion
Biodiversity conservation policies justified with science and intrinsic value arguments have produced disappointing outcomes, and the need for conservation is now being additionally justified with the concept of ecosystem services. However, little, if any empirical attention is paid to ways in
Brown, P.A.; Metcalfe, D.E.; Lojk, R.
The Government of Canada strongly supported international efforts to bring into force the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention), and was the second country to ratify it. The Joint Convention places a number of obligations on Contracting Parties aimed at achieving and maintaining a high level of safety worldwide in spent fuel and radioactive waste management, ensuring that effective defenses against potential hazards are in place during all management stages, preventing accidents with radiological consequences and mitigating their consequences should they occur. In addition to establishing and maintaining a modem regulatory framework and an independent regulatory body through the 2000 Nuclear Safety and Control Act, the Government of Canada has implemented a number of initiatives that address its responsibilities and serve to further enhance Canada's compliance with the Joint Convention. For nuclear fuel waste, the Government of Canada brought into force the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act in 2002 to require waste owners to develop, fund, organize and implement a long-term solution for Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The Act clearly reserves for Government the decision on the solution to be implemented in the best interests of Canadians, as well as oversight to ensure that waste owners are fulfilling their responsibilities. In the case of low-level radioactive waste, long-term solutions are being developed to ensure the protection of health, safety, and the environment, both now and in the future. Regarding uranium mine and mill tailings, current operators have state-of-the-art waste management facilities in place. The Government of Canada works with provincial governments to ensure that any potential abandoned or legacy mines sites where no owner can be held responsible are safely decommissioned and managed over the long term. (authors)
Full Text Available Abstract This study considers three questions: 1. What are the Canadian public’s prioritization preferences for new government spending on a range of public health-related goods outside the scope of the country’s national system of health insurance? 2. How homogenous or heterogeneous is the Canadian public in terms of these preferences? 3. What factors are predictive of the Canadian public’s preferences for new government spending? Data were collected in 2008 from a national random sample of Canadian adults through a telephone interview survey (n =1,005. Respondents were asked to rank five spending priorities in terms of their preference for new government spending. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. As a first priority, Canadian adults prefer spending on child care (26.2%, followed by pharmacare (23.1%, dental care (20.8%, home care (17.2%, and vision care (12.7%. Sociodemographic characteristics predict spending preferences, based on the social position and needs of respondents. Policy leaders need to give fair consideration to public preferences in priority setting approaches in order to ensure that public health-related goods are distributed in a manner that best suits population needs.
In this first National Climate Change Business Plan the Government of Canada affirms its intention to invest up to $500 million over five years on specific actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This sum is in addition to the action plans being put forward by the provincial and territorial governments and in addition to the $625 million investment over five years announced in Budget 2000. Action Plan 2000 targets key sectors, and the measures announced are expected to take Canada one third of the way to achieving the target established in the Kyoto Protocol by reducing Canada's GHG emissions by 65 megatonnes per year during the 2008-2012 commitment period. The key sectors targeted include the areas of transportation, oil, gas and electricity production, industry, buildings, forestry and agriculture, i. e. sectors that together account for over 90 per cent of Canada's GHG emissions.The Action Plan focuses on reducing GHG emissions in a cost effective way; draws extensively on the best ideas put forward by the provinces, territories and other stakeholders; encourages action by industry and consumers; complements measures and actions by the provinces and territories to address regional issues; and sets the stage for long-term behavioural, technological and economic changes. The remainder of Canada's Kyoto commitments will be addressed by actions in future plans which are currently in the process of being developed, together with the development of further details of this first National Climate Change Business Plan
Full Text Available When Canada stood with the United States and Britain in refusing to sign on to a new, statecontrolled future for the Internet, at December’s World Conference on Information Technology, it certainly made the federal government appear to be a stalwart champion of Internet freedom. But in reality, Canada’s approach to cyberspace governance and security has, at best, sent mixed signals about our commitment to Internet freedom. At worst, it has actually contributed to increasing on-line censorship and surveillance by the very undemocratic and illiberal regimes that Canada voted against at the conference. Unfortunately this is a dangerous time for Canada to wallow in aimlessness: when it comes to cyberspace governance and security, the momentum is headed in the direction of greater state control. As demographic realities indicate, Internet usage will increasingly belong to the global South and East, where freedom is an unsettled and elusive concept. If Canada truly seeks to guard against the Internet falling captive to the controls sought by repressive regimes, such as those in China and Russia, it will have to offer the world a compelling, competing vision that demonstrates integrity and dedication to genuine Internet freedom. Among other things, that means moving beyond traditional top-down, state-centred models of security, which are a poor fit for a decentralized, global, publicly shared, but largely privately developed, communications network. Imposing conventional, state led policing frameworks on cyberspace — for instance, in the name of fighting cyber crime — only provides legitimacy to regimes abroad when they bring their own state powers to censor Internet communications. It also means thinking more carefully about how much we should tolerate our Canadian technology developers continuing to supply tools of repression to the foreign regimes who seek to dominate their own people. Canada has the potential to take on a leadership role in
The Government of Canada's position on the development of a comprehensive national approach to critical infrastructure protection (CIP) was presented along with a policy framework for developing a national cyber security strategy and a review of the Emergency Preparedness Act. Canada's national critical infrastructure (NCI) is defined as physical and information technology facilities, networks, services and assets, which if destroyed, would have a serious impact on health, safety, security and economics. The CIP strategy includes an NCI assurance program for various sectors of the economy, including the energy, transportation, finance, health care, food, communications, water, safety and manufacturing sectors. It also includes CIP for the government sector. This report described the key elements of an NCI protection strategy. These include guiding principles, risk management, information sharing, inventory of critical infrastructure assets, threats and warnings, critical infrastructure interdependencies, governance mechanisms, research and development, and international cooperation. refs., tabs., figs.
Full Text Available Governing forest ecosystem services as a forest socio-ecological system is an evolving concept in the face of different environmental and social challenges. Therefore, different modes of ecosystem governance such as hierarchical, scientific–technical, and adaptive–collaborative governance have been developed. Although each form of governance offers important features, no one form on its own is sufficient to attain sustainable environmental governance (SEG. Thus, the blending of important features of each mode of governance could contribute to SEG, through a combination of both hierarchical and collaborative governance systems supported by scientifically and technically aided knowledge. This should be further reinforced by the broad engagement of stakeholders to ensure the improved well-being of both ecosystems and humans. Some form of governance and forest management measures, including sustainable forest management, forest certification, and payment for ecosystem services mechanisms, are also contributing to that end. While issues around commodification and putting a price on nature are still contested due to the complex relationship between different services, if these limitations are taken into account, the governance of forest ecosystem services will serve as a means of effective environmental governance and the sustainable management of forest resources. Therefore, forest ecosystem services governance has a promising future for SEG, provided limitations are tackled with due care in future governance endeavors.
Adopting Service Governance provides a useful umbrella for a number of frameworks including ITIL®, TOGAF®, COBIT®, ITSM, BSM, Business Analysis, Programme Management, Management of Value, Management of Portfolios and Management of Risk by establishing the top-down governance of an organisation through services.
Full Text Available Nigel SB Rawson,1–3 John Adams4 1Eastlake Research Group, Oakville, ON, 2Canadian Health Policy Institute, Toronto, ON, 3Fraser Institute, Vancouver, BC, 4Canadian PKU and Allied Disorders Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: In democratic societies, good governance is the key to assuring the confidence of stakeholders and other citizens in how governments and organizations interact with and relate to them and how decisions are taken. Although defining good governance can be debatable, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP set of principles is commonly used. The reimbursement recommendation processes of the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, which carries out assessments for all public drug plans outside Quebec, are examined in the light of the UNDP governance principles and compared with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence system in England. The adherence of CADTH's processes to the principles of accountability, transparency, participatory, equity, responsiveness and consensus is poor, especially when compared with the English system, due in part to CADTH's lack of genuine independence. CADTH's overriding responsibility is toward the governments that "own," fund and manage it, while the agency’s status as a not-for-profit corporation under federal law protects it from standard government forms of accountability. The recent integration of CADTH’s reimbursement recommendation processes with the provincial public drug plans’ collective system for price negotiation with pharmaceutical companies reinforces CADTH's role as a nonindependent partner in the pursuit of governments’ cost-containment objectives, which should not be part of its function. Canadians need a national organization for evaluating drugs for reimbursement in the public interest that fully embraces the principles of good governance – one that is publicly accountable, transparent and fair and includes all stakeholders
Collins, D. A.
Discusses Canada's failure to include its provincial governments in its commitments to the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement. Canada is one of the only developed states that has not opened government contracts to international competition. This may be linked to a strong sense of regionalism where government contracts are typically awarded to contractors within each province as well as a reluctance of governments to privatize traditional state purchasing generally.
The author addressed the topic of government Policy, research and stakeholder Confidence from the perspective of government policy makers in Canada. The presentation reviewed the question: why carry out more research into methods of long-term management of nuclear fuel waste? In addressing this question, the author provided some perspectives that were expressed by the Canadian public, since reflected in the Final Study of management approaches led by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), an organization set up by the nuclear industry to study options for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Final Study was submitted to the federal Minister of Natural Resources in November 2005 as required under the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act. The NWMO's Final Study emphasized the important role of continuous learning, a key element in the NWMO's recommendation of Adaptive Phased Management. It was reported that the NWMO work had identified many reasons to carry out further research. Regardless of the management approach adopted, activities to manage radioactive waste will continue for a very long time. Any management program could be expected to apply the best practice available at the time. A program that will evolve over a long period of time will have many opportunities for improvements to increase performance, enhance effectiveness, and address rising societal concerns. It was suggested that, to realize these benefits, there needs to be a vibrant and robust research and development effort during management program development and execution, a period that will last many generations, and enable implementers to adapt to a changing environment. Among the reasons put forward for continuing research were, to: - Embody the principles of continuous learning which encourages standards of excellence and integrity; - Prepare for facility siting, design, licensing, development and operations to improve designs, minimize costs, enhance schedules, and reduce
Full Text Available In this paper the border is evaluated as a fold of power relations in which sovereign capacity and competence is marshalled alongside strategies of control, surveillance, and risk management to constitute, what we call, a zone of frontier government. We advance the argument that the border is a site for both negative and positive power, for insertion and subtraction, and that the assemblage of surveillance and compliance regimes are "run" not so much in the furtherance of a precautionary or pre-emptive end-state, but as intermediate values that are sufficiently malleable by an invigorated sovereign, expressed in the residue of discretion in and between the many border agencies. Our analysis is based on extensive policy and program documents, as well as twenty-five interviews with officials in various agencies engaged in the US-Canada and, particularly, the Windsor-Detroit corridor. Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE
Dr. Gabriela Valderrama Izquierdo; Mtro Jan Fabisiak; Carla Assenth Nava
What do we call good governance and how to go forward with better practices in public administration, it is an important issue in modern societies that require appropriate legal framework in time matter, which are aimed at achieving higher and better levels of social welfare, but also take a shift towards higher levels of citizen engagement.
Nielsen, Jeppe Agger; Andersen, Kim Normann; Sigh, Anne
labour-intensive services, the public administration research community is short on knowledge of the impact on the work processes carried out in public organizations and how staff and clients react toward robots. This case study investigates the implementation and use of robot vacuum cleaners in Danish......The movement of robots from the production line to the service sector provides a potentially radical solution to innovate and transform public service delivery. Although robots are increasingly being adopted in service delivery (e.g., health- and eldercare) to enhance and in some cases substitute...... eldercare, demonstrating how robot vacuums have proven to have considerable interpretive flexibility with variation in the perceived nature of technology, technology strategy, and technology use between key stakeholders in eldercare....
Full Text Available Business subsidies in Canada: the “winner” is Alberta; the loser is the taxpayer The federal government and the four largest provinces in Canada spend about $29 billion a year on business subsidies, delivered through program spending, the tax system, government business enterprises and direct investments by government. These subsidies represent almost half of the corporate income tax revenue collected by the five jurisdictions. Surprisingly, given its reputation as a bastion of free enterprise, Alberta is the most prolific subsidizer. In the 2014-15 fiscal year, per person subsidies were $640 in Alberta, about $100 ahead of the next most generous jurisdiction, Québec. Alberta has probably added to its “lead” through measures introduced in the October 2015 Fiscal Update and the 2016 budget. Alberta also stands out by having the least transparent public reporting of business subsidies. What motivates governments to subsidize business? Abstracting from cynical efforts to win votes, business subsidies have two broad objectives: to improve economic performance and to achieve a social objective by supporting specific firms, industries or regions. On average in the five jurisdictions, the split between the two categories is about 70-30 in favour of economic development measures. Assessing value for money from programs with a social objective is subjective, but measures intended to improve economic performance should be assessed on their ability to raise real income. Business subsidies can only raise real income if markets fail to allocate labour and capital to their best uses. The classic case is R&D. When a firm undertakes R&D, some of the knowledge created inevitably spills over to the benefit other firms. Firms are focused on their own benefits and costs when deciding how much to spend on R&D, not the benefits received by other firms, so society has an interest in encouraging additional R&D. While markets generally do a good job allocating
Parry, Jon; Ojo, Adegbola
The aim of this report is to provide authoritative labour market intelligence (LMI) for the Government Services sector to inform the strategic decision making of national governments in the development of employment and skills policy. It is one of 15 UK Sector Skills Assessment (SSA) reports produced by Sector Skills Councils and the UK Commission for Employment and Skills.
Scupola, Ada; Zanfei, Antonello
Based on a longitudinal case study of ICT adoption and e-services development in a Danish library, we examine how governance modes affect technical and organizational change in the public sector. We contribute to extant literature on the links between governance and innovation by highlighting three...
This information book provides a student text on voting procedures in Canada. The short sections provide easy reading on the federal electoral process in Canada. Students read about who can vote, how and when women and minorities won voting rights, the different parties, the voting process --both present and past, and election day happenings.…
The Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) is the national trade association of the Canadian oilfield service, supply and manufacturing industry. The Association's mandate is to protect and promote the interests of its members. This annual review for 1996 details the activities undertaken by the Board of Directors on behalf of the membership. Achievements in the area of health, safety and the environment included the Safety Statistics Program, the establishment of the Petroleum Safety Council, the Voluntary Incentive Plan designed to reduce workers' compensation claims, and the updating of the Drilling Fluids Manual and Emergency Response Plan. Alberta Labour's Oilwell Servicing Regulation and the B.C. Oil and Gas Regulations Review were the highlights in the area of regulatory and government relations. The strategic alliances signed between the PSAC and the Newfoundland Ocean Industries Association and the PSAC and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers demonstrated the new era of partnership and communication between petroleum producers and their suppliers. A list of PSAC publications, including special reports, was also included
A review of the activities of the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) for 1998 was presented. PSAC, the national trade association of the Canadian oilfield service, supply and manufacturing industry, has a mandate to protect and promote the interests of its members. Despite reduced level of activity in 1998, PSAC undertook a major strategic planning process involving a survey of the membership to determine areas of greatest need. The PSAC prepared goals, objectives and action plans. It made a submission to the BC Task Force on Business requesting a reduction of taxes and bureaucracy. It worked on the development of new regulations for Hours of Service for Truck Drivers. It participated with Alberta Labour in the 'Partners in Injury Reduction' program which is designed to reduce worksite injuries. It formed a new sectorial group to look at issues surrounding pipeline and oilfield construction. It contributed to upgrading pumping services and well testing standards. It helped to raise awareness of the Y2K problem. It participated in the General Oilfield Driver Improvement Program and operated a successful Basic Drilling Fluids Course. The Association also commissioned a long range forecast on drilling outlook past the year 2000 and carried out a compensation survey. It provided a credit information exchange and created a new shipping form for the transportation of dangerous goods. Member communications, promotions and special activities which profile the oilfield service industry to the media, the public, the oil and gas industry, government and the investment community remain the focus of activity of the Association. Increased activity in all these areas is forecast for 1998-1999
Dadgostar, Bahram; Mirabelli, Frank
Does the provision of Canadian government capital expenditures and government deficits displace private economic activity? In the U.S., Erenburg (1993) found that private sector investment spending is enhanced by expected increases in public spending on infrastructure, while also showing that deficit spending has no significant effect on private investment. There is no empirical study to date that addresses the relationship between government capital investment and government debt on private ...
This book compares reform trends in Australia and Canada’s local government systems over the past two decades, with attention to the impact of globalization on local governments, their bureaucracies, and local democratic accountability. Local governments in Australia and Canada show striking resemblances in relation to history, development, and contemporary issues. This reflects that in both countries, local governments remain an instrument of the states and provinces. The exploration of ...
Williamson, L M; Benjamin, R J; Devine, D V; Katz, L M; Pink, J
The elements of clinical governance, which ensure excellence in clinical care, can be applied to blood services. In this survey, their application in a range of blood providers was gauged, with the aim of identifying best practice and producing a generalizable framework. The Medical Directors of members of the Alliance of Blood Operators surveyed how different elements of clinical governance operated within their organizations and developed recommendations applicable in the blood service environment. The recommendations that emerged highlighted the importance of an organization's culture, with the delivery of optimal clinical governance being a corporate responsibility. Senior management must agree and promote a set of values to ensure that the system operates with the patient and donor at its heart. All staff should understand how their role fits into the 'journey to the patient', and a culture of openness promoted. Thus, reporting of errors and risks should be actively sought and praised, with penalties applied for concealment. Systems should exist to collect, analyse and escalate clinical outcomes, safety data, clinical risk assessments, incident reports and complaints to inform organizational learning. Clinical governance principles from general health care can be applied within blood services to complement good manufacturing practice. This requires leadership, accountability, an open culture and a drive for continuous improvement and excellence in clinical care. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Scupola, Ada; Zanfei, Antonello
changes; (ii) user-driven innovations have significantly increased with the diffusion of ICTs and Web based public services; and (iii) complex innovations are facilitated by face-to-face meetings between public servants and users. Third, it is suggested that changes in governance modes affect the balance...... between the different actors involved, thus influencing the nature and intensity of innovation. Fourth and finally, it is argued that the transition towards a networked governance approach requires information policies which persist over time, and are designed to increase collaboration between different...
Taylor, A.; Bramley, M.; Winfield, M.
This study investigates government spending in the Canadian oil and gas industry within the context of greenhouse gas emission trends and Kyoto commitments. Various forms of provincial and federal government support provided between 1996 and 2002 through grants, tax expenditures, and government program expenditures for conventional oil and gas and oil sands sectors are presented. The paper contextualizes government support for oil and gas production, discusses what constitutes a subsidy, presents the methodology and approach used to establish expenditure estimates, presents the study findings and discusses expenditure estimates and puts the results into the context of other public policy work. The conclusion recommends policy changes and describes important areas for future research related to public expenditure on oil and gas production. The study concludes that while it is understood that reform or removal of environmentally harmful subsidies will not solve environmental problems alone, such actions are important in order to achieve environmental improvements and objectives. 163 refs., 24 tabs, 5 figs
Stacey Anderson; Stéphane Lavoie
Using turnover ratios, Anderson and Lavoie describe the recent evolution of liquidity in various secondary government bond markets, focusing specifically on the market for Government of Canada securities. They attribute much of the recent variation in liquidity to such cyclical factors as changes in the interest rate environment and investors' appetite for risk, as well as developments in equity markets in the late 1990s. They also examine longer-term structural and policy-related trends, inc...
EP Canada Limited Partnership, a wholly owned subsidiary of Rainmaker Income Fund, is the leading full service provider of payroll and employer-of-record services to the film and television industry in Canada. The size of the payroll volume outsourced in the film and television industry in Canada is directly correlated to the level of production activity in Canada. After several consecutive years of growth, the production of feature films and television programs, in Canada, is in ...
Willem de Lint
Full Text Available In this paper the border is evaluated as a fold of power relations in which sovereign capacity and competence is marshalled alongside strategies of control, surveillance, and risk management to constitute, what we call, a zone of frontier government. We advance the argument that the border is a site for both negative and positive power, for insertion and subtraction, and that the assemblage of surveillance and compliance regimes are "run" not so much in the furtherance of a precautionary or pre-emptive end-state, but as intermediate values that are sufficiently malleable by an invigorated sovereign, expressed in the residue of discretion in and between the many border agencies. Our analysis is based on extensive policy and program documents, as well as twenty-five interviews with officials in various agencies engaged in the US-Canada and, particularly, the Windsor-Detroit corridor.
Kessler, Ridley R., Jr.; Barkley, Dan
Discusses the development of electronic government publications and the resulting standards and service needs. Focuses on results of a report on the impact that electronic information has brought to bear on depository library services. Includes 11 draft Depository Library Public Service Guidelines for government information. (AEF)
Joha, A.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.
The sourcing of cloud services is a relatively new type of service delivery model in which an organization gets access to IT services via a cloud service provider that is delivering services over the web to many users on a pay per use or period basis. Even though the importance of IT governance is
Is downsizing the latest jargon word applied to rationalization, a new concept or a different manifestation of a long term trend in health services management? At present, Canada is struggling to implement feasible reductions of expansionary pressures in the health care system. While provincial governments tend to see the issue as one of controlling chronic excess demand, federal government is still concerned to ensure free access to care on an equitable basis. Thus the problems of downsizing can be expressed by the provinces in terms of an ideological struggle with an unfeeling central government which does not understand their problems; although all know they are really about the feasibility of continuing to provide a service to meet demand. The present economic recession enables provincial governments to appeal to their voters for supporting a new way. Earlier, the appeal was to consumers to become involved in health service organization management and this policy succeeded, to a degree, where there were fluorishing grass roots communities; albeit that the service continued to be driven by professionals. Now the appeal is to taxpayers for their strong support in cost cutting. This has been more successful. Provincial governments are now permitted to 'touch the untouchables', that is to downsize the medical profession and previously sacrosanct health care institutions. They also are exploring the feasibility of introducing a two-tier system which would provide basic care for everyone and extra care for those able to pay, thus side-stepping federal conditions. By reorganizing support in this way, provincial governments have extended the range of policy choices, and two types of planning, the rational and the political, have now become combined into strategic management activity.
Crespi , Noel
Communication services are evolving at an unprecedented rate. No longer limited to interpersonal vocal communication, they now integrate functions such as address books, content sharing and messaging. The emergence of social networks - which may also include these features - is an important element of this transformation. Content services are becoming flagship services themselves, and are sometimes paired up with conversation services. The boundaries between different services are becoming less and less distinct. This book meets the need for a better understanding of communication services,
Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg
In this paper, we analyse payment procedures for their suitability for electronic government. We provide an overview of the payment procedures currently available on the market, compare the situation in electronic government with the situation in electronic commerce and analyze what we can transfer. Based on functional requirements we propose a scheme that allows public agencies to examine the appropriateness of any given payment procedure for electronic government.
Discusses serving library-patron needs in terms of customer service and quality control. Highlights include tools for measuring the quality of service (e.g., the SERVQUAL survey), advisory boards or focus groups, library "service statements," changing patron needs, new information formats, and justifying depository library services. (JAK)
Purdy, Jill M.; Lawless, Joseph
Business educators have a responsibility to ensure that future managers, employees, and shareholders are well versed in governance. Governance provides a vital link between organizations and society, allowing people to place their trust in an organization, support its mission, and ensure a continuing flow of resources to accomplish the mission.…
Plourde, A.; Ryan, D.L.
As part of the Canadian energy policy between the mid-1970's to the mid-1980's, consumers were encouraged to use fuels alternative to oil. The first set of policy issues involved measures to provide consumers with incentives to switch to non-oil-burning equipment, whereas the second set of. policy papers emphasized the expansion of the natural gas distribution system. More than $1 billion have been spent on the gas pipeline expansion project. Consequences of program expenditures in each province were examined. With the exception of Manitoba, it was found that annual net pipeline additions were higher during the program period, indicating that the program policies induced these activities to occur sooner than if the policies were not in place. Kilometres of gas pipeline per individual constructed was highest in Quebec, where construction proceeded mainly between the more densely populated centres. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and Alberta, the program encouraged natural gas pipeline construction in rural areas with lower populations. Without the program, these areas may not have had access to natural gas for a very long time. It was concluded that, in this, and some other instances, public investment had the effect of accelerating developments, or encouraging the completion of projects that otherwise would not have been undertaken. It was suggested that in the future decision-makers consider the costs of changes in activity patterns prior to designing such programs. 2 figs., 1 table
Recent supply disruptions have highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers essential medical isotopes to patients globally. A new and more reliable way of supplying isotopes to Canadians needs to be found. That is why the Government of Canada established the Expert Review Panel on Medical Isotope Production (the Panel) in June 2009. The Government recognizes the relatively long lead times associated with the development of any new source of medical. isotopes. To ensure that appropriate action is taken now for the long term, the Government tasked the Panel with reporting to the Minister. of Natural Resources on its assessment of the most viable options for securing supplies of technetium-99m (Tc99r) for the Canadian health care system over the medium and long term and the actions that may be required by governments and others to facilitate realization of these options. The Panel reported to the Minister of Natural Resources on November 30, 2009. Since then, the Government has been carefully considering the recommendations of the Panel within the context of the broader nuclear and health care landscape. What follows is the Government's response to the Panel's thoughtful, comprehensive and insightful report, including actions that are planned based on its recommendations. (author)
Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.
This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and…
A paper tasked to establish the relationship between records, good governance and service delivery, especially in Africa, runs into immediate definitional ambiguities. This is because good governance and service delivery mean different things to different African leaders. Moreover, even the most criminal and tyrannical ...
Sarantis, Demetrios; Tsiakaliaris, Christos; Lampathaki, Fenareti; Charalabidis, Yannis
Although most eGovernment interoperability frameworks (eGIFs) cover adequately the technical aspects of developing and supporting the provision of electronic services to citizens and businesses, they do not exclusively address several important areas regarding the organization, presentation, accessibility and security of the content and the electronic services offered through government portals. This chapter extends the scope of existing eGIFs presenting the overall architecture and the basic concepts of the Greek standardization framework for electronic government service portals which, for the first time in Europe, is part of a country's eGovernment framework. The proposed standardization framework includes standards, guidelines and recommendations regarding the design, development and operation of government portals that support the provision of administrative information and services to citizens and businesses. By applying the guidelines of the framework, the design, development and operation of portals in central, regional and municipal government can be systematically addressed resulting in an applicable, sustainable and ever-expanding framework.
Full Text Available Purpos– the aim ok this paper is to develop a Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model which could ensure the efficient integration of electronic government services in the local self-government level.Methodolog– the following analyses have been carried out in thirkpaper: theoretical-systematic; normative and conceptual comparative analysis of the researcha A method of modeling has also been applied.Finding– the scientific work analyzes the improvement opportunities of the models of electronic government services and their application alternatives in Lithuanian municipalities. The newly developed model of electronic government services that has been designed basng on the principle of integrating online expert consultation is primarily targeted at improvement of inside processes’ changes of an organization. Practicing the application of that model in the local self-government level starting with improvement of inside processes of an organization should help adapt more accurately and efficiently to the changing needs of the society while providing electronic government services, thus establishing a higher public value.Practical implication– the practical novelty of work is reflected not only through the integration opportunities’ assessment of the principle of online expert consultation services into the theoretical models of electronic government services that have already been developed by the scientists, but also on the basis of this principle there has been created a “Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model” in accordance with “E-Diamond” model basis and its practical application realization with the design of “The project of implementing the principle of online expert consultation on the model of electronic government services” for the future investigations.Originalit– the systematic, comparative analysis of the models of electronic government services carried out in the scientific
Berkowitz, M K
Canadian studies on the cost of solar energy to the user are described. Realistic estimates are developed of the initial capital cost and comparative lifetime costs of solar and conventional heating systems. Interfacing solar home heating with electric utilities is also discussed, along with the social benefits of solar space and water heating. Results are presented of a Canada-wide survey of public attitudes to the energy situation in general and to solar energy in particular. A computer simulation was used to examine the cost to the government and effects on the lifetime cost to the user of various incentive schemes to encourage solar use. Optimal government strategy is suggested and recommendations implied by the analyses in this study are made. It was found that not only is a package-designed solar heating system cost-effective when compared with conventional systems, but the public is eager and receptive to large-scale solar use. 14 refs.
Full Text Available УДК 342.25The purpose of this article is to study the concept and the content of "competence" cate-gory in relation to the entities of municipal governance in Russia and Canada. The methods of theoretical analysis, along with legal methods, including formal-legal and comparative law methods are used to achieve this goal.In the article, the author notes the lack of consensus in legal science in determining the con-tent of "competence" category and its subjective identity. Some authors consider the compe-tence as a set of rights and obligations of public authorities (Yu.A. Tikhomirov, S.A. Avakyan, while others recognize the correct use of the word "competence" in relation to the public territorial collectives and institutions of public power in general (T.M. Byalkina et al..The Russian legal model for determining the competence of municipal governance entities also implies the distinction between the concepts of "local issues" and "powers." Unfortu-nately, the domestic legislator does not provide for the clear distinction of these concepts, and there is also a lack of content specification of the issues to be addressed at the local level. Recent changes in law also call into question the relation between the municipalities’ competency model and the constitutional autonomy of local government.At the base of the approach to the definition of the competence of municipal government entities in Canada, as well as within the Anglo-Saxon model in general, lies the need for decentralization of functions, which cannot be effectively carried out by the central author-ities or the private sector (A. Sancton. The competence carrier here is a municipality as a form of public corporation. This does not lead to contradiction between this carrier and other municipal governance entities (specifically, local authorities, as the latter carry out activities for the competence implementation on behalf of the corporation.The approach to the municipality as a
Koh, Howard K.
Working in government can be a remarkable life experience for anyone but particularly for those who have trained in the worlds of medicine and public health. This article describes some lessons learned from a physician initially based in academic medicine and public health who has since spent more than a decade serving in leadership positions at…
Grogan, D.; Ashmore, J.P.; Bradley, R.P.
A centralized automated TLD service operated by the Department of National Health and Welfare went into operation in May 1977 to monitor radiation workers throughout Canada. Twenty-thousand employees from a wide range of disciplines are enrolled and the number will be increased to fifty thousand by September l978. A prototype of the system, operational from September 1976 to May 1977 for three-thousand people, has already been described. A description of technical and operational highlights is presented as well as a description of problems experienced during the first full year of operation. Details of costs, conversion logistics, operational performance and technical problems are included. A comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of changing from film dosimetry to TLD in a nationwide context is detailed. The dose meter read-out unit is interfaced, through video terminals, with a time-sharing computer system programmed to provide direct access to the Canadian National Dose Registry. Details of this linkage are described, as are the computer programmes for routine processing of raw batch data. The centralized TLD service interactively linked with the National Dose Registry provides a comprehensive occupational monitoring programme invaluable for regulatory control. (author)
The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)
Recruitment drive for nurse gradutates British Columbia (BC), the westernmost Canadian province, urgently needs 1,500 qualified nurses graduates to staff longterm care and assisted-living beds as well as home care clients. The provincial government has launched a $160,000 (£78,600) marketing campaign called BC Cares. Craig Hebert, dean of development and access training at Northern Lights College in BC, said: 'The industry needs to get the message out to students that there has never been a better time to start a career in senior health care. Graduates who study for about one year, sometimes less, will have their pick of jobs in a number of service environments and can advance relatively quickly to the nursing profession.'
Arendsen, Rex; Ter Hedde, Marc J.
The majority of SME’s tends to outsource administrative tasks, including their direct relationships with the (electronic) government. Commercial intermediary service providers therefore have to be part of governmental multi channel e-service delivery strategies. This research paper explores the origin, added value and future position of these intermediary organisations with respect to the delivery of e-government services to businesses. Results indicate that (re-)intermediation is more likely to occur within this context than disintermediation is. SME’s do not want to be captured within a non-profitable electronic hierarchical relationship with a governmental organisation. The empirical study on the impact of the legal obligation of the use of e-tax services illustrates that SME’s instead prefer the ‘save haven’ of a commercial relationship with an intermediary service provider. Thus creating and fuelling a new market of intermediary e-government services.
Full Text Available Purpose: E-Government, as a new bond linking the government and the public, has gradually become the focus of innovation in government services. The paper focuses on the e-Government service quality issues from the perspective of users. Design/methodology/approach: From the aspects of online service quality perception and offline service quality perception, based on IS Success model and SERQUAL model, e-Government Services Quality model has been set up with information quality, system quality and service quality as key factors. Then, the survey method was applied to collect data and then to test the model. Findings: It was found that users’ perception of offline service quality has a significant effect on improving their perception of online service quality, and online service quality perception has a significant effect on public satisfaction of e-Government services; information clarity, system security and stability, interactive services and “one-stop” services all have a significant effect on public satisfaction of e-Government services. However, offline service quality perception has certain positive effect on public satisfaction of e-Government services but not dramatically. Research limitations/implications: Mobile e-Government as an important direction of the development of e-Government, in the future, we will study more about mobile e-Government services channels. Originality/value: This study further develops the theory of information system service quality, and also provides a theoretical reference for government departments. On the one hand, based on the characteristics of e-government system, information quality, system quality and service quality in the previous system service model are further discussed; on the other hand, both online and offline services are taken into consideration in the information system service model, thus establishing the e-government services quality model and making an in-depth study of the
Full Text Available Government regulations have combined with a tremendous growth in prepaid cellular telephony to bring telephone connectivity to an unprecedented number of South African citizens – thus creating an ideal platform for delivering services to a wide...
Setiawan, Budi; Oswari, Teddy; Kuswanto, Adi
The lowest local government as a frontline government has some crucial duties includes residences administration, village development, residences identity, land administration, and other duties. Up to present, the performance of the lowest local government is measured based on the regulation, but has never been measured based on the perception of its residences that have had service directly. The objective of the study are(1) to explore whether there is a differences between the perception ...
A series of changes have been proposed for Canada's current marine oil spill preparedness and response regimes which were established in August 1995 in an effort to develop a more integrated approach to managing oil spill preparedness and response. The proposed amendments aim to address the deficiencies of the regime through some regulatory change, a stronger accountability structure, and clear management guidelines. Some of the issues that should be addressed to strengthen the effectiveness of the regime as a whole include: (1) transparency of response organization (RO) preparedness and response fees, (2) level of wildlife contingency planning, (3) payment of Canadian Coast Guard response costs, and (4) ensuring a strong national system of preparedness and response. In terms of governance, a stronger role is recommended for the Regional Advisory Councils. The establishment of a User Committee and of a National Advisory Council are also recommended. figs
Norgaard, Richard B.; Jin, Ling
We work with a basic general equilibrium model of an economy with an industrial good and a rural good. Industrial good production results in pollution that affects the provision of ecosystem services and thereby the production of the rural good. The assignment of ecosystem rights to the industrial polluters or to the rural pollutees results in differential transaction costs that affect production possibilities between the two goods. Ecosystem rights are assigned to maximize social welfare. Over time, technological change and differences in income superiority affect the choice of the assignment of rights. Opening to trade affects the choice of the assignment of ecosystem rights depending on the nature of technological change, but the relative income superiority of goods no longer affects the assignment of ecosystem rights in a small economy. Thus, among other findings, we demonstrate that the phenomena known as the environmental Kuznets curve does not hold for the protection of ecosystem services in production, or production externalities generally, because trade separates consumption from production. (author)
Norgaard, Richard B.; Jin, Ling [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley (United States)
We work with a basic general equilibrium model of an economy with an industrial good and a rural good. Industrial good production results in pollution that affects the provision of ecosystem services and thereby the production of the rural good. The assignment of ecosystem rights to the industrial polluters or to the rural pollutees results in differential transaction costs that affect production possibilities between the two goods. Ecosystem rights are assigned to maximize social welfare. Over time, technological change and differences in income superiority affect the choice of the assignment of rights. Opening to trade affects the choice of the assignment of ecosystem rights depending on the nature of technological change, but the relative income superiority of goods no longer affects the assignment of ecosystem rights in a small economy. Thus, among other findings, we demonstrate that the phenomena known as the environmental Kuznets curve does not hold for the protection of ecosystem services in production, or production externalities generally, because trade separates consumption from production. (author)
Arendsen, R.; ter Hedde, M.J.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Scholl, Hans J.; Janssen, Marijn; Traunmüller, Roland
The majority of SME’s tends to outsource administrative tasks, including their direct relationships with the (electronic) government. Commercial intermediary service providers therefore have to be part of governmental multi channel e-service delivery strategies. This research paper explores the
Full Text Available an opportunity to use of this platform to provide better service delivery to the citizens of the developing countries. This paper identifies major service delivery issues in South Africa. Various m-government systems that have been implemented in other countries...
Vitvar, Tomáš; Mocan, Adrian; Nazir, Sanaullah; Wang, Xia
E-Government has been the center of interest for public administrations, citizens and businesses, as well as software vendors for several years. E-Government enables customers and members of the public and private sectors to take advantage of automated administration processes accessible on-line. These activities involve electronic exchange of information to acquire or provide products or services, to place or receive orders, or to complete financial transactions. All such communications must be performed securely, while at the same time maintaining the privacy of involved parties. E-Government allows citizens and businesses to process requests on-line, and with minimal physical interactions with public bodies. Since a complex information support often needs to be developed incrementally, e-Government services were first available as single services in specific sectors and for specific users. While these services are being further developed and expanded to be available in more sectors and for more users, their growing number leads to requirements of total or partial automation of certain tasks, for example, discovery, selection, composition and mediation of services. In addition, extensive numbers of such services are available in different sectors, and their provisioning in complex scenarios requires a good information strategy along with a good architectural and technological basis. The main goal is to identify and define methods, standards, technologies as well as legislation to be used within the whole development process and provisioning of complex e-Government systems. In the EU, the e-Government information strategy can be seen at two levels as (1) a European strategy driven by the European Commission to enable e-Government services across the EU member states and (2) national strategies to form a national e-Government available within a particular EU member state. The initiative which aims to develop the European strategy at the EU level is called IDABC.1
Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada
Bardwell, Geoff; Scheim, Ayden; Mitra, Sanjana; Kerr, Thomas
Few qualitative studies have examined support for supervised injection services (SIS), and these have been restricted to large cities. This study aimed to assess support for SIS among a diverse representation of community stakeholders in London, a mid-sized city in southwestern Ontario, Canada. This qualitative study was undertaken as part of the Ontario Integrated Supervised Injection Services Feasibility Study. We used purposive sampling methods to recruit a diversity of key informants (n=20) from five sectors: healthcare; social services; government and municipal services; police and emergency services; and the business and community sector. Interview data, collected via one-to-one semi structured interviews, were coded and analyzed using thematic analyses through NVivo 10 software. Interview participants unanimously supported the implementation of SIS in London. However, participant support for SIS was met with some implementation-related preferences and/or conditions. These included centralization or decentralization of SIS; accessibility of SIS for people who inject drugs; proximity of SIS to interview participants; and other services and strategies offered alongside SIS. The results of this study challenge the assumptions that smaller cities like London may be unlikely to support SIS. Community stakeholders were supportive of the implementation of SIS with some preferences or conditions. Interview participants had differing perspectives, but ultimately supported similar end goals of accessibility and reducing community harms associated with injection drug use. Future research and SIS programming should consider these factors when determining optimal service delivery in ways that increase support from a diversity of community stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Yan; Zhu, Liming; Gorton, Ian
The transformation and integration of government services, enabled by the use of new technologies such as application servers and Web services, is fundamental to reduce the cost of government and improving service outcomes to citizens. Many core Government information systems comprise applications running on legacy mainframes, databases and transaction processing monitors. As Governments worldwide provide direct access over the Internet to these legacy applications from the general public, they may be exposed to workloads well above the origin design parameters of these back-end systems. This creates a significant risk of high profile failures for Government agencies whose newly integrated systems become overloaded. In this paper we describe how we conducted a performance assessment of a business-critical, Internet-facing Web services that integrated new and legacy systems from two Australian Government agencies. We leveraged prototype tools from our own research along with known techniques in performance modeling. We were able to clearly demonstrate that the existing hardware and software would be adequate to handle the predicted workload for the next financial year. We were also able to do ‘what-if’ analysis and predict how the system can perform with alternative strategies to scale the system. We conclude by summarizing the lessons learnt, including the importance of architecture visibility, benchmarking data quality, and measurement feasibility due to issues of outsourcing, privacy legislation and cross-agency involvement.
