WorldWideScience

Sample records for government regulation

  1. International Religion Indexes: Government Regulation, Government Favoritism, and Social Regulation of Religion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Brian J.; Finke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The study of religion is severely handicapped by a lack of adequate cross-national data. Despite the prominence of religion in international events and recent theoretical models pointing to the consequences of regulating religion, cross-national research on religion has been lacking. We strive to fill this void by developing measurement models and indexes for government regulation, government favoritism, and social regulation of religion. The indexes rely on data from an extensive coding of the 2003 International Religious Freedom Report for 196 countries and territories. Using a series of tests to evaluate the new data and indexes, we find that the measures developed are highly reliable and valid. The three indexes will allow researchers and others to measure the government’s subsidy and regulation of religion as well as the restrictions placed on religion by social and cultural forces beyond the state. PMID:25484633

  2. Regulating Corporate Governance in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    In the context of the financial and economic crisis, corporate governance and regulatory supervision failures are at the centre of public debates. Who controls the modern corporation, and why, has become one of the defining social power relations in contemporary capitalism. Regulation Corporate...... transformation of company law and corporate governance regulation. Her findings about the marketization of corporate control are at the core to a better understanding of the broader context of capitalist restructuring in the European Union....

  3. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-06-11

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  4. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation. Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity networks from electricity generation and retail, and the consumers should be able to choose their electricity retailer. This thesis analyses which new governance structures emerged in the Dutch and French electricity industries as a result of these regulations for four types of electricity transactions: the network connection, network access, balancing and switching transactions. The parties in these electricity industries did not adopt a market, but hybrid forms of governance that remained extensively regulated. The efficiency of these new governance structures cannot be explained with the attributes of the transactions, as is proposed by transaction cost economics. This thesis therefore introduces the concept of adaptation into transaction cost economics. Adaptation is the adjustment by economic actors from one governance structure to another, and is characterized by three attributes: the identity of the future contracting party, the laterality of the adaption, and the type of response in the adaptation process. These attributes explain the governance transformations and the new governance structures in the two industries. Regulation continues to play a pervasive role in the liberalized electricity industries. It influences the attributes of the transactions, the new governance structures and the adaptation process.

  5. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.K.; Iwankow, C.

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada's perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs

  6. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J K; Iwankow, C [Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada`s perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs.

  7. Performance, corporate governance and new regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Garcia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available After the adoption of the Corporate Governance Code (Code in Mexico, many companies increased financial performance and the leveraged during the following five years; we investigated the effect of how those firms improved the corporate governance practices and how was translated into better risk return company. We analyzed how and where better corporate governance practices affects performance and what was the relationship with Transparency, New Regulation and Governance Practices. Also we explored the gaps between transparency and information disclosure of Mexican Firms listed in U.S stock exchange and non U.S listed firms our findings were related to the potential growth of the Mexico Financial Market, Law and Finance.

  8. Corporate Governance in Crisis? The Politics of EU Corporate Governance Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Laura

    2012-01-01

    on the transformation of company law and corporate governance in the last decade. Here, the article illustrates how company law has become increasingly focused on the rights of shareholders, while worker rights have been relegated to the area of social policies and labour law. The study also traces the shift from...... a legislative programme centred on company law harmonisation towards a regulatory approach based on minimum requirements and mutual recognition, increasingly geared at adjusting the governance of corporations to the demands of liberalised capital markets. The second section then reflects on the current...... developments in corporate governance regulation in the context of financial and economic crisis....

  9. 14 CFR 221.61 - Rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... governing foreign air transportation. Instead of being included in the fares tariffs, the rules and regulations governing foreign air transportation required to be filed by §§ 221.20 and 221.30 and/or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules and regulations governing foreign air...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.220 - What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What regulations apply to self-governance Tribes? 1000.220 Section 1000.220 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Waiver of Regulations § 1000.220 What regulations apply to self-governance...

  11. Risk regulation and deliberation in EU administrative governance: GMO regulation and its reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the problems of EU risk regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not

  12. Economics of Philanthropic Institutions, Regulation and Governance in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Babacan, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This paper merges the literature on regulation, specifically private provision of public goods, and governance with the literature on philanthropic institutions (awqaf) in Turkey. Traditionally, awqaf (plural for the waqf) have been very functional regarding the socioeconomic realms in Muslim societies. On the other hand, the provision of public goods is one of the core discussions under the literature on regulation and governance, particularly the property rights. This paper analyzes the rol...

  13. Conceptualising Multilevel Regulation in the EU: A Legal Translation of Multilevel Governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, Nupur; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    How should we conceive of regulation in the European context? This paper attempts to answer this by developing multilevel regulation as a theoretical concept. The basic aim of the paper is to explore the difference and convergence between regulation and governance and develop multilevel governance

  14. The relation between external governance environment and over-investment: Evidence from industry regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejing Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Law and Finance theory, and the regulatory capture theory, external governance environment and industrial regulations can exert a certain influence on corporate over-investment. On the basis of qualitative analysis of the relationship between external governance environment and corporate over-investment under different industrial regulation conditions, this paper, using data of non-financial companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges in the period 2001-2010, describes the regional distribution characteristics of over-investment of Chinese listed companies, and establishes an OLS regression model of the relationship between external governance environment and over-investment. The study respectively groups data from regulated and non-regulated industries as a sample and empirically tests the OLS regression model. Results show that: from the perspective of economic geography, there exists a local spatial cluster phenomenon in the distribution of over-investment of listed companies in regulated industries, while non-regulated industries conform to no regularity. In regulated industries, external governance environment factors (level of government intervention, rule of law and financial development may exert a significant negative influence on the degree of over-investment of listed companies, but on non-regulated industries, their effect is reversed. Also, government intervention, legal enforcement and financial development are positively correlated to over-investment. Further research indicates that, compared with government intervention and financial development, legal enforcement influences over-investment the most.

  15. Government regulations and other influences on the medical use of computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishelevich, D J; Grams, R R; Mize, S G; Smith, J P

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents points brought out in a panel discussion held at the 12th Hawaiian International Conference on System Sciences, January 1979. The session was attended by approximately two dozen interested parties from various segments of the academic, government, and health care communities. The broad categories covered include the specific problems of government regulations and their impact on specific clinical information systems installed at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Dallas, opportunities in a regulated environment, problems in a regulated environment, vendor-related issues in the marketing and manufacture of computer-based information systems, rational approaches to government control, and specific issues related to medical computer science.

  16. The Implementation of Government Regulation No 19/2008 about Sub District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasoloan Nadeak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the implementation of the policy of districts in the city of Bogor; to determine and analyze the technical and operational guidelines support the tasks assigned to the sub-district and the districts in the city of Bogor; and to determine and analyze the performance of the policy after the implementation of the district and sub-district in each region. Implementation of Government Regulation Number 19 Year 2008 concerning the sub-district is a must, because of government regulation in question is the implementing regulations that apply nationally and mandated by Law No. 32 of 2004 on Regional Government. The approach used to look at the problem in question is descriptive qualitative content analysis or document analysis. Based approach is known that the City Government has implemented PP No. 19 of 2008 in the form of Mayor Regulation No. 54 Year 2010 on Main Duties, Functions, Duties Work Procedures and structural positions within the District and No. 10 of 2010 on Delegation of Authority. The implementation of policy shall include: (1 Common Tasks Government, and (2 Some tasks are delegated by the Mayor of the District Head in terms of regional autonomy.

  17. Should states and local governments regulate dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ranjani

    2016-01-01

    Federal regulation of dietary supplements in the United States is governed by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. The law has been criticized as weak and ineffective. Alarming research has emerged demonstrating that supplements may be mislabelled, contaminated, adulterated with dangerous or unknown compounds, or sold at toxic doses. As a result, the health community has raised concerns about the safety and quality of dietary supplements. Increased federal oversight is an important avenue for improving supplement safety; however, states and local governments may also pursue strategies to strengthen the overall regulatory control of dietary supplements. States and local governments have substantial experience in regulating other products that pose a risk to public health, such as tobacco. Additionally, much has been learned about the tactics the tobacco industry has employed to protect its interests. Lessons learned may be applied to new regulatory efforts aimed at improving the safety of dietary supplements at the state and local levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE REGULATION IN EMERGING COUNTRIES. CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu George BOCEAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature on corporate governance emphasizes that firms should be run in the interests of shareholders. This is a suitable objective function when markets are perfect and complete. In many emerging economies this is not the case: markets are imperfect and incomplete. Corporate governance issues are especially important in emerging countries, since these countries do not have the long-established financial institution infrastructure to deal with corporate governance issues. This paper discusses how emerging countries are dealing with corporate governance issues and the extra obstacles they have to overcome due to a lack of regulations. Romanian case study is examined.

  19. Governing childhood obesity: framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Taylor, Anne

    2009-11-01

    Childhood obesity is widely constructed as reaching epidemic proportions with consumption of fast food viewed as a contributing factor. This paper analyses media reporting of the regulation of fast food consumption to children. A media search of five Australian newspapers for the period January 2006 to June 2008 elicited 100 articles relating to the regulation of fast food advertising to children. Content and thematic analysis of the articles reveal conflicting perspectives on the role of the state; the level of accountability of the food and advertising industries; and responsibilities of parents for regulating fast food consumption in children. The Federal Government, food and advertising industries and free to air broadcasters favour industry self-regulation and personal responsibility for fast food consumption while the proponents of government regulation include consumer groups, state government health ministers, nutrition and public health academics and medical and health foundations. The regulation of fast food advertising to children is discussed in relation to ideas about governance and the public health strategies which follow from these ideas. The paper argues that all proposed solutions are indicative of a neoliberal approach to the governance of health insofar as the responsibility for regulation of food marketing is viewed as lying with industry and the regulation of lifestyle risk is viewed as an individual responsibility.

  20. Extensiveness and Effectiveness of Corporate Governance Regulations in South-Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Bobirca; Paul-Gabriel Miclaus

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to illustrate the main characteristics of the corporate governance challenge facing the countries of South-Eastern Europe (SEE) and to subsequently determine and assess the extensiveness and effectiveness of corporate governance regulations in these countries. Therefore, we start with an overview on the subject of the key problems of corporate governance in transition. We then address the issue of corporate governance measurement for SEE coun...

  1. The Role of Self-Regulation in Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Jong (Abe); D.V. DeJong; G.M.H. Mertens (Gerard); C. Wasley

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper assesses the effectiveness of self-regulation to promote investor interests. The Netherlands provides an excellent opportunity to gather such evidence for two reasons. First, characteristics of the Dutch corporate governance structure have made it the recent focus of attention

  2. Corporate Governance Convergence : Evidence from Takeover Regulation Reforms in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the research on corporate governance by predicting the effects of European takeover regulation.In particular, we investigate whether the recent reforms of takeover regulation in Europe are leading to a harmonization of the national legislations.With the help of 150

  3. Getting the right balance between regulation and governance in the non-bank financial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Mayes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the example of the collapse of the finance company sector in New Zealand in 2006-2010 to illustrate the problems with light touch regulation and a reliance on good governance to ensure financial stability. It shows two major governance failures, the first in the governance of the sector by the authorities and the second, serious failures in corporate governance by the firms involved. While a light touch may assist economic development it also increases fragility. New Zealand has now switched to a greater emphasis on regulation and to a better alignment of incentives to ensure good governance. While other countries might consider implementing aspects of its new bank resolution regime most are opting for considerably more regulation and compliance costs.

  4. Data-driven Regulation and Governance in Smart Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchordás, Sofia; Klop, Abram; Mak, Vanessa; Berlee, Anna; Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the concept of data-driven regulation and governance in the context of smart cities by describing how these urban centres harness these technologies to collect and process information about citizens, traffic, urban planning or waste production. It describes how several smart

  5. How can we characterize nano-specific soft regulation? Lessons from occupational health and safety governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichow, Aline; Dorbeck-Jung, Barbel R.; Konrad, Kornelia; Coenen, Christopher; Dijkstra, Anne; Milburn, Colin; van Lente, Harro

    2013-01-01

    Soft regulation is a widely used instrument in the governance of emerging technologies, especially in the governance of nanotechnologies. So far, evaluations on the effects of nano-specific soft regulation cannot build on a coherent and consistent typology. Characterization of soft regulation is

  6. Lagged impacts of reforms of government regulations of business on nations’ gross domestic product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arch G. Woodside

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article develops theory and examines relationships among reforms in government regulation of business, competitiveness, and national economic development in term of GDP per capita. The findings shed light on the ongoing debate of supporting versus refuting reducing/eliminating government regulations of business. Applying Campbell’s (1968, 1969 seminal contributions in examining the impact of reforms as quasi-experiments and Mill’s (1872/1973 method of differences, the study shows that the reforms in reductions and eliminations of government regulations of business help to increase national economic growth the lagged impact (e.g., 2, 3 years after introduction of reforms should be expected. Also, medium-to-large reductions in the ranking of government regulations of business (increase in competitiveness associate with increases in GDP per capita in comparison to a large increase in the ranking (decrease in competitiveness. The results also provide insights into the different regulatory environments (i.e., high vs. low government corruption and media-freedom vs. highly ethical behavior and lack of media-freedom may condition the impact of the reforms.

  7. Government regulation as an impetus for innovation: Evidence from energy performance regulation in the Dutch residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerepoot, Milou; Beerepoot, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The recent implementation of energy performance policy as a way to tackle energy consumption in the building sector in Europe draws attention to the effect it has on the development and diffusion of energy-saving innovations. According to innovation system literature, government regulation through norms and standards is one of the factors stimulating innovation. This paper concentrates on the role of stricter government regulation as an incentive to innovation in the Dutch residential building sector. Innovation in this sector is predominantly a process of applying incremental modifications to comply with new and stricter government regulations and standards. Energy performance policy in its current shape will therefore not contribute to the diffusion of really new innovation in energy techniques for residential buildings in the Netherlands. If diffusion of really new innovation is an explicit aim of energy performance policy then the European wide introduction of this scheme needs reconsideration

  8. Government regulation of gambling advertising: Replacing vice prevention with consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, M; Robbins, H

    1991-12-01

    From 1895 to 1975, federal law forbade gambling advertising by use of the mail, interstate commerce, and the broadcast media. Congress exempted state lotteries in 1975 and charitable gambling (including casino games) in 1988. However, the Supreme Court requires a significant government interest, directly applied and narrowly tailored, in order to justify a commercial speech regulation. The exemptions for private charity casino games has arguably destroyed any constitutionally defensible government interest in restricting for-profit casinos. Casinos in new gambling jurisdictions (such as Iowa or Illinois) will probably push the hardest for an exemption for all legal gambling, as they have the most to gain from the freedom to advertise. Federal regulation of gambling advertising will fall to the Federal Trade Commission under prohibitions against "unfair or deceptive" trade practices. But as State regulations are not well developed even in states that permit casino gambling, there is a pressing need for new research to review state laws regulating gambling advertising and to propose a model statute.

  9. Government regulation of business in a changing institutional barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova I.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the domestic experience in government regulation of business in a changing institutional barrier.Compared the degree of economic freedom in Ukraine. The emphasis is on the need to develop a national strategy of institutional development of domestic entrepreneurship.

  10. Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Zur staatlichen Marktregulierung in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltwedel, R; Busch, A; Gross, A; Laaser, C F

    1987-01-01

    The major part of the expertise 'Deregulation Potentials in the Federal Republic of Germany' - theoretical fundaments, justifying analysis of the regulation and the proposals relating to deregulation - was published as 'Kieler Studie No. 202'. However, the synopsis of the relevant legal prescriptions of the regulation systems, the historical development courses of regulations, analytic excursions and statistical information about the structures of the markets could not be included in the investigation. This gap is now closed by the special issue 'Government-guided market regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany'. Among others, it deals with the regulation of the supplying industry: it shows the structures of the most important sections and the market-regulating acts of the government: competition-restricting instruments, price regulation by the government and the restraint to contract. (orig./HSCH).

  11. 75 FR 33734 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...) The Director publishes a special edition of the Federal Register called ``The United States Government... its regulations the requirement that the United States Government Manual (Manual) be published and... INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy P. Bunk, Director of Legal Affairs and Policy, Office of the Federal Register, at...

  12. 75 FR 38675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-011, Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... contractor to use the property on an independent research and development (IR&D) program rent free, if-- (a... Government for all property acquired or fabricated by the Contractor in accordance with the financing...-0029; Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL41 Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-011, Government Property...

  13. The Use of Government Funding and Taxing Power to Regulate Religious Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Kline; Esbeck, Carl H.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the concept of governmental funding of private schools and whether this would be the means whereby unwanted and obstrusive regulations would be applied to those schools. Government funding in Spain, Malta, and France was the mechanism by which those governments extended control over church-related schools. (MD)

  14. Private governance, public purpose? Assessing transparency and accountability in self-regulation of food advertising to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Belinda

    2013-06-01

    Reducing non-core food advertising to children is an important priority in strategies to address childhood obesity. Public health researchers argue for government intervention on the basis that food industry self-regulation is ineffective; however, the industry contends that the existing voluntary scheme adequately addresses community concerns. This paper examines the operation of two self-regulatory initiatives governing food advertising to children in Australia, in order to determine whether these regulatory processes foster transparent and accountable self-regulation. The paper concludes that while both codes appear to establish transparency and accountability mechanisms, they do not provide for meaningful stakeholder participation in the self-regulatory scheme. Accordingly, food industry self-regulation is unlikely to reflect public health concerns or to be perceived as a legitimate form of governance by external stakeholders. If industry regulation is to remain a feasible alternative to statutory regulation, there is a strong argument for strengthening government oversight and implementing a co-regulatory scheme.

  15. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Government Regulation and Enterprise Emission from the Perspective of Environmental Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yazong

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the upcoming implementation of the environmental tax policy, there is a need for a focus on the relationship between government regulation and corporate emissions. To achieve the real effect of environmental tax policy, government need to regulate the illegal emissions of enterprises. Based on the hypothesis of bounded rationality, this paper analyses the strategic set of government regulators and polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy. By using the evolutionary game model, the utility function and payoff matrix of the both sides are constructed, and the evolutionary analysis and strategy adjustment of the environmental governance target and the actual profit of the stakeholders are carried out. Thus, the wrong behaviours could be corrected so that the equilibrium of the evolutionary system can be achieved gradually, which could also get the evolutionary stable strategies of the government and the polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy.

  16. 25 CFR 1000.429 - What statutes and regulations govern resolution of disputes concerning signed AFAs or compacts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.429 What statutes and regulations govern resolution of disputes concerning signed AFAs or... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What statutes and regulations govern resolution of...

  17. 78 FR 30233 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Support Contractor Access to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Number 0750-AG38 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Support Contractor Access... Government support contractors to have access to proprietary technical data belonging to prime contractors and other third parties, provided that the technical data owner may require the support contractor to...

  18. Recent hospital charity care controversies highlight ambiguities and outdated features of government regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKelvie, Charles; Apolskis, Michael; Unland, James J

    2005-01-01

    For years the hospital industry has been embroiled in controversies involving pricing, charity care, and collection practices. Unfortunately, Medicare regulations and policies governing hospital charge-setting and collection practices have not helped bring much clarity to the situation, nor has related CMS and OIG guidance. Coordinated effort by hospitals and regulatory bodies can help clarify unclear government regulation of charity care, pricing, and collections and end potentially destructive controversies that sap valuable time, energy, and resources from efforts addressing much graver long-term threats to hospital viability.

  19. Government regulation to promote healthy food environments--a view from inside state governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shill, J; Mavoa, H; Allender, S; Lawrence, M; Sacks, G; Peeters, A; Crammond, B; Swinburn, B

    2012-02-01

    Food policy interventions are an important component of obesity-prevention strategies and can potentially drive positive changes in obesogenic environments. This study sought to identify regulatory interventions targeting the food environment, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state government level. In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organizations (n =45) to examine participants' (i) suggestions for regulatory interventions for healthier food environments and (ii) support for pre-selected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Data were analysed using thematic and constant comparative analyses. Interventions commonly suggested by participants were regulating unhealthy food marketing; limiting the density of fast food outlets; pricing reforms to decrease fruit/vegetable prices and increase unhealthy food prices; and improved food labelling. The most commonly supported pre-selected interventions were related to food marketing and service. Primary production and retail sector interventions were least supported. The dominant themes were the need for whole-of-government and collaborative approaches; the influence of the food industry; conflicting policies/agenda; regulatory challenges; the need for evidence of effectiveness; and economic disincentives. While interventions such as public sector healthy food service policies were supported by participants, marketing restrictions and fiscal interventions face substantial barriers including a push for deregulation and private sector opposition. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. The role of government and regulation in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Otis W

    2017-08-01

    The world population is ageing and increasing in size. As a result, the numbers of people diagnosed with and dying of cancer are increasing. Cancer is also a growing problem in developing countries. Government, be it local, state, provincial, national, or even a union of nations, has clear roles in the control of cancer. It is widely appreciated that much of the research that has defined the causes and treatment of cancer was, and is, government funded. Less appreciated, the body of work about how to control cancer shows the importance of an environment that encourages individuals to adopt healthy behaviours, and government has a vitally important role. Through regulation, education, and support programmes, governments can create an environment in which tobacco use is reduced and citizens maintain good levels of physical activity, healthy bodyweight, and good nutrition. Cancer prevention and the creation of a culture of health is an essential mission of government, beyond that of the traditional health-focused departments such as health ministries; it is in the domain of governmental agencies involved in environmental protection, occupational safety, and transportation. Cancer prevention and health promotion are also in the realm of the zoning board, the board of education, and the board of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Normative Regulation of Anti-Corruption in the System of Local Self-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya F. Kupcha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work authors attempt to analyze normative acts aimed at regulating relations in the sphere of counteracting corruption at the level of local self-government. In the conclusion authors summarize that despite criticism, in the Russian Federation, a system of regulatory regulation to counteract corruption (including at the local level is formed. Further improvements of this system should be made in the legal regulation at the local level.

  2. 75 FR 29917 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... governing migratory bird rehabilitation in the United States. Before creation of those regulations... language in the final paragraph of the 2003 regulations dealt with the transition of special purpose permit... regulations is to remove all of the language under paragraph (i). This change is simply a ministerial...

  3. The European Energy Regulators Group. A panacea for good governance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses how the European Energy Regulators Group (ERGEG) may promote good governance in the EU. It is concluded that the ERGEG to some extent can stimulate national regulatory authorities into implementing European law more consistently, effectively and proportionally. Since the European Commission has a special responsibility as regards the functioning of the ERGEG, the future role of the ERGEG will depend on whether or not the Commission will leave it some autonomy to develop its advisory-, benchmarking- and coordinating role. Since the European legal framework does not include clear procedural good governance norms, there is a danger that the interests of the market parties are inadequately represented and protected at the European level. Although the ERGEG cannot take legally binding decisions, it is argued that its decisions or common standards may have legal effects. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that the European legal framework regulates the right of access to ERGEG documents, the exchange and use of information within the ERGEG, the protection of confidential information, the right of participation and the involvement of the European Parliament [nl

  4. Governance and Institutional Autonomy: Governing and Governance in Portuguese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at looking at governance instruments beyond managerial technicality. It intends to do so by analysing the impact of governance reforms on the universities autonomy assumed as a regulation instrument to politically steer systems and institutions. The regulation efforts undertaken at the European and national levels reflect a trend…

  5. Effect of Government Regulation on the Evolution of Sports Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rick; Kalman, Douglas

    The sports nutrition segment of the dietary supplement industry enjoyed nearly a decade of unfettered growth under federal legislation passed in 1994. A series of breakthroughs in the dietary supplement field led to the development and marketing of innovative products designed to enhance performance, build muscle, or lose excess fat. As the popularity of these products soared and evolved into a multi-billion dollar industry, the sports nutrition supplement market drew the attention of federal and state regulatory bodies and sports antidoping authorities. Growing concerns over potential health risks and unfair athletic advantages have spurred government regulators and legislators to heighten the scrutiny of this market, leading to recent legislative amendments and increased government enforcement action.

  6. Comparison of risk management regulation from a corporate governance perspective within the German and united states legal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remmer Sassen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is one of the main corporate governance components or management tasks. This paper details a comparison of risk management regulation from a corporate governance perspective of listed stock corporations in Germany and the United States (U.S.. Obviously, there are differences and commonalities between the national legal norms and the regulatory levels of risk management in both countries. The comparison helps to understand different traditions and practices in terms of how significant corporate governance rules are for risk management. Therefore, this article intends to inspire future research on the regulation of risk management across different regions and explore the relevance of national interests in the regulation of risk management. A principal finding of the comparison is that the U.S. corporate governance system seems to be more strongly regulated than the German system. This results from the powerful and coordinating role of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC. Thus, the seemingly more liberal system of non-binding standards in the U.S. has a higher impact on the regulation of risk management than in Germany.

  7. Governance strategies for living technologies: bridging the gap between stimulating and regulating technoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Est, Rinie; Stemerding, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The life sciences present a politically and ethically sensitive area of technology development. NBIC convergence-the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and cognitive technology-presents an increased interaction between the biological and physical sciences. As a result the bio-debate is no longer dominated by biotechnology, but driven by NBIC convergence. NBIC convergence enables two bioengineering megatrends: "biology becoming technology" and "technology becoming biology." The notion of living technologies captures the latter megatrend. Accordingly, living technology presents a politically and ethically sensitive area. This implies that governments sooner or later are faced with the challenge of both promoting and regulating the development of living technology. This article describes four current political models to deal with innovation promotion and risk regulation. Based on two specific developments in the field of living technologies-(psycho)physiological computing and synthetic biology-we reflect on appropriate governance strategies for living technologies. We conclude that recent pleas for anticipatory and deliberative governance tend to neglect the need for anticipatory regulation as a key factor in guiding the development of the life sciences from a societal perspective. In particular, when it is expected that a certain living technology will radically challenge current regulatory systems, one should opt for just such a more active biopolitical approach.

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility or Government Regulation? Evidence on Oil Spill Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedrzej G. Frynas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major oil spills normally occur from oil pipelines and oil tankers that are under operational control of companies, namely, oil companies and tanker owners. There are two generic responses for changing the behavior of companies with regard to oil spill prevention: mandatory government regulation or voluntary initiatives often pursued under the banner of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Here we investigate to what extent voluntary CSR initiatives can be effective in oil spill prevention. A global perspective on voluntary mechanisms is taken by looking at the progress of 20 oil and gas firms from around the world toward oil spill prevention, using the companies' 2010 sustainability reports for self-reported oil spill information. The analysis includes ten oil companies from OECD countries (including Exxon and Shell, among others and 10 oil companies from non-OECD countries (including Brazil's Petrobras and Indian Oil, among others. The study finds that oil spill prevention has generally improved over recent decades. Government regulation played a significant part in these improvements whereas it is less clear to what extent CSR played a significant part in these improvements. Some of CSR's key limitations are highlighted. It is not suggested that CSR should be abandoned; however, new hybrid forms of regulation that combine voluntary and mandatory elements are advocated.

  9. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Inclusion as a disabled child in the employee's annuity rate under the social security overall minimum. (2... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a...

  10. The Regulation and Improvement of Suburban Landless Peasants’ Community in the Charge of the Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Suburban landless peasants’ communities are both the transfiguration in the passive urbanization and transformation in the leading of governments. The specificity of suburban landless peasants community-generated determines the specificity in governing. The deficiency of well governance mechanisms, the scarcity of citizen spirit, the low level of self-organization and the deficiency of social capital in suburban landless peasants’ community in the charge of the government bring about a serious of developing dilemma. The regulation and improvement of government should embark on reconstructive governance mechanisms, straighten out organizational system; Cultivating citizen spirit, promoting public participation; Remodeling social capital, tamping autonomy foundation.

  11. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-01-01

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  12. The regulation of diffuse pollution in the European Union: science, governance and water resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hendry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing diffuse pollution is a perpetuating problem for environmental regulators. This paper will consider novel ways to regulate its impacts on the aquatic environment, with particular reference to rural landuse. It will look at the relationship between science, policy and law, and the contributions of integrated water resources management and governance at regional, national and river basin scales. Regulatory frameworks for water in the European Union will be explored, along with their implementation nationally in Scotland and at catchment scale in the Tweed river basin. It will conclude that regulation has a role to play, but that it is necessary to take a visionary holistic and integrated approach, nesting regulation within a governance framework that involves all stakeholders and takes full account of developing science and socio-economic drivers to meet environmental objectives.

  13. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  14. Linear Modeling and Regulation Quality Analysis for Hydro-Turbine Governing System with an Open Tailrace Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the state–space method (SSM, a novel linear mathematical model of the unsteady flow for the tailrace system with an open channel is proposed. This novel model is an elastic linearized model of water hammer. The validity of the model has been verified by several examples of numerical simulation, which are based on a finite difference technique. Then, the complete mathematical model for the hydro-turbine governing system of hydropower station with an open tailrace channel, which is used for simulating the transient process of the hydro-turbine governing system under load disturbance, is established by combining the models of hydro-turbine, generator, governor and open tailrace channel. Finally, according to the complete model, the regulation quality for hydro-turbine governing system with an open tailrace channel under load disturbance is studied, and the effects of open tailrace channel and tailrace surge tank on regulation quality are analyzed. The results indicate that: The open tailrace channel has a strong influence on the regulation quality by observing the water level fluctuations in tailrace surge tank. The surge shows a piecewise periodical change along with the variation in the length of an open channel. The open tailrace channel can be used to improve the regulation quality of hydro-turbine governing system.

  15. Telecommunications in South Africa: Governance of who is actually regulating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L-F Pau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Republic of South Africa telecommunications market is a maturing one with a large customer base to serve, it has been repeatedly been observed over the past few years that many good intentions were formulated in the regulatory sphere with sometimes poor outcomes and unclear governance. A number of surprising observations have been made on the outcomes, the delays or other process related events linked to regulatory measures. The paper thus researches first, from a governance point of view, who is actually regulating the telecommunications industry; it identifies next opportunities and bottlenecks whereby a change might happen to reach the expected outcomes. A political economy methodology is taken, backed up by extensive field work over 2010 and 2011, leading to a web of conjectures providing answers to the first question, based on an extensive analysis of key stakeholders goals, positions and interactions. Finally, a number of measures are proposed to improve the governance, regulatory impact and efficiency, and evolve the South African telecommunications eco-system.

  16. What governs governance, and how does it evolve? The sociology of governance-in-action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nick J; Ward, Katie J

    2008-09-01

    Governance addresses a wide range of issues including social, economic and political continuity, security and integrity, individual and collective safety and the liberty and rights to self-actualization of citizens. Questions to be answered include how governance can be achieved and sustained within a social context imbued with cultural values and in which power is distributed unevenly and dynamically, and how governance impacts on individuals and institutions. Drawing on Gramscian notions of hegemony and consent, and recent political science literatures on regulation and meta-regulation, this paper develops a sociological model of governance that emphasizes a dynamic and responsive governance in action. Empirical data from a study of pharmaceutical governance is used to show how multiple institutions and actors are involved in sustaining effective governance. The model addresses issues of how governance is sustained in the face of change, why governance of practices varies from setting to setting, and how governance is achieved without legislation.

  17. China's Insurance Regulatory Reform, Corporate Governance Behavior and Insurers' Governance Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huicong; Zhang, Hongliang; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Qiu, Aichao

    2017-10-17

    External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China's insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010-2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China's shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China's insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China's insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector.

  18. The Role of Self-Regulation in Corporate Governance : Evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; DeJong, D.V.; Mertens, G.M.H.; Wasley, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gather evidence on the success of market forces in promoting investor interests through self-regulation.Corporate governance is a complex mechanism design problem that is both economic and legal/political based.As such there is great interest in whether (and when)

  19. 75 FR 38765 - Domestic Origin Verification System Questionnaire and Regulations Governing Inspection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ..., facility assessment services, certifications of quantity and quality, import product inspections, and... control number. These include export certification, inspection of section 8e import products, and...] Domestic Origin Verification System Questionnaire and Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification of...

  20. TERRITORIAL REGULATION OF THE DUTCH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT IN NEDERLANDS NIEUW GUINEA 1898-1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmaida Sinaga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed about the regulation of the Dutch colonial administration for its expansion in Nederlands Nieuw Guinea (NNG between 1898 and 1962.  The arrangement covered the expansion area, uniting and abolition of the government. This process began with the exploration activities, construction of infrastructure facilities and transportation/communication and recruitment of government officials. Construction of transportation and communication made local economy was increase. Government officials who stationed in the region must meet the specific requirements such as familiar with the area and experienced in their duties as well as having a high spirit of devotion. Territorial structuring was based on consideration of geographic/transportation access, culture, economic and political values of such area. Government policy on regional growth aims to shorten the span of colonial government control over territory and population of NNG and government's services that closer to the territory’s population.Key words: Territorial regulation, expansion, NNG  Penelitian ini mengkaji tentang peraturan pemerintahan kolonial Belanda atas segala bentuk ekspansi di Nederlands Nieuw Guinea (NNG pada tahun 1898 dan 1962. Peraturan ini meliputi perluasan wilayah, menyatukan dan penghapusan pemerintah. Proses ini dimulai dengan kegiatan eksplorasi, pembangunan fasilitas infrastruktur dan transportasi / komunikasi dan perekrutan pejabat pemerintah. Pembangunan transportasi dan komunikasi membuat perekonomian lokal meningkat. Pejabat pemerintah yang ditempatkan di wilayah tersebut harus memenuhi persyaratan tertentu seperti akrab dengan daerah dan berpengalaman dalam tugas-tugas mereka serta memiliki semangat  pengabdian tinggi. Penataan wilayah didasarkan pada pertimbangan geografis / akses transportasi, budaya, ekonomi dan nilai-nilai politik daerah tersebut. Kebijakan pemerintah mengenai pertumbuhan regional bertujuan untuk memperpendek

  1. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  2. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  3. China’s Insurance Regulatory Reform, Corporate Governance Behavior and Insurers’ Governance Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Qiu, Aichao

    2017-01-01

    External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China’s insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010–2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China’s shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China’s insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China’s insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector. PMID:29039781

  4. China’s Insurance Regulatory Reform, Corporate Governance Behavior and Insurers’ Governance Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huicong Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China’s insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010–2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China’s shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China’s insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China’s insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector.

  5. An analysis of potential barriers and enablers to regulating the television marketing of unhealthy foods to children at the state government level in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Alexandra; Shill, Jane; Swinburn, Boyd; Mavoa, Helen; Lawrence, Mark; Loff, Bebe; Crammond, Bradley; Sacks, Gary; Allender, Steven; Peeters, Anna

    2012-12-28

    In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22) were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of unhealthy food to children should ideally occur under the direction

  6. An analysis of potential barriers and enablers to regulating the television marketing of unhealthy foods to children at the state government level in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia there have been many calls for government action to halt the effects of unhealthy food marketing on children's health, yet implementation has not occurred. The attitudes of those involved in the policy-making process towards regulatory intervention governing unhealthy food marketing are not well understood. The objective of this research was to understand the perceptions of senior representatives from Australian state and territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations regarding the feasibility of state-level government regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children in Australia. Method Data from in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior representatives from state and territory government departments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n=22 were analysed to determine participants' views about regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children at the state government level. Data were analysed using content and thematic analyses. Results Regulation of television marketing of unhealthy food to children was supported as a strategy for obesity prevention. Barriers to implementing regulation at the state level were: the perception that regulation of television advertising is a Commonwealth, not state/territory, responsibility; the power of the food industry and; the need for clear evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of regulation. Evidence of community support for regulation was also cited as an important factor in determining feasibility. Conclusions The regulation of unhealthy food marketing to children is perceived to be a feasible strategy for obesity prevention however barriers to implementation at the state level exist. Those involved in state-level policy making generally indicated a preference for Commonwealth-led regulation. This research suggests that implementation of regulation of the television marketing of

  7. 78 FR 62362 - Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ...] Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic Tariff... under the Commission's jurisdiction pursuant to the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 or the Natural Gas Act.\\1\\ Take notice that, effective November 12, 2013, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing...

