In 2007/8 world food prices spiked and global economic crisis set in, leaving hundreds of millions of people unable to access adequate food. The international reaction was swift. In a bid for leadership, the 123 member countries of the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security (CFS) adopted a
Preventing Teen Pregnancy: Coordinating Community Efforts. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight.
The Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform and Oversight met to consider the causes of and solutions to teen pregnancy and the role of community organizations in prevention efforts. Opening remarks by Representative Christopher Shays were followed by statements…
financial resources on domestic and international capital markets through good corporate governance excited ...... It does not provide for separation of the roles of a chief executive officer (CEO) and board Chairperson;. • Besides, the law does ...
Full Text Available Following the East-Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the corporate accounting scandals, the shareholder’s confidence in the audited financial statements was adversely affected and regulators started to think seriously reforming the existing corporate governance practices. As a result, numerous initiatives were implemented to accelerate improvement of corporate governance practices. One of these initiatives was the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (MCCG. The code was derived from the approach applied by the British Hampel Committee, which attempt to mitigate the agency problem between corporate managers and outside owners. This study suggests that the British approach is unsuitable to Malaysian business environment. Particularly, the MCCG that had been lunched since 2011 ignore the uniqueness of Malaysia’s capital market, regulation environment and ownership structure. Therefore, the study recommends that policy makers and other regulators should consider the local business environment when establishing future code on corporate governance.
Full Text Available The global financial crisis has posed challenges to financial institutions governance. Meeting these challenges requires an understanding of governance dynamics in relation to institutions’ performance within a changing environment. The nature and scope of institutional response to a changing environment depends upon inherited governance structures, including socioeconomic conventions and rules of behavior at the macro level and time, expertise and common commitment of directors at the micro level. Innovation and learning-by-doing in governance can be an effective reform strategy. Innovation in governance may include the establishment of new norms of economic behavior and the transformation of decision-making process and the reallocation of responsibilities to directors and senior management. This may also inform regulatory approaches in strengthening financial institutions governance, based on improved disclosure, independent and competent boards
Jenks, R. Stephen; And Others
This report presents in detail a unicameral government structure with supporting student and faculty caucuses, recommended for the University of New Hampshire by its Committee on Government Organization to (1) provide maximum participation to all members of the university community on a fair and equitable basis, and (2) provide a more efficient…
Zastocki, Deborah K
Previous successes of healthcare organizations and effective governance practices in the pre-reform environment are not predictive of future success. Healthcare has been through numerous phases of growth and development using tried-and-true strategies. The challenge is that our toolbox does not contain what is needed to build the future healthcare delivery systems required in the post-reform world. Healthcare has had a parochial focus at the local level, with some broadening of horizons at the state and national levels. But healthcare delivery is now a global issue that requires a totally different perspective, and many countries are confronting similar issues. US healthcare reform initiatives have far-reaching implications. Compounding the reform dynamics are the simultaneously occurring, gamechanging accelerants such as enabling information technologies and mobile health, new providers of healthcare, increased consumer demands, and limited healthcare dollars, to name a few. Operating in this turbulent environment requires transformational board, executive, and physician leadership because traditional ways of planning for incremental change and attempting to time those adjustments can prove disastrous. Creating the legacy healthcare system for tomorrow requires governing boards and executive leadership to act today as they would in the desired future system. Boards need to create a culture that fosters.innovation with a tolerance for risk and some failure. To provide effective governance, boards must essentially develop new skills, expertise, and ways of thinking. The rapid rate of change requires board members to possess certain capabilities, including the ability to deal with ambiguity and uncertainty while demonstrating flexibility and adaptability, all with a driving commitment to metrics and results. This requires development plans for both individual members and the overall board. In short, the board needs to function differently, particularly regarding the
This paper explores the relationship between neoliberal ideology and the discourse and practice of education governance reform in Ontario over the last two decades. It focuses on changes in education governance introduced by successive Ontario governments: the NDP government from 1990 to 1995, the Progressive Conservative government from 1995 to…
In the past three decades, higher education reforms have taken place almost everywhere in the world, and governance or the way that higher education is or should be coordinated has become a global topic. The governance reform in Chinese higher education emerged against such a background. The current studies on Chinese higher education reforms…
De Pouvourville, G
French health care faced the dual crises of rising costs and excess physicians. No government, whether left or right, could avoid focusing reform on the extensive public hospital system. Many differences introduced by the Socialists after 1981 were rhetorical and relational--matters of "democratization" of governance and "control" of physicians. Paradoxically, the two major structural reforms, "departmentalization" and "global budgeting," were extensions of actions begun under preceding governments. Neither has come to fruition yet.