Stamati, Teta; Papadopoulos, Thanos; Martakos, Drakoulis
Part 2: Acceptance and Diffusion; International audience; Despite the need expressed in the literature for shedding light upon the mechanisms that underpin the transformational process of t-Government, there is still research to be conducted regarding the critical factors that affect the citizens’ adoption of local government transformational services. To address this gap, this research reports on the findings of the use of the structured-case approach and suggests a framework to investigate ...
Houle, Sherilyn; MacKeigan, Linda
As the population ages, and individuals desire to remain in their homes as long as possible, the need for in-home care is expected to increase. However, pharmacists have rarely been included in studies of in-home care, and little is known about the prevalence or effectiveness of pharmacists' home-based services in Canada. To identify pharmacy practices in Canada that regularly provide in-home patient care and to identify specific services provided, remuneration obtained, and barriers and facilitators influencing the provision of home-based care. A link to a web-based survey was posted in e-newsletters of provincial, territorial, and national pharmacy associations in Canada. In addition, pharmacists known to the researchers as providing in-home clinical services were contacted directly. The survey was open from October to December 2015. Practices or organizations that performed at least one home visit per week for clinical purposes, with documentation of the services provided, were eligible to participate. One response per practice or organization was allowed. Seventeen practices meeting the inclusion criteria were identified, representing community, hospital, and clinic settings. Home visits were most commonly performed for individuals with complex medication regimens or nonadherence to medication therapy. The most common services were conducting medication reconciliation and reviews and counselling patients about medication adherence. No practices or organizations billed patients for these services, yet lack of remuneration was an important barrier identified by many respondents. Although 12 (71%) of the respondents collected data for evaluative purposes, collection of clinical or health system outcome data was rare. Few Canadian pharmacy practices that provide in-home patient care at least once a week could be identified. Data collection suitable to establish an evidence base for this service was infrequently performed by practices and organizations providing
Sabol, Tomáš; Furdík, Karol; Mach, Marián
The main aim of the eGovernment is to provide efficient, secure, inclusive services for its citizens and businesses. The necessity to integrate services and information resources, to increase accessibility, to reduce the administrative burden on citizens and enterprises - these are only a few reasons why the paradigm of the eGovernment has been shifted from the supply-driven approach toward the connected governance, emphasizing the concept of interoperability (Archmann and Nielsen 2008). On the EU level, the interoperability is explicitly addressed as one of the four main challenges, including in the i2010 strategy (i2010 2005). The Commission's Communication (Interoperability for Pan-European eGovernment Services 2006) strongly emphasizes the necessity of interoperable eGovernment services, based on standards, open specifications, and open interfaces. The Pan-European interoperability initiatives, such as the European Interoperability Framework (2004) and IDABC, as well as many projects supported by the European Commission within the IST Program and the Competitiveness and Innovation Program (CIP), illustrate the importance of interoperability on the EU level.
Elaswad, Othoman; Jensen, Christian D.
identification and remote authentication in developing countries, such as the North Africa Countries (NAC), where a relatively large proportion of citizens are illiterate. Therefore, the design of a national IDM system in a NAC must explicitly consider illiteracy to allow this group of citizens to benefit from...... services that guarantee equal access to online services and an inclusive society. The study identifies strengths and weaknesses of the Egyptian e-Government and IDM services, which we believe are common to most NAC, since the NAC are quite similar in terms of social culture, citizen's education level...... and skills, citizen's behaviours, digital infrastructure and legislation, but also common to many other developing countries. Our analysis of the Egyptian e-Government services indicates that the security requirements and principle of equal access are not fully met, which illustrates the difficulty...
By Act No. 3258 of 11 February 1986 the Turkish National Assembly approved ratification of the Agreement of 18 June 1985 between the Government of Turkey and the Government of Canada for Co-operation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. The Agreement covers nuclear co-operation in industry agriculture, electricity generation, etc, and provides the legal framework for such co-operation. It lays down the general provisions for transfer of nuclear facilities, materials and technology between the two Parties and specifies the areas concerned. The Agreement provides that all the activities within its scope shall be carried out for exclusively peaceful purposes. (NEA) [fr
A transparent and accountable government conducts its business openly ... party to boast about its service delivery record but also to allow international ... members of public and private bodies need strong and explicit ethics to prevent bribery, ... have actually carried out the actions and transactions that they had to execute,.
Oelofse, Suzanna HH
Full Text Available In terms of the South African Constitution (Act 108of 1996), waste management service delivery is a local government function. The Constitution further gives every person the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well...
Pusp Raj Joshi
Full Text Available Electric government (e-government projects in developing countries are facing many challenges to deliver sustainable e-government services. From the existing literature, we found that most of the studies considered lack of technology, and limitations in budgets and human resources as the main hurdles in effective implementation of e-government services. Along with these limitations, we found that the e-government maturity models adopted by developing countries are failing to provide an appropriate strategic plan to deploy sustainable e-government services. While assessing the existing e-government maturity model, we made several observations on the lack of detail, the technology-centric nature, the emphasis on implementation, and the lack of an adoption strategy. This work contributes toward the proposition of a new e-government maturity model that would address the limitations of exiting e-government maturity models, and would support governments in developing countries to achieve sustainable e-government services. To achieve this goal, we considered five determinants—a detailed process, streamlined services, agile accessibility, use of state-of-the-art technology, and trust and awareness. The proposed model was validated by employing an empirical investigation through case-study and survey methods. We found that both the implementers (government and adopters (users of the e-government services benefited from the proposed model, resulting in an increased sustainability of e-government services.
In 1998 a discussion paper, entitled 'Proposed adjustments to the governance of Canada's marine oil spill preparedness and response regime' was developed and released in a effort to provide a basis for stakeholder discussions on longer term governance issues. Four key elements were discussed in the discussion paper: accountability of responding organizations; enhanced protection of wildlife; the subsidization of the polluter by the Canadian Coast Guard when it takes command of a spill; and maintaining a national system over time. Recipients were asked to respond by April 1999. Public meetings were held in each region to explain key issues and proposals. This report outlines the major themes raised by the different stakeholders in their responses, and provides the broad outlines of the steps that the Department of Fisheries and Oceans intends to take in reply. Detailed summaries of the responses and other relevant documentation are included in five appendices (not attached to this summary report). In general, the proposed governance structures were broadly supported by Canadian industry, with certain adjustments. Concerns were raised over the narrow focus of the existing Regime which does not address the questions of research and development. There was also concern about Canada's ability to manage an effective response to a large spill
At the request of the Government of Peru an IAEA staff member undertook an expert assignment to the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) within the framework of a technical assistance project. The purpose of the expert's travel was to evaluate a request for equipment for and consultant's advice on the establishment of library and information services and to advise IPEN staff on the establishment of the services. The report presents the findings on the present level and future need for library and information services and presents a proposal for the further development of these. (author)
Full Text Available High quality and comfortable online delivery of governmental services often requires the seamless exchange of data between two or more government agencies. Smooth data exchange, in turn, requires interoperability of the databases and workflows in the agencies involved. Interoperability (IOP is a complex issue covering purely technical aspects such as transmission protocols and data exchange formats, but also content-related semantic aspects such as identifiers and the meaning of codes as well as organizational, contractual or legal issues. Starting from IOP frameworks which provide classifications of what has to be standardized, this paper, based on an ongoing research project, adopts a political and managerial view and tries to clarify the governance of achieving IOP, i.e. where and by whom IOPstandards are developed and established and how they are put into operation. By analyzing 32 cases of successful implementation of IOP in E-Government services within the European Union empirical indicators for different aspects of governance are proposed and applied to develop an empirical taxonomy of different types of IOP governance which can be used for future comparative research regarding success factors, barriers etc.
This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada
Fichten, Catherine Susan; Heiman, Tali; Havel, Alice; Jorgensen, Mary; Budd, Jillian; King, Laura
We have examined the sustainability of providing services for students with disabilities in higher education in Canada and Israel. The two countries differ in their approaches: Israel subscribes to the accommodations model of service delivery; Canada, to the universal design approach. Case examples of services to students with disabilities in…
Managing urban green space as part of an ongoing social-ecological transformationposes novel governance issues, particularly in post-industrial settings. Urban green spaces operate as small-scale nodes in larger networks of ecological reserves that provide and maintain key ecosystem services such as pollination, water retention and infiltration, and sustainable food production. In an urban mosaic, a myriad of social and ecological components factor into aggregating and managing land to maintain or increase the flow of ecosystem services associated with green spaces. Vacant lots (a form of urban green space) are being repurposed for multiple functions, such as habitat for biodiversity, including arthropods that provide pollination services to other green areas; to capture urban runoff that eases the burden on ageing wastewater systems and other civic infrastructure; and to reduce urban heat island effects. Urban green spaces provide vital ecosystem services at varying degrees, depending on the size, function, and management of these spaces. Governance of linked social-ecological systems to maximize those services poses unique challenges given the uncertainty of ecological responses and the social political complexity of managing ecological resources in an urban context where fiscal and human resources are strained. In North America, many cities are facing fiscal austerity because of shrinkage in manufacturing and industrial sectors and the foreclosure crisis. As
Klievink, B.; Janssen, M.
Government organizations operate a variety of channels to interact with citizens and businesses. Advances in information and communication technology enabled an online presence and more direct interactions. A focus on efficiency makes organizations encourage the use of electronic channels over traditional channels. Also, intermediaries in the service delivery chain are cut out in favor of direct interactions. This strategy of disintermediation finds its rationale in the transaction costs theo...
Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Chester, Charles C.; Semmens, Darius J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Rodriguez-McGoffin, M. Sofia; Merideth, Robert; Diffendorfer, Jay E.
This article discusses the conservation challenges of volant migratory transborder species and conservation governance primarily in North America. Many migratory species provide ecosystem service benefits to society. For example, insectivorous bats prey on crop pests and reduce the need for pesticides; birds and insects pollinate food plants; and birds afford recreational opportunities to hunters and birdwatchers. Migration is driven by the seasonal availability of resources; as resources in one area become seasonally scarce, individuals move to locations where resources have become seasonally abundant. The separation of the annual lifecycle means that species management and governance is often fractured across international borders. Because migratory species depend on habitat in different locations, their ability to provide ecosystem services in one area depends on the spatial subsidies, or support, provided by habitat and ecological processes in other areas. This creates telecouplings, or interconnections across geographic space, of areas such that impacts to the habitat of a migratory species in one location will affect the benefits enjoyed by people in other locations. Information about telecoupling and spatial subsidies can be used to craft new governance arrangements such as Payment for Ecosystem Services programs that target specific stakeholder groups and locations. We illustrate these challenges and opportunities with three North American case studies: the Duck Stamp Program, Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), and monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).
Cloud services hold the promise of rendering public service delivery and back-office operations more effective and efficient, by providing ubiquitous, on-demand access to computing resources. Beyond the compelling cost economies, cloud technology is also a promising platform for open government,
Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the People's Republic of China for cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Both Canada and China are member States of the Treaty of Non-Proliferation and as such have the right to participate in an exchange of nuclear material, equipment and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. 1 tab
Zaganjor, Hatidza; Bishop Kendrick, Katherine; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Onufrak, Stephen; Whitsel, Laurie P; Ralston Aoki, Julie; Kimmons, Joel
Food service guideline (FSG) policies can impact millions of daily meals sold or provided to government employees, patrons, and institutionalized persons. This study describes a classification tool to assess FSG policy attributes and uses it to rate FSG policies. Quantitative content analysis. State government facilities in the United States. Participants were from 50 states and District of Columbia in the United States. Frequency of FSG policies and percentage alignment to tool. State-level policies were identified using legal research databases to assess bills, statutes, regulations, and executive orders proposed or adopted by December 31, 2014. Full-text reviews were conducted to determine inclusion. Included policies were analyzed to assess attributes related to nutrition, behavioral supports, and implementation guidance. A total of 31 policies met the inclusion criteria; 15 were adopted. Overall alignment ranged from 0% to 86%, and only 10 policies aligned with a majority of the FSG policy attributes. Western states had the most FSG policies proposed or adopted (11 policies). The greatest number of FSG policies were proposed or adopted (8 policies) in 2011, followed by the years 2013 and 2014. The FSG policies proposed or adopted through 2014 that intended to improve the food and beverage environment on state government property vary considerably in their content. This analysis offers baseline data on the FSG landscape and information for future FSG policy assessments. © The Author(s) 2016.
Zaganjor, Hatidza; Bishop Kendrick, Katherine; Warnock, Amy Lowry; Onufrak, Stephen; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Ralston Aoki, Julie; Kimmons, Joel
Purpose Food service guidelines (FSG) policies can impact millions of daily meals sold or provided to government employees, patrons, and institutionalized persons. This study describes a classification tool to assess FSG policy attributes and uses it to rate FSG policies. Design Quantitative content analysis. Setting State government facilities in the U.S. Subjects 50 states and District of Columbia. Measures Frequency of FSG policies and percent alignment to tool. Analysis State-level policies were identified using legal research databases to assess bills, statutes, regulations, and executive orders proposed or adopted by December 31, 2014. Full-text reviews were conducted to determine inclusion. Included policies were analyzed to assess attributes related to nutrition, behavioral supports, and implementation guidance. Results A total of 31 policies met inclusion criteria; 15 were adopted. Overall alignment ranged from 0% to 86%, and only 10 policies aligned with a majority of FSG policy attributes. Western States had the most FSG policy proposed or adopted (11 policies). The greatest number of FSG policies were proposed or adopted (8 policies) in 2011, followed by the years 2013 and 2014. Conclusion FSG policies proposed or adopted through 2014 that intended to improve the food and beverage environment on state government property vary considerably in their content. This analysis offers baseline data on the FSG landscape and information for future FSG policy assessments. PMID:27630113
Full Text Available Research indicates that people living in rural and remote areas of Canada face challenges to accessing health services. This article reports on a community-engaged research project conducted by investigators at Memorial University of Newfoundland in collaboration with the Rural Secretariat Regional Councils and Regional Partnership Planners for the Corner Brook–Rocky Harbour and Stephenville–Port aux Basques Rural Secretariat Regions of Newfoundland and Labrador. The aim of this research was to gather information on barriers to accessing health services, to identify solutions to health services’ access issues and to inform policy advice to government on enhancing access to health services. Data was collected through: (1 targeted distribution of a survey to communities throughout the region, and (2 informal ‘kitchen table’ discussions to discuss health services’ access issues. A total of 1049 surveys were collected and 10 kitchen table discussions were held. Overall, the main barriers to care listed in the survey included long wait times, services not available in the area and services not available at time required. Other barriers noted by survey respondents included transportation problems, financial concerns, no medical insurance coverage, distance to travel and weather conditions. Some respondents reported poorer access to maternal/child health and breast and cervical screening services and a lack of access to general practitioners, pharmacy services, dentists and nurse practitioners. Recommendations that emerged from this research included improving the recruitment of rural physicians, exploring the use of nurse practitioners, assisting individuals with travel costs, developing specialist outreach services, increasing use of telehealth services and initiating additional rural and remote health research. Keywords: rural, remote, healthcare, health services, social determinants of health
... them. Entitlement to essential public services of reasonable quality, which inheres in Canadian citizenship, comes to aboriginal peoples by virtue of their contribution of the entire land base of Canada...
Full Text Available As electronic government services (e-government evolve, traditional applications such as online portals are encountering challenges in a new digital era in which people thirst for more convenient, diverse channels of communication with their government. Despite the efforts devoted to the promotion of Social Networking Service (SNS use in e-government for the past few years, empirical studies regarding this ongoing trend are still insufficient. In the local administration of China, a special collaboration between local governments and private Internet enterprises is happening: government services are imported into commercial SNS platforms known as WeChat and Weibo. This research conducts a case study of a Chinese municipality premised upon survey data (N = 605 collected in Chongqing. It examines the determinants of e-services adoption in four major local applications: two traditional government-led services “Government website portal” and “Government official app” (traditional government-led services, and two built-in government services on social networking applications “Weibo Government official account” “WeChat Public Services”. The paper aims to provide a closer understanding of current trends in local government e-services, or in this case, an innovative trial of Chinese e-government practices.
Sauvageau, Chantal; Dubé, Eve; Bradet, Richard; Mondor, Myrto; Lavoie, France; Moisan, Jocelyne
Canadian Pharmacists are easy to reach. Although Québec pharmacists are not allowed to administer vaccines, they can: (1) promote vaccination, (2) counsel patients on vaccination, (3) sell vaccines and (4) provide vaccine administration by a nurse. Our objectives were to describe immunization services given in Québec pharmacies and assess the potential relation between, on one hand, pharmacy characteristics and difficulties perceived by pharmacists and, on the other hand, vaccine administration. In 2008–09, an anonymous questionnaire was mailed to all Québec pharmacy owners (n = 1663). Among the 1102 (66%) respondents, 90% stated that vaccines were sold, 27% that a nurse administered vaccines in their pharmacy and 44% were planning to offer vaccine administration in the next five years. Three out of four stated they were doing vaccine promotion and 65%, vaccine counselling. Half of respondents said they would be willing to administer vaccines themselves if legislative modifications were made. Recommendations for cold chain maintenance were followed in 23% of pharmacies selling vaccines. Presence of another health professional in the pharmacy, higher number of opening hours, not being located in the same building than a medical clinic and having an agreement to collaborate with a public health unit or a medical clinic for immunization were positively associated with vaccine administration in multivariate analysis. Higher perceived difficulties with lack of demand from patients were negatively associated with vaccine administration. Most pharmacists are willing to increase their involvement in immunization. Collaboration between public health professionals and pharmacists should be reinforced. PMID:23782530
Full Text Available As governments develop open data strategies, such efforts reflect the advent of the Internet, the digitization of government, and the emergence of meta-data as a wider socio-economic and societal transformational. Within this context the purpose of this article is twofold. First, we seek to both situate and examine the evolution and effectiveness of open data strategies in the Canadian public sector, with a particular focus on municipal governments that have led this movement. Secondly, we delve more deeply into—if and how, open data can facilitate more open and innovative forms of governance enjoining an outward-oriented public sector (across all government levels with an empowered and participative society. This latter vantage point includes four main and inter-related dimensions: (i conceptualizing public value and public engagement; (ii media relations—across traditional intermediaries and channels and new social media; (iii political culture and the politics of privacy in an increasingly data-centric world; and (iv federated architectures and the alignment of localized, sub-national, and national strategies and governance mechanisms. This article demonstrates how each of these dimensions includes important determinants of not only open data’s immediate impacts but also its catalytic ability to forge wider and collective innovation and more holistic governance renewal.
... COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PROCEDURES GOVERNING ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1806.3 Procedures governing acceptance of service of process. (a) Service of Process Upon the NACIC or a NACIC Employee in an Official..., personal service of process may be accepted only by NACIC Counsel, Director, NACIC, or Deputy Director...
... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PROCEDURES GOVERNING ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1904.3 Procedures governing acceptance of service of process. (a) Service of Process Upon the CIA or a CIA Employee in An Official..., personal service of process may be accepted only by attorneys of the Office of General Counsel at CIA...
... THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1702.3 Procedures governing acceptance of service of process. (a) Service of process upon the ODNI or an... authorized by the General Counsel, personal service of process upon the ODNI or an ODNI employee in the...
Full Text Available This research acknowledges the current service delivery chaos manifested through numerous protests justifying the weakness of the “Batho Pele” good governance principles to facilitate, improve and sustain service delivery by local governments. The success of corporate governance in corporate companies and state owned enterprises is recognised prompting suggestions that local governments should too adopt corporate governance principles or King III to be effective. The research reviews the King III and literature to ascertain the lack of research on corporate governance in local governments in South Africa. Considering the particular set-up of local governments, the research doubts the successful application of King III in local governments. Through critical research theory, the current service delivery crisis in local governments in South Africa is described. The success of corporate governance systems in the United Kingdom and Australian local governments justify the need for a separate corporate municipal governance system as a solution to the crisis. A specific change of legislation and corporate governance guidelines is necessary to address the uniqueness of local governments. Hence, corporate municipal governance should be compulsory and based on ten standardised good governance principles via a code of corporate governance and a corporate governance framework responding to specific prerequisites for success
Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy
Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles ( P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.
Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy
Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles (P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.
The common aim of all our daily activities is providing services to others or ourselves. Services provided by the government are called public services while those provided by some people to some others are called private services. Both types differ from country to country and from region to region. In Saudi Arabia, public services include education, health, police, trading, and environmental services. It is the aim of all government agencies in Saudi Arabia and other countries around the wor...
... Convenience of the Government (Services) (Short Form). 52.249-4 Section 52.249-4 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.249-4 Termination for Convenience of the Government... convenience of the Government, limit termination settlement charges to services rendered before the date of...
Ford, Wendy G.
There are a wide variety of e-government information and services that small business owners and managers can utilize. However, in spite of all of the service incentives and initiatives to promote e-government, research studies have shown that this information is not widely accessed. Studies that explore the utilization of e-government information…
... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government Services, Public Accommodations and in... of Disability; Accessibility of Web Information and Services of State and Local Government Entities and Public Accommodations; Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability in State and Local Government...
Papadomichelaki, Xenia; Mentzas, Gregoris
A critical element in the evolution of e-governmental services is the development of sites that better serve the citizens’ needs. To deliver superior service quality, we must first understand how citizens perceive and evaluate online citizen service. This involves defining what e-government service quality is, identifying its underlying dimensions, and determining how it can be conceptualized and measured. In this article we conceptualise an e-government service quality model (e-GovQual) and then we develop, refine, validate, confirm and test a multiple-item scale for measuring e-government service quality for public administration sites where citizens seek either information or services.
Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J.; Sadiq, Rehan
Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.
Bereskie, Ty; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan
Drinking water management in Canada is complex, with a decentralized, three-tiered governance structure responsible for safe drinking water throughout the country. The current approach has been described as fragmented, leading to governance gaps, duplication of efforts, and an absence of accountability and enforcement. Although there have been no major waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada since 2001, a lack of performance improvement, especially in small drinking water systems, is evident. The World Health Organization water safety plan approach for drinking water management represents an alternative preventative management framework to the current conventional, reactive drinking water management strategies. This approach has seen successful implementation throughout the world and has the potential to address many of the issues with drinking water management in Canada. This paper presents a review and strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats analysis of drinking water management and governance in Canada at the federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels. Based on this analysis, a modified water safety plan (defined as the plan-do-check-act (PDCA)-WSP framework) is proposed, established from water safety plan recommendations and the principles of PDCA for continuous performance improvement. This proposed framework is designed to strengthen current drinking water management in Canada and is designed to fit within and incorporate the existing governance structure.
Jobin, Gilles; Gagnon, Marie Pierre; Candas, Bernard; Dubé, Catherine; Ben Abdeljelil, Anis; Grenier, Sonya
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a serious and growing health problem in Canada. Colonoscopy is used for screening and diagnosis of symptomatic or high CRC risk individuals. Although a number of countries are now implementing quality colonoscopy services, knowledge synthesis of barriers and facilitators perceived by healthcare professionals and patients during implementation has not been carried out. In addition, the perspectives of various stakeholders towards the implementation of quality colonoscopy services and the need of an efficient organisation of such services have been reported in the literature but have not been synthesised yet. The present study aims to produce a comprehensive synthesis of actual knowledge on the barriers and facilitators perceived by all stakeholders to the implementation of quality colonoscopy services in Canada. First, we will conduct a comprehensive review of the scientific literature and other published documentation on the barriers and facilitators to implementing quality colonoscopy services. Standardised literature searches and data extraction methods will be used. The quality of the studies and their relevance to informing decisions on colonoscopy services implementation will be assessed. For each group of users identified, barriers and facilitators will be categorised and compiled using narrative synthesis and meta-analytical techniques. The principle factors identified for each group of users will then be validated for its applicability to various Canadian contexts using the Delphi study method. Following this study, a set of strategies will be identified to inform decision makers involved in the implementation of quality colonoscopy services across Canadian jurisdictions. This study will be the first to systematically summarise the barriers and facilitators to implementation of quality colonoscopy services perceived by different groups and to consider the local contexts in order to ensure the applicability of this
Physician spending has substantially increased over the last few years in Canada to reach $27.4 billion in 2010. Total clinical payment to physicians has grown at an average annual rate of 7.6% from 2004 to 2010. The key policy question is whether or not this additional money has bought more physician services. So, the purpose of this study is to understand if we are paying more for the same amount of medical services in Canada or we are getting more bangs for our buck. At the same time, the paper attempts to find out whether or not there is a productivity difference between family physician services and surgical procedures. Using the Baumol theory and data from the National Physician Database for the period 2004-2010, the paper breaks down growth in physician remuneration into growth in unit cost and number of services, both from the physician and the payer perspectives. After removing general inflation and population growth from the 7.6% growth in total clinical payment, we found that real payment per service and volume of services per capita grew at an average annual rate of 3.2% and 1.4% respectively, suggesting that payment per service was the main cost driver of physician remuneration at the national level. Taking the payer perspective, it was found that, for the fee-for-service (FFS) scheme, volume of services per physician decreased at an average annual rate of -0.6%, which is a crude indicator that labour productivity of physicians on FFS has fallen during the period. However, the situation differs for the surgical procedures. Results also vary by province. Overall, our finding is consistent with the Baumol theory, which hypothesizes higher productivity growth in technology-driven sectors.
Deslauriers, Simon; Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Laliberté, Maude; Lavoie, Amélie; Desmeules, François; Feldman, Debbie E; Perreault, Kadija
The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders is high and expected to increase in the next decade. Persons suffering from musculoskeletal disorders benefit from early physiotherapy services. However, access to publicly funded physiotherapy services has been shown to be compromised by long waiting times and limited availability of resources in many countries around the world. Decisions on resource allocation may create geographic disparities in provision and access to services, which may result in inequity in access. This study aimed to assess variations in demand and provision of publicly funded outpatient physiotherapy services across the province of Quebec, Canada, as well as to assess the demand to provision relationship. We conducted a secondary analysis of data retrieved from the 2008 Quebec Health Survey and data obtained from a survey of hospitals in the province of Quebec in 2015. We used geographic information systems analyses and descriptive analyses to assess geographic variations and the relationship between demand and provision. Our results indicate substantial variations in the provision and demand for physiotherapy services in the province of Quebec. The variations in service provision did not follow the variations in demand. Long waiting times and insufficient provision of services were found in many regions. The variations in provision of physiotherapy services between regions reported in our study did not correspond to the variations in demand. Such geographic variations and demand to provision mismatches may create inequity in access to services, especially for those unable to afford private services. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full text: Like many countries with nuclear power programs, Canada is in the process of addressing the long-term management of its spent fuel. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) was tasked through federal legislation to conduct a three-year study of approaches for the long-term management of spent fuel, and to recommend a preferred approach to the Government of Canada. Legislation required NWMO to compare at least three approaches -approaches based on deep geological disposal in the Canadian Shield, storage at nuclear reactor sites, and centralized storage either above or below ground. In assessing the options, NWMO sought a recommendation that would be socially acceptable, technically sound, environmentally responsible and economically feasible. The study drew on a vast base of social, technical, engineering, and financial research, and included an extensive engagement program with the public and Aboriginal peoples. The recommendation emerged from a collaborative dialogue with specialists and citizens, for an approach that is built on sound science and technology and responsive to citizen values. NWMO submitted its completed options study, with recommendation, to the Government in November 2005. NWMO has proposed an alternative approach, Adaptive Phased Management, which has as its key attributes: central containment and isolation of spent fuel in a deep repository, in an appropriate geological formation; contingency provision for central shallow storage; monitoring and retrievability; and a staged, adaptive process of concept implementation, reflecting the complex nature of the task and the desire of citizens to proceed through cautious, deliberate steps of technical demonstration and social acceptance. This paper will review: 1) the development of the assessment framework for comparing the technical options, which incorporated social and ethical considerations expressed by citizens; 2) findings of the assessment; and 3) features of the proposed
Governments have an opportunity to harness big data solutions to improve productivity, performance and innovation in service delivery and policymaking processes. In developing countries, governments have an opportunity to adopt big data solutions and leapfrog traditional administrative approaches
Adaptive governance and adaptive management have developed over the past quarter century in response to institutional and organizational failures, and unforeseen changes in natural resource dynamics. Adaptive governance provides a context for managing known and unknown consequenc...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Code of Ethics for Government Service B Appendix B to Part 73 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Pt. 73, App. B Appendix B to Part 73—Code of Ethics for Government Service Any person in...
... installation support services (cost-reimbursement contracts). 5152.245-9001 Section 5152.245-9001 Federal... CONTRACT CLAUSES 5152.245-9001 Government property for installation support services (cost-reimbursement... Installation Support Services (Cost-Reimbursement Contracts) (OCT 1989) (DEV) (a) Government-furnished property...
Paagman, Arnaud; Tate, Mary; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; de Bloom, Jessica
This paper contributes to the understanding of the meaning of shared services and motives for introducing shared services in government organizations. We review and clarify definitions of shared services and derive a definition applicable for the government context. Based on an extensive literature
Paagman, Arnaud; Tate, Mary; Furtmueller, Elfi; de Bloom, Jessica
This paper contributes to the understanding of the meaning of shared services and motives for introducing shared services in government organizations. We review and clarify definitions of shared services and derive a definition applicable for the government context. Based on an extensive literature
Ostertag, Katrin; Huelsmann, Friederike
There is a surprisingly high variety of actors involved in the supply of energy service contracting arrangements. Based on an empirical record of approximately 2,500 contracting projects in the domain of space heating in Germany, the paper analyses specialisation patterns of contractors. An econometric model is used to test hypotheses derived from transaction cost economics, which contractor type should be expected for which kind of contracting project. According to our results, if physical, site and human asset specificity are high, governance modes are preferred, for which contracting represents a downward integration of business activities along the value-added chain. This includes the supply of contracting by municipal utilities. More specifically, municipal utilities occur as superior suppliers of contracting if combined heat and power is implemented, if the building served is connected to their gas grid and if it is a public building. This pattern could orient the development of contracting activities for utilities reconsidering their strategic position following the liberalisation of the electricity market. (orig.)
In order to align with green initiatives, IDRC will no longer be providing a copy of the T1204 slip to contractors. In order to continue meeting the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) requirements, IDRC will continue reporting the T1204 slip information to CRA. Please contact the CRA for any general questions about T1204 ...
Astawa, I. P. M.; Dewi, K. C.
E-Government in higher education can be utilized in order to provide public services to stakeholders both internal and external. The research objectives is to analyze the e-government facilities for public services in higher education. The research began by reviewing the concept of public services and e-government, then continued by analysing e-government facilities based on the E-Government Maturity Level developed by Wirtz and Piehler. The research subject was the e-government website of three universities that ranked the top three of webometrics version (Indonesia country rank), while the research object was e-government facilities for public services. Data collection was done by observing e-government sites via online browsing. The research’s results indicated that all three e-government sites have met four e-government business model and provided e-government services in line with the fourth stage on the e-government development stage. It can concluded that the three universities have achieved e-government maturity at the fourth level.
This paper studies the government procurement of services from foreign suppliers by conducting a statistical analysis of data submitted by Japan and Switzerland to the WTO's Committee on Government Procurement. Using several metrics, the paper examines if the WTO’s Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) has led to greater market access for foreign suppliers in services procurement. Our results indicate that despite the GPA, the proportions of services contracts awarded to foreigners have d...
Tan, C.W.; Benbasat, I.; Cenfetelli, R.
Despite extensive deliberations in contemporary literature, the design of citizen-centric e-government websites remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. Operationalizing e-government service quality to investigate and improve the design of e-government websites has been a much
A common challenge for government administrations that aim to improve the delivery of information and services to citizens is to go beyond a government-centred approach. By focusing on citizens and the needs of a wide range of citizens, Universal Design (UD) can help to increase the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of government services. This paper examines the case of an internationally recognised Chilean government service delivery programme inspired by UD principles known as ChileAtiende ("ChileService"). A brief account of its creation and current status is provided.
... forth in the U.S.-Canadian Statement of Principles for Economic Cooperation (October 26, 1950) require... Works and Government Services Canada on all matters of mutual concern relating to the administration of... the United States: Public Works and Government Services Canada, Acquisitions Branch, Business...
Background In 2001 Health Canada responded to a series of Ontario court decisions by creating the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD) and the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR). Although Health Canada has conducted a small number of stakeholder consultations, the federal government has never polled federally authorized cannabis patients. This study is an attempt to learn more about patient needs, challenges and experiences with the MMAD. Methods Launched in the spring of 2007, Quality of Service Assessment of Health Canada's Medical Cannabis Policy and Program pairs a 50 question online survey addressing the personal experiences of patients in the federal cannabis program with 25 semi-guided interviews. Data gathering for this study took place from April 2007 to Jan. 2008, eventually garnering survey responses from 100 federally-authorized users, which at the time represented about 5% of the patients enrolled in Health Canada's program. This paper presents the results of the survey portion of the study. Results 8% of respondents report getting their cannabis from Health Canada, while 66% grow it for themselves. >50% report that they frequent compassion clubs or dispensaries, which remain illegal and unregulated in Canada. 81% of patients would chose certified organic methods of cultivation; >90% state that not all strains are equally effective at relieving symptoms, and 97% would prefer to obtain cannabis from a source where multiple strains are available. Of the 48 patients polled that had tried the Health Canada cannabis supply, >75% rank it as either "1" or "2" on a scale of 1-10 (with "1" being "very poor", and 10 being "excellent"). Discussion 72% of respondents report they are either "somewhat" or "totally unsatisfied" with Canada's medical cannabis program. These survey results and relevant court decisions suggest that the MMAR are not meeting the needs of most of the nation's medical cannabis patient community. It is hoped this research will
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2001 Health Canada responded to a series of Ontario court decisions by creating the Marihuana Medical Access Division (MMAD and the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR. Although Health Canada has conducted a small number of stakeholder consultations, the federal government has never polled federally authorized cannabis patients. This study is an attempt to learn more about patient needs, challenges and experiences with the MMAD. Methods Launched in the spring of 2007, Quality of Service Assessment of Health Canada's Medical Cannabis Policy and Program pairs a 50 question online survey addressing the personal experiences of patients in the federal cannabis program with 25 semi-guided interviews. Data gathering for this study took place from April 2007 to Jan. 2008, eventually garnering survey responses from 100 federally-authorized users, which at the time represented about 5% of the patients enrolled in Health Canada's program. This paper presents the results of the survey portion of the study. Results 8% of respondents report getting their cannabis from Health Canada, while 66% grow it for themselves. >50% report that they frequent compassion clubs or dispensaries, which remain illegal and unregulated in Canada. 81% of patients would chose certified organic methods of cultivation; >90% state that not all strains are equally effective at relieving symptoms, and 97% would prefer to obtain cannabis from a source where multiple strains are available. Of the 48 patients polled that had tried the Health Canada cannabis supply, >75% rank it as either "1" or "2" on a scale of 1-10 (with "1" being "very poor", and 10 being "excellent". Discussion 72% of respondents report they are either "somewhat" or "totally unsatisfied" with Canada's medical cannabis program. These survey results and relevant court decisions suggest that the MMAR are not meeting the needs of most of the nation's medical cannabis patient community. It is
Bell, C M; Crystal, M; Detsky, A S; Redelmeier, D A
Historical comparisons indicate that US hospitals are more expensive than Canadian hospitals, but health care system reform might have changed the relative costs and timeliness of health care in the 2 countries. To estimate the price and convenience of selected hospital services in the United States and Canada for patients in 1997 had they paid out-of-pocket. Cross-sectional telephone survey conducted May 1996 to April 1997. The 2 largest acute care general hospitals from every city in the United States and Canada with a population greater than 500000. Each hospital was telephoned and asked their price and waiting time for 7 services: magnetic resonance imaging of the head without gadolinium; a screening mammogram; a 12-lead electrocardiogram; a prothrombin time measurement; a session of hemodialysis; a screening colonoscopy; and a total knee replacement. Waiting times were measured in days until earliest appointment and charges were converted to American currency. Overall, 48 US and 18 Canadian hospitals were surveyed. Median waiting times were significantly shorter in American hospitals for 4 services, particularly a magnetic resonance imaging of the head (3 days vs 150 days; Preplacement ($26805 vs $10651; Preplacement in the United States. US hospitals still provide higher prices and faster care than Canadian hospitals for patients who pay out-of-pocket.
J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan); F.P.H. Jaspers (Ferdinand)
textabstractThis paper focuses on governance modes for systemic innovation projects. The central question is: to what extent does the newness of a system and its components affect the most appropriate governance mode for component development projects? Component development projects can be performed
Guruge, Sepali; Thomson, Mary Susan; Seifi, Sadaf Grace
RÉSUMÉ Une population vieillissante et la croissance de la population sur la base de l'immigration nécessitent que la recherche, la pratique et la politique doivent se concentrer sur la santé mentale des immigrants âgés, surtout parce que leur santé mentale semble se détériorer au fil du temps. Cette revue se concentre sur: Qu'est-ce que l'on sait sur les déterminants sociaux de la santé mentale chez les immigrants âgés, et quels sont les obstacles à l'accès aux services de santé mentale confrontés par les immigrants âgés? Les résultats révèlent que (1) les déterminants sociaux décisifs de la santé mentale sont la culture, le sexe et les services de santé; (2) que les immigrants plus âgés utilisent les services de santé mentale de moins que leurs homologues nés au Canada à cause des obstacles tels que, par exemple, les croyances et les valeurs culturelles, un manque de services culturellement et linguistiquement appropriées, des difficultés financières, et l'âgisme; et (3) quelles que soient les sous-catégories dans cette population, les immigrants âgés éprouvent des inégalités en matière de la santé mentale. La preuve des recherches disponibles indique que de combler les lacunes des service de santé mentale devrait devenir une priorité pour la politique et la pratique du système de soins de santé au Canada.