  8. Do regulators pay attention? An assessment of IT governance implementation in systemically important banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sepahvand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The large size and complexity of Information Technology systems in systematically important banks raise the need for creating an IT governance architecture that could make IT strategy aligned with business strategy and delivers value while it effectively identifies and manages IT risk. This study traces the links between IT governance and two more applied risk management frameworks, COSO and BCBS’s principles for managing IT risk. Then it argues due to the magnitude of potential losses caused by any weakness in IT governance in D-SIBs, the assessment of IT governance in these banks should be one of the main concerns of local regulators and supervisors. As a case study, it assesses the relative rank of D-SIBs in Iranian banking system to see where these banks would stand in an ordered list of the banks including both private and public banks in terms of IT governance implementation. The application of the Fuzzy AHP technique shows that IT governance practice in Iranian D-SIBs is not as good as the private banks while it outperforms some state-owned banks.

  9. Analysis of combinatorial regulation: scaling of partnerships between regulators with the number of governed targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Bhardwaj

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Through combinatorial regulation, regulators partner with each other to control common targets and this allows a small number of regulators to govern many targets. One interesting question is that given this combinatorial regulation, how does the number of regulators scale with the number of targets? Here, we address this question by building and analyzing co-regulation (co-transcription and co-phosphorylation networks that describe partnerships between regulators controlling common genes. We carry out analyses across five diverse species: Escherichia coli to human. These reveal many properties of partnership networks, such as the absence of a classical power-law degree distribution despite the existence of nodes with many partners. We also find that the number of co-regulatory partnerships follows an exponential saturation curve in relation to the number of targets. (For E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, only the beginning linear part of this curve is evident due to arrangement of genes into operons. To gain intuition into the saturation process, we relate the biological regulation to more commonplace social contexts where a small number of individuals can form an intricate web of connections on the internet. Indeed, we find that the size of partnership networks saturates even as the complexity of their output increases. We also present a variety of models to account for the saturation phenomenon. In particular, we develop a simple analytical model to show how new partnerships are acquired with an increasing number of target genes; with certain assumptions, it reproduces the observed saturation. Then, we build a more general simulation of network growth and find agreement with a wide range of real networks. Finally, we perform various down-sampling calculations on the observed data to illustrate the robustness of our conclusions.

  10. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  11. 75 FR 54527 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Rights in the Design of DoD Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...-AG50 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Rights in the Design of DoD Vessels.... Section 825 clarifies the Government's rights in technical data in the designs of a DoD vessel, boat... cite DFARS Case 2008-D039. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background This final rule implements section...

  12. Risk regulation, GMOs, and the challenges to deliberation in EU governance: politicisation and scientification as co-producing trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.; Joerges, C.; Glinski, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problems of EU risk regulation of agricultural biotechnology through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not conductive to

  13. Risk regulation, GMOs, and the challenges to deliberation in EU governance - politicization and scientification as co-producing trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problems of EU risk regulation of agricultural biotechnology through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not conductive to

  14. Governance of nanotechnology and nanomaterials: principles, regulation, and renegotiating the social contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, George A

    2009-01-01

    Good governance for nanotechnology and nanomaterials is predicated on principles of general good governance. This paper discusses on what lessons we can learn from the oversight of past emerging technologies in formulating these principles. Nanotechnology provides us a valuable opportunity to apply these lessons and a duty to avoid repeating past mistakes. To do that will require mandatory regulation, grounded in precaution, that takes into account the uniqueness of nanomaterials. Moreover, this policy dialogue is not taking place in a vacuum. In applying the lessons of the past, nanotechnology provides a window to renegotiate our public's social contract on chemicals, health, the environment, and risks. Emerging technologies illuminate structural weaknesses, providing a crucial chance to ameliorate lingering regulatory inadequacies and provide much needed updates of existing laws.

  15. AMPK governs lineage specification through Tfeb-dependent regulation of lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan P; Kamireddy, Anwesh; Van Nostrand, Jeanine L; Eichner, Lillian J; Shokhirev, Maxim Nikolaievich; Dayn, Yelena; Shaw, Reuben J

    2016-03-01

    Faithful execution of developmental programs relies on the acquisition of unique cell identities from pluripotent progenitors, a process governed by combinatorial inputs from numerous signaling cascades that ultimately dictate lineage-specific transcriptional outputs. Despite growing evidence that metabolism is integrated with many molecular networks, how pathways that control energy homeostasis may affect cell fate decisions is largely unknown. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central metabolic regulator, plays critical roles in lineage specification. Although AMPK-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were normal in the pluripotent state, these cells displayed profound defects upon differentiation, failing to generate chimeric embryos and preferentially adopting an ectodermal fate at the expense of the endoderm during embryoid body (EB) formation. AMPK(-/-) EBs exhibited reduced levels of Tfeb, a master transcriptional regulator of lysosomes, leading to diminished endolysosomal function. Remarkably, genetic loss of Tfeb also yielded endodermal defects, while AMPK-null ESCs overexpressing this transcription factor normalized their differential potential, revealing an intimate connection between Tfeb/lysosomes and germ layer specification. The compromised endolysosomal system resulting from AMPK or Tfeb inactivation blunted Wnt signaling, while up-regulating this pathway restored expression of endodermal markers. Collectively, these results uncover the AMPK pathway as a novel regulator of cell fate determination during differentiation. © 2016 Young et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. 75 FR 40754 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 614 RIN 3145-AA53 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), National Science Foundation (NSF). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The National Science Board (NSB) National Science Foundation...

  17. The meta-governance of organic seed regulation in the USA, European Union and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, Erica; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith; Jiggins, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Seed governance in agriculture is a challenging global issue. This paper analyses the evolution of organic seed regulation in the USA, the European Union and Mexico as model cases of how these challenges are being addressed, based on a study conducted between 2007 and 2014. It highlights how

  18. Transparency and Accountability of Government Regulations as an Integral Part of Social Responsibility Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Frolova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author's view on the role of government in promoting social responsibility of business and the individual is described. The main features of the socio-economic situation in Russia today are presented (horizontal and vertical mobility of the population, a small number of organizations and the extra-centralized public authorities, the predominance of personal relations between economic agents. The necessity of increasing the role of individuals and businesses in the social system is substantiated and the basic directions of activity are suggested (prosocial preferences, interpersonal trust, redistribution of social responsibility. Transparency and accountability of public authorities are very powerful tool to improve the quality of governance and it is one of the important conditions for the social responsibility, as well as to economic performance in modern Russia. The legitimacy of government is a multidimensional issue. And if we take into account the Russian features it is necessary to point out public control and enforcement, quality of formal institutions, and effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms. Also governance is important to enhance quality of regulation.

  19. Oil on the water: Government regulation of a carcinogen in the twentieth-century Lancashire cotton spinning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David; Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In the Lancashire cotton textile industry, mule spinners were prone to a chronic and sometimes fatal skin cancer (often affecting the groin). The disease had reached epidemic proportions by the 1920s, which necessitated action by the government, employers, and trade unions. In contrast to previous accounts, this article focuses on the government's reaction to mule spinners' cancer. Using official records in the National Archives, the slow introduction of health and safety measures by the government is explored in detail. Although obstructionism by the employers played a key role, one of the reasons for government inaction was the ambiguity of scientific research on engineering oils. On the other hand, prolonged scientific research suited a government policy that was framed around self regulation - a policy that had proved largely ineffective by the 1950s.

  20. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  1. 76 FR 17762 - Regulations Governing the Performance of Actuarial Services Under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... receipt of a bachelor's or higher degree in either actuarial mathematics or another area which include at..., actuarial mathematics, and other areas determined by the Joint Board. These regulations provide that an... Governing the Performance of Actuarial Services Under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974...

  2. A Corporate Governance Index : Convergence and Diversity of National Corporate Governance Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of appropriate corporate governance framework has been a focal point of recent reforms in many countries. This study provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of corporate governance regulatory systems and their evolution over the last 15 years in 30 European countries and the US. It

  3. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  4. Performance Government: Activating and Regulating the Self-Governing Capacities of Teachers and School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses "performance government" as an emergent form of rule in advanced liberal democracies. It discloses how teachers and school leaders in Australia are being governed by the practices of performance government which centre on the recently established Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and…

  5. Reconsidering the relevance of social license pressure and government regulation for environmental performance of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to

  6. [Radiation protection. Implications for clinical practice on the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-08-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effect of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection.

  7. Groundwater governance in Asia: present state and barriers to implementation of good governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T.

    2014-09-01

    The present state of groundwater governance in Asia was reviewed. The main problem regarding groundwater resources in each Asian country is overexploitation, causing water level decline, land subsidence and salt water intrusion. For those groundwater hazards, many countries have established regulations such as laws and regulations as countermeasures. However, those laws and regulations are not the basic laws on groundwater resources, but only for countermeasures to prevent groundwater hazards. Common problems and barriers for implementing groundwater governance in Asian countries are that there is more than one institute with different and sometimes overlapping responsibilities in groundwater management. To overcome those conflicts among institutions and establishment of good governance, it is necessary to establish an agency in the government as one coordinate function reinforcing the direct coordination and facilitation of groundwater policy-making and management. As one such framework, the conceptual law called the Water Cycle Basic Law, which is under planning in Japan, is examined in this paper.

  8. DOD Open Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    increase transparency and openness. We encourage you to explore other information on our website to learn Defense Search DOD Open Government: Home Open Government @ DoD Transparency Congressional Inquiries IT Dashboard.gov Regulations.gov Challenge.gov Performance.gov ForeignAssistance.gov Transparency

  9. A comparative analysis between France and Japan on local governments' involvement in nuclear safety governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Shin-etsu; Shiroyama, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows a comparative analysis between France and Japan on the way of the local governments' involvement in nuclear safety governance through some interviews. In France, a law came into force that requires related local governments to establish 'Commision Locale d'Information' (CLI), which means the local governments officially involve in nuclear regulatory activity. Meanwhile, in Japan, related local governments substantially involve in the operation of nuclear facilities through the 'safety agreements' in spite of the lack of legal authority. As a result of comparative analysis, we can point out some institutional input from French cases as follows: to clarify the local governments' roles in the nuclear regulation system, to establish the official channels of communication among nuclear utilities, national regulatory authorities and local governments, and to stipulate explicitly the transparency as a purpose of safety regulation. (author)

  10. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Ghana s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Ghana. It is an update of the 2005 Corporate Governance ROSC. Good corporate governance enhances investor trust, helps to protects mino...

  11. Government can regulate food advertising to children because cognitive research shows that it is inherently misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Samantha; Kunkel, Dale; Mermin, Seth E

    2012-02-01

    The childhood obesity crisis has prompted repeated calls for government action to curb the marketing of unhealthy food to children. Food and entertainment industry groups have asserted that the First Amendment prohibits such regulation. However, case law establishes that the First Amendment does not protect "inherently misleading" commercial speech. Cognitive research indicates that young children cannot effectively recognize the persuasive intent of advertising or apply the critical evaluation required to comprehend commercial messages. Given this combination--that government can prohibit "inherently misleading" advertising and that children cannot adequately understand commercial messages--advertising to children younger than age twelve should be considered beyond the scope of constitutional protection.

  12. Algorhythmic governance: Regulating the ‘heartbeat’ of a city using the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Coletta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, research examining the socio-spatial effects of smart city technologies have charted how they are reconfiguring the production of space, spatiality and mobility, and how urban space is governed, but have paid little attention to how the temporality of cities is being reshaped by systems and infrastructure that capture, process and act on real-time data. In this article, we map out the ways in which city-scale Internet of Things infrastructures, and their associated networks of sensors, meters, transponders, actuators and algorithms, are used to measure, monitor and regulate the polymorphic temporal rhythms of urban life. Drawing on Lefebvre, and subsequent research, we employ rhythmanalysis in conjunction with Miyazaki’s notion of ‘algorhythm’ and nascent work on algorithmic governance, to develop a concept of ‘algorhythmic governance’. We then use this framing to make sense of two empirical case studies: a traffic management system and sound monitoring and modelling. Our analysis reveals: (1 how smart city technologies computationally perform rhythmanalysis and undertake rhythm-making that intervenes in space-time processes; (2 distinct forms of algorhythmic governance, varying on the basis of adaptiveness, immediacy of action, and whether humans are in-, on-, or, off-the-loop; (3 and a number of factors that shape how algorhythmic governance works in practice.

  13. From networks to hybrids : Strategic behaviour and crisis-driven change in the regulation and governance of the European financial and economic system,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenleer, M.L.P.; Mijs, A.; Ten Heuvelhof, E.F.; Meeuwen, B.; Van der Puil, J.

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge that European decision-makers struggle with today is regulating and governing the European financial and economic system in a way that is both effective and legitimate. To help address this challenge, this paper asks why regulatory gaps occurred and European governance has been weak,

  14. Governance and regulation of the tourism industry: An internet marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebambo, M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study is to establish governance and regulation issues pertaining to Internet marketing approaches within the South African tourism sector. The study focuses on the norms and practices of Internet marketing among small-scale lodging establishments in Bushbuckridge – a small tourist town in northeast South Africa. In-depth interviews were collected from eight participating bed and breakfast (B&B owners. Findings revealed that, while Internet awareness was quite high, only a few B&Bs utilised the Internet for marketing. Participants cited lack of clear industry guidelines on Internet marketing approaches as well as limited Internet experience, among others, as barriers to adoption. Implications and recommendations of the study are presented within the ambit of the existing literature

  15. Health and social care regulation in Wales: an integrated system of political, corporate and professional governance for improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Tony; Wilkinson, Jane

    2008-11-01

    Wales is developing a unique integrated system of governance to improve public health, which is diverging from some recent developments in the rest of the UK but shares many common features. There is a focus on strengthening collaborative working and co-ordination between bodies inspecting, regulating and auditing health and social care. Systems are being developed that are proportionate to the level of risk, eliminate unnecessary burdens of external review and support the improvement of services for patients, service users and carers. This is consistent with the Assembly Government's aim to improve the way that public services are delivered in Wales, including strengthening input from the public in the planning, delivery and reporting of regulation and inspection work. The test in the future will be how far we can demonstrate quantitatively and qualitatively the added value from our uniquely Welsh approach, built as it is on devolution and the aspirations for small-country governance.

  16. 48 CFR 836.572 - Government supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision. 836.572 Section 836.572 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 836.572 Government supervision. The contracting officer shal...

  17. Government regulation and associated innovations in building energy-efficiency supervisory systems for large-scale public buildings in a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xuezhi; Wu Yong; Di Yanqiang; Li Qiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. Aimed at improving the current situation of lack of government administration in building energy efficiency, this paper proposes the concept of 'change and redesign of governmental supervision in building energy efficiency', repositioning the role of government supervision. Based on this theory and other related theories in regulation economic and modern management, this paper analyzes and researches the action and function of all level governments in execution of the supervisory system of building energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings. This paper also defines the importance of government supervision in energy-efficiency system. Finally, this paper analyzes and researches the interaction mechanism between government and owners of different type buildings, government and energy-efficiency service institution with gambling as main features. This paper also presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy-efficiency supervisory system.

  18. Government regulation and associated innovations in building energy-efficiency supervisory systems for large-scale public buildings in a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Xuezhi [China Academy of Building Research, Beijing 100013 (China)], E-mail: daixz9999@126.com; Wu Yong [Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China); Di Yanqiang [China Academy of Building Research, Beijing 100013 (China); Li Qiaoyan [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. Aimed at improving the current situation of lack of government administration in building energy efficiency, this paper proposes the concept of 'change and redesign of governmental supervision in building energy efficiency', repositioning the role of government supervision. Based on this theory and other related theories in regulation economic and modern management, this paper analyzes and researches the action and function of all level governments in execution of the supervisory system of building energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings. This paper also defines the importance of government supervision in energy-efficiency system. Finally, this paper analyzes and researches the interaction mechanism between government and owners of different type buildings, government and energy-efficiency service institution with gambling as main features. This paper also presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy-efficiency supervisory system.

  19. Government regulation and associated innovations in building energy-efficiency supervisory systems for large-scale public buildings in a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Xuezhi; Di, Yanqiang [China Academy of Building Research, Beijing 100013 (China); Wu, Yong [Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China); Li, Qiaoyan [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    The supervision of energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings is the main embodiment for government implementation of Public Administration in the fields of resource saving and environmental protection. Aimed at improving the current situation of lack of government administration in building energy efficiency, this paper proposes the concept of 'change and redesign of governmental supervision in building energy efficiency', repositioning the role of government supervision. Based on this theory and other related theories in regulation economic and modern management, this paper analyzes and researches the action and function of all level governments in execution of the supervisory system of building energy efficiency in government office buildings and large-scale public buildings. This paper also defines the importance of government supervision in energy-efficiency system. Finally, this paper analyzes and researches the interaction mechanism between government and owners of different type buildings, government and energy-efficiency service institution with gambling as main features. This paper also presents some measurements to achieve a common benefit community in implementation of building energy-efficiency supervisory system. (author)

  20. 48 CFR 301.607-77 - Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Governance. 301.607-77 Section 301.607-77 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS... Governance. The Departmental ACM, in ASFR/OGAPA/DA, serves as the Departmental FAC-P/PM Program Manager and...

  1. The ways to improve state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and municipal property in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Serdyuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After comprehensive scientific exploration the ways of improvement of state regulation of land turnover which are in a government and state municipal property in Ukraine have been identified. Also it was proposed and justified the conceptual bases of strategy in development of state regulation. As a result of scientific exploration the directions of improvement of organizational mechanism have been formed also and wich a viev to improve legal mechanism of state regulation of land turnover it was suggested the modern approach of it. The main problem that constrains mechanical development of state regulation is non-compliance with legal principles, corruption and low motivation of officials. Approach to improvement is necessity of strategic development by the way of compliance law principles, realization of identified steps in development, using the practice of international regulation in land turnover. Strategic goals are in improvement of procedure of land turnover in public property by the way of advance mechanisms of state regulation; in a finding of effective approaches to improvement components of the legal mechanism; to produce and to offer propositions about development of components legal mechanism; to create clear and understandable procedure of land turnover for all participants in relationships in accordance with European legal traditions etc.Scenario of development that was elected is strategic and directed to solve the problems, perfection of economic, organizational and legal mechanisms of land turnover and also system development. But there are some risks that can interfere realization of strategic priorities. They are in outside threat, political instability, the economic downturn and corruption. We have chosen the next evaluation criteria: the level of investment attractiveness; the level of perception corruption in the society; the level of rating and satisfying quality of in land turnover process by the market participants with

  2. The importance of disclosure in corporate governance self-regulation across Europe: A review of the Winter Report and the EU Action Plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Maassen (Gregory); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAlthough self-regulation has proven to be effective for the development of voluntary corporate-governance codes, the results of this study indicate that leading European companies are not yet too concerned about compliance with these codes. While self-regulation appears to be ineffective

  3. Government regulation of gambling business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepasyuk S.A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with the problems of modern gambling business in the Russian Federation, political and legal, civil and economic aspects of state politics development in the field of activities regulation. The Federal Law regulating the activity of gambling business has been analyzed. The author has offered some developments of gambling business in the Russian Federation in order to increase the revenues to the budgets of the regions; to increase the attractiveness of the Russian resorts; to create more job opportunities and to eradicate unemployment.

  4. EFFECTS OF THE NEW REGULATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE OF THE AUDIT PROFESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Timea FÜLÖP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial scandals of the last decade have had a negative effect upon the trust and perception of investors regarding auditor responsibility, firm performance and their part in fraud and error detection. The audit firms play an important role in the capital markets by verifying that auditors provide reliable information to the decision makers. The characteristic elements of the new economy require economic entities new performance standards that go beyond economics. These works’ aim is to explore the implication of the new regulation and corporate governance on the audit profession and audit quality. This study contributes to the literature as it provides a better understanding on how the auditor and audit firms react toward the additional requirements.

  5. Balancing government-regulated participation with community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to explore the nature and extent of community participation and support for the Taung Skull World Heritage Site (TSWHS) scheme. Utilising the social exchange theory, the paper's central argument suggests meaningful community involvement in government-sponsored participation as a prerequisite to ...

  6. The Government Incentive Regulation Model and Pricing Mechanism in Power Transmission and Distribution Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The power transmission and distribution (T&D market’s natural monopoly and individual information have been the impediment to improving the energy efficiency in the whole T&D market. In order to improve the whole social welfare, T&D market should be controlled by government. An incentive regulation model with the target of maximizing social welfare has been studied. A list of contracts with transferring payment and quantity of T&D are given to motivate the corporation to reveal the true technical parameter and input the optimal investment. The corporate revenue, optimal investment, and effort are proved to depend on its own technical parameter. The part of incentive regulation model ends with the optimal pricing mechanism of T&D market. At the end of this paper, we give a numerical example to explain our research and confirm its function graphically.

  7. [Radiation protection in orthopaedics: implications for clinical practice of the new regulations governing roentgen ray irradiation and radioprotection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, U; Berlich, J

    2006-05-01

    In 2001 or 2002, the legislator made substantial alterations to the "Röntgenverordnung" [regulations governing use of roentgen ray radiation] and "Strahlenschutzverordnung" [regulations governing radiation protection]. This was done to bring German law in line with EU Directives 96/29/Euratom (basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation) and 97/43/Euratom (health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure). Proper use of radiation in medicine requires that those involved in its application are aware of the biological effects of radiation. When staff and others are protected good organization and appropriate technology at the workplace can achieve a great deal. In the new directives, the radiation protection for the patient is quantified and the responsibility of the physician is clearly pointed out. The most important aim is uniform quality throughout Europe in radiological diagnosis and radiation protection.

  8. Uruguay - Corporate Governance Country Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Uruguay's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Uruguay. The report identifies several key next steps that focus on implementa...

  9. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  10. [Changes in the regulation and government of the health system. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repullo, José R

    2014-06-01

    The economic and fiscal crisis of 2008 has erupted into the debate on the sustainability of health systems; some countries, such as Spain, have implemented strong policies of fiscal consolidation and austerity. The institutional framework and governance model of the national health system (NHS) after its devolution to regions in 2002 had significant weaknesses, which were not apparent in the rapid growth stage but which have been clearly visible since 2010. In this article, we describe the changes in government regulation from the national and NHS perspective: both general changes (clearly prompted by the economic authorities), and those more specifically addressed to healthcare. The Royal Decree-Law 16/2012 represents the centerpiece of austerity policies in healthcare but also implies a rupture with existing political consensus and a return to social security models. Our characterization of austerity in healthcare explores impacts on savings, services, and on the healthcare model itself, although the available information only allows some indications. The conclusions highlight the need to change the path of linear, rapid and radical budget cuts, providing a time-frame for implementing key reforms in terms of internal sustainability; to do so, it is appropriate to restore political and institutional consensus, to emphasize "clinical management" and divestment of inappropriate services (approach to the medical profession and its role as micro-manager), and to create frameworks of good governance and organizational innovations that support these structural reforms. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Encouraging Maternal Sacrifice: How Regulations Governing the Consumption of Pharmaceuticals During Pregnancy Prioritize Fetal Safety over Maternal Health and Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Greer

    Pregnant women are routinely faced with the stressful decision of whether to consume needed medications during their pregnancies. Because the risks associated with pharmaceutical drug consumption during pregnancy are largely unknown, pregnant women both inadvertently consume dangerous medications and avoid needed drugs. Both outcomes are harmful to pregnant women and their fetuses. This unparalleled lack of drug safety information is a result of ill-conceived, paternalistic regulations in two areas of the law: regulations governing ethical research in human subjects and regulations that dictate the required labels on drugs. The former categorizes pregnant women as "vulnerable" and thus precludes them from most medical research. The result is that ninety-one percent of drugs lack any reliable safety information for pregnant consumers. The latter currently requires all drug labels to encourage drug avoidance during pregnancy, despite ample evidence that avoiding needed medications can harm pregnant women. On June 30, 2015, new pregnancy labeling regulations took effect. Though these regulations make important improvements, they continue to treat pregnant women unlike any population, including other unique subpopulations, such as children. As a result, the new regulations do not fix the problem of over-warning pregnant women about the risks of drug consumption. This article questions the legitimacy of both regulations and suggests three reforms for how to improve access to vital safety information: (1) amend the regulations governing ethical research in human subjects to reclassify pregnant women as non-vulnerable adults; (2) create incentives to generate safety data in pregnant women by granting a period of market exclusivity for drug companies that invest in this research; and (3) make the FDA pregnancy labeling regulations consistent with the routine FDA practice of requiring the display of balanced, human data on risk.

  12. 48 CFR 852.236-78 - Government supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government supervision. 852.236-78 Section 852.236-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 852.236-78 Government supervision. As prescribed in...

  13. 31 CFR 596.310 - Terrorism List Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terrorism List Government. 596.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.310 Terrorism List Government. The term Terrorism List Government...

  14. Waste governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available of governance in Africa. The next section focuses on regulation, and the status of the regulatory frameworks in different African countries. Shortcomings in the regulatory framework are highlighted through examples in various countries. Specific policy...

  15. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  16. Evaluation of the audit committees of government ministries in Namibia: Their compositions, functions and regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Winnie Kandandu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the underlying study to this paper is to evaluate the audit committees in the government ministries in Namibia; by assessing their composition, the function and regulations that govern committees. The study used a qualitative approach of inquiry. A purposive sampling method was used as the researcher selected ministries with audit committees. Thematic and content analysis was used in this study. Both primary and secondary and data were used. On primary data, interviews were conducted and recorded with a voice recorder. Secondary data was during the review of existing literature on the subject. The study found that from the 4 government ministries with audit committees, only one ministry consisted of independent members as well as an independent chairperson, while 3 ministries are chaired by members within their organisations. There was clear evidence of lack of accounting / financial /auditing competence among the committee members. This trend is contrary to the best practice which requires that the chairperson of the audit committees be independent of the ministry as well as the members of the audit committee. The finding indicates possibility of lack of capacity to carry out the functions of audit committees; weak internal control systems; chances of conflict of interest and complacency due to the lack of independence. There is avenue for further research as more ministries in Namibia are now establishing their audit committees, especially as the Namibian Code of Corporate Governance (the NamCode gains more popularity among the public sector.

  17. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of Uruguay's corporate governance policy framework, enforcement and compliance practices. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Uruguay. The report identifies several key next steps that focus on implementation including: Improving corporate information, particularly ownership disclosure, related party transac...

  18. Outsourcing Technology in Government: Owned, Controlled, or Regulated Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mark L.; Walsh, Timothy P.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the growing trend toward and objectives of government outsourcing of information technology (IT) both in the United States and around the world. Describes representative outsourcing arrangements; highlights steps governments should take to ensure that objectives are met; and discusses factors influencing management of public sector…

  19. Estimation of avoidable skin cancers and cost-savings to government associated with regulation of the solarium industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Nicholas; Gordon, Louisa; Gies, Peter; Green, Adèle C

    2009-03-01

    In Australia there is growing concern about the expanding solarium industry, and the additive effect of persons seeking exposure to artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR) against already intense background levels of solar UVR. We estimated the numbers of potential skin cancers prevented through regulation of solaria and the associated cost-savings to the Federal Government. A lifetime decision-analytic model was created using relative risk estimates based on a meta-analysis of the literature assessing the link between skin cancer risk and solarium use. The costs were limited to those incurred by Medicare Australia, for the medical care of individuals treated for skin cancer. With stricter regulations, we estimated between 18 and 31 melanomas, 200-251 squamous cell carcinomas and associated costs of $AU 256,054 would be avoided per 100,000 persons. Our base findings were sensitive to estimates for prevalence of use, skin cancer risk and discounting rates. Continued growth in the Australian solarium industry is likely to inflate the already substantial skin cancer burden. Subject to some limitations, our study indicates that by successfully enforcing solarium regulations to prohibit use by minors and by those with fair skin colour, the Federal Government could expect favourable cost and health benefits.

  20. The Theory of Grid Investment and Governance from the Perspective of New Regulation: Enlightenment on China's Electric Power System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    The main contents of theoretical studies on grid investment and governance include the business investment patterns,the regulated investment patterns,and the incentive and efficiency issues of the power grid ownership and the operating right under the implementation of the integrated structure and separated structure.The commercial investment mode relies on the assumption of near-perfect competition and the separated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right,which in reality is prone to distorted incentives for grid investment and easy to generate team moral hazards,thus it is difficult to ensure effective grid investment in the competitive electricity market.By relying on incentive regulation,the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right under the regulated investment mode can avoid moral hazard in the teams and various distorted investment incentives.Comparatively speaking,the regulated investment mode is a more appropriate one to be the main target pattern for the grid investment during China's power market reform.The power grid governance should focus on the release of the potential efficiency under the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the right to operate the system.The power system reform must take a coordinated promotion of the construction of a competitive market and the reform of the grid management system,so as to avoid becoming a simple interest re-adjustment.

  1. An E-government Interoperability Platform Supporting Personal Data Protection Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    González, Laura; Echevarría, Andrés; Morales, Dahiana; Ruggia, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies are increasingly required to collaborate with each other in order to provide high-quality e-government services. This collaboration is usually based on the service-oriented approach and supported by interoperability platforms. Such platforms are specialized middleware-based infrastructures enabling the provision, discovery and invocation of interoperable software services. In turn, given that personal data handled by governments are often very sensitive, most governments have ...

  2. 'No, the government doesn't need to, it's already self-regulated': a qualitative study among vape shop operators on perceptions of electronic vapor product regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pratibha; Barker, Dianne C; Huang, Jidong; Kemp, Catherine B; Wagener, Theodore L; Chaloupka, Frank

    2018-03-26

    While the market share of electronic vapor products (EVPs), sold primarily through vape shops and other outlets, has increased rapidly, these products remained largely unregulated until 2016. This study, conducted prior to announcement of the deeming regulations, provides insights into vape shop operator attitudes toward potential government regulations of EVPs. In 2015, we conducted 37 in-person interviews of vape shop operators across nine US cities. Shops were identified through extensive web-searches. We used QSR International's NVivo 11 qualitative data analysis software to analyze the transcripts. Many vape shop operators viewed regulations requiring safe production of e-liquids, child-resistant bottles and listing e-juice ingredients as acceptable. They disagreed with the elimination of free samples and bans on flavored e-liquid sales, which generate significant revenue for their stores. Many held negative perceptions of pre-market review of new product lines and EVP-specific taxes. All agreed that EVPs should not be sold to minors, but most felt that owners should not be fined if minors visited vape shops. Findings from this study offer insights into the acceptability of proposed regulations, as well as barriers to effective regulation implementation.

  3. 48 CFR 47.104-5 - Citation of Government rate tenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citation of Government rate tenders. 47.104-5 Section 47.104-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.104-5 Citation of Government rate tenders. When 49 U...

  4. An E-government Interoperability Platform Supporting Personal Data Protection Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Public agencies are increasingly required to collaborate with each other in order to provide high-quality e-government services. This collaboration is usually based on the service-oriented approach and supported by interoperability platforms. Such platforms are specialized middleware-based infrastructures enabling the provision, discovery and invocation of interoperable software services. In turn, given that personal data handled by governments are often very sensitive, most governments have developed some sort of legislation focusing on data protection. This paper proposes solutions for monitoring and enforcing data protection laws within an E-government Interoperability Platform. In particular, the proposal addresses requirements posed by the Uruguayan Data Protection Law and the Uruguayan E-government Platform, although it can also be applied in similar scenarios. The solutions are based on well-known integration mechanisms (e.g. Enterprise Service Bus as well as recognized security standards (e.g. eXtensible Access Control Markup Language and were completely prototyped leveraging the SwitchYard ESB product.

  5. National committee on radiation protection, 1928-1960: from professional guidelines to government regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    The National Committee on Radiation Protection is a private, self-perpetuating body of radiation experts founded in 1928 which, except during World War II, has established the basic guidelines for radiation safety in the United States. This dissertation examines three themes in its history from 1928 to 1960. On an intellectual level, how do scientists make judgments when called upon to perform a legal function, instead of conduct research? On an institutional level, how does a scientific committee develop when it serves a medical, industrial, and legal constituency larger than the research community of the scientist themselves? On a political level, how has the development of atomic energy influenced both the intellectual content of the radiation safety standards and the institutional form of the NCRP? Institutional and political concerns were found to play a significant role in the NCRP's intellectual work from 1928 to 1960. The time span can be divided into three periods, revealing a growing politicization of radiation safety: professional self-regulation (1928-1941), government advisory committee (1946-1954), and public controversy and increasing legislation (1954-1960). In 1959, political controversy led to the establishment of the Federal Radiation Council, a government agency which was to replace the NCRP

  6. Mechanisms of private meta-governance: an analysis of global private governance for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbergen, P.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of global governance for sustainable development is its fragmentation. Next to public regulations, there are often many private regulations in force on the same issue, which are induced by collaborations between businesses and NGOs. Traditionally, it is assumed that

  7. Public Procurement and Forest Governance: A German Case Study of Governmental Influences on Market-Driven Governance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Albrecht

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased privatization of natural resource regulation, green or sustainable public procurement policies are emerging as incentives for sustainable development. Thus, a revival of governmental influences on so-called non-state, market-driven governance systems takes place. The paper exemplifies this development by reference to the green public procurement directives for wood products in Germany and its influence on major forest certification systems and forest governance. Using an approach of governmentality in relational space, the paper displays how governmental entities play a significant role in influencing forest governance systems and the greening of markets. The importance of the underlying relations that shape governmental instruments and their influences on forest certification and governance are evaluated from a German perspective. Acknowledging the market-driven aspects of forest certification systems, the paper highlights the often-neglected impacts of governmental regulation on emerging forest governance systems. Thus, the framework allows insights into how relations among political entities and their means of knowledge production are essential for processes of forest governance.

  8. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND STAKEHOLDERS’ ACCOUNTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CHIȚIMUȘ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is the system through which companies are directed and controlled but until today academic environment, regulators, corporations couldn’t reach a unanimous definition. Corporate governance provisions suffered changes after several largely covered financial scandals. Entities incur costs when complying with new regulations but not complying impacts the reputation and investors might think twice before bringing their money into the company. Accountability for business decisions, risk management, control that set the economic path of the company is mandatory for proving that the company is run in a fairly and smart way. This study aims to investigate how corporate governance relates to accountability of all parties involved in the current business of companies as any conflict of interest is detrimental to the company and affects in a negative way its performance.

  9. Constructing regulation and regulating for energy efficient construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shove, Elizabeth [Lancaster University (United Kingdom). Centre for the Study of Environmental Change

    1998-07-01

    This project considers the process of formulating energy-related building regulation in the light of the revisions to Part L (Conservation of Fuel and Power) of the Building Regulations for England and Wales. Details are given of the main objectives of the research, namely, the examination of the roles of the UK government, local government and pressure groups in shaping energy efficiency standards, the impacts of environmental regulations, the limits of energy-related regulation, environmental regulation of the building sector, and the features of energy related building control. This control is compared with current practice in other European countries. The methodology of the project involving the review of governmental documents and interviews is described. (UK)

  10. 48 CFR 1552.237-76 - Government-Contractor Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Government-Contractor... 1552.237-76 Government-Contractor Relations. As prescribed in 1537.110(g), insert the following clause: Government-Contractor Relations (JUN 1999) (a) The Government and the Contractor understand and agree that...

  11. Tax Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...

  12. Birthrate, Sovereignty and Development: The Restrictive Regulations to Family Planning in the Third Peronist Government (Argentina, 1973-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Alejandra Felitti

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensive growth of the world population during the second postwar period expanded the fear of an imminent depletion of natural resources and the destabilization of the capitalist system. Meanwhile the “population bomb” became a threat in the Cold War context, in Argentina the situation was the opposite, with a persistent birth rate decline. The third Peronist government (1973-1976 included the problem of the demographic fall among its priorities and the originality of its plan of action was that, for the first time in this country, coercive regulations prevented the free access to contraception. In this article we propose to analyze these policies, the contradictions inside the government regarding the best way to proceed, its repercussions and the resistance they produced.

  13. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  14. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  15. Gobernanza Versus Gobierno Governance Versus Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany-Robert Dufour

    2009-06-01

    over industrial capitalism, which is nothing more than, on the one hand, to lean towards the maximum profitability for the shareholders, to raise the value of everything on the market without moral considerations, to, force the actors to look for permanent risk and to adapt more flexible hierarchical relations in the administration of the company; and on the other, the marginalization of the working class. Governance has reached the political matters turning itself into the model of public management par excellence, it means that the government, diminished to it’s basic form guides a civil society, which acquires an important role in the creation and follow-up of the different policies, that is to say, that the government acquires a flexible form of regulation, it is there where political governance leads us, to the alleged self-regulation of private interests that added-together are able to shape the general interest. Indeed it is a question of a new form of domination marked by a political failing, where the civil society plays in opposition to the State. Governance is leaning towards a fearsome trap to the democracy, insofar as it is presented as an extension of democracy embodied in a better participation of civil society, destroying the public person formed by the union of all others and the becoming representative of particular interests.