Full Text Available This paper argues that almost all other non-governmental institutions for instance banks and pension funds, in addition to the risk and audit committees, have credit committees in respect of banks and investment committees in respect of pension funds. These committees provide oversight on the core businesses of these institutions. In a similar manner, national government departments should not only have universal governance committees such as the audit and risk committees, instead the study envisions governance committees modelled around the idea parliamentary portfolio committees. The envisaged committees will remain governance committees with defined roles and responsibilities similar to the audit and risk committees that are already in existence in the national government departments.
Jude C Okafor
Full Text Available The 1976 Local Government Reform among other landmark changes unified the local government system in Nigeria, and the 1979 constitution made local governments the third tier of government and provided for a system of local government by democratically elected councils. More recently, elected local government councils have been dissolved and replaced with Transition Committees or Caretaker Committees appointed by the Governors’ of their respective states. This paper therefore, examines the impact of the caretaker committees in Nigerian Local Government on the practice of constitutional democracy. The discussion is framed by the theoretical perspectives and Nigerian literature on local government and constitutional democracy, and by the recent phenomenal wave of dissolving elected local government councils and subsequent replacement with caretaker committees. Contrary to popular belief, that local government as the third tier of government has failed to achieve the objective for which it was created, this paper observes that party politics has been the bane of Nigerian local government since its inception, and that democratically elected local councils with political and financial autonomy are the major conditions for an effective and efficient multi-purpose local government system in Nigeria.
Frew, Deborah; Martlew, Ainsley
For many years there has been discussion regarding the problems confronting our current ethics review system. Commentators have identified numerous issues that threaten the sustainability of Australia's voluntary HREC system. Various ad hoc solutions to these problems have been posed, but have not resulted in any significant advances. However, in recent years, discourse regarding research governance has become prominent in the Australian research environment. The application of research governance principles is gaining momentum amongst the regulators of research, including research institutions and their governing bureaucracies. We argue that this is potentially the most significant development in several years towards creating a sustainable HREC system in Australia. The recognition by research institutions and their governing bureaucracies that the responsibility for overall research governance lies with them, rather than solely with their HRECs, is leading to a range of initiatives which should significantly lessen the burden on Australian ethics committees, and improve their ability to undertake their core task of reviewing the ethical aspects of research proposals.
The diminishing use of technical Military Specifications (Mil-specs) and the increased emphasis on performance based requirements due to acquisition reform has limited technical communication between government and industry...
Following the East-Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the corporate accounting scandals, the shareholder’s confidence in the audited financial statements was adversely affected and regulators started to think seriously reforming the existing corporate governance practices. As a result, numerous initiatives were implemented to accelerate improvement of corporate governance practices. One of these initiatives was the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance (MCCG). The code was derived from the a...
The alarming resource gap that the states were facing in 1970's has prompted the Central Government to augment the resources for power generation by creating two new entities in November 1975 viz the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) and National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC). Few other organisations also exist in central sector which are engaged in power generation like Nuclear Power Corporation (NPC). NTPC being the leading player in the power sector, it can neither be indifferent nor dissociate itself from the reforms sweeping the sector today. The article describes the Central Government's role in power generation, reforms and NTPC and further prospects of NTPC
Goergen, M.; Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
This paper contributes to the research on corporate governance by predicting the effects of European takeover regulation.In particular, we investigate whether the recent reforms of takeover regulation in Europe are leading to a harmonization of the national legislations.With the help of 150
Full Text Available When a municipality contracts for goods or services, it must make use of competitive bidding / a public call for tenders for contracts over R200 000 as well as for long term contracts. A competitive bidding process generally consists of different stages, for example, compiling bid specifications, advertising the bid, the receipt and evaluation of bids, and the award and implementation of the contract. The Municipal Supply Chain Management Regulations require a municipality’s Supply Chain Management Policy to provide for a committee system to oversee the different stages. Such committee system must, moreover, consist of at least a bid specification committee, a bid evaluation committee and a bid adjudication committee. Until recently, little attention has been given by the courts to the roles and composition of the different committees in the committee system. It is only after government, and in particular, municipalities have begun to implement the committee system in their procurement processes that it is evident that problems are arising. In recent months, the courts have increasingly had to deal with issues pertaining to the implementation of the committee system.In this article, the relevant legislative provisions on the committee system for competitive bids in local government are discussed. The functions of each committee are explained and all the cases that have thus far involved the implementation of the committee system are critically analysed. Much attention is given to the cases since they serve as a warning to municipalities to uphold and comply with the rules relating to the roles and composition of the different committees. The cases illustrate how important it is for municipalities to ensure that the different committees are properly constituted and that decisions at meetings are properly taken. They also highlight the importance of the supervisory role of the municipal manager over the different committees. In light of the
Full Text Available The tax reform proposed by the Lula government in 2003, quickly approved by Congress, remained at the limits of the proposals of the previous government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso and his Social Democratic party (PSDB, inspired by neoliberal ideology. The small advances in reducing regressivity, such as exemptions for basic consumer products, have not altered the role of the tax structure in the concentration of wealth, with a predominance of indirect taxes and their regressive effects. Taxation has deserved little attention in the broad debate about social policies in Brazil, which concentrates on the allocation of public expenses and the efficiency of spending, without proper attention to the role of the tax structure in the concentration of income and wealth in the country. The article presents the regressive profile of the Brazilian tax structure, preserved by the reform of 2003 and discusses the neoliberal agenda that guides the initiatives of the Lula government in this field.