Higginbottom, Gina M A; Hadziabdic, Emina; Yohani, Sophie; Paton, Patricia
to synthesise data on immigrant women's experiences of maternity services in Canada. a qualitative systematic literature review using a meta-ethnographic approach a comprehensive search strategy of multiple databases was employed in consultation with an information librarian, to identify qualitative research studies published in English or French between 1990 and December 2011 on maternity care experiences of immigrant women in Canada. A modified version of Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic theoretical approach was undertaken to develop an inductive and interpretive form of knowledge synthesis. The seven-phase process involved comparative textual analysis of published qualitative studies, including the translation of key concepts and meanings from one study to another to derive second and third-order concepts encompassing more than that offered by any individual study. ATLAS.ti qualitative data analysis software was used to store and manage the studies and synthesise their findings. the literature search identified 393 papers, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria and were synthesised. The literature contained seven key concepts related to maternity service experiences including social (professional and informal) support, communication, socio-economic barriers, organisational environment, knowledge about maternity services and health care, cultural beliefs and practices, and different expectations between health care staff and immigrant women. Three second-order interpretations served as the foundation for two third-order interpretations. Societal positioning of immigrant women resulted in difficulties receiving high quality maternity health care. Maternity services were an experience in which cultural knowledge and beliefs, and religious and traditional preferences were highly relevant as well but often overlooked in Canadian maternity settings. in order to implement woman-centered care, to enhance access to maternity services, and to promote immigrant women
Full Text Available The goal of this research was to do a comparative study on the use of information technology in DKI Jakarta Provincial Government through Jakarta.go.id website and Surabaya City Local Government through Surabaya.go.id website. This research focused on public services and interactive use of communication media. Research method used was descriptive qualitative. Data were collected through a depth interview with Jakarta.go.id and Surabaya.go.id website administrators, observation of digital data, literature review, and through secondary data. Data analysis was done through a constant comparative technique. The results indicates that diffusion innovation theory is used by provincial government to give digital public services. It means that the government is seeking people to adopt the use of information technology in the interaction with the government. Local and Provincial Government provides a media center for public services, which the public can access information and provide input to the government. Some of the challenges show that society is not fully ready to change from conventional public services to digital public services received from the government. There is a massive need to educate society while also providing free mobile internet services. Other than that, there is also a gap in internal governmental human resources skill and competences. As a solution to some of these problems, both DKI Jakarta and Surabaya Provincial Government need to apply information technology to achieve e-government and cyber city.
Breault, Rene R; Whissell, Jeff G; Hughes, Christine A; Schindel, Theresa J
To describe experiences with development and implementation of a compensation plan for pharmacy services delivered by pharmacists in community pharmacies. Community pharmacy practice in Alberta, Canada. Pharmacists in Alberta have one of the most progressive scopes of practice in North America. They have authority to prescribe drugs independently, administer drugs by injection, access electronic health records, and order laboratory tests. A publicly funded compensation plan for pharmacy services was implemented in 2012. Principles that guided development of the compensation plan aimed to 1) ensure payment for pharmacy services, 2) support pharmacists in using their full scope of practice, 3) enable the development of long-term relationships with patients, 4) facilitate expansion of services delivered by pharmacists, and 5) provide access to pharmacy services for all eligible Albertans. Services covered by the compensation plan include care planning, prescribing, and administering drugs by injection. The guiding principles were used to evaluate experiences with the compensation plan. Claims for pharmacy services covered by the compensation plan increased from 30,000 per month in July 2012 to 170,000 per month in March 2016. From September 2015 to August 2016, 1226 pharmacies submitted claims for services provided by 3901 pharmacists. The number of pharmacists with authorization to prescribe and administer injections continued to increase following implementation of the plan. Alberta's experiences with the development and implementation of the compensation plan will be of interest to jurisdictions considering implementation of remunerated pharmacy services. The potential impact of the plan on health and economic outcomes, in addition to the value of the services as perceived by the public, patients, pharmacists, and other health care providers, should also be explored. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kotamraju, Nalini; van der Geest, Thea
The absence of user involvement in the design and development of e-government is often cited as a reason for the lag in e-government uptake. Drawing on our involvement with PortNL, an integrated e-government service for expatriates in the Netherlands, we explain this absence as a result of an
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Code of ethics for government service. 19.6 Section 19.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL STANDARDS OF CONDUCT AND CONFLICTS OF INTEREST General Provisions § 19.6 Code of ethics for government...
Full Text Available Technological developments and governments’ understanding of what citizens need usually determine the design of public online services. For successful implementation of e-Government services, governments have to place the user in the center of future developments, understand what citizens need and measure what increases citizens’ willingness to adopt e-government services. The paper uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, the extended TAM, the Diffusion of Innovations (DOI theory and the important determinants of user acceptance perceived risk and trust, in order to describe teachers’ behavioral intensions to adopt e-Government services. A model containing trust and risk, along with cognitive, social and intrinsic factors is used to study the intentions of e-Government use by Greek primary and secondary education teachers. Two hundred and thirty teachers responded to an online survey. Findings reveal that cognitive and intrinsic factors have significant effects on intentions to use e-Government websites.
Sep 15, 2017 ... competence during consultations, and global opinion on FP services were ... level (not all, elementary, college, high school, university). - "Services ..... Compliance, counseling and satisfaction with oral contraceptives: a.
Klievink, B.; Janssen, M.
Government organizations operate a variety of channels to interact with citizens and businesses. Advances in information and communication technology enabled an online presence and more direct interactions. A focus on efficiency makes organizations encourage the use of electronic channels over
Allee, David J.
The subtitle of this paper should be " How recession and federal devolution have caused local governments to cut services and raise property taxes --now, what should be done in response to the resulting clamor for local government consolidation?" Housing drives local government services. Home sales represent opportunities for more income and more costs. Intergovernmental competition for tax base and the role of state and federal aid to provide equity between jurisdictions are central to the q...
Community Broadband Networks (CBN) facilitate Broadband connectivity in underserved areas in many countries. The lack of Broadband connectivity is one of the reasons for the slow diffusion of e-government services in many countries.This article explains how CBNs can be enabled by governments...... to facilitate the delivery of e–government services in underserved areas in the developed and developing countries.The Community Based Broadband Mobilization (CBNM) models are used as explanatory tools....
DE MATTEIS Fabio
Full Text Available Entrusting most local public services to local government entities has led to proliferation of public groups and, consistently, to greater complexity of the governance dynamics of local authorities. Differently from Anglo-Saxon countries, the Italian local public services provision has been characterized by a hybrid externalization process where local entities are legally autonomous but owned by the local government. This leads to a peculiar governance complexity source represented by the dual role (stakeholder and customer assumed by the local authority. Considering these elements (hybrid externalization and governance structure, this work tries to investigate some governance issues of public groups, basing on the two most populous Italian municipalities. The empirical findings highlight a gap between the presence of the conditions for defining a group governance structure and the adoption of a group approach by the parent local government. The authors try to suggest how to bridge this gap.
Diah Hidayanti; Yudi Pramono
The generation of electricity from nuclear power has the consequence of producing some wastes that are radioactive, especially in the form of spent fuels which are classified as high level nuclear wastes. Nuclear fuel wastes must be managed properly in order to protect public and environment from its big potential hazard. One type of long term management for nuclear fuel wastes is the final disposal in a permanent storage. Because of the importance of safety aspects for final disposal, it needs the involvement of government and the public to determine the reliability and the acceptance of final disposal concept. Those involvements can be implemented in some aspects such as regulation aspect, review and assessment process, and the public feedback. The evaluation on the plan of long term management for nuclear fuel wastes in Canada provides Indonesia an overview of its long term management plans for all radioactive materials, including nuclear fuel wastes generated from the nuclear power plant which is planned to be in service by 2016. (author)
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Electronic government needs to carry out in a fundamental public services of democracy. But in practice BPPTSP one door integrated permit service board of Samarinda not able to perform the activities. The aim of this research described analyzing electronic government and public services in a democracy. The methodology used in this research using descriptive qualitative approach the study was on the one door integrated permit service of Samarinda respondents in Samarinda the mayor head of Samarinda the citizen private group of government agencies and interests. Then variable measured in electronic government includes support capacity value and public services including democratic information consultancy and participation. The results of research shows that the variables measured having a deficiency and inability in accommodate aspirations built between citizens and the government in developing electronic democratic government. It is influenced by the absence of elements of liaison which is justice diversity and access electronic between government and public services that make democratic BPPTSP the inability of the city of Samarinda to make changes in depth in an effort to build and create a public being communicative with citizens.
Berger, Jesper Bull; Hertzum, Morten; Schreiber, Trine
Digital communication between government and citizens is pivotal to e-government. The Danish e-government initiative Digital Post aims to digitize all communications between government and citizens. We surveyed local government staff about how Digital Post affects the service delivered to citizens....... As much as 82% of the 448 respondents considered digital communication with citizens using Digital Post a good idea, yet 47% reported concrete incidents in which they perceived a decrease in service with Digital Post. This result shows the importance of distinguishing between the overall service...... relationship and the concrete incidents of which the service consists. We discuss interactions between the relationship level and the incident level of Digital Post on the basis of a content analysis of the respondents' incident descriptions....
Meng, X.; Deng, Y.; Li, H.; Yao, L.; Shi, J.
With the acceleration of China's informatization process, our party and government take a substantive stride in advancing development and application of digital technology, which promotes the evolution of e-government and its informatization. Meanwhile, as a service mode based on innovative resources, cloud computing may connect huge pools together to provide a variety of IT services, and has become one relatively mature technical pattern with further studies and massive practical applications. Based on cloud computing technology and national e-government network platform, "National Natural Resources and Geospatial Database (NRGD)" project integrated and transformed natural resources and geospatial information dispersed in various sectors and regions, established logically unified and physically dispersed fundamental database and developed national integrated information database system supporting main e-government applications. Cross-sector e-government applications and services are realized to provide long-term, stable and standardized natural resources and geospatial fundamental information products and services for national egovernment and public users.
Higginbottom, Gina M A; Morgan, Myfanwy; Alexandre, Mirande; Chiu, Yvonne; Forgeron, Joan; Kocay, Deb; Barolia, Rubina
Canada's diverse society and its statutory commitment to multiculturalism means that a synthesis of knowledge related to the healthcare experiences of immigrants is essential to realise the health potential for future Canadians. Although concerns about the maternity experiences of immigrants in Canada are relatively new, recent national guidelines explicitly call for the tailoring of services to user needs. We therefore assessed the experiences of immigrant women accessing maternity-care services in Canada. In particular, we investigated the experiences of immigrant women in Canada in accessing and navigating maternity and related healthcare services from conception to 6 months postpartum in Canada. Our focus was on (a) the accessibility and acceptability of maternity-care services for immigrant women and (b) the effects of the perceptions and experiences of these women on their birth and postnatal outcomes. We conducted a systematic review using a systematic search and narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed reports of empirical research, with the aim of providing stakeholders with perspectives on maternity-care services as experienced by immigrant women. We partnered with key stakeholders ('integrated knowledge users') to ensure the relevancy of topics and to tailor recommendations for effective translation into future policy, practice and programming. Two search phases and a three-stage selection process for published and grey literature were conducted prior to appraisal of literature quality and narrative synthesis of the findings. Our knowledge synthesis of maternity care among immigrants to Canada provided a coherent evidence base for (a) eliciting a better understanding of the factors that generate disparities in accessibility, acceptability and outcomes during maternity care; and (b) improving culturally based competency in maternity care. Our synthesis also identified pertinent issues in multiple sectors that should be addressed to
M.Tech. Service Oriented Architecture has many advantages. For example, organisations can align business with Information Technology, reuse the developed functionality, reduce development and maintain cost for applications. Organisations adopt Service Oriented Architecture with the aim of automating and integrating business processes. However, it has information security vulnerabilities that should be considered. For example, applications exchange information across the Internet, where it ...
Tambo, Torben; Bækgaard, Lars
. Services, however, tend to be more complex than the mere act of interaction or working process, and should be seen out of the cultural, organisational and managerial factors surrounding it. This chapter will use a service model consisting of execution, context and intention with an underlying claim...
Oktariyanda, T. A.; Rahaju, T.
The use of information technology by Surabaya City Government has generated various innovations of public services such as “e-Sapa Warga”, e-Commerce, “e-RT/RW”, e-Budgeting, e-Project, e-Procurement, “e-Pendidikan”. Among the many innovations, e-RT/RW (Rukun Tetangga / Rukun Warga) is an innovation that is quite prominent because there are still many areas that have not implemented. This research can be classified as literature review and critical research. The aims of this research are to describe and analyze e-government strategy in Surabaya City through e-RT / RW to improve public service quality. The result of this research is e-government strategy in Surabaya City through e-RT / RW is already relevant and in accordance with Goldsmith’s theory of e-government. The positive impact of the implementation of e-RT / RW is the increasing quality of public services to bring benefits to all citizens Surabaya City.
Managing urban green space as part of an ongoing social-ecological transformationposes novel governance issues, particularly in post-industrial settings. Urban green spaces operate as small-scale nodes in larger networks of ecological reserves that provide and maintain key ecosys...
Wiersum, F.; Endalamaw, T.B.
Provisioning services are major environmental services provided by forests. Especially in tropical countries, the livelihoods of local people often partly depend on a range of timber and non-timber forest products. The governance arrangements concerning such locally valued environmental services are
Full Text Available of field experiments are done to gain an improved understanding of the extent to which citizens’ exposure to technology and home language affect their ability to access electronic services. These experiments will influence technology development...
A trend to decentralization in Canada's 'welfare state' has received support from the Left and from the Right. Some social critics of the Left expect decentralization to result in holistic services adjusted to local needs. Others, moreover, feel we are in the dawn of a new epoch in which major economic transformations are to bring about, through new class alliances and conflict, decentralization of power and a better quality of life in communities. These assumptions and their theoretical pitfalls are discussed here following an historical overview of the centralization/decentralization issue in Canadian social policy. It is argued that recent proposals of decentralization are a continuation of reactionary tendencies to constrain social expenditures, but not a path to better quality of life.
Ronis, Scott T; Slaunwhite, Amanda K; Malcom, Kathryn E
This paper reviews how child and youth mental health care services in Canada, the United States, and the Netherlands are organized and financed in order to identify systems and individual-level factors that may inhibit or discourage access to treatment for youth with mental health problems, such as public or private health insurance coverage, out-of-pocket expenses, and referral requirements for specialized mental health care services. Pathways to care for treatment of mental health problems among children and youth are conceptualized and discussed in reference to health insurance coverage and access to specialty services. We outline reforms to the organization of health care that have been introduced in recent years, and the basket of services covered by public and private insurance schemes. We conclude with a discussion of country-level opportunities to enhance access to child and youth mental health services using existing health policy levers in Canada, the United States and the Netherlands.
Technology. Each of the above six NSERC-UNENE Industrial Research Chairs are tenured positions, funded at 2.0 M dollars or more for first five years. The Chairs may be subsequently renewed. A large number of graduate students are already enrolled with Professors Holt, Jiang and Pandey. In anticipation of receiving Ontario Council of Graduate Studies accreditation for the course-based M. Eng. Degree in Nuclear Engineering, the following courses have already been offered to a typical class of 20 students: Reactor Physics; Nuclear Plant Systems and Operations; Nuclear Reactor Safety Design; Thermal Hydraulics. In addition to these, courses to be offered in near future include: Engineering Risk Analysis; Reactor Chemistry and Corrosion; Nuclear Materials; Control, Instrumentation and Electrical Power Systems; Nuclear Waste Management; Fuel Management; Health Physics/Radiation Protection; Power Plant Thermodynamics; Codes, Standards and Jurisdictions; and Business Management. M.Eng. Courses are delivered in flexible format to suit distant faculty and part-time students. UNENE, an industry driven partnership of nuclear industry, universities and governments, created to address the future challenge of research, education and human resources in Canada, has made an impressive start. (author)
Ingram, Verina; van den Berg, Jolanda; van Oorschot, Mark; Arets, Eric; Judge, Lucas
Dutch policies have advocated sustainable commodity value chains, which have implications for the landscapes from which these commodities originate. This study examines governance and policy options for sustainability in terms of how ecosystem services are addressed in cocoa, soy, tropical timber and palm oil value chains with Dutch links. A range of policies addressing ecosystem services were identified, from market governance (certification, payments for ecosystem services) to multi-actor platforms (roundtables) and public governance (policies and regulations). An analysis of policy narratives and interviews identified if and how ecosystem services are addressed within value chains and policies; how the concept has been incorporated into value chain governance; and which governance options are available. The Dutch government was found to take a steering but indirect role in all the cases, primarily through supporting, financing, facilitating and partnering policies. Interventions mainly from end-of-chain stakeholders located in processing and consumption countries resulted in new market governance, notably voluntary sustainability standards. These have been successful in creating awareness of some ecosystem services and bringing stakeholders together. However, they have not fully addressed all ecosystem services or stakeholders, thus failing to increase the sustainability of value chains or of the landscapes of origin. We argue that chains sourced in tropical landscapes may be governed more effectively for sustainability if voluntary, market policy tools and governance arrangements have more integrated goals that take account of sourcing landscapes and impacts along the entire value chain. Given the international nature of these commodities. These findings have significance for debates on public-private approaches to value chain and landscape governance.
Britto, Pia Rebello; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; van Ravens, Jan; Ponguta, Liliana Angelica; Reyes, Maria; Oh, Soojin; Dimaya, Roland; Nieto, Ana María; Seder, Richard
While there has been substantial growth in early childhood development (ECD) services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is considerable inequity in their distribution and quality. Evidence-based governance strategies are necessary, but currently they are insufficient for widespread, quality implementation. In particular, there is a limited understanding of the use of systems approaches for the analysis of ECD services as they go to scale. The aim of this paper is to present findings from four countries, using a cross-national case study approach to explore governance mechanisms required to strengthen national systems of ECD services. While different sets of governance strategies and challenges were identified in each country, overarching themes also emerged with implications for systems strengthening. Study results focus on local, mid-level and central governance, with recommendations for effective coordination and the integration of ECD services in LMICs. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Liang, D.; Mol, A.P.J.
Payment for environmental services (PES) schemes are increasingly being introduced in developed and developing countries for the ecological conservation of forests also. Such payment schemes resemble a new mode of forest governance labelled political modernization, in which centralized and
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
Book review of: Governing Civil Service Pay in China by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014.......Book review of: Governing Civil Service Pay in China by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014....
of the research is to establish what the model of governance of the Military Health System should be. That, with other recommendations, should be the...foundation for the impending transformation. The research found that the model of governance should be a single service model with regional health...commands that support the geographic combatant commander (GCC). With an organization based on the presented model of governance , the Military Health
The article introduces a service-oriented architecture (SOA) governance framework for successful implementation in a healthcare organization. The proposed framework, based on a rigorous literature review, proposes nine governance elements that should be considered during the SOA implementation...... process. This proposal aims to pinpoint attributes and guidelines for each element required to successfully govern SOA and tackle longstanding healthcare information systems (HIS) implementation challenges. The framework was tested in a healthcare organization and valuable insights are presented herein...
Glen D. Alexander
Two years ago, Ohio State Park developed a methodology of measuring customer satisfaction, to gauge the effectiveness of our customer service. What follows is a discussion of our installation of systems to measure and improve customer satisfaction, the interpretation of the data, and the positive results we have enjoyed.
This action research project will study innovation in service delivery by local ... Linking knowledge to innovation in the economy and society : the role of universities in Asia ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine ...
A.P.J. Machohe (Antonio)
textabstractMozambique has been a centralized State since its independence in 1975. During this time, local government has depended on the Central Government and has lacked autonomy in both local policy decisions and resource management in addition to the complete failure of effective local services
Full Text Available This paper reports on a study to determine the information requirements of communities in deep rural areas on government services and how this information can be made available to them. The study then proposes an e-government theoretical framework...
Few studies have examined the impact of government support and policies on immigrant services within ethnic enclaves. This paper seeks to address this gap and examines the structure and challenges of ethnic community based organizations (CBOs) that serve low income immigrant populations and the impact of government support and policies on these CBOs. The study utilized case study and ethnographic methodologies and examined 2 Chinese and 2 Vietnamese CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area. The findings show that ethnic CBOs critically depend on government fiscal support for survival. In exchange for fiscal support, ethnic CBOs represent public assistance and legitimacy interests for government in immigrant communities. However, culturally proficient and community leadership resources of ethnic CBOs can serve as bargaining chips to secure government funding, reduce compliance to government demands, and advance immigrant community interests. Nevertheless, in times of government fiscal crisis, ethnic CBOs and immigrant services tend to be most vulnerable to budget cuts due to lack of political voice. In sum, government-community collaboration through ethnic CBOs has a central role to play in facilitating and strengthening health and human services for rapidly growing, culturally diverse immigrant populations. These collaborative efforts in immigrant services are vital to cultivating healthy immigrant human capital and multicultural communities across the United States.
Ugochukwu David ABASILIM
Full Text Available E-governance has become one of the reform tools geared towards effective public service delivery, which is premised on the assumption that the appreciable use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT method in the day to day activities of government will bring effective service delivery. However, there are lots of challenges that hamper the effective implementation of e-governance in Nigerian public service. It is based on this, that this article identifies some of the challenges to e-governance implementation in Nigerian public service. Although, no robust statistical analysis was done, as the article relied on archival analysis of relevant literature on the subject matter and inferences drawn from it. Based on its findings, it was concluded that e-governance remain the best in encouraging transparency and accountability in government business. The paper therefore, recommends that, government should be more committed to the implementation e-governance as well as embark on adequate enlightenment about the concept.
Meng, X.; Deng, Y.; Li, H.; Yao, L.; Shi, J.
With the acceleration of China’s informatization process, our party and government take a substantive stride in advancing development and application of digital technology, which promotes the evolution of e-government and its informatization. Meanwhile, as a service mode based on innovative resources, cloud computing may connect huge pools together to provide a variety of IT services, and has become one relatively mature technical pattern with further studies and massive practical ap...
This thesis is about the metaphors of the rainbow and the fogbow, investigations and evaluations, public Internet monitors, writing women, reflections and discussions about politics, design and democracy. It is also about the ongoing re-structuring of participation in service design within the development of E-Government. The aim behind the drive towards E-Government is to modernise administration and make it more efficient. The transformation and modernisation of public services are proclaim...
Full Text Available Within the context of Mozambique, this paper examines the state of forest ecosystem services, the dependency of the population on these systems for their well-being, if an adaptive governance regime is being created which will ensure the resilience of the forest ecosystem services including the legal framework, the institutions operating within this framework, the tools available and their functioning, and how cooperative governance is operating.
In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in
Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Geisler, Gisela; Nangulah, Selma; Nygaard, Knut; Pomuti, Akiser; Shifotoka, Albertina; Van Rooy, Gert
The urbanisation of poverty is one of the most dramatic developments on the African continent, yielding contrasting images of affluent residential and business districts and utter misery in sprawling shantytowns or slums. Namibia has one of Africa’s highest urban growth rates, taking thousands of women, men and children to towns in search of a better life. The large majority of these end up in poverty-stricken informal settlements in urban areas. The current service delivery approach of the g...
foreign country. These activities are limited to medical assistance in areas where services are not available, construction of surface transportation...also supports the conclusion that reconstruction spending outside of CERP, which accounted for approximately 90% of the funds expensed over the...thousand per citizen (CIA: The World Factbook, 2014). The largest sector of Belize’s economy is tourism , which accounts for 33.2% of the GDP and 30.1
In Canada, the operational safety management of nuclear power plants employs methods which are intended to prevent, detect, correct and mitigate system and component failures from any cause, including the effects of aging and service wear degradation. The paper gives an overview of the application of these methods in the detection and mitigation of aging effects before they impact on plant safety and production reliability. Regulatory audits of these methods, to ensure that an acceptable level of plant safety is maintained by the nuclear power plant licensees, are also described. The methods are: a preventive maintenance program, Significant Event Reporting system, and a reliability based assessment of performance of safety related systems. The above methods are discussed and illustrated by examples. The soundness of the approach has been proven by the results achieved in 163 reactor-years of operation. Present and future developments include reviews of current monitoring, testing and inspection methods to ensure that appropriate time variant parameters (capable of revealing aging degradation before loss of functional capability) are monitored, and reviews of the effectiveness of existing maintenance programs and methods in mitigating aging and service wear effects
Full Text Available Likewise in other developed countries, E-government in public administration in Turkey has been introduced with an aim to improve state’s administrative efficiency and competency. These modern administrative approaches and opportunities from technological innovation will inevitably provide high quality services and participation at all levels of the public administration. For this purpose, Turkey established e-Government portal, (e-Devlet Kapısı a virtual structure which enables access to digital public services. The aim of the e-Government portal is to provide its users service through only one website and safe digital media. Since accessing the services through only one website makes access easier, high speed and system security are required too. The security system requires identity verification, password and e-Signature. Turkey has successfully implemented the e-government project and with sub-projects such as the National Judiciary Information System Turkey received many international awards. Other than public services similar to e-hospital, e-municipality and e-tender, other social service institutions can also use same administrative approach as to make their service available. Therefore, this article shortly analyzes technical and legal challenges and technical, administrative and legal solutions of the e-Government portal.
Kehinde David Adejuwon
Full Text Available The public sector in Nigeria is irrefutably beset with gross incompetence and ineffective management. Perplexing difficulties endure in the Nigerian public sector in spite of a number of reform programmes that have been designed to enhance efficient and effective service delivery for almost two decades. The fact that public service has failed dismally to achieve its laudable objectives is the reason for the vote of no confidence passed on its administrators by majority of the Nigerian populace. The article examines the dilemma of accountability and good governance in Nigeria and demonstrates that the critical point in achieving meaningful developments in the country intrinsically lay with improved service delivery in the public sector. The basic reason why the public service has become the scorn of the people is because for too long, both the government and public servants have paid lip service to the crucial issue of effective and efficient service delivery. The article argues that improved service delivery will improve both the performance and the image of public service and re-awaken the citizens’ interest and trust in them to do business with public servants. It suggests that in order to bring sanity back to the Nigerian Public Service, all unprofessional tendencies such as ethnicity bias and nepotism in appointments and promotions, lack of security of tenure of office, and appointment of non-career public servants into key positions in the public service must stop. Also, effective service delivery must be tailored to the circumstances of Nigeria. The study made use of secondary data obtained from various sources. It therefore concludes that without a reawakening of the culture of accountability and transparency lost over the years, the trusting relationship needed to forge between the government and the governed for the actualization of good governance will not materialize.
Fugini, Maria Grazia; Valles, Ramon Salvador
This book explores the factors that affect the efficiency and effectiveness of electronic government (e-Government) by analyzing two employment- service systems in Italy and Catalonia: the Borsa Lavoro Lombardia Portal (Lombardy Employment Services Portal) and the Servei d'Ocupació de Catalunya (Catalan Employment Services Portal). The evaluation methodology used in the case studies and the related set of technical, social, and economic indicators are clearly described. The technological and organizational features of the systems of the two systems are then compared and their impacts assessed
Full Text Available An affordable and reliable supply of electricity service is essential to encourage sustainable social development in developing countries. Colombia uses cross-subsidies to prompt electricity usage for poor households. This raises the issue of whether charging lower prices to poor households, while boosting their consumption, induces utilities to lower the quality of service received by them. This paper uses unique databases and examines how underfunded cross-subsidies affect perceived electricity service quality across consumer groups. Results indicate that when facing financial deficits, utilities provide lower perceived service quality to subsidized consumers than to residents paying surcharges. The difference in perceived quality across consumer groups is reduced by an increase in the amount of (external government transfers. To prompt electricity consumption by the poor, the Colombian government should fund subsidies, strengthen quality regulation, and increase the transparency and reliability of government transfers.
Tanev, Stoyan; Liotta, Giacomo; Kleismantas, Andrius
This paper is based on an empirical study addressing the value of product-enabled services in top R&D spenders from Canada and Europe. The focus is on product-driven firms for which new service development is particularly challenging. Existing literature on the value attributes of hybrid value...... offers is mostly conceptual and needs to be further developed through empirical studies. The research sample used in this work consists of 83 product-driven firms that were selected from the list of the top 100 R&D spenders in 2011. Several combinations of keywords linked to different aspects of service....... The results show that the main service value attributes for Canadian firms are: better service effectiveness, higher market share, higher service quality, and customer satisfaction. The service value attributes for the European firms of the sample include, among others, product added-value, product...
....S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement To Implement... of the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Government Procurement (Canada-U.S..., steel, and manufactured products in procurement above $7,804,000 for construction services through...
Zamzami; Fajrizal; Arief Hasan, Mhd
The use of technology in the field of computers today is increasing, along with the development of science and globalization of information that demands the creation of a state of computerization. E-Government is now the right solution for local and central government, it is because it can assist the government in managing government data and able to provide information to the community quickly, precisely and efficiently. The current service system at the Office of Population and Civil Registration of Pekanbaru City still uses a manual system that takes a long time and cost a lot. In this E-Government application will contain application feature profile information of the Office of Population and Civil Registration of Pekanbaru City, public service requirements, office address of Pekanbaru City Sub-district, community complaint, KK (Family Card), and birth certificate online. The general purpose of making E-Government application system is to provide a new alternative for the Office of Population and Civil Registration of Pekanbaru City in improving its public service system. And the specific purpose is to facilitate the delivery of information, the formation of the system of birth certificate and death online and realize the excellent service for the Office of Population and Civil Registration Pekanbaru and the public.
Usually reviews of special education in Canada describe the special education programs, services, policies, and legislation that are provided by the provinces and territories. The reviews consistently ignore the special education programs, services, policies, and legislation that are provided by federal government of Canada. The federal government…
Guaiana, Giuseppe; O'Reilly, Richard; Grassi, Luigi
We examine the possibility the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) bed count for Italy may be an underestimation of the actual beds available. We compared bedded services for mental disorders in two regions in Italy and Canada respectively. We found out that if we consider acute psychiatric beds only, the district of Ferrara has 30 beds (8.5 per 100,000) and the Middlesex and Elgin Counties have 89 beds (16.3 beds for 100,000). However, if we include the rehabilitation beds (that are located within a hospital setting in Ontario and in a residential community setting in Ferrara), we find that the district of Ferrara has 95 beds (27.0 per 100,000) and the Middlesex and Elgin Counties have 176 beds (32.3 per 100,000). As a result, the 10/100,000 beds rate for Italy reported by the OECD is an underestimate compared to figures reported for most other countries, as the beds included are hospital beds only.
Hannon, MJ; Foxon, TJ; Gale, WF
Product-Service Systems (PSSs) constitute a family of service-based business models designed to satisfy our societal needs in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. To date however PSS application has remained niche due to a variety of critical barriers. This paper explores how ‘demand pull’ national government policies could support PSS activity by addressing these barriers and cultivating market demand. Lessons are drawn from a case study of how regulatory, economic incenti...
Vigod, Simone; Sultana, Anjum; Fung, Kinwah; Hussain-Shamsy, Neesha; Dennis, Cindy-Lee
Postpartum mental disorders are twice as common among immigrant women compared to nonimmigrant women in developed countries. Immigrant women may experience barriers to access and use of postpartum mental health services, but little is known about their service use on a population level. We described postpartum mental health service use of immigrant mothers living in Ontario, Canada, comparing to a referent group of mothers who were either born in Canada or had lived in Ontario or another Canadian province since 1985. Among all women in Ontario, Canada, delivering a live infant from 2008 to 2012 (n = 450,622), we described mental health service use within 1 year postpartum, including mental health physician visits, psychiatric emergency department visits, and psychiatric hospitalization. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing immigrant women to the referent group were adjusted for maternal age, parity, income, rurality, mental health services in prior 2 years, and maternal and newborn health. Immigrant women (n = 123,231; 27%) were less likely to use mental health services than women in the referent group (14.1% vs. 21.4%; aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.61), including for physician-based (13.9% vs. 21.1%; aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.61) and emergency department (0.6% vs. 1.3%; aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.68) services. Hospitalization risk was lower among immigrants (0.20% vs. 0.33%) but became similar after covariate adjustment (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.06). Underuse of postpartum mental health services may be contributing to the high burden of postpartum mental disorders among immigrant women. © The Author(s) 2016.
van Veenstra, Anne Fleur; Zuurmond, Arre
To enhance the quality of their online service delivery, many government organizations seek to transform their organization beyond merely setting up a front office. This transformation includes elements such as the formation of service delivery chains, the adoption of a management strategy supporting process orientation and the implementation of enterprise architecture. This paper explores whether undertaking this transformation has a positive effect on the quality of online service delivery, using data gathered from seventy local governments. We found that having an externally oriented management strategy in place, adopting enterprise architecture, aligning information systems to business and sharing activities between processes and departments are positively related to the quality of online service delivery. We recommend that further research should be carried out to find out whether dimensions of organizational development too have an effect on online service delivery in the long term.
The aim of the research is to analyze how the service quality of Indonesian government affect student’s satisfaction in the education field. Data collection was conducted in September 2016 through distributing questionnaires to 132 students at private universities in south Tangerang city. Sampling used incidental sampling method, while data analysis is descriptive, qualitative and quantitative, which were analyzed with the Importance Performance Analysis. The survey results revealed that the satisfaction level of the students of South Tangerang good enough to service of the Government in higher education sector with a value of 83.61 using Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI). Nevertheless, there are several factors that should be prioritized for immediate enhanced, namely: government’s ability to respond effectively to solve the problems in the academic world, fairness of the government in providing assistance to both state and private universities and attention of the government to higher education.
Likewise in other developed countries, E-government in public administration in Turkey has been introduced with an aim to improve state’s administrative efficiency and competency. These modern administrative approaches and opportunities from technological innovation will inevitably provide high quality services and participation at all levels of the public administration. For this purpose, Turkey established e-Government portal, (e-Devlet Kapısı) a virtual structure which enables access to di...
Kwedza, Ruyamuro K; Larkins, Sarah; Johnson, Julie K; Zwar, Nicholas
Definitions of clinical governance are varied and there is no one agreed model. This paper explored the perspectives of rural and remote primary healthcare services, located in North Queensland, Australia, on the meaning and goals of clinical governance. The study followed an embedded multiple case study design with semi-structured interviews, document analysis and non-participant observation. Participants included clinicians, non-clinical support staff, managers and executives. Similarities and differences in the understanding of clinical governance between health centre and committee case studies were evident. Almost one-third of participants were unfamiliar with the term or were unsure of its meaning; alongside limited documentation of a definition. Although most cases linked the concept of clinical governance to key terms, many lacked a comprehensive understanding. Similarities between cases included viewing clinical governance as a management and administrative function. Differences included committee members' alignment of clinical governance with corporate governance and frontline staff associating clinical governance with staff safety. Document analysis offered further insight into these perspectives. Clinical governance is well-documented as an expected organisational requirement, including in rural and remote areas where geographic, workforce and demographic factors pose additional challenges to quality and safety. However, in reality, it is not clearly, similarly or comprehensively understood by all participants.
Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael [Impetus Consulting (United Kingdom); Flanagan, Brooke [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)
In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?.
Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael [Impetus Consulting (United Kingdom); Flanagan, Brooke [Energy Saving Trust (United Kingdom)
In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?.
Wade, Joanne; Pearson, Amanda; Knowland, Rachael; Flanagan, Brooke
In October 2006 the UK government published a new Local Government White Paper. This policy statement set the framework for the role of local government in the coming years.The White Paper is one stage in the latest wave of local government reform in the UK. This reform has aimed to refocus attention away from delivery of specific services and towards community leadership, particularly with reference to sustainable development. Climate change is given some emphasis within the White Paper, and should become one of the indicators against which local government performance is measured.This paper examines energy action in local authorities in the past few years, in a situation where most, but not all, were still strongly focused on service delivery. By contrasting this with the results achieved in authorities that have taken a community leadership role, the paper examines the potential of the White Paper. It addresses the following questions: does local government have the capacity to deliver increased local action on climate change? Does the UK policy framework support and encourage development and deployment of this capacity? And do the national and regional bodies that provide support for local authorities need to change the services they offer in light of recent policy developments?
Rover, Marina Raijche Mattozo; Peláez, Claudia Marcela Vargas; Faraco, Emília Baierle; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Leite, Silvana Nair
This paper presents application of an indicator protocol to assessment of current levels of governance capacity of the Specialized Component of Pharmaceutical Services (CEAF) in a state of the South of Brazil. We chose the theoretical referential of 'governance capacity' proposed by Carlos Matus, which reflects in the concepts of management capacity and pharmaceutical service management, due to the perception of a need to overcome the fragmentation and technicist reductionism that we believe has been imposed on the area of pharmaceutical services. Data was collected using the protocol in 74 municipal or state units. The results of the analysis indicate that the currently existing governance capacity needs improvement in all three dimensions that were evaluated, principally in relation to the aspects that seek sustainability of the governance. The model and the protocol used indicate a way forward for governance of pharmaceutical service by proposing a change from the technicist-logistical focus to an emphasis on strategic and political actions, or ones which foster greater participation and autonomy. With these results in hand, it will be possible to develop strategies for improvement of access to medicines in the SUS, in the sense that the CEAF becomes able to guarantee integrality of medicines treatments.
Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer
Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Resu...
Full Text Available Innovation has become prominent within the leadership literature as an underlying and important aspect of service delivery. This study set out to determine the perceptions and nature of service delivery innovation among employees of a South African government department, using a sample of 289 participants. Statistical analysis was conducted to analyse the data which indicate that innovation is an important aspect of service delivery. This study suggests that to enhance service delivery employees should be encouraged to be innovative. The implications of the findings are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.