  16. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... regulations, Federal acquisition regulations, Government procurement, Government contracts, Procurement, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 48 CFR Part 1302 Definitions, Government procurement, Terms. 48 CFR Part 1303 Antitrust, Conflict of interests, Ethical conduct, Government procurement, Reporting and...

  17. The Regulation of Acid Mine Drainage in South Africa: Law and Governance Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is arguably one of the most serious environmental concerns in South Africa. AMD is a legacy left behind by abandoned, derelict and defunct mines, and is a continuing by-product of existing mining activities. In addition to its environmental impacts, AMD will also impact on all the parameters of sustainability, including ecological, social and economic concerns. In particular, AMD is set to affect infrastructure, displace people and affect their livelihoods, influence economic activity, impact on the resource extraction industry, and affect South Africa's policies and actions in relation to climate change and its efforts to move towards a low carbon economy; and it will test the efficiency of regulatory interventions emanating from both the private and the public sector to the extreme. Given these pervasive challenges, in this article we provide a survey of the AMD problem in South Africa through the law and governance lens. We commence by highlighting the various issues and challenges that result from AMD in the environmental context on the one hand, and the law and governance context on the other hand. We then describe the many provisions of the regulatory framework that we believe would be instrumental in responding to the threat. We conclude the article with brief remarks on what we believe are important considerations in the future regulation of AMD.

  18. 77 FR 30998 - Information Collection Requirement; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ..., Government Property, DFARS section 211.274, Reporting of Government-Furnished Equipment in the DoD Item... surplus Government property. Under paragraph (b), a contractor may be directed by the plant clearance... plant clearance officer to purchase or retain Government property at less than cost if the plant...

  19. Corporate Governance Quality in Selected Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Djokic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Important questions that concern the notion of good corporate governance focus on what good corporate governance is, who benefits from good corporate governance, and how corporate governance quality can be measured. The aim of our study was to broaden our understanding of the role of standards and codes of good corporate governance in improving governance practices.We found that not only formal regulations, standards, and governance codes, but also corporate governance indices-which make the assessment of companies’ governance practices possible-are important in measuring and improving governance quality. The results of the research based on the SEECGAN Index methodology indicated that mandatory requirements and voluntary recommendations of high governance standards had a positive impact on the corporate governance practice in Slovenia.

  20. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE AUTOMATED...

  1. Government Contract Law (9th Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    This Ninth Edition, like its predecessors, will serve as the textbook for the Government Contract Law taught at the School of Systems and Logistics...drawn from Government Contract Law -Cases, 1987 edition, for a rounded approach to the subject. This edition of the text includes coverage of the...Government Contract Law complements the Federal Acquisition Regulation and provides a preventive law treatment for contracting personnel. While it may

  2. Governance by algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are increasingly often cited as one of the fundamental shaping devices of our daily, immersed-in-information existence. Their importance is acknowledged, their performance scrutinised in numerous contexts. Yet, a lot of what constitutes 'algorithms' beyond their broad definition as “encoded procedures for transforming input data into a desired output, based on specified calculations” (Gillespie, 2013 is often taken for granted. This article seeks to contribute to the discussion about 'what algorithms do' and in which ways they are artefacts of governance, providing two examples drawing from the internet and ICT realm: search engine queries and e-commerce websites’ recommendations to customers. The question of the relationship between algorithms and rules is likely to occupy an increasingly central role in the study and the practice of internet governance, in terms of both institutions’ regulation of algorithms, and algorithms’ regulation of our society.

  3. 48 CFR 52.211-7 - Alternatives to Government-unique standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternatives to Government... Government-unique standards. The offeror may propose voluntary consensus standards that meet the Government's... voluntary consensus standard instead of the Government-unique standard if it meets the Government's...

  4. A Stakeholder Approach to Media Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink

    2016-01-01

    Historically, government regulation has significantly impacted the room for manoeuvre enjoyed by media managers, especially in public service media but increasingly also in privately owned firms. Currently stakeholders of many different kinds attempt to influence media industries, using a number...... of the world arguably features the most complex and continuous development in these aspects. Our particular interest investigates media governance, which is not understood as an external given but considered as a premise of strategic management. It is argued that to secure an appropriate remit for an industry...... or firm to that guarantees a longer-term licence to operate, media managers must engage different audiences and authorities in relation to restrictive as well as prescriptive regulation. Achieving that requires approaching media governance from a stakeholder perspective, which inherently involves a broad...

  5. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai; Hebenton, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  6. Regulatory governance of telecommunications liberalisation in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kuo-Tai [Department of Regional Studies in Humanity and Social Sciences, National Hsin-Chu University of Education, No. 521 Nan-Da Road, Hsin-Chu 300 (China); Hebenton, Bill [School of Law, University of Manchester, M13 9PP (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    This paper examines the changing role of government and market in regulating the telecommunications sector from since 1996 in Taiwan. It contextualises the theoretical aspects of regulatory governance for institutional design and practices, and reviews the concepts and mechanisms for appraising privatisation and regulatory systems. Using a conceptual framework for researching privatisation and regulation, it describes the process and issues pertinent to telecommunications liberalisation and privatisation in Taiwan, supported by a brief presentation of theoretical points of view as well as practitioners' views. The paper presents results concerning criteria for appraising privatisation and regulatory governance and considers policy lessons that can be learned from the experiences of the Taiwanese telecommunications sector's liberalisation. (author)

  7. Corporate governance : What’s special about banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, L.

    2013-01-01

    This review surveys the literature on the corporate governance of banks. Traditional corporate governance mechanisms, such as concentrated ownership and takeover threats, in principle, also apply to banks. However, banks have special traits and are heavily regulated, preventing natural forms of

  8. 48 CFR 8.406-5 - Termination for the Government's convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government's convenience. 8.406-5 Section 8.406-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Termination for the Government's convenience. (a) An ordering activity contracting officer may terminate individual orders for the Government's convenience. Terminations for the Government's convenience shall...

  9. Governance of sustainable development: co-evolution of corporate and political strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleischwitz, R.; College of Europe, Bruges

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes a policy framework for analysing corporate governance toward sustainable development. The aim is to set up a framework for analysing market evolution toward sustainability. In the first section, the paper briefly refers to recent theories about both market and government failures that express scepticism about the way that framework conditions for market actors are set. For this reason, multi-layered governance structures seem advantageous if new solutions are to be developed in policy areas concerned with long-term change and stepwise internalisation of externalities. The paper introduces the principle of regulated self-regulation. With regard to corporate actors' interests, it presents recent insights from theories about the knowledge-based firm, where the creation of new knowledge is based on the absorption of societal views. The result is greater scope for the endogenous internalisation of externalities, which leads to a variety of new and different corporate strategies. Because governance has to set incentives for quite a diverse set of actors in their daily operations, the paper finally discusses innovation-inducing regulation. In both areas, regulated self-regulation and innovation-inducing regulation, corporate and political governance co-evolve. The paper concludes that these co-evolutionary mechanisms may assume some of the stabilising and orientating functions previously exercised by framing activities of the state. In such a view, the government's main function is to facilitate learning processes, thus departing from the state's function as known from welfare economics. (author)

  10. A critical review of corporate governance reforms in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Hiyari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the East-Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the corporate accounting scandals, the shareholder’s confidence in the audited financial statements was adversely affected and regulators started to think seriously reforming the existing corporate governance practices. As a result, numerous initiatives were implemented to accelerate improvement of corporate governance practices. One of these initiatives was the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (MCCG. The code was derived from the approach applied by the British Hampel Committee, which attempt to mitigate the agency problem between corporate managers and outside owners. This study suggests that the British approach is unsuitable to Malaysian business environment. Particularly, the MCCG that had been lunched since 2011 ignore the uniqueness of Malaysia’s capital market, regulation environment and ownership structure. Therefore, the study recommends that policy makers and other regulators should consider the local business environment when establishing future code on corporate governance.

  11. 48 CFR 49.402-1 - The Government's right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Government's right. 49... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Termination for Default 49.402-1 The Government's right. Under contracts containing the Default clause at 52.249-8, the Government has the right, subject to the notice requirements...

  12. 48 CFR 445.407 - Non-Government use of plant equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plant equipment. 445.407 Section 445.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Contractor Use and Rental of Government Property 445.407 Non-Government use of plant equipment. Requests for non-Government use of plant equipment as...

  13. Corporate Governance And The Quality Of Financial Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Myring; Rebecca Toppe Shortridge

    2010-01-01

    Congress has recently enacted measures designed to improve corporate governance standards.  Regulators have asserted that strong corporate governance enhances the transparency and validity of financial statements.  Previous studies addressing the relationship between corporate governance and financial reporting quality yield mixed results.  This study employs analyst earnings forecasts to determine whether corporate governance procedures impact the quality of accounting information.  Followin...

  14. 48 CFR 23.704 - Application to Government-owned or -leased facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application to Government... and Services 23.704 Application to Government-owned or -leased facilities. Executive Order 13101...

  15. Economic Efficiency of Selected Financial System Institutions of Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Rabiej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Functioning of local government units, as for as the economic sphere is concerned, is based on the financial law regulations. Those regulations aim at solving economic and social problems. The analysis of economic efficiency concerning implemented regulations is of particular importance for changing the EU’s attitude towards the influence, which EU has on functioning of the local governments. Implementing the local budgets, based on regulations which economic efficiency hasn’t been evaluated on the stage of legislation, may have a negative impact on local community and the economic situation of the country. Frequent changes of financial law cause actions, which financial effects cannot be predicted. What is more, those unstable regulations make it impossible to plan essential parts of a budget in a right way. That has a great importance in terms of correctness of long-term financial perspectives of the local government units.

  16. Dynamic Support of Government in Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hai, Le Chi; Alam Kazmi, Syed Hasnain

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in online shopping for consumers requires consistent government support policies and the introduction of substantial government laws and regulations. In order to establish innovative developments in online shopping market environment that makes online shopping faster and stable, the government perspective is vital with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for research and development in online shopping behavior for consumer’s confidence and their purchase intention. The proposed...

  17. 77 FR 51026 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., special test equipment, and agency-peculiar property. Government property includes both Government... to the Plant Clearance Officer. (l) FAR 52.245-9(d) requires a contractor to identify the property...; Submission for OMB Review; Government Property AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services...

  18. Minsky on "Big Government"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Santana Vasconcelos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper objective is to assess, in light of the main works of Minsky, his view and analysis of what he called the "Big Government" as that huge institution which, in parallels with the "Big Bank" was capable of ensuring stability in the capitalist system and regulate its inherently unstable financial system in mid-20th century. In this work, we analyze how Minsky proposes an active role for the government in a complex economic system flawed by financial instability.

  19. Corporate governance rules and insider trading profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cziraki, P.; de Goeij, P.C.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate patterns of abnormal stock performance around insider trades on the Dutch market. Listed firms in the Netherlands have a long tradition of limiting shareholders’ rights. Using a change in corporate governance regulations as a natural experiment, we show that governance rules have a

  20. Urban Governance in Europe : the Government of What ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Borraz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available «Who governs when nobody governs ?» This question is addressed by looking at phenomena that have become characteristic of cities today: violence, crime, immigration, mobility. Answering this question also requires paying more attention to different forms of regulation : state, market, along with cooperative/reciprocal modes of regulation. Risk embodies these different forms : it has become a common way of framing and addressing a wide variety of urban problems, suggesting that to govern is to identify and to manage vulnerabilities through different modes of regulation. Lastly, the question points to the uncertainty that characterizes city borders : these are constantly being redefined both by demographics, urbanization and political reforms.«Qui gouverne quand personne ne gouverne ?» Pour répondre à cette question, plusieurs traits caractéristiques des villes contemporaines sont examinés : violence, criminalité, immigration, mobilité. Il convient aussi de s’intéresser de plus près à différentes formes de régulation : l’État, le marché et des formes qui font appel à la coopération ou la réciprocité. Le risque incarne ces différentes formes : il constitue une modalité de cadrage et de gestion de tout un ensemble de problèmes urbains, suggérant que gouverner revient d’abord et avant tout à identifier et gérer des vulnérabilités par le biais de différents modes de régulation. Enfin, la question renvoie aux incertitudes qui entourent les frontières de la ville : celles-ci sont en évolution permanente, sous l’effet de la démographie, de l’urbanisation et des réformes politiques.

  1. Legitimidade e governabilidade na regulação do sistema financeiro Legitimacy and governability in financial regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Antonio Pereira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre direito e economia pode resultar numa oposição entre governabilidade e legitimidade legal-racional, uma vez que se baseiam em diferentes racionalidades. A revisão judicial da regulação do sistema financeiro evidencia esse conflito, observado neste trabalho sob a perspectiva da jurisprudência constitucional do Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF. O objetivo deste trabalho resume-se então em identificar o conflito entre governabilidade e a exigência de legitimidade legal das decisões analisadas pela corte no que concerne à regulação financeira. O estudo de casos evidencia que o STF tem rejeitado argumentos econômicos, entretanto, tem preservado a lógica da governabilidade com decisões contraditórias e incoerentes pautadas em argumentos formais. Dessa forma, possível identificar o papel institucional conferido pelo STF à Constituição Federal de 1988, considerando o contexto das crises econômicas vividas pelo Brasil a partir da metade da década de 1980 e sua nova conformação a partir da Emenda Constitucional n. 40.The relation between law and economics might result in an opposition between governability and legal-rational legitimacy, since they are based in different rationalities. Judicial review of financial regulation shows that coflict, which is here analysed from the viewpoint of the constitutional jurisprudence of the Brazilian Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal Federal - STF. In brief, the purpose of this article is to identify the oppostion between governability and the need for legal-legitimacy in the cases analysed by the court concerning financial regulation. The case studies show that the judicial review by STF has rejected economic aspects of the case, however it has preserved governability rationality with incoherent and contradictory decisions based on formal arguments. Thereby, it is possible to identify the institutional role granted by stf to the Brazilian Constitution dated from 1988, considering

  2. Bank governance, regulation, and risk taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, L.; Levine, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper conducts the first empirical assessment of theories concerning risk taking by banks, their ownership structures, and national bank regulations. We focus on conflicts between bank managers and owners over risk, and we show that bank risk taking varies positively with the comparative power

  3. A fine mess: Bricolaged forest governance in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Dietz, T.

    2015-01-01

    Value chains of Cameroonian non-timber forest products move through harvesters, processors and traders, to consumers locally and worldwide. This paper characterises six governance arrangements governing eight such chains: statutory and customary regulations, voluntary market-based systems,

  4. A fine mess : bricolaged forest governance in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Value chains of Cameroonian non-timber forest products move through harvesters, processors and traders, to consumers locally and worldwide. This paper characterises six governance arrangements governing eight such chains: statutory and customary regulations, voluntary market-based systems,

  5. Driving biofuels in Europe. A research on the interaction between external regulation and value chain governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aantjes, J.C.

    2007-05-01

    To explain the unforeseen ascendancy of biofuels in the transport sector, a thorough understanding of the biofuel industry (i.e. the value chain) is crucial. Next to the industry structure, it seems that the regulatory framework surrounding the chain also contributes to the formation and structure of the biofuel industry in Europe. This assumption rests on the 2003 European Union (EU) biofuel directives for the promotion of biofuels in EU member states. With tax exemptions and reference values, the European Commission (EC) achieves to raise the amount of biofuels in transportation. The hypothesis in this thesis is that the European biofuel industry reflects a correlation between external regulation and value chain structure. More specifically, it is expected to be a mutual relation. The proposition is that value chain actors not only anticipate to the regulatory environment, they are also likely to influence decision-making on regulations in their advantage. Simply stated, value chain actors are concerned with the regulatory framework in order to enhance their position in the chain. From an empirical and theoretical point of view, this is an interesting proposition since the interaction between regulations and value chain governance receive little attention in theory. For the food industry, this approach contributes to understand the development in biofuel regulations and the European biofuel industry. Chapter Two reports the theoretical foundation of this study. The research framework rests on two rather independent streams of literature. The first part discusses 'value chain theory' and enables to examine how the biofuel value chains in Europe looks like. Among the analytical instruments of this research tradition, the role of powerful actors in controlling the value chain is elaborated in depth. The second stream is rooted in political theory and is characterized as 'political decision-making theory'. Its focus is on the formulation of governmental regulation. A

  6. The role of government in a competitive power market : strategic behaviors and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, N.Y. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Restructuring in the Korean power industry has fundamentally changed the role of government. The role of government in a new environment may include : (1) promoting competition (2) prohibiting collusion or unfair trade practices (3) securing uninterrupted power supply (4) providing universal services to consumers (5) implementing appropriate price regulation. Focusing on the first two issues, this report has analyzed anti-competitive strategic behaviors and an impact of market power and tried to provide regulatory guidelines. This report surveyed three types of theoretical models analyzing a bidding behavior in an electric power market. The Cournot model is applied to the Korean electricity market. The following policy implications are derived. (1) The Cournot-Nash equilibrium price can be regarded as a threshold in market surveillance. (2) Had the fossil stations been divided among six instead of five companies, then market power would have been weakened in a reasonable degree. This finding also renders some implications with respect to business permission, divestiture, and merger. Among those, it is argued that a large new entrant rather than small IPPs contributes to increasing competition and lowering market power. (3) Increase in responsiveness of final demand to wholesale price fluctuation is an important factor to lower the Cournot equilibrium price and so market power. Therefore, appropriate regulatory system should be arranged to make power demand more elastic. (4) Activating contract markets such as CfD and introducing the capacity credit market can greatly help to lower market power. (author). 36 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Information security governance simplified from the boardroom to the keyboard

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Security practitioners must be able to build cost-effective security programs while also complying with government regulations. Information Security Governance Simplified: From the Boardroom to the Keyboard lays out these regulations in simple terms and explains how to use control frameworks to build an air-tight information security (IS) program and governance structure. Defining the leadership skills required by IS officers, the book examines the pros and cons of different reporting structures and highlights the various control frameworks available. It details the functions of the security d

  8. Network governance and capacity of local governments to deliver LED in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose B Namara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses network governance and its contribution to the capacity of local governments (LGs to deliver local economic development (LED in Uganda. Although a formal LED policy was only established in Uganda in February 2014, there have been LED-inspired practices in the past decade. Various scholars and practitioners have observed that the autonomy and capacity of LGs to deliver LED is limited, but have been hopeful that new governance strategies like network governance would increase the capacities of LGs. However, neither network governance arrangements among LGs, nor their potential to improve governance capacity, have been documented. In a case study of Kyenjojo District, this paper finds that existing network governance arrangements have been fundamental in improving financial autonomy at this LG, delivering some income to invest in LED activities, although no evidence was found of reduced transaction costs in transforming local economies. The study further reveals that network governance arrangements have not led to the development of specialised skills in regulation or law enforcement, and capacity gaps are evident amongst staff and members in understanding the private sector and how it works. On a positive note, there is clear evidence of attempts by the LG to be innovative. Based on these findings, this study recommends that LGs need to consider a multi-pronged or multi-network governance approach to LED, which in turn will require a refocusing of governance mechanisms to become more dynamic and responsive, and offer incentives to the various actors in the development sector.

  9. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  10. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  11. Possibilities for global governance of converging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2008-01-15

    The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the progress made in governance of such converging, emerging technologies and suggests possibilities for a global approach. Specifically, this paper suggests creating a multidisciplinary forum or a consultative coordinating group with members from various countries to address globally governance of converging, emerging technologies. The proposed framework for governance of converging technologies calls for four key functions: supporting the transformative impact of the new technologies; advancing responsible development that includes health, safety and ethical concerns; encouraging national and global partnerships; and establishing commitments to long-term planning and investments centered on human development. Principles of good governance guiding these functions include participation of all those who are forging or affected by the new technologies, transparency of governance strategies, responsibility of each participating stakeholder, and effective strategic planning. Introduction and management of converging technologies must be done with respect for immediate concerns, such as privacy, access to medical advancements, and potential human health effects. At the same time, introduction and management should also be done with respect for longer-term concerns, such as preserving human integrity, dignity and welfare. The suggested governance functions apply to four levels of governance: (a) adapting existing regulations and organizations; (b) establishing new programs, regulations and organizations specifically to handle converging technologies; (c) building capacity for addressing these issues into national policies and

  12. Corporate governance and control in Russian banks

    OpenAIRE

    Vernikov, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    The Working Paper examines peculiarities of the Russian model of corporate governance and control in the banking sector. The study relies upon theoretical as well as applied research of corporate governance in Russian commercial banks featuring different forms of ownership. We focus on real interests of all stakeholders, namely bank and stock market regulators, bank owners, investors, top managers and other insiders. The Anglo-American concept of corporate governance, based on agency theor...

  13. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  14. 77 FR 12937 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Government Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... from ``30 days'' to ``60 days or such other time frame agreed to by the PLCO.'' FAR 52.245-1: Add a... Government will not bear any of the costs incident to such donations, regardless of who incurred them. ``As..., public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance...

  15. Governance, violence and the struggle for economic regulation in South Sudan: the case of Budi County (Eastern Equatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Walraet

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how Budi County in Eastern Equatoria State (South Sudan was governed during the 1990s and up to mid-2007. Because its capital Chukudum was the SPLM/A headquarters almost throughout that period, it provides us with an interesting case from which to explore how the SPLM/A governed during the war and how this impacts on the post-war peace. One observation is that the war, besides a period of devastation and human suffering, was also a time of economic opportunities and social differentiation. For that reason this article will also explore livestock trade as a new mode of wealth appropriation and the changing nature of cattle raiding, and how this interferes with the struggle for regulatory power and governable “spaces”. This means that we comprehend the economy as a political terrain. At the same time we leave room for sociological perspectives, to complement the more restricted “competition for resources and gains” approach to conflict and violence. The article is written in three sections. In the first section we briefly clarify why in 1999 there was an uprising in Budi County against SPLM/A rule and why it engendered massive local support. In the second section we examine one of the most destructive manifestations of violence that affect Budi county: cattle raiding. We look at it from a perspective that has been under-researched in the eld: that of trans-border trade. In the last section we look at how, after the peace of 2005, newly appointed local government authorities are (reclaiming do- mains of state regulation that previously lay rmly in the hands of the military. Particular attention is given to the capacity of the local authorities to guarantee security and provide protection. Key words: governance, violent conflict, regulatory power, trans-border trade, South Sudan Eastern Equatoria

  16. LEGISLATIVE STUDY ON THE GOVERNMENT REGULATION ON SOME ECONOMIC RECOVERY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSTAN Ionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the most significant elements related to the direct enactment by the executive authority – following the most difficult moments of the financial crisis (2009-2010 – of some key measures in determining the economic recovery/growth. Special attention is given to the problem of growth strengthening and sustainable competitiveness of small and medium enterprises, as well as to the issue of stimulating the set up and development of micro enterprises by junior entrepreneurs. Considering things from the legal perspective, we also stop upon the legislative measures taken by the Government to support SME access to financial guarantees and credits. Obviously, in the context following the peak of the financial crisis, we took into consideration the regulation on stimulating the development of new jobs and the regime of state aids, as well. This latter issue includes, we believe, the most important references to State aid schemes on stimulating the investments with a major impact in the economy, the ‘de minimis’ aid for the investments made by small and medium-sized enterprises, and also to the issues arising from the implementation of a State aid scheme to support the investments which promote the regional development by creating jobs.

  17. Factors affecting bank governance in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Masliza Wan Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the financial crisis in year 1997, banks in Malaysia had undergone various issues and transformations, including stricter regulation on merger and acquisitions and greater enforcement of corporate governance. Besides that, the institutions had also gone through the transformation in terms of the risk assessment practice due to the stricter rulings under Basel II regulations. Taking into account of these changes, this study empirically examines the effects of corporate governance, risk and capital on the performance of banks in Malaysia. Based on 132 firm-year samples for the period of 2004-2009, study indicates a significant and negative relationship between bank risks and performance. It further reveals that the risk weighted capital (RRWC improves bank performance. However none of the corporate governance variables have any associations with banks performance. The detail explanations of the findings along with the suggestions for future research are provided in the full text of the reports

  18. 78 FR 15869 - Repeal of Disclosure Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...) with respect to the entities regulated by OFHEO and by the Finance Board. The regulations being repealed govern public financial disclosures made by the entities with respect to certain federal... Government to regulate and oversee the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage...

  19. New Instruments In Corporate Governance Of EU Bank Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Nedelchev, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    The corporate governance practices of EU bank group were based on the principle of self-regulation. The negative effects of adoptation of the principle were on stakeholders account – deposit insurance funds, government loans, depositors, and taxpayers. The international financial crisis gives reasons for new institutional framework. The taken measures on pan-European level defined new role for traditional actors in which key actors are shareholders and regulators. The new instruments in m...

  20. NEW INSTRUMENTS IN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE OF EU BANK GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Nedelchev, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    The corporate governance practices of EU bank group were based on the principle of self-regulation. The negative effects of adoptation of the principle were on stakeholders account – deposit insurance funds, government loans, depositors, and taxpayers. The international financial crisis gives reasons for new institutional framework. The taken measures on pan-European level defined new role for traditional actors in which key actors are shareholders and regulators. The newn instruments in mode...

  1. 48 CFR 49.503 - Termination for convenience of the Government and default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience of the Government and default. 49.503 Section 49.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 49.503 Termination for convenience of the Government and default. (a) Cost-reimbursement contracts—(1...

  2. Weighted Components of i-Government Enterprise Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiardjo, E. K.; Firmansyah, G.; Hasibuan, Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    Lack of government performance, among others due to the lack of coordination and communication among government agencies. Whilst, Enterprise Architecture (EA) in the government can be use as a strategic planning tool to improve productivity, efficiency, and effectivity. However, the existence components of Government Enterprise Architecture (GEA) do not show level of importance, that cause difficulty in implementing good e-government for good governance. This study is to explore the weight of GEA components using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in order to discovered an inherent structure of e-government. The results show that IT governance component of GEA play a major role in the GEA. The rest of components that consist of e-government system, e-government regulation, e-government management, and application key operational, contributed more or less the same. Beside that GEA from other countries analyzes using comparative base on comon enterprise architecture component. These weighted components use to construct i-Government enterprise architecture. and show the relative importance of component in order to established priorities in developing e-government.

  3. 48 CFR 49.502 - Termination for convenience of the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... convenience of the Government. 49.502 Section 49.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Termination for convenience of the Government. (a) Fixed-price contracts that do not exceed the simplified...-1, Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price) (Short Form), in solicitations and...

  4. Healthy and sustainable diets: Community concern about the effect of the future food environments and support for government regulating sustainable food supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M

    2018-06-01

    To determine the level of community concern about future food supplies and perception of the importance placed on government regulation over the supply of environmentally friendly food and identify dietary and other factors associated with these beliefs in Western Australia. Data from the 2009 and 2012 Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series computer-assisted telephone interviews were pooled. Level of concern about the effect of the environment on future food supplies and importance of government regulating the supply of environmentally friendly food were measured. Multivariate regression analysed potential associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary health consciousness, weight status and self-reported intake of eight foods consistent with a sustainable diet. Western Australia. Community-dwelling adults aged 18-64 years (n = 2832). Seventy nine per cent of Western Australians were 'quite' or 'very' concerned about the effect of the environment on future food supplies. Respondents who paid less attention to the health aspects of their diet were less likely than those who were health conscious ('quite' or 'very' concerned) (OR = 0.53, 95% CI [0.35, 0.8] and 0.38 [0.17, 0.81] respectively). The majority of respondents (85.3%) thought it was 'quite' or 'very' important that government had regulatory control over an environmentally friendly food supply. Females were more likely than males to rate regulatory control as 'quite' or 'very' important' (OR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.09, 2.44], p = .02). Multiple regression modeling found that no other factors predicted concern or importance. There is a high level of community concern about the impact of the environment on future food supplies and most people believe it is important that the government regulates the issue. These attitudes dominate regardless of sociodemographic characteristics, weight status or sustainable dietary behaviours. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Royalty rules : Alberta producers are now beholden to formal regulations for reporting royalty payments to government levy collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Regulation was established by the Alberta Department of Energy in July 2005 in order to clarify the rules governing conventional crude oil royalties. The regulation provides an incentive for industry to comply with the long-existing oil royalty reporting requirements through the addition of non-compliance penalties. An initial shadow billing system has been implemented to give industry the opportunity to understand their responsibilities and implement procedures to correct reporting and delivery inaccuracies. Battery operators in Alberta must now submit a royalty report to the Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission on a monthly basis. The regulation provides provisions for interest charges on outstanding invoiced amounts, and formalizes existing eligibility requirements for the reimbursement of trucking costs associated with transporting the Crown's share. Penalties will be incurred if royalty reports contain erroneous information, or if the actual deliveries made are less than the prescribed royalty quantity. All penalties levied by the commission will now be sent to the battery operator in a monthly statement. Battery operators who wish to appeal their penalties may do so within 2 months after the date of the monthly statement. It was concluded that industry is not expected to experience any significant problems when the regulation comes into effect, as the 6 month shadow billing period will allow companies to make a smooth transition to the requirements of the new regulation. Details of information sessions for the new regulation were provided, as well as details of various non-compliance penalties. 1 fig

  6. Regulatory activities of government: analysis of determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime

  7. Future-proofing global health: Governance of priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Belinda; Cohen, I Glenn; Davies, Sara E; Gostin, Lawrence O; Hill, Peter S; Mankad, Aditi; Phelan, Alexandra L

    2018-05-01

    The year 2015 was a significant anniversary for global health: 15 years since the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals and the creation of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, followed two years later by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. 2015 was also the 10-year anniversary of the adoption of the International Health Regulations (May 2005) and the formal entering into force of the Framework Convention on the Tobacco Control (February 2005). The anniversary of these frameworks and institutions illustrates the growth and contribution of 'global' health diplomacy. Each initiative has also revealed on-going issues with compliance, sustainable funding and equitable attention in global health governance. In this paper, we present four thematic challenges that will continue to challenge prioritisation within global health governance into the future unless addressed: framing and prioritising within global health governance; identifying stakeholders of the global health community; understanding the relationship between health and behaviour; and the role of governance and regulation in supporting global health.

  8. Control of territorial communities in local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Смоляр

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available According to Art. 5 of the Constitution of Ukraine all power in Ukraine belong to people, which is primary, unified, inalienable and carried people through free will through elections, referendum and other forms of direct democracy, including those intended to control the activity of bodies and officials of the government and local government. Paper objective. At the local level the main supervisory entity in local government is local community. Consolidation of the Constitution of Ukraine the primary subject of local self-government territorial community not only meets current international practice, but also the historical traditions of Ukrainian people. Control territorial community in all phases of local government is one of the most important functions of managing the development of appropriate settlements, and therefore needs an effective mechanism of legal regulation, clearly define mutual rights and responsibilities of controlling and controlled entities. Recent research and publications analysis. Problems Assessment of local communities and the activities of local government officials in their works viewed Y.G. Barabash, P.M. Liubchenko, O.D. Skopych, Y.P. Strilets. However, given the variety of aspects of this area of research remain many questions that need resolving, on which depends largely on the further process of local governance. The paper main body. The existing regulation territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The existing regulation of territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The author emphasizes that only by implementing self-control powers local

  9. Fiscal Policy and Local Government Administration in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opinions have varied on the utility of local government administration in promoting sustainable grassroots development. Scholars are apprehensive of the prevalence of high degree of corruption and systemic inefficiency at the local government. This paper evaluates the system of financial regulations put in place to curtail ...

  10. 15 CFR 2008.12 - Foreign government information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign government information. 2008.12 Section 2008.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED...

  11. Analisis Penerapan E-Government di Kabupaten Sragen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Andriariza AS

    2013-09-01

    , G2B and G2G in Sragen Government. It also conducted an analysis using the UN Web Measure Index, and the final analysis of descriptive analysis for the 5 critical success factors of e-government, the laws and regulations, organizational structure, business processes, Information Technology and the Vision, Objectives and Strategies. From the analysis, it is concluded that Sragen G2B and G2G have implemented, and are at the early stages of implementation of G2C, Sragen has also achieved governmental online, paperless and transparent. Implementation of e-government in Sragen can be classified to be successful because it has met some success factor in the implementation of e-government, the laws and regulations, organizational structure, information technology and vision, objectives and strategy. Based on the UN's Measured Index, Sragen has reached stage 4. Recommendation from this research for the ICT government unit in Sragen is the unit will be better if the unit where handle by Echelon 2 and the need for SOPs and related ICT additional regulations in Sragen.

  12. Model Penguatan Kapasitas Pemerintah Desa dalam Menjalankan Fungsi Pemerintahan Berbasis Electronic Government (E-Government menuju Pembangunan Desa Berdaya Saing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulismadi Sulismadi

    2017-06-01

    program APBDes budgeted in fiscal year 2017. Step next phase is the research team conducting FGD Phase II to design e-government as a means of governance villages effective and efficient, to disseminate the e-government, and publishes scientific articles on the model of governance based rural e-government in the Journal of Politics and Government Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta. Our advice as a researcher is a village government should make regulations governing Internet-based mechanism of public services (e-government. The regulation is to encourage villagers Landungsari to get used to using services based on the Internet, the district government of Malang should provide support to the village government to make innovations in governance, and the central government should support the village government to strengthen rural government institutions such as the addition of the village

  13. Ideological Hegemony and Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Ford Brown

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze libertarian discourse from the perspective of regulation theory, a~ a hegemonic ideology that underlies the emergence of a new mode of regulation. Within this general theoretical approach, I will also employ frames from regime theory as developed by international relations scholars, as well as the "epistemic community" approach from the same discipline. I want to suggest that free-market ideology could engender the emergence of rationalized global governance in order ...

  14. Embedding the logic of the Paris Agreement into the new Regulation on Governance of the Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss-Stemping, Judith; Sartor, Oliver; Colombier, Michel

    2017-10-01

    To safeguard the climate and to keep the temperatures targets of the Paris Agreement within reach, determined climate action of global players, such as the European Union (EU) and its Member States, is needed more than ever. The Paris Agreement sets out a clear process to review and raise ambition embarking on a long-term transformation of the global economy. To ensure that this process and the logic of the Paris Agreement is adequately embedded in the into the new Regulation on Governance of the Energy Union, IDDRI identifies the long-term strategies, iterative process and inherent time-line of the Paris Agreement as points of vigilance

  15. GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF THE ECONOMY: RISKS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Rjahovskaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of state regulation of the economy by the example of the Russian power industry and utilities, the reasons for the negative results, the validity of the concepts, analyzes the conceptual elements of the reform, the expected and the resulting effect, the reasons for failure and return to the state in the housing sector. Particular attention is given to certain aspects of the functioning of self-regulation institute inRussia. 

  16. Public Orchestration, Social Networks, and Transnational Environmental Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Ponte, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    This article contributes to current debates on the potential and limitations of transnational environmental governance, addressing in particular the issue of how private and public regulation compete and/or reinforce each other - and with what results. One of the most influential approaches...... that a social network analytical perspective on orchestration can improve our understanding of how governments and international organizations can shape transnational environmental governance. Through a case study of aviation, we provide two contributions to these debates: first, we propose four analytical...... and institutions that provide the infrastructure of governance....

  17. The institutional fit of peatland governance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uda, Saritha Kittie; Schouten, Greetje; Hein, Lars

    2018-01-01

    The Government of Indonesia has published a number of policies and regulations to better manage its vast amount of tropical peatland, yet the degradation and conversion of Indonesian peatlands still continues. This paper analyses the institutional fit between Indonesian regulations related to

  18. A Paradigm Shift in Water Quality Governance in a Transitional Context: A Critical Study about the Empowerment of Local Governance in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisira S. Withanachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of water quality is an important part of natural resource governance. Assurance of water quality therefore requires formulation of the regulatory framework and institutional process. Water quality-related problems and their management are mainly recognized as local responsibilities in Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM. The politics of environmental policy-making should consider the political economic dynamics and socio-ecological patterns. Decentralization by providing more power to the local level and moving to a new spatial management system that is based on water basins are the two strong entreaties in the new water governance paradigm. Transitional countries facing rapid institutional adjustment, restructuring of regulations, and political-economic changes are encountering these demands internally and externally in their policy formulations. In this context, this study critically examines the case of Georgia, a transitional country. In particular, the focus is on how local governance entities can be empowered and what obstacles water quality governance encounters in Georgia. Qualitative research design is the main research method implemented in this study. The key findings from the research analysis are as follows: the existing regulations and governance system do not facilitate the active engagement of local entities in water quality governance. The application of new water polices may fail again if a top-down governance model is put in place that only creates a narrow space for local governance entities to effectively govern water quality.