Fauchald, Ole Kristian
This report focuses on the possibility of establishing a High Commissioner for the Environment and transforming the UNEP Governing Council into a Council for the Environment. For this purpose, it considers the parallels between human rights regimes and environmental regimes. It provides a short-list of functions to be covered by a reformed environmental governance regime, and discusses how the reform can be coordinated with UNEP, as well as with the current and future institutional framework for sustainable development. The report also discusses how the reform can be related to fifteen core multilateral environmental agreements. Finally, the report considers how the reform can be carried out through a discussion of five separate options: a decision by the UN General Assembly, by the ECOSOC, or by the UNEP Governing Council, as well as through agreements between conferences of parties of environmental agreements, or directly between states. A main purpose of the report, which has been commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment, is to provide input to the preparations for the Rio+20 Conference in 2012.(auth)
Gundy, Peter R; Gaeta, Elizabeth C
The area of sales compensation has remained relatively untouched by recent pressures for compensation reform. This article highlights some of the ways that sales organizations stumble in managing their compensation programs, and why it takes more than a simple tactical fix to address these problems effectively. The authors describe a more structured governance framework that not only identifies and resolves key sales compensation issues, but ultimately safeguards the effectiveness and financial integrity of the sales organization itself.
This comment explores whether health care reform legislation establishes an administrative body effectively charged with the rationing of health care resources; insofar as it establishes a presidentially appointed Independent Medicare Advisory Committee (IMAC). IMAC would be charged with "making two annual reports dictating updated rates for Medicare providers including physicians, hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, home health, and durable medical equipment." IMAC's recommendations would be implemented nationally, subject to a Congressional vote. Congress would be granted a thirty-day window to achieve a simple majority for or against the IMAC recommendations. Part I is an introduction. Part II of this article covers the history of American health care. It lays out the federal government's evolving role in the arena of public health and health care, starting in the mid-nineteenth century and continues up to the present day. Part III examines the existing process by which Medicare spending is controlled. This part focuses on the administrative procedures that control Medicare reimbursements. Part IV examines IMAC. This part discusses IMAC's statutory provisions and the administrative transparency laws IMAC would be bound to follow. The close of this part, draws on three analogies as a gauge for how IMAC will operate: Senator Tom Daschle's Federal Health Board (FHB) proposal; the administrative oversight of the Federal Reserve; and the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Part V creates a snapshot of the U.S. health care system as it operates today. This part emphasizes cost, quality, and accessibility of health care, with comparisons to international and state-run health care systems. Throughout this article there are a number of words, phrases, and agencies that have been given acronyms. For convenience, an index of these acronyms is provided in an appendix following the article.
Full Text Available The sovereign debt crisis is creating enormous anguish in the European Monetary Union (EMU. Not surprisingly, emergency measures continue to be used at a time when a sort of economic recovery seems to be underway. Against this background the European Council summit of last October considered a Task Force report with a telling name: "Strengthening economic governance in the EU". This document is to be examined in conjunction with the governance reform proposals issued by the European Commission at the end of September and related documents. For the depth of this financial crisis and the "Great Recession" have forced EU governments and EU institutions to take a hard look at the governance structure of the Union. But it would be wrong to say that this demarche is an attempt to explore a terra incognita. From the very beginning of the European Monetary Union (EMU there was some discomfort with its institutional underpinnings and there were misgivings regarding its optimality as a currency area. This explains why a train of thought underlines a political rationale, too, for the creation of the EMU. Likewise, criticism regarding the way regulation and supervision have been established in the Union is not of recent vintage. And insufficiencies of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP, with almost all member states flouting its rules at various points in time, have been repeatedly pointed out. This said, however, the flaws of financial intermediation have been less tackled by policy-makers and central bankers for reasons which, partially, are to be found in a paradigm which has dominated economic thinking in recent decades. This paper focuses on roots of the huge strain in the EU (EMU and main policy issues ensuing from the current crisis. It also looks at the stake NMSs have in a reformed EU economic governance structure. The challenges for EU economic governance reform are to be seen from a broad perspective: the crisis of the financial intermediation
Full Text Available This article examines common barriers to achieving adequate levels of forest resource governance in countries of Latin America. It looks at the deficiencies of the policy and regulatory frameworks affecting forests, the common failure to impose the rule of law, the main factors that constrain the effectiveness of government actions in the forest sector and at the political barriers to introducing reforms for change in governance structures. The elimination of these barriers acquires new importance in the implementation of successful REDD+ programs in the countries of the region.
Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton.
Based on its conclusion that a unicameral senate would be both desirable and feasible, Florida Atlantic University's Committee on University Governance drafted a proposal to establish a "single university-wide Senate, which truly represents Administration, Faculty, and Students." The two parts of the proposal present (1) the composition…
Information Management: The Challenges of Managing Electronic Records. Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Information Policy, Census and National Archives, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-10-838T
Melvin, Valerie C.
Federal agencies are increasingly using electronic means to create, exchange, and store information, and in doing so, they frequently create federal records: that is, information, in whatever form, that documents government functions, activities, decisions, and other important transactions. As the volume of electronic information grows, so does…
Human Capital: Attracting and Retaining a High-Quality Information Technology Workforce. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives.
McClure, David L.
The General Accounting Office examined the problem of attracting and retaining a high-quality information technology (IT) workforce in federal government agencies. The problem was traced to a longstanding lack of effective leadership and management and lack of a strategic approach to marshaling, managing, and maintaining the human capital needed…
Stoelwinder, Johannes U
The National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission (NHHRC) has recommended that Australia develop a "single health system", governed by the federal government. Steps to achieving this include: a "Healthy Australia Accord" to agree on the reform framework; the progressive takeover of funding of public hospitals by the federal government; and the possible implementation of a consumer-choice health funding model, called "Medicare Select". These proposals face significant implementation issues, and the final solution needs to deal with both financial and political sustainability. If the federal and state governments cannot agree on a reform plan, the Prime Minister may need to go to the electorate for a mandate, which may be shaped by other economic issues such as tax reform and intergenerational challenges.
Li, Huicong; Zhang, Hongliang; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Qiu, Aichao
External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China's insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010-2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China's shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China's insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China's insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector.
Full Text Available External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China’s insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010–2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China’s shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China’s insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China’s insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector.
Zhang, Hongliang; Qiu, Aichao
External regulation is an important mechanism to improve corporate behavior in emerging markets. China’s insurance governance regulation, which began to supervise and guide insurance corporate governance behavior in 2006, has experienced a complex process of reform. This study tested our hypotheses with a sample of 85 firms during 2010–2011, which was obtained by providing a questionnaire to all of China’s shareholding insurance companies. The empirical study results generally show that China’s insurance governance effectiveness has significantly improved through strict regulation. Insurance corporate governance can improve business acumen and risk-control ability, but no significant evidence was found to prove its influence on profitability, as a result of focusing less attention on governance than on management. State ownership is associated with higher corporate governance effectiveness than non-state ownership. Listed companies tend to outperform non-listed firms, and life insurance corporate governance is more effective than that of property insurers. This study not only contributes to the comprehensive understanding of corporate governance effectiveness but also to the literature by highlighting the effect of corporate governance regulation in China’s insurance industry and other emerging economies of the financial sector. PMID:29039781
Duncan, J.A.B.; Barling, D.
The food commodity price rises from 2006 to 2008 engendered a period
of political renewal and reform in the governance of global food security. The
Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was designated as the main international forum dealing with food security and nutrition in 2009 as part
Vian, Taryn; Bicknell, William J
Lesotho has been implementing financial management reforms, including performance-based budgeting (PBB) since 2005 in an effort to increase accountability, transparency and effectiveness in governance, yet little is known about how these efforts are affecting the health sector. Supported by several development partners and $24 million in external resources, the PBB reform is intended to strengthen government capacity to manage aid funds directly and to target assistance to pressing social priorities. This study designed and tested a methodology for measuring implementation progress for PBB reform in the hospital sector in Lesotho. We found that despite some efforts on the national level to promote and support reform implementation, staff at the hospital level were largely unaware of the purpose of the reform and had made almost no progress in transforming institutions and systems to fully realize reform goals. Problems can be traced to a complex reform design, inadequate personnel and capacity to implement, professional boundaries between financial and clinical personnel and weak leadership. The Lesotho reform experience suggests that less complex designs for budget reform, better adapted to the context and realities of health sectors in developing countries, may be needed to improve governance. It also highlights the importance of measuring reform implementation at the sectoral level. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.
EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs will hold a public meeting of the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC) on Wednesday, May 3, from 9:00 a.m. to 4:45 p.m., and on Thursday, May 4, from 8:30 a.m. to noon.
In Australia, a review of the higher education sector is usually triggered by a change in government leadership, followed by the development and implementation of the government's response in the form of a reform package to enact change. The aim of this study was to conduct an independent evaluation of a large-scale national government policy…
Full Text Available This paper explores the ways water governance adapts to changing social values and political imperatives by examining the case of water policy reforms in Australia’s Murray Darling Basin. Over more than two decades, Australia’s water reforms have explicitly aimed to promote ecological sustainability and economic efficiency, attempting to balance pro-market, micro-economic reforms with broader social and sustainability goals. Despite the formality of Australia’s intergovernmental agreements, water reforms have been expensive and heavily contested, experiencing many implementation challenges. However, water market reforms have generally been regarded as successful, enabling the reallocation of water for environmental and extractive uses, contributing to flexibility and adaptive capacity. Recognising that discursive contestation is central to policy development, the paper documents the way the reform processes have attempted to broker compromises between three competing policy paradigms—national development, economic rationalism and environmentalism. These inherent tensions resulted in prolonged contests for influence over policy directions long after formal statements of policy intent by Governments. Given that climate change is driving the need for water governance reforms, the paper looks to what lessons can be learnt about the redesigns of meta-governance arrangements, including through structured commitments to independent audits and evaluations that can provide the feedback needed for adaptive governance and policy learning.
Hort, Krishna; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Dayal, Prarthna
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how and to what extent the design and implementation of universal health coverage (UHC) reforms have been influenced by the governance arrangements of health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); and how governments in these countries have or have not responded to the challenges of governance for UHC. Design/methodology/approach Comparative case study analysis of three Asian countries with substantial experience of UHC reforms (Thailand, Vietnam and China) was undertaken using data from published studies and grey literature. Studies included were those which described the modifications and adaptations that occurred during design and implementation of the UHC programme, the actors and institutions involved and how these changes related to the governance of the health system. Findings Each country adapted the design of their UHC programmes to accommodate their specific institutional arrangements, and then made further modifications in response to issues arising during implementation. The authors found that these modifications were often related to the impacts on governance of the institutional changes inherent in UHC reforms. Governments varied in their response to these governance impacts, with Thailand prepared to adopt new governance modes (which the authors termed as an "adaptive" response), while China and Vietnam have tended to persist with traditional hierarchical governance modes ("reactive" responses). Originality/value This study addresses a gap in current knowledge on UHC reform, and finds evidence of a complex interaction between substantive health sector reform and governance reform in the LMIC context in Asia, confirming recent similar observations on health reforms in high-income countries.
Patel, Ibrahim; Thörn, Simon
Background: This study focuses on three reforms which the Swedish government have performed: The abolishment of the audit requirement, the reduction of the legal capital requirement, and the reduction of the employment taxes. What effect have they had on the establishment of private limited companies? Purpose: The purpose of this dissertation is to explain the influence government reforms have on the establishment and re-establishment of private limited companies inSweden. Method: An explanat...
Biodiversity conservation outcomes are closely related to the rules and institutions governing resource use. Creating local incentives for conservation through more secure resource tenure is central to conservation outcomes on private and communal lands, where the preponderance of biodiversity occurs. Conservation efforts in sub-Saharan Africa are therefore centrally concerned with governance dynamics and institutional reform processes, such as the decentralization of property rights, and how best to achieve such reforms. Traditional mechanisms for financing conservation efforts in Africa rely heavily on funds channeled through multilateral and bilateral aid agencies. The history of development aid highlights a range of constraints these aid agencies face in terms of working toward more effective resource governance arrangements and promoting reforms. Government aid agencies possess incentives for promoting large-scale and short-term projects that maximize expenditure volumes and tend to define issues in technical rather than political terms. The history of development aid suggests that these and other characteristics of aid agencies impedes their ability to influence governance reform processes and that aid funding may discourage the adoption of reforms. Greater emphasis in African conservation financing needs to be placed on flexible, small-scale investments aligned to local interests and constituencies that prioritize innovation, learning, and experimentation. Additionally, more research is required that explores the linkages between conservation funding, donor decision-making processes, and governance reforms.