This review of the governance of maternity services at South Tipperary General Hospital has focussed on the systems and processes for assurance of service quality, risk management and patient safety primarily inside the hospital but also in the Hospital Group structure within which it operates. The effectiveness of the governance arrangements is largely determined by the quality of the leadership and management – both clinical and general – which designs, implements, and oversees those systems and processes and is ultimately responsible and accountable.\\r\
Jacob Olufemi Fatile
Full Text Available Techno-bureaucratic governance is fundamental to contemporary public service. This is because the roles of the bureaucrats and technocrats become more relevant in policy formulation and implementation when the government had to (reinvent its institutions to move from routine administration to that of development planning and management. Utilizing a qualitative approach, the paper notes that techno-bureaucratic ideology values technical expertise itself and its technical experts, efficiency, economic development and effective public service delivery. Adopting comparative perspective, the paper examines techno-bureaucratic governance and public service delivery in Indonesia and Nigeria. The paper takes a cursory look at the similarities and differences between the two countries. The paper notes that the technocracy nurtured by the New Order in Indonesia was cohesive and effective because of its technical expertise and has helped Indonesia to turn oil income into productive investments,whereas in Nigeria the oil income was used for prestigious projects to the detriment of productive investments. The paper therefore recommend among others that developing societies need a new strategy in delivery services in their public service, and this can be achieved through skilled professionals, technocrats and knowledge based actors. It concludes that for public service to deliver effective services, an efficient bureaucracy and technocracy remain invaluable.
Olesia Leontiivna TOTSKA
Full Text Available n this article an author conducted the analysis of labour in the public sector of Canada after such nine subgroups of establishments: 1 federal general government; 2 provincial and territorial general government; 3 health and social service institutions (provincial and territorial; 4 universities, colleges, vocational and trade institutes (provincial and territorial; 5 local general government; 6 local school boards; 7 federal government business enterprises; 8 provincial and territorial government business enterprises; 9 local government business enterprises. On the basis of statistical information about these sub-groups for 2007-2011 from a web-site «Statistics Canada» the maximal and minimum values of such three indexes are found: amount of employees, general annual sums of wages and annual sums of wages per employee. Rating for nine sub-groups of establishments of public sector of Canada on these indexes is certain. The got results testify, that during an analysable period most of the employees of public sector was concentrated in health and social service institutions, the least – in local government business enterprises. In 2007– 2011 a most general sum was earned also by the employees of health and social service institutions, the least – by the employees of local government business enterprises. At the same time in an analysable period among the state employees of Canada a most wage in a calculation on one person was got by the employees of federal general government, the least – by the employees of local general government.
Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Meidani, Zahra
Background: Websites as one of the initial steps towards an e-government adoption do facilitate delivery of online and customer-oriented services. In this study we intended to investigate the role of the websites of medical universities in providing educational and research services following the E-government maturity model in the Iranian universities. Methods: This descriptive and cross- sectional study was conducted through content analysis and benchmarking the websites in 2012. The research population included the entire medical university website (37). Delivery of educational and research services through these university websites including information, interaction, transaction, and Integration were investigated using a checklist. The data were then analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and using SPSS software. Results: Level of educational and research services by websites of the medical universities type I and II was evaluated medium as 1.99 and 1.89, respectively. All the universities gained a mean score of 1 out of 3 in terms of integration of educational and research services. Conclusions: Results of the study indicated that Iranian universities have passed information and interaction stages, but they have not made much progress in transaction and integration stages. Failure to adapt to e-government in Iranian medical universities in which limiting factors such as users’ e-literacy, access to the internet and ICT infrastructure are not so crucial as in other organizations, suggest that e-government realization goes beyond technical challenges. PMID:25132713
Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Meidani, Zahra
Websites as one of the initial steps towards an e-government adoption do facilitate delivery of online and customer-oriented services. In this study we intended to investigate the role of the websites of medical universities in providing educational and research services following the E-government maturity model in the Iranian universities. This descriptive and cross- sectional study was conducted through content analysis and benchmarking the websites in 2012. The research population included the entire medical university website (37). Delivery of educational and research services through these university websites including information, interaction, transaction, and Integration were investigated using a checklist. The data were then analyzed by means of descriptive statistics and using SPSS software. Level of educational and research services by websites of the medical universities type I and II was evaluated medium as 1.99 and 1.89, respectively. All the universities gained a mean score of 1 out of 3 in terms of integration of educational and research services. Results of the study indicated that Iranian universities have passed information and interaction stages, but they have not made much progress in transaction and integration stages. Failure to adapt to e-government in Iranian medical universities in which limiting factors such as users' e-literacy, access to the internet and ICT infrastructure are not so crucial as in other organizations, suggest that e-government realization goes beyond technical challenges.
Jarpe, Meghan; Mosley, Jennifer E; Smith, Bikki Tran
The Continuum of Care (CoC) process-a nationwide system of regional collaborative planning networks addressing homelessness-is the chief administrative method utilized by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development to prevent and reduce homelessness in the United States. The objective of this study is to provide a benchmark comprehensive picture of the structure and practices of CoC networks, as well as information about which of those factors are associated with lower service gaps, a key goal of the initiative. A national survey of the complete population of CoCs in the United States was conducted in 2014 (n = 312, 75% response rate). This survey is the first to gather information on all available CoC networks. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to determine the relationship between internal networking, advocacy frequency, government investment, and degree of service gaps for CoCs of different sizes. United States. Lead contacts for CoCs (n = 312) that responded to the 2014 survey. Severity of regional service gaps for people who are homeless. Descriptive statistics show that CoCs vary considerably in regard to size, leadership, membership, and other organizational characteristics. Several independent variables were associated with reduced regional service gaps: networking for small CoCs (β = -.39, P < .05) and local government support for midsized CoCs (β = -.10, P < .05). For large CoCs, local government support was again significantly associated with lower service gaps, but there was also a significant interaction effect between advocacy and networking (β = .04, P < .05). To reduce service gaps and better serve the homeless, CoCs should consider taking steps to improve networking, particularly when advocacy is out of reach, and cultivate local government investment and support.
Full Text Available Health services and policy research (HSPR represent a multidisciplinary field which integrates knowledge from health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, epidemiology, political science among other fields, to evaluate decisions in health service delivery. Health service decisions are informed by evidence at the clinical, organizational, and policy level, levels with distinct, managerial drivers. HSPR has an evolving discourse spanning knowledge translation, linkage and exchange between research and decision-maker partners and more recently, implementation science and learning health systems. Local context is important for HSPR and is important in advancing health reform practice. The amounts and configuration of national investment in this field remain important considerations which reflect priority investment areas. The priorities set within this field or research may have greater or lesser effects and promise with respect to modernizing health services in pursuit of better value and better population outcomes. Within Canada an asset map for HSPR was published by the national HSPR research institute. Having estimated publiclyfunded research spending in Canada, we sought identify best available comparable estimates from the United States and the United Kingdom. Investments from industry and charitable organizations were not included in these numbers. This commentary explores spending by the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on HSPR as a fraction of total public spending on health and the importance of these respective investments in advancing health service performance. Proposals are offered on the merits of common nomenclature and accounting for areas of investigation in pursuit of some comparable way of assessing priority HSPR investments and suggestions for earmarking such investments to total investment in health services spending.
Wayu Eko Yudiatmaja
Full Text Available This article examines the distinction of public service motivation (PSM on street-level bureaucracy in Indonesia. Focus of this study is to review the differentiation of public service motivation between permanent and contract employees in sub-districts of Tanjungpinang, Kepulauan Riau. The dimensions and indicators of Perry’s (1996 measurement of PSM is used to analyze the differentiation of public service motivation between permanent and contract employees. Independent sampel t-test has employed to 129 government employees and 74 non-government employees in Tanjungpinang. Unlike in developed countries that PSM of its civil services are higher than PSM of contract employees, the findings of this research proves that there is no differences between PSM of permanent and contract employees. The findings of this research rejects the conclusion of foreign scholars suggesting the PSM construct was viable for internationally environment.
..., technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States persons... Prohibitions § 560.205 Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of... than a United States person, of any goods, technology or services that have been exported from the...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Advisory Group to the Internal Revenue Service Tax Exempt and Government Entities Division (TE/GE); Meeting AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Advisory Committee on Tax Exempt and Government Entities (ACT) will...
Axel Maroudas; Pantelis Karamolegkos; Nikos Manouselis
Rural Inclusion, a project supported by the Information and Communication Technologies Policy Support Programme of the European Commission, aims to adopt, adapt, and deploy a Web infrastructure, in rural settings, combining semantics with a collaborativetraining and networking approach, offering e-Government services that will be supported by a rigorous and reusable service process analysis and modeling, and facilitating the disambiguation of the small businesses needs and requirements when t...
Ruth M Mann
Full Text Available This paper situates the Harper government’s 2006 restructuring and effective dismantling of Status of Women Canada and its 2011 take down of the approximate 12,000 volume online library of the federal Family Violence Initiative in relation to two developments. These are the ascendant influence of men’s rights and other antifeminist activism in Canada and globally; and the concurrent rise of a Hayekian-animated New Right neoliberal agenda intent on subordinating civil society and democratic rule to the forces of twenty-first century global capitalism. The paper contends that anti-feminism is among a host of neoconservative forces that the New Right instrumentalizes to augment and advance and its neoliberal agenda. For the New Right, however, the enemy is not gender equality or feminism per se but rather the market inhibiting commitment to social justice that feminism participates in and advances.
Whitmore, J.; Bramley, M.; Holmes, R.
Green power is defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. It offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities in Canada associated with these four categories in 2003 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Green power generation facilities in 2003 totaled 775 MW of capacity compared to 539 MW in 2002. Hydro capacity represented 41 per cent, followed by wind capacity at 40 per cent and wood waste at 17 per cent. Most of the green power generation facilities in 2003 were located in Alberta, followed by British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. 230 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig
Ndziessi, Gilbert; Bintsene-Mpika, Gickelle; Bileckot, Richard
Patient satisfaction is considered an indicator of quality of care. This study aimed to assess the degree of clients' satisfaction with family planning (FP) services in government health centers in Congo. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 635 clients nested in 27 health facilities were included in the analysis. Satisfaction was defined as "having a good perception of provider technical skills, being satisfied with the service organization and having a general positive appreciation of FP services. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v15. Among 635 clients, 57% perceived lack of technical competence in providers, 88% perceived good organization in FP services and 77% declared having general positive appreciation of FP services. Global level of client satisfaction was 42%. In conclusion client satisfaction with FP service was low and strengthening health workers technical competence is crucial. But, as the quality is multidimensional, other aspects especially significant funding investment and quality-assurance interventions must be taken into account.
political and economic challenges facing the welfare state in the 21st century. Co-production provides a model for the mix of public service agents and citizens who contribute to the provision of a public service. New Public Governance (NPG puts much greater emphasis on citizen participation and third sector provision of social services than either traditional public administration or New Public Management. Co-production is a core element of NPG that promotes the mix of public service agents and citizens who contribute to the provis ionof a public service. This paper explores the implications of two comparative studies of paren tparticipation in preschool services in Europe. They observe that citizen participation clearly varies between different providers of social services, as too does client and staff influence. This empirical overview concludes that some third sector providers can facilitate greater citizen participation, while a 'glass ceiling' for participation exists in municipal and for-profit preschool services. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of the emerging paradigm of New Public Governance.
... organizations. 228.54 Section 228.54 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE... interested in competing for the contract. (c) Services are not available from any other source. (d) Foreign... might be placed or any conflict of interest that might arise by permitting a foreign government-owned...
... receipt of a bachelor's or higher degree in either actuarial mathematics or another area which include at..., actuarial mathematics, and other areas determined by the Joint Board. These regulations provide that an... Governing the Performance of Actuarial Services Under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974...
Voorberg, Willem; Bekkers, Victor; Flemig, Sophie; Timeus, Krista; Tõnurist, Piret; Tummers, L.G.
Co-creation in public service delivery requires partnerships between citizens and civil servants. The authors argue that whether or not these partnerships will be successful depends on state and governance traditions (for example a tradition of authority sharing or consultation). These traditions
Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.
Whereas e-government used to be focused mainly on digitalizing documents, the attention is currently shifting to the question how the main governmental functions service, care and control can be realized in the best way in an information age. In this respect, e-customs is a case in point. Worldwide
Full Text Available This paper reports on a research to assess the readiness of Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) to deliver e-government services to deep rural communities through information dissemination by the SMMEs. This research was conducted as a case...
O.F. Aydinli; S. Brinkkemper; J.P.P. Ravesteijn
This paper describes a business process and organizational re-design and implementation project for an e-government service organization. In this project the initial process execution time of a Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection request has been reduced from some 60 days to 2 days. This has
Full Text Available The concept of organisational governance maturity and what exactly this entails is still perceived as somewhat of a mystery to most and, as a result, internal auditing find themselves in a dilemma when deciding which services to deliver in this regard. The objective of this article was to develop an organisational governance maturity framework that could be used as a measurement tool to assist internal auditing in this dilemma. A preliminary organisational governance maturity framework was developed based on the most relevant literature. A case study was conducted to obtain feedback on the preliminary framework from key stakeholders in the organisation. The results indicated that the framework significantly contributed to the determining and continuous monitoring of governance maturity; both for management and internal auditing.
Perkins, R; Barnett, P; Powell, M
New Zealand public hospitals and related services were grouped into 23 Crown Health Enterprises and registered as companies in 1993. Integral to this change was the introduction of corporate governance. New directors, largely from the business sector, were appointed to govern these organisations as efficient and effective businesses. This article presents the results of a survey of directors of New Zealand publicly-owned health provider organisations. Although directors thought they performed well in business systems development, they acknowledged their shortcomings in meeting government expectations in respect to financial performance and social responsibility. Changes in public health sector provider performance indicators have resulted in a mixed report card for the sector six years after corporate governance was instituted.
Full Text Available Risk-based regulation and risk governance gain momentum in most sectorial ecosystems, should they be the finance, the healthcare or the telecommunications ecosystems. Although there is a profusion of tools to address this issue at the corporate level, worth is to note that no solution fulfils this function at the ecosystem level yet. Therefore, in this article, the Business Service Ecosystem (BSE metamodel is semantically extended, considering the Capability as a Service (CaaS theory, in order to raise the enterprise risk management from the enterprise level up to the ecosystem level. This extension allows defining a concrete ecosystem metamodel which is afterwards mapped with an information system risk management model to support risk governance at the ecosystem level. This mapping is illustrated and validated on the basis of an application case for the Luxembourgish financial sector applied to the most important concepts from the BSE: capability, resource, service and goal.
Rasyid, A.; Alfina, I.
This research intends to develop a model to evaluate the quality of e-services on e-government. The proposed model consists of seven dimensions: web design, reliability, responsiveness, privacy and security, personalization, information, and ease of use. The model is used to measure the quality of the e-registration of BPJS Kesehatan, an Indonesian government health insurance program. The validation and reliability testing show that of the seven dimensions proposed, only four that suitable for the case study. The result shows that the BPJS Kesehatan e-registration service is good in reliability and responsiveness dimensions, while from web design and ease of use dimensions the e-service still needs to be optimized.
Pavlič, Danica R; Sever, Maja; Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika; Švab, Igor; Vainieri, Milena; Seghieri, Chiara; Maksuti, Alem
AimWe sought to examine strength of primary care service delivery as measured by selected process indicators by general practitioners from 31 European countries plus Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. We explored the relation between strength of service delivery and healthcare expenditures. The strength of a country's primary care is determined by the degree of development of a combination of core primary care dimensions in the context of its healthcare system. This study analyses the strength of service delivery in primary care as measured through process indicators in 31 European countries plus Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. A comparative cross-sectional study design was applied using the QUALICOPC GP database. Data on the strength of primary healthcare were collected using a standardized GP questionnaire, which included 60 questions divided into 10 dimensions related to process, structure, and outcomes. A total of 6734 general practitioners participated. Data on healthcare expenditure were obtained from World Bank statistics. We conducted a correlation analysis to analyse the relationship between strength and healthcare expenditures.FindingsOur findings show that the strength of service delivery parameters is less than optimal in some countries, and there are substantial variations among countries. Continuity and comprehensiveness of care are significantly positively related to national healthcare expenditures; however, coordination of care is not.
Branker, K.; Pearce, J.M.
As the Ontario government has recognized that solar photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion is a solution to satisfying energy demands while reducing the adverse anthropogenic impacts on the global environment that compromise social welfare, it has begun to generate policy to support financial incentives for PV. This paper provides a financial analysis for investment in a 1 GW per year turnkey amorphous silicon PV manufacturing plant. The financial benefits for both the provincial and federal governments were quantified for: (i) full construction subsidy, (ii) construction subsidy and sale, (iii) partially subsidize construction, (iv) a publicly owned plant, (v) loan guarantee for construction, and (vi) an income tax holiday. Revenues for the governments are derived from: taxation (personal, corporate, and sales), sales of panels in Ontario, and saved health, environmental and economic costs associated with offsetting coal-fired electricity. Both governments enjoyed positive cash flows from these investments in less than 12 years and in many of the scenarios both governments earned well over 8% on investments from 100 s of millions to $2.4 billion. The results showed that it is in the financial best interest of both the Ontario and Canadian federal governments to implement aggressive fiscal policy to support large-scale PV manufacturing.
Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and
Purshottama S. Reddy
Full Text Available The post-1994 democratic developmental South African state opted for a strong local government system which has been constitutionalised, in terms of Chapter 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 108 of 1996. The politicisation of the local bureaucracy was inevitable as the ruling party sought to ensure that the executive leadership of municipalities shared the same political ideology and vision to facilitate local development. This raises the question, where does politicisation commence and end, and what is the ideal local political interface for efficient and effective service delivery and, more importantly, to ensure good governance? These questions have to take cognisance of the fact that South Africa is a ‘struggle democracy’ and development has to take place in historically disadvantaged areas, where services have been poor or non-existent. The historically advantaged areas have to also be maintained and upgraded, as they are key to financial sustainability of the municipalities. The increasing service delivery protests is a matter for concern, if one has to take cognisance of the popular adage highlighted in official literature, ‘if local government fails, South Arica fails’. Given that the struggles for a democratic South Africa were fought at the grassroots level, this has to translate to an improved quality of life for local communities. Consequently, sound political management is key to enhanced municipal service delivery and ultimately good local governance. This paper reviews political trends and developments up to 2016, but excludes any discussion on the recent local government elections.
Stanley-Clarke, Nicky; Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn
To explore the relationship between government policy and service development in a New Zealand statutory mental health provider, Living Well. An organisational case study utilising multiple research techniques including qualitative interviews, analysis of business and strategic documents and observation of meetings. Staff understood and acknowledged the importance of government policy, but there were challenges in its implementation. Within New Zealand's statutory mental health services staff struggled to know how to implement government policy as part of service development; rather, operational concerns, patient need, local context and service demands drove the service development process. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.
Pradana, G. W.; Fanida, E. H.; Niswah, F.
The demand for good governance is directed towards the realization of efficiency, effectiveness, and clean government. The move is demonstrated through national and regional levels to develop and implement electronic government concepts. Through the development of electronic government is done structuring management systems and work processes in the government environment by optimizing the utilization of information technology. One of the real forms of electronic government (e-Gov) implementation at the local level is the Intranet Sub-District program in Sukodono Sub-District, Sidoarjo. Intranet Sub-District is an innovation whose purpose is to realize the availability of information on the utilization of management, distribution, and storage of official scripts, and also the optimal delivery of information and communication in the implementation of guidance and supervision of local administration. The type of this paper is descriptive with a qualitative approach and focus on the implementation of the Intranet District Program in Sukodono District, Sidoarjo. The findings of the study are the limited number of human resources who have mastered ICT, the uneven network, the adequacy of institutional needs and the existence of budget support from the authorized institution and the information system has not accommodated all the service needs.
Adiyarta, K.; Napitupulu, D.; Nurdianto, H.; Rahim, R.; Ahmar, A.
Developing country mostly left behind in adopting e-Government system. Miss-interpretation is assuming e-Government only about the application of technology made fail implementation. It is a whole philosophy that explores a human-citizen centered aspect in organized societies. Further, successful information system determined by user acceptance. Therefore, the evaluation of the performance of e-Government is one of the basic objectives of current government reformation. The research focus is to identify and explore the extent of user acceptance toward e-Government system. The research methodology used in this research is survey based on a questionnaire with TRAM approach and distributed to 230 respondents as customers that had been using e-Government services provided by X institution. The result of the study showed that the personality traits of TR significantly influenced cognitive dimensions of TAM. Through empirical demonstrations indicated that the TRI was said to be antecedents to TAM. The optimism dimension had higher coefficient among others, exhibit the technology users convince that the new technology will improve their productivity, while discomfort had no impact since the users have no doubt or hesitate to use technology.
Deakin, Mark; Lombardi, Patrizia; Cooper, Ian
The paper examines the IntelCities Community of Practice (CoP) supporting the development of the organization's capacity-building, co-design, monitoring, and evaluation of e-government services. It begins by outlining the IntelCities CoP and goes on to set out the integrated model of electronically enhanced government (e-government) services…
statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All IRR...
This presentation described the measures that TransCanada PipeLines Limited has taken to change its business model while lowering operating costs. The company is concerned about keeping tolls as low as possible to maintain competitiveness. Demand for pipeline capacity over the next five years is expected to be as high as 1.0 Bcf. Incremental capacity will be required to serve the markets. The market drivers for transportation were described as being reliability, greater price certainty, optionality, and stability in terms of contracts, service and regulations. 1 fig
Full Text Available In 2007, the province of Ontario effectively granted Toronto “charter-city status,” handing the municipal government a new arsenal of tools it could use to raise additional revenue. Charter-city status has often been held up as a reasonable way to help satisfy municipal-financing demands without cities relying on property taxes and provincial transfers — something municipal politicians have been known to say they very much need. Since Toronto got its charter, however, the city has barely touched these tools. Free to impose municipal levies on bars, cars, land sales, parking lots, billboards and road tolls, the city has so far only implemented a tax on billboards and land transfers. It tried taxing vehicle registrations, but that tax was soon cancelled. Toronto is not unique in that it has been given special legislation to levy municipal taxes beyond traditional property taxes: There are nearly a dozen cities across Canada that now benefit from similar legislation. They have proven even less inclined to use additional revenue tools. Calgary and Edmonton signed a memorandum of understanding with the Alberta government to gain charter-city status; the process has gone no further than that. Most often, the reason Canada’s so-called charter cities do not seize the apparent opportunity provided by this special legislation is that it typically does not provide them that many additional tools. Toronto is, in fact, exceptional in the range of taxes it can use. One possible reason that Canadian charters have been kept within rather confining bounds is that provinces tend to be reluctant to share their tax bases more than they already do through property tax sharing. But if Toronto is any guide, even having a wider scope of taxing powers does not mean a city will take advantage of them. It may be that local politicians relish the idea of new taxes in theory, but recoil at the political reaction the new taxes are sure to provoke. After all, former
Jensen, Ulrich Thy
are based on combinations of survey and administrative data and the dissertation employs a variety of designs such as repeated measures across time and an experiment to advance insights into the effects of organizational leadership and national policies on individuals’ PSM and the behavioral implications...... interventions as causes of PSM and the implications of PSM for public service behaviors and contributes not only to our understanding of PSM as motivational lever for public service improvements but also offers answers to the question of how PSM is shaped in organizational contexts. The empirical results...... of PSM for the provision of public services to citizens. The dissertation disentangles causes and consequences of PSM and is of interest to people who wish to understand how governance interventions (including policies and leadership) can influence employee public service motivation and how this kind...
Magoutas, Babis; Mentzas, Gregoris
This paper presents the refinement and validation of a model for Quality of e-Government Services (QeGS). We built upon our previous work where a conceptualized model was identified and put focus on the confirmatory phase of the model development process, in order to come up with a valid and reliable QeGS model. The validated model, which was benchmarked with very positive results with similar models found in the literature, can be used for measuring the QeGS in a reliable and valid manner. This will form the basis for a continuous quality improvement process, unleashing the full potential of e-government services for both citizens and public administrations.
Gao, Ji; Lv, Hexin; Jin, Zhiyong; Xu, Ping
In order to adapt to the accelerative open tendency of collaborations between enterprises, this paper proposes a Social-level Norm-based methodology for Macro-Governing service collaboration processes, called SNMG, to regulate and control the social-level visible macro-behaviors of the social individuals participating in collaborations. SNMG not only can remove effectively the uncontrollability hindrance confronted with by open social activities, but also enables across-management-domain collaborations to be implemented by uniting the centralized controls of social individuals for respective social activities. Therefore, this paper provides a brand-new system construction mode to promote the development and large-scale deployment of service collaborations.
Hunter, David J
Once again the National Health Service (NHS) in England is undergoing major reform, following the election of a new coalition government keen to reduce the role of the state and cut back on big government. The NHS has been undergoing continuous reform since the 1980s. Yet, despite the significant transaction costs incurred, there is no evidence that the claimed benefits have been achieved. Many of the same problems endure. The reforms follow the direction of change laid down by the last Conservative government in the early 1990s, which the recent Labour government did not overturn despite a commitment to do so. Indeed, under Labour, the NHS was subjected to further market-style changes that have paved the way for the latest round of reform. The article considers the appeal of big bang reform, questions its purpose and value, and critically appraises the nature and extent of the proposed changes in this latest round of reform. It warns that the NHS in its current form may not survive the changes, as they open the way to privatization and a weakening of its public service ethos.
Koste Budinoski; Vladimir Trajkovik
This paper presents the state of e-Government sophistication in R. Macedonia. The survey is done using the 20 basic public e- services. A survey result showed that further progress will need to be made on two – way interaction. Social networks are seen as convenient mean for introducing two – way interaction, social capital, transparency, anti-corruption, democracy, law enforcement, and mainly trust and citizen inclusion and empowerment. We explored the potential impacts of social media in e-...
First under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and now under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), partnerships for development, especially between state and NGOs, remain a valued goal. Partnerships are argued to improve provision of basic social services to the poor: the state is viewed as providing scale, with NGOs ensuring good governance. Close study of three leading partnership arrangements in Pakistan (privatization of basic health units, an 'adopt a school' program, and low-co...
Barnett, P; Perkins, R; Powell, M
In New Zealand the governance of public sector hospital and health services has changed significantly over the past decade. For most of the century hospitals had been funded by central government grants but run by locally elected boards. In 1989 a reforming Labour government restructured health services along managerialist lines, including changing governance structures so that some area health board members were government appointments, with the balance elected by the community. More market oriented reform under a new National government abolished this arrangement and introduced (1993) a corporate approach to the management of hospitals and related services. The hospitals were established as limited liability companies under the Companies Act. This was an explicitly corporate model and, although there was some modification of arrangements following the election of a more politically moderate centre-right coalition government in 1996, the corporate model was largely retained. Although significant changes occurred again after the election of a Labour government in 1999, the corporate governance experience in New Zealand health services is one from which lessons can, nevertheless, be learnt. This paper examines aspects of the performance and process of corporate governance arrangements for public sector health services in New Zealand, 1993-1998.
Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer
Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Results Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Conclusions Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians. PMID:23840578
Henderson, Ailsa; Brown, Steven D.; Pancer, S. Mark; Ellis-Hale, Kimberly
In 1999, the Ontario provincial government introduced into its high school curriculum a requirement that students complete 40 h of volunteer community service before graduation. At the same time, the high school curriculum was shortened from five years to four. Consequently, the 2003 graduating class of Ontario high school students contained two…
Daudji, Anisa; Eby, Sarah; Foo, Tina; Ladak, Fahreen; Sinclair, Cameal; Landry, Michel D; Moody, Kim; Gibson, Barbara E
The objectives of this study were to describe perceptions of disability among South Asian immigrant mothers of children with disabilities in a large multicultural urban centre in Ontario, Canada, and to explore how these perceptions influence rehabilitation services. The study was built on our previous work conducted with mothers in South Asia. A descriptive qualitative research design was employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five mothers who had immigrated to Canada from South Asia in the last decade, and whose children were receiving outpatient rehabilitation services. Three primary themes were identified: (1) perceptions of disability reflected a mix of traditional and western beliefs; (2) mothers experienced physical, emotional and social suffering related to socio-cultural and material barriers and (3) mothers' primary goal for their children was the achievement of independent walking, which was linked to notions of achieving a ?normal? life and the desire for more rehabilitation interventions. South Asian immigrant mothers' perceptions of their children's disabilities had important similarities and differences to mothers living in South Asia. Healthcare professionals can assist families in managing and coping with their child's disabilities by exploring their unique values and beliefs and identifying achievable outcomes together.
Denis, Jean-Louis; Sullivan, Terrence James
... of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund for our publishing activities. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Building better health care leadership for Canada: imple...
Chiu, Maria; Amartey, Abigail; Wang, Xuesong; Kurdyak, Paul
The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported mental health factors, mental health service use, and unmet needs across the 4 largest ethnic groups in Ontario, Canada: white, South Asian, Chinese, and black groups. The study population was derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey, using a cross-sectional sample of 254,951 white, South Asian, Chinese, and black residents living in Ontario, Canada, between 2001 and 2014. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence estimates for mental health factors, mental health service use, and unmet needs were calculated for each of the 4 ethnic groups overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. We found that self-reported physician-diagnosed mood and anxiety disorders and mental health service use were generally lower among South Asian, Chinese, and black respondents compared to white respondents. Chinese individuals reported the weakest sense of belonging to their local community and the poorest self-rated mental health and were nearly as likely to report suicidal thoughts in the past year as white respondents. Among those self-reporting fair or poor mental health, less than half sought help from a mental health professional, ranging from only 19.8% in the Chinese group to 50.8% in the white group. The prevalence of mental health factors and mental health service use varied widely across ethnic groups. Efforts are needed to better understand and address cultural and system-level barriers surrounding high unmet needs and to identify ethnically tailored and culturally appropriate clinical supports and practices to ensure equitable and timely mental health care.
Emmanuel Jackson Petro Gunda
Full Text Available ABSTRACT E-government facilitates delivery of public services of relevant government information in electronic form to citizens in a timely manner and better service delivery to citizens. E-government is a kind of governmental administration which is based on Information Communication and Technology Services. Electronic government describes the use of technologies to facilitate the operation of government and disperse of government information and services. The scope of the work was limited to Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited TANESCO in Ruvuma region. The population of thirty 31 were selected from a total population of 169 public servants use both purposive and stratified random sampling techniques applied. The major findings of study revealed that about 67.7 of response from respondents agree that ICT infrastructures specifically modern computer connected to internet reliable internet speed well organized organization website power availability in public operation contribute to efficient in delivery of services it also noted by respondents to faster decision making speeding up transaction processing and reduce cost. The study greatly recommends that capacity building to public servants on ICT install and strengthening ICT infrastructures to government organizational are inevitable to realise relevant role of e-government in delivery of public services.
Bramley, M.; Boustie, S.; Vadgama, J.; Wieler, C.; Pape-Salmon, A.; Holmes, R.
Green power is generally defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. Green power offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities associated with these four categories in 2002 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities in the report, such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Each category was presented in detail. The information included in the report was based on surveys sent to each program proponent. Follow-up communications and other publicly available information was also included. New programs operating in 2003 or currently under development were listed. refs., 8 tabs
The number of reported spills from domestic fuel oil systems increased dramatically in Newfoundland, which prompted the Minister of Government Services and Lands to arrange a meeting with representatives from consumers, the fuel service industry and the insurance industry to ensure proper measures were taken for the prevention of domestic fuel spills. A joint committee consisting of industry and government representatives was formed as a result of this meeting, to examine and investigate the situation and report to the Minister of Government Services and Lands. Advice on means to address the problems associated with domestic fuel oil spills was provided, as well as mechanisms to minimize such occurrences in the future. Also included in the review were small commercial storage tanks units of no more than 2500 litres, as small commercial establishments often have heating systems similar in size to residential units. Gradual leaks that go undetected for years often occur, as do the catastrophic rupture of the fuel storage tank itself. Rusting and exterior tubing are some of the causes of spills. The contamination of surrounding soil and/or groundwater can occur as a result of the spills, and fumes can enter residences through foundation walls of the sewer system. Condensation within the tank can lead to corrosion of the fuel tanks. A number of recommendations were made in the report, such as the establishment of regulations pertaining to the construction, installation, servicing and fueling of domestic and small commercial fuel systems, the proper enforcement of the regulations, a public education campaign, an emergency response capability, tax incentives to consumers for expenditures associated with the upgrading or replacement of inadequate systems, support funding, the establishment of an emergency respond fund, and environmental cleanup requirements. figs
Xu, Bingsheng; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang
This paper focuses on the evaluation of third-party governance operation services for environmental pollution, and determines the evaluation indicator system composed of 5 primary indicators as the basic competence of enterprise, operation of equipment, technique economics, environmental benefit and management level, and 26 secondary indicators via policies and regulations, standards, literature research and expert consultation in combination with the composition elements, service value judgment factors and full-life cycle of the work, providing theoretical support for the effect evaluation of third-governance over the environmental pollution in China. Then, the hierarchical analytic matrix is formed by analyzing the environmental pollution governance evaluation indicator system via analytic hierarchy process and scoring the importance of various indicators by experts by applying the Delphi method. The feature vector of the matrix is then calculated to obtain the weight of each indicator and verify the effectiveness of the Delphi method and obtain the comprehensive weight by judging the consistency of the matrix, so as to finally determine the overall ordering level of the importance of secondary indicators.
Nuno Ferreira da Cruz
Full Text Available The growing budget restrictions and decentralization processes that local governments face nowadays are threatening the sustainability of local public services. To overcome this problem, local decision-makers around the world have been developing ambiguous reforms, leading to various governance models. Since these services are essential for citizens’ welfare, it is crucial to determine whether or not these models have been effective and useful to cope with this state of affairs. To offer extra leverage to key projects, the European governments have been resorting to public-private partnerships (PPPs. One of the visible trends, which lacks further research, has been the use of mixed public-private companies (institutionalized PPPs. Although it is recognized that this solution can be interesting for both public and private sides, it has some particular features that can avert the aimed goals. This paper provides a literature review on mixed companies encompassing theoretical, legal and operational aspects. It also focuses on regulation by contract, referring to a particular Portuguese case study in the water sector and explaining how the municipality handled risk allocation and regulated the access to the market of private investors. Finally, it discusses the need for external regulation and makes suggestions on how these processes should be managed right from the bidding stage
Mohammed A. Kafaji
Full Text Available This study is designed to assess the mediating effect of the Service Quality in shaping the experience of users of e-Government applications. Users normally evaluate their satisfaction in using technological innovation such as e-Government from their direct and indirect involvement and the perceived value of the system in question. To study the mediation effect, a self-administered questionnaire based on a tested model is used to collect the experience of users of recently implemented e-Government applications in the public sector in Saudi Arabia. Data was gathered from 208 internal respondents and then analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM. Different mediation models were tested and evaluated using common standard SEM parameters. The results showed that the value perceived from the System Quality and Information Quality does impact the User Satisfaction, but Service Quality was found to play a stronger role in mediating the relationship between User Satisfaction and both the System Quality and Information Quality. The degree and direction of this mediation were analyzed and interpreted from the user and the technical support perspectives. The study compares these findings with those from earlier studies using similar models.
Describes a study that investigated the quality of interlibrary loan services in Canadian public libraries from the library's and the user's perspectives and then compared results. Measures of interlibrary loan performance are reviewed; an alternative conceptualization of service quality is discussed; and SERVQUAL, a measure of service quality, is…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is my Federal government-assisted dwelling eligible for services under the Housing Improvement Program? 256.25 Section 256.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... dwelling eligible for services under the Housing Improvement Program? Yes. You may receive services under...
Jackson, D. P.
Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project
Zaidi, Shehla; Mayhew, Susannah H; Cleland, John; Green, Andrew T
Contracting non-governmental organizations (NGOs) for health service provision is gaining increasing importance in low- and middle-income countries. However, the role of the wider context in influencing the effectiveness of contracting is not well studied and is of relevance given that contracting has produced mixed results so far. This paper applies a policy analysis approach to examine the influence of policy and political factors on contracting origin, design and implementation. Evidence is drawn from a country case study of Pakistan involving extensive NGO contracting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention services supported by international donor agencies. A multilevel study was conducted using 84 in-depth interviews, 22 semi-structured interviews, document review and direct observation to examine the national policy design, provincial management of contracting and local contract implementation. There were three main findings. First, contracting origin and implementation was an inherently political process affected by the wider policy context. Although in Pakistan a combination of situational events successfully managed to introduce extensive and sophisticated contracting, it ran into difficulties during implementation due to ownership and capacity issues within government. Second, wide-scale contracting was mis-matched with the capacity of local NGOs, which resulted in sub-optimal contract implementation challenging the reliance on market simulation through contracting. Third, we found that contracting can have unintended knock-on effects on both providers and purchasers. As a result of public sector contracts, NGOs became more distanced from their grounded attributes. Effects on government purchasers were more unpredictable, with greater identification with contracting in supportive governance contexts and further distancing in unsupportive contexts. A careful approach is needed in government contracting of NGOs, taking into account acceptance of
Simon O. Iskajyan
Full Text Available The article deals with the role of the government in tariff design process. Due to advances in science and technology the sector of services provides more than 80% of GDP in several countries, thus the stable development of this sector is considered to be one of the most essential purposes. The state has three groups of tools through which it influences market processes: monetary, fiscal and administrative. Each group differently influences the tariff design process, but all of them are considered to be external factors of pricing and they are not always stable the market processes as it’s needed.
This paper presents a look at the challenges confronting security management personnel contracting with the U.S. government to provide security and related support services. From the corporate decision to enter the ''Big Leagues'' via proposal submission, through commitments and required expertise necessary to achieve ''outstanding'' ratings, this paper is an overview of a broad spectrum of security related topics including: the proposal process, the first step; oral review boards and ''Catch-22'' dilemmas; contractual requirements vs. court orders; personnel, the human factor; the carousel approach to fiscal accountability; and avoiding communication barriers
Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Andersson, Neil; Ledogar, Robert J; Cockcroft, Anne
Unofficial payments in health services around the world are widespread and as varied as the health systems in which they occur. We reviewed the main lessons from social audits of petty corruption in health services in South Asia (Bangladesh, Pakistan), Africa (Uganda and South Africa) and Europe (Baltic States). The social audits varied in purpose and scope. All covered representative sample communities and involved household interviews, focus group discussions, institutional reviews of health facilities, interviews with service providers and discussions with health authorities. Most audits questioned households about views on health services, perceived corruption in the services, and use of government and other health services. Questions to service users asked about making official and unofficial payments, amounts paid, service delivery indicators, and satisfaction with the service. Contextual differences between the countries affected the forms of petty corruption and factors related to it. Most households in all countries held negative views about government health services and many perceived these services as corrupt. There was little evidence that better off service users were more likely to make an unofficial payment, or that making such a payment was associated with better or quicker service; those who paid unofficially to health care workers were not more satisfied with the service. In South Asia, where we conducted repeated social audits, only a minority of households chose to use government health services and their use declined over time in favour of other providers. Focus groups indicated that reasons for avoiding government health services included the need to pay for supposedly free services and the non-availability of medicines in facilities, often perceived as due to diversion of the supplied medicines. Unofficial expenses for medical care represent a disproportionate cost for vulnerable families; the very people who need to make use of supposedly
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unofficial payments in health services around the world are widespread and as varied as the health systems in which they occur. We reviewed the main lessons from social audits of petty corruption in health services in South Asia (Bangladesh, Pakistan, Africa (Uganda and South Africa and Europe (Baltic States. Methods The social audits varied in purpose and scope. All covered representative sample communities and involved household interviews, focus group discussions, institutional reviews of health facilities, interviews with service providers and discussions with health authorities. Most audits questioned households about views on health services, perceived corruption in the services, and use of government and other health services. Questions to service users asked about making official and unofficial payments, amounts paid, service delivery indicators, and satisfaction with the service. Results Contextual differences between the countries affected the forms of petty corruption and factors related to it. Most households in all countries held negative views about government health services and many perceived these services as corrupt. There was little evidence that better off service users were more likely to make an unofficial payment, or that making such a payment was associated with better or quicker service; those who paid unofficially to health care workers were not more satisfied with the service. In South Asia, where we conducted repeated social audits, only a minority of households chose to use government health services and their use declined over time in favour of other providers. Focus groups indicated that reasons for avoiding government health services included the need to pay for supposedly free services and the non-availability of medicines in facilities, often perceived as due to diversion of the supplied medicines. Conclusions Unofficial expenses for medical care represent a disproportionate cost for
Schulte, R.; Kern, R.