  19. Spillover of Corporate Governance Standards in Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    In cross-border acquisitions, the differences between the bidder and target corporate governance have an important impact on the takeover returns. Our country-level corporate governance indices capture the changes in the quality of the national corporate governance regulations over the past 15

  20. Maritime governance speed, flow, form process

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an original analysis of the problems facing global governance and in particular that of one of the most globalised of all industries – shipping. Central to all global trade and its dramatic growth, shipping faces difficulties of governance stemming from its every globalised nature. The current characteristics of global governance – nation-state fixation, anachronistic institutions, inadequate stakeholder involvement and an over-domination of owner interests are dwarfed by the problems of stasis and fixation which means that policies to address problems of safety, the environment and security are inadequate. This book provides a full and wide ranging discussion of how governance can be animated in a global context so that the dynamism of the maritime industry and its problems can be prevented, regulated and understood. Its unique approach to governance makes it essential reading for all maritime policy-makers and those analysing maritime issues, alongside those with an interest in govern...

  1. The Complexity Of Government Communication System In Ettawa Crossbed (Ec Goat Farming In Purworejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Handaka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to determine the complexity of the environment that is faced by the government communication system and regulation that was used to resolve the issue. The theory used is communication system in the perspective of Niklas Luhmann. The research method used is ethnography. The population of the study are in Purworejo which becomes center of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. Data collection technique is conducted throught interviews and observations. The results of data analysis show that the government communication system has made regulations to resolve the real problems of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming that is done by breeders. When the government communication system produces the regulation, environmental issue has grown more complex. So the regulation that was made becomes irrelevant to the demands and challenge in the crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. The government communication system is slow in reducing the complexity of the environment and producing regulation.

  2. THE EVOLUTION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND SELF-GOVERNMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yashchuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 34The article highlights the main stages in the development of local government and self-gov-ernment in Russia. It shows the specifics of each stage. The formation of the Russian state was accompanied by the synthesis of the princely power and the community self-government. The genesis autocracy was accompanied by a struggle with the self-government institutions. The creation of rural and urban self-government in the second half of the XIX century was accom-panied by a debate on the social and public origin of these institutions.The Soviet state was based on the unity of the Soviet system. It concluded the discrete de-velopment of local self-government in Russia. There is no historical strong tradition of local government in this system.Objective of the article is to identify and characterize the main stages of development of local government and self-government in Russia. Show the discrete nature of the develop-ment of local self-government in Russia.The formation of the Russian state was accompanied by the synthesis of princely power and community self-government. Genesis autocracy was accompanied by a struggle with self-government institutions. The absence of territorial self-government in Russia was offset by the presence of social class municipality for a long time. Caste traditions tradition had a negative impact after the establishment of rural and urban self-government in the second half of the XIX century.During the preparation of the reforms and their implementation were discussions of the rela-tionship between the state and the community began in management. As a result, there is the inclusion of local authorities in the sphere of active state regulation. The desire of the county public to the political activity was suppressed by autocracy. The Provisional Government at-tempt to rely on the local self-government to create new authorities ended in failure.The Soviet state was based on a single management system. Certain powers

  3. Governing cryptocurrencies through forward guidance?

    OpenAIRE

    Goldmann, Matthias; Pustovit, Grygoriy

    2018-01-01

    While the debate about the needs and merits of cryptocurrency regulation is ongoing, the unprecedented price hikes of cryptocurrencies towards the end of 2017 triggered a somewhat unexpected sort of regulation in the form of public statements by governments and financial supervisors. It kicked in rather quickly and turned out to be much more effective than imagined. These interventions can be identified as one of the main factors that drove asset prices down, thereby preventing destabilizing ...

  4. 48 CFR 970.4905-1 - Termination for convenience of the government and default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience of the government and default. 970.4905-1 Section 970.4905-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Termination of Contracts 970.4905-1 Termination for convenience of the government and default. (a) The...

  5. 31 CFR 800.214 - Foreign government-controlled transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign government-controlled transaction. 800.214 Section 800.214 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... control of a U.S. business by a foreign government or a person controlled by or acting on behalf of a...

  6. Corporate governance in Macedonia – micro and macro analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mico Apostolov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The corporate governance issue in Macedonian companies has been brought forward during the recent few years. The main reason is the fact that the privatization process completion of socially-owned and partly state-owned enterprises has put emphasis to the challenge to reasonably regulate relationships established within companies on one hand, and relationships between companies and larger society on the other. All market economies, including those with longest tradition, have faced this kind of challenge so far. Corporate governance becomes an increasingly important issue for the Macedonian economy. It is being taken with greater consideration by the companies, regulators and government. The strong wave of privatization programs from mid-90’ have resulted in an altered business environment, and new legal and institutional frameworks have been established. Indeed, corporate governance contributes to sustainable economic development by enhancing the performance of companies and increasing their access to external sources of capital. In this paper we will make attempt to analyze the predominant factors that Create a prolific corporate governance environment in two terms; a micro level and macro level.

  7. Cross-country differences in government sector activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Pevcin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis presented in the article is to identify various economic, social, political, demographic and cultural factors that could shape the differences in the size of government sector across countries and, with the use of econometric analysis empirically verify the effect of those factors. The analysis focuses only on ”budgetary” government, meaning that the size of government is measured with a certain government spending ratio. The results of the analysis revealed that economic factors are more important in explaining the variation in the size of government consumption spending, whereas political, social and cultural factors are more important in explaining the variation in the size of transfer spending. In addition, the results indicate that the relative size of government spending is inversely related to the extent of the regulation of the economy.

  8. Urgency of Community Supervision Organization by Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wibowo Budi Santoso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urgency Surveillance Study of Social Organization aims to describe the reality of the problems in the a real of Social Organization; describe the implementation of the role of government (including local government in controlling the Social Organization; and provider recommendations on matters that need to be regulated in the draft regulations on the supervision of organizations. This study used a qualitative approach, with the aim that can be obtained in-depth and complete information about matters relating to the existence and dynamics in regional organizations. The study results presented can be: that on the one hand the existence of organizations that do not contribute little in development, but on the other hand there are many community organizations that act an archaic and disturbing in society; for the entire operational provisions for the implementation of Social Organization must be available; things that need to be arranged substantially in the surveillance by the government.

  9. Paving the Way for Heat. Local Government Policies for Developing Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Johnsen Rygg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Local governments play dual roles in developing renewable energy projects. They are the targets of many goals concerning energy and climate, set by national and international actors, and they are important actors in energy planning, regulation setting, and the development of infrastructure and residential areas. In this paper, I study how local governments’ technology policies affect the actual outcome of project development based on experiences from 14 local governments. Technology policies are studied from the perspective of Sørensen’s [1] four areas of concern: direct support of innovation, infrastructure, regulation (protection and standards and public engagement. I find that local governments use policy instruments within all four areas, and that the way local governments involves in the process of bioenergy development are surprisingly similar despite differences in location and size of both the local government and the project.

  10. EMPLOYEES’ RIGHTS IN THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Emil Moise

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent redrafting of the corporate governance legal frame at the European level, with emphasis on its functions of valorization and security of shareholders’ rights, maximizing profits and minimizing risks, raises the balance issue between the above stated goals and the necessity for compliance with employees’ rights. In this context, we intend to analyze the possibility for the labour regulations to be completed or substituted by the “soft-law” regulations, product of corporate governance, to identify the degree of stability, transparency and predictability of the employer-employee relationship and to identify the reconciliation methods between the apparently differing objectives of corporate governance and protection of employees’ rights. The study performs an analysis of the cases in which relevant provision form both corporate law and labour law are applicable, providing also practical examples from the real business environment, a comparative analysis of the relevant legal provisions from the principal EU member states and also an examination of the relevant doctrine. The research results indicate the negative effect of the poor implementation of the corporate governance rules over employees’ rights, but also the fact that compliance with employees’ rights can be and should be an instrument of the effective and transparent corporate governance rather than a barrier, providing several directions for improving the labour relations in the corporate environment.

  11. [Governance of PHC development in Rosario, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báscolo, Ernesto; Yavich, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Describing the development of PHC policy as promoted by Rosario Municipality (Argentina). A case-study was carried out during 2007 and 2008. Data was collected from secondary and primary sources (interviews, organisational census and observations). PHC development stages were identified by recognising the social norms which produced institutional change and transformation in municipal health services structure and health care and management models. The prevailing modes of governance in each stage were reconognised and characterised (clan, hierarchy and/or incentives). Four stages were identified between 1990 and 2008: 1990-1995/hierarchical mode: primary health care level organisation autonomied from hospitals. 1995-2000/ clan mode: developing of participatory managerial boards and community participation. 2000-2004/ clan mode: maturation of the "PHC movement" in competition with hospitals. 2004-2008/ clan-hierarchical mode: "movement's" crisis and constructions of norms tending towards enhancing an integrated network. Strengthening and empowering first-level health-care produced innovation favouring: the consolidation of a "PHC movement" having strong social commitment and improved services performance. The clan governance mode (regulating collective action via voluntary adhesion to shared values) was crucial for developing PHC between 1995 and 2004. Later on, the movement's fragmentation and the challenges of integrating the health system required developing hierarchical regulation mechanisms to complement the governance clan mode regulation.

  12. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility litera....... Finally, we argue that, in Asia, governments act as a structuration mechanism which challenges the current understanding of CSR.......This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  13. Public attitudes to government intervention to regulate food advertising, especially to children

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Narelle M; Carter, Patricia; Nolan, Rebecca; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Booth, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization has called on governments to implement recommendations on the marketing of foods and beverages to children. This study describes high public support for government intervention in marketing of unhealthy food to children and suggests more effort is needed to harness public opinion to influence policy development.

  14. Public attitudes to government intervention to regulate food advertising, especially to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Carter, Patricia; Nolan, Rebecca; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Booth, Sue

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization has called on governments to implement recommendations on the marketing of foods and beverages to children. This study describes high public support for government intervention in marketing of unhealthy food to children and suggests more effort is needed to harness public opinion to influence policy development.

  15. A critical review of corporate governance reforms in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Al-Hiyari

    2017-01-01

    Following the East-Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the corporate accounting scandals, the shareholder’s confidence in the audited financial statements was adversely affected and regulators started to think seriously reforming the existing corporate governance practices. As a result, numerous initiatives were implemented to accelerate improvement of corporate governance practices. One of these initiatives was the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (MCCG). The code was derived from the a...

  16. Do Kids Need Government Censors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Fashioning public policies restricting children's access to entertainment glamorizing violence, sex, drugs, and vulgarity is a complex task. The recently introduced Media Marketing Accountability Act would empower the federal government to regulate advertising of entertainment products to youth. Suggests that this power is undesirable compared to…

  17. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or any...

  18. Knowledge Governance for Sustainable Development: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorrae van Kerkhoff

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a knowledge intensive process, but plagued by persistent concerns over our apparent inability to connect what we know with more sustainable practices and outcomes. While considerable attention has been given to ways we may better understand and enhance the knowledge-based processes that support the governance of social-­ecological systems, relatively few have examined the governance of knowledge itself. The institutions—rules and norms—that govern knowledge may shed light on the persistence of 'gaps' between knowledge and action. In this review I seek to answer the question: can interdisciplinary knowledge governance literature contribute to understanding and analysing the institutional knowledge-based dimensions of sustainable development? I present and analyse the concept of knowledge governance as it is emerging in a range of disciplines and practice areas, including private sector management literature and public regulation theory and practice. I then integrate the findings from this review into a model of sustainable development proposed by Nilsson et al. [1]. I show that knowledge governance (as a scale above knowledge management can inform Nilsson et al.'s three "nested" dimensions of sustainability: human wellbeing (through access to knowledge and freedom to exercise informed choice; resource-base management (though enhancing regulation and innovation and transitions from exclusive to inclusive knowledge systems; and global public goods (by balancing public and private interests and fostering global innovation systems. This review concludes by presenting a framework that places sustainable development in the context of broader socio-political struggles towards more open, inclusive knowledge systems.

  19. GOVERNING BOARD OF THE PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its one hundred and twelfth and one hundred and thirteenth meetings on 5 November and 3 December 2002 respectively. At the first of these meetings, the Governing Board firstly took note of the favourable stance adopted by TREF with respect to a pension adjustment of 0.6% for 2003. TREF had also examined the proposed technical amendments to the Pension Fund's Rules and Regulations, as reported in Weekly Bulletin N° 44/2002, relating to a) clarification of the roles of the Governing Board and the Administrator, b) the procedure for appointing the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen and Administrator of the Fund, c) the Governing Board's voting rules and d) the role and composition of the Investment Committee. These amendments were to be submitted to the CERN Council for approval at its December meeting*. The Governing Board then considered a request submitted by the CERN Pensioners' Association (GAC) for an extraordinary adjustment of pensions. The request entailed making an ...

  20. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  1. To the problem of improving normative legal basis of organization of local self-government in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bazhenova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The crisis of local self-government actualizes the problem of effectiveness oflegal regulation of the issues of its organization.The purpose of the paper is evaluation of the effectiveness of the regulatory framework forthe organization of local government.The methodology of research includes systematic analysis, formal legal method, interpretationof legislation.The results and scope of application. The crisis of local self-government actualizes the problemof effectiveness of legal regulation of the issues of its organization. Evaluation of theeffectiveness of the regulatory framework for the organization of local government is reducedto two questions: what are the limits of state legal regulation and what are the beginningof the division of powers on the organization of local government between the RussianFederation and the subjects of the Russian Federation.Recognizing the optimal legislative approach to the definition of the limits of state regulation,which assumes the creation at the federal level of a full-fledged legal mechanism for the implementationof local self-government, subject to its combination with the beginning of municipalself-regulation, the author criticizes the legislative approach to delineating the powersto organize local self-government between the Federation and the subjects of the Federation.Conclusions. Due to the legislative formula, according to which the scope of regional powersdepends on the discretion of the federal legislator, the local self-government turned out tobe "hostage" to the emerging federal relations.

  2. The role of law in the governance of the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    The Internet epitomizes globalisation. There are not many international treaties on Internet issues so far. For the time being, governance of the Internet by law will thus basically have to be governance by national law. Most cyber scholars are therefore in the business of exploring alternative governance tools. The typical approach is hybrid, combining state with non-state inputs, and using soft forms of governance, not command and control regulation. Against this background, this papers mak...

  3. 48 CFR 232.202-4 - Security for Government financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financing. 232.202-4 Section 232.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Commercial Item Purchase Financing 232.202-4 Security for Government financing. (a)(2) When determining whether an offeror...

  4. Political authorities of local government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messing, M.

    1977-01-01

    Historically the responsibility for planning, siting, constructing, and operating the generating, transmission, and distribution systems for electric utility service (as well as the end-use systems) developed within the electric utility industry itself, subject to state and local regulation. This responsibility was later sanctioned as a functional authority as both private and publicly-owned utility franchises were negotiated with states and brought under the regulatory purview of Public Service Commissions and Public Utility Commissions around the turn of the century. Since 1970 this historic framework has been substantially altered by the enactment of powerplant siting laws in approximately 23 states and by the assertion of state interests in not only the corporate regulation, but the long range planning of electric powerplants and the consideration of alternative energy systems. Thus it is instructive to consider the authorities for powerplant siting in the following context: (1) historically the reponsibility and the authority for powerplant siting has redounded to franchised utility companies; (2) since 1970 the states have begun to exercise their constitutional authority over the development of power plant siting and energy systems; (3) both local governments and electric utility companies exist as subdivisions of the state, subject to state regulation and the delegation of state authorities. However, the assertion of state authorities in this area has come at a time when changes in the technology an the institutional structure of the electric utility industry have extended the functional service areas beyond the geographic boundaries and political jurisdictions of either local or state government, thereby creating a jurisdictional hiatus between the serivce areas of electric utilities and the jurisdictional authorities of state and local government

  5. Privatrechtliche Regelsetzung, Governance und Verhaltensökonomik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Möslein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: Governance and behavioral economics can enrich private law theory especially insofar as they contribute to effective rulemaking, i.e. to the choice of targeted regulatory instruments and the design of meaningful regulatory strategies. Conversely, both instruments are methodologically much less suited to define themselves protection objectives or to determine the substance matter of regulation. This task should be left to another, upstream level. Legal policy and regulation are to be separated, at least analytically. It is therefore not desirable, but (unfortunately not excluded in legal reality, that governance and behavioral economics are exploited as instruments of a hidden agenda of legal policy, regardless of their methodological suitability. DEUTSCH: Governance und Verhaltensökonomik können die Privatrechtswissenschaft vor allem insofern bereichern, als sie zu effektiver Regelsetzung, also zur Auswahl zielführender Regelungsinstrumente und zur Entwicklung sinnvoller Regelungsstrategien beitragen. Umgekehrt sind beide Instrumente methodisch ungleich weniger geeignet, selbst Schutzziele zu definieren und dadurch materielle Regelungsinhalte zu determinieren. Diese Aufgabe sollte einer anderen, vorgelagerten Ebene vorbehalten bleiben; Rechtspolitik und Regelsetzung sind zumindest analytisch voneinander zu trennen. Dass Governance und Verhaltensökonomik ungeachtet ihrer methodischen Eignung in der Rechtswirklichkeit instrumentalisiert werden, um versteckte Rechtspolitik zu betreiben, ist mithin nicht wünschenswert – aber (leider auch nicht ausgeschlossen.

  6. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the risk-based mode required by the new auditing standards has significantly enhanced the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance. Since the change in audit mode, the Big Ten have demonstrated a significantly better grasp of governance risk and allocated their audit effort accordingly, relative to smaller firms. The empirical evidence indicates that auditors have adjusted their audit strategy to meet the regulations, risk-based auditing is being achieved to a degree, reasonable and effective corporate governance helps to optimize audit resource allocation, and smaller auditing firms in particular should urgently strengthen their risk-based auditing capability. Overall, our findings imply that the mandatory switch to risk-based auditing has optimized audit effort in China.

  7. ChinAfrica briefly introduces the latest Chinese Government regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Unified Solar PV Tariff The Chinese Government has set a unified national solar photovoltaic(PV) benchmarking on-grid tariff in order to improve its PV tariff policy to standardize solar PV tariff management and promote sustainable development of solar PV industry. Power grid operators will be required to pay solar energy producers 1.15 yuan ($0.18) per kwh of electricity,according to

  8. [Governance of primary health-care-based health-care organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2010-01-01

    An analytical framework was developed for explaining the conditions for the effectiveness of different strategies promoting integrated primary health-care (PHC) service-based systems in Latin-America. Different modes of governance (clan, incentives and hierarchy) were characterised from a political economics viewpoint for representing alternative forms of regulation promoting innovation in health-service-providing organisations. The necessary conditions for guaranteeing the modes of governance's effectiveness are presented, as are their implications in terms of posts in play. The institutional construction of an integrated health system is interpreted as being a product of a social process in which different modes of governance are combined, operating with different ways of resolving normative aspects for regulating service provision (with the hierarchical mode), resource distribution (with the incentives mode) and on the social values legitimising such process (with the clan mode).

  9. Preliminary study for understanding the moderating role of government regulations in telecom sector of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Beenish; Mat, Nik Kamariah Nik

    2017-10-01

    Telecommunication sector of Pakistan is a significant contributor toward the economic development of Pakistan. However, telecommunication sector of Pakistan underwent a lot of changes from regulatory and marketing perspective in 2015, resulting in decreased cellular penetration, dropped down the cellular subscribers and decreased telecommunication revenue. Hence, this research paper is designed to validate the constructs used in addressing the moderating role of government regulations based on Oliver's four-stage loyalty model in telecom sector of Pakistan. This preliminary study has mainly employed the quantitative method (i.e. survey questionnaire), consisting of a total of 72 items related to eight constructs under study and used 7 points Likert scale. The main analysis method used is the reliability test of the constructs. The results reveal that the Cronbach alpha readings were between 0.756 and 0.932, indicating internally consistent and reliable measures of the constructs used. This result enables the constructs to be included in the actual data collection without change.

  10. Regulating danger on the highways: hours of service regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Daniel; Kryger, Meir

    2015-12-01

    Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers in place in the United States, Canada, Australia, and the European Union are summarized and compared to facilitate the assessment of the effectiveness of such provisions in preventing fatigue and drowsiness among truck drivers. Current hours of service provisions governing commercial truck drivers were derived from governmental sources. The commercial truck driver hours of service provisions in the United States, Canada, and the European Union permit drivers to work 14 hours and those of Australia permit drivers to work 12 hours a day on a regular basis. The regulations do not state what a driver may do with time off. They are consistent with a driver being able to drive after 24 hours without sleep. They do not take into account circadian rhythm by linking driving or rest to time of day. Current hours of service regulations governing commercial truck drivers leave gaps--permitting drivers to work long hours on a regular basis, permitting driving after no sleep for 24 hours, and failing to take into account the importance of circadian rhythm, endangering the public safety and the truck drivers themselves. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Algoritmos, regulação e governança: uma revisão de literatura / Algorithms, regulation, and governance: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Felix de Souza Machado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To offer a curated mapping of the recent academic production on the topic of algorithmic governance and regulation to understand its connection to the theoretical traditions of regulation and governance. Methodology/approach/design – Exploratory literature review focusing on the detection of themes and theoretical approaches in publications that define their field of investigation through expressions such as “algorithmic regulation”, “algorithmic governance”, “algorithmic governmentality”, and “govern by algorithm”. Findings – Despite their appearance from 2013 onwards, surveyed papers tend to carry on older research traditions that also appear in governance and regulation studies. Research topics and theoretical approaches vary, with Foucauldian, regulatory and actor-network approaches being the most common. Possibility due to the novelty of the field, there is a stronger presence of theoretical endeavors. Originality/value – This is the first organized survey with this scope and it maps a host of foreign studies to the Portuguese language, serving as a starting point for those interested in the field. Resumo Propósito – Oferecer um mapeamento selecionado da recente produção acadêmica sobre o tema de governança e regulação algorítmica, de modo a compreender como ela se conecta com as tradições teóricas de governança e regulação. Metodologia/abordagem/design – Revisão exploratória de literatura focada na detecção de temas e marcos teóricos das publicações que definem seu campo de investigação por meio de expressões como “regulação algorítmica”, “governança algorítmica”, “governamentalidade algorítmica” e “governo por algoritmo”. Resultados – Apesar de surgirem de 2013 em diante, os artigos mapeados tendem a continuar tradições de pesquisa mais antigas que também figuram nos estudos de regulação e governança. Os temas e abordagens teóricas são variados

  12. Assessment of Corporate Governance in Jordan: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the reality of corporate governance in Jordan. It identifies the framework of corporate governance, which has here been set into two dimensions – institutionalisations and regulations – and describes the five major principles of corporate governance. The study was carried out by interviews with key employees and the review of related laws and selected annual reports. The study found (1 basic shareholder rights were honoured in decision-making, except for large decisions such as major asset sales; (2 shareholders were not treated equitably in practice, although controllers sometimes took action and prohibited insider trading; (3 the role and rights of stakeholders in corporate governance were respected, and stakeholders had a number of legal protections, which were largely covered in Jordan's Company Law; (4 disclosure and transparency were observed to a large extent, although limited to quantity rather than quality, because Jordan has fully adopted IFRS and ISA and (5 boards largely fulfilled their responsibilities, as these are extensively defined by law and regulation.

  13. Trust in government and support for governmental regulation: the case of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herian, Mitchel N; Shank, Nancy C; Abdel-Monem, Tarik L

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results from a public engagement effort in Nebraska, USA, which measured public opinions about governmental involvement in encouraging the use of electronic health records (EHRs). We examine the role of trust in government in contributing to public support for government involvement in the development of EHR technologies. We hypothesize that trust in government will lead to support for federal and state governmental encouragement of the use of EHRs among doctors and insurance companies. Further, because individual experiences with health-care professionals will reduce perceptions of risk, we expect that support for governmental involvement will be tempered by greater personal experience with the health-care industry. Examining a small survey of individuals on the issue, we find general support for both of our hypotheses. The findings suggest that trust in government does have a positive relationship with support for government involvement in the policy domain, but that the frequency of personal experiences with health-care providers reduces the extent to which the public supports governmental involvement in the development of EHR technology. This inquiry contributes to our understanding of public attitudes towards government involvement in EHRs in the United States specifically and contributes to social science examining links between trust in government and support for governmental activity in the emerging policy domain regarding electronic health records systems. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. To Regulate or Not to Regulate? Views on Electronic Cigarette Regulations and Beliefs about the Reasons for and against Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Mello, Susan; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition. Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies. A higher proportion of respondents agreed with 8 different reasons to regulate e-cigarettes (48.5% to 83.3% agreement) versus 7 reasons not to regulate e-cigarettes (11.5% to 18.9%). The majority of participants agreed with 7 out of 8 reasons for regulation. When all reasons to regulate or not were included in a final multivariable model, beliefs about protecting people from secondhand vapor and protecting youth from trying e-cigarettes significantly predicted stronger support for e-cigarette restricting policies, whereas concern about government intrusion into individual choices was associated with reduced support. This research identifies key beliefs that may underlie public support or opposition to policies designed to regulate the marketing and use of e-cigarettes. Advocates on both sides of the issue may find this research valuable in developing strategic campaigns related to the issue. Specific beliefs of potential benefits and costs of e-cigarette regulation (protecting youth, preventing exposure to secondhand vapor, and government intrusion into individual choices) may be effectively deployed by policy makers or health advocates in communicating with the public.

  15. To Regulate or Not to Regulate? Views on Electronic Cigarette Regulations and Beliefs about the Reasons for and against Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Sanders-Jackson

    Full Text Available Policies designed to restrict marketing, access to, and public use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are increasingly under debate in various jurisdictions in the US. Little is known about public perceptions of these policies and factors that predict their support or opposition.Using a sample of US adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk in May 2015, this paper identifies beliefs about the benefits and costs of regulating e-cigarettes and identifies which of these beliefs predict support for e-cigarette restricting policies.A higher proportion of respondents agreed with 8 different reasons to regulate e-cigarettes (48.5% to 83.3% agreement versus 7 reasons not to regulate e-cigarettes (11.5% to 18.9%. The majority of participants agreed with 7 out of 8 reasons for regulation. When all reasons to regulate or not were included in a final multivariable model, beliefs about protecting people from secondhand vapor and protecting youth from trying e-cigarettes significantly predicted stronger support for e-cigarette restricting policies, whereas concern about government intrusion into individual choices was associated with reduced support.This research identifies key beliefs that may underlie public support or opposition to policies designed to regulate the marketing and use of e-cigarettes. Advocates on both sides of the issue may find this research valuable in developing strategic campaigns related to the issue.Specific beliefs of potential benefits and costs of e-cigarette regulation (protecting youth, preventing exposure to secondhand vapor, and government intrusion into individual choices may be effectively deployed by policy makers or health advocates in communicating with the public.

  16. 76 FR 11363 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Support Contractor Access to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... the recipient to decompile, disassemble, or reverse engineer the software, or use software decompiled... engineer the software, or use software decompiled, disassembled, or reverse engineered by the Government... Government shall not permit the recipient to decompile, disassemble, or reverse engineer the software, or use...

  17. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE OF BANKS : A SURVEY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Jakob; Vlahu, Razvan

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on the corporate governance of banks. We start by highlighting the main differences between banks and nonfinancial firms and focus on three characteristics that make banks special: (i) regulation, (ii) the capital structure of banks, and (iii) the

  18. Thinking Like a Government Documents Librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Chuck

    1998-01-01

    Explains ways to find government information on the Internet and from other sources such as online catalogs and CD-ROMs. Highlights include determining the appropriate agency involved, sources of information, finding statistics, researching legislation, the relationship between laws and regulations, and ambiguous citations. (LRW)

  19. 48 CFR 52.209-4 - First Article Approval-Government Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First Article Approval... Clauses 52.209-4 First Article Approval—Government Testing. As prescribed in 9.308-2 (a) and (b), insert the following clause: First Article Approval—Government Testing (SEP 1989) [Contracting Officer shall...

  20. 48 CFR 945.407 - Non-Government use of plant equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plant equipment. 945.407 Section 945.407 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...-Government use of plant equipment. The type of plant equipment and dollar threshold for non-Government use of DOE plant equipment will be determined by the Head of the Contracting Activity which awarded the...

  1. The Applicability of Governance at King Saud University in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentab, Mohammad Y.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of the study revolves around the application of the requirements of governance at King Saud University. The study aims to identify the extent of governance requirements at King Saud University as seen by faculty members through transparency, accountability, organizational structure, laws, regulations, and justice. To achieve the…

  2. Managing in the Regulatory Thicket : Regulation Legitimacy and Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirkhanyan, Anna A.; Meier, Kenneth J.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    Although the influence of government regulation on organizations is undeniable, empirical research in this field is scarce. This article investigates how the understanding of and attitudes toward government regulation among public, nonprofit, and for-profit managers affect organizational

  3. Spillover of Corporate Governance Standards in Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2008-01-01

    In cross-border acquisitions, the differences between the bidder and target corporate governance have an important impact on the takeover returns. Our country-level corporate governance indices capture the changes in the quality of the national corporate governance regulations over the past 15 years. When the bidder is from a country with a strong shareholder orientation (relative to the target), part of the total synergy value of the takeover may result from the improvement in the governance...

  4. Monitoring good corporate governance in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... The call for good corporate governance was as a result of the scandal and collapse ... This paper made use of legislation, regulations (Codes of best practices) and ...

  5. Information Security Governance: When Compliance Becomes More Important than Security

    OpenAIRE

    Tan , Terence C. C.; Ruighaver , Anthonie B.; Ahmad , Atif

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Current security governance is often based on a centralized decision making model and still uses an ineffective 20th century risk management approach to security. This approach is relatively simple to manage since it needs almost no security governance below the top enterprise level where most decisions are made. However, while there is a role for more corporate governance, new regulations, and improved codes of best practice to address current weak organizational secu...

  6. Delistings and the Costs of Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Vinten, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in delistings from stock exchanges in the US and Europe, and this trend has been partly attributed to increasing administrative costs in listed companies. Has corporate governance regulation gone too far? We examine delistings from European stock...

  7. Research governance: new hope for ethics committees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Deborah; Martlew, Ainsley

    2007-01-01

    For many years there has been discussion regarding the problems confronting our current ethics review system. Commentators have identified numerous issues that threaten the sustainability of Australia's voluntary HREC system. Various ad hoc solutions to these problems have been posed, but have not resulted in any significant advances. However, in recent years, discourse regarding research governance has become prominent in the Australian research environment. The application of research governance principles is gaining momentum amongst the regulators of research, including research institutions and their governing bureaucracies. We argue that this is potentially the most significant development in several years towards creating a sustainable HREC system in Australia. The recognition by research institutions and their governing bureaucracies that the responsibility for overall research governance lies with them, rather than solely with their HRECs, is leading to a range of initiatives which should significantly lessen the burden on Australian ethics committees, and improve their ability to undertake their core task of reviewing the ethical aspects of research proposals.

  8. GOVERNING BOARD OF THE PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 8 October the Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its 119th meeting, at which the members continued discussing the requests of ESO. It was noted that the Governing Board's working group as well as CERN's Legal Service and the Administration of the Pension Fund had already spent much time and effort examining the various possible options. In that context, given the considerable legal and financial consequences the requests could have for the Fund, especially regarding amendments to the Rules and Regulations, the investment costs and even administrative overheads associated with the currency overlay, the Governing Board decided that it was appropriate to invite the ESO Director of Administration to come and present ESO's position. At the same meeting, the Governing Board decided to recommend the Director-General to propose to the CERN Council a pension indexation of 0.7%, which was equivalent to the cost-of-living in Geneva up to August 2003 and would ensure purchasing power was maintained. In its reco...

  9. Climatic change and world governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the problems of international agreements about the greenhouse effect gases control. Even if the prejudice covers the whole world, the implementing of pollution regulations generate conflicts of interest. Solidarity, equity and not historical responsibilities have to govern the discussions. This involves to take into account the place of the developing countries. (A.L.B.)

  10. Banking governance: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mihăiţă Duţă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Banks are companies like any other. However, banks are distinguished by certain intrinsic characteristics of companies that have a different impact on the motivation of stakeholders. Among these features, we mention:partnership and shareholders governance agreements; banks are heavily regulated companies; banking assets is the main source of haze banking and information asymmetry; between the bank and depositors there is a problem of moral hazard.

  11. Public support for government regulatory interventions for overweight and obesity in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Emma; Hendy, Chelsea; Magnusson, Roger; Colagiuri, Stephen

    2018-04-18

    There is growing recognition among public health circles of the need for regulatory action for overweight and obesity, but there has been limited research into whether the Australian public supports government intervention. This study aimed to determine the level of public support for food-related regulations for obesity, and to assess the determinants of support. A nationally representative sample of Australian adults (n = 2011) was recruited by market research company Online Research Unit to complete an online survey. The survey measured respondents' perception of the obesity problem in Australia, and level of agreement on a 5-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) with proposed regulations in three domains; advertising, sponsorship of children's sport, and taxation. Binary logistic regression models were run to examine the association between demographic variables and support for regulation. The majority of respondents (92.5%) considered overweight and obesity to be a somewhat or very serious problem in Australia, and almost 90% felt there should be at least some government regulation to protect the public. Respondents agreed that the government should regulate food and beverage advertising (69.5%), with strongest support for restricting unhealthy food advertising to children (78.9%). There was lower support for prohibiting unhealthy food and beverage company sponsorship of children's sport (63.4% agreement), and for taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (54.5%), although the majority were still in favour. Support for fiscal policies slightly increased if revenue was to be used for health purposes. Females and tertiary educated respondents showed stronger agreement with proposed regulations (p < 0.05). The survey findings suggest the majority of the Australian population recognises obesity to be a serious health problem, and support government regulation of the food environment as a population-level preventative strategy.

  12. 48 CFR 627.203 - Patent indemnification of Government by contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnification of Government by contractor. 627.203 Section 627.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents 627.203 Patent indemnification of...

  13. 48 CFR 731.205-71 - Salary supplements for Host Government employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salary supplements for... Contracts With Commercial Organizations 731.205-71 Salary supplements for Host Government employees. (a... fifty percent of its financial support from the government. (b) General. Salary supplement occurs when...

  14. Global Internet Governance: Russian Approach and International Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the processes of Internet governance at the international level in the context of the position and interests of Russia in this area. The theory of global governance was used as a theoretical and methodological framework of the study. Initially, Internet governance was carried out on the state level, with coordination carried out in the interests of the United States created the Internet. At the present stage states and other actors in world politics has to be integrated into the existing system of Internet governance, resulting in development of multi-level or multi-directional diplomacy, formation of the so-called "hybrid" organizations and new models of cooperation. There are new formats of regulation of international relations formed under the influence of scientific and technological progress. Russia's position on Internet governance is based on the goal to ensure equal consideration of interests of all states in the governance of the Internet.

  15. Perspectives of Corporate Governance in Croatian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Golja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial market of any country firstly has to be “secure”, but although financial market is regulated and monitored, we were witnesses of bad examples (Island. So, globally all aspects of corporate governance became interesting: ownership; nature of activities; liquidity ratios, etc. The goal of this paper is to give perspectives of corporate governance in Croatian banking sector. The results of the research conducted in October 2010 are presented. The situation regarding corporate governance issues in banks is highlighted. According to the research in Croatian banks in the future corporate governance should give more attention to responsiveness; equity; efficiency and effectiveness; and on accountability. Mentioned principles are not clearly defined and recognizable. These will assure differentiation on market and trust of all stakeholders.

  16. Residences Satisfaction Towards Service Quality Provided By Bogor Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Budi; Oswari, Teddy; Kuswanto, Adi

    2011-01-01

    The lowest local government as a frontline government has some crucial duties in­cludes residences administration, village development, residences identity, land ad­ministration, and other duties. Up to present, the performance of the lowest local government is measured based on the regulation, but has never been measured based on the perception of its residences that have had service directly. The objective of the study are(1) to explore whether there is a differences between the perception ...