Sergey Nikolaevich Leonov
Full Text Available The article examines the premises, problems of implementation and results of the local self-government reform that began 25 years ago in Russia. The incentive for resurrecting of local self-government was not political, but economic details of decentralizing the governing based on the ideas of territorial economic accounting and during the years of reform the role of local self-government in the political system of the country had changed – from the local state authorities to the local self-governing authorities, technically independent, but virtually heavily intervened by the government. The article identifies the unsolved problems of the reform over establishing the basics of finance and budgeting for local self-government, when municipalities (based on functions and main sources of budget income became removed from the development of economic base of corresponding territories, from the dynamics of investment, from the development of business. The actual results of the reform differ strongly from the goals declared. During these 25 years it was impossible to overcome low financial self-sufficiency of municipalities, the loss of population’s influence over formation and activity of local self-governing authorities, incorporation of local authorities into state authority, their particular ‘unitization’. The article substantiates the proposals of perfecting the socio-economic part of the reform in the framework of ‘evolutionary approach’
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the support committees of European Union emerging economies. The importance of good corporate governance is vital for an organization, especially in the emerging markets, fact that leads to a several perceived improvements of the entity, while being more trustable, open and transparent in relationship with all its stakeholders. In our demarche we started by choosing the emerging economies from European Union, which lead us to a sample consisting of the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange, Sofia Stock Exchange, Warsaw Stock Exchange, Prague Stock Exchange, Budapest Stock Exchange, without taking into consideration a specific tier. In order to have a heterogeneous sample, we did eliminate the financial institutions from our research. This study is developed at European Union level and takes into consideration the following indices: BET® BUCHAREST EXCHANGE TRADING (Romania, SOFIX (Bulgaria, WIG 20 (Poland, PX (Czech Republic, BUX The Share Index of the Budapest Stock Exchange Co. Ltd. (Hungary. The data are extracted from the Annual Reports, Corporate Governance Codes, Comply or Explain Statement or the websites of the listed companies, from period 2007 - 2011. We choose this period, because we wanted to see the evolution of the corporate governance committees’ implementation from the period when the last countries from our sample joined the European Union since nowadays. Our conclusion is that we can not discuss about good corporate governance practices. Even so, we can observe from our investigation that the trend in this regard is encouraging. Like future research, we thought at developing our study by comparing the emerging economies from European Union with those outside this area. It is an interesting field of investigation, as every country has different regulations.
Nor Azizah Zainal Abidin; Halimah @ Nasibah Ahmad
The Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 not only introduced the term of corporate governance but also drew attention of the public about the weaknesses of Malaysian corporate governance practice. After 1998, Malaysian government decided to adopt corporate reform that could enhance the quality of good corporate management practice. Thisreform is clearly stated in the code and rules of corporate governance. The purpose of this research is to study the significance of implementing the code and rules ...
Peter, Kenneth B.; Bain, Linda L.
A thorough review and revision of curriculum at San Jose State University (California) illustrates that the modern university can achieve major internal academic reforms when two important conditions are met: legitimacy and energy. These two concepts are defined and practical illustrations are drawn from the institution's recent experience in…
.... In passing the 1990 Chief Financial Officers (CFO) Act and other financial management reform legislation, such as the Government Management Reform Act and the Federal Financial Management Improvement Act (FFMIA...
KALLAMU, Basiru Salisu
Abstract. Using a sample of 37 finance companies listed under the finance segment of Bursa Malaysia, we examined the impact of the revision to Malaysian code on corporate governance on audit committee attributes and firm performance. Our result suggests that audit committee attributes significantly improved after the Code was revised. In addition, the coefficient for audit committee and risk committee interlock has a significant negative relationship with Tobin’s Q in the period before the re...
Ritzen, Jozef M. M.; Marconi, Gabriele
This article reviews the history of higher education governance and funding in The Netherlands, generalising when possible to other European countries. It finds that governance reforms and the funding of higher education appear to be driven by economic and demographic factors, including massification. Furthermore, the Bologna Process can be…
Ahmad, Abd Rahman; Farley, Alan; Naidoo, Moonsamy
The Malaysian Government intention to implement the higher education reforms is observable in the implementation of National Higher Education Strategic Plan beyond 2020 in 2007. This plan emphasises on improving the research and teaching in higher education in accordance with the government objectives. Parallel to the introduction of this plan,…
Hunter, David J
Once again the National Health Service (NHS) in England is undergoing major reform, following the election of a new coalition government keen to reduce the role of the state and cut back on big government. The NHS has been undergoing continuous reform since the 1980s. Yet, despite the significant transaction costs incurred, there is no evidence that the claimed benefits have been achieved. Many of the same problems endure. The reforms follow the direction of change laid down by the last Conservative government in the early 1990s, which the recent Labour government did not overturn despite a commitment to do so. Indeed, under Labour, the NHS was subjected to further market-style changes that have paved the way for the latest round of reform. The article considers the appeal of big bang reform, questions its purpose and value, and critically appraises the nature and extent of the proposed changes in this latest round of reform. It warns that the NHS in its current form may not survive the changes, as they open the way to privatization and a weakening of its public service ethos.