Services of the police can be ordered for physical protection of nuclear installations of any kind and of nuclear materials transports in cases where there is danger that those first responsible cannot cope with the situation. The contribution discusses physical protection measures as a licensing requirement, the duties of the police forces within the given scope, the measures that can and may be taken by the police, the establishment of special commissions, as well as the particular provisions for nuclear materials transports. The provisions governing police services for physical protection have led to an efficient and well furnished system in terms of organisation, personnel, and materials, which guarantees protection to a great extent. (orig./HSCH) [de
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore ways to address the difficulty in implementing mobile activities and services for any government. In addition, a major output of this project will be a framework for understanding m-government as a vehicle...
Emily Jane Davis; Eric M. White; Lee K. Cerveny; David Seesholtz; Meagan L. Nuss; Donald R. Ulrich
In the United States, over 191 million acres of land is managed by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, a federal government agency. In several western U.S. states, organized collaborative groups have become a de facto governance approach to providing sustained input on management decisions on much public land. This is most extensive in Oregon,...
Although governments are generally expected to provide environmental services such as sanitation and solid waste collection for their citizens, most (municipal) governments in Sub-Saharan Africa seem hardly able to take up this task. Without ignoring the lack of material resources resulting from
Mullens, Amy B; Fischer, Jane; Stewart, Mary; Kenny, Kathryn; Garvey, Shane; Debattista, Joseph
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations are more likely to misuse alcohol and other drugs (AOD), compared to the general population. However, LGBT engagement with AOD treatment is often precluded by insensitivity and misunderstanding of LGBT issues. These treatment barriers may be a consequence of either worker attitudes, organizational factors or a combination of both. Few studies have compared service context as an impediment to AOD treatment. This pilot study sought to examine and compare staff attitudes, knowledge and awareness of LGBT issues in two state-wide AOD services within Australia. One organization was a government service, whilst the other was faith based. A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample (N = 130) of workers employed in a state-wide government AOD service (n = 65), and a state-wide non-government service (n = 65) was conducted. Participants self-completed a questionnaire comprising tools previously used to assess staff attitudes, knowledge and awareness of LGBT issues. Few significant differences in attitudes and awareness of LGBT issues between government and non-government respondents were found. Nearly all respondents were supportive of LGBT persons irrespective of organizational context, with a small number of negative views. Although most respondents demonstrated awareness of organizational policies and practices relating to LGBT clients, many were "unsure" or "neutral" of what these might be. It is confirming that the majority of staff report supportive attitudes towards LGBT clients. Findings suggest that organizations need to continue to take leadership to strengthen organizational training and capacity to deliver LGBT friendly AOD treatment practices.
N. A. Lypovska
Full Text Available In the article certain and specified existent methodological grounds of government service as the theoretical of organization, heuristic possibilities are analysed organizational approaches to the probed problem and its decision, attribute description of public service is resulted as a social organization. The author concludes that in circumstances where the organization coexist in the interaction, which includes fluctuations, dissipation, competition, competitions, etc., to ensure the stability of public service related to the preservation of the general structure for reproduction. The structure serves as a complex, extensive system of social interactions and relationships of the process of ordering the elements and relations. Іt is the basis for stabilizing relationships and interactions with civil society, that it is necessary to improve the efficiency of public administration. The organizational structure of the civil service as a form of division and cooperation of management, sustainable pattern of its goals, objectives and functions, serving material support and means to implement them. This structure is a factor of stability.
Spatial inequality in service delivery is a common feature in African cities. Several factors account for the phenomenon but there is growing attention towards urban governance and the role of the state. Urban governance policies such as privatization serve as key strategies through which the state regulates and (re)produces spatial inequality in service delivery. This study examined how governance practices related to privatization and the regulatory role of the state reinforce spatial inequalities in the delivery of solid waste services in Abuja, Nigeria. It focused primarily on the issue of cost recovery. Privatization became a major focus in Abuja in 2003 when the government launched a pilot scheme. Although it has brought improvements in service delivery, privatization has also increased the gap in the quality of services delivered in different parts of the city. Drawing on empirical data, the study revealed that little sensitivity to income and affordability, and to income differentials between neighbourhoods in the fixing of user charges and in the choice of the billing method is contributing to spatial inequalities in service delivery. Furthermore, the study suggests that these practices are linked to a broader issue, a failure of the government to see the people as partners. It therefore calls for more inclusive governance especially in decision-making processes. The study also emphasizes the need for a policy document on solid waste management, as this would encourage a critical assessment of vital issues including how privatization is to be funded, especially in low-income areas.
Full Text Available A hallmark of contemporary global governance is its complex nature. Understanding the implications of the array of “governors” and their efforts is paramount for scholars of global law and global politics. Most analyses have treated fragmented governance as a piece, arguing about its general effects. I concentrate instead on variation within fragmented situations, seeking to understand the conditions under which complexity yields more or less effective governance. I propose an analytical scheme for gauging effectiveness focused on how the array of governance efforts in an issue area relate to one another. I then compare these efforts in two issue arenas: small arms and private military and security services. Despite a similar complexity, similar array of actors trying to exert influence, and similar timing, complexity in small arms generated what most see as less effective results while in military and security services it has generated what seems to be a more promising path toward effective governance mechanisms. This difference is best explained with insights from pragmatism and network theory. When a broader range of relevant governors engage pragmatically to form linked networks governance is more likely. When governors engage ideologically and break off ties governance is less likely. Pragmatic engagement among the variety of relevant governors, including the US, is most likely to generate effective global governance. Una característica distintiva del gobierno mundial contemporáneo es su naturaleza compleja. Entender las implicaciones de la serie de "gobernadores" y sus esfuerzos es fundamental para los estudiosos del derecho internacional y la política mundial. La mayoría de los análisis han tratado el gobierno fragmentado como una pieza, discutiendo sobre sus efectos generales. El análisis se centra en cambio en la variación dentro de situaciones fragmentadas, buscando entender las condiciones en las que la complejidad produce
Full Text Available The UK Department for International Development (UK AID has agreed £4.5 million funding for a four-year CLGF programme to improve governance and service delivery at local level in several areas of the Commonwealth including Africa and Asia from 2012-16. It will also help to support national policy frameworks for local government service delivery, and increase engagement of local government in regional policy planning and implementation. CLGF will continue to work with its members, UN partners and others to mobilise more resources towards the support of local government in the Commonwealth. The new programme will focus on local government pilot projects in LED, supporting ministries and local government associations in strengthening their national policy making for local government, and establish regional forums to enable local government to engage in and influence regional policy making to reflect the needs and priorities of local government. It will also boost CLGF’s research capacity with targeted research to strengthen CLGF’s policy making and advocacy, including more sustained engagement in international policy debates on key issues affecting local government, such as climate change.
Tawfik-Shukor, Ali; Khoshnaw, Hiro
Relative to the amount of global attention and media coverage since the first and second Gulf Wars, very little has been published in the health services research literature regarding the state of health services in Iraq, and particularly on the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Building on findings from a field visit, this paper describes the state of health services in Kurdistan, analyzes their underlying governance structures and policy processes, and their overall impact on the quality, accessibility and cost of the health system, while stressing the importance of reinvesting in public health and community-based primary care. Very little validated, research-based data exists relating to the state of population health and health services in Kurdistan. What little evidence exists, points to a region experiencing an epidemiological polarization, with different segments of the population experiencing rapidly-diverging rates of morbidity and mortality related to different etiological patterns of communicable, non-communicable, acute and chronic illness and disease. Simply put, the rural poor suffer from malnutrition and cholera, while the urban middle and upper classes deal with issues of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The inequity is exacerbated by a poorly governed, fragmented, unregulated, specialized and heavily privatized system, that not only leads to poor quality of care and catastrophic health expenditures, but also threatens the economic and political stability of the region. There is an urgent need to revisit and clearly define the core values and goals of a future health system, and to develop an inclusive governance and policy framework for change, towards a more equitable and effective primary care-based health system, with attention to broader social determinants of health and salutogenesis. This paper not only frames the situation in Kurdistan in terms of a human rights or special political issue of a minority population, but provides important
Full Text Available Abstract Background Relative to the amount of global attention and media coverage since the first and second Gulf Wars, very little has been published in the health services research literature regarding the state of health services in Iraq, and particularly on the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Building on findings from a field visit, this paper describes the state of health services in Kurdistan, analyzes their underlying governance structures and policy processes, and their overall impact on the quality, accessibility and cost of the health system, while stressing the importance of reinvesting in public health and community-based primary care. Discussion Very little validated, research-based data exists relating to the state of population health and health services in Kurdistan. What little evidence exists, points to a region experiencing an epidemiological polarization, with different segments of the population experiencing rapidly-diverging rates of morbidity and mortality related to different etiological patterns of communicable, non-communicable, acute and chronic illness and disease. Simply put, the rural poor suffer from malnutrition and cholera, while the urban middle and upper classes deal with issues of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The inequity is exacerbated by a poorly governed, fragmented, unregulated, specialized and heavily privatized system, that not only leads to poor quality of care and catastrophic health expenditures, but also threatens the economic and political stability of the region. There is an urgent need to revisit and clearly define the core values and goals of a future health system, and to develop an inclusive governance and policy framework for change, towards a more equitable and effective primary care-based health system, with attention to broader social determinants of health and salutogenesis. Summary This paper not only frames the situation in Kurdistan in terms of a human rights or special political
Jason Dong; Michael Bliemel,
Over the last decade there has been rapid growth of Online Banking. This research examines the benefits of Online Banking and how Canadian Banks accommodate various financial activates through different service channels, including Online, telephone, ABM and in - branch. A Framework is introduced for categorizing the most common activities by their need for physical interaction and assistance and to align activities with their ideal service channel. This research is ...
Morgan, Debra G; Kosteniuk, Julie G; Stewart, Norma J; O'Connell, Megan E; Kirk, Andrew; Crossley, Margaret; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Forbes, Dorothy; Innes, Anthea
Community-based services are important for improving outcomes for individuals with dementia and their caregivers. This study examined: (a) availability of rural dementia-related services in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, and (b) orientation of services toward six key attributes of primary health care (i.e., information/education, accessibility, population orientation, coordinated care, comprehensiveness, quality of care). Data were collected from 71 rural Home Care Assessors via cross-sectional survey. Basic health services were available in most communities (e.g., pharmacists, family physicians, palliative care, adult day programs, home care, long-term care facilities). Dementia-specific services typically were unavailable (e.g., health promotion, counseling, caregiver support groups, transportation, week-end/night respite). Mean scores on the primary health care orientation scales were low (range 12.4 to 17.5/25). Specific services to address needs of rural individuals with dementia and their caregivers are limited in availability and fit with primary health care attributes.
Do efforts to standardize, assess and improve the quality of health service provision to adolescents by government-run health services in low and middle income countries, lead to improvements in service-quality and service-utilization by adolescents?
Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Chatterjee, Subidita; Bose, Krishna
Researchers and implementers working in adolescent health, and adolescents themselves question whether government-run health services in conservative and resource-constrained settings can be made adolescent friendly. This paper aims to find out what selected low and middle income country (LMIC) governments have set out to do to improve the quality of health service provision to adolescents; whether their efforts led to measurable improvements in quality and to increased health service-utilization by adolescents. We gathered normative guidance and reports from eight LMICs in Asia, Africa, Central and Eastern Europe and the Western Pacific. We analysed national quality standards for adolescent friendly health services, findings from the assessments of the quality of health service provision, and findings on the utilization of health services. Governments of LMICs have set out to improve the accessibility, acceptability, equity, appropriateness and effectiveness of health service provision to adolescents by defining standards and actions to achieve them. Their actions have led to measurable improvements in quality and to increases in health service utilisation by adolescents. With support, government-run health facilities in LMICs can improve the quality of health services and their utilization by adolescents.
Tarride, J E; Harrington, K; Balfour, R; Simpson, P; Foord, L; Anderson, L; Lakey, W
To evaluate the My Health Matters! (MHM) program, a multifaceted workplace intervention relying on education and awareness, early detection and disease management with a focus on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. The MHM program was offered to 2,000 public servants working in more than 30 worksites in British Columbia, Canada. The MHM program included a health risk assessment combined with an opportunity to attend an on-site screening and face-to-face call back visits and related on-site educational programs. Clinical and economic outcomes were collected over time in this one-year prospective study coupled with administrative and survey data. Forty three per cent of employees (N=857) completed the online HRA and 23 per cent (N=447) attended the initial clinical visit with the nurse. Risk factors for metabolic syndrome were identified in more than half of those attending the clinical visit. The number of risk factors significantly decreased by 15 per cent over six months (N=141). The cost per employee completing the HRA was $205 while the cost per employee attending the initial clinical visit was $394. Eighty-two per cent of employees would recommend the program to other employers. This study supports that workplace interventions are feasible, sustainable and valued by employees. As such, this study provides a new framework for implementing and evaluating workplace interventions focussing on metabolic disorders.
Full Text Available This study analyzed data from the 1998, 2003 and 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of reported child abuse and neglect (CIS and compared the profile of children who were reported for an urgent protection investigation versus any other investigation or assessment. As a proportion of all investigations, urgent protection cases have dropped from 28% of all investigations in 1998, to 19% in 2003, to 15% in 2008. Results from the CIS-2008 analysis revealed that 7% of cases involved neglect of a child under four, 4% of cases involved sexual abuse, 2% of cases involved physical abuse of a child under four and 1% of cases involved children who had sustained severe enough physical harm that medical treatment was required. The other 85% of cases of investigated maltreatment involved situations where concerns appear to focus less on immediate safety and more on the long-term effects of a range of family related problems. These findings underscore the importance of considering the dual mandate of child welfare mandates across Canada: intervening to assure the urgent protection and safety of the child versus intervening to promote the development and well-being of the child.
Sly Newton Mutiro
Full Text Available Good governance has been and is a growing phenomenon for many business organisations regardless of size, profit margins and purpose for existence. The South African Metropolitan municipality Metropolitan Municipality is one such organisation that has adopted good governance models to business practices. The challenge was how to effectively and efficiently implement governance issues around projects and business organisations. A number of people, committees and institutions have developed different governance frameworks that can be adopted by organisations as a guide to good governance. This research is based on King III guide to good governance. The objective was to establish the perceptions of the corporate services directorate in the South African Metropolitan municipality municipality on King III good governance compliance by interviewing some employees orally and through a questionnaire. The responses were captured and analysed using IMB SPSS software. Problems were identified in governance training and understanding in general. Another major finding was poor communication internally and externally. To overcome these shortfall recommendations were made. Communication models, communication plan, governance models and training were recommended. The major challenges facing the South African Metropolitan municipality Metropolitan Municipality are poor effective governance communication and lack of governance training.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Teaching, speaking and writing by special... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES § 5501.107 Teaching, speaking and writing by special Government... employees in the Public Health Service who otherwise are prohibited from accepting compensation for teaching...
Westerink, Judith; Opdam, Paul; Rooij, Van Sabine; Steingröver, Eveliene
The landscape services concept provides a lens to study relations within the social-ecological networks that landscapes are, and to identify stakeholders as either providers or beneficiaries. However, landscape services can also be used as a boundary concept in collaborative landscape governance. We
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What governing policies must we establish for the allowance for property management services? 302-15.70 Section 302-15.70... TRANSACTION ALLOWANCES 15-ALLOWANCE FOR PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SERVICES Agency Responsibilities § 302-15.70 What...
van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Peters, O.; Ebbers, Wolfgang E.
In this article, an attempt is made to explain the descriptive data of a large-scale representative survey of the use of government Internet services by the Dutch population in 2006 by means of a multidisciplinary model of technology acceptance and use that is applied to these services. Ultimately,
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service on self-regulatory... EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.63 Service on self-regulatory organization governing boards or committees by persons with disciplinary histories. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Self-regulatory...
de Silva-Sanigorski, Andrea; Breheny, Tara; Jones, Laura; Lacy, Kathleen; Kremer, Peter; Carpenter, Lauren; Bolton, Kristy; Prosser, Lauren; Gibbs, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Swinburn, Boyd
In 2006, the Victorian Government adopted the School Canteens and other school Food Services (SCFS) Policy that bans the sale of sweet drinks and confectionary and recommends the proportions of menu items based on a traffic light system of food classification. This study aims to determine whether compliance with the policy improves the nutritional profile of the menus. Items from food service menus were assessed for compliance with the SCFS policy and categorised as 'everyday' ('green'), 'select carefully' ('amber') or 'occasionally' ('red') (n=106). Profile analysis assessed differences in the nutritional profile of the menus between sub-groups. Overall, 37% of menus contained items banned under the policy. The largest proportion of items on the assessed menus were from the 'amber' category (mean: 51.0%), followed by 'red' (29.3%) and 'green' (20.3%). No menus met the traffic light-based recommendations and there was no relationship between policy compliance and the proportion of items in each of the three categories. To increase the healthiness of the school food service we recommend a greater investment in resources and infrastructure to implement existing policies, and establishing stronger monitoring and support systems. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.
Conquest, Jennifer H; Skinner, John; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
The objectives of this study were to (i) compare a Capped Payment formula for adults, to the fee-for-service model and the New South Wales Government services payment model; (ii) identify the presenting oral health needs of a 65+ years of age cohort during the period January 2011 to March 2015. Australia faces an ageing population with the vast majority accessing free market dental care, whilst the poor access Government services. This cohort retains most of their dentition increasing demand on Government services. The analysis of New South Wales Government adult de-identified patients' record unit data was from 2011 to 2015, for the three payment models and undertaken in three stages; (i) development of the Capped Payment Model; (ii) evaluation of twenty (20) case studies of adults 65+ years of age; (iii) analyse the cost efficiency of the three payment models. This study found that the Government model was the most cost effective. The Capped-fee model performed less efficiently, particularly in the 75+ age group, with the fee-for-service model generally more costly. It was $2580 (85%) more costly for the 65-74 age cohort, and $4619 (66%) for the 75+ age cohort. Policy makers in partnership with Government and private service providers should seek to develop partnerships with Government, private services and universities, scope opportunities in applying a Capped-fee funding model, and one that helps address the oral needs of the elderly. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaborative, culturally safe services that integrate clinical approaches with traditional Aboriginal healing have been hailed as promising approaches to ameliorate the high rates of mental health problems in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Overcoming significant financial and human resources barriers, a mental health team in northern Ontario is beginning to realize this ideal. We studied the strategies, strengths and challenges related to collaborative Aboriginal mental health care. Methods A participatory action research approach was employed to evaluate the Knaw Chi Ge Win services and their place in the broader mental health system. Qualitative methods were used as the primary source of data collection and included document review, ethnographic interviews with 15 providers and 23 clients; and 3 focus groups with community workers and managers. Results The Knaw Chi Ge Win model is an innovative, community-based Aboriginal mental health care model that has led to various improvements in care in a challenging rural, high needs environment. Formal opportunities to share information, shared protocols and ongoing education support this model of collaborative care. Positive outcomes associated with this model include improved quality of care, cultural safety, and integration of traditional Aboriginal healing with clinical approaches. Ongoing challenges include chronic lack of resources, health information and the still cursory understanding of Aboriginal healing and outcomes. Conclusions This model can serve to inform collaborative care in other rural and Indigenous mental health systems. Further research into traditional Aboriginal approaches to mental health is needed to continue advances in collaborative practice in a clinical setting.
Hudak, Ronald P; Russell, Rebecca; Toland, P Paul
The evolution of governance models for the Military Health System's (MHS) large hospitals, called medical treatment facilities (MTFs), has culminated with the effort to implement Enhanced Multi-Service Markets (eMSM). The term eMSM refers to two separate concepts. First, MSM refers to those geographic areas, that is, markets, which have the following characteristics: they have MTFs that are operated by two or more Department of Defense (DoD) Services, that is, Army, Navy, or Air Force; there is a large beneficiary population; there is a substantial amount of direct care (i.e., beneficiaries are treated at MTFs instead of TRICARE's purchased care from civilian providers); and there is a substantial readiness and training platform. Second, the term "enhanced" refers to an increase in management authority over clinical and business operations, readiness, and MTF workload. A retrospective review was conducted to study the evolution of military and civilian health care delivery models for the purpose of understanding how governance models have changed since the 1980s to design and manage MTFs with overlapping catchments areas. Primary and secondary data sources were analyzed through a comprehensive literature review. Since the 1980s, the MHS governance models have evolved from testing various managed care models to a regionally focused TRICARE model and culminating with an overlapping catchment area model entitled eMSMs. The eMSM model partially fulfills the original vision because the eMSM leaders have limited budgetary and resource allocation authority. The various models sought to improve governance of overlapping catchment areas with the intent to enhance medical readiness, community health, and individual health care while reducing costs. However, the success of the current model, that is, eMSMs, cannot be fully assessed because the eMSM model was not fully implemented as originally envisioned. Instead, the current eMSM model partially implements the eMSM model. As
Khadraoui, Abdelaziz; Opprecht, Wanda; Léonard, Michel; Aïdonidis, Christine
The compliance of e-government services with legal aspects is a crucial issue for administrations. This issue becomes more difficult with the fast-evolving dynamics of laws. This chapter presents our approach to describe and establish the link between e-government services and legal sources. This link is established by an ontology called “law-based ontology.” We use this ontology as means to define and to construct e-government services. The proposed approach is illustrated with one case study: the specification of services in relationship with the venture creation in Switzerland and in the State of Geneva. We have selected the Commercial Register area which mainly encompasses the registration of a new company and the modification of its registration.
The German coalition government has decided on 28 september 2009 to expend the service life of the 17 operating nuclear reactors through the approval of the plan 'Energy 2050'. The average extension will be of 12 years. This decision will postpone the shutdown of the last reactor till 2040. The reciprocal arrangement implies that the nuclear plant operators (EON, RWE, Wattenfall and EnBW) will have to pay an annual tax of 2.3*10 9 euros till 2016. The operators will also have to finance a capital for the development of renewable energies: 200*10 6 euros in 2011 and in 2012 then 300*10 6 euros per year between 2013 and 2016 and eventually to pay a tax of 9 euros per MW of nuclear power produced. (A.C.)
Arduini Davide; Belotti Federico; Denni Mario; Giungato Gerolamo; Reggi Luigi; Zanfei Antonello
This paper contributes to explaining the dynamics of eGovernment diffusion in Italian municipalities which play a key role in interfacing citizens and Local Public Administrations. By defining appropriate synthetic indicators, the study will analyse the relationships between the digitalization of back office services - in terms of ICT equipment and use as well as inner work process re-engineering - and front office services - in terms of quantity and interactivity of online services provided ...
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of the public in governance processes in public service media (PSM in Poland in the post mass-media era, characterized by participatory culture and network practices. Referencing the findings of the “Democratization of media policy in the digital ecosystems” (2014–2015 research project, the study aims to map the effectiveness of existing tools, practices and attitudes toward opening-up Polish public media enterprises to the public. Examination of media regulation, grey literature (corporate documentation, strategies, reports and civil society initiatives are likely to indicate the ways and extent to which members of the public might currently participate in the decision-making and control. On the basis of hypotheses that public media enterprises in Poland are not fully prepared for the multi-stakeholder and advanced model of PSM, the study takes into account potential systemic/regulatory, organizational and social barriers for change. The salient questions to be addressed are: What are the strategies and practices through which members of civil society might get involved? At what stages are the publics able to engage? How can PSM take advantage of the development of online tools offering space for interaction and collaboration? How is it possible to make the public more active and interested in governance and participation?
As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc
As the future shape of the electric utility industry continues to unfold and as retail competition becomes a reality, local governments are faced with balancing the need for: (1) economic development; (2) and to avoid the potential impact of cost-shifting among residents and businesses, while ensuring reliable and universal energy services. Furthermore, local governments need to find ways to recoup potential loss of franchise and tax revenues, to ensure fair and adequate energy-efficiency programs, and to continue other social programs for low income families. This paper will address two important issues every local government in the US are facing: (1) the development of viable deregulation strategies before, during and after the promulgation of utility deregulation; (2) opportunities for energy efficiency services in the competitive markets to serve local governments, which typically constitutes the largest market segment in utility's service territory. This paper presents issues and challenges common to all local governments. It documents strategies that several local governments are utilizing to embrace the coming electric utility restructuring and competition challenge to the benefits of their respective communities. This paper presents the results on deregulation work by the City of Portland, Oregon, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, and Montgomery County, Maryland. The research by these local governments was sponsored by the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force and Public Technology, Inc.
Witarsyah Jacob, Deden; Fudzee, Mohd Farhan Md; Aizi Salamat, Mohamad; Kasim, Shahreen; Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Azhar Ramli, Azizul
Many governments around the world increasingly use internet technologies such as electronic government to provide public services. These services range from providing the most basic informational website to deploying sophisticated tools for managing interactions between government agencies and beyond government. Electronic government (e-government) aims to provide a more accurate, easily accessible, cost-effective and time saving for the community. In this study, we develop a new model of e-government adoption service by extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) through the incorporation of some variables such as System Quality, Information Quality and Trust. The model is then tested using a large-scale, multi-site survey research of 237 Indonesian citizens. This model will be validated by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The result indicates that System Quality, Information Quality and Trust variables proven to effect user behavior. This study extends the current understanding on the influence of System Quality, Information Quality and Trust factors to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers.
Lee, Seoyoung; Kim, Eun-Kyung
The purpose of this study was to investigate medical service quality, satisfaction and to examine factors influencing hospital revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients in Korea. A total of 152 UAE government sponsored patients who visited Korean hospitals participated in the questionnaire survey from August to November 2016. Stepwise multiple regression was used to identify the factors that affected the revisit intention of the participants. The mean scores of medical service quality, satisfaction, and revisit intention were 5.72 out of 7, 88.88 out of 100, 4.59 out of 5, respectively. Medical service quality and satisfaction, Medical service quality and revisit intention, satisfaction and revisit intention were positively correlated. Medical service of physician, visiting routes and responsiveness of medical service quality explained about 23.8% of revisit intention. There are needs for physicians to communicate with patients while ensuring sufficient consultation time based on excellent medical skills and nurses to respond immediately for the patients' needs through an empathic encounter in order to improve medical service quality and patient satisfaction so that to increase the revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients. Further, it is necessary for the hospitals to have support plans for providing country specialized services in consideration of the UAE culture to ensure that physicians' and nurses' competencies are not undervalued by non-medical service elements such as interpreters and meals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This annual conference focused on workplace safety and personnel management with particular reference to current training and safety issues affecting the petroleum services industry. Presentations given at the conference discussed issues related to transportation operations, transportation management, and asset management. New methods of reviewing critical incidents were presented along with recent updates to the National Safety Code. Issues related to contractor safety were also discussed. Improved methods of managing personnel were presented and issues related to disability management were examined. Employment standards were also reviewed along with methods of improving supervisory skills. One of the 24 presentations featured at this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.
Martin, Graham P
The ‘modernization’ of British public services seeks to broaden public sector governance networks, bringing the views of third sector organizations, the public and service users (among others) to the design, management and delivery of welfare. Building on previous analyses of the contradictions generated by these roles, this paper draws on longitudinal qualitative research to enunciate the challenges faced by one third-sector organization in facilitating service user influence in a UK National Health Service (NHS) pilot programme, alongside other roles in tension with this advocacy function. The analysis highlights limits in the extent to which lateral governance networks pluralize stakeholder involvement. The ‘framing’ of governance may mean that traditional concerns outweigh the views of new stakeholders such as the third sector and service users. Rather than prioritizing wider stakeholders' views in the design and delivery of public services, placing third sector organizations at the centre of governance networks may do more to co-opt these organizations in reproducing predominant priorities.
Full Text Available Natural ecosystems provide an attractive focus for tourism on small islands. But at the same time tourism and other human actions can be detrimental to these ecosystems especially because governance of the ecosystem may be difficult due to the limited resilience of small island ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on which conditions self-governance will be the appropriate governance mechanism of ecosystem services on small islands. We apply the Ostrom (2009 framework for common-pool resources in a social-ecological system, and select the relevant indicators for small islands. We scored these indicators for three cases (environmental issues in St. Eustatius. These cases show that self-organization of ecosystem services is not an outcome easily achieved. The unevenly distributed benefits of potential measures are found to decrease community support of measures that could reinforce these ecosystem services.
Montesanti, Stephanie R; Abelson, Julia; Lavis, John N; Dunn, James R
We examined efforts to engage marginalized populations in Ontario Community Health Centers (CHCs), which are primary health care organizations serving 74 high-risk communities. Qualitative case studies of community participation in four Ontario CHCs were carried out through key informant interviews with CHC staff to identify: (i) the approaches, strategies and methods used in participation initiatives aimed specifically at engaging marginalized populations in the planning of and decision making for health services; and (ii) the challenges and enablers for engaging these populations. The marginalized populations involved in the community participation initiatives studied included Low-German Speaking Mennonites in a rural town, newcomer immigrants and refugees in an urban downtown city, immigrant and francophone seniors in an inner city and refugee women in an inner city. Our analysis revealed that enabling the participation of marginalized populations requires CHCs to attend to the barriers experienced by marginalized populations that constrain their participation. Key informants outlined the features of a 'community development approach' that they rely on to address the barriers to marginalized peoples' involvement by strengthening their skills, abilities and leadership in capacity-building activities. The community development approach also shaped the participation methods that were used in the engagement process of CHCs. However, key informants also described the challenges of applying this approach, influenced by the cultural values of some groups, which shaped their willingness and motivation to participate. This study provides further insight into the approach, strategies and methods used in the engagement process to enable the participation of marginalized populations, which may be transferable to other health services settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Frankel, M. S.
The policy making process which led to development of the Public Health Service Guidelines governing research involving human subjects is outlined. Part 1 examines the evolution of PHS Guidelines, tracing (1) evolution of thought and legal interpretation regarding research using human subjects; (2) initial involvement of the Federal government; (3) development of the government's research program; (4) the social-political environment in which formal government policy was developed; and (5) various policy statements issued by the government. Part 2 analyzes the process by which PHS Guidelines were developed and examines the values and other underlying factors which contributed to their development. It was concluded that the evolution of the Guidelines is best understood within the context of a mixed-scanning strategy. In such a strategy, policy makers make fundamental decisions regarding the basic direction of policy and subsequent decisions are made incrementally and within the contexts set by the original fundamental decisions.
Bekele, Tsegaye; Globerman, Jason; Watson, James; Jose-Boebridge, Murray; Kennedy, Richard; Hambly, Keith; Anema, Aranka; Hogg, Robert S; Rourke, Sean B
Up to half of people living with HIV in resource-rich settings experience moderate to severe food insecurity. Food insecurity, in turn, has been linked to adverse health outcomes including poor antiretroviral adherence, poor HIV viral suppression, frailty, and mortality. We estimated the prevalence of food insecurity among 649 adults living with HIV and recruited from community-based AIDS service organizations in Ontario, Canada. Food security was assessed using the Canadian Household Food Security module. We used logistic regression modeling to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors independently associated with food insecurity. Almost three-fourths of participants (70.3%) were food insecure and a third (31%) reported experiencing hunger. The prevalence of food insecurity in this sample is approximately six times higher than that of the general population. Factors independently associated with food insecurity were: having dependent children at home, residing in large urban areas, low annual household income (<$40,000), difficulty meeting housing-related expenses, cigarette smoking, harmful drug use, and depression. Broad, multisector interventions that address income, housing affordability, substance use and mental health issues are needed and could offset future public health expenditures.
Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Slade, Emma L.; Dwivedi, Yogesh K.
Having its origin in public administration, trustworthiness is a significant concept in digital government research, influencing the relationships between citizens and governments. However, the interrelationships between the facets of trustworthiness are given inadequate attention. Therefore, the
Full Text Available Reporting on performance was legislatively established in South Africa in terms of the Public Finance Management Act, Act 1 of 1999, section 40 (3(a. The auditing of the reported information was legislated in the Public Audit Act, Act 25 of 2004, section 20(2 (c. The objectives of the article are firstly to provide an overview of the development and application of the reporting and secondly providing assurance on service delivery information and thirdly to reflect on challenges to the implementation thereof in South Africa. The aim through deploying these set objectives is to formulate possible future considerations for improved governance. As central part of the methodology, review of literature on reporting and audit of non-financialwas conducted. The research included scrutiny of the different philosophies and approaches adopted by different countries to the reporting and providing assurance on service delivery information. In this respect, the research reflects a comparative element. In South Africa the Auditor-General adopted a phasing-in approach. The development of the audit approach and audit procedures has reached a stable stage, nine years after the initial process started. The audit of performance information now forms an integral part of the regularity audit process. The analysis of audit findings of the period under study indicates a considerable improvement once initiated, but stagnation persists in subsequent years. Numerous challenges remain around the application of performance reporting in South Africa including non-compliance, the lack of sufficient and appropriate audit evidence, inconsistencies between the various strategic documents and the need to improve the usefulness of performance information. In conclusion the article proposes some steps to address the challenges.
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consent to service of process... Government Securities Dealers § 240.15Ca2-5 Consent to service of process to be furnished by non-resident... government securities dealer by the service of process upon the Commission and the forwarding of a copy...
... services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis? 137.95 Section 137.95 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... Tribe purchase goods and services from the IHS on a reimbursable basis? Yes, a Self-Governance Tribe may...-Governance Tribe, on a reimbursable basis, including payment in advance with subsequent adjustment. Prompt...
Full Text Available The informative society is seen as the central element of rural development at the beginning of the third millennium and the development of information technology and communication in villages has always been considered in current summits across the world. Nowadays, information and communication technology service offices are the basis of electronic government. Therefore, recognition of these offices is necessary for sustainable rural development. The purpose of this research was a comparative analysis between the current situation and the desirable situation of e-government services in the rural districts of the Hamedan province as perceived by their directors (Hamedan, Bahar and Famenin Counties. The study population consists of 91 respondents who were chosen and studied through the census method. The findings of this research study consist of two sections. The items related to satisfaction with the activities in information and communication technology service offices were prioritized in the first section. Moreover, the current and the desirable conditions for electronic service provision were identified. The gap between these two were analyzed in the second section. The results indicate that there is a significant difference between these two conditions of electronic service provisions in rural areas. This significant difference was recognized through the paired T test at the 0.05 level with 6.33 value that illustrates the existence of a gap between these two situations. Electronic government, information technology and communication, information and communication technology service offices
MacKinnon, Janice Christine
A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.
van den Boer, Yvon; Pieterson, Willem Jan; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Arendsen, R.
With the rise of electronic channels it has become easier for businesses to consult various types of information sources in information-seeking processes. Governments are urged to rethink their role as reliable information source and the roles of their (electronic) service channels to provide
... government or international organization. 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31...
James J.T. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell
Urban environmental stewardship groups have become an essential component of the governance structure that regulates ecosystem services in cities. New York City is one example where these groups have grown rapidly in number, size, and visibility since the 1970s. In this article, we combine quantitative survey data with qualitative interview data to examine the...
Kaitlyn J. Rathwell
Full Text Available In many densely settled agricultural watersheds, water quality is a point of conflict between amenity and agricultural activities because of the varied demands and impacts on shared water resources. Successful governance of these watersheds requires coordination among different activities. Recent research has highlighted the role that social networks between management entities can play to facilitate cross-scale interaction in watershed governance. For example, bridging organizations can be positioned in social networks to bridge local initiatives done by single municipalities across whole watersheds. To better understand the role of social networks in social-ecological system dynamics, we combine a social network analysis of the water quality management networks held by local governments with a social-ecological analysis of variation in water management and ecosystem services across the Montérégie, an agricultural landscape near Montréal, Québec, Canada. We analyze municipal water management networks by using one-mode networks to represent direct collaboration between municipalities, and two-mode networks to capture how bridging organizations indirectly connect municipalities. We find that municipalities do not collaborate directly with one another but instead are connected via bridging organizations that span the water quality management network. We also discovered that more connected municipalities engaged in more water management activities. However, bridging organizations preferentially connected with municipalities that used more tourism related ecosystem services rather than those that used more agricultural ecosystem services. Many agricultural municipalities were relatively isolated, despite being the main producers of water quality problems. In combination, these findings suggest that further strengthening the water management network in the Montérégie will contribute to improving water quality in the region. However, such
Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary
In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ouellet Dallaire, C.; Bennett, E.; Lehner, B.
Canadian rivers are under threat from climate and other anthropogenic changes, which will have important repercussion on the provision of water. Ensuring the long-term provision of this ecosystem services (ES) necessitates integrative and sustainable management of river systems. Because of rivers' highly connected nature, freshwater management must consider the spatial configuration of river systems to account for the upstream/downstream connections of the beneficiaries. To answer this need, we developed a spatial and hydrological approach to measure capacity for, demand for and pressure from ES linked to river systems. We applied this method to all Canadian rivers for the provision of water and analyzed the intensity of interactions among four beneficiaries: agriculture, municipalities, industries and hydropower. As such this is a first-ever cartography of capacity for, demand for and pressure from water provision and their interactions at large scale. In Canada, rivers under high interactions are located in three main regions: the Prairies where demand for and pressure from water provision for agriculture is high, southern Ontario and Québec where demand for and pressure from water provision for municipalities and industries is high, and in Northern large rivers, especially in Québec, where pressures from water provision for hydropower production is high. The distribution of capacity, demand and pressure shows an intense but concentrated reliance on small rivers to provide water for downstream users. For Canadian large rivers, interactions among capacity, demand and pressure are moderate but constant. This cartography can inform freshwater management by identifying rivers where water provisioning is at risk, for example, where capacity cannot meet the demand or where water use has negative consequences on downstream ES.