  17. AUDIT REPORTING AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: LINKS AND IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    George Silviu CORDOȘ; Melinda Times FÜLÖP

    2014-01-01

    Financial scandals of the last decade have had a negative effect upon the trust and perception of investors regarding auditor responsibility and their part in fraud and error detection. As a result of legal conditions and regulations, audit firms in some jurisdictions have recently started to compile transparency reports, which contain information regarding corporate governance compliance of audit firms. This study aims to investigate if corporate governance has a significant effect on audit ...

  18. 48 CFR 52.249-2 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price). 52.249-2 Section 52.249-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.249-2 Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price). As prescribed in 49.502(b)(1)(i), insert the following clause: Termination for Convenience of the Government...

  19. 48 CFR 752.245-70 - Government property-USAID reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government property-USAID reporting requirements. 752.245-70 Section 752.245-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... recommendation, USAID contracts, except for those for commercial items, must contain the following preface and...

  20. 46 CFR 280.3 - Standards governing award of an ODS agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards governing award of an ODS agreement. 280.3 Section 280.3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING... LINER OPERATORS § 280.3 Standards governing award of an ODS agreement. No ODS agreement, including any...

  1. STATE REGULATION OF FRANCHISING IN THE EU MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomiya Ohinok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In despite of extensive research of franchising in the scientific community, there are a lot of unresolved issues relating to franchising, in particular its regulation at the national level and at the level of the European Union that is why the purpose of the paper is to summarise and present the difference between state regulation of franchising in the EU member states and to research the basic principles of state regulation of franchising in the EU also to analyze legislation of the franchise relationship. Methodology. The survey is based on a comparison of data from all EU member countries and analisis of the legal framework of each country in particular and in general EU legislation. The article is devoted to a detailed analysis of main features of the franchise business in Europe. The mechanism of implementation of franchise relations between EU member states are studied. Government regulation of franchising in the EU member states are investigated. The rate of growth of franchising in Europe are analized. Results. By comparing different state laws and regulations of franchising we have identified the most effective and productive. We divided counties into two groups due to their regulation of franchising: countries which do not have a special government regulation of franchising; the countries which have state regulation of franchising; countries which have government regulation of franchising and it is governed by EU law, countries in which regulation is carried out in accordance with EU law. Thus, results of the survey showed that government regulation of franchising, as well as its regulation at the level of EU institutions have a positive impact on the development of franchising relationships. Practical implications of the results of the paper will help to develop well known network of franchise bussiness without legislative interference. Value/originality. It is first time we have grouped countries due to the main aspects of state

  2. A study on the role adjustment between central and local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yook, Dong Il; Ji, Min Gu; Yun, Yo Il; Kim, Yong Cheon; Lee, Sang In; Lee, Chan Won [Chunnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    The goal of this study is to develop new model and feasible alternatives by seeking solutions for rational redistribution of the nuclear regulatory roles between central and local governments. Since local autonomy system has been reimplemented in Korea, It is imperative to improve reform measures for the decentralization of power between central and local governments. The core of decentralization is to redistribute administrative authorities and roles which have been centralized, toward both self-governing body and communities. The level of decentralization depends on how to redistribute roles and functions between central and local government. Therefore, it is necessary to examine principle and type of domestic foreign role adjustment for effective nuclear regulation. Based on three prerequisite studies, role adjustment model for more effective nuclear regulation is made taking account of the current domestic environments and conditions. In the long run, the outcomes of this study will be expected to improve the optimal and democratic regulatory system in Korea.

  3. A study on the role adjustment between central and local government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S. K.; Yook, D. R.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop new model and feasible alternatives by seeking solutions for national redistribution of the nuclear regulatory roles between central and local governments. Since local autonomy system has been reimplemented in Korea, it is imperative to improve reform measures for the decentralization of powers between central and local governments. The core of decentralization is to redistribute administrative authorities and roles which have been centralized, toward both self-governing body and communities. The level of decentralization depends on how to redistribute roles and functions between central and local government. Therefore, it is necessary to examine principle and type of domestic foreign role adjustment for effective nuclear regulation. Based on three prerequisite studies, role adjustment model for more effective nuclear regulation is made taking account of the current domestic environments and conditions. In the long run, the outcomes of this study will be expected to improve the optimal and democratic regulatory system in Korea

  4. Business Climate and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besmira Manaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three factors, namely: Good Governance, Business Climate and Corruption. How they affect the development product of Albania, not only as a concept, and a principle but mostly as a sensitive aspect in the integration process. There are some interpretations of this concept, but I intend to analyze the key factors and actors, their cooperation and concrete production in society. Improving governance is necessary to have an integrated long term strategy based upon a continuous cooperation between institutions and citizens. But in developing countries like Albania there are some important questions such as: How can we measure the improvement of Good Governance through policies? Has Good Governance indicated an effective way for the sustainable development? (Meisel, 2008, 6. These question give us the orientation to reflect about the process of development, social economic political behavior and how this multidimensional is transformed in product of good governance. The business cycle is strongly connected with many aspects of political-, social-, juridical aspects and good governance. Despite attempts to draft law regulations, the level of corruption and informality in Albania continues to be a major obstacle. The credibility level in the implementation of law is an indicator that affects democratization and institutional integration. At present, different reports of international institutions, define Albania as the country with the highest level of Corruption in the Balkans, which is a key factor influencing business. The ways with

  5. 78 FR 44459 - Tribal Self-Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service 42 CFR Part 137 Tribal Self-Governance CFR Correction In Title 42 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 399, revised as of October 1, 2012, on page 932, in the second column, the heading ``Subpart P--Secretarial Responsibilities...

  6. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  7. The governance of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Whitman

    2007-01-01

    Despite the promises made for nanotechology, its direction and momentum as it has developed to date already pose very considerable problems of regulation and control in quite fundamental ways. This article will review these difficulties under four themes. First, the principal agents for framing governance agreements (states) are also the principal proponents of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Second, the speed of new advances in nanotechnology and the reach of their implications are already o...

  8. Gene regulation is governed by a core network in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zuguang; Zhang, Chenyu; Wang, Jin

    2012-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, and the mechanisms that lead to the disease are still relatively unclear. However, with the development of high-throughput technologies it is possible to gain a systematic view of biological systems to enhance the understanding of the roles of genes associated with HCC. Thus, analysis of the mechanism of molecule interactions in the context of gene regulatory networks can reveal specific sub-networks that lead to the development of HCC. In this study, we aimed to identify the most important gene regulations that are dysfunctional in HCC generation. Our method for constructing gene regulatory network is based on predicted target interactions, experimentally-supported interactions, and co-expression model. Regulators in the network included both transcription factors and microRNAs to provide a complete view of gene regulation. Analysis of gene regulatory network revealed that gene regulation in HCC is highly modular, in which different sets of regulators take charge of specific biological processes. We found that microRNAs mainly control biological functions related to mitochondria and oxidative reduction, while transcription factors control immune responses, extracellular activity and the cell cycle. On the higher level of gene regulation, there exists a core network that organizes regulations between different modules and maintains the robustness of the whole network. There is direct experimental evidence for most of the regulators in the core gene regulatory network relating to HCC. We infer it is the central controller of gene regulation. Finally, we explored the influence of the core gene regulatory network on biological pathways. Our analysis provides insights into the mechanism of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control in HCC. In particular, we highlight the importance of the core gene regulatory network; we propose that it is highly related to HCC and we believe further

  9. Corporate Governance Compliance and Discretionary Accruals: New Zealand Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Borhan Uddin Bhuiyan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of better compliance with corporate governance regulation on managerial accruals (discretionary accruals in New Zealand listed companies. Unlike previous research of earnings management, Jones model ( Jones 1991, Modified Jones model (Dechow, Sloan, & Sweeney, 1995 and Performance Matched Accruals Model (Kothari, Leone, & Wasley, 2005 this research focuses on free cash flow as a measure of discretionary accruals instead of cash flow from operating activities. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was done on 70 New Zealand listed firms over the period of 2000 - 2007 (inclusive. Results found that better compliance with corporate governance reduces discretionary accruals implying lower managerial opportunistic behaviour. Consistent with existing theoriesand models of discretionary accruals, this research documents that free cash flow increase managerial discretion by comparing with commonly used accruals model such as Jones Model, Modified Jones Model and Performance Matched Accruals Model. This study provides insights to regulators in developing corporate governance and financial reporting guidelines. It suggests that ‘Comply or Explain’ form of soft regulation reduces managerial discretion with stock exchange listing. This research uses a comparative analysis of traditional discretionary accrual measure with free cash flow approach of discretionary accruals. Moreover, an integration approach of discretionary accrual measure was never previously done in New Zealand.

  10. 48 CFR 52.227-13 - Patent Rights-Ownership by the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic subsidiaries and affiliates within the corporate structure of which the Contractor is a part, and... the Government. 52.227-13 Section 52.227-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.227-13 Patent Rights—Ownership by the Government. As prescribed at 27.303(e), insert the...

  11. Rolling towards a cleaner future: the development of Canadian locomotive emissions regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    In 2006, the Government of Canada published a notice of intent that it would develop regulations aimed at reducing anthropogenic criteria air contaminants and greenhouse gas emissions. The Government now intends to develop railway emissions regulations for criteria air contaminants under the Railway Safety Act. The Railway Safety Act not only provides the legislative basis for developing regulations governing railways, it also gives the authority for developing the rules governing federally regulated railroads to the Minister of Transport. For the future, Transport Canada will be responsible for developing regulations governing the rail sector. The transportation sector is a substantial emitter of criteria air contaminants, so rail transportation is a key element of the current work. This paper seeks to give a framework for consultations with stakeholders and facilitate dialogue. It collects feedback from stakeholders on the design of a Canadian regulatory regime for locomotive-generated criteria air contaminant emissions. Canadian railways have managed locomotive air contaminant emissions since 1995.

  12. Innovation in Multi-Level Governance for Energy Efficiency. Sharing experience with multi-level governance to enhance energy efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jollands, Nigel; Gasc, Emilien; Pasquier, Sara Bryan

    2009-12-15

    Despite creating a plethora of national and international regulations and voluntary programmes to improve energy efficiency, countries are far from achieving full energy efficiency potential across all sectors of the economy. One major challenge, among numerous barriers, is policy implementation. One strategy that many national governments and international organisations have used to address the implementation issue is to engage regional and local authorities. To that end, many programmes have been created that foster energy efficiency action and collaboration across levels of government. The aim of this report is to identify trends and detail recent developments in multi-level governance in energy efficiency (MLGEE). By sharing lessons learned from daily practitioners in the field, the IEA hopes energy efficiency policy makers at all levels of government will be able to identify useful multilevel governance (MLG) practices across geographical and political contexts and use these to design robust programmes; modify existing programmes, and connect and share experiences with other policy makers in this field.

  13. From Hippocrates to Commodities: three models of NHS governance: NHS governance, regulation, Mid Staffordshire inquiry, health care as a commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newdick, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    A series of inquiries and reports suggest considerable failings in the care provided to some patients in the NHS. Although the Bristol Inquiry report of 2001 led to the creation of many new regulatory bodies to supervise the NHS, they have never enjoyed consistent support from government and the Mid Staffordshire Inquiry in 2013 suggests they made little difference. Why do some parts of the NHS disregard patients' interests and how we should we respond to the challenge? The following discusses the evolution of approaches to NHS governance through the Hippocratic, Managerial and Commercial models, and assesses their risks and benefits. Apart from the ethical imperative, the need for effective governance is driven both by the growth in information available to the public and the resources wasted by ineffective systems of care. Appropriate solutions depend on an understanding of the perverse incentives inherent in each model and the need for greater sensitivity to the voices of patients and the public. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals. permissions@oup.com.

  14. Autogoverno, Regulação, Função Normativa e Independência Interna no Judiciário / Self-Government, Regulatory Power and Judicial Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Melo Gomes Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper focuses on the relationship between the performed normative function and the judges’ internal independence, often by general and abstract commands, for self-government agencies with regulation functions in the Judiciary. Methodology/approach/design – This study implements analyses of standards and regulation literature, normative function, self-government and judicial independence. Illustratively, courts’ decisions on specific cases were analyzed. Special attention was given to the theoretical bases of regulation, the normative function of government agencies and to the democratization proposal of judicial self-government, a model notedly proposed by Zaffaroni. Findings – Self-government implies regulation. Regulation involves the exercise of normative function. Internal democratization of judicial self-government and participation of all regulated agents in the Judiciary are necessary tools to ensure legitimacy and the internal independence for the exercise of normative functions and the whole set of activities put forward by self-government agencies. Practical implications – The paper discusses a change in the institutional design of self-government in the Judiciary and the limits imposed by its the normative function. Originality/value – It correlates the regulatory function developed by self-government agencies with the assurance of judges’ internal independence.

  15. Ideological Hegemony and Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ford Brown

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze libertarian discourse from the perspective of regulation theory, a~ a hegemonic ideology that underlies the emergence of a new mode of regulation. Within this general theoretical approach, I will also employ frames from regime theory as developed by international relations scholars, as well as the "epistemic community" approach from the same discipline. I want to suggest that free-market ideology could engender the emergence of rationalized global governance in order to maintain free trade, property rights, and other regulatory concerns of the emerging mode of accumulation, and that such a world state could conceivably extend liberalism's life by carrying liberalism to its extreme.

  16. Balancing Public and Private Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Scheltema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS might develop into a viable alternative to public regulation. However, it turns on the (regulatory circumstances whether that holds true in practice. If public regulation on CSR topics is lacking, governments are unable to agree upon certain topics on a global level or diverging public regulation exists, VSS can be helpful to set global standards. Obviously, private standards will especially be helpful if they are commensurate with local public legislation (and e.g. treaties and/or are accepted by local governments. If one neglects this, numerous domestic structures might exist that frustrate VSS. Furthermore, governments have to remain vigilant as to whether these private regimes do not result in market disruption, consumer detriment or hamper trade. VSS might also compete with public arrangements which might limit the uptake of VSS. However, if public regulation exists VSS might be a viable alternative if compliance with not too compelling public norms by market participants is rather poor and the public policymaker is aiming to incentivize the better performing part of the market to embark on higher standards and thus only desires to regulate the less performing part of the market. However, of paramount importance is the effectiveness of VSS in order to be a viable alternative to public regulation. The effectiveness of VSS should be assessed using an integrated multi-disciplinary (comparative approach entailing legal, impact-assessment, legitimacy, governance and behavioural aspects. Only effective VSS in the aforementioned sense are a true alternative to public regulation.Beyond that, the legal perspective in connection with (the effectiveness of VSS is discussed, featuring FSC and UTZ Certified as an example. It is important from this perspective that VSS have a clear and sufficiently selective objective and sufficiently specific norms, are regularly evaluated, entail ‘conflict of law rules’ and

  17. Quality, quantity and distribution of medical education and care: regulation by the private sector or mandate by government?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlyan, W G

    1975-05-01

    The public, the federal government and most state governments have become increasingly concerned with the lack of access to primary care as well as the specialty and geographic maldistribution problems. Currently, there is a race in progress between the private sector and the federal government to devise solutions to these problems. In the federal sector, varying pieces of legislation are under active consideration to mandate the correction of specialty and geographic maldistribution; proposals include: 1) setting up federal machinery to regulate the numbers and types of residencies; 2) make obligatory the creation of Departments of Family Practice in each medical school; 3) withdraw current education support from medical schools causing tuition levels to increase substantially--federal student loans would then provide the necessary leverage to obligate the borrower to two years of service in an under-served area in exchange for loan forgiveness. In the private sector, for the first time in the history of the United States, the five major organizations involved in medical care have organized to form the Coordinating Council on Medical Education (CCME) and the Liaison Committee on Graduate Medical Education (LCGME). One of the initial major endeavors of the CCME has been to address itself to the problem of specialty maldistribution. The LCGME has been tooling up to become the accrediting group for residency training thus providing an overview of the quality and quantity of specialty training. It will be the intent of this presentation to bring the membership of the Southern Surgical Association an up-to-date report on these parallel efforts. The author's personal hope is that the private sector can move sufficiently rapidly to set up its own regulatory mechanisms and avert another federally controlled bureaucracy that will forever change the character of the medical profession in the United States.

  18. Questions concerning constitutional law - Laender administration on behalf of the Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badura, P.

    1991-01-01

    The lecture deals with the interpretation of regulations on competence and organisation in the federal system the Laender administration on behalf of the Federal Government and the federal principles governing the formation of state - the legal relationship between the Federation and the Laender; the competence of the supreme federal authority for subject matters in executing federal law on behalf of the Federal Government. The following concluding statement is given: While extensive, the scope of the Federal Government in influencing the execution of federal law through the Laender in the case of the Laender administration on behalf of the Federal Government has its limits both in law and practice. In the case of atomic energy administration this situation may appear as an execution deficit from the point of view of the Federal Government. If at all desirable, redress is only conceivable via an amendment to Paragraph 85 of the Basic Law or to the specific constitutional regulations - possibly in the strengthening of the Federation through the instruments of Paragraph 85 of the Basic Law: authorization of the supreme federal authority to execute the federal law if there is an urgent public interest in this. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. The missing link in nanomaterials governance: industrial dynamics and downstream policies

    OpenAIRE

    Rafols, Ismael; van Zwanenberg, Patrick; Morgan, Molly; Nightingale, Paul; Smith, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore the analytical and policy implications of widening the governance of nanomaterials from the focus on risk regulation to a broader focus on the governance of innovation. To do this, we have analysed the impact of industrial activities on nanotechnology governance, while previous studies have concentrated on risk appraisal, public perceptions, public engagement, regulatory frameworks and related policies. We argue that the specific characteristics of the industrial dy...

  20. 77 FR 69866 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... system; (2) extracellular matrix remodeling; (3) moderation of inflammation by reducing levels of... is governed in large part by the regulation of host cell death. Lipid mediators called eicosanoids...

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility in Perspective of Public Administration (A Governance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Said Achmad Lamo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Implementation of CSR in Indonesia, most of them are not run in accordance with the existing theory because the government and society in CSR activities are not fully authorised to engage in these activities, due to the fact that private sector directly manages the CSR fund. Thus, the theory of governance puts three pillars as a principal provider of public service life, those are, (1 the state, (2 the civil society and (3 the private sector. CSR has to involve all parts or elements which know about CSR, with a focus on the implementation of CSR has to be published and transparent; the CSR Fund is administered by a forum / team through a memorandum of understanding facilitated by the government in accordance with its role as mandating, facilitating, partnering, and endorsing; the CSR forum consists of government, private sector, and society; the form of regional regulation on CSR by reference to Constitution Number 40 of 2007 on the Limited Liability Private sectors and Government Regulation Number 47 of 2012 on Corporate Social Responsibility so that CSR is considered as one of the important instruments in public administration.

  2. Revenue rules when environmental regulation agencies collude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarn Hansen, L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the welfare implications of earmarking of revenues from environmental taxes in analyzed using a principal-agent model in the incomplete contracting tradition of constitutional design. In the model the public has very limited knowledge of the emissions problem to be regulated. Government has full knowledge and is given a general mandate to regulate, however government may be biased toward an interested party. To curb the welfare effects of government bias the public may either earmark revenues from environmental taxes for environmental expenditures or for transfers to the polluters. We find that earmarking for transfers to the polluters (under certain conditions) can be expected to maximize welfare when government bias is strong and the direction of bias is uncertain. (au) 10 refs

  3. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All IRR...

  4. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN INDIA: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Thapar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a process, relation and mechanism set up for the corporations and firms based on certain guidelines and principles by which a company is controlled and directed. The principles provided in the system ensure that the company is governed in a way that it is able to set and achieve its goals and objectives in the context of the social, regulatory and market environment, and is able to maximize profits and also benefit those whose interest is involved in it, in the long run. The division and distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders and inclusion of the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs are identified with the help of Corporate Governance mechanism and guidelines. The need to make corporate governance in India transparent was felt after the high profile corporate governance failure scams like the stock market scam, the UTI scam, Ketan Parikh scam, Satyam scam, which were severely criticized by the shareholders. Thus, Corporate Governance is not just company administration but more than that and includes monitoring the actions, policies, practices, and decisions of corporations, their agents, and affected stakeholders thereby ensuring fair, efficient and transparent functioning of the corporate management system. By this paper, the authors intend to examine the concept of corporate governance in India with regard to the provisions of corporate governance under the Companies Act 2013. The paper will highlight the importance and need of corporate governance in India. We will also discuss the important case laws which contributed immensely in the emergence of corporate governance in India.

  5. The efficiency of government supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paetzold, H.

    1992-01-01

    In 1970, fires as events initiating plant failure were included in the accident analyses of nuclear power plant design concepts. In the meantime, they have been expressed in more precise terms and incorporated into the bodies of nuclear technical rules and regulations. Following a suggestion by the Baden-Wuerttemberg State Ministry for the Environment, the efficiency of government supervision has been examined for the example of fire protection measures or the site of Phillipsburg with one BWR and one PWR plant in operation. The result of the examination indicated that pragmatic approaches and the establishment of key areas of supervision could further enhance the efficiency of government supervision under Section 19 of the German Atomic Energy Act and achieve improvements in plant safety. (orig.) [de

  6. AUDIT REPORTING AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: LINKS AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Silviu CORDOȘ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial scandals of the last decade have had a negative effect upon the trust and perception of investors regarding auditor responsibility and their part in fraud and error detection. As a result of legal conditions and regulations, audit firms in some jurisdictions have recently started to compile transparency reports, which contain information regarding corporate governance compliance of audit firms. This study aims to investigate if corporate governance has a significant effect on audit reporting and audit quality. Thus, our starting point is the definition of corporate governance, with an emphasis on the transparency principle for efficient corporate governance. We aim to analyse how this principle influences the quality level of the audit report, through a qualitative study. Keeping in mind that corporate governance in audit firms is considered to have a noteworthy effect on audit quality, we expect to find that regulatory bodies expect more transparency from these firms, therefore increasing competitiveness among audit firms concerning audit quality.

  7. 48 CFR 1845.407 - Non-Government use of plant equipment. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Use and Rental of Government Property 1845.407 Non-Government use of plant equipment. (NASA supplements paragraph (a)). For NASA, the coverage in FAR 45.407, applies to all equipment, not just plant... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Non-Government use of plant...

  8. Why do private governance organizations not converge? A political-institutional analysis of transnational labor standards regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary governance arrangements focusing on responsible business behavior have proliferated over the past decades, and in many sectors of industry, different governance organizations now compete for business participation. This private governance competition has negative consequences for the

  9. School governing body election deficiencies – deliberative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undemocratic features in the election process results in the election of unsuitable or incompetent candidates which has a detrimental effect on the governance of public schools. It is therefore recommended that a new set of nationally uniform SGB election regulations, which allows for transparent deliberation between ...

  10. Pengaruh Implementasi Good Corporate Governance terhadap Permodalan dan Kinerja Perbankan Di Indonesia: Manajemen Risiko Sebagai Variabel Intervening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Permatasari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of Bank Indonesia No. 8/4/PBI/2006 as amended by regulation No. 8/14/2006 about implementation of corporate governance become be a proof why corporate governance important in the banking sector. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of corporate governance on risk management, bank capital, and bank performance in Indonesia.  Implementation on corporate governance is measured by a composit score of corporate governance which is the result of bank self assessment. Risk management is measured by Non Performing Loans (NPL. Bank capital is measured by Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR and bank performance is measured by Return On Equity (ROE. The result showed that corporate governance affect risk management, corporate governance and risk management does not affect bank capital, and corporate governance do not affect bank performance, but risk management affect bank performance. Thus the risk management can be an intervening variable between corporate governance and bank performance.

  11. 48 CFR 52.229-9 - Taxes-Cost-Reimbursement Contracts With Foreign Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Taxes-Cost-Reimbursement... Provisions and Clauses 52.229-9 Taxes—Cost-Reimbursement Contracts With Foreign Governments. As prescribed in 29.402-2(b), insert the following clause: Taxes—Cost-Reimbursement Contracts With Foreign Governments...

  12. 76 FR 6006 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government Property Lost, Stolen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... rarely occurs. Similarly, a respondent stated the need to address the materiality of the loss and that... pertaining to Government property losses. It does not require reporting of the estimated harm or materiality... assigned by the Government and identified in the contract; and adds the method for determining the...

  13. A RELATIONAL ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the realities brought forward by the financial crisis is that the corporate Governance, based until now mainly on self-regulation, has not been as effective as possible. A better management of organizations is important not only in order to reduce the possibility of occurrence of a new crisis in the future, but also for organizations to be more competitive. Currently we do not have a definition of corporate governance that is unanimously accepted. At global level, there are a variety of definitions for this term, depending on national, cultural or legislative characteristics. In this article we present the concept of corporate governance as being a complex process occurring at the level of the management of the organization, which integrates control, risk management and internal audit in a formula that is meant to determine the level of performance for the organizational achievements.

  14. Transparency and information disclosure in China's environmental governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; He, G.

    2016-01-01

    Given its past as a so-called information-poor and authoritarian country, China has recently made remarkable progress in information disclosure and environmental transparency. Since enacting the Open Government Information Regulations and the Environmental Information Disclosure Measures in 2008,

  15. Towards effective telephone-based delivery of government services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Government regulations have combined with a tremendous growth in prepaid cellular telephony to bring telephone connectivity to an unprecedented number of South African citizens – thus creating an ideal platform for delivering services to a wide...

  16. Mining in the Northern Territory: evolution of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Northern Territory Government is shifting away from the traditional command and control prescriptive style regulation, to self-regulation with its increased emphasis on company responsibility. Benchmarking in the areas of environment, health and safety are key steps in this shift. It is widely recognised that heavy-handed regulatory systems are not a particularly effective way to achieve best practice outcomes, a more holistic approach to regulation is required. The ideal situation is to have Government and industry jointly setting goals and reviewing progress towards those goals

  17. Towards sustainability. Major challenges for corporate law, corporate governance and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten-Boddin, C.; de Hoo, S.C.; Renssen, S.; Schwarz, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the presentations held at the launching event of the Institute for Corporate Law, Governance and Innovation Policies (ICGI) at Maastricht University. Contributions are provided by Willem Lageweg (Director of MVO Nederland), Prof. Dr. Jacqueline Cramer (Director of the Utrecht

  18. 48 CFR 3003.101-3 - Agency regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....101-3 Section 3003.101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS... Security regulations governing the conduct and responsibilities of employees are contained in 5 CFR part...

  19. Governing economies in areas of limited statehood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Varming, Kirstine Strøh

    This DIIS–GOVSEA working paper reviews key debates within economic anthropology and related academic disciplines explaining how economic life is governed in areas of limited statehood. The paper briefly introduces some of the origins of economic anthropology before going into deeper discussions...... of a number of key debates within the field. The literature review and discussion is organised on the basis of six major themes that shed light on this research question: 1) embeddedness and economic transformations, 2) property governance, 3) informal and popular economies, 4) debt and money, 5) borders...... and cross-border trade, and 6) authority, governance and economic regulation. These themes are supported by case examples from the Somali territories in the East and Horn of Africa. Through the reviewed literature, the paper critically engages common categories, such as formal/informal, state...

  20. Dangerous Liaisons? Governments, companies and Internet governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Private actors in the information technology sector are currently playing an increasingly important role in content mediation, as well as in regulation of online forms of expression, with implications for both internet rights and economic freedom. The “privatisation of internet governance” (DeNardis, 2010, is not a new dynamic; however, in a scenario in which users are taking advantage of increasingly sophisticated technology, the centralisation and concentration characterising today’s most widespread internet services are contributing to the accentuation of this tendency. The 'inherently political' qualities of search engine algorithm development, video content removals, blocking of domain names – actions that originate and rest with the private sector’s handling of the internet’s infrastructure – should not be neglected in our assessment of the field of internet governance today.

  1. Regulating the Dutch pharmaceutical market: improving efficiency or controlling costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Rutten, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Dutch pharmaceutical market, which is heavily regulated by the government. Through the regulation of prices and promoting prudent use, the Dutch government tries to bring down the cost of pharmaceuticals, which increases every year at a higher rate than total health

  2. 31 CFR 596.404 - Financial transactions transferred through a bank of a Terrorism List Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through a bank of a Terrorism List Government. 596.404 Section 596.404 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 596.404 Financial transactions transferred through a bank of a Terrorism List Government. For the purposes of this part only, a financial...

  3. Synthetic biology regulation and governance: Lessons from TAPIC for the United States, European Union, and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Benjamin D

    2017-11-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technology with potential benefits to various fields, yet also contains potential risks to human and environmental health. The field remains in an emerging state with limited quantitative guidance and a small but growing population of international researchers that conduct work within this field. Given the uncertain nature of this technology, an adaptive and anticipatory governance framework may be necessary to balance the potential benefits that may accrue from the technology's continued research alongside a desire to reduce or eliminate potential risks that may arise. However, such developments must account for the unique political and institutional factors that form a government's risk culture - something that can facilitate or impede the development of adaptive synthetic biology governance moving forward. The TAPIC framework helps illustrate those factors that are essential to develop good governance for emerging technologies like synthetic biology. Specifically, an application of TAPIC to synthetic biology governance indicates that the factors of accountability, participation, and integrity must be bolstered to improve technology governance in governments like with the United States, European Union, and Singapore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Implementation of corporate governance principles in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to conduct a study regarding the manner in which corporate governance principles are applied in Romania, in both public and private sector. In the first part of the paper, the corporate governance principles are presented as they are defined in Romania, in comparison with the main international sources of interest in the domain (OECD corporate governance principles, UE legal framework. The corporate governance (CG principles refer to issues regarding board composition, transparency of scope, objectives and policies; they define the relations between directors and managers, shareholders and stakeholders. The research methodology is based on both fundamental research and empirical study on the implementation of corporate governance principles in companies from Romania. The main instrument of research is a corporate governance index, calculated based on a framework proposed by the author. The corporate governance principles are transposed in criteria that compose the framework for the CG index. The results of the study consist of scores for each CG principles and calculation of CG index for seven companies selected from the public and private sector in Romania. The results are analyzed and discussed in order to formulate general and particular recommendations. The main conclusion of this study is that that a legal framework in the area of corporate governance regulation is needed in Romania. I consider that the main CG principles should be enforced by developing a mandatory legal framework.

  5. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  6. Environment, oil and political vulnerability in the Ecuadorian Amazon: Towards new forms of energy governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem JUTEAU-MARTINEAU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a historical analysis of oil exploitation governance in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region (rae, regarding its strong social and environmental impacts from the 1960’s until today. We identify three steps in the evolution of governance, leading up to the recent institutionalization of the regulation of impacts caused by oil-related activities, through centralized public policies. The relevance, feasibility and efficiency of these policies, as well as the role of decentralized governments regarding this regulation, are key factors in the evolution of social vulnerability to the impacts of oil-related activities.

  7. Evaluating e-Government and Good Governance Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi Suhardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the achievement of Indonesian government institutions in implementing e-government has been conducted since around a decade ago. Several national assessments are available with almost the same ranking results. There is an agreement that the ultimate goal of e-government implementation is to achieve good government governance (GGG, while success stories of e-government require good governance practices. This study explored the correlation between e-government achievement and GGG achievement in Indonesia. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to characterize the relationship strength between e-government assessment results and good governance assessment results. The data were collected from institutions that participated in e-government and good governance assessments. The results showed that the correlation between these two entities is not very strong. Most cases showed that e-government implementation and the achievement of good governance have only a moderate positive correlation and none of the studied cases indicated a significant connection. This result can be attributed to the lack of emphasis on goals achievement in the assessments. Thus, it is recommended that future Indonesian e-government assessments should involve impact indicators.

  8. Regulating nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process

  9. Content validity of critical success factors for e-Government implementation in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitupulu, D.; Syafrullah, M.; Rahim, R.; Amar, A.; Sucahyo, YG

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to validate the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of e-Government implementation in Indonesia. The e-Government initiative conducted only to obey the regulation but ignoring the quality. Defining CSFs will help government agencies to avoid failure of e-Government projects. A survey with the questionnaire was used to validate the item of CSF based on expert judgment through two round of Delphi. The result showed from 67 subjects in instrument tested; there are 11 invalid items deleted and remain only 56 items that had good content validity and internal reliability. Therefore, all 56 CSFs should be adopted by government agencies in Indonesia to support e-Government implementation.

  10. Who regulates food? Australians' perceptions of responsibility for food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Julie; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Food scares have diminished trust in public institutions to guarantee food safety. Food governance after the food scare era is concerned with institutional independence and transparency leading to a hybrid of public and private sector management and to mechanisms for consumer involvement in food governance. This paper explores Australian consumers' perceptions of who is, and should be responsible for food safety. Forty-seven participants were interviewed as part of a larger study on trust in the food system. Participants associate food governance with government, industry, and the individual. While few participants can name the national food regulator, there is a strong belief that the government is responsible for regulating the quality and safety of food. Participants are wary of the role of the food industry in food safety, believing that profit motives will undermine effective food regulation. Personal responsibility for food safety practices was also identified. While there are fewer mechanisms for consumer involvement and transparency built into the food governance system, Australian consumers display considerable trust in government to protect food safety. There is little evidence of the politicisation of food, reflecting a level of trust in the Australian food governance system that may arise from a lack of exposure to major food scares.

  11. Financial Reporting of Government Property in the Custody of Contractors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ... of the Military Departments and Defense agencies. We also assessed management controls affecting the financial reporting of Government property, and we assessed compliance with applicable laws and regulations...

  12. ADR characteristics and corporate governance in the Greater China region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Hsien Pan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between firm valuation and governance mechanisms, firm characteristics, and institutional factors of the American Depository Receipts (ADRs domiciled in the Greater China region. We find that China ADRs have the highest market-to-book value ratio followed by Hong Kong and Taiwan ADRs. It appears that Chinese firms with the poorest external governance environment stand to benefit the most from cross listing under the ADR programs. Listing in the U.S. that requires more stringent regulations and disclosure rules may strengthen the firms’ governance practices and thereby enhance their firm value. Among the internal governance mechanisms, institutional ownership and insider ownership are important for firm value.

  13. Delistings in Europe and the Cost of Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Frederik; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    to go private. It seems likely that increasing investor protection will at some point add more costs than benefits to companies and investors. Governments should therefore consider both costs and benefits of further regulation.Key words: Delisting, public listing, mergers, acquisitions, bankruptcy...

  14. Access to justice within the sustainable self-governance model

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Tully

    2004-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the development and operation of non-state models of global governance and the extent to which they conform to principles of good governance. Focusing primarily on issues of access to justice and secondarily on the independence of such bodies from the industries which they purport to regulate, this paper argues that adjudicative mechanisms established by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and firms may not produce outcomes which are considered 'just' by t...

  15. E-GOVERNMENT AS A BASIC FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia ORLOVA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of information society in Ukraine and introduction of new information and communication technologies in areas of social life and activity of the government is defined by effective work of the e-government in the country. The article is devoted to finding the role of e-government in the socio-economic development. The aim of of this paper is to find the the main directions of e-government in the information society to improve the efficiency of government in Ukraine and the access to international information society. The article is analyzed the factors constraining introduction of electronic government in Ukraine, obstacles for users of e-governments system in the conditions of information society  also. It is proved that e-government is the foundation of a new model of governance in Ukraine. The article is analysed a rating of the European countries (separately Eastern Europe by efficiency of introduction of the electronic government. The methodological basis of  research is made by a logical and dialectic method of knowledge of economic events and state regulation machineries in modern world and national economies, the provision of fundamental works on the economic theory, international law and public administration.

  16. The TTIP negotiations: from interregionalism to global governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Joseph Sberro Picard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this theoretical study, we show why the negotiation between the European Union and the United States of a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP could be a watershed in the field of international relations. Beyond the importance of a trade agreement between the world’s two largest economic powers, an eventual agreement would change international relations as a whole. Similarly, it would return relations between large regions to the centre of thinking about the world again, not just those between countries. Lastly, it would oblige the other powers to define themselves in relation to the regulations agreed between the two members of the TTIP, regulations that go beyond trade and investment. A step forward between Europe and the United States would signify, for that matter, a step forward for global governance, even if the objectives of that governance are yet to be defined.

  17. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains (GWCs) are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in International Political Economy and Economic Geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...... innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This article highlights how GWCs intersect with value chains, and provides brief case examples of wealth chains and how they interact.......This article offers a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains (GWCs) are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in International Political Economy and Economic Geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...... capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of GWC governance – Market, Modular, Relational, Captive, and Hierarchy – which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws to highly complex and flexible...