Arch G. Woodside
Full Text Available This article develops theory and examines relationships among reforms in government regulation of business, competitiveness, and national economic development in term of GDP per capita. The findings shed light on the ongoing debate of supporting versus refuting reducing/eliminating government regulations of business. Applying Campbell’s (1968, 1969 seminal contributions in examining the impact of reforms as quasi-experiments and Mill’s (1872/1973 method of differences, the study shows that the reforms in reductions and eliminations of government regulations of business help to increase national economic growth the lagged impact (e.g., 2, 3 years after introduction of reforms should be expected. Also, medium-to-large reductions in the ranking of government regulations of business (increase in competitiveness associate with increases in GDP per capita in comparison to a large increase in the ranking (decrease in competitiveness. The results also provide insights into the different regulatory environments (i.e., high vs. low government corruption and media-freedom vs. highly ethical behavior and lack of media-freedom may condition the impact of the reforms.
Tax reform in small emerging democracies is difficult to measure what effects is likely to produce due to countries’ aggregate political and economic vulnerabilities. If both are taken as remaining relatively stable, then it is easier to discuss what impact the reform introduced may have in the economy and her stakeholders. In absence of a monetary policy, the Government of Kosovo in mid-2008 adopted the changes in tax rates taking effect from January 2009, with the aim to foster economic gro...
Ndeshipewa Johanna Akwenye
Full Text Available The underlying study to this paper attempts to establish to what extent audit committees in government ministries in Namibia have been established as a requirement for enhanced quality of service delivery and accountability to taxpayers A qualitative approach was followed, where questionnaires or an interviews were conducted with accounting officers in government ministries. Content and thematic analyses were used to formulate narratives based on the understanding of similarities and differences in respondents’ experiences, views and perceptions. The study shows that from the 17 ministries that responded, only 2 ministries have established audit committees. Confirmatory, there is currently no legislature that makes it mandatory for government ministries in Namibia to establish audit committees within their respective constituencies. There are no formal audit committee terms and references or an audit committee charters are in place. Government ministries in Namibia seem to not have adopted best national and international governance practices with respect to the establishment of audit committees within their ministries. There is a need for a clear guidance as to how audit committees must be established; the composition of the committee members, the terms of office of committee members and remuneration, to mention a few
... should also consult broadly with external stakeholders, including Members of Congress, business leaders... the past. We live and do business in the information age, but the organization of the Federal Government has not kept pace. Government agencies have grown without overall strategic planning and...
Radu Dorin Lenghel
The Audit Committee is a structure which has consulting role for the Management Board or for the Supervisory Board. The Audit Committee is composed only of non-executive administrators independent from the executive management. The Audit Committee will support the Management Board in the monitoring of credibility and integrity of financial information provided by the company, especially by the revision of relevance and consistency of accounting standards applied by the company. The Management...
... committee (e.g., geographic, economic, social, cultural, educational background, professional affiliations..., participate in teleconference meetings, attend listening sessions with the Administrator or other senior-level...
Angela Winnie Kandandu
Full Text Available The aim of the underlying study to this paper is to evaluate the audit committees in the government ministries in Namibia; by assessing their composition, the function and regulations that govern committees. The study used a qualitative approach of inquiry. A purposive sampling method was used as the researcher selected ministries with audit committees. Thematic and content analysis was used in this study. Both primary and secondary and data were used. On primary data, interviews were conducted and recorded with a voice recorder. Secondary data was during the review of existing literature on the subject. The study found that from the 4 government ministries with audit committees, only one ministry consisted of independent members as well as an independent chairperson, while 3 ministries are chaired by members within their organisations. There was clear evidence of lack of accounting / financial /auditing competence among the committee members. This trend is contrary to the best practice which requires that the chairperson of the audit committees be independent of the ministry as well as the members of the audit committee. The finding indicates possibility of lack of capacity to carry out the functions of audit committees; weak internal control systems; chances of conflict of interest and complacency due to the lack of independence. There is avenue for further research as more ministries in Namibia are now establishing their audit committees, especially as the Namibian Code of Corporate Governance (the NamCode gains more popularity among the public sector.
This paper brings concepts and ideas from around the world about the need for and ways of achieving more responsive and accountable new public management within the framework of democratic governance. The paper adopts a content analysis method through the use of secondary data. The findings of the paper ...