Raisa B. Deber
Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.
Seoyoung Lee, RN, MSN
Conclusions: There are needs for physicians to communicate with patients while ensuring sufficient consultation time based on excellent medical skills and nurses to respond immediately for the patients' needs through an empathic encounter in order to improve medical service quality and patient satisfaction so that to increase the revisit intention of the United Arab Emirates government sponsored patients. Further, it is necessary for the hospitals to have support plans for providing country specialized services in consideration of the UAE culture to ensure that physicians' and nurses' competencies are not undervalued by non-medical service elements such as interpreters and meals.
The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues
Smith, K.L.; Williams, R.M.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Canadian Government policies which affect the uranium industry and, where appropriate, to provide some background on the development of these policies. This review is timely because of two recent announcements by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources - one concerning the Canadian Government's renewed commitment to maintain the nuclear power option for Canada, and the other concerning some adjustments to Canada's uranium export policy. The future of Canada's nuclear industry was subject to a thorough review by the Canadian Government during 1989. This review occurred at a time when environmental issues were attracting increasing attention around the world, and the environmental advantages of nuclear power were becoming increasingly recognised. The strong support for the nuclear industry in Canada is consistent with the government's long-standing efforts to maintain Canada's position as a reliable and competitive supplier of uranium. This paper is particularly devoted to an outline of the results of the uranium export policy review. (author)
Sun, Zhuolu; Laporte, Audrey; Guerriere, Denise N; Coyte, Peter C
With health system restructuring in Canada and a general preference by care recipients and their families to receive palliative care at home, attention to home-based palliative care continues to increase. A multidisciplinary team of health professionals is the most common delivery model for home-based palliative care in Canada. However, little is known about the changing temporal trends in the propensity and intensity of home-based palliative care. The purpose of this study was to assess the propensity to use home-based palliative care services, and once used, the intensity of that use for three main service categories: physician visits, nurse visits and care by personal support workers (PSWs) over the last decade. Three prospective cohort data sets were used to track changes in service use over the period 2005 to 2015. Service use for each category was assessed using a two-part model, and a Heckit regression was performed to assess the presence of selectivity bias. Service propensity was modelled using multivariate logistic regression analysis and service intensity was modelled using log-transformed ordinary least squares regression analysis. Both the propensity and intensity to use home-based physician visits and PSWs increased over the last decade, while service propensity and the intensity of nurse visits decreased. Meanwhile, there was a general tendency for service propensity and intensity to increase as the end of life approached. These findings demonstrate temporal changes towards increased use of home-based palliative care, and a shift to substitute care away from nursing to less expensive forms of care, specifically PSWs. These findings may provide a general idea of the types of services that are used more intensely and require more resources from multidisciplinary teams, as increased use of home-based palliative care has placed dramatic pressures on the budgets of local home and community care organisations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Young, T Kue; Chatwood, Susan; Marchildon, Gregory P
To determine if Canadians are getting value for money in providing health services to our northern residents. Secondary analyses of data from Statistics Canada, the Canadian Institute of Health Information and territorial government agencies on health status, health expenditures and health system performance indicators. Per capita health expenditures in Canada's northern territories are double that of Canada as a whole and are among the highest in the world. The North lags behind the rest of the country in preventable mortality, hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions and other performance indicators. The higher health expenditure in the North is to be expected from its unique geography and demography. If the North is not performing as well as Canada, it is not due to lack of money, and policy makers should be concerned about whether healthcare can be as good as it could be. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012
The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…
Hou, Wanli; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jing; Wang, Fang; Chai, Yun; Xu, Hancheng; Li, Yongbin; Liu, Liqun; Wang, Bin; Jin, Jianqiang; Lu, Zuxun
In China, with the restructuring of health care system moving forward, private community health facilities have been playing a complementary but increasingly important role in providing public health and basic medical care services in urban areas. However, only limited evidence is available concerning the service functions of private community health facilities in China. The aim of this study was to explore the functions of private community health stations (PCHSs) to provide evidence-based recommendations for policy-making and practice in the development of urban community health services systems. A total of 818 PCHSs and 4320 government-sponsored community health stations (GCHSs) located in 28 cities of China were investigated in 2008. The percentages of stations that provided health services and the annual workload per community health worker (CHW) were compared between the two types of institutions. The results showed that the percentages of PCHSs providing public health services were significantly higher than those of GCHSs (P0.05). The annual workloads of all the public health services and basic medical services per CHW in PCHSs were lighter than those in GCHSs (P0.05). At present, the GCHSs are still the mainstream in urban China, which will last for a long period in future. However, our findings showed that the annual workloads of CHWs in PCHSs were no heavier than those in GCHSs, and the PCHSs were willing to provide public health services. In view of current inadequacy of health resources in China, it is feasible to further develop PCHSs under the guidance of the government, given that PCHSs can perform the basic functions of community health services, which is useful for the formation of public-private partnerships (PPP) and the improvement of community health services.
... should be adhered to by all Government employees, including office-holders: code of ethics for government... evasion. 3. Give a full day's labor for a full day's pay; giving to the performance of his duties his earnest effort and best thought. 4. Seek to find and employ more efficient and economical ways of getting...
Durbin, Anna; Brown, Hilary K; Antoniou, Tony; Sirotich, Frank; Bansal, Symron; Heifetz, Marina; Roesslein, Kay; Lunsky, Yona
We compared use of community and hospital-based mental health and addiction (MH&A) services by adults with and without HIV. This population-based study examined the probability and intensity of MH&A service use by individuals with (n = 5095) and without HIV (n = 2,753,091) in Ontario, Canada between 2013 and 2014. Adults with HIV were more likely than HIV-negative adults to use MH&A primary and psychiatric care, and to have MH&A emergency department visits and hospital admissions; they also used more of each service. Use of MH&A hospital services was particularly high for persons in the HIV group compared to the no HIV group.
Kohler, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Helle; Kontkanen, Pirjo; Korja, Annakaisa; Lauterjung, Jörn; Haslinger, Florian; Sangianantoni, Agata; Bartolini, Alessandro; Consortium, Epos
One of the most important issues regarding a pan-European distributed large scale research infrastructure is the setting up of its legal and governance structure as this will shape the very operation of the undertaking, i.e. the decision-making process, the allocation of tasks and resources as well as the relationship between the different bodies. Ensuring long-term operational services requires a robust, coherent and transparent legal and governance framework across all of the EPOS TCS (Thematic Core Services) and ICS (Integrated Core Services) that is well aligned to the EPOS global architecture. The chosen model for the EPOS legal entity is the ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). While the statutory seat of EPOS-ERIC will be in Rome, Italy, most of the services will be hosted in other countries. Specific agreements between EPOS-ERIC and the legal bodies hosting EPOS services will be implemented to allow proper coordination of activities. The objective is to avoid multiple agreements and, where possible, to standardize them in order to reach a harmonized situation across all services. For the governance careful attention will be paid to the decision-making process, the type of decisions and the voting rights, the definition of responsibilities, rights and duties, the reporting mechanisms, as well as other issues like who within a TCS represents the service to the 'outside' world or who advices the TCS on which subjects. Data policy is another crucial issue as EPOS aims to provide interdisciplinary services to researchers interested in geoscience, including access to data, metadata, data products, software and IT tools. EPOS also provides access to computational resources for visualization and processing. Beyond the general principles of Open Access and Open Source the following questions have to be addressed: scope and nature of data that will be accepted; intellectual property rights in data and terms under which data will be shared; openness and
food service facilities. The food factors (quality, variety, and quantity, in that order) were generally rated by consumers as most serious problems, in keeping with many previous survey studies of military food service system. The contractor food service concept with raw food provided by the contractor, as exemplified by Fort Myer, significantly reduced consumer problems in food service personnel, speed, hours, environment, and convenience of location, and also reduced the degree to which food variety,
Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Chou, Yu-Wei; Leu, Jun-Der; Chao Chen, Der; Tsaur, Tsen-Shu
This study aimed to explore the mediating effects of IT governance (ITG)-value delivery in the relationships among the quality of vendor service, the quality of consultant services, ITG-value delivery and enterprise resource planning (ERP) performance. The sampling of this research was acquired from a questionnaire survey concerning ERP implementations in Taiwan. In this survey, 4366 questionnaires were sent to manufacturing and service companies listed in the TOP 5000: The Largest Corporations in Taiwan 2009. The results showed that an ERP system will exhibit a decreased error rate and improved performance if ERP system vendors and consultants provide good service quality. The results also demonstrated that significant relationships exist among the quality of vendor service, the quality of consultant services and value delivery. The contribution of this article is twofold. First, it found that value delivery provides an effective measure of ERP performance under an ITG framework. Second, it provides evidence of the partial mediating effects of value delivery between service quality and ERP performance. In other words, if enterprises want to improve ERP performance, they need to consider factors such as value delivery and the quality of a vendor/consultant's service.
Nikayin, F.; De Reuver, M.
Today’s smart home concepts are no longer limited to home automation, but increasingly involve smart health, energy, security and entertainment services. Such smart living services are typically offered through sector-specific service platforms that are rarely interoperable and not fully
Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez K.
Governance in the health system has perhaps been the least explored building block of the health system, receiving less attention due to its vague definition and complex nature. When discussed at the country level it often focuses on single elements such as corruption or accountability and doesn’t consider wider interactions of relevance to how policies are formed. How well governed a health system is can often mean the difference between the efficient use of resources and inefficient waste, ...
Steve Harrison; Antonis Tzounis; Leandros Maglaras; Francois Siewe; Richard Smith; Helge Janicke
This is an Open Access article This study examines the traditional approach to software development within the United Kingdom Government and the accreditation process. Initially we look at the Waterfall methodology that has been used for several years. We discuss the pros and cons of Waterfall before moving onto the Agile Scrum methodology. Agile has been adopted by the majority of Government digital departments including the Gover...
Full Text Available Background: Biodiversity plays a critical role in improving the quality of life and resilience of poor urban communities in Durban. Objectives: However, the rapid densification that is taking place in the ‘rural periphery’ of the city is impacting significantly on the integrity of ecosystems, which provide valuable ecosystem services. It is also changing the relations between people and the environment. Mzinyathi and eSkebheni, in the north-west of Durban, are peri-urban areas located on Ingonyama Trust land and hence they are governed by both the traditional authority and the eThekwini Municipality. The settlement pattern is changing rapidly here as middle and upper income residents move into the area, changing the way of life from being rural and ‘traditional’ to urban and ‘modern’. Method: This paper focused on the nexus of rapid urban growth, dual governance systems, biodiversity loss and cultural change in these two areas. It adopted a qualitative methodology and social constructivist approach. Data on the value of environmental services in the area was collected through interviewing the traditional authority, provincial and municipal planners and environmentalists, and household members. Results: The paper revealed that environmental services are constructed in multiple ways within a particular socio-historical and political context, that they have value to peri-urban communities, and that their function and use is changing as a result of the ‘modernisation’ of the area. The impact of the dual governance system and traditional land allocation process on environmental services is significant. This has implications for long term sustainability, for the quality of life of peri-urban residents and for planning and urban governance.
Full Text Available options for implementation in the framework of the Internet portal of the Government of Moscow of new electronic services associated primarily with the effective visualization and informing of new real estate in the city of Moscow, as well as the ability to influence the proposed services on the development of the regional economy are considered in the article. Offers of the author based on the results of research carried out in the course of the joint work of the Department of territorial bodies of the executive power of the city of Moscow and the Moscow State University of Technology and Management named after K.G. Razumovsky.
Ek, Carl; Fergusson, Ian F; Nunez-Neto, Blas; Clarke, Stephen F; Abel, Amy; Becker, Geoffrey S; Buck, Eugene H; Corn, M. L; Gelb, Bernard A; Gorte, Ross W
.... The early 1990s brought new governments to Ottawa and Washington, and although Canada's Liberal Party emphasized its determination to act independently of the United States when necessary, relations...
Full Text Available The reintroduction of local self-government at the level of communes (gminy in 1990 opened the way for an in-depth reform of the local governance framework in Poland. This included not only the legal, organizational and fiscal autonomisation of local communities, but also went in line with general trends concerning the transformation of the public sector. Therefore, among the core elements of the transformation we may identify the extensive privatization of the public service provision schemes. In Poland, this process was not based on the theoretical background of New Public Management, as was the case in a number of Western countries. Instead, it was natural consequence of the rebirth of a market economy with a limited public sector and the intense development of the private market. Those trends were, however, compatible with the NPM programme. The expansion of market-based mechanisms in public service delivery is one of its pillars. This article provides a historical overview of the development of market-based arrangements in public service provision at the most basic level of Polish local government. It is focused mainly on a legal framework, but also includes some observations on the practical side of this process.
The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) sees a need for more federal emphasis on six main principles regarding an energy strategy that will ensure that Canada's economy and citizens benefit from free access to North American markets. The development of energy resources must be done in a manner that meets North American demand for energy supplies, addresses high prices by increasing supply and enhances Canada's role as a reliable energy supplier. CAPP has proposed the following six main principles for an energy strategy: (1) development of market oriented policies, (2) ensure regulatory effectiveness, (3) promote greater industry competitiveness, (4) create more jobs for stronger communities, (5) foster the development of technological innovation, and (6) use energy wisely and efficiently. The key components of each principle were described in detail, along with their benefits to the Canadian economy
Multani, Amanpreet; Hynie, Michaela; Shakya, Yogendra; McKenzie, Kwame
Objectives This qualitative study set out to understand the mental health challenges and service access barriers experienced by South Asian youth populations in the Peel Region of Toronto, Canada. Setting In-depth semistructured interviews were carried out with South Asian youth living in Peel Region (Mississauga, Brampton and Caledon), a suburb of Toronto, Canada, home to over 50% of Ontario’s South Asian population. Participants South Asian youth (n=10) engaged in thoughtful, candid dialogue about their mental health and service access barriers. Primary and secondary outcome measures Qualitative interview themes related to mental health stressors and mental health service access barriers experienced by youth living in Peel Region were assessed using thematic analysis. Results South Asian youth face many mental health stressors, from intergenerational and cultural conflict, academic pressure, relationship stress, financial stress and family difficulties. These stressors can contribute to mental health challenges, such as depression and anxiety and drug use, with marijuana, alcohol and cigarettes cited as the most popular substances. South Asian youth were only able to identify about a third (36%) of the mental health resources presented to them and did not feel well informed about mental health resources available in their neighbourhood. Conclusions They offered recommendations for improved youth support directed at parents, education system, South Asian community and mental health system. Institutions and bodies at all levels of the society have a role to play in ensuring the mental health of South Asian youth. PMID:29101148
Globally, Payments for Watershed Services (PWS) make-up the largest ecosystem service market (Bennett et al., 2014b). Driven by the negative impacts of climate change and economic development for water quantity and quality provision, hydrological services are assuming a leading priority among forest and agriculture-based ecosystems. Indeed, afforestation and sustainable agriculture tend to be among the most rewarded management practices under contracts aiming to achieve additionality in upstr...
Canada`s Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan`s goal is `to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.` It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan`s short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities.
... recordkeeping requirements, Social Security, Unemployment compensation. Withdrawal of Notice of Proposed... Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Withdrawal of notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This...
Canada and the Slovak Republic are both non-nuclear weapon states party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and as such have undertaken not to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices and that each Party has concluded an agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty
I A Yagub, Abdallah
North Darfur State has been affected by conflict since 2003 and the government has not been able to provide adequate curative health services to the people. The government has come to rely on Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to provide curative health services. This study was conducted to examine the existing collaboration between government and NGOs in curative health service delivery in North Darfur State, and to identify the challenges that affect their collaboration. Documentary data were collected from government offices and medical organizations. Primary data were obtained through interviews with government and NGOs representatives. The interviews were conducted with (1) expatriates working for international NGOs (N=15) and (2), health professionals and administrators working in the health sector (N= 45). The collaboration between the government and NGOs has been very weak because of security issues and lack of trust. The NGOs collaborate by providing human and financial resources, material and equipment, and communication facilities. The NGOs supply 70% of curative health services, and contribute 52.9% of the health budget in North Darfur State. The NGOs have employed 1 390 health personnel, established 44 health centres and manage and support 83 health facilities across the State. The NGOs have played a positive role in collaborating with the government in North Darfur State in delivering curative health services, while government's role has been negative. The problem that faces the government in future is how health facilities will be run should a peaceful settlement be reached and NGOs leave the region.
Spence, John C; Faulkner, Guy; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S
Physical inactivity is a pressing public health concern. In this commentary we argue that Canada's approach to increasing physical activity (PA) has been fragmented and has lacked coordination, funding and a strategic approach. We then describe a potential solution in Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20), which provides both a national plan and a commitment to action from non-government and public sectors with a view to engaging corporate Canada and the general public. It outlines a road map for initiating, coordinating and implementing proactive initiatives to address this prominent health risk factor. The identified actions are based on the best available evidence and have been endorsed by the majority of representatives in the relevant sectors. The next crucial steps are to engage all those involved in public health promotion, service provision and advocacy at the municipal, provincial and national levels in order to incorporate AC 20/20 principles into practice and planning and thus increase the PA level of every person in Canada. Further, governments, as well as the private, not-for-profit and philanthropic sectors, should demonstrate leadership and continue their efforts toward providing the substantial and sustained resources needed to recalibrate Canadians' habitual PA patterns; this will ultimately improve the overall health of our citizens.
Administrative Circular No. 25 (Rev. 3) entitled “Special provisions for the Fire and Rescue Service governing working and rest time”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 28 September 2012 and entering into force in October 2012, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp This Circular is applicable to staff members of the Fire and Rescue Service It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 25 (Rev. 2) entitled “Shift work – Special provisions for the Fire and Rescue Service” of April 2003. This new version takes into account the new organisation of the Fire and Rescue Service, members of which will henceforth not exclusively perform their functions in the context of shift work, but also during reference working hours and during stand-by duty. Additionally, applicable limits regarding working and rest times an...
Papadomichelaki, Xenia; Mentzas, Gregoris
A critical element in the evolution of governmental services through the internet is the development of sites that better serve the citizens' needs. To deliver superior service quality, we must first understand how citizens perceive and evaluate online. Citizen assessment is built on defining quality, identifying underlying dimensions, and…
Ігор Юрійович Мельников
Full Text Available An essence of financial services market of Ukraine is considered in the article. The mechanism and features of state regulation of financial services market in the context of macroeconomic instability are determined, the fundamentals of the theory of regulation of market economy and segments of the financial market of Ukraine are determined
... INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Paragraph 1. The authority citation for part 31 continues to read in part as follows... withhold income tax when making payments to persons providing property or services. These proposed... property or services. The proposed regulations reflect changes in the law made by the Tax Increase...
... earnest effort and best thought to the performance of duties. Seek to find and employ more efficient and... persons as influencing the performance of governmental duties. Make no private promises of any kind binding upon the duties of office, since a Government employee has no private word which can be binding on...
Polzin, F.H.J.; von Flotow, Paschen; Nolden, Colin
Energy efficiency retrofits are often impeded by high perceived investment risks, long payback periods and a lack of skills. At the municipal level these issues are particularly pronounced as procuring, implementing, and managing retrofits can exceed existing municipal governance capacities. The
van den Boer, Yvon
In the Netherlands, over a million businesses regularly have to deal with complex matters imposed by the government (e.g., managing tax problems). To solve their problems, businesses have various potential sources to consult (e.g., Tax Office, advisor, friends/family). The myriad sources can be
... governing of practice before the IRS and the standards with respect to tax returns. DATES: This correction... Part 10 Accountants, Administrative practice and procedure, Lawyers, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Taxes. Correction of Publication Accordingly, 31 CFR part 10 is corrected by making the following...
Green, Lawrence W.
This reflection is on a health education professional's rotation from professor in a school of public health to a government position and back parallels that of Professor Howard Koh's journey to Assistant Secretary of Health, one level higher in the same federal bureaucracy. We both acknowledge the steep learning curve and some bureaucratic…
Baiden, Philip; Fallon, Barbara
Although various studies have investigated factors associated with mental health service utilization, few studies have examined factors associated with referral for mental health services among maltreated children. The objective of this study was to examine the association between suicidal thoughts and self-harming behavior and referral for mental health services among children involved in the Child Welfare System in Ontario, Canada. Data for this study were obtained from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2013. An estimate 57,798 child maltreatment investigations was analyzed using binary logistic regression with referral for mental health service as the outcome variable. Of the 57,798 cases, 4709 (8.1%), were referred for mental health services. More than seven out of ten maltreated children who engaged in self-harming behavior and two out of three maltreated children who expressed suicidal thoughts were not referred for mental health services. In the multivariate logistic regression model, children who expressed suicidal thoughts had 2.39 times higher odds of being referred for mental health services compared to children with no suicidal thoughts (AOR = 2.39, 99% C.I. 2.05-2.77) and children who engaged in self-harming behavior had 1.44 times higher odds of being referred for mental health services compared to children who did not engage in self-harming behavior (AOR = 1.44, 99% C.I. 1.24-1.67), both after controlling for child demographic characteristics, maltreatment characteristics, and child functioning concerns. Given that referral is the initial step towards mental health service utilization, it is important that child welfare workers receive the necessary training so as to carefully assess and refer children in care who expressed suicidal thoughts or engaged in self-harming behavior for appropriate mental health services. The paper discusses the results and their implications for child welfare policy and practice
Marcos Lopes Campos
Full Text Available This article deals with the relations between public policy instruments and production practices of objects related to government action. It demonstrates that the materiality of the instruments built to make a public policy object legible to its operators has independent effects on the relations among private operators, bureaucrats, and the public sector. Based on the bus service provision policies in the city of São Paulo between the 1980s and the 2000s, it shows that transportation policies are structured around the dilemmas and conflicts associated with the production of reports and databases. This article suggests that everyday practices and instruments, especially those associated with the documentation of operational performance, are key dimensions to understand the limits and potential of both state capacities and the regulation of companies’ profits. Because of its materiality, documentation practices and document pathways, operate as devices and artifacts which structure opacities, asymmetries of information, and power struggles between the state bureaucrats and private companies in the construction of service legibility. This article concludes that the transition from the governance through analogue instruments to the governance through electronic instruments is characterized by more transparency and greater regulatory potential over the private sector.
Costopoulou, Constantina; Ntaliani, Maria
Administrative burdens comprise the second most important individual business constraint for SMEs. In this context, the Rural Inclusion project aims at reducing rural SMEs' administrative burdens related to particular public services. For succeeding this, it adopts, adapts, and deploys a Web infrastructure combining semantic services with a collaborative training and networking approach in five European rural regions. The paper presents the preliminary results of the initial phases of the project regarding the measurement of administrative burdens of SMEs in a specific rural region related to the service "Starting a new business".
The forces responsible for the high drilling and exploration activity in Western Canada (recent high prices, excess pipeline capacity, and the promise of as yet undiscovered natural gas resources) are discussed. Supply and demand signposts, among them weather impacts, political response by governments, the high demand for rigs and services, the intense competition for land, the scarcity of qualified human resources, are reviewed/. The geological potential of Western Canada, the implications of falling average pool sizes, the industry's ability to catch up to increasing declines, are explored. The disappearance of easy large discoveries, rising development costs involved in smaller, more complex hence more expensive pools are assessed and the Canadian equity and capital markets are reviewed. The predicted likely outcome of all the above factors is fewer players, increasing expectation of higher returns, and more discipline among the remaining players
Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude
Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....
Green, Cheri A
Full Text Available .0 – smart, sustainable, integrative. Strategies, concepts and technologies for planning the urban future The South African constitution requires that every citizen be granted access to basic services. It is therefore a legal requirement that all... eradication 8 REAL CORP 2009: Cities 3.0 – smart, sustainable, integrative. Strategies, concepts and technologies for planning the urban future 6 EVALUATION OF THE SERVICE ACCESS PLANNING APPLICATION 6.1 Usefulness of the results...
Full Text Available by trial and error, as every attempt counts signi?cantly. 6. Wicked problems do not have an enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated... scheduled clinical visits. Access to information about entitled services alone has been found to improve the delivery of health and social services to resource-poor popula- tions (Pandey, Sehgal, Riboud, Levine, & Goyal, 2007). In South Africa, however...
Carlos Alberto da Rocha
Full Text Available This theoretical research identified the possibility that Governance factors contribute as evidence of value in the relationships of commercial partnerships between Logistic Operators and service providers. The data analysis allowed to identify three possible levels of grouping due to the variables of facilitators of proximity of partnerships that showed that it is possible to have a relationship with transparence between the client company and its suppliers. Most of these groups of suppliers were characterized by the intention to share operating profits with the client company, with little tolerance to financial risks of joint investments and a tendency to sign future supply contracts. Transparency, ethics and corporate responsibility have contributed to the consolidation of these groupings of partnerships among companies, as well as creating a mutual and evolutionary process of full confidence in such a way that Corporate Governance becomes the main value factor for this relationship.
Cloete, Jacob PL
Full Text Available ) claim process . Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) and Wizard of Oz  based voice recognition system versions of the system were implemented in English and two in- digenous local languages: IsiZulu and Setswana. Each experiment consisted of pre... experiments based on a government application. 2 Experimental approach and results The objectives of the experiments were to improve theory on the use of user ex- periments, develop design guidelines and develop an ability to predict the success...
Zhao, Jensen J.; Truell, Allen; Alexander, Melody W.
This study examined the user-interface characteristics and effectiveness of the e-government-to-business (G2B) sites of the 50 U.S. states and Washington, D.C. A group of 306 online users were trained to assess the sites. The findings indicate that the majority of the state G2B sites included the user-interface characteristics that provided online…
Gendron, Angela [Canadian Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies, Carleton University (Canada)
In Canada government acknowledged the need to protect energy assets against attacks. However, so far no strategy has been developed. The aim of this report is to present the characteristics of the energy sector in Canada, the threats, and how the government is responding to those threats. The energy sector in Canada is concentrated and diverse and is under not only terrorism or cyber attacks threats but also environmental threats. This report shows that the Government of Canada is focusing on the protection and assurance of important energy infrastructures but that they are facing several challenges resulting in long delays in the adoption of a formal strategy.
This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Miller, Katye R; Galos, Dylan; Love, Randi; Poole, Charles
Qualitative research methods have been utilized to study the nature of work in the HIV services field. Yet current literature lacks a Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) era compendium of qualitative research studying challenges and coping strategies in the field. This study systematically reviewed challenges and coping strategies that qualitative researchers observed in the HIV services field during the HAART era, and their recommendations to organizations. Four online databases were searched for peer-reviewed research that utilized qualitative methods, were published from January 1998 to February 2012, utilized samples of individuals in the HIV services field; occurred in the U.S. or Canada, and contained information related to challenges and/or coping strategies. Abstracts were identified (n=846) and independently read and coded for inclusion by at least two of the four first authors. Identified articles (n=26) were independently read by at least two of the four first authors who recorded the study methodology, participant demographics, challenges and coping strategies, and recommendations. A number of challenges affecting those in the HIV services field were noted, particularly interpersonal and organizational issues. Coping strategies were problem- and emotion-focused. Summarized research recommendations called for increased support, capacity-building, and structural changes. Future research on challenges and coping strategies must provide up-to-date information to the HIV services field while creating, implementing, and evaluating interventions to manage current challenges and reduce the risk of burnout.
Billestrup, Jane; Stage, Jan
Several initiatives in regards to digitalisation citizens' services have been launched, both in the European Union and in Denmark. Several problems have been reported in related work in regards to lack of accessability and usability of e-government self-service solutions. The objective of this pa......Several initiatives in regards to digitalisation citizens' services have been launched, both in the European Union and in Denmark. Several problems have been reported in related work in regards to lack of accessability and usability of e-government self-service solutions. The objective...... of this paper was "How are software providers developing e-government self-service solutions that should be usable for all citizens?" we conducted 11 phone interviews with self-service providers in Denmark. We found that no citizens are involved in the development process and only few of the self...
Betz, Charles T
Information technology supports efficient operations, enterprise integration, and seamless value delivery, yet itself is too often inefficient, un-integrated, and of unclear value. This completely rewritten version of the bestselling Architecture and Patterns for IT Service Management, Resource Planning and Governance retains the original (and still unique) approach: apply the discipline of enterprise architecture to the business of large scale IT management itself. Author Charles Betz applies his deep practitioner experience to a critical reading of ITIL 2011, COBIT version 4, the CMMI suite
McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey
Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental
Heather E. Castleden
Full Text Available Indigenous (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis/Metis peoples in Canada experience persistent and disproportionate water-related challenges compared to non-Indigenous Canadians. These circumstances are largely attributable to enduring colonial policies and practices. Attempts for redress have been unsuccessful, and Western science and technology have been largely unsuccessful in remedying Canada’s water-related challenges. A systematic review of the academic and grey literature on integrative Indigenous and Western approaches to water research and management identified 279 items of which 63 were relevant inclusions; these were then analyzed using a realist review tool. We found an emerging trend of literature in this area, much of which called for the rejection of tokenism and the development of respectful nation-to-nation relationships in water research, management, and policy.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate farming community perceptions and expectations of quality of extension services rendered by the Department of Agriculture and Environmental Affairs (DAEA within the uMngungundlovu District Municipality. In order to achieve the article’s objective, the researcher used a SERVQUAL questionnaire and collected and analyzed the data using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The results have shown that the customers perceive that they receive superior service from the extension staff. However the negative differences need to be eliminated to exceed the expectations of customers
Mano, Rita; Rosenberg, Dennis
The study explores organizational restructuring following the occurrence of a crisis. Restructuring activities following an intervention are considered here to be indicators of an organization's loss of legitimacy because they have lost their independent status, a basic characteristic of nonprofit human settings. The study shows that according to the Resource Based View of organization restructuring--experienced as downsizing, neglecting and abandoning of projects--organizations are affected by (a) government intervention in decision making; (b) higher demands for accountability; and (c) higher evaluations of performance gaps. On the basis of the study of a sample of 138 Nonprofit Human Services in Israel, the results show that the higher the level of restructuring, the higher the level of legitimacy. However, organization location in metropolitan areas moderates the link between restructuring and legitimacy loss. We conclude that Israel's nonprofit human services being overly dependent on goverhment funding are more prone to restructuring and losing legitimacy following organizational crisis.
Gert van der Westhuizen
Full Text Available The South African local government sector has undergone changes in the post-apartheid era as policy makers have sought to improve basic services provided to disadvantaged local communities. While scholars have considered various dimensions of the reform program, little effort has been directed at evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency dimensions of the changes in service provision, with some notable exceptions (van der Westhuizen and Dollery, 2009; Krugell, et al., 2010. This article seeks to contribute to this literature by evaluating the efficiency with which municipalities have provided (Reconstruction and Development Program RDP water, RDP sanitation RDP electricity and RDP refuse removal, using Data Envelopment Analysis techniques (DEA applied to panel data from 2006/2007 to 2008/2009 for 231 local municipalities and 46 district municipalities. Keywords: Data warehousing, Systems thinking, Prescriptive theory, Descriptive theory, Interpretative research. Disciplines: Information technology, systems theory, data warehousing, hermeneutics
Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of corporate governance factors (i.e. board size, board independence and CEO ownership and firm-level control variables (i.e. firm size, firm growth and firm profitability on the dividend payout policy among the service sector companies of Malaysia that are listed on Bursa Malaysia. Ordinary least square model was used to estimate the results. Sample consisted of 113 service sector firms from the period of 2009 to 2013. The results show that the profitable companies with large boards and less growth tend to pay higher dividends. Findings can be interpreted as that the profitable companies are sharing their profits with their shareholders in terms of dividends to give positive message to the market.
Full Text Available to catalyze government effort for rapid service deliveries. He concludes by highlighting the lack of research on mobile technologies in the social science, and the need to rapidly expand efforts in this research area....
Masthori, Arif; Nugroho, Hanung Adi; Ferdiana, Riri
Website is an important facility that should be owned by government agency in the implementation of e-government. A good websiteservice quality will encourage the effectiveness in the implementation of e-government. To ensure the websiteservice quality, evaluating is needed.Existing evaluation method just only measure the website quality, not measure the level of benefits.This research aims to modifythe webqual method so it explores the website services quality from the user's perception and ...
James J. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell
How do stewardship groups contribute to the management of urban ecosystem services? In this paper, we integrate the research on environmental stewardship with the social-ecological systems literature to explain how stewardship groups serve as bridge organizations between public agencies and civic organizations, working across scales and sectors to build the flexible...
N. Awortwi (Nicholas); A.H.J. Helmsing (Bert)
textabstractDuring 1970 to mid 1980s, governments’ policies on basic services in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) had an almost exclusive focus on directly provided, publicly-funded. This approach coupled with disintegration of the economic structures resulted in steep decline in people’s access to basic
Scupola, Ada; Islam, M. Sirajul
review to examine the e-service research trends during the period between 2005 and 2009 mostly in terms of, research methods, theoretical models and frameworks employed as well as type of research questions. The results show that there has been a good amount of papers focusing on ‘e-Service’ within...
... accountants. Any certified public accountant who is not currently under suspension or disbarment from practice... Internal Revenue Service a written declaration that the certified public accountant is currently qualified as a certified public accountant and is authorized to represent the party or parties. Notwithstanding...
... Rights Division, Department of Justice. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: This document contains... of the rule relating to service animals. DATES: Effective Date: March 15, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Barbara J. Elkin, Attorney Advisor, Disability Rights Section, Civil Rights Division, U.S...
... CNCS and the Director of the Domestic Policy Council, which shall include representatives from agencies... Affairs; (m) the Department of Homeland Security; (n) the Peace Corps; (o) the National Science Foundation...- effectiveness of national service and volunteering interventions in achieving agency priorities, and aggregate...
Touhsaent, Susan M.
To facilitate planning of services to low income, single-parent working women with young children, a client impact study was made of former recipients of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) in Monroe County, New York. Those surveyed had lost their supplementary income and related benefits due to mandated eligibility constraints in the federal Omnibus…
Full Text Available Nowadays e-government projects and projects in the public sector are changing the consistency and reality of our daily life and will need to be managed by project managers, who uge modern marketing tools and technologies. Social marketing is one of the modern marketing tools and, probably, it is the best tool to provide marketing in public sector project management, It has been changing in different ways since the founding of social marketing: the aim of social marketing, the technologies for using i ; but nowadays it’s hard to imagine public sector projects and, especially, egovernment projects, without using social marketing technologies. The usage of social marketing technologies can improve public sector project management and make the project more attractive to society or some part of it. This scientific paper represents social marketing transformation, the way in which social marketing needs to be used in the public sector project management process and analyses the phases of social marketing. It also gives some practical advics for public sector organizations o, how to implement social marketing in the e-government project deployment process.
Dawson, Lorna; Bestwick, Charles
The Strategic Research Programme focuses on the delivery of outputs and outcomes within the major policy agenda areas of climate change, land use and food security, and to impact on the 'Wealthier', 'Healthier' and 'Greener' strategic objectives of the Scottish Government. The research is delivered through two programmes: 'Environmental Change' and 'Food, Land and People'; the core strength of which is the collaboration between the Scottish Government's Main Research Providers-The James Hutton Institute, the Moredun Research Institute, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health University of Aberdeen, Scotland's Rural College, Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland and The Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh. The research actively seeks to inform and be informed by stakeholders from policy, farming, land use, water and energy supply, food production and manufacturing, non-governmental organisations, voluntary organisations, community groups and general public. This presentation will provide an overview of the programme's interdisciplinary research, through examples from across the programme's themes. Examples will exemplify impact within the Strategic Programme's priorities of supporting policy and practice, contributing to economic growth and innovation, enhancing collaborative and multidisciplinary research, growing scientific resilience and delivering scientific excellence. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Research/About/EBAR/StrategicResearch/future-research-strategy/Themes/ http://www.knowledgescotland.org/news.php?article_id=295
Akingbade, A.O.; Navarra, D.D.; Georgiadou, P.Y.; Zevenbergen, J.A.
This paper examines the role of the Abuja geographic information systems as an e-government policy initiative for promoting the reduction in corruption in the provision of e-land administration services and good governance in general. The paper explores the contribution of e-land administration with
The subject is discussed under the headings: food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada; non-regulatory developments (poultry irradiation; fish irradiation; Government willingness to fund industry initiated projects; Government willingness to establish food irradiation research and pilot plant facilities; food industry interest is increasing significantly; Canadian Consumers Association positive response; the emergence of new consulting and entrepreneurial firms). (U.K.)
Lake, Rebecca; Georgiou, Andrew; Li, Julie; Li, Ling; Byrne, Mary; Robinson, Maureen; Westbrook, Johanna I
Telephone triage and advice services (TTAS) are increasingly being implemented around the world. These services allow people to speak to a nurse or general practitioner over the telephone and receive assessment and healthcare advice. There is an existing body of research on the topic of TTAS, however the diffuseness of the evidence base makes it difficult to identify key lessons that are consistent across the literature. Systematic reviews represent the highest level of evidence synthesis. We aimed to undertake an overview of such reviews to determine the scope, consistency and generalisability of findings in relation to the governance, safety and quality of TTAS. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library for English language systematic reviews focused on key governance, quality and safety findings related to telephone based triage and advice services, published since 1990. The search was undertaken by three researchers who reached consensus on all included systematic reviews. An appraisal of the methodological quality of the systematic reviews was independently undertaken by two researchers using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. Ten systematic reviews from a potential 291 results were selected for inclusion. TTAS was examined either alone, or as part of a primary care service model or intervention designed to improve primary care. Evidence of TTAS performance was reported across nine key indicators - access, appropriateness, compliance, patient satisfaction, cost, safety, health service utilisation, physician workload and clinical outcomes. Patient satisfaction with TTAS was generally high and there is some consistency of evidence of the ability of TTAS to reduce clinical workload. Measures of the safety of TTAS tended to show that there is no major difference between TTAS and traditional care. Taken as a whole, current evidence does not provide definitive answers to questions about the quality of care
Full Text Available Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described.Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas. When client volume exceeded the capacity of on-duty staff in ANC and VCT, non-governmental organization (NGO subsidies were offered for overtime pay.Implementation of routine CVCT services varied greatly by clinic and city. The 12 highest volume clinics were examined further, while 13 clinics had CVCT numbers that were too low to warrant further investigation. In Lusaka, the proportion of pregnant women whose partners were tested rose from 2.6% in 2009 to a peak of 26.2% in 2012 and 24.8% in 2015. Corresponding reports in Ndola were 2.0% in 2009, 17.0% in 2012 and 14.5% in 2015. Obstacles to CVCT included: limited space and staffing, competing priorities, record keeping not adapted for couples, and few resources for promotion and increasing male involvement. Conflicting training models for 'partner testing' with men and women separately vs. CVCT with joint post-test counseling led to confusion in reporting to district health authorities.A focused and sustained effort will be required to reach a meaningful number of couples with CVCT to prevent heterosexual and perinatal HIV transmission. Establishing targets and timelines, funding for dedicated and appropriately trained staff, adoption of standardized data recording instruments with couple-level indicators, and expansion of community and clinic-based promotions using proven models are recommended.