  18. Cancer risk assessments and environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scroggin, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Governmental regulation of toxic substances, such as carcinogens and radiation, prompts both legal and scientific controversies. Industry, environmental activist groups, government regulators, and the general public are all concerned with the question of how environmental risk to public health is to be measured and what level of risk warrants government action under the environmental laws. Several recent events shed light on the fundamental scientific and legal problems inherent in such regulation, and these events may affect the direction of future developments. These events include implementation of generic Risk Assessment Guidelines by the US EPA, litigation challenging EPA's regulation of carcinogenic substances, new scientific understanding of the relative risks from human exposure to natural and man-made sources, and the continuing growth of toxic tort litigation in which victims of cancer seek large damages from industrial emitters of pollution

  19. Holdings of the Federal German Government in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the direct and more important indirect holdings of the Federal German Government and its special assets ERP, Compensation Fund, Federal Mail and Federal Railway. Part A provides a total survey of the number of government holdings. For the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets the shares in nominal capital and registered foundation capital, number of employees and dividend on profits are presented. In Parts B to M, the narrative parts, the most important holdings are reported on more in detail (sphere of activities, economic development, composition of the corporate bodies). The listing order does not reflect any order of importance. The following part N contains alphabetic indexes. Indexes I and II list all the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets irrespective of the nominal capital volume and share of holdings. In index III, are listed only companies with corporate activites and a nominal capital of at least 100.000 German Marks of which the Federal Government and/or its special assets hold directly or indirectly at least 25 percent. Holdings of these undertakings of which the Federal Government does not have majority ownership, and which are not dependent on it under the regulations governing shareholdings either, are not considered. (orig.) [de

  20. 41 CFR 102-118.30 - Are Government corporations bound by this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are Government corporations bound by this part? 102-118.30 Section 102-118.30 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118...

  1. Regulate or deregulate. Influencing network interconnection charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Wielle, B.

    2003-06-01

    We study the choice between regulating interconnection charges or delegating their determination to the operators, both in a non-mature and a mature market. Three regulatory regimes are considered: full, cost-based and bill-and-keep. Delegation corresponds to bargaining about the interconnection charges using the regulatory schemes as disagreement outcomes. Applying regulation benefits the consumers. Under full regulation, access charges account for asymmetries and allow a unique Ramsey price. Delegation benefits the operators. In a mature market delegation robs the government of any market influence. In a non-mature market government preferences coincide with those of the largest operator and are disadvantageous for entry.

  2. Can market forces and competition supplant regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges facing regulators and governments as utilities and pipelines transform from regulated monopolies into competitive businesses were discussed. In the past, the absence of competition required that utility and pipeline companies be regulated by governments to ensure fair pricing and good performance. The question of whether or not competition can entirely replace regulation was examined. Although the focus was on the natural gas industry, the regulatory trends in other industries were also briefly considered. In 1985, the federal government agreed to allow the commodity price of natural gas to fluctuate in response to market forces. This began the process of deregulation in the Canadian natural gas industry. Direct purchasing introduced competition and ended the monopolies of local distribution companies in purchasing gas. The main benefits of the competitive market structure were that consumers could choose products and services from a range of competing companies at competitive prices. This was critical to the success of the Canadian economy since Canada is the third largest exporter of energy and the eighth largest consumer of energy. It was suggested that even in a competitive market abuse of market power is possible, therefore, there is an important role for government in ensuring the existence of a level playing field. A variety of issues involved in an effective transition to a competitive market were also discussed. 2 figs

  3. The Significance of the 2014 Corporate Governance Code of the Bank of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vladislavovna Shashkova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article focuses on corporate governance in Russia, as well as on the approval in 2014 of the Code of Corporate Governance by the Bank of Russia and by the Russian Government. The article also provides the concept of the famous foreign term Compliance. Compliance is a system based on binding rules of conduct contained in the regulations which are mandatory for the company. In order to fulfill best practices and implement local acts on the most important issues for the company, many foreign companies as well as large Russian companies have formed special Compliance departments. Taking into account such international experience and international corporate governance principles the Bank of Russia has elaborated the Corporate Governance Code, approved by the Russian Government in February 2014. Corporate Governance Code regulates a number of the most important issues of corporate governance such as shareholders'rights and fair treatment of shareholders; Board of Directors; Corporate Secretary of the Company; system of remuneration of members of the Board of Directors, executive bodies and other key executives of the company; system of risk management and internal control; disclosure of information about the company, the information policy of the company; major corporate actions. The most important issue which is analyzed by the author is the problem of the composition of the Board of Directors: the presence of independent directors in the company. According to the author the new Corporate Governance Code reflects the latest trends as well as the current situation with corporate governance in Russia today.

  4. ZAKAT MANAGEMENT IN MEDAN: THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GOVERNMENT REGULATION NO. 23/2011 ON MANAGEMENT OF ZAKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the transformation of the spirit of Islamic law into the National Legal System which can be seen with the birth of the Law on the Development Badan Amil Zakat and Sadaqah Infaq Given the institutional team of zakat, namely Badan Amil Zakat (BAZ and the Institute Amil Zakat (LAZ then by itself have been of a wide space to the public, outside the participating government agencies to develop resources zakat Medan municipality, as one of the biggest cities in Indonesia is one of the parameters of how the regulation of zakat as stated by the law of zakat can run effectively or not. The qualitative research was conducted in Medan City, adopting normative, sociological and anthropological jurisdiction approaches, The source of data included field data as a primary source and documents as a secondary one. Data were collected with non participant observations, a series of struktured interviews with selectedinformants, and document analysis as suggested by Miles and Huberman (1992 which include data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing. In responding to the issue of guardian, I applied the theories analysis deskriptif with use methods of analysis. This study concludes Management of Zakat city of Medan after the enactment of Law Number 23 of 2011 has not been significant. problem that is taking place in the city of Medan is a data base that is still weak both within the community and the institution, Management, Human resources zakat manager unprofessional attitude of a lack of public trust in zakat management institutions, lack of exemplary government officials and village leaders, strict sanctions is not yet clear who is responsible for carrying out or take action against violations set forth in Law Number 23 of 2011 For the deficiencies of this institution also led to public institutions is not tithe but they tithe directly to recipients.

  5. Strategic environmental policy when the governments are threatened by relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaker, Mads

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the threat of relocation influences environmental policy. The stringency of environmental policy is determined in a game between two governments. There is one firm in each jurisdiction, and both firms threaten to relocate their production to the other jurisdiction. Because there is asymmetric information about the cost of relocation, the governments do not know the credibility of the threat. We compare the outcome of this game with the outcome of a game in which relocation is not possible. We find that the threat of relocation can increase both the level of environmental regulation and welfare. The profit tax level proves to be the most decisive for the result; that is, the higher the profit tax level, the lower the level of environmental regulation

  6. Does corporate governance affect dividend policy: Evidence from ASEAN emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatot Nazir Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research-work uses a survey which comes from three different countries in ASEAN region i.e Indonesian, Thiland and Malaysian. This work integrate whole data from above all countries to examine whether firms that do corporate governance practising will pay higher dividends. This study has two issues: how regulation of stock exchange affects good corporate governance and how corporate governance affects value of the firm. Using OLS regression, our finding shows that good corporate governance practices has positive sign to dividend pay out. Our finding may contribute to corporate governance literature.First, result finding support Jensen’s (1986 that states free csah flow not reduce dividends pay out. Second, integrating emprical model from three different countires in ASEAN region.

  7. Governing nanobiotechnology: lessons from agricultural biotechnology regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robbin S.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses lessons from biotechnology to help inform the design of oversight for nanobiotechnology. Those lessons suggest the following: first, oversight needs to be broadly defined, encompassing not just regulatory findings around safety and efficacy, but also public understanding and acceptance of the technology and its products. Second, the intensity of scrutiny and review should reflect not just risks but also perceptions of risk. Finally, a global marketplace argues for uniform standards or commercially practical solutions to differences in standards. One way of designing oversight to achieve these purposes is to think about it in three phases—precaution, prudence, and promotion. Precaution comes early in the technology or product’s development and reflects real and perceived uncertainties. Prudence governs when risks and hazards have been identified, containment approaches established, and benefits broadly defined. Transparency and public participation rise to the fore. The promotional phase moves toward shaping public understanding and acceptance and involves marketing issues rather than safety ones. This flexible, three-phase approach to oversight would have avoided some of the early regulatory problems with agricultural biotechnology. It also would have led to a more risk-adjusted pathway to regulatory approval. Furthermore, it would avoid some of the arbitrary, disruptive marketing issues that have arisen.

  8. Discretionary powers: threats and opportunities for the development of local government in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Tarasenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The essence of discretionary powers of authorities and officials of local government has been developed, and possible dangers associated with their implementation in the context of the local government development in Ukraine have been outlined. The study attempts to specify the nature of these powers with due regard to the specific features of local government and outline approaches for improving the regulation of relations in the exercise of discretionary powers. The need for further researches in this area in the field of public administration, in particular, regarding the practice­oriented research support to activities of authorities and officials of local government in this area, has been substantiated. The article focuses on the importance of not only reducing the number of discretionary powers, but also ensuring the proper monitoring of the exercise of such powers on the basis of law, justice, and expediency. The article emphasizes the need to strengthen accountability of authorities and officials of local government, including the social and political accountability and development of practices of public control over the decision­making in the field of local government. The research results confirm the relevance of an issue of the formation of competence of officials on the matters of the exercise of discretionary powers. It is recommended to develop the techniques of making decisions or actions during the implementation of discretionary powers as methodological support. This methodology is based on the requirements of the Administrative Court Procedure Code of Ukraine and existing methodologies with anti­corruption expertise. It has been noted that discretionary powers of authorities and officials of local government make it possible to increase the level of their freedom in the activities concerning the functions of local government. It gains in particular importance in the absence of decision­making opportunities otherwise

  9. The roles of government in improving health care quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Eisenberg, John M; Meyer, Gregg S

    2004-01-01

    Discussions surrounding the role of government have been and continue to be a favorite American pastime. A framework is provided for understanding the 10 roles that government plays in improving health care quality and safety in the United States. Examples of proposed federal actions to reduce medical errors and enhance patient safety are provided to illustrate the 10 roles: (1) purchase health care, (2) provide health care, (3) ensure access to quality care for vulnerable populations, (4) regulate health care markets, (5) support acquisition of new knowledge, (6) develop and evaluate health technologies and practices, (7) monitor health care quality, (8) inform health care decision makers, (9) develop the health care workforce, and (10) convene stakeholders from across the health care system. Government's responsibility to protect and advance the interests of society includes the delivery of high-quality health care. Because the market alone cannot ensure all Americans access to quality health care, the government must preserve the interests of its citizens by supplementing the market where there are gaps and regulating the market where there is inefficiency or unfairness. The ultimate goal of achieving high quality of care will require strong partnerships among federal, state, and local governments and the private sector. Translating general principles regarding the appropriate role of government into specific actions within a rapidly changing, decentralized delivery system will require the combined efforts of the public and private sectors.

  10. ECONOMIC NATURE OF THE FINANCIAL REGULATION OF INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shirinyan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Author made critical review of researches and found out the existance of the problem of determination and differentiation in a scientific literature the concepts “financial regulation of the insurance market”, “government financial regulation of the insurance market” and “government regulation of the insurance market”. It is offered the consideration of the insurance market from positions of analysis of the complex systems as being the component part of the greater system. It is disclosured the economic nature and determined the mentioned notions.

  11. Regulation and the Marketplace

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Sunder; Michael Maier; Karim Jamal

    2004-01-01

    Under what conditions is government regulation better at protecting market participants than private, evolving, market-driven protections? An intriguing answer to that question emerges if we examine a relatively unregulated area of market participant protection: e-commerce privacy. In the United States, the privacy of participants engaged in e-commerce is largely unregulated by government; instead, many commercial websites contract with third parties to establish privacy protection codes and ...

  12. New modes of governance in the Spanish electricity and gas sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, Leonor Moral [Public and Constitutional Law Universidad de Granada Department of Administrative Law, Law Faculty Plaza de la Universidad s/n 18071 Granada, (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    This paper analyses the institutional framework of the Spanish electricity and gas markets from their emergence at the beginning of the twentieth century until the liberalisation process encouraged by the European Union. European processes of liberalisation involving the introduction of regulation and competition and the application of non-hierarchical modes have raised the number of both public and private actors taking part in sectoral governance. However, none of these modes is new for the sector. A historical perspective shows the conditions under which the threat of governmental intervention and the discretion granted to sectoral governance differed significantly between sectors. While the threat to nationalise and monopolise the electricity sector contributed to the creation of a private agent and a model of self-regulation with a large measure of discretion, in the gas sector the public presence was strong and control tight. Thus, the paper concludes that one should not presuppose that old modes of governance are strongly governmental and hierarchical. The opposite proves to be the case in the Spanish electricity sector, where new modes of governance are now more linked to hierarchy. (Author).

  13. The Mutable Nature of Risk and Acceptability: A Hybrid Risk Governance Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Catherine Mei Ling

    2015-11-01

    This article focuses on the fluid nature of risk problems and the challenges it presents to establishing acceptability in risk governance. It introduces an actor-network theory (ANT) perspective as a way to deal with the mutable nature of risk controversies and the configuration of stakeholders. To translate this into a practicable framework, the article proposes a hybrid risk governance framework that combines ANT with integrative risk governance, deliberative democracy, and responsive regulation. This addresses a number of the limitations in existing risk governance models, including: (1) the lack of more substantive public participation throughout the lifecycle of a project; (2) hijacking of deliberative forums by particular groups; and (3) the treatment of risk problems and their associated stakeholders as immutable entities. The framework constitutes a five-stage process of co-selection, co-design, co-planning, and co-regulation to facilitate the co-production of collective interests and knowledge, build capacities, and strengthen accountability in the process. The aims of this article are twofold: conceptually, it introduces a framework of risk governance that accounts for the mutable nature of risk problems and configuration of stakeholders. In practice, this article offers risk managers and practitioners of risk governance a set of procedures with which to operationalize this conceptual approach to risk and stakeholder engagement. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. 49 CFR 173.7 - Government operations and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Determining the airworthiness and directing maintenance of the aircraft; and (3) Dispatching the aircraft... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.7 Government operations and materials. (a) Hazardous... regulations in this subchapter or in packagings of equal or greater strength and efficiency as certified by...

  15. Transnational models for regulation of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gary E; Sylvester, Douglas J

    2006-01-01

    Like all technologies, nanotechnology will inevitably present risks, whether they result from unintentional effects of otherwise beneficial applications, or from the malevolent misuse of technology. Increasingly, risks from new and emerging technologies are being regulated at the international level, although governments and private experts are only beginning to consider the appropriate international responses to nanotechnology. In this paper, we explore both the potential risks posed by nanotechnology and potential regulatory frameworks that law may impose. In so doing, we also explore the various rationales for international regulation including the potential for cross-boundary harms, sharing of regulatory expertise and resources, controlling protectionism and trade conflicts, avoiding a "race to the bottom" in which governments seek economic advantage through lax regulation, and limiting the "nano divide" between North and South. Finally, we examine some models for international regulation and offer tentative thoughts on the prospects for each.

  16. ChinAfrica briefly introduces the latest Chinese Government regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Unified Solar PV Tariff The Chinese Government has set a unified national solar photovoltaic (PV) benchmarking on grid tariff in order to improve its PV tariffpolicy to standardize solar PV tariff management and promote sustain able development of solar PV industry.Power grid operators will be required to pay solar energy producers 1.15 yuan ($0.18) per kwh of electricity,according to a notice posted on the website of the National Development and Reform Commission.The notice also stated that the prices only apply to solar power project that were approved before July 1.Electricity generated by projects that were approved after July 1 will be priced at 1 yuan ($0.15) per kwh,the notice said.

  17. Making Sense of Partnering: Discourses, Governance and Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2012-01-01

    a perspective of institutional theory, however, the development of partnering can also be understood as a strategic intervention that has destabilized the established regulative context in which the traditional contractual mode of project governance takes place. Drawing on a historical document study and data...... from an ethnographic case study of a public partnering project, it is shown that rather than providing a well-defined alternative to the traditional form of project governance, the institutional destabilization has cultivated an organization field offering a legitimate frame for local sense making....... Thus, as a project governance mechanism, partnering emerges as a collective sense-making process directed at (re-)creating a new form of rational behaviour under changing institutional conditions....

  18. 76 FR 43376 - Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    .../gsareg.htm . As noted in its request, on July 16, 2011, ICE Trust reorganized its corporate structure... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities... temporary exemptions from certain Government Securities Act of 1986 provisions and regulations regarding...

  19. 5 CFR 5.1 - Civil Service regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... if such a variation is within the spirit of the regulations, and the efficiency of the Government and... hardship involved, (b) what is permitted in place of what is required by regulations, (c) the circumstances...

  20. Radiation Safety of Accelerator Facility with Regard to Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedi Sunaryadi; Gloria Doloresa

    2003-01-01

    The radiation safety of accelerator facility and the status of the facilities according to licensee in Indonesia as well as lesson learned from the accidents are described. The atomic energy Act No. 10 of 1997 enacted by the Government of Indonesia which is implemented in Radiation Safety Government Regulation No. 63 and 64 as well as practice-specific model regulation for licensing request are discussed. (author)

  1. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    ) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, and hierarchy - which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous international tax laws...... to highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This paper highlights how Global Wealth Chains intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies, family property trusts......This working paper creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains, literature on finance...

  2. Shariah Governance Practices at Islamic Banks in Bahrain From Islamic Bankers’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutan Emir Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the Islamic banks' commitment towards Sharia Governance in Bahrain. This study utilizes both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The survey results reveal that Islamic banks in Bahrain practice 7 out of 9 questions in the questionnaire, which are related to Sharia governance aspects as per the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI's governance standards. The interview results also reveal that the Islamic banks are practicing most aspects of Sharia governance. The results of this paper can be an input for the regulator and the banks' management to make decisions to improve Sharia governance practice among Islamic banks in Bahrain.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v10i1.5991

  3. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  4. 75 FR 75444 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Government Property (DFARS Case 2009-D008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.245-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when mapping, charting, and geodesy property is to be furnished. (b... Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property. As prescribed in 245.107(a), use the following...

  5. Cryptocurrencies & the Challenge of Global Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacbs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent explosive development of new forms of digital currency opens up unprecedented opportunities and poses significant regulatory challenges. This new form of digital currency lowers the costs and other barriers to the global movement of money, international trade, foreign investment and speculation, while simultaneously enhancing the anonymity on which tax evasion, money-laundering and other illegal activities thrive. It also liberates the creation of money and regulation of economic activities from the political control of national governments and central banks. Since the value of a currency is related to the size of the population, strength of the economy and value of transactions that utilize it, a basket of cryptocurrencies could emerge as the first prototype of a world currency whose value is backed by the total productive capacity of the entire human community. Moreover, the triad of Internet, distributed ledger technologies and cryptocurrencies could serve as the basis for the development of new global economic potentials in a manner similar and a degree far exceeding the economic impact of the World Wide Web over the past two decades. At the same time, the rapid deployment of cryptocurrencies could have profound impact on the capacity of governments to tax transactions, income and wealth, one of the main pillars of the modern nation state. The development of autonomous global cryptocurrencies could dramatically reduce the control and effectiveness of existing regulatory mechanisms at the national level and generate considerable pressure for the evolution of more effective institutions for global governance. They could provide compelling incentives for national governments to enhance international cooperation and strengthen the functioning of international institutions to fill the regulatory void. International organizations will play an important role in harnessing the potentials and minimizing the risks arising from the growing

  6. Governance in urban development crisis situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Rober

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban shrinking processes are increasingly recognized as a phenomenon for research in urban politics, encompassing entire cities or parts of it as well as metropolitan areas that are experiencing a fundamental decline in both their economic and social bases.Cities are facing complex social problems like aging processes within the resident population and simultaneously running shrinking processes. Observable side effects of these transformation processes are higher vacancy rates and under-utilization of infrastructure facilities. Therefore cities are no longer able to cope alone with this growing complexity, hence a demand for cooperation evolves. The ongoing reforms of internal structure of local government connected with the devolution of resources and competences, as well as the changing external relationships between the business community, local public bodies, individual bureaucrats and local politicians, increase institutional fragmentation. Thus internal and external reform processes generate an extended network of policy actors involved in local decision making. Schools of thought in urban politics accentuate the changing role of local governments in decision making processes. Regime theory, corporatism, regulation theory or civic governance concepts differ in their emphasis on the importance of specific actors participating in local decision making. The paper reviews the competing theoretical assumptions for the importance of specific actors in local decision making. This addresses the question to what extent specific governance modes adopted in reaction to shrinking processes are an expression of a changing relationship between local governments and civil society or business actors in an international comparative context. Is there a trend to more convergence with respect to the adopted governance modes?

  7. Health workforce governance and oral health: Diversity and challenges in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E; Eaton, Kenneth A

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the life course, oral diseases are some of the most common non-communicable diseases globally, and in Europe. Human resources for oral health are fundamental to healthcare systems in general and dentistry is no exception. As political and healthcare systems change, so do forms of governance. The aim of this paper is to examine human resources for oral health in Europe, against a workforce governance framework, using England as a case study. The findings suggest that neo-liberalist philosophies are leading to multiple forms of soft governance at professional, system, organisational and individual levels, most notably in England, where there is no longer professional self-regulation. Benefits include professional regulation of a wider cadre of human resources for oral health, reorientation of care towards evidence-informed practice including prevention, and consideration of care pathways for patients. Across Europe there has been significant professional collaboration in relation to quality standards in the education of dentists, following transnational policies permitting freedom of movement of health professionals; however, the distribution of dentists is inequitable. Challenges include facilitating employment of graduates to serve the needs and demands of the population in certain countries, together with governance of workforce production and migration across Europe. Integrated trans-European approaches to monitoring mobility and governance are urgently required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Governing China’s food quality through transparency: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    In coping with food quality problems, China relies heavily on state institutions, such as laws and regulations, governmental standards and certification, and inspections and enforcement. Recently, transparency (or information disclosure) has been introduced in China’s governance framework to cope

  9. 48 CFR 432.202-4 - Security for Government financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financing. 432.202-4 Section 432.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Commercial Item Purchase Financing 432.202-4 Security for Government financing. Prior to determining that an offeror's financial condition is adequate...

  10. Adapting to extreme events related to natural variability and climate change: the imperative of coupling technology with strong regulation and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kythreotis, A P; Mercer, T G; Frostick, L E

    2013-09-03

    In recent years there has been an increase in extreme events related to natural variability (such as earthquakes, tsunamis and hurricanes) and climate change (such as flooding and more extreme weather). Developing innovative technologies is crucial in making society more resilient to such events. However, little emphasis has been placed on the role of human decision-making in maximizing the positive impacts of technological developments. This is exacerbated by the lack of appropriate adaptation options and the privatization of existing infrastructure, which can leave people exposed to increasing risk. This work examines the need for more robust government regulation and legislation to complement developments and innovations in technology in order to protect communities against such extreme events.

  11. Evolution of relationship between government and companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchuruk, S.

    1995-01-01

    The president of the Total petroleum company , during a meeting of Petroleum institute at London, exposed the relations and their evolution in energy area, between national government and petroleum industry. The nationalization or the privatization, the taxation, the differences made between different kind of energy are so many factors which are used to regulate energy policy

  12. Exposing government response action contractors to environmental tort liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Government contractors, particularly those involved with hazardous waste response action activities, are encountering increased risks for environmental tort liabilities. Contracts often include tasks and work assignments requiring the management of industrial, chemical, nuclear or mining wastes, spent fuels, munitions or other toxic substances. Contractors exposure to liability for damages results directly from the environmental laws and regulations pursuant to which the Government has contracted them to respond. Additionally, contractors may be exposed to common law liability under such dogmas as nuisance, trespass and strict liability in tort

  13. Collaboration or Contention? Decentralised marine Governance in Berau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumawati, R.; Visser, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of marine space is a new frontier in environmentalists’ involvement with resource governance in Indonesia. The coastal and marine area of Berau was established as a District Marine Conservation Area (MCA) based on District Head Regulation No. 31/2005. The total MCA of 1.27 million ha

  14. E-Government Partnerships Across Levels of Government

    OpenAIRE

    Charbit, Claire; Michalun, Varinia

    2009-01-01

    E-government Partnerships across Levels of Government, is an overview of the challenges and approaches to creating a collaborative and cooperative partnership across levels of government for e-government development and implementation.

  15. 41 CFR 301-10.262 - How will my agency authorize travel on Government aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from point to point) are considered travelers and must be authorized to travel on Government aircraft... authorize travel on Government aircraft? 301-10.262 Section 301-10.262 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES...

  16. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  17. Aggressive Tax Strategies and Corporate Tax Governance: An Institutional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarino, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of tax-aggressive strategies on corporate governance by adopting an agency perspective of the firm and discusses how certain corporate tax governance measures may limit these kinds of managerial actions. We first clarify a few basic concepts such as tax minimization, effective tax planning, tax avoidance, and tax evasion, which are important to understand in the discussion about aggressive tax behaviour. We further define the regulative concept of effective ta...

  18. Leadership by example: coordinating government roles in improving health care quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Barbara M; Corrigan, Janet M; Eden, Jill

    .... Leadership by Example explores how the federal government can leverage its unique position as regulator, purchaser, provider, and research sponsor to improve care - not only in these six programs...

  19. Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: Developing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    What role should governments play in protecting the environment and controlling the environmental impacts of industry? Do regulations benefit the environment, and how do they affect industrial innovation? Since the modern era of environmental management began in the early 1970s, regulations have been used with ...

  20. Correspondence Training: An Example of Rule-Governed Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Joseph R.; Konarski, Edward A., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a study comparing the outcome of a reinforcement (do only) procedure with correspondence (say/do) training indicated no apparent differences in generalization between two groups of mentally retarded adults (N=12). Rule-governed behavior, rather than verbal regulation of behavior, may best account for behavior changes seen in…

  1. 77 FR 13013 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Organization Government Procurement Agreement and the Free Trade Agreements, as determined by the United States... 252 Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System...

  2. Governing Board of the Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its one hundred-and-twenty-eighth and one hundred and-twenty-ninth meetings on 2 November and 7 December 2004 respectively. At the first of these two meetings, the Governing Board was requested to deal with an urgent request relating to the procedure for the election of two members and two alternates to the Board. The members of the Board decided to cancel the voting procedure under way at that time on the grounds that one of the candidates had benefited from special publicity from the Staff Association that ran counter to the spirit of the Rules and Regulations of the Fund and could potentially influence the outcome of the elections. It was decided that a new round of voting should be organised to ensure a fair procedure. As announced in the Weekly Bulletin of 6 December 2004, the new vote was deferred to January 2005. The Governing Board then took note of a document setting out the large number of proposals from its members concerning possible measures to impr...

  3. GOVERNING BOARD OF THE PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Governing Board held its 116th meeting on 6 May 2003, which was mainly devoted to two presentations, the first by J.-P. Matheys, Chairman of the Working Group set up to examine a request from ESO, who reported on the group's first meeting, and the second by Guy Maurin, Chairman of the Investment Committee, on the latter's meeting of 9 April. Concerning ESO's request to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund relating to changes that ESO wishes to make to the conditions of membership of its staff members, J.-P. Matheys reported that at the first meeting of the Working Group specially set up to examine this request the members had agreed that the Group should give priority to ensuring that ESO's request had no financial or legal repercussions for the Fund. The Group had also expressed its agreement with the Governing Board's opinion that any amendment to the Pension Fund Rules and Regulations should be avoided. Furthermore, the Group had reached the conclusion that it would be impossible to submit recommend...

  4. Renewable energies heat act and government grants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nast, M.

    2010-01-01

    In Germany renewable energies in the heat market are promoted by the Renewable Energies Heat Act (EEWaermeG) and by government grants. Ultimately, these two instruments are not only about short-term market success, but rather about the perspectives of climate protection and resource conservation. The focus of this report is therefore on the long-term significance of the current design of government grants and EEWaermeG. We will introduce and discuss the quantitative goals and structural changes strived for as well as - on a slightly shorter time horizon - the quality assurance regulations which must accompany the steady and stable growth of renewable energies. In the process, we will elaborate in particular on heat pumps, which have recently been added to the government support programme, along with solar collectors. Some explanations regarding the structural relationships between EEWaermeG and government grants round off this contribution. (author)

  5. „The Control” in View of International Accounting Regulation and Romanian Accounting Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, financial reporting accountant is governed by Accounting Low number 82/1991, republished, and O.M.F.P. 3.055/2009 approving the accounting regulation in accordance with European Directives. To these are added the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS, IAS and IFRIC of which must take into account certain Romanian legal persons in accordance with applicable regulations. Therefore this paper presents the main points of the control from the two types of accounting regulations perspective (national and international applied in our country.

  6. 5 CFR 591.203 - Why does the Government pay post differentials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances and Post Differentials § 591.203 Why does the Government pay post differentials...

  7. REGIONAL GOVERNMENT'S RESPONSIBILITY TO THE PROTECTION OF INDONESIAN WORKER EMPLOYED (TKIs ABROAD (Review of Human Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Lasatu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia is to protect and realize the welfare of citizens. Therefore, the main responsibility of the government is to provide protection and guarantee to every citizen to get a job and a decent living for humanity. Limitations of domestic employment, as well as the public's desire to work overseas, should be responded positively by the government, by formulating regulations both at the central and regional levels. This study will examine the roles and responsibilities of local governments as an effort the law protection against Indonesian Migrant Worker working abroad.This research is a normative legal research with approach of legislation and concept approach and analyzed qualitatively to give perspective on legal issue to the object of this research study. The results show that the responsibility of local government, especially in the pre-placement, post-placement, and empowerment phase of placement of migrant workers, while the placement of migrant workers is the responsibility of the central government. Implementation of local government responsibilities should be supported by regulations established by local governments.

  8. The Governance of Money Laundering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    What are the drivers behind the anti-money laundering (AML) governance framework? Who are the actors and institutions, and what is the policy content? This chapter provides an overview of the processes and mechanisms of AML policy-making. AML is often presented as a financial problem, and something......, moreover, that is key to debates about international political economy (IPE) since it goes to the heart of the integrity of the financial system and also, at least in principle, aims to impose controls on the movement of money. Yet, as a policy concern, thinking about money laundering was developed away...... from traditional settings for the regulation of global finance. Instead, AML policies were driven by and linked to the public policy objectives of law and order. As a result, the governance of money laundering encompasses a broad set of goals, techniques and professional knowledge. It brings together...

  9. 76 FR 49650 - Regulations Governing Practice Before the Internal Revenue Service; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... governing of practice before the IRS and the standards with respect to tax returns. DATES: This correction... Part 10 Accountants, Administrative practice and procedure, Lawyers, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Taxes. Correction of Publication Accordingly, 31 CFR part 10 is corrected by making the following...

  10. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Republic of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    Croatia's corporate governance system is framed by civil law with regulation for traded companies in part based on London securities rules and international standards for accounting and auditing. There are two public exchanges, which both have three tiers. The majority of companies are listed on the third tier, which has the lowest level of disclosure and listing requirements. The small nu...

  11. The Governance of Global Wealth Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    liability and (3) innovation capacities among suppliers of products used in wealth chains. We then differentiate five types of global value chain governance - market, modular, relational, captive, an d hierarchy – which range from simple ‘off shelf’ products shielded from regulators by advantageous...... international tax laws to highly complex and flexible innovative financial products produced by large financial institutions and corporations. This article highlights how Global Wealth Cha ins intersect with value chains and real economies, and provides three brief case studies on offshore shell companies......This introduction to the Special Issue creates a theoretical framework to explain how Global Wealth Chains are created, maintained, and governed. We draw upon different strands of literature, including scholarship in international political economy and economic geography on Global Value Chains...

  12. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  13. Political power beyond the State: problematics of government. 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nikolas; Miller, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out an approach to the analysis of political power in terms of problematics of government. It argues against an overvaluation of the 'problem of the State' in political debate and social theory. A number of conceptual tools are suggested for the analysis of the many and varied alliances between political and other authorities that seek to govern economic activity, social life and individual conduct. Modern political rationalities and governmental technologies are shown to be intrinsically linked to developments in knowledge and to the powers of expertise. The characteristics of liberal problematics of government are investigated, and it is argued that they are dependent upon technologies for 'governing at a distance', seeking to create locales, entities and persons able to operate a regulated autonomy. The analysis is exemplified through an investigation of welfarism as a mode of 'social' government. The paper concludes with a brief consideration of neo-liberalism which demonstrates that the analytical language structured by the philosophical opposition of state and civil society is unable to comprehend contemporary transformations in modes of exercise of political power.(1).

  14. 31 CFR 10.25 - Practice by former government employees, their partners and their associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., their partners and their associates. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section— (1) Assist means to... issued by the U.S. Office of Government Ethics. (5) Rule includes Treasury regulations, whether issued or... period of one year prior to the termination of Government employment had official responsibility for a...

  15. Fiscal Policy and Local Government Administration in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    system of financial regulations put in place to curtail the degree of corruption at ..... state governors feel the impact of fiscal centralism. ... Treasurer to the Local Government and the Head of Internal Audit. ... and issuing of false certificate of job completion by an accounting .... Lagos: Federal Ministry of Information. p.19; 118.

  16. 31 CFR 357.10 - Laws governing a Treasury book-entry security, TRADES, and security interests or entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Laws governing a Treasury book-entry... PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Treasury/Reserve Automated Debt Entry System (TRADES) § 357.10 Laws governing a Treasury book...

  17. 78 FR 67847 - Debt Collection (Regulation F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... ( www.RegulationRoom.org ), that uses web technologies and approaches to enhance public understanding... that RegulationRoom is not an official United States Government Web site. Although comments made on... range of other businesses. Skip-tracing companies, for instance, provide contact information for...

  18. 76 FR 12666 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... presentation per company or organization; (4) Last four digits of social security number for each person.../dars/government_furnished_property.html and submit the following information: (1) Company or...

  19. The influence of corporate governance on project governance

    OpenAIRE

    Gonda, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This work identifies the interaction between corporate governance and project management in project governance. It begins with introduction of basics of corporate governance and various principles of corporate governance in chosen countries and organizations. Further it introduces theoretical background of project governance and its connection and to corporate governance. In practical part work analyzes the level of compliancy with Swiss codex of best praxis in chosen company. The results con...

  20. The effects of energy co-governance in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Soon after the launching of the Camisea Gas Project, in 2000, Peru became a medium-range Latin American gas exporting country. Our central argument is that energy governance in this country has been shifting from a 'hierarchical' to a 'co-governance' mode. Accordingly, interactions among the State, the society and economic actors are now regulated in a horizontal and decentralized way, rather than a vertical and centralized one. This shift contributed to the success of the Camisea gas project and had a positive effect on foreign direct investments inflow in the energy sector (1). In addition, it has helped Peru reach energetic self-sufficiency, while improving its energy balance (2). Meanwhile, energy policy has welcomed a major participation of social actors, contributing to institutionalized arrangements between the State, the companies and indigenous communities and their NGO partners (3). Two theoretical conclusions can be drawn from this study. First, the State's role remains central in energy governance, thus invalidating the 'hollowing of the State' thesis. Second, the co-governance mode helps to overcome the 'resource curse' thesis.

  1. Federal government information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the Federal Government. It contains: a summary of the organization and responsibilities of agencies within the executive branch of the Federal government which may be relevant to FUSRAP activities; a brief summary of relevant Federal statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the US Congress, identification of the officers, relevant committees and committee chairmen; a description of the Federal legislative process; a summary of legislation enacted and considered in the recently-adjourned 96th Congress; a description of the Federal budgetary process; a summary of the Carter Administration's comprehensive radioactive waste management program; and excerpts from the text of relevant Federal statutes and regulations

  2. Federal government information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the Federal Government. It contains a summary of the organization and responsibilities of agencies within the executive branch of the Federal government which may be relevant to FUSRAP activities; a brief summary of relevant Federal statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the US Congress, identification of the officers, relevant committees and committee chairmen; a description of the Federal legislative process; a summary of legislation enacted and considered in the recently-adjourned 96th Congress; a description of the Federal budgetary process; a summary of the Carter Administration's comprehensive radioactive waste management program; and excerpts from the text of relevant federal statutes and regulations

  3. Federal government information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the Federal Government. It contains a summary of the organization and responsibilities of agencies within the executive branch of the Federal government which may be relevant to FUSRAP activities; a brief summary of relevant Federal statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the US Congress, identification of the officers, relevant committees and committee chairmen; a description of the Federal legislative process; a summary of legislation enacted and considered in the recently-adjourned 96th Congress; a description of the Federal budgetary process; a summary of the Carter Administration's comprehensive radioactive waste management program; and excerpts from the text of relevant federal statutes and regulations.

  4. EFFECTS OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE VARIABLES ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanus Remond Waworuntu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of corporate governance on earnings management, this paper analyzed 171 annualreports from issued 2006 to 2009 by 57 non-financial, joint stock companies implementing GCG (GoodCorporate Governance practices, which were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. Six corporategovernance variables (board composition, independent commissioners, separate chairman/CEO roles, auditcommittee, managerial share ownership, and audit quality as well as three control variables (leverage, size,and ROA were used. The results showed that two corporate governance variables significantly influencedearnings management practices (separate chairman/CEO roles and managerial share ownership; the othervariables had no effect because these companies used GCG practices only to follow regulations rather than tomonitor and control.

  5. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this framework and provide the balance for all governance domains. (aut.ref.)

  6. Marine Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Governance of the Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Kundis Craig

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Governance of marine biodiversity has long suffered from lack of adequate information about the ocean’s many species and ecosystems. Nevertheless, even as we are learning much more about the ocean’s biodiversity and the impacts to it from stressors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and marine pollution, climate change is imposing new threats and exacerbating existing threats to marine species and ecosystems. Coastal nations could vastly improve their fragmented approaches to ocean governance in order to increase the protections for marine biodiversity in the climate change era. Specifically, three key governance improvements would include: (1 incorporation of marine spatial planning as a key organizing principle of marine governance; (2 working to increase the resilience of marine ecosystems be reducing or eliminating existing stressors on those ecosystems; and (3 anticipation of climate change’s future impacts on marine biodiversity through the use of anticipatory zoning and more precautionary regulation.

  7. The Government's role in regulating, coordinating, and standardizing the response to Alzheimer's disease: Anticipated international cooperation in the area of intractable and rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Song, Peipei; Xu, Lingzhong

    2016-11-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized that aging of the population is inextricably linked to many other global public health issues, such as universal health coverage, non-communicable diseases, and disability. However, Alzheimer's Disease International (ADI) estimates that 46.8 million elderly people worldwide were living with dementia in 2015. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases and is the main cause of cognitive impairment. AD will affect 5-7 out of every 100 older adults who are age 60 years or over. In response to the serious challenge posed by AD, governments are expected to play an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AD. As specific examples, i ) the Japanese Government has instituted and supported regulations to encourage the development of AD drugs in order to accelerate research and development of innovative drugs; ii ) the United States Government has cooperated with multiple partners such as non-governmental organizations in the response to AD; iii ) Chinese governmental measures have standardized clinical diagnosis and treatment as part of the response to AD, including eligible patients, diagnostic criteria, therapeutic schedules, drug selection, and required inspections; iv ) with political support from member governments, the European Union has issued guidelines and conducted clinical studies on medicines for the treatment of AD in order to ascertain the various stages of the disease and the relevance of biomarkers. AD is an intractable disease, so different countries need to share clinic trial information and cooperate in the conduct of those trials. International cooperation will play a key role in the response to other intractable and rare diseases.

  8. 76 FR 6003 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Marking of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when mapping, charting, and geodesy property is to be furnished. (b) Use the clause at 252.245-7001, Tagging...

  9. Regulation as delegation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to consider the conception of reverse delegation when the government acts a principal and an individual ndash an agent from the point of view of behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory. Methods statistical method sociological polling. Results In diverse areas ndash from retirement savings to consumer credit to prescription drug use to fuel economy and energy efficiency rules to tobacco consumption to food and beverage consumption ndash government makes decisions for us or endeavors to help us make better decisions thus serving as our agent. From the point of view of PrincipalAgent Theory and behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory a great deal of modern regulation can be helpfully evaluated as a hypothetical delegation. Shifting from personal decisions to public goods problems the authors view the idea of reverse delegation with the government as principal and the individuals as agents. They show that the essence of delegation changes depending on the context. The article describes conditions under which various approaches will make sense. Scientific novelty the paper is devoted to the foreign experience of regulation through delegation by the example of a country with developed market economy the USA. It shows the prospects of such approach in solving both the public and the private tasks. Application of PrincipalAgent Theory and behavioral PrincipalAgent Theory is viewed to distinguish between such types of hypothetical delegation as information default rules incentives precommitments mandates and prohibitions. The article considers the benefits and costs of delegation and circumstances in which one or another approach makes sense. Practical significance PrincipalAgent Theory is widely used in economics and political science and can serve as a convenient tool to consider the optimal scale and essence of the assistance rendered to us by the government as our agent. The paper is of interest for the Russian legal science as the institution of

  10. Enforceability of institutional investors responsibilities in corporate governance through the Dutch Corporate Governance Code : Are regulators and practitioners on the same page (and to who are institutional investors accountable)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, D.A.M.; Paape, L.; Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2011-01-01

    Corporate governance codes have been drafted to guide listed companies to improve corporate governance. Shareholders, in particular institutional investors, are being asked to play a critical role in safeguarding good corporate governance. However, addressing shareholders of Dutch listed companies

  11. 26 CFR 1.892-3T - Income of foreign governments (temporary regulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... traded partnerships within the meaning of section 7704) or trust interests. The term also does not... similar instrument in a functional or nonfunctional currency (see section 985(b) for the definition of functional currency) or in precious metals when held by a foreign government or central bank of issue (as...

  12. SIGNALS AND REGULATORS THAT GOVERN STREPTOMYCES DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joseph R.; Flärdh, Klas

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is the genetically best characterized species of a populous genus belonging to the Gram-positive Actinobacteria. Streptomycetes are filamentous soil organisms, well known for the production of a plethora of biologically active secondary metabolic compounds. The Streptomyces developmental life cycle is uniquely complex, and involves coordinated multicellular development with both physiological and morphological differentiation of several cell types, culminating in production of secondary metabolites and dispersal of mature spores. This review presents a current appreciation of the signaling mechanisms used to orchestrate the decision to undergo morphological differentiation, and the regulators and regulatory networks that direct the intriguing development of multigenomic hyphae, first to form specialized aerial hyphae, and then to convert them into chains of dormant spores. This current view of S. coelicolor development is destined for rapid evolution as data from “-omics” studies shed light on gene regulatory networks, new genetic screens identify hitherto unknown players, and the resolution of our insights into the underlying cell biological processes steadily improve. PMID:22092088

  13. 48 CFR 225.7303-3 - Government-to-government agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Military Sales 225.7303-3 Government-to-government agreements. If a government-to-government agreement... support of a specifically defined weapon system, major end item, or support item, contains language in conflict with the provisions of this section, the language of the government-to-government agreement...

  14. 24 CFR 598.210 - What certifications must governments make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress, as prescribed by § 598.110; (c) The nominated urban... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What certifications must governments make? 598.210 Section 598.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  15. Social Functions of Corporate Governance in Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Stanis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates that realization of social functions in corporate governance increases the corporate competitiveness as the basis to economy development. It marks out several important social functions of modern Russian corporations. It's stressed that institution of corporation regulates not only moral basis of business ethics but also influences behavior norms that structure interactions in society.

  16. Government-to-Government E-Government: A Case Study of a Federal Financial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faokunla, Olumide Adegboyega

    2012-01-01

    The problem with the study of the concept of electronic government (e-Gov) is that scholars in the field have not adequately explored various dimensions of the concept. Literature on e-Gov is replete with works on the form of government to consumer e-Gov. Much less work had been done on the government to government (G2G) e-Gov. This qualitative…

  17. Public Finance and Regulation of Nonpublic Education: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnation, Dennis J.

    The issue in government treatment of nonpublic education has never been whether governments should finance or regulate nonpublic schools, but rather how and how much, according to the author. This paper explores financial and regulatory policies shaping government involvement in nonpublic education. It first examines the types and magnitudes of…

  18. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  19. THE GENESIS OF THE FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT DEBT SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Osetskyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Government borrowings appear at a certain stage of development the economic system. Governments used loans many centuries ago because there are often occurred situations when borrowings were the only way to attract additional financial resources. The preconditions for government loans from the position of creditors are also important. These, in particular, include: the availability of subjects that have the temporarily available funds; investor confidence in the state, that stimulating their interest in buying government debt securities; state’s ability to repay its obligations and so on. Thus, the article deals with the basic prerequisites of the government securities market and its function at different stages of develop-ment of economic relations. So, it was found, that the main functions of local borrowing in XIV-XX centuries include the following: fiscal, public debt management, improved economic situation in some areas and repayment of previously issued loans. In modern conditions the functions of government securities have expanded and include: regulation of the money market and stock market, smoothing unevenness of funds flow to the budget, funding various pro-grams, support the liquidity of financial institutions. The author also highlights that objective necessity of using government borrowing associated with the presence of contradictions between the existing needs of society and the state’s capacity to satisfy them within existing financial re-sources. And in such situations government securities are a means of mobilizing additional financial resources to the state budget.

  20. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance . It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation.

  1. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance. It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation. PMID:24416087

  2. Sustainable Urban Agriculture in Ghana: What Governance System Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Bogweh Nchanji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban farming takes advantage of its proximity to market, transport and other urban infrastructure to provide food for the city and sustain the livelihoods of urban and peri-urban dwellers. It is an agricultural activity which employs more than 50% of the local urban population with positive and negative impacts on local and national development. Urban agriculture is an informal activity not supported by law but in practice is regulated to a certain extent by state institutions, traditional rulers, farmers and national and international non-governmental organisations. Tamale’s rapid population growth, exacerbated by the unplanned development system and institutional conflicts, are factors contributing to the present bottlenecks in the urban agricultural system. In this paper, these bottlenecks are conceptualised as problems of governance. These issues will be illustrated using ethnographic data from land sales, crop-livestock competition, waste-water irrigation, and markets. I will explain how conflicts which arise from these different situations are resolved through the interactions of various governance systems. Informal governance arrangements are widespread, but neither they nor formal systems are always successful in resolving governance issues. A participatory governance does not seem possible due to actors’ divergent interests. A governance solution for this sector is not yet apparent, contributing to food and nutritional insecurity.

  3. 31 CFR 361.1 - Scope of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 361.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... (hereafter consignors). Failure by any consignor or agent or employee thereof to comply with these regulations may delay recoveries, preclude reimbursement from the fund for the payment of Government losses in...

  4. 76 FR 6311 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... materials. The Office of the Federal Register's official hours of business are Monday through Friday, 8:45 a... government officials to easily download the Manual for storage on their computers in an easy-to-use format... opportunity to order copies before printing at the rider rate. A rider rate is available before the start of...

  5. Changing governance arrangements: NTFP value chains in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.

    2017-01-01

    As forest products from Cameroon and DR Congo are commercialised, a value chain is created from harvesters, processors, and retailers to
    consumers worldwide. In contrast to dominant narratives focusing on regulations and customs, these chains are actually governed by dynamic,
    multiple

  6. Safety evaluation and regulation of chemicals. 2. Impact of regulations - improvement of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homburger, F [ed.

    1985-01-01

    This volume assesses the impact of new scientific knowledge on the testing and regulation of chemicals, including food additives, drugs, cosmetics, pesticides, and other commercial substances. Apart from describing the newest tests, regulations, and risk assessment strategies, chapters reflect changes forced by both the growing need for cost containment and the mounting pressure to find alternatives to animal testing. Based on an international congress, the book also brings the advantage of diversity in the background and nationality of the authors, thus allowing a view of central problems according to the different interests of academics, industry scientists, government scientists, and regulators. The book opens with coverage of national and international regulations designed to prevent and control damage to human health and the environment. Topics range from basic problems of policy design and enforcement to the specific requirements for chemical regulation in developing countries. The next chapters cover new tests, systems, and assays used in in vivo safety testing. Readers will find a critical assessment of tests used to determine teratogenicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity and chemical lethality. Other topics include factors operating in the public perception of chemical hazards, guidelines for decision making in the management and regulation of risks, and future trends in the methodology of safety evaluation. The volume concludes with an overview of in vitro methods for testing hepatotoxicity. Several short-term in vitro test models and limited in vivo bioassays are presented and evaluated in terms of their capacity to substitute for long-term animal studies. Expert and thorough in its coverage, the book offers a wealth of technical and practical information for toxicologists, pharmacologists, industrial policy makers, and government regulators. (orig.). With 67 figs., 34 tabs.

  7. Securities regulation and implicit penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The extant literature offers extensive support for the significant role played by institutions in financial markets, but implicit regulation and monitoring have yet to be examined. This study fills this void in the literature by employing unique Chinese datasets to explore the implicit regulation and penalties imposed by the Chinese government in regulating the initial public offering (IPO market. Of particular interest are the economic consequences of underwriting IPO deals for client firms that violate regulatory rules in China’s capital market. We provide evidence to show that the associated underwriters’ reputations are impaired and their market share declines. We further explore whether such negative consequences result from a market disciplinary mechanism or a penalty imposed by the government. To analyze the possibility of a market disciplinary mechanism at work, we investigate (1 the market reaction to other client firms whose IPO deals were underwritten by underwriters associated with a violation at the time the violation was publicly disclosed and (2 the under-pricing of IPO deals undertaken by these underwriters after such disclosure. To analyze whether the government imposes an implicit penalty, we examine the application processing time for future IPO deals underwritten by the associated underwriters and find it to be significantly longer than for IPO deals underwritten by other underwriters. Overall, there is little evidence to suggest that the market penalizes underwriters for the rule-violating behavior of their client firms in China. Instead, the Chinese government implicitly penalizes them by imposing more stringent criteria on and lengthening the processing time of the IPO deals they subsequently underwrite.

  8. GOVERNING BOARD OF THE PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Governing Board held its one-hundred-and-first meeting on 5 June, during which it took note of the external auditors' report on the accounts of the Fund for the financial year 2000, and the comments by the Administration of the Fund on the report. It should be noted in this regard that, in the light of a remark by the auditors regarding the procedures followed by the Fund in paying out transfer values, the Governing Board decided to propose to the CERN Council at its December session a change in the wording of Article II 1.13 of the Rules and Regulations so as to bring it into line with the Fund's regular practices. The effect on the Fund of the introduction of the new salary scales was considered and a small working group was commissioned to undertake the necessary technical adjustments. The Governing Board then heard a report by the Chairman of the Investment Committee on its meeting of 3 May 2001. G. Maurin stated that the Committee members had agreed to invite a second consultants' firm to carry out a...

  9. Broadening Industry Governance to Include Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2008-11-11

    As industry is the first line of defense in detecting and thwarting illicit trade networks, the engagement of the private sector is critical to any government effort to strengthen existing mechanisms to protect goods and services throughout the supply chain. This study builds on previous PNNL work to continue to evaluate means for greater industry engagement to complement and strengthen existing governmental efforts to detect and stem the trade of illicit goods and to protect and secure goods that could be used in making a weapon of mass destruction. Specifically, the study evaluates the concept of Industry Self Regulation, defined as a systematic voluntary program undertaken by an industry or by individual companies to anticipate, implement, supplement, or substitute for regulatory requirements in a given field, generally through the adoption of best practices. Through a series of interviews with companies with a past history of non-compliance, trade associations and NGOs, the authors identify gaps in the existing regulatory infrastructure, drivers for a self regulation approach and the form such an approach might take, as well as obstacles to be overcome. The authors conclude that it is at the intersection of industry, government, and security that—through collaborative means—the effectiveness of the international nonproliferation system—can be most effectively strengthened to the mutual benefit of both government and the private sector. Industry has a critical stake in the success of this regime, and has the potential to act as an integrating force that brings together the existing mechanisms of the global nonproliferation regime: export controls, physical protection, and safeguards. The authors conclude that industry compliance is not enough; rather, nonproliferation must become a central tenant of a company’s corporate culture and be viewed as an integral component of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

  10. Economic Development and Economic Governance Through the Example of the City of Győr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Fekete

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s the metropolitan region and its governance has got into the focus of regional science again. Nowadays a newer wave of metropolitan governance is authoritative, which has exceeded the former administrative-territorial planning aspects, and has appeared on the scene as the mechanism of economic development policy. Examining the development stages of regional policy it is well-known that the classical (modern approach was superseded by the postmodern one. While the national methods applied in the classical period were characterized by strictness, central regulation, indirect regulation of the market (Fordist approach, in the postmodern period flexibility, decentralization and direct regulation have come to the fore (Post-Fordism. In the postmodern period the state level also takes its role in the financing of innovation and research&development, and the notions of networking and competitiveness are coming more and more to the fore. In this article I analyze these processes through the case study of Győr. After the theoretical introduction I examine the tools of economic development and economic governance in the Győr metropolitan region. Activities observed in Győr can strengthen the view-point that the processes of economic development and economic governance have nowadays been going on in parallel with each other. Moreover, the coordinating activities of local authorities can be observed in the work of organizations that support economic governance. In the course of the research it was also confirmed that built infrastructure can serve as a fundamental condition for the cooperation of network-systems that operate the governance system of a municipality.

  11. Building, measuring and improving public confidence in the nuclear regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    An important factor for public confidence in the nuclear regulator is the general public trust of the government and its representatives, which is clearly not the same in all countries. Likewise, cultural differences between countries can be considerable, and similar means of communication between government authorities and the public may not be universally effective. Nevertheless, this workshop identified a number of common principles for the communication of nuclear regulatory decisions that can be recommended to all regulators. They have been cited in particular for their ability to help build, measure and/or improve overall public confidence in the nuclear regulator. (author)

  12. Stakeholder cooperation: regulating a uranium mine with multiple statutory approvals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine operates under an Authorisation issued by the Northern Territory Government. In addition, the site is regulated by a set of Environmental Requirements attached to the uranium export permit issued by the Australian Government Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism. A Heap Leach facility proposed for the site could result in a third approval being issued, in accordance with the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). Finding the correct balance to regulate the mine in light of these approvals will be a challenge for the range of stakeholders involved in regulation and oversight of this operation. (author)

  13. Applying TOGAF for e-government implementation based on service oriented architecture methodology towards good government governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodijah, A.; Sundari, S.; Nugraha, A. C.

    2018-05-01

    As a Local Government Agencies who perform public services, General Government Office already has utilized Reporting Information System of Local Government Implementation (E-LPPD). However, E-LPPD has upgrade limitation for the integration processes that cannot accommodate General Government Offices’ needs in order to achieve Good Government Governance (GGG), while success stories of the ultimate goal of e-government implementation requires good governance practices. Currently, citizen demand public services as private sector do, which needs service innovation by utilizing the legacy system as a service based e-government implementation, while Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to redefine a business processes as a set of IT enabled services and Enterprise Architecture from the Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) as a comprehensive approach in redefining business processes as service innovation towards GGG. This paper takes a case study on Performance Evaluation of Local Government Implementation (EKPPD) system on General Government Office. The results show that TOGAF will guide the development of integrated business processes of EKPPD system that fits good governance practices to attain GGG with SOA methodology as technical approach.

  14. In defence of governance: ethics review and social research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Dunn, Michael; Sahan, Kate

    2017-10-10

    There is a growing body of literature that has sought to undermine systems of ethical regulation, and governance more generally, within the social sciences. In this paper, we argue that any general claim for a system of research ethics governance in social research depends on clarifying the nature of the stake that society has in research. We show that certain accounts of this stake-protecting researchers' freedoms; ensuring accountability for resources; safeguarding welfare; and supporting democracy-raise relevant ethical considerations that are reasonably contested. However, these accounts cannot underpin a general claim in favour of, or against, a system of research ethics governance. Instead, we defend governance in social research on the grounds that research, as an institutionalised form of enquiry, is a constitutive element of human flourishing, and that society ought to be concerned with the flourishing of its members. We conclude by considering the governance arrangements that follow from, and are justified by, our arguments. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. A fine mess: Bricolaged forest governance in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verina Ingram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Value chains of Cameroonian non-timber forest products move through harvesters, processors and traders, to consumers locally and worldwide. This paper characterises six governance arrangements governing eight such chains: statutory and customary regulations, voluntary market-based systems, international conventions, project-based systems and corruption. Governance is messy with overlapping, multiple layers of institutions and actors. There are voids where no institutions govern access to resources and markets; some actors fulfil roles normally the reserve of the state. In some chains the state performs its duties, in others not, and other institutions fill the gaps. To negotiate this complexity, many actors have become adept ‘bricoleurs'. They make the best of the arrangements in which they find themselves, and creatively use capitals available, building on natural capital to construct new governance arrangements and/or remould existing ones to meet their current objectives, circumstances and livelihoods. This ‘fine mess’ makes examining the impacts on the livelihoods of participants and their sustainability challenging. A measure of governance intensity and extensive fieldwork was thus used. It indicates strong trade-offs between natural, social and economic capital, creating winners and losers. Trade-offs between livelihoods and sustainability are most acute either when there are no governance arrangements; when arrangements do not take account of the susceptibility of a species to harvesting; or when they do not balance supply and demand. Policy challenges and opportunities include recognising and dealing with pluralism; reconciling conflicting rules; hearing the voices of silent actors; learning from failures and raising chain visibility by recognising natural and  socio-economic values.

  16. Informal Institutional Responses to Government Interventions: Lessons from Madhupur National Park, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, H. M. Tuihedur; Sarker, Swapan Kumar; Hickey, Gordon M.; Mohasinul Haque, M.; Das, Niamjit

    2014-11-01

    Madhupur National Park is renowned for severe resource ownership conflicts between ethnic communities and government authorities in Bangladesh. In this study, we applied the Institutional Analysis and Development framework to identify: (i) past and present informal institutional structures within the ethnic Garo community for land resource management; (ii) the origin of the land ownership dispute; (iii) interaction mechanisms between formal and informal institutions; and (iv) change in land management authority and informal governance structures. We identify that the informal institutions of the traditional community have undergone radical change due to government interventions with implications for the regulation of land use, informal institutional functions, and joint-decision-making. Importantly, the government's persistent denial of the role of existing informal institutions is widening the gap between government and community actors, and driving land ownership conflicts in a cyclic way with associated natural resource degradation.

  17. The effects of governance modes on the energy matrix of Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the consequences of different modes of energy governance on the energy matrix. Energy governance is understood as a regulation system of the energy related interplays between the State, the society and the economy. The energy matrix is a useful instrument for comparative policy analysis, since it informs us about production and consumption trends, by sources and sectors. Our central argument is that energy governance follows two different patterns, one hierarchical and the other cooperative, that are not necessarily determined by the initial factors allocation, and produce different effects on the energy matrix. Hierarchical governance is based on centralized decision-making and State-centered development, while co-governance is based on decentralized decision-making and market-oriented development. To develop this argument, we compare the energy matrix from the five Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia).

  18. The effects of governance modes on the energy matrix of Andean countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Guillaume, E-mail: gfontaine@flacso.org.e [Latin American Faculty for Social Sciences (FLACSO), Research Laboratory on Governance, Quito (Ecuador)

    2011-05-15

    This article addresses the consequences of different modes of energy governance on the energy matrix. Energy governance is understood as a regulation system of the energy related interplays between the State, the society and the economy. The energy matrix is a useful instrument for comparative policy analysis, since it informs us about production and consumption trends, by sources and sectors. Our central argument is that energy governance follows two different patterns, one hierarchical and the other cooperative, that are not necessarily determined by the initial factors allocation, and produce different effects on the energy matrix. Hierarchical governance is based on centralized decision-making and State-centered development, while co-governance is based on decentralized decision-making and market-oriented development. To develop this argument, we compare the energy matrix from the five Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia).

  19. Oregon Pupil Transportation Manual. Revised Regulations and Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Designed for use by Oregon school bus drivers and administrators, this manual answers common questions about school bus transportation in Oregon, including those about the laws governing pupil transportation, the regulations governing pupil transportation administration, and the laws on school bus operation. A chapter of advisory materials covers…

  20. Is More Government Regulation Needed to Promote E-commerce?

    OpenAIRE

    Layne-Farrar, Anne; Hahn, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    E-commerce has experienced tremendous growth over the past few years. Nonetheless, senators, privacy watchdog groups, and the Federal Trade Commission have argued that e-commerce is being held back by consumer worries about online privacy and security. Some privacy advocates are calling for additional regulations, specifically new online privacy rules aimed at providing consumers with more information and customer choice. And Congress has tried to answer that call, most recently with a bill i...

  1. SOR/93-163 AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (Cost Recovery Fees Regulations 1990 and subsequent amendments have been revoked and replaced by those new Regulations of 30 march 1993 which entered into force on 1 April 1993. The regulations were first made in 1990 in order to carry out the Government's policy of introducing the principle of ''user pay'' for the cost incurred by the AECB in its regulatory activities. The objective of the policy was to shift the cost of Government regulatory efforts for the taxpayer at large to those who most benefited from or whose activities were the reason for such effort. This new version of the Regulations reflects licensees' comments, e.g. extension of the period for review of proposed fees, and sets out increases in the fees. (NEA)

  2. A Network of Local and Redundant Gene Regulation Governs Arabidopsis Seed Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Alexandra; Valon, Christiane; Savino, Gil; Guilleminot, Jocelyne; Devic, Martine; Giraudat, Jérôme; Parcy, François

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, four major regulators (ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3], FUSCA3 [FUS3], LEAFY COTYLEDON1 [LEC1], and LEC2) control most aspects of seed maturation, such as accumulation of storage compounds, cotyledon identity, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and dormancy. The molecular basis for complex genetic interactions among these regulators is poorly understood. By analyzing ABI3 and FUS3 expression in various single, double, and triple maturation mutants, we have identified multiple regulatory links among all four genes. We found that one of the major roles of LEC2 was to upregulate FUS3 and ABI3. The lec2 mutation is responsible for a dramatic decrease in ABI3 and FUS3 expression, and most lec2 phenotypes can be rescued by ABI3 or FUS3 constitutive expression. In addition, ABI3 and FUS3 positively regulate themselves and each other, thereby forming feedback loops essential for their sustained and uniform expression in the embryo. Finally, LEC1 also positively regulates ABI3 and FUS3 in the cotyledons. Most of the genetic controls discovered were found to be local and redundant, explaining why they had previously been overlooked. This works establishes a genetic framework for seed maturation, organizing the key regulators of this process into a hierarchical network. In addition, it offers a molecular explanation for the puzzling variable features of lec2 mutant embryos. PMID:16731585

  3. Hybrid governance of aquaculture: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vince, Joanna; Haward, Marcus

    2017-10-01

    The development of third party assessment and certification of fisheries and aquaculture has provided new forms of governance in sectors that were traditionally dominated by state based regulation. Emerging market based approaches are driven by shareholder expectations as well as commitment to corporate social responsibility, whereas community engagement is increasingly centered on the questions of social license to operate. Third party assessment and certification links state, market and community into an interesting and challenging hybrid form of governance. While civil society organizations have long been active in pursuing sustainable and safe seafood production, the development of formal non-state based certification provides both opportunities and challenges, and opens up interesting debates over hybrid forms of governance. This paper explores these developments in coastal marine resources management, focusing on aquaculture and the development and operation of the Aquaculture Stewardship Council. It examines the case of salmonid aquaculture in Tasmania, Australia, now Australia's most valuable seafood industry, which remains the focus of considerable community debate over its siting, operation and environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this

  5. Which type of government revenue leads government expenditure?

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Zeinab; Masih, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    This Malaysia is a developing Islamic state that faced government budget deficit since 1998. It is undeniable that a budget deficit or inability to cover government spending is not positively seen by external parties. The optimum level of government budget is the state where government spending is totally offset by government revenue and that can be achieved through an increase in tax revenue or decrease in spending. The paper aims to discover the existence of a theoretical relationship betwe...

  6. Local Governments Responsibility In The Management Of Customary Forests Special Autonomy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pater Yikwa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of forest and forest area can be adjusted with its main function that is conservation protection and production. In order to maintain the sustainability of the main function and condition of the forest rehabilitation and reclamation of forest and land are also carried out. The research is empirical research or commonly called non-doctrinal legal research. This research was conducted in the territory of Papua Province Indonesia precisely in Districts of Jayapura Keerom Sarmi and Nabire. The results show that the governments responsibility to improve the welfare of Papuan people from forest management has not been well realized and has not yet strengthened the fiscal capacity of government in Papua Province. Therefore the government of Papua Province has regulated the management of customary forests by issuing and enacting the Special Regulation of Papua Perdasus No. 21 of 2008 on Sustainable Forest Management in Papua Province and the policy of economic empowerment of communities in and around customary forests. Law enforcement of illegal logging practices is based not only on juridical approaches but also socio-political and socio-cultural approaches.

  7. Prevalence of nickel and cobalt allergy among female patients with dermatitis before and after Danish government regulation: a 23-year retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina

    2009-01-01

    with isolated cobalt allergy than among patients with nickel allergy (P exposures was available. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel allergy decreased among young female patients with dermatitis between 1985 and 2007 whereas it increased among older patients, probably......BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of nickel allergy prompted the Danish government to prohibit excessive nickel release (ie, >0.5 microg nickel/cm(2)/wk) from consumer products in 1990. Concomitant allergy to nickel and cobalt is often observed among patients with dermatitis, probably as a result...... of cosensitization. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the development of nickel and cobalt allergy among Danish female patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007. This was done to examine whether Danish nickel regulation has reduced the prevalence of nickel allergy and to examine whether the prevalence...

  8. Accountability and governance in local public services: The particular case of mixed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ferreira da Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing budget restrictions and decentralization processes that local governments face nowadays are threatening the sustainability of local public services. To overcome this problem, local decision-makers around the world have been developing ambiguous reforms, leading to various governance models. Since these services are essential for citizens’ welfare, it is crucial to determine whether or not these models have been effective and useful to cope with this state of affairs. To offer extra leverage to key projects, the European governments have been resorting to public-private partnerships (PPPs. One of the visible trends, which lacks further research, has been the use of mixed public-private companies (institutionalized PPPs. Although it is recognized that this solution can be interesting for both public and private sides, it has some particular features that can avert the aimed goals. This paper provides a literature review on mixed companies encompassing theoretical, legal and operational aspects. It also focuses on regulation by contract, referring to a particular Portuguese case study in the water sector and explaining how the municipality handled risk allocation and regulated the access to the market of private investors. Finally, it discusses the need for external regulation and makes suggestions on how these processes should be managed right from the bidding stage

  9. A public governance look at CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2014-01-01

    interesting potential for public regulators to steer private/public-private resource exploitation towards increased contributions to public sustainability and welfare state objectives. The significance of CSR policies and practices as private governance modalities towards risk management and as competition...... parameters combine with normative guidance based on CSR norms (e.g. the UN Global Compact, OECD’s Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, the UN Guidelines on Business and Human Rights). Focusing on debates concerning resource extraction operations in Greenland and the pertinent policy framework...

  10. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The contracting...

  11. The politics of regulation in the Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Tamer; Oguz, Fuat

    2007-01-01

    Turkey began reforming the electricity market in 2001. The regulatory reform aimed to liberalize the market. However, the institutional and political structure was not ready for creating an efficiently working competition. The independent regulator did not have both experience and will to direct the industry to a more competitive environment. Currently, the reform has slowed down and political preferences drive the industry. This paper studies the reasons for the slowdown in the reform efforts by focusing on the relationships between the government, judiciary and the independent regulator. We conclude that strategic behaviors of players in the market, including the judiciary, the government, and the regulator, have made the introduction of competition to the market more costly

  12. The politics of regulation in the Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, T.

    2007-01-01

    Turkey began reforming the electricity market in 2001. The regulatory reform aimed to liberalize the market. However, the institutional and political structure was not ready for creating an efficiently working competition. The independent regulator did not have both experience and will to direct the industry to a more competitive environment. Currently, the reform has slowed down and political preferences drive the industry. This paper studies the reasons for the slowdown in the reform efforts by focusing on the relationships between the government, judiciary and the independent regulator. We conclude that strategic behaviors of players in the market, including the judiciary, the government, and the regulator, have made the introduction of competition to the market more costly. (author)

  13. Role of the provincial government of Saskatchewan in encouraging growth in the oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautermilch, E.

    1997-01-01

    The year 1996 was one of the most successful years for the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan. In the view of the author this may be said to be due, at least in part, to the provincial government's efforts to establish and implement policies that stimulate economic activity. Government regulation is essential to ensure safe and sensible development, a level playing field for all participants, and to ensure that residents of the province receive a fair share of the benefits of resource development. Some of the positive government actions taken in 1996 include: revisions to the royalty rate structure, simplification of the natural gas administration system, a program to encourage exploration in less-explored areas, re-balancing electrical rates, and a review of all regulations with the goal of streamlining or eliminating them. New technologies such as horizontal drilling were also encouraged. Issues presently before the government include postage stamp tolls, global warming, greenhouse gas emissions and environmental concerns from farmers. On the whole, the oil and gas industry received high marks for taking a responsible approach to self-regulation, but continued public support will depend on how well the industry addresses environmental concerns and demonstrates the benefits of oil and development to the people

  14. Human resource governance: what does governance mean for the health workforce in low- and middle-income countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Avril D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on practical and effective governance of the health workforce is limited. This paper examines health system strengthening as it occurs in the intersection between the health workforce and governance by presenting a framework to examine health workforce issues related to eight governance principles: strategic vision, accountability, transparency, information, efficiency, equity/fairness, responsiveness and citizen voice and participation. Methods This study builds off of a literature review that informed the development of a framework that describes linkages and assigns indicators between governance and the health workforce. A qualitative analysis of Health System Assessment (HSA data, a rapid indicator-based methodology that determines the key strengths and weaknesses of a health system using a set of internationally recognized indicators, was completed to determine how 20 low- and middle-income countries are operationalizing health governance to improve health workforce performance. Results/discussion The 20 countries assessed showed mixed progress in implementing the eight governance principles. Strengths highlighted include increasing the transparency of financial flows from sources to providers by implementing and institutionalizing the National Health Accounts methodology; increasing responsiveness to population health needs by training new cadres of health workers to address shortages and deliver care to remote and rural populations; having structures in place to register and provide licensure to medical professionals upon entry into the public sector; and implementing pilot programs that apply financial and non-financial incentives as a means to increase efficiency. Common weaknesses emerging in the HSAs include difficulties with developing, implementing and evaluating health workforce policies that outline a strategic vision for the health workforce; implementing continuous licensure and regulation systems to

  15. Human resource governance: what does governance mean for the health workforce in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Avril D; Dominis, Sarah; Palen, John Gh; Quain, Estelle E

    2013-02-15

    Research on practical and effective governance of the health workforce is limited. This paper examines health system strengthening as it occurs in the intersection between the health workforce and governance by presenting a framework to examine health workforce issues related to eight governance principles: strategic vision, accountability, transparency, information, efficiency, equity/fairness, responsiveness and citizen voice and participation. This study builds off of a literature review that informed the development of a framework that describes linkages and assigns indicators between governance and the health workforce. A qualitative analysis of Health System Assessment (HSA) data, a rapid indicator-based methodology that determines the key strengths and weaknesses of a health system using a set of internationally recognized indicators, was completed to determine how 20 low- and middle-income countries are operationalizing health governance to improve health workforce performance. The 20 countries assessed showed mixed progress in implementing the eight governance principles. Strengths highlighted include increasing the transparency of financial flows from sources to providers by implementing and institutionalizing the National Health Accounts methodology; increasing responsiveness to population health needs by training new cadres of health workers to address shortages and deliver care to remote and rural populations; having structures in place to register and provide licensure to medical professionals upon entry into the public sector; and implementing pilot programs that apply financial and non-financial incentives as a means to increase efficiency. Common weaknesses emerging in the HSAs include difficulties with developing, implementing and evaluating health workforce policies that outline a strategic vision for the health workforce; implementing continuous licensure and regulation systems to hold health workers accountable after they enter the workforce

  16. 48 CFR 1852.245-79 - Use of Government-owned property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-owned facilities (real property or plant equipment), special test equipment, or special tooling... property. 1852.245-79 Section 1852.245-79 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... and Clauses 1852.245-79 Use of Government-owned property. As prescribed in 1845.106-70(i), insert the...

  17. 48 CFR 509.308-2 - Testing performed by the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing performed by the... ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 509.308-2 Testing performed by the Government. In FSS solicitations and contracts that will have the...

  18. Governing farmland conversion: Comparing China with the Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, R.; Beckmann, V.; Berg, van den L.M.; Qu Futian, F.

    2009-01-01

    Farmland conversion has become an increasing concern in China and other parts of the world, including Europe and the USA. Be it for environmental or food security reasons, questions arise concerning how urbanization should be governed, i.e. what rules and regulations could enhance the efficiency and

  19. The Theoretical and Methodological Bases to Form the Parity of State Regulation of the National Economy and Market Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahno Tetiana P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to summarize the existing approaches regarding the optimal balance of mechanisms of economic regulation and identify factors that influence the formation of the parity of state regulation and market self-regulation of economy. The analysis of the existing studies has made it possible to establish that the mixed economy model, which is organized on the basis of the market price system but uses various forms of government intervention to correct macroeconomic instability, is the most optimal one for effective development. The smoothing, preventing of negative consequences of effects of market regulators is the goal of state regulation of economy. It is substantiated that the optimal correlation of mechanisms of state regulation and market self-regulation is not a constant value. The maximum effective ratio in application of these mechanisms will not always be achieved under condition of equal government intervention and self-regulation. It depends on the country’s potential, its involvement in the system of the world market economy, level of development of the society, as well as historical features of the country’s development and phase of the economic cycle. Prospects for further research are the substantiation of a new paradigm for the formation of the parity of state regulation and market self-regulation in the context of financial uncertainty and effect of supranational regulators, growing contradictions of globalization-regionalization based on the use of the system and synergetic approach.

  20. 48 CFR 1336.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 1336.605 Section 1336.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. After award, the...

  1. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  2. Analysis of relationship between the local governments and the power companies through the changes of safety agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Shin-etsu; Inamura, Tomoaki; Kimura, Hiroshi; Madarame, Haruki

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, safety of nuclear facilities is regulated by the central government and local governments are responsible for protecting the local public. To operate nuclear facilities in local communities, local governments would conclude safety agreements with power companies. In recent years, local governments have used the safety agreements as excuse for delaying the operations of nuclear facilities. The legal basis of the safety agreements was questioned by some who considered that this was the cause of the stranded relationship between local governments and power companies, and in some cases, the interrupted nature of electricity supply. To understand the sources of this difficult relationship, safety agreements must be analyzed, although these documents may have undergone revisions, and various regulations may have changed. By analyzing the safety agreements and revisions, we found that the relationship between local governments and power companies gradually changed over time, which can be divided into the following 3 stages: (1) in the early 70s, the dawn stage when local governments groped with the situation of nuclear facilities built in their communities; (2) from late 70s to 90s, the stage when local governments demanded information, and (3) from late 90s to present, the stage when local governments demand information and trustworthiness. This paper shows the results of analyzing the relationship changes between local governments and power companies. We conclude that viewpoints of local governments on nuclear power evolve, as social responsibilities of power companies stipulated in safety agreements also evolve over time. (author)

  3. A baseline understanding of state laws governing e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, C K; Chriqui, J F; Chaloupka, F J

    2014-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been available for purchase in the USA since 2007, and have grown rapidly in popularity. Currently, there are no federal restrictions on e-cigarettes; therefore, any regulations are under the purview of state and/or local governments. This study examines state laws governing e-cigarettes through youth access restrictions, smoke-free air requirements and/or excise taxation. Codified statutory and administrative laws, attorney general opinions, executive orders, and revenue notices and rulings effective as of 15 November 2013 for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, were compiled using Boolean searches in Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw. All laws were analysed by two study authors to determine the presence and components of relevant provisions. Two categories of laws were identified; (1) explicit e-cigarette laws and (2) laws focused on tobacco-derived and/or nicotine-containing products. Thirty-four states' laws address e-cigarettes either explicitly or as part of language applying to tobacco-derived or nicotine-containing products. Laws explicitly addressing e-cigarettes primarily focus on youth access (22 states) or smoke-free air (12 states); only Minnesota imposes an excise tax on e-cigarettes. Similarly, tobacco-derived or nicotine-containing products are primarily regulated through youth access restrictions (6 states), smoke-free air laws (5 states), or excise taxation (2 states). In the current absence of federal law governing e-cigarettes, more than one-half of the states have taken the initiative to regulate these products. The opportunity exists for the remaining states to incorporate e-cigarette-related restrictions into their pre-existing tobacco control laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Corporate governance survey: A holistic view for altruistic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya B. Marisetty

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking a holistic approach, this survey paper first reviews the literature on the four pillars of corporate governance, namely, investors, managers, directors, and law and regulation, and then integrates the four components to achieve a unified framework. Attempting to bridge the gap between principles and practice, the paper also incorporates the views of N R Narayana Murthy, founder member of Infosys, one of the most respected corporate governance practice leaders. The emphasis in Infosys, Mr. Murthy revealed, was not on any of the four dimensions but on the value system, ethics and integrity, and the focus on the competition was through better engagement with employees and customers.

  5. Regulating healthcare complaints: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupert, Fleur; Carney, Terry; Chiarella, Mary; Satchell, Claudette; Walton, Merrilyn; Bennett, Belinda; Kelly, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore approaches to the regulation of healthcare complaints and disciplinary processes. A literature review was conducted across Medline, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Google Scholar and the health, law and social sciences collections of Informit, using terms tapping both the complaints process and regulation generally. A total of 118 papers dealing with regulation of health complaints or disciplinary proceedings were located. The review reveals a shift away from self-regulation towards greater external oversight, including innovative regulatory approaches including "networked governance and flexible or "responsive" regulation. It reports growing interest in adoption of strategic and responsive approaches to health complaints governance, by rejecting traditional legal forms in favor of more strategic and responsive forms, taking account of the complexity of adverse health events by tailoring responses to individual circumstances of complainants and their local environments. The challenge of how to collect and harness complaints data to improve the quality of healthcare at a systemic level warrants further research. Scope also exists for researching health complaints commissions and other "meta-regulatory" bodies to explore how to make these processes fairer and better able to meet the complex needs of complainants, health professionals, health services and society.

  6. Historical, ecological, and governance aspects of intensive forest biomass harvesting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, Inge; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    forests would be a more useful reference for ecological processes and biodiversity. However, pristine forests are almost non-existent in Europe, and non-intervention, self-regulating forests provide an alternative. Governance and positions of non-governmental organizations in Denmark focus more on general...... forest management impacts and conservation of light-demanding biodiversity associated with historic coppicing and grazing than on intensive harvesting. The energy sector drives the development of new governance to verify forest biomass sustainability, but the national knowledge base for such verification...... is limited. As part of a larger solution, we suggest establishing a network of non-intervention, self-regulating forests that can serve as a reference for long-term research and monitoring of intensive harvesting impacts. This would support the application of adaptive management strategies, and continuous...

  7. Tissue Engineering Stem Cells - An e-Governance Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The rules of governance are changing. They are necessarily becoming more stringent as interventions offered to treat conditions carry unpredictable side effects, often associated with novel therapeutic vectors. The clinical relevance of this relates to the obligations of those involved in research, to ensure the best protection for subjects whilst encouraging the development of the field. Existing evidence supports the concept of e-Governance both in operational health research and more broadly in the strategic domain of policy formation. Building on the impact of the UK Comprehensive Research Network and recent EU Directives, it is now possible to focus on the issues of regulation for cell therapies in musculoskeletal science through the development of the Advanced Therapeutic Medicinal Products (ATMP) category of research products. This article reviews the framework that has borne this and the need for more detailed Virtual Research Integration and Collaboration (VRIC) systems to ensure regulatory compliance. Technology research and development plans must develop in close association between tissue engineering and treating clinicians. The scope of this strategy relates to the handling of human tissues the transport and storage of specimens in accordance with current EU directives and the Human Tissue Authority (HTA) regulations.

  8. Do PES Improve the Governance of Forest Restoration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Pirard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Payments for Environmental Services (PES are praised as innovative policy instruments and they influence the governance of forest restoration efforts in two major ways. The first is the establishment of multi-stakeholder agencies as intermediary bodies between funders and planters to manage the funds and to distribute incentives to planters. The second implication is that specific contracts assign objectives to land users in the form of conditions for payments that are believed to increase the chances for sustained impacts on the ground. These implications are important in the assessment of the potential of PES to operate as new and effective funding schemes for forest restoration. They are analyzed by looking at two prominent payments for watershed service programs in Indonesia—Cidanau (Banten province in Java and West Lombok (Eastern Indonesia—with combined economic and political science approaches. We derive lessons for the governance of funding efforts (e.g., multi-stakeholder agencies are not a guarantee of success; mixed results are obtained from a reliance on mandatory funding with ad hoc regulations, as opposed to voluntary contributions by the service beneficiary and for the governance of financial expenditure (e.g., absolute need for evaluation procedures for the internal governance of farmer groups. Furthermore, we observe that these governance features provide no guarantee that restoration plots with the highest relevance for ecosystem services are targeted by the PES.

  9. Market failures and government policies in gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M; Zwart, G.

    2006-02-01

    This memorandum analyses the fundamental characteristics of the natural gas market and its consequences for government policies. In the past, the European gas market was dominated by state-owned monopolists but since the start of the liberalisation, privatisation and re-regulation in the early 1990s, the market has fundamentally changed. Nevertheless, governments are still involved in the gas industry, not only in gas exporting countries such as Russia, but also in a country like the Netherlands where the government has imposed a cap on production from the main gas field (Groningen) as well as owns shares in the main wholesale trader (Gasunie Trade and Supply) which has the obligation to accept all gas offered by producers on the small fields. In the main report of this project we present a cost-benefit analysis of the Dutch gas-depletion policy. In this memorandum we explore the natural-gas market more broadly, looking for factors why government intervention may be needed using the welfare-economic approach according to which government intervention should be based on the presence of market failures. After a brief description of the main characteristics of the gas industry, we systematically analyse sources of market failures, such as geopolitical factors, economies of scale and externalities, and finally go into the question which policy options may be chosen to address those market failures

  10. Taxation and regulation of uranium mining in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Government taxation and regulation have a profound influence on mineral operations. In Canada, taxation occurs both on the federal and provincial levels. In addition, both federal and provincial regulations also affect mine operations, sometimes with overlapping, or conflicting, legislation and jurisdiction. Three broad areas of regulation affect the mine production of uranium in Canada: (1) mining law or mineral rights; (2) the licensing procedures; and (3) regulation of occupational health and safety

  11. Code of laws and regulations on atomic energy controls. Showa 53 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The code has collected above laws and regulations promulgated by 10th February, 1978 and they can be classified into following several categories. 1. Atomic Energy Basic Law and Atomic Energy Commission Establishment Law including their related government orders, regulations and rules. 2. The Law for Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and regulations, rules, instructions and guidelines. 3. The Law on Technical Criteria for the Prevention of Radiation Hazards and the Law Concerning the Prevention of Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes, etc. including their related government orders, regulations, rules and announcements. 4. The Law on Compensation for Nuclear Damage with its relating government order and the Law on Indemnity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage. 5. Laws for establishing those nuclear energy development organizations as Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. 6. Other laws relating to atomic energy and radiation utilization including their pertaining regulations, rules, standards, etc. such as: Electricity Business Law; Land Transportation and Cars Law; Ships and Vessels Safety Law; Aviation Law; Employees' Health and Safety Law; Electricity Resources Development Law; and others

  12. New storm water regulations impact industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemar, C.

    1991-01-01

    In November 1990, new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations aimed at governing the discharge of storm water from industrial facilities became effective. Because some industrial runoff contains toxics and other pollutants, the EPA considers storm water a major source of water contamination. The new regulations will have a profound impact on the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements for industry. This paper summarizes the new storm water regulations, focusing on the requirements for industrial facilities. It also presents suggestions for compliance

  13. 25 CFR 170.933 - Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? 170... regulate oversize or overweight vehicles? Yes. Tribal governments can regulate travel on roads under their jurisdiction and establish a permitting process to regulate the travel of oversize or overweight vehicles, in...

  14. Soil governance in the agricultural landscapes of New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A Webb

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a valuable natural resource. In the state of New South Wales, Australia, the governance of soil has evolved since Federation in 1901. Following rapid agricultural development, and in the face of widespread soil degradation, the establishment of the Soil Conservation Service marked a turning point in the management of soil. Throughout the 20th century, advances in knowledge were translated into evolving governance frameworks that were largely reactionary but saw progressive reforms such as water pollution legislation and case studies of catchment-scale land and vegetation management. In the 21st century, significant reforms have embedded sustainable use of agricultural soils within catchment- and landscape-scale legislative and institutional frameworks. What is clear, however, is that a multitude of governance strategies and models are utilised in NSW. No single governance model is applicable to all situations because it is necessary to combine elements of several different mechanisms or instruments to achieve the most desired outcomes. Where an industry, such as the sugar industry, has taken ownership of an issue such as acid sulfate soil management, self-regulation has proven to be extremely effective. In the case of co-managing agricultural soils with other landuses, such as mining, petroleum exploration and urban development, regulation, compliance and enforcement mechanisms have been preferred. Institutional arrangements in the form of independent commissioners have also played a role. At the landscape or total catchment level, it is clear that a mix of mechanisms is required. Fundamental, however, to the successful evolution of soil governance is strategic investment in soil research and development that informs the ongoing productive use of agricultural landscapes while preventing land degradation or adverse environmental effects.

  15. 2 CFR 2700.1010 - Suspending official (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). 2700.1010 Section 2700.1010 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 2700.1010 Suspending official (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR...

  16. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  17. Alignment between business process governance and IT governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles; Hvam, Lars

    2014-01-01

    frameworks to enable business-IT strategic alignment, efficient process and IT requirements specification, and IT-enabled business value realization. We examine the actuality of this alignment in practice through a case study conducted in a relatively mature multinational corporation. The findings indicate......The importance of business processes and the increasing centrality of IT to an organization's performance have called for a specific focus on business process governance and IT governance in contemporary enterprises. Despite the wide scope of business process management, which covers both business...... and IT domains, and the profound impact of IT on process innovations, the association between business process governance and IT governance remains under-explored. Analyzing the constituting elements of the two governance concepts, we propose the necessity of alignment between business process and IT governance...

  18. Regulations, guidelines, standards, and policies pertaining to decontamination and decommissioning activities: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    A literature review has been conducted of the existing rules, regulations, and guidelines pertaining to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Included in the survey are US Government documents, national (industrial) standards, international standards and guidelines, and the regulations issued by various national governments, such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany

  19. 75 FR 80335 - Federal Government Participation in the Automated Clearing House

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Participation in the Automated Clearing House AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury...) is amending its regulation governing the use of the Automated Clearing House (ACH) system by Federal... institutions, consumer advocacy groups, industry associations, the Senate Committee on Finance and the House...

  20. The effects of local government investment on economic growth and employment: evidence from transitional China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weiguo; Hou Yongjian

    2009-01-01

    Based on the panel data of 28 provinces in the year of 1987-2001,this paper examines the effects of the local government investment on economic growth and employment.The empirical result shows that the local government investment plays a significant positive role in economic growth and emplovment.However,while the proportion of local government investment to GDP had a remarkable rise after 1998.the elasticity of local government investment on economic growth declined,which shows that there is a hig room for raising the efficiency of local government mvestment.Moreover,the empirical examination shows that although local government investment had positive effect on employment,the elasticity had a decrease after 1994 when the tax-sharing system reform was put into practice.This shows that the positive role of local government investment on emplovment is also limited.This paper argues that the role of local governments as investors must be weakened,and local governments of different levels should lessen direct economic intervention and concentrate on public regulation.

  1. CSR as value attunement within governance processes : stakeholder dialogue, corporate principles and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2016-01-01

    I argue that a governance perspective on corporate social responsibility (CSR) makes it possible to explain why the concept will always be under-defined, is normative and thus political by nature, and is and should be difficult to measure. The perspective also makes it possible to understand the

  2. E-Government for Good Governance in Developing Countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    E-Government and E-Governance Benefits ..... Morocco's central government promotes the use of ICT in the public sector in order to enhance ...... The project's mission is to develop low-cost laptops with educational value for African children.

  3. Review of Signaling Pathways Governing MSC Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W. James

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are multipotent cells, functioning as precursors to a variety of cell types including adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Between osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment and differentiation, a theoretical inverse relationship exists, such that differentiation towards an osteoblast phenotype occurs at the expense of an adipocytic phenotype. This balance is regulated by numerous, intersecting signaling pathways that converge on the regulation of two main transcription factors: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2. These two transcription factors, PPARγ and Runx2, are generally regarded as the master regulators of adipogenesis and osteogenesis. This review will summarize signaling pathways that govern MSC fate towards osteogenic or adipocytic differentiation. A number of signaling pathways follow the inverse balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation and are generally proosteogenic/antiadipogenic stimuli. These include β-catenin dependent Wnt signaling, Hedgehog signaling, and NELL-1 signaling. However, other signaling pathways exhibit more context-dependent effects on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. These include bone morphogenic protein (BMP signaling and insulin growth factor (IGF signaling, which display both proosteogenic and proadipogenic effects. In summary, understanding those factors that govern osteogenic versus adipogenic MSC differentiation has significant implications in diverse areas of human health, from obesity to osteoporosis to regenerative medicine.

  4. Vapers' perspectives on electronic cigarette regulation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Doug; Weier, Megan; Keane, Helen; Gartner, Coral

    2015-06-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), also known as personal vaporisers (PVs), has increased rapidly in Australia despite legal barriers to the sale, possession and use of nicotine for non-therapeutic purposes. Australia is one of many countries in the process of developing regulations for these devices yet knowledge of consumers' views on e-cigarette regulation is lacking. An online survey was completed by 705 e-cigarette users recruited online. Participants answered questions about their smoking history, e-cigarette use, as well as their opinions on appropriate regulation of e-cigarettes. Most participants were male (71%), employed (72%), and highly educated (68% held post-school qualification). They tended to be former heavy smokers who had stopped smoking entirely and were currently vaping. Participants generally agreed that the government should enforce minimum labelling and packaging standards and there was majority support for minimum quality standards. Most supported making e-cigarettes available for sale to anyone over the age of 18, but expressed concern about the government's motivation for regulating e-cigarettes. There was strong opposition to restricting sales to a medicines framework (prescription only or pharmacy only sales). E-cigarette users in Australia are in favour of e-cigarettes being regulated as long as those regulations do not impede their ability to obtain devices and refill solutions, which they view as important for them to remain smoke free. These views align with some aspects of appropriate policy designed to maximise the public health potential of e-cigarettes in society, but conflict with some of the proposed regulatory models. Governments should consider how future regulation of e-cigarettes will affect current consumers while helping to maximise the number of smokers who switch to e-cigarettes and minimise the possibility of non-smokers becoming addicted to nicotine. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  5. Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains the most recent revision from the Government Printing Office (GPO) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21 - Food and Drugs.

  6. A comparison between regulation of nuclear power in Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahearne, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The agencies that regulate commercial nuclear power in Canada and the United States differ in five significant characteristics: size and responsibility; use of legalism and formality; inspection and enforcement approaches; relationships to the government, public and industry; and the basic philosophy of regulation. Examination shows strengths and weaknesses in each approach, tied to basic differences in philosophy of government. (author)

  7. Governing Board of the Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Governing Board of the Pension Fund held its 143rd meeting on 11 April 2006. The Chairman of the Governing Board, Professor F. Ferrini, reported on the meetings of the CERN Finance Committee and Council on 15 and 16 March. On the recommendation of the Finance Committee, the CERN Council had approved the amendments to Administrative Circular No. 14 (Protection of the members of the personnel against the financial consequences of illness, accident and disability) and the resulting amendments to the Rules and Regulations of the Pension Fund. The new provisions will enter into force on 1st July 2006. Professor Ferrini also underlined that the Finance Committee had taken note of a document prepared by the CERN Management regarding the Organization's debt to the Pension Fund. Given that the Organization's debt to the Pension Fund has grown constantly over the last twenty years, and that it represents a burden on the Laboratory's future budgets, the Management wishes to reimburse the debt as rapidly as possible...

  8. 48 CFR 225.7303-2 - Cost of doing business with a foreign government or an international organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reasonable and allocable costs of doing business with a foreign government or international organization... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of doing business with a foreign government or an international organization. 225.7303-2 Section 225.7303-2 Federal...

  9. The development of regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slokan Dusic, D.; Levstek, M.F.; Stritar, A.

    2003-01-01

    In October 2002, The Act on Protection Against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety which regulates all aspects of protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety entered into force in Slovenia. The Slovenian government and its responsible ministries shall issue several governmental and ministerial regulations to support the above - mentioned act. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) which acts within the Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planing and Energy takes an active part in drafting the regulations which are defined in the act. Due to a very comprehensive and pretentious task, that is to be completed in a relatively short period of time, taking into consideration the involvement of stakeholders and all competent ministries, the SNSA within the Quality Management System developed a special procedure that insures the systematic approach to the preparation of regulations. The article will briefly represent the process that: defines the preparation, development, harmonisation, review, approval and issue of regulations and uniforms the format of developed regulations. (author)

  10. 75 FR 80426 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Reporting of Government-Furnished Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... data base for capturing records of Government-furnished property sent on a non-reimbursable basis to a... number. (vii) Medium code; how the data is recorded, e.g., barcode, contact memory button. (viii) Value... January 1, 2004, for unique item identifier pedigree data established at delivery, as defined by DFARS 252...

  11. 75 FR 44814 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ..., Washington, DC 20503. Comments may also be sent to via http://www.regulations.gov --a Federal E-Government... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations... CFDA 93.794 program is no longer active (i.e., no funds are being spent by recipients), and it has been...

  12. Project governance: selected South African government experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.

  13. 78 FR 75528 - Federal Government Participation in the Automated Clearing House

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... Participation in the Automated Clearing House AGENCY: Bureau of the Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... Service (Service) is proposing to amend its regulation governing the use of the Automated Clearing House... Automated Clearing House, Electronic funds transfer, Financial institutions, Fraud, and Incorporation by...

  14. 48 CFR 736.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 736.605 Section 736.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 736.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. See 736.602-3(c)(5). ...

  15. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăceanu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.

  16. To The Question Of Concept And Signs Of The Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan T. Chikhladze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author examines concept and features of the local government, provided in three legal acts, which are significant for the development of local government in the Russian legal acts. The important factor, uniting these acts is that they all are contributed to the functioning of the local government on the principles of decentralization. A special role in the formation of a decentralized local government in Russia is played by the Russian Constitution, adopted by population vote on the December 12, 1993. Particular importance plays the provisions of Article 3 and 12 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation from 1993. Provisions of the Law "On the General Principles of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation" dated October 6, 2003 No. 131-FZ in the definition of local self-government, based on the principles of constitutional democracy. Provisions, defining the local government in the European Charter of Local Self-Government of the October 15, 1985 focus on the implementation of the relevant local government public authorities. The Charter makes an emphasis on the organs (representative government, not on the institutions (mechanisms of direct democracy. In conclusion, author underlines, that it is crucial to recognize that the municipal activities is based on the combination of local and state interests, cooperation of local governments and public authorities. Municipal authorities, by definition, cannot act outside of the general public policy management. They are endowed with the certain state powers, have a complex powers of state-imperious nature. So, the Charter make an emphasis on this fact, that local governments regulate substantial share of public affairs.

  17. Environmental regulation and technological innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, A.E. [Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center, Pittsburg, PA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Government policies are a major factor in the determination of structural conditions of competition. The innovative activity comprises the following: invention, adoption, and diffusion. Invention involves research and development activities such as patenting, research and development budgets. The adoption phase is concerned with deployment. As for the diffusion phase, it involves commercialization, and scale-economies. The process of introducing new technologies that are adopted by small numbers of customers in a niche market was explained. Once costs are lowered through experience gained in designing, manufacturing and servicing the new technology, mew applications generally lead to larger markets. Environmental technologies have no early adopters, implying that governments have an important role to play. However, commercial processes are not normally as well known to government as it is to the private sector. The electoral cycle also interferes with long term research and development efforts for technological clusters. A look at sulphur dioxide control at United States power plants illustrated the problem. The author then explained the reasons behind low allowance prices. Low-sulphur western coal was rendered economic in large areas of the United States by rail deregulation. Electricity restructuring was also a factor. The author indicated that binding government regulation must come before adoption and diffusion of emission controls. A summary of recent research was provided, in which the author stated that no single policy instrument was likely to properly stimulate innovative activity. In those cases where both supply and demand are stimulated by government, the technological innovation is greatest. Stringent regulations induce innovation, as do greater flexibility and greater regulatory certainty. Knowledge transfer within the industry is vital. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Corporate Governance Quality and Audit Quality in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Kee Ho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of corporate governance quality on audit quality in Malaysia. The sampling frame is 457 Malaysian non-finance listed companies, over the periods 2003 to 2007 (pre-2007 Code period and 2008 to 2012 (post-2007 Code period, consisting of 2,285 observations for each period. This study uses pooled ordinary least square (OLS to test the research hypotheses and model. The results show that the effectiveness of the audit committee (AC has no significant influence on audit fees in the pre- and post-2007 Code period, and the effectiveness of the board has no significant influence on audit fees in the pre-2007 Code period, although it has significant influence on audit fees in the post-2007 Code period. The results suggest that the existing corporate governance framework in relation to AC has limitation in its governance role on audit process. Our study contributes to existing literature conducted in the US, the UK and Australia where their institutional settings are different from that of Malaysia. In addition, our study is based on the 2007 Code’s recommendation which contributes to the previous research conducted in Malaysia and provides an insightful evidence to the regulator on the corporate governance regime in Malaysia.

  19. Governance or Governing – the Missing Link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Maria Crăciun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Governance and governing are two distinct concepts, but they intertwine. “Good governing” exercises good influence on development. “Good governance” supposes first a relationship of power focused on a series of reforms structured at three levels: the political – administrative level, the economic level, and the level of civil society. As this dimension is difficult to measure, the qualitative evaluation of the governing act raised the interest of the World Bank researchers, who elaborated and monitored the dynamics of a set of indicators, which includes six major dimensions of the governing. A retrospective concerning the image of governing in Romania during the period from 1996 to 2005 suggests a modest increase of the score: from -0.138 (1996 to 0.008 (2002; that was partially achieved based on the voice and responsibility index and on the political stability index, not on those that measure more directly the administrative performance or the integrity of the governing act. For a comparative study, we chose seven countries for the purposes of analysis (two new European Union member states: Romania and Bulgaria; two older member countries of the European Union: Slovenia and Latvia; three non-member states: Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia, which reveal the quality of the governing from a comparative perspective. Corruption control completes the image created by the analyzed indicators. The mere formal accomplishment of commitments made in the pre-accession activity, doubled by recent internal evolutions, bring doubts about the credibility of the anticorruption reforms, as Romania continues to be considered the country with the highest CPI in the European Union. The pessimism of public opinion and the fact that only 34% of the Romanian people consider that the level of corruption will decrease in the following three years constitutes an alarm signal addressed to the governance, in view of the real reformation of the administration system

  20. Policy coherence, integration, and proportionality in tobacco control: Should tobacco sales be limited to government outlets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; McDaniel, Patricia A; Hiilamo, Heikki; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-08-01

    Multiple factors, including marijuana decriminalization/legalization, tobacco endgame discourse, and alcohol industry pressures, suggest that the retail regulatory environment for psychoactive or addictive substances is a dynamic one in which new options may be considered. In most countries, the regulation of tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol is neither coherent, nor integrated, nor proportional to the potential harms caused by these substances. We review the possible consequences of restricting tobacco sales to outlets run by government-operated alcohol retail monopolies, as well as the likely obstacles to such a policy. Such a move would allow governments more options for regulating tobacco sales, and increase coherence, integration, and proportionality of substance regulation. It might also serve as an incremental step toward an endgame goal of eliminating sales of commercial combustible tobacco.

  1. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  2. Making Education: Governance by Design: Notes from a book project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2017-01-01

    in and through material school designs: from the material and aesthetic language of schooling to the design of the built environment, from spatial organisation to the furnishing and equipment of classrooms and from technologies of regulation to the incorporation of tools of learning. Over the last decades......, governance as a concept developed within political science has gained a growing popularity in an increased number of research fields, also within the field of educational research (Amos 2010). Recent theories on governance open up to look at governance beyond political decision-making processes and state...... in the book focus on design processes and on designers/architects and people involved in the planning of school design as well as on school leaders, teachers and pupils adopting, inhabiting and re-shaping them in everyday school life. By stressing the processual aspects of school designs, the book puts...

  3. 2 CFR 2700.930 - Debarring official (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.930).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.930). 2700.930 Section 2700.930 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 2700.930 Debarring official (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.930). For...

  4. 77 FR 29983 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Subcontract Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... performance of functions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), and whether it will have practical... The objective of consent to subcontract, as discussed in FAR Part 44, is to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness with which the contractor spends Government funds, and complies with Government...

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF REGINONAL REGULATIONS SUPERVISION IN FINANCIAL SECTOR AFTER REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Rumesten RS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous regional administration may say 80% fail, even many violations in governance can be seen from the many local regulations canceled by the government. The problem of this study is how the regulatory supervision of the financial sector among local parent with a new autonomous regions. Methods used in this research is to examine the normative Law 23 of 2014 and Act No. 17 of 2003. From the results, that local governments still have to master to supervise all local regulations and regulatory policies that made the district / city, especially in the field of finance. An obligation on the parent region to assist funding over three years for new autonomous regions interfere with the delivery system of local governance parent, therefore before diotonomkan, candidates should be prepared to be autonomous administrative regions that after diotonomkan not interfere peyelenggaraan dependent and parent local government.

  6. Public regulators and CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    of such public regulatory governance, this article explores and explains developments towards a juridification of CSR entailing efforts by public regulators to reach beyond jurisdictional and territorial limitations of conventional public law to address adverse effects of transnational economic activity. Through...... analysis of an expansion of law into the normative framing of what constitutes responsible business conduct, we demonstrate a process of juridification entailing a legal framing of social expectations of companies, a proliferation of law into the field of business ethics, and an increased regulation by law...

  7. The protection of minors in the new audiovisual regulation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Ruiz-San Román, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the Spanish Parliament approved the General Law on Audiovisual Communication (GLAC, a new regulation which implements the European Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD. This research analyses how the regulations focused on the protection of children evolved throughout the legislative process, from the first text drafted by the Government to the text finally approved by Parliament. The research deals with the debates and amendments on harmful content which is prohibited or limited. The main objective of the research is to establish the extent to what the new regulation approved in Spain meets the requirements fixed by the AVMSD and the Spanish Government to guarantee child protection.

  8. The effect of energy performance regulations on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra-Santin, O.; Itard, L.

    2012-01-01

    Governments have developed energy performance regulations in order to lower energy consumption in the housing stock. Most of these regulations are based on the thermal quality of the buildings. In the Netherlands, the energy efficiency for new buildings is expressed as the EPC (energy performance

  9. Governing Forest Ecosystem Services for Sustainable Environmental Governance: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Adhikari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Governing forest ecosystem services as a forest socio-ecological system is an evolving concept in the face of different environmental and social challenges. Therefore, different modes of ecosystem governance such as hierarchical, scientific–technical, and adaptive–collaborative governance have been developed. Although each form of governance offers important features, no one form on its own is sufficient to attain sustainable environmental governance (SEG. Thus, the blending of important features of each mode of governance could contribute to SEG, through a combination of both hierarchical and collaborative governance systems supported by scientifically and technically aided knowledge. This should be further reinforced by the broad engagement of stakeholders to ensure the improved well-being of both ecosystems and humans. Some form of governance and forest management measures, including sustainable forest management, forest certification, and payment for ecosystem services mechanisms, are also contributing to that end. While issues around commodification and putting a price on nature are still contested due to the complex relationship between different services, if these limitations are taken into account, the governance of forest ecosystem services will serve as a means of effective environmental governance and the sustainable management of forest resources. Therefore, forest ecosystem services governance has a promising future for SEG, provided limitations are tackled with due care in future governance endeavors.

  10. 48 CFR 1852.245-70 - Contractor requests for Government-owned equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the equipment and the reasons why contractor-owned property cannot be used, citing the applicable FAR... 1419, DOD Industrial Plant Equipment Requisition, or equivalent format, for each item requested and (ii... Government-owned equipment. 1852.245-70 Section 1852.245-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL...

  11. The flaws of fragmented financial standard setting: why substantive economic debates matter for the architecture of global governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, D.; Perry, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the half decade following the 2007 financial crisis, the reform of global financial governance was driven by two separate policy debates; one on the substantive content of regulations, the other on the organizational architecture of their governance. The separation of the two debates among

  12. Theory and the market after the crisis: the endogeneity of financial governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The inheritance of contemporary financial economics invites us to consider financial stability as integral to a liberal market setting. The crisis however demonstrated that financial markets may prove highly dysfunctional in the absence of adequate mechanisms of regulation and governance. This

  13. The role of mobile phones in governance-driven technology exports in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice; Asongu, Ndemaze

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses how the mobile phone influences governance to improve information and communication technology (ICT) exports in Sub-Saharan Africa with data from 2000-2012. The empirical evidence is based on Generalised Method of Moments and three main governance concepts are used, namely: (i) institutional (comprising the rule of law and corruption-control); (ii) political (involving political stability/no violence and voice & accountability) and (iii) economic (including regulation qua...

  14. Petra Governance Handbook - WP7 – Governance structures & business models : D7.3: Governance Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeneman, W.; Hirschhorn, F.; Klievink, A.J.; Steenhuisen, B.M.; van der Voort, H.G.

    2017-01-01

    This document represents the governance handbook on mobility data platforms for the PETRA project. The governance handbook provides metropolitan authorities contemplating the implementation of a mobility data platform in line with the PETRA project about governance issues and design.
    The

  15. 75 FR 32640 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Finland- Public Interest Exception to the Buy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... procurement memorandum of understanding (RDP MOU) between the government of Finland and the Government of the United States has been in effect since 1991. The governments have negotiated and concluded a new RDP MOU... Government procurement. Ynette R. Shelkin, Editor, Defense Acquisition Regulations System. 0 Therefore, 48...

  16. 45 CFR 2520.60 - What government-wide requirements apply to staff fundraising under my AmeriCorps grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What government-wide requirements apply to staff fundraising under my AmeriCorps grant? 2520.60 Section 2520.60 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... C PROGRAMS § 2520.60 What government-wide requirements apply to staff fundraising under my Ameri...

  17. Business Systems and Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben; Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    The paper tests the applicability of Whitley' s business systems framework to the study of international differences in corporate ownership structure. In support of Whitley' s framework we document the existence of large differences among the largest companies in 12 European nations. Furthermore we...... find that these differences can be partly attributed to the institutional determinants stressed by Whitley: structure of the financial system, government regulation and labour relations. However, we also find evidence of microeconomic effects attributable to firm size and industry structure which cut...... across national borders and which influence cross country variations in ownership structure. We conclude that ownership structures are influenced by both economic and system effects....

  18. Corporate governance in banks: Problems and remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Marcinkowska

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Weak and ineffective corporate governance mechanisms in banks are pointed out as the main factors contributing to the recent financial crisis. Deep changes in this area are necessary to reinforce the financial sector stability. The paper presents key aspects requiring reforms: the role, constitution and accountability of board, risk management, management remuneration, transparency. New regulations and guidance are presented, creating the foundations for a new order of the financial market. The paper also points out the banks’ stakeholders’ accountability.

  19. Regulating Market Entry of Low-Cost Private Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa : Towards a Theory of Private Education Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Donald R.; Cooper, Rachel; Lusk-Stover, Oni

    2018-01-01

    This study provides a comparative assessment of policies governing private schools in twenty countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Findings suggest that current regulatory systems are failing to adequately address the negative externalities and failures of private schooling markets. Insufficient capacity on the part of governments is a contributor to uneven policy implementation and creates opportunities for rent-seeking and corruption. Onerous market entry regulations offer constraints on the gro...

  20. Who governs energy? The challenges facing global energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florini, Ann; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article conceptualizes the energy problems facing society from a global governance perspective. It argues that a notion of 'global energy governance,' taken to mean international collective action efforts undertaken to manage and distribute energy resources and provide energy services, offers a meaningful and useful framework for assessing energy-related challenges. The article begins by exploring the concepts of governance, global governance, and global energy governance. It then examines some of the existing institutions in place to establish and carry out rules and norms governing global energy problems and describes the range of institutional design options available to policymakers. It briefly traces the role of a selection of these institutions, from inter-governmental organizations to summit processes to multilateral development banks to global action networks, in responding to energy issues, and points out their strengths and weaknesses. The article concludes by analyzing how the various approaches to global governance differ in their applicability to addressing the conundrums of global energy problems.