In South Asia, security discourse has traditionally been confined to government circles, with no room for voices from civil society. ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international ...
-, č. 331 (2007), s. 1-49 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : corporate governance * the Sarbanes-Oxley Act * incentive pay Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp331.pdf
Manna, Paul, Ed.; McGuinn, Patrick, Ed.
America's fragmented, decentralized, politicized, and bureaucratic system of education governance is a major impediment to school reform. In this important new book, a number of leading education scholars, analysts, and practitioners show that understanding the impact of specific policy changes in areas such as standards, testing, teachers, or…
This article examines global governance reforms as a site of contestation between three different "truths"/epistemes (the market, human rights principles, and cultural identity) in terms of the competing principles of efficiency, capability, and recognition. Nancy Fraser's conceptions of participation parity and a dialogical approach of…
Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana
This article discusses insights from an ethnographic study of local governance practices in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, under changing policy conditions. Recent reforms introduced and strengthened the position of head teachers, enhanced the responsibility of the municipalities and introduced new quality management procedures in local…
Nikita V. Shevtsov
Full Text Available Abstract: This article describes the life and work of the distinguished political leader of the 17th century Vasiliy Vasilyevich Golitsyn. He entered the history of our country as a thoughtful reformist and a brilliant diplomat. His transformations created the foundation for the future pivotal reforms by Peter the Great. Being an outstanding analyst and a strategic planner, Golytsin won his combats not on the bloody battlefields but in the course of fights on the diplomatic arena. During the reign of Sophia, when he had received ultimately unlimited power warrant, he mainly fostered all of his efforts to the implementation of the socio-economic changes and the rise of prestige of the Russian State. However, as it often happens with the prominent reformists he became a victim of the in-house political tussle; he placed the wrong bet on Sophia instead of Peter the Great and his court. As a result, he was deprived from his post, lost his estates, and was sent into exile to the north of the country. The author of this article followed the probable route of Golytsin’s exile ramblings and paid special attention to the stay of the disgraced knyaz in Pinezhskiy Volok - currently the settlement of Pinega situated approximately 200 km away from Arkhangelsk on the banks of the Pinega River. The article also offers a detailed description of the Krasnogorskiy Monastery located 15 km away from the settlement. Golitsyn used to visit this monastery regularly and in 1714 was buried there disclaimed by Peter. The tombstone from his grave was preserved and is now stored in the Museum of Regional Studies in Pinega.
Subramanian, Vidya K.
The Teach for India (TFI) programme, an important offshoot of the Teach for All/Teach for America global education network, began as a public-private partnership in 2009 in poorly functioning municipal schools in Pune and Mumbai. Like its American counterpart, the programme in India has similar ideas of reform and recruits college graduates and…
Arredondo, A; Orozco, E; Recaman, A L
Health policies in Latin America are centered on the democratization of health. Since 2003, during the last generation of reforms, health systems in this region have promoted governance strategies for better agreements between governments, institutions, and civil society. In this context, we develop an evaluative research to identify trends and evidence of governance after health care reforms in six regions of Mexico. Evaluative research was developed with a retrospective design based on qualitative analysis. Primary data were obtained from 189 semi-structured interviews with purposively selected health care professionals and key informants. Secondary data were extracted from a selection of 95 official documents on results of the reform project at the national level, national health policies, and lines of action for good governance. Data processing and analysis were performed using ATLAS.ti and PolicyMaker. A list of main strengths and weaknesses is presented as evidence of health system governance. Accountability at the federal level remains prescriptive; in the regions, a system of accountability and transparency in the allocation of resources and in terms of health democratization strategies is still absent. Social protection and decentralization schemes are strategies that have allowed for improvements with a proactive role of users and civil society. Regarding challenges, there are still low levels of governance and difficulties in the effective conduct of programs and reform strategies together with a lack of precision in the rules and roles of the different actors of the health system. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
May 1, 2017 ... Keywords: Governance, Decentralisation, Public Services Delivery, Unit ..... company after 24 hours, as indicated on the electricity company's forms. ...... Decentralisation and Poverty: Conceptual Framework and Application.
Nataliya L. Semyonova
Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of the local government reforming in the high ruling circles of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 30s of the XIX century on the basis of the published and unpublished archival documents. The author has analyzed the ideas of the Minister of the Internal Affairs A.A. Zakrevsky taken under consideration by the Emperor Nicolay I in 1831. The project presupposed the reform of the local government on the basis of the principles of making the governor’s influence more powerful, restoring the unity of the province’s governmental bodies, increasing a number of officials in the provincial government