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009
The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011
The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…
This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)
This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs
Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M
Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific. PMID:21729919
Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M
Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific.
Full Text Available The paper stresses on understanding citizens’ trust to local government authorities in the provision of social services, the case of education service in Maswa district. The paper discloses that majority of respondents of 82.2% of total respondents were not involved in full council meetings, although the meetings are supposed to be open to the public and all information that is presented there is public information which includes proposed plans and budgets as well as quarterly progress reports. This shows that there are problems in primary education. Moreover, due to various problems that still exist in primary education in the area under study, they created a sense of distrust between citizens to local government and local leaders to be specific including Village Executive Officers, Ward Executive Officers and councilors since majority of the respondents revealed that they are lazy harass people. This makes people to be reluctant to participate in development activities include refusing to contribute financially in various development initiatives since they do not see importance of their local leaders so they decide to take their own decisions.
Reporting on performance was legislatively established in South Africa in terms of the Public Finance Management Act, Act 1 of 1999, section 40 (3)(a). The auditing of the reported information was legislated in the Public Audit Act, Act 25 of 2004, section 20(2) (c). The objectives of the article are firstly to provide an overview of the development and application of the reporting and secondly providing assurance on service delivery information and thirdly to reflect on challenges to the imp...
Davis, Emily Jane; White, Eric M; Cerveny, Lee K; Seesholtz, David; Nuss, Meagan L; Ulrich, Donald R
In the United States, over 191 million acres of land is managed by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, a federal government agency. In several western U.S. states, organized collaborative groups have become a de facto governance approach to providing sustained input on management decisions on much public land. This is most extensive in Oregon, where at least 25 "forest collaboratives" currently exist. This affords excellent opportunities for studies of many common themes in collaborative governance, including trust, shared values, and perceptions of success. We undertook a statewide survey of participants in Oregon forest collaboratives to examine differences in motivations, perceptions of success, and satisfaction among Forest Service participants ("agency participants"), who made up 31% of the sample, and other respondents ("non-agency") who represent nonfederal agencies, interest groups, citizens, and non-governmental groups. We found that agency participants differed from non-agency participants. They typically had higher annual incomes, and were primarily motivated to participate to build trust. However, a majority of all respondents were similar in not indicating any other social or economic motivations as their primary reason for collaborating. A majority also reported satisfaction with their collaborative-despite not ranking collaborative performance on a number of specific potential outcomes highly. Together, this suggests that collaboration in Oregon is currently perceived as successful despite not achieving many specific outcomes. Yet there were significant differences in socioeconomic status and motivation that could affect the ability of agency and nonagency participants to develop and achieve mutually-desired goals.
Davis, Emily Jane; White, Eric M.; Cerveny, Lee K.; Seesholtz, David; Nuss, Meagan L.; Ulrich, Donald R.
In the United States, over 191 million acres of land is managed by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, a federal government agency. In several western U.S. states, organized collaborative groups have become a de facto governance approach to providing sustained input on management decisions on much public land. This is most extensive in Oregon, where at least 25 "forest collaboratives" currently exist. This affords excellent opportunities for studies of many common themes in collaborative governance, including trust, shared values, and perceptions of success. We undertook a statewide survey of participants in Oregon forest collaboratives to examine differences in motivations, perceptions of success, and satisfaction among Forest Service participants ("agency participants"), who made up 31% of the sample, and other respondents ("non-agency") who represent nonfederal agencies, interest groups, citizens, and non-governmental groups. We found that agency participants differed from non-agency participants. They typically had higher annual incomes, and were primarily motivated to participate to build trust. However, a majority of all respondents were similar in not indicating any other social or economic motivations as their primary reason for collaborating. A majority also reported satisfaction with their collaborative—despite not ranking collaborative performance on a number of specific potential outcomes highly. Together, this suggests that collaboration in Oregon is currently perceived as successful despite not achieving many specific outcomes. Yet there were significant differences in socioeconomic status and motivation that could affect the ability of agency and nonagency participants to develop and achieve mutually-desired goals.
Cai, Jiaoli; Guerriere, Denise N; Zhao, Hongzhong; Coyte, Peter C
The use of health services may vary across people with different socioeconomic statuses, and may be determined by many factors. The purposes of this study were (i) to examine the socioeconomic differences in the propensity and intensity of use for three main home-based health services, that is, home-based palliative care physician visits, nurse visits and personal support worker (PSW) hours; and (ii) to explore the determinants of the use of home-based palliative care services. A prospective cohort study was employed. A total of 181 caregivers were interviewed biweekly over the course of the palliative care trajectory, yielding a total of 994 interviews. The propensity and intensity of health service use were examined using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, respectively. The results demonstrated that both the propensity and intensity of home-based nurse and PSW visits fell with socioeconomic status. The use of home-based palliative care services was not concentrated in high socioeconomic status groups. The common predictors of health service use in the three service categories were patient age, the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) score and place of death. These findings may assist health service planners in the appropriate allocation of resources and service packages to meet the complex needs of palliative care populations.
An Empirical Analysis of Citizens' Acceptance Decisions of Electronic-Government Services: A Modification of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model to Include Trust as a Basis for Investigation
Awuah, Lawrence J.
Understanding citizens' adoption of electronic-government (e-government) is an important topic, as the use of e-government has become an integral part of governance. Success of such initiatives depends largely on the efficient use of e-government services. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has provided a…
Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Keithly, Sarah C; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima
Although social franchising has been shown to enhance the quality of reproductive health services in developing countries, its effect on nutrition services remains unexamined. This study assessed the effects of incorporating elements of social franchising on shaping the quality of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counselling facilities and services in Vietnam. Process-related data collected 12 months after the launch of the first franchises were used to compare randomly assigned Alive & Thrive-supported health facilities (AT-F, n = 20) with standard facilities (SF, n = 12) across three dimensions of service quality: 'structure', 'process' and 'outcome' that capture the quality of facilities, service delivery, and client perceptions and use, respectively. Data collection included facility assessments (n = 32), staff surveys (n = 96), counselling observations (n = 137), client exit interviews (n = 137) and in-depth interviews with mothers (n = 48). Structure: AT-F were more likely to have an unshared, well-equipped room for nutrition counselling than SF (65.0% vs 10.0%). Compared with SF providers, AT-F staff had better IYCF knowledge (mean score 9.9 vs 8.8, range 0-11 for breastfeeding; mean score 3.6 vs 3.2, range 0-4 for complementary feeding). AT-F providers also demonstrated significantly better interpersonal communication skills (score 9.6 vs 5.1, range 0-13) and offered more comprehensive counselling sessions. Overall utilization of franchises was low (10%). A higher proportion of pregnant women utilized franchise services (48.9%), compared with mothers with children 6-23.9 months (1.4%). There was no quantitative difference in client satisfaction with counselling services between AT-F and SF, but franchise users praised the AT-F for problem solving related to child feeding. Incorporating elements of social franchising significantly enhances the quality of IYCF counselling services within government primary healthcare facilities, particularly their
This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids
Chai, Huamin; Guerriere, Denise N; Zagorski, Brandon; Coyte, Peter C
With increasing emphasis on the provision of home-based palliative care in Canada, economic evaluation is warranted, given its tremendous demands on family caregivers. Despite this, very little is known about the economic outcomes associated with home-based unpaid care-giving at the end of life. The aims of this study were to (i) assess the magnitude and share of unpaid care costs in total healthcare costs for home-based palliative care patients, from a societal perspective and (ii) examine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that account for variations in this share. One hundred and sixty-nine caregivers of patients with a malignant neoplasm were interviewed from time of referral to a home-based palliative care programme provided by the Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada, until death. Information regarding palliative care resource utilisation and costs, time devoted to care-giving and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was collected between July 2005 and September 2007. Over the last 12 months of life, the average monthly cost was $14 924 (2011 CDN$) per patient. Unpaid care-giving costs were the largest component - $11 334, accounting for 77% of total palliative care expenses, followed by public costs ($3211; 21%) and out-of-pocket expenditures ($379; 2%). In all cost categories, monthly costs increased exponentially with proximity to death. Seemingly unrelated regression estimation suggested that the share of unpaid care costs of total costs was driven by patients' and caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics. Results suggest that overwhelming the proportion of palliative care costs is unpaid care-giving. This share of costs requires urgent attention to identify interventions aimed at alleviating the heavy financial burden and to ultimately ensure the viability of home-based palliative care in future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Shahid, Shaouli; Taylor, Emma V; Cheetham, Shelley; Woods, John A; Aoun, Samar M; Thompson, Sandra C
Indigenous peoples in developed countries have reduced life expectancies, particularly from chronic diseases. The lack of access to and take up of palliative care services of Indigenous peoples is an ongoing concern. To examine and learn from published studies on provision of culturally safe palliative care service delivery to Indigenous people in Australia, New Zealand (NZ), Canada and the United States of America (USA); and to compare Indigenous peoples' preferences, needs, opportunities and barriers to palliative care. A comprehensive search of multiple databases was undertaken. Articles were included if they were published in English from 2000 onwards and related to palliative care service delivery for Indigenous populations; papers could use quantitative or qualitative approaches. Common themes were identified using thematic synthesis. Studies were evaluated using Daly's hierarchy of evidence-for-practice in qualitative research. Of 522 articles screened, 39 were eligible for inclusion. Despite diversity in Indigenous peoples' experiences across countries, some commonalities were noted in the preferences for palliative care of Indigenous people: to die close to or at home; involvement of family; and the integration of cultural practices. Barriers identified included inaccessibility, affordability, lack of awareness of services, perceptions of palliative care, and inappropriate services. Identified models attempted to address these gaps by adopting the following strategies: community engagement and ownership; flexibility in approach; continuing education and training; a whole-of-service approach; and local partnerships among multiple agencies. Better engagement with Indigenous clients, an increase in number of palliative care patients, improved outcomes, and understanding about palliative care by patients and their families were identified as positive achievements. The results provide a comprehensive overview of identified effective practices with regards to
Matanga, Zephania; Freeze, Rick; Duchesne, Hermann; Nyachoti, Martin
A novel participatory workshop methodology was adopted in this qualitative study of the intersection of disability and diversity in the lives of individuals. Social service recipients, parents, educators, service providers, and policy makers in three Canadian cities were conjoined in daylong discussions designed to investigate if the realities of…
Full Text Available Since the second half of the 2000s, Canada and England have instituted differing reforms to address the inadequate provision and quality of mental health services in both nations. With growing evidence demonstrating the success and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy, the English reform sought to expand the delivery of psychological services through the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies program (IAPT focusing on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT. In contrast, Canadian interventions at the federal level were centred on knowledge exchange and advocacy, primarily through the Mental Health Commission of Canada. While significant improvements were made during this period to increase CBT access in England, there continues to be an insufficient availability of psychological services to meet the growing need in Canada. While a national roll-out akin to the IAPT program in England is unlikely in Canada, similar reforms could be initiated at the provincial level of government. Indeed, several provincial governments have acknowledged the need for an expansion of CBT services and, over the last decade, some have tried to make CBT techniques more widely accessible. We review the case of the Bounce Back program developed in British Columbia (BC to illustrate this potential in the Canadian context. Best practices indicate that care is needed beyond the provision of psychiatric services and pharmacotherapy alone, and the initial results of both the IAPT program and BC’s Bounce Back program strongly suggest that it is possible to provide these cost-effective services in a public system.
Kofi Wireko, Joseph; Skouby, Knud Erik
Most developing countries, especially in Africa are fighting corruption as a major barrier to development, and e-government is seen as a new way of addressing it. Besides generally being recognized as cost-efficient, e-government is thought to reduce corruption through increased transparency......, better accountability and, the disappearance of the “middle-man” in the acquisition of public services by the citizenry. This paper discusses the extent to which this has been achieved in Ghana by analyzing the implementation of e-government service of the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA......) of Ghana using the “stages of growth” mode from a sociotechnical perspective. The outcome of the analysis suggests that the e-government service implementation by DVLA is still at its basic and rudimentary stage (Catalogue stage) and continuous presence of the “middle-man,” high level of corruption, lack...
La raccolta delle rimese degli Italiani in Canada nei documento del Banco di Napoli (Servizio Emigrati: 1908-1927 =The collection of remittances of Italians in Canada in the documents of Banco di Napoli (Emigration Service: 1908-1927
Full Text Available L’emigrazione italiana verso il continente americano ha rappresentato un fenomeno dell’età contemporanea di ingenti dimensioni: la grandissima comunità italiana negli Stati Uniti è stata oggetto di numerosi approfondimenti storiografici, letterari, cinematografici, oltre a costituire ormai parte integrante della storia, dell’economia e, in genere, della società americana. Tuttavia, una parte degli emigranti scelse differenti mete: l’America Latina, il Canada. Questo articolo si sofferma sulla nascita e l’integrazione nell’economia canadese della prima comunità italiana −a inizio ‘900− che avrebbe costituito la base per flussi migratori successivi più cospicui, nel secondo dopoguerra. La ricerca, di taglio storico-economico, mette in luce soprattutto l’aspetto finanziario della vicenda, e presenta un’analisi dettagliata –basata sulla documentazione del Servizio Emigrati dell’Archivio Storico del Banco di Napoli– del servizio di raccolta e spedizione in patria delle rimesse degli emigrati da parte delle banche canadesi incaricate: un fenomeno che andò incrementandosi con la crescita della comunità italo-canadese. The Italian emigration to America was a phenomenon of huge dimensions of the contemporary age: the large Italian community in the US has been the subject of numerous insights historiographical, literary, film, besides being now an integral part of the history, of the economy and, in general, of the American society. However, part of the emigrants chose different destinations: Latin America, Canada. This article focuses on the birth and the integration in the Canadian economy of the first Italian community −at the beginning of '900− which would have formed the basis for increased levels of migratory flows, after World War II. The research, historical-economic cutting, highlights especially the financial aspect of the story, and presents a detailed analysis −based on the documentation of the Migrant
Comp, David J.
The National Security Education Program, established under the National Security Education Act of 1991, has had a post-funding service requirement in the Federal Government for undergraduate scholarship and graduate fellowship recipients since its inception. The service requirement, along with the concern that the National Security Education…
Exports of electricity from Canada to the U.S.A. are increasing in importance and have reached a new phase with proposals to build generating stations initially dedicated to export, notably a second nuclear station in New Brunswick. The author considers that the National Energy Board does a good job of protecting Canadian interests. Opposition in the United States comes from within the government or congress rather than from the power industry or public
Full Text Available Systems related to knowledge management can improve quality and efficiency of knowledge used for decision making process. Approximately 80 percent of corporate information are in textual data formats. That is why text mining is useful and important in service chain knowledge management. For example, one of the most important applications of text mining is in managing on-line source of digital documents and the analysis of internal documents. This research is based on text-based documents and textual information and interviews processed by Grounded theory. In this research clustering techniques were applied at first step. In the second step, Apriori association rules techniques for discovering and extracting the most useful association rules were applied. In other words, integration of datamining techniques was emphasized to improve the accuracy and precision of classification. Using decision tree technique for classification may result in reducing classification precision. But, the proposed method showed a significant improvement in classification precision.
Thomas G Poder
Full Text Available This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada. Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million, followed by education services ($10.7 million, recreational activities ($8.9 million, landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million, biodiversity ($1.2 million, and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million. Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.
Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie
This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.
A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management
Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members' future personnel requirements. (author)
Gulati, Sonia; Watt, Lisa; Shaw, Nicola; Sung, Lillian; Poureslami, Iraj M; Klaassen, Robert; Dix, David; Klassen, Anne F
Language is an important aspect of health literacy and plays a vital role in families' ability to access and use health information and resources. Our study explored the role of communication and language in the healthcare experiences of immigrant parents of children with cancer living in Canada. We used a grounded theory approach. Chinese and South Asian parents of children 6 months post-diagnosis were recruited from six Canadian pediatric oncology centers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Cantonese, Mandarin, Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu, or English. Questions relevant to communication included: how parents navigated the healthcare system; nature of interpreter services and translated materials; and suggestions about how to improve services. Analysis involved line-by-line, focused and theoretical coding, and constant comparison. Thirty-one (62%) parents reported no difficulty communicating with healthcare providers in English, while 13 (26%) parents struggled with English, and six (12%) parents could not communicate in English. Communication challenges influenced parents' role in caring for their child and made it difficult to learn complex medical terminology. Interpreting services were sometimes inadequate or not accessible. Parents occasionally missed out on services and resources, reported limited availability of linguistically and culturally appropriate information, and experienced a lack of social integration in the healthcare process. Language ability played an essential role in parents' healthcare experiences for pragmatic and social purposes. Language challenges can heighten systemic and socio-cultural barriers to accessing health information and resources. The provision of enhanced culturally and linguistically sensitive services may support immigrant families in their caregiving role. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs
Library Research and Statistics. Research on Libraries and Librarianship in 2002; Number of Libraries in the United States and Canada; Highlights of NCES Surveys; Library Acquisition Expenditures, 2001-2002: U.S. Public, Academic, Special, and Government Libraries; LJ Budget Report: A Precarious Holding Pattern; Price Indexes for Public and Academic Libraries; Library Buildings 2002: The Building Buck Doesn't Stop Here.
Lynch, Mary Jo; Oder, Norman; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee
Includes seven reports that discuss research on libraries and librarianship, including academic, public, and school libraries; awards and grants; number of libraries in the United States and Canada; National Center for Education Statistics results; library expenditures for public, academic, special, and government libraries; library budgets; price…
Full Text Available This paper presents collaborative tools for public participation across multiple networking sites. The tools are part of the Comuno networking site for public governance and services, which is particularly targeted at the public sector (currently in alpha testing at http://comuno.org. The Broadcast tool allows cross-posting content from Comuno to a wide variety of other networking sites, such as Facebook or Twitter. The UserFeed and TopicFeed tools build RSS feeds from content published by a specific user or under a specific topic. The LifeStream tool gathers a user’s activities across multiple networking sites in the private account section at Comuno. These tools and related aspects of the Comuno networking site are discussed and presented in the context of deliberation and opinion-forming in a Swiss bilingual city.
Wickramasinghe, Kanchana; Steele, Paul; Dawson, Andrew
pesticides and possibly by improving case management in primary care hospitals. Additional research is needed to assess if increasing infrastructure and staff at peripheral hospitals could reduce the overall cost to the government, optimize case management and reduce pressure on secondary services....... prospectively collected over a one-month period from one general hospital (2005) and five peripheral hospitals (2006) in the Anuradhapura district. Data on transfers to secondary- and tertiary-level facilities were obtained for a 6-month period from 30 peripheral hospitals. The cost of the inputs in United...... States dollars (US$), using 2005 figures, was derived from hospital accounts. FINDINGS: The average total cost of treating a self-poisoned patient at the general hospital was US$ 31.83, with ward staff input and drugs being the highest expenditure category and only US$ 0.19 of this sum related to capital...
Wickramasinghe, Kanchana; Steele, Paul; Dawson, Andrew
States dollars (US$), using 2005 figures, was derived from hospital accounts. FINDINGS: The average total cost of treating a self-poisoned patient at the general hospital was US$ 31.83, with ward staff input and drugs being the highest expenditure category and only US$ 0.19 of this sum related to capital...... pesticides and possibly by improving case management in primary care hospitals. Additional research is needed to assess if increasing infrastructure and staff at peripheral hospitals could reduce the overall cost to the government, optimize case management and reduce pressure on secondary services.......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct financial costs to the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health of treating patients after self-poisoning, particularly from pesticides, in a single district. METHODS: Data on staff, drug, laboratory and other inputs for each patient admitted for self-poisoning were...
Wastell, David; White, Sue; Broadhurst, Karen
This paper describes a detailed ethnographic study of the design problems of a major national IT system in the UK- The Integrated Children’s System (ICS). The implementation of the ICS has disrupted social work practice and engendered growing professional resistance, prompting a fundamental review of its design. Marshall McLuhan’s concept of chiasmus is a central feature of our analysis of the vicissitudes of ICS. Chiasmus refers to the tendency of any system, when pushed too far, to produce unintended contradictory effects, and is an intrinsic feature of the behaviour of complex, socio-technical systems. The dysfunctions of the ICS provide a pertinent, large-scale example. The ICS constitutes an attempt, via technological means, to re-organize child welfare services in the UK. Whilst aimed at improving child safety, the ICS has had the opposite effect of increasing the potential for error. This chiasmus has been exposed through the multi-site ethnography reported here, which shows how rigidly designed processes, enforced by IT systems, force social work professionals into unsafe investigative and recording practices which increase the risk of errors. The paper ends by proposing an alternative approach to design, based on socio-technical precepts, emphasizing the principles of minimum critical specification, user-centeredness and local autonomy.
Lavergne, M Ruth; Law, Michael R; Peterson, Sandra; Garrison, Scott; Hurley, Jeremiah; Cheng, Lucy; McGrail, Kimberlyn
We studied the effects of incentive payments to primary care physicians for the care of patients with diabetes, hypertension, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in British Columbia, Canada. We used linked administrative health data to examine monthly primary care visits, continuity of care, laboratory testing, pharmaceutical dispensing, hospitalizations, and total h ealth care spending. We examined periods two years before and two years after each incentive was introduced, and used segmented regression to assess whether there were changes in level or trend of outcome measures across all eligible patients following incentive introduction, relative to pre-intervention periods. We observed no increases in primary care visits or continuity of care after incentives were introduced. Rates of ACR testing and antihypertensive dispensing increased among patients with hypertension, but none of the other modest increases in laboratory testing or prescriptions dispensed reached statistical significance. Rates of hospitalizations for stroke and heart failure among patients with hypertension fell relative to pre-intervention patterns, while hospitalizations for COPD increased. Total hospitalizations and hospitalizations via the emergency department did not change. Health care spending increased for patients with hypertension. This large-scale incentive scheme for primary care physicians showed some positive effects for patients with hypertension, but we observe no similar changes in patient management, reductions in hospitalizations, or changes in spending for patients with diabetes and COPD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina; Nielsen, Thea
Providing adequate animal health services to smallholder farmers in developing countries has remained a challenge, in spite of various reform efforts during the past decades. The focuses of the past reforms were on market failures to decide what the public sector, the private sector, and the "third sector" (the community-based sector) should do with regard to providing animal health services. However, such frameworks have paid limited attention to the governance challenges inherent in the provision of animal health services. This paper presents a framework for analyzing institutional arrangements for providing animal health services that focus not only on market failures, but also on governance challenges, such as elite capture, and absenteeism of staff. As an analytical basis, Williamson's discriminating alignment hypothesis is applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of different institutional arrangements for animal health services in view of both market failures and governance challenges. This framework is used to generate testable hypotheses on the appropriateness of different institutional arrangements for providing animal health services, depending on context-specific circumstances. Data from Uganda and Kenya on clinical veterinary services is used to provide an empirical test of these hypotheses and to demonstrate application of Williamson's transaction cost theory to veterinary service delivery. The paper concludes that strong public sector involvement, especially in building and strengthening a synergistic relation-based referral arrangement between paraprofessionals and veterinarians is imperative in improving animal health service delivery in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Durbin, Anna; Bondy, Susan J; Durbin, Janet
We examined income source and match between recommended and received care among users of community mental health services. We conducted a secondary analysis of needs-based planning data on adults in Ontario community mental health programs from 2000 to 2002. The outcome was whether clients were severely underserved (yes/no) based on the match between level of care recommended and received. A logistic regression model investigated if income source predicted this outcome. 13% of clients were severely underserved. Over 40% were on public assistance and they had a higher risk of being severely undeserved than the others. Men were at greater risk. One aim of mental health reform is to increase access to care for vulnerable individuals. The finding that among users of community mental health services, individuals with public assistance income support are most vulnerable to being severely underserved should be considered by service planners and providers.
Full Text Available Background: Understanding the attitude toward rural health care among future medical graduates, the health workforce of the near future, is an important exercise. Objective: The objective of this study is to understand the attitude of third year MBBS students in a Government Medical College of Chhattisgarh toward rural health services. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 using a semi-open-ended questionnaire. The analysis was primarily descriptive, and nonparametric test of significance was used. Results: Of a total of 293 students, 263 (89.7% rated the current rural health services to be unsatisfactory. Nearly 44% students were willing to serve in the rural area. There was no statistical difference among willing and nonwilling 3rd year Part I students regarding willingness to join rural services but mostly not willing among 3rd year Part II. Majority (66.2% were only willing to work in rural areas for <1 year. The oft-mentioned reason was reservation or added marks in postgraduate entrance examination by more than two-third respondents, “health services for the poor” by nearly two-third respondents and followed by “gain of knowledge about rural people and their diseases.” Nearly 10% would-be medical graduates perceived no apparent benefit. The greatest perceived disadvantage was “lack of infrastructural facilities” by more than 80% of the respondents, while “lack of education opportunities for children and basic amenities for family members” was a concern for nearly three-fourth of respondents. Less than half of the respondents thought that there were no career growth opportunities in rural practice. Conclusion: If the identified perceived factors of nonwillingness are taken care off, it would lead to a drastic increase in the number of doctors joining rural service. Not only that but also this would lead to more doctors staying in their position for a longer duration than currently mandated. This would
Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987
Romain, Sandra J; Kohler, Jillian C; Young, Kue
Nunavut is an Arctic territory in Canada subject to many social, economic and health disparities in comparison to the rest of the nation. The territory is affected by health care provision challenges caused by small, geographically isolated communities where staffing shortages and weather related access barriers are common concerns. In addition to national universal healthcare, the majority of the inhabitants of Nunavut (~85 %) are Inuit beneficiaries of no-charge pharmaceuticals provided through federal and/or territorial budgetary allocations. This research examines how existing pharmaceutical administration and distribution policies and practices in Nunavut impact patient care. This grounded theory research includes document analysis and semi-structured interviews conducted in 2013/14 with patients, health care providers, administrators and policy makers in several communities in Nunavut. Thirty five informants in total participated in the study. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed with qualitative data analysis software for internal consistency and emerging themes. Four distinct themes emerge from the research that have the potential to impact patient care and which may provide direction for future policy development: 1) tensions between national versus territorial financial responsibilities influence health provider decisions that may affect patient care, 2) significant human resources are utilized in Community Health Centres to perform distribution duties associated with retail pharmacy medications, 3) large quantities of unclaimed prescription medications are suggestive of significant financial losses, suboptimal patient care and low adherence rates, and 4) the absence of a clear policy and oversight for some controlled substances, such as narcotics, leaves communities at risk for potential illegal procurement or abuse. Addressing these issues in future policy development may result in system-wide economic benefits, improved patient care
Chow, Henry P. H.
This study explored the health care service needs and the major correlates of quality of life among 127 community-dwelling elderly Chinese immigrants in a western Canadian city. Participants were interviewed in their homes by trained, bilingual interviewers employing a structured questionnaire that covered a wide range of topics including health…
Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender
In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.
Lo, Carson K; Kennedy, V Logan; Yudin, Mark H; Shapiro, Heather M; Loutfy, Mona
In the modern era of HIV care, a multitude of clinical needs have emerged; one such need is the growing sub-specialty of HIV and reproductive health. In 2007, a study surveying Canadian fertility clinics found limited access to fertility services for HIV-positive patients. Given the extensive efforts made to address this lack of services, a follow-up assessment was warranted. This study aimed to compare the access to Canadian fertility clinics and services for HIV-positive individuals and couples in 2014 and 2007. Surveys were sent to medical or laboratory directors of assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics in 2014 and results were compared to those sent in 2007. Main outcome measures included: the proportion of fertility clinics willing to provide ART to people with HIV, the specific services offered, and whether the 2012 Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines were implemented to inform practice. Across Canadian provinces, 20/34 (59%) clinics completed the survey. Ninety-five percent (19/20) of clinics accepted HIV-positive patients for consultation. Only 50% (10/20) of clinics in four provinces offered a full range of ART (defined as including in vitro fertilization [IVF]). Ten clinics (50%) in five provinces were aware that guidelines exist; half (n = 5) having read them and four reporting implementation of all the guidelines' recommendations in their practice. Compared to 2007, more clinics had implemented separate facilities (p = 0.028) to treat HIV-positive individuals, offered IVF (p = 0.013) for HIV-positive female partners, sperm washing (p = 0.033) for HIV-positive male partners, and risk reduction techniques to couples with HIV-positive men and women (p = 0.006). Access to fertility clinics for people with HIV has improved over time but is still regionally dependent and access to full ART remains limited. These findings suggest the need for advocacy targeted towards geographical-specific areas and optimizing access to
Durbin, Anna; Moineddin, Rahim; Lin, Elizabeth; Steele, Leah S; Glazier, Richard H
Objective While newcomers are often disproportionately concentrated in disadvantaged areas, little attention is given to the effects of immigrants’ postimmigration context on their mental health and care use. Intersectionality theory suggests that understanding the full impact of disadvantage requires considering the effects of interacting factors. This study assessed the inter-relationship between recent immigration status, living in deprived areas and service use for non-psychotic mental health disorders. Study design Matched population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Ontario, Canada, where healthcare use data for 1999–2012 were linked to immigration data and area-based material deprivation scores. Participants Immigrants in urban Ontario, and their age-matched and sex-matched long-term residents (a group of Canadian-born or long-term immigrants, n=501 417 pairs). Primary and secondary outcome measures For immigrants and matched long-term residents, contact with primary care, psychiatric care and hospital care (emergency department visits or inpatient admissions) for non-psychotic mental health disorders was followed for 5 years and examined using conditional logistic regression models. Intersectionality was investigated by including a material deprivation quintile by immigrant status (immigrant vs long-term resident) interaction. Results Recent immigrants in urban Ontario were more likely than long-term residents to live in most deprived quintiles (immigrants—males: 22.8%, females: 22.3%; long-term residents—both sexes: 13.1%, pimmigrants than for long-term residents. Immigrants used less mental health services than long-term residents. Conclusions This study adds to existing research by suggesting that immigrant status and deprivation have a combined effect on recent immigrants’ care use for non-psychotic mental health disorders. In settings where immigrants are over-represented in deprived areas, policymakers focused on increasing
This presentation outlines the steps in integrating of hydrogen into Canada's energy future. Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell investment is primarily driven by two government commitments - climate change commitments and innovation leadership commitments. Canada's leading hydrogen and fuel cell industry is viewed as a long-term player in meeting the above commitments. A hydrogen and fuel cell national strategy is being jointly developed to create 'Win-Wins' with industry
As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to identify the extent to which employee level and work stressors were associated with mental health problems experienced by Australian government employees, and with their use of primary care services. Methods 806 government employees aged between 40 and 44 years were surveyed as part of an epidemiological study conducted in Australia. Data collected from participants included sociodemographic attributes, physical health, psychological measures and work stressors relating to job control, job demands, job security and skills discretion at work. For 88% of these participants, information on visits made to general practitioners (GPs for the six months before and after their survey interview was obtained from health insurance records. Results When work stress and personal factors were taken into account, men at more junior levels reported better mental health, more positive affect and used fewer GP services. Women at middle-management levels obtained less GP care than their more senior counterparts. Both men and women who reported higher levels of work stress were found to have poorer mental health and well-being. The impact of such stressors on GP service use, however, differed for men and women. Conclusion Measures of work stress and not employee level affect the mental health and well-being of government employees. For governments with responsibility for funding health care services, reducing work stress experienced by their own employees offers potential benefits by improving the health of their workforce and reducing outlays for such services.
Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen; Broom, Dorothy H; Strazdins, Lyndall; D' Souza, Rennie M
This study sought to identify the extent to which employee level and work stressors were associated with mental health problems experienced by Australian government employees, and with their use of primary care services. 806 government employees aged between 40 and 44 years were surveyed as part of an epidemiological study conducted in Australia. Data collected from participants included sociodemographic attributes, physical health, psychological measures and work stressors relating to job control, job demands, job security and skills discretion at work. For 88% of these participants, information on visits made to general practitioners (GPs) for the six months before and after their survey interview was obtained from health insurance records. When work stress and personal factors were taken into account, men at more junior levels reported better mental health, more positive affect and used fewer GP services. Women at middle-management levels obtained less GP care than their more senior counterparts. Both men and women who reported higher levels of work stress were found to have poorer mental health and well-being. The impact of such stressors on GP service use, however, differed for men and women. Measures of work stress and not employee level affect the mental health and well-being of government employees. For governments with responsibility for funding health care services, reducing work stress experienced by their own employees offers potential benefits by improving the health of their workforce and reducing outlays for such services.
... Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report to Congressional Requesters Entitled ``Social Security... site. Indian Tribal Governments: --Supplemental Report on the Implementation of Tribal Economic Development Bonds Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. --Survey of Issues Requiring...
1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario
J. Craig Stone
Full Text Available Flaws in Canada’s military procurement processes are a perennial burden on both government and industry. The release of the Defence Procurement Strategy this year signified Ottawa’s inclination toward change. Among other things, the DPS promises to consult industry and outside experts earlier, create a specialist acquisition branch within Public Works & Government Services Canada and use military equipment projects to generate domestic jobs and growth. The DPS is a good start, but more focused solutions are required. The defence market has too few buyers and sellers to be truly competitive — especially in Canada. Government must share information with industry at every step, clearly and comprehensively, if Canadian firms are to win contracts fairly, keeping the economic benefits at home. A sweeping, end-to-end review of procurement is also required to identify current practices that work and others in need of improvement. Preliminary cost estimates can’t be too firm because prices shift as projects develop, and all too often, capabilities are downgraded in response. Government has to be transparent about how far into the future lifecycle costs run, or stop trying to establish them altogether, so as to avoid the consequences of embarrassingly unrealistic assessments. A separate procurement organization should also be established outside of the DND and PWGSC to make better use of the people with the skills to run complex military procurement projects. Canada’s military procurement system is not as broken as its most strident critics allege, but it is coming under increasing fiscal and policy pressures. This brief fleshes out the issues that would-be reformers should take into account and surveys procedures among allied nations to offer a roadmap for change.
Résumé : Ce chapitre traite demande quand et comment les universités ont commencé à répondre aux besoins de recherche des entreprises privées. Il étudie plus particulièrement la commercialisation des services de laboratoire par les universités pour les tests, le contrôle de la qualité et la
Crosato, Kay E; Leipert, Beverly
Informal caregiving within rural contexts in Canada is increasing. This is due in part to a number of factors related to the restructuring of the Canadian health care system, the regionalization of services to urban locations, the increased population of people 65 years and older, and the desire of this population to age within their rural homes. Most often, the informal caregiving role is assumed by rural women. Women tend to fall into the role of informal caregiver to elders because of the many societal and gender expectations and values that are present within the rural culture. The purpose of this literature review is to identify the context in which women provide care for an elder in rural Canada. Illustrating these issues will help to uncover challenges and barriers rural women face when providing care and highlight recommendations and implications for rural women caregivers and nurses employed within rural settings. Many rural women share similar caregiving experiences as urban informal caregivers, but rural women are faced with additional challenges in providing quality care for an elder. Rural women caregivers are faced with such issues as limited access to adequate and appropriate healthcare services, culturally incongruent health care, geographical distance from regionalized centers and health services, transportation challenges, and social/geographical isolation. In addition to these issues, many rural women are faced with the multiple role demands that attend being a wife, mother, caregiver and employee. The pile up of these factors leaves rural women caregivers susceptible to additional stresses and burn out, with limited resources on which to depend. Through reviewing pertinent literature, appropriate implications and recommendations can be made that may assist rural women caregivers and rural nurses. Nurses working within rural communities are in ideal settings to work collaboratively in building supportive relationships with rural women in order to
Hunter, David J; Frank, John
We offer a UK-based commentary on the recent "Perspective" published in IJHPM by Thakkar and Sullivan. We are sympathetic to the authors' call for increased funding for health service and policy research (HSPR). However, we point out that increasing that investment - in any of the three countries they compare: Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom- will ipso facto not necessarily lead to any better use of research by health system decision-makers in these settings. We cite previous authors' descriptions of the many factors that tend to make the worlds of researchers and decision-makers into "two solitudes." And we call for changes in the structure and funding of HSPR, particularly the incentives now in place for purely academic publishing, to tackle a widespread reality: most published research in HSPR, as in other applied fields of science, is never read or used by the vast majority of decision-makers, working out in the "real world. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Beaujot, R P
In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives.
Rasic, Daniel; Kisely, Steve; Langille, Donald B
We examined relationships of measures of personal importance of religion and frequency of attendance at religious services with risk of depression and risk behaviours in high school students in Cape Breton, Canada. We examined the impact of confounding and explanatory factors on these relationships. Data were drawn from self-report surveys of adolescents aged 15-19 (N=1615) at three high schools in May, 2006. We used logistic regression to assess associations of religious importance and religious service attendance with risk of depression, suicidal behaviour, binge drinking and frequent marijuana use, controlling in multivariate models for sociodemographic factors, family structure and social capital. Among females, higher personal importance of religion was associated with decreased odds of depression, suicidal ideation, drinking and marijuana use, while more religious attendance was protective for substance use behaviours and suicidal ideation. In males, both measures of religiosity were associated with decreased substance use. In multivariate models, religious importance had weak protective effects for depression and suicidal thinking in females, which were respectively modified by social trust and substance use. Attendance was protective for suicidal thinking in females, and was modified by depression. These associations were not seen in males. Attendance was consistently associated with less substance use in females, while importance was not. Importance was consistently protective for marijuana use and attendance was protective for binge drinking in males. This was a cross-sectional self-report survey and causality cannot be inferred. Protective associations of measures of religiosity are seen in Canadian adolescents, as they are elsewhere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.
This fact sheet on state laws governing the independent practice and reimbursement of services for clinical social workers contains information from questionnaires sent to the state agencies responsible for health insurance regulations and Medicaid and licensing activities. Information on Ohio, the only state which did not respond, is not…
Greer, Alissa M; Luchenski, Serena A; Amlani, Ashraf A; Lacroix, Katie; Burmeister, Charlene; Buxton, Jane A
Engaging people with drug use experience, or 'peers,' in decision-making helps to ensure harm reduction services reflect current need. There is little published on the implementation, evaluation, and effectiveness of meaningful peer engagement. This paper aims to describe and evaluate peer engagement in British Columbia from 2010-2014. A process evaluation framework specific to peer engagement was developed and used to assess progress made, lessons learned, and future opportunities under four domains: supportive environment, equitable participation, capacity building and empowerment, and improved programming and policy. The evaluation was conducted by reviewing primary and secondary qualitative data including focus groups, formal documents, and meeting minutes. Peer engagement was an iterative process that increased and improved over time as a consequence of reflexive learning. Practical ways to develop trust, redress power imbalances, and improve relationships were crosscutting themes. Lack of support, coordination, and building on existing capacity were factors that could undermine peer engagement. Peers involved across the province reviewed and provided feedback on these results. Recommendations from this evaluation can be applied to other peer engagement initiatives in decision-making settings to improve relationships between peers and professionals and to ensure programs and policies are relevant and equitable.
Lachowsky, Nathan J; Georgievski, Georgi; Rosser, Brian R Simon; MacLachlan, Duncan; Murray, James
.6%); asking for their partners’ HIV statuses (37/147, 25.2%); and serosorting (26/147, 17.7%). Few MISM reported no changes (15/147, 10.2%) and most would use these services again (98/117, 83.8%). Most MISM who did not use online outreach said they did not need these services (1074/1559, 68.89%) or were unaware of them (496/1559, 31.82%). Conclusions This is the first online outreach evaluation study of MISM in Canada. Online outreach services are a relatively new and underdeveloped area of intervention, but are a promising health promotion strategy to provide service referrals and engage diverse groups of MISM in sexual health education. PMID:26681440
Brennan, David J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Georgievski, Georgi; Rosser, Brian R Simon; MacLachlan, Duncan; Murray, James
effectively (35/147, 23.8%); getting tested for HIV (43/125, 34.4%) or STIs (42/147, 28.6%); asking for their partners' HIV statuses (37/147, 25.2%); and serosorting (26/147, 17.7%). Few MISM reported no changes (15/147, 10.2%) and most would use these services again (98/117, 83.8%). Most MISM who did not use online outreach said they did not need these services (1074/1559, 68.89%) or were unaware of them (496/1559, 31.82%). This is the first online outreach evaluation study of MISM in Canada. Online outreach services are a relatively new and underdeveloped area of intervention, but are a promising health promotion strategy to provide service referrals and engage diverse groups of MISM in sexual health education.
Hovdestad, W; Shields, M; Williams, G; Tonmyr, L
Young mothers' families are at increased risk of child maltreatment and other poor health and social outcomes. Chi-square analyses of pooled child welfare services data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003; CIS-2008) were used to compare 284 teen mothers (18 years or younger) and 800 young mothers (19-21 years) and their families with 5752 families where the mother was 22 years or older. Twenty-six percent of young mothers were 18 years or younger. Most (68% of teen-mother families and 57% of families with a young adult mother) received social assistance as their main source of income compared with 36% of families with a mother aged 22 years or older. Teen and young adult mothers were more likely than those aged 22 or older to have childhood histories of out-of-home care (31% and 23% vs. 10%) and were more likely to have risk factors such as alcohol abuse (25% and 23% vs. 18%) and few social supports (46% and 41% vs. 37%). Secondary caregivers in families with young mothers also had more risk factors. Teen and young adult mother families were more likely to have their child placed out-of-home during the investigation (29% and 27% vs. 17%). All were equally likely to be victims of domestic violence and to have mental health issues. Within this sample of high-risk families, young mothers' families were more at risk than comparison families. Mothers' youth may be a useful criterion to identify families for targeted interventions.
Full Text Available Introduction: Young mothers' families are at increased risk of child maltreatment and other poor health and social outcomes. Methods: Chi-square analyses of pooled child welfare services data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2003; CIS-2008 were used to compare 284 teen mothers (18 years or younger and 800 young mothers (19-21 years and their families with 5752 families where the mother was 22 years or older. Results: Twenty-six percent of young mothers were 18 years or younger. Most (68% of teen-mother families and 57% of families with a young adult mother received social assistance as their main source of income compared with 36% of families with a mother aged 22 years or older. Teen and young adult mothers were more likely than those aged 22 or older to have childhood histories of out-of-home care (31% and 23% vs. 10% and were more likely to have risk factors such as alcohol abuse (25% and 23% vs. 18% and few social supports (46% and 41% vs. 37%. Secondary caregivers in families with young mothers also had more risk factors. Teen and young adult mother families were more likely to have their child placed out-of-home during the investigation (29% and 27% vs. 17%. All were equally likely to be victims of domestic violence and to have mental health issues. Conclusion: Within this sample of high-risk families, young mothers' families were more at risk than comparison families. Mothers' youth may be a useful criterion to identify families for targeted interventions.
15 avr. 2016 ... Canada's Centre for International Governance Innovation and Indonesia's Centre for Strategic and International Studies organized the Indonesia-Canada Bilateral Forum, Innovation and Change: Forging the New Indonesia-Canada Partnership. IDRC co-sponsored the meeting, held May 26-27, 2015.
Philippe De Donder
Full Text Available Canada Post’s lettermail volumes are plummeting, largely due to the explosion of electronic communication, with no evident sign of stabilizing. E-commerce parcel deliveries are on the rise, but not nearly at the rate necessary to offset the decline in lettermail, and there are many private courier companies competing for that business. Meanwhile, even as the number of Canadian home addresses continues to increase, Canada Post’s plan to end the remnants of door-to-door home delivery, had to be halted in light of the new Liberal government’s promise to maintain the service. The extraordinary disruption that electronic media has caused to the model of stateowned postal services, with their mandate to provide universal delivery, may seem dire. And the threat is indeed urgent. But there are solutions to help Canada Post remain healthy in reforms that have occurred to postal systems elsewhere. This does not necessarily mean immediate privatization (although that has been achieved with some success in Europe: The burden of universal service obligations in a country as expansive and minimally populated as Canada is, could make it difficult for the government to realize appropriate value in selling Canada Post. But if the Liberal government intends to help Canada Post endure in this environment, it should allow the corporation to introduce some basic elements of competition and marketbased reform. The reality is that most Canadian mail today is sent by large firms to customers and other businesses. And most mail is delivered in urban areas, where delivery costs are lowest. But because Canada Post is required to charge identical prices to all customers, urban households essentially help subsidize the postage costs of big business and rural recipients. This need not be the case: Canada Post would be more successful if it could charge varying rates (capped at a maximum based on the type of sender, volume, and the mail’s destination. One could also
Hayden, A. C.; Brown, T. D.
Combining energy uses in a cascade can result in significant overall reductions in fuel requirements. The simplest applications for a cascade are in the recovery of waste heat from existing processes using special boilers or turbines. Specific applications of more-complex energy cascades for Canada are discussed. A combined-cycle plant at a chemical refinery in Ontario is world leader in energy efficiency. Total-energy systems for commercial buildings, such as one installed in a school in Western Canada, offer attractive energy and operating cost benefits. A cogeneration plant proposed for the National Capital Region, generating electricity as well as steam for district heating, allows the use of a low-grade fossil fuel (coal), greatly improves energy-transformation efficiency, and also utilizes an effectively renewable resource (municipal garbage). Despite the widespread availability of equipment and technology of energy cascades, the sale of steam and electricity across plant boundaries presents a barrier. More widespread use of cascades will require increased cooperation among industry, electric utilities and the various levels of government if Canada is to realize the high levels of energy efficiency potential available.
OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.
Yadav, Vikas; Kumar, Somesh; Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam; Pallipamula, Suranjeen; Memon, Parvez; Singh, Dinesh; Bhargava, Saurabh; Sunil, Greeshma Ann; Sood, Bulbul
Objective Despite provision of accreditation of private sector health providers in government-led schemes for maternity services in India, their participation has been low. This has led to an underutilisation of their presence, resources and expertise for providing quality maternal and newborn health services. This study explores the perception of various stakeholders on expectations, benefits, barriers and facilitators to private sector participation in government-led schemes—specifically Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)—for maternity service delivery. Design Narrative-based qualitative study. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with study participants. The interviews were transcribed, translated and analysed using a reflexive and inductive approach to allow codes, categories and themes to emerge from within the data. Setting Private obstetricians, government health officials and FOGSI (Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecological Societies of India) members, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh, India. Participants Eighteen purposefully selected private obstetricians from 9 cities across states of Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand, 11 government health officials and 2 FOGSI members. Results The major factors serving as barriers to participation of private practitioners in JSY—which emerged on thematic analysis—were low reimbursement amounts, delayed reimbursements, process of interaction with the government and administrative issues, previous experiences and trust deficit, lack of clarity on the accreditation process and patient-level barriers. On the other hand, factors which were facilitators to participation of private practitioners were ease of process, better communication, branding, motivation of increasing clientele as well as satisfaction of doing social service. Conclusion Factors such as financial processes and administrative delays, mistrust between the stakeholders, ambiguity in processes, lack of transparency and lack of ease in the process of
Yadav, Vikas; Kumar, Somesh; Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam; Srivastava, Ashish; Pallipamula, Suranjeen; Memon, Parvez; Singh, Dinesh; Bhargava, Saurabh; Sunil, Greeshma Ann; Sood, Bulbul
Despite provision of accreditation of private sector health providers in government-led schemes for maternity services in India, their participation has been low. This has led to an underutilisation of their presence, resources and expertise for providing quality maternal and newborn health services. This study explores the perception of various stakeholders on expectations, benefits, barriers and facilitators to private sector participation in government-led schemes-specifically Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)-for maternity service delivery. Narrative-based qualitative study. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with study participants. The interviews were transcribed, translated and analysed using a reflexive and inductive approach to allow codes, categories and themes to emerge from within the data. Private obstetricians, government health officials and FOGSI (Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecological Societies of India) members, Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh, India. Eighteen purposefully selected private obstetricians from 9 cities across states of Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand, 11 government health officials and 2 FOGSI members. The major factors serving as barriers to participation of private practitioners in JSY-which emerged on thematic analysis-were low reimbursement amounts, delayed reimbursements, process of interaction with the government and administrative issues, previous experiences and trust deficit, lack of clarity on the accreditation process and patient-level barriers. On the other hand, factors which were facilitators to participation of private practitioners were ease of process, better communication, branding, motivation of increasing clientele as well as satisfaction of doing social service. Factors such as financial processes and administrative delays, mistrust between the stakeholders, ambiguity in processes, lack of transparency and lack of ease in the process of empanelment of private sector are hindering effective public
Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.
In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in
Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.
The oil and gas industry in western Canada operates in annual and seasonal cycles with peak activity periods that require a large skilled labour force for short periods of time. This study examines why seismic and drilling activity is greatest during the first quarter of the year instead of being distributed evenly over the year. The objective of the study was to provide recommendations that would help optimize the industry cycle. The study includes an analysis of historical trends that validate the industry first quarter peaking activity. It also includes interviews with 36 industry representatives and provides insight and validation of trends. The final phase of the report includes recommendations that both industry and governments may wish to implement. The study includes financial, operational and environmental considerations. It was shown that natural gas directed drilling activity is strongly correlated with changes in natural gas prices. In the case of oil drilling activity, peak activity responds to oil prices from the prior quarter. In general, drilling and seismic costs are higher in the winter months because of increased demand for equipment and services. In addition winter drilling operations require a diesel fired boiler to generate steam. 36 refs., 2 tabs., 52 figs
The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Government of Canada's programs in alternative isotope production methods for securing supply of technetium 99m for Canadians. The supply disruptions of isotopes in 2007 and 2009/2010 caused by unplanned outages at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) reactor highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers medical isotopes, specifically Technetium 99m (Tc99m) to patients in Canada and globally. Tc99m, which is derived from its parent, molybdenum99 (Mo99) is the most widely used medical isotope for imaging, and accounts for 80 percent of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. Prior to the outage, nearly all the Mo99 produced for the world market came from five aging government owned research reactors in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and South Africa. The NRU, the largest of these, produced about 30 to 40 percent of the world supply of isotopes prior to 2009 - since its return to service in 2010, its world market share is estimated at 15 to 20%.
Riaz, Atif; Zaidi, Shehla; Khowaja, Asif Raza
A number of developing countries have contracted out public health facilities to the Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in order to improve service utilization. However, there is a paucity of in-depth qualitative information on barriers to access services as a result of contracting from service users' perspective. The objective of this study was to explore perceived barriers to utilizing Maternal and Neonatal Health (MNH) services, in health facilities contracted out by government to NGO for service provision versus in those which are managed by government (non-contracted). A community-based qualitative exploratory study was conducted between April to September 2012 at two contracted-out and four matched non-contracted primary healthcare facilities in Thatta and Chitral, rural districts of Pakistan. Using semi-structured guide, the data were collected through thirty-six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) conducted with mothers and their spouses in the catchment areas of selected facilities. Thematic analysis was performed using NVivo version 10.0 in which themes and sub-themes emerged. Key barriers reported in contracted sites included physical distance, user charges and familial influences. Whereas, poor functionality of health centres was the main barrier for non-contracted sites with other issues being comparatively less salient. Decision-making patterns for participants of both catchments were largely similar. Spouses and mother-in-laws particularly influenced the decision to utilize health facilities. Contracting out of health facility reduces supply side barriers to MNH services for the community served but distance, user charges and low awareness remain significant barriers. Contracting needs to be accompanied by measures for transportation in remote settings, oversight on user fee charges by contractor, and strong community-based behavior change strategies. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Full Text Available Background A number of developing countries have contracted out public health facilities to the Non-Government Organizations (NGOs in order to improve service utilization. However, there is a paucity of in-depth qualitative information on barriers to access services as a result of contracting from service users’ perspective. The objective of this study was to explore perceived barriers to utilizing Maternal and Neonatal Health (MNH services, in health facilities contracted out by government to NGO for service provision versus in those which are managed by government (non-contracted. Methods A community-based qualitative exploratory study was conducted between April to September 2012 at two contracted-out and four matched non-contracted primary healthcare facilities in Thatta and Chitral, rural districts of Pakistan. Using semi-structured guide, the data were collected through thirty-six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs conducted with mothers and their spouses in the catchment areas of selected facilities. Thematic analysis was performed using NVivo version 10.0 in which themes and sub-themes emerged. Results Key barriers reported in contracted sites included physical distance, user charges and familial influences. Whereas, poor functionality of health centres was the main barrier for non-contracted sites with other issues being comparatively less salient. Decision-making patterns for participants of both catchments were largely similar. Spouses and mother-in-laws particularly influenced the decision to utilize health facilities. Conclusion Contracting out of health facility reduces supply side barriers to MNH services for the community served but distance, user charges and low awareness remain significant barriers. Contracting needs to be accompanied by measures for transportation in remote settings, oversight on user fee charges by contractor, and strong communitybased behavior change strategies.
Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom
We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....
Fountain, Jane E.
Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agencys readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, manage...
.... It reviews the structure of Individual Retirement Accounts and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, which governs private-sector retirement plans and their treatment by the Internal Revenue Code...
Евгений Геннадьевич Панкратов
Full Text Available This article analyzes the existing methods of e-government systems audit, their shortcomings are examined. The approaches to improve existing techniques and adapt them to the specific characteristics of e-government systems are suggested. The paper describes the methodology, providing possibilities of integrated assessment of information systems. This methodology uses systems maturity models and can be used in the construction of e-government rankings, as well as in the audit of their implementation process. Maturity models are based on COBIT, COSO methodologies and models of e-government, developed by the relevant committee of the UN. The methodology was tested during the audit of information systems involved in the payment of temporary disability benefits. The audit was carried out during analysis of the outcome of the pilot project for the abolition of the principle of crediting payments for disability benefits.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-5
Østergaard Madsen, Christian
The Danish Digitization strategy 2011-2015 made e-government channels mandatory within multiple areas, including public benefits. Although most Danes have adopted the e-government channels, many keep using traditional channels. Moreover, some have their own ways of interpreting and using the e...... other, to claim economic benefits. The thesis positions itself within channel choice studies in the e-government research field. It contributes to this literature by studying citizens’ actual use of e-government and traditional channels in a post-adoption and mandatory setting. It applies Domestication...... theory, as a theoretical lens, and follows a social constructionist research tradition. As an Industrial PhD project, the thesis offers multiple recommendations for practitioners on how to improve the efficiency of public sector administration. The thesis’ primary recommendation is that public...
Salih Börteçine Avci
Full Text Available This study focuses on the impact of corporate governance, supply chain network governance and competencies such as sales and logistics competence on buyers’ intention to relationship continuity. A total number of 258 questionnaires were distributed to Turkish manufacturing firms, selected using cross-sectional sampling method from the Istanbul and Edirne Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Turkey. The data of survey was analysed using PLS-SEM model with WARP PLS 5.0 software. Our findings indicate that corporate governance and supply chain network governance seem to have a positive effect on sales competence and logistics competence, and together, they influence buyers’ intention to relationship continuity. In this respect, the outcomes of this study may provide valuable insights for the third-party logistics (3PL literature in terms of buyers’ intention to relationship continuity.
.... The Senior Executive Service (SES) selection process for the Department of the Navy (DON) is analyzed and compared to the SES selection process used by the Immigration and Naturalization Service...
Hanousek, Jan; Palda, F.
Roč. 57, č. 2 (2004), s. 237-252 ISSN 0023-5962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/0166 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : government services and the civic duty * taxes * Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary, Poland Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.590, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=13112464&site=ehost-live
Townsend, Anne; Cox, Susan M
Although there is extensive information about why people participate in clinical trials, studies are largely based on quantitative evidence and typically focus on single conditions. Over the last decade investigations into why people volunteer for health research have become increasingly prominent across diverse research settings, offering variable based explanations of participation patterns driven primarily by recruitment concerns. Therapeutic misconception and altruism have emerged as predominant themes in this literature on motivations to participate in health research. This paper contributes to more recent qualitative approaches to understanding how and why people come to participate in various types of health research. We focus on the experience of participating and the meanings research participation has for people within the context of their lives and their health and illness biographies. This is a qualitative exploratory study informed by grounded theory strategies. Thirty-nine participants recruited in British Columbia and Manitoba, Canada, who had taken part in a diverse range of health research studies participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants described their experiences of health research participation including motivations for volunteering. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparisons. Coding and data management was supported by Nvivo-7. A predominant theme to emerge was 'participation in health research to access health services.' Participants described research as ways of accessing: (1) Medications that offered (hope of) relief; (2) better care; (3) technologies for monitoring health or illness. Participants perceived standard medical care to be a "trial and error" process akin to research, which further blurred the boundaries between research and treatment. Our findings have implications for recruitment, informed consent, and the dichotomizing of medical/health procedures as either research or
Background Although there is extensive information about why people participate in clinical trials, studies are largely based on quantitative evidence and typically focus on single conditions. Over the last decade investigations into why people volunteer for health research have become increasingly prominent across diverse research settings, offering variable based explanations of participation patterns driven primarily by recruitment concerns. Therapeutic misconception and altruism have emerged as predominant themes in this literature on motivations to participate in health research. This paper contributes to more recent qualitative approaches to understanding how and why people come to participate in various types of health research. We focus on the experience of participating and the meanings research participation has for people within the context of their lives and their health and illness biographies. Methods This is a qualitative exploratory study informed by grounded theory strategies. Thirty-nine participants recruited in British Columbia and Manitoba, Canada, who had taken part in a diverse range of health research studies participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants described their experiences of health research participation including motivations for volunteering. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparisons. Coding and data management was supported by Nvivo-7. Results A predominant theme to emerge was 'participation in health research to access health services.’ Participants described research as ways of accessing: (1) Medications that offered (hope of) relief; (2) better care; (3) technologies for monitoring health or illness. Participants perceived standard medical care to be a “trial and error” process akin to research, which further blurred the boundaries between research and treatment. Conclusions Our findings have implications for recruitment, informed consent, and the dichotomizing of medical
Onufrak, Stephen J; Zaganjor, Hatidza; Moore, Latetia V; Carlson, Susan; Kimmons, Joel; Galuska, Deborah
The Institute of Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that government agencies use nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold and provided at their facilities. In this study, we examine written nutrition standards for foods sold or served in local government buildings or worksites among US municipalities. We used data from a 2014 national survey of 1,945 municipal governments serving populations of 1,000 or more to assess the presence of written nutrition standards, the food groups or nutrients addressed by standards, and the populations served by facilities where standards are applied. The prevalence of standards was estimated by municipality population size, rural-urban status, census region, poverty prevalence, education level, and racial/ethnic composition. Overall, 3.2% of US municipalities reported nutrition standards with greater prevalence observed among large municipalities (12.8% of municipalities with ≥50,000 people vs 2.2% of municipalities with <2,500 people, P < .001). Prevalence differed by region, and standards were most common in the West (6.6%) and least common in the Midwest (2.0%, P = .003).The most common nutrition topics addressed in standards were offering low-calorie beverages, fruits and vegetables, and free drinking water. Most standards applied to facilities serving government employees (67%) or the general public (66%), with fewer serving institutionalized populations (23%). Few municipal governments reported having written nutrition standards for foods and beverages sold in their facilities in 2014. Implementing nutrition standards for foods sold or served by local governments is a strategy for increasing access to healthier foods and beverages among municipal employees and local residents.
In my previous research, I carried out an in-depth review of the financial management of local governments and the development of their indebtedness in the period between 2004 and 2010. I sought to put the object of my research – an area that has recently come into the focus of special attention – in a different perspective. As the first step of the present study, the concept of the deficit mechanism will be extended in order to identify the factors which influence local government deficit an...
Matsumura, Kouji; Antoku, Yasuaki; Inoue, Reika; Kobayashi, Mariko; Hanada, Eisuke; Iwasaki, Yasutaka; Kumagai, Yasushi; Iwamoto, Haruya; Tsuchihashi, Saburo; Iwaki, Miho; Kira, Jun-ichi; Nose, Yoshiaki
A service information system using the Internet, which connected the various people who are related to medical treatment and nursing welfare, was constructed. An intractable neurological disease patient who lives in the Onga district, Fukuoka, Japan, and the people who are related to the service were chosen as test users in an experimental model. The communicated service information was divided into open-use data (electronic bulletin board, welfare service, medical care service, and link to private company service home page) and closed-use data (the individual patient's hysterics). The open data server was installed in an Internet service provider The open data could be accessed not only by the patient, but also by the family, information center, companies, hospitals, and nursing commodity store related to patient's nursing and medical treatment. Closed data server was installed in an information center (public health center). Only patient and information center staff can access the closed data. Patients should search and collect the service information of various medical and welfare services by themselves. Therefore, services prepared for the patient are difficult to know, and they cannot be sufficiently utilized. With the use of this information system, all usable service information became accessible, and patients could easily use it. The electronic bulletin board system (BBS) was used by patients for knowing each other or each others' family, and was used as a device for exchange of wisdom. Also, the questions for the specialist, such as doctor, dentist, teacher, physical therapist, care manager, welfare office staff member, and public health nurse, and the answers were shown on the BBS. By arranging data file, a reference of various patients in question and answer, which appeared in this BBS, was made as "advisory hints" and was added to the open data. The advisory hints became the new service information for the patients and their family. This BBS discovered
Nathwani, J.; Wallace, D.
Canada urgently requires a rigorous debate on the strategic options for ensuring a robust, reliable, and affordable supply of radioactive isotopes. Should the debate be confined to how Canada can best develop the necessary technologies solely for our own use or should Canada abandon the idea of producing its own isotope supply and any future aspirations to serve the global market? Canada's Isotope Crisis focuses on the central policy question: do we dare to try to shape the future or do we retreat into silence because we are not prepared to make the necessary investments for the future well-being of Canadians? This volume showcases pointed essays and analysis from members of the academy and individuals who have made contributions to the development of medical isotopes and pioneered their use in medical practice. It also includes commentary from those involved in the production, manufacturing, processing, and distribution of isotopes. Canada's Isotope Crisis is a multi-disciplinary effort that addresses the global dimension of isotope supply and combines expert opinions on the present and past with knowledge of the relevant government agencies and the basis for their decisions at critical junctures.
The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described. (auth)
Walker, Richard M.; Boyne, George A.
We present the first empirical assessment of the U.K. Labour government's program of public management reform. This reform program is based on rational planning, devolution and delegation, flexibility and incentives, and enhanced choice. Measures of these variables are tested against external and internal indicators of organizational performance.…
... Effective Online Business Tool to Improve Compliance Indian Tribal Governments: --Report on the General... limited seating and security requirements, attendees must call Cynthia PhillipsGrady to confirm their... 30 minutes before the meeting begins to allow sufficient time for security clearance. Photo...
textabstractCorporate scandals during the last decade fostered many Corporate Governance reports. These reports aimed at restoring checks and balances in companies to prevent fraudulent behaviour and restore public trust. One of the functions active in many organizations is Internal Audit. This
... Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter the United States without... spread of pests via wood packaging material from Canada. DATES: We will consider all comments that we...
Ovseiko, Pavel V; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Powell, Susan C; Davies, Stephen M; Buchan, Alastair M
Increasingly, health policy-makers and managers all over the world look for alternative forms of organisation and governance in order to add more value and quality to their health systems. In recent years, the central government in England mandated several cross-sector health initiatives based on collaborative governance arrangements. However, there is little empirical evidence that examines local implementation responses to such centrally-mandated collaborations. Data from the national study of Health Innovation and Education Clusters (HIECs) are used to provide comprehensive empirical evidence about the implementation of collaborative governance arrangements in cross-sector health networks in England. The study employed a mixed-methods approach, integrating both quantitative and qualitative data from a national survey of the entire population of HIEC directors (N = 17; response rate = 100%), a group discussion with 7 HIEC directors, and 15 in-depth interviews with HIEC directors and chairs. The study provides a description and analysis of local implementation responses to the central government mandate to establish HIECs. The latter represent cross-sector health networks characterised by a vague mandate with the provision of a small amount of new resources. Our findings indicate that in the case of HIECs such a mandate resulted in the creation of rather fluid and informal partnerships, which over the period of three years made partial-to-full progress on governance activities and, in most cases, did not become self-sustaining without government funding. This study has produced valuable insights into the implementation responses in HIECs and possibly other cross-sector collaborations characterised by a vague mandate with the provision of a small amount of new resources. There is little evidence that local dominant coalitions appropriated the central HIEC mandate to their own ends. On the other hand, there is evidence of interpretation and implementation of the
Full Text Available If there’s one thing Canadians agree on, it’s that Canada’s wireless industry can and should be more competitive. The federal government is on side with the policy objective of having four carriers in every region and has responded with policies that provide commercial advantages to entrants. But, the rub is that there has not been a study that actually assesses the state of competition in wireless services in Canada, until now. Those in favour of policies that will promote and sustain entry point to Canada’s high average revenue per user and low wireless penetration rate (mobile connections per capita as evidence that there is insufficient competition. The difficulty is that the facts are not consistent with this simplistic analysis. Measurements of wireless penetration are skewed toward countries that maintain the Calling Party Pays Protocol and favour pay-as-you-go plans, both of which encourage inflated user counts. Canada’s participation per capita on monthly plans and minutes of voice per capita are not outliers. Moreover, in terms of smartphone adoption and smartphone data usage, Canada is a global leader, contributing to high average revenue per user. Consistent with being world leaders in the rollout of high speed wireless networks, Canada lead its peer group in capital expenditures per subscriber in 2012: the competition of importance to Canadians is not just over price, but also over the quality of wireless networks. In any event, none of the measures typically used in international comparisons are relevant to assessing the competitiveness of Canadian wireless services. The appropriate competitive analysis recognizes two relevant features of the technology of wireless services: (i high fixed and sunk capital costs; and (ii economies of scale and scope. The implications of these are that profitability requires mark ups over short run measures of cost — high gross margins — and that there will be a natural, upper limit on
Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...
Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available It’s disclosed the features of the international government securities market during 1993 – 2012: main players are the developed countries (Western Europe, Canada, USA with the increasing role of developing countries; debt crises have the negative impact as on the development of the international government securities market, but also on the international capital market as a whole; debt crises are not a spontaneous phenomenon, and usually occur as a result of inadequate growth in GDP increasing government debt.
Sri Lanka-Canada School Library & Information Services Program Components: A School Library Study Tour (Lower Fraser Valley Mainland, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, September 22-October 3, 2001). Report.
Brown, Gerald R., Ed.
The Government of Sri Lanka entered in an agreement with IDA (International Development Association) (World Bank) to undertake the implementation of a set of reforms recommended by a number of study panels appointed for this purpose. These recommendations were classified under eight components and the General Education Project II (GEP II) was…
This report was prepared for the second annual 'gas honesty day' (May 18, 2000) in an effort to draw attention to the frustration of Canadian taxpayers with gasoline retailers and the petroleum industry for the inordinately and unjustifiably high prices for gasoline at the pump. The report points out that the public outcry is, in fact, misdirected since the largest profiteers at the pumps, the federal government, remains largely unscathed. It is alleged in the report that gas taxes are tantamount to highway robbery. Ostensibly collected for road construction and maintenance, of the almost $ 5 billion collected in 1999, only a paltry $ 194 million was returned to the provinces for roadway and highway spending. The 10-year average of federal returns to the the provinces from tax on gasoline is a meager 4.7 per cent, which fell even further to 4.1 per cent in 1998-1999. Gasoline tax revenues continue to climb, while government commitment to real roadway and highway spending continues to decline. This document attempts to shed some light on the pricing structure for gasoline. Without defending or explaining the non-tax portion of the pump price charged by Canada's oil companies, which is a task for the oil companies to undertake, the document makes a concerted effort to raise public awareness and focus public attention on government's involvement, namely that gas taxes represent on average about 50 per cent of the pump price and that the majority of the taxes collected are not put back into road and highway improvements. The Canadian Taxpayers Federation, authors of this report, expect that by focusing debate on the issue of gasoline taxes a broad support for a lowering of the overall tax burden on motorists will result. Among other things, the CTF advocates reduction of federal and provincial fuel taxes to levels commensurate with highway funding; dedication of fuel tax revenues to highway construction and maintenance; elimination of the sales and goods-and-services
This publication provides a panoramic overview of Canada's energy situation at the beginning of the 21st century, presenting the issues that drive the country's energy policy, and a look at the various technologies by which energy is produced, its sources, transformation and the infrastructure required to deliver it to the consumer. Energy consumption by sectors of the economy, energy conservation and energy conservation issues are analyzed, and details of the lines of actions designed by the federal government to achieve its energy policy objectives are explained. Appendix One provides more detail on the complex issue of climate change, while Appendix Two provides some energy-related statistics, extracted from a database of energy statistics which are also available in graphic or spreadsheet format at http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/ener2000. 12 tabs., 40 figs
Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States
Schaer, Caroline; Hahonou, Eric Komlavi
Disastrous and recurring floods have impacted West African urban centres over the last decade, accentuating already existing vulnerabilities in poor neighbourhoods. Climate change-induced changing weather patterns and more extreme weather events are only part of the explanation for this situation...... of public service delivery it also creates an environment favourable for brokers to take ownership of central processes of service delivery and for structural inequalities to be reinforced locally....
Rodriguez, Salvador; Aziz, Ayesha; Chatwin, Chris
The use of Health Information Technology (HIT) to improve healthcare service delivery is constantly increasing due to research advances in medical science and information systems. Having a fully automated process solution for a Healthcare Organization (HCO) requires a combination of organizational strategies along with a selection of technologies that facilitate the goal of improving clinical outcomes. HCOs, requires dynamic management of care capability to realize the full potential of HIT. Business Process Management (BPM) is being increasingly adopted to streamline the healthcare service delivery and management processes. Emergency Departments (EDs) provide a case in point, which require multidisciplinary resources and services to deliver effective clinical outcomes. Managed care involves the coordination of a range of services in an ED. Although fully automated processes in emergency care provide a cutting edge example of service delivery, there are many situations that require human interactions with the computerized systems; e.g. Medication Approvals, care transfer, acute patient care. This requires a coordination mechanism for all the resources, computer and human, to work side by side to provide the best care. To ensure evidence-based medical practice in ED, we have designed a Human Task Management service to model the process of coordination of ED resources based on the UK's NICE Clinical guideline for managing the care of acutely ill patients. This functionality is implemented using Java Business process Management (jBPM).
The role of family planning in achieving safe pregnancy for serodiscordant couples: commentary from the United States government's interagency task force on family planning and HIV service integration.
Mason, Jennifer; Medley, Amy; Yeiser, Sarah; Nightingale, Vienna R; Mani, Nithya; Sripipatana, Tabitha; Abutu, Andrew; Johnston, Beverly; Watts, D Heather
People living with HIV (PLHIV) have the right to exercise voluntary choices about their health, including their reproductive health. This commentary discusses the integral role that family planning (FP) plays in helping PLHIV, including those in serodiscordant relationships, achieve conception safely. The United States (US) President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is committed to meeting the reproductive health needs of PLHIV by improving their access to voluntary FP counselling and services, including prevention of unintended pregnancy and counselling for safer conception. Inclusion of preconception care and counselling (PCC) as part of routine HIV services is critical to preventing unintended pregnancies and perinatal infections among PLHIV. PLHIV not desiring a current pregnancy should be provided with information and counselling on all available FP methods and then either given the method onsite or through a facilitated referral process. PLHIV, who desire children should be offered risk reduction counselling, support for HIV status disclosure and partner testing, information on safer conception options to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the partner and the importance of adhering to antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy and breastfeeding to reduce the risk of vertical transmission to the infant. Integration of PCC, HIV and FP services at the same location is recommended to improve access to these services for PLHIV. Other considerations to be addressed include the social and structural context, the health system capacity to offer these services, and stigma and discrimination of providers. Evaluation of innovative service delivery models for delivering PCC services is needed, including provision in community-based settings. The US Government will continue to partner with local organizations, Ministries of Health, the private sector, civil society, multilateral and bilateral donors, and other key stakeholders to strengthen both the policy and
Lawford, Karen M; Giles, Audrey R; Bourgeault, Ivy L
Aboriginal peoples in Canada are comprised of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit. Health care services for First Nations who live on rural and remote reserves are mostly provided by the Government of Canada through the federal department, Health Canada. One Health Canada policy, the evacuation policy, requires all First Nations women living on rural and remote reserves to leave their communities between 36 and 38 weeks gestational age and travel to urban centres to await labour and birth. Although there are a few First Nations communities in Canada that have re-established community birthing and Aboriginal midwifery is growing, most First Nations communities are still reliant on the evacuation policy for labour and birthing services. In one Canadian province, Manitoba, First Nations women are evacuated to The Pas, Thompson, or Winnipeg but most - including all women with high-risk pregnancies - go to Winnipeg. To contribute scholarship that describes First Nations women's and community members' experiences and perspectives of Health Canada's evacuation policy in Manitoba. Applying intersectional theory to data collected through 12 semi-structured interviews with seven women and five community members (four females, one male) in Manitoba who had experienced the evacuation policy. The data were analyzed thematically, which revealed three themes: resignation, resilience, and resistance. The theme of resignation was epitomized by the quote, "Nobody has a choice." The ability to withstand and endure the evacuation policy despite poor or absent communication and loneliness informed of resilience. Resistance was demonstrated by women who questioned the necessity and requirement of evacuation for labour and birth. In one instance, resistance took the form of a planned homebirth with Aboriginal registered midwives. There is a pressing need to improve the maternity care services that First Nations women receive when they are evacuated out of their communities, particularly
This paper discusses Canada's energy policy and insights from the Canadian Energy Forums. The Energy Council of Canada held a series of Canadian Energy Forums leading up to Canada hosting the World Energy Congress Montreal 2010 in September. The Cross-Canada Forums focused upon specific regions of Canada and obtained from governments, industry and other stake holders, perspectives and planned policy actions to address present and future energy challenges.
Peters, Wayne D.; Turk, James L.
According to these authors, Canada is in need of a new science policy and strategy. The current direction of the federal government is threatening to impede scientific progress and compromise the integrity and independence of public science. This is reflected in the government's waning commitment to funding basic research; its attempts to steer…
Hu, Jie; Wang, Chong
We investigate the effectiveness of corporate governance practices in this paper, focusing on the corporate governance practices implemented by TSX listed companies in Canada. We analyze the determinants of the effectiveness of corporate governance practices and test whether corporate governance mechanisms relate to quality of accounting earnings and company performance. We obtain mixed results from regression analyses indicating that corporate governance mechanisms are not significantly rela...
Schaer, Caroline; Hahonou, Eric Komlavi
Disastrous and recurring floods have impacted West African urban centres over the last decade, accentuating already existing vulnerabilities in poor neighbourhoods. Climate change-induced changing weather patterns and more extreme weather events are only part of the explanation for this situation......, as large segments of the urban population in West Africa are not offered the public services, infrastructure and protective regulations needed in order to respond to floods. Through an empirically grounded approach, the article shows that the ability to respond to floods is formed largely outside the realm....... The article concludes that weak state capacity is not equivalent to non-existent of ungoverned collective services linked to floods. While flood response service delivery through co-production, may constitute the best available options in a context of poor resources, because of the negotiated character...
Letchworth, Janet F.
Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has decided to write its agreements under the Commercial Space Launch Act (CSLA) authority to cover a broad range of categories of support that KSC could provide to our commercial partner. Our strategy was to go through the onerous process of getting the agreement in place once and allow added specificity and final cost estimates to be documented on a separate Task Order Request (TOR). This paper is written from the implementing engineering team's perspective. It describes how we developed the processes associated with getting Government support to our emerging commercial partners, such as SpaceX and reports on our success to date.
Lal, Shalini; Gleeson, John; Malla, Ashok; Rivard, Lysanne; Joober, Ridha; Chandrasena, Ranjith; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario
eHealth interventions have the potential to address challenges related to access, service engagement, and continuity of care in the delivery of mental health services. However, the initial development and evaluation of such interventions can require substantive amounts of financial and human resource investments to bring them to scale. Therefore, it may be warranted to pay greater attention to policy, services, and research with respect to eHealth platforms that have the potential to be adapted for use across settings. Yet, limited attention has been placed on the methods and processes for adapting eHealth interventions to improve their applicability across cultural, geographical, and contextual boundaries. In this paper, we describe an adaptation framework and protocol to adapt an eHealth intervention designed to promote recovery and prevent relapses in youth receiving specialized services for first-episode psychosis. The Web-based platform, called Horyzons, was initially developed and tested in Australia and is now being prepared for evaluation in Canada. Service users and service providers from 2 specialized early intervention programs for first-episode psychosis located in different provinces will explore a beta-version of the eHealth intervention through focus group discussions and extended personal explorations to identify the need for, and content of contextual and cultural adaptations. An iterative consultation process will then take place with service providers and users to develop and assess platform adaptations in preparation for a pilot study with a live version of the platform. Data collection was completed in August 2017, and analysis and adaptation are in process. The first results of the study will be submitted for publication in 2018 and will provide preliminary insights into the acceptability of the Web-based platform (eg, perceived use and perceived usefulness) from service provider and service user perspectives. The project will also provide
Canada's Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan's goal is 'to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.' It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan's short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities
van den Boer, Yvon; Pieterson, Willem; Arendsen, Rex; van Dijk, Jan
With a growing number of available communication channels and the increasing role of other information sources, organizations are urged to rethink their service strategies. Most theories are limited to a one-dimensional focus on source or channel choice and do not fit into today's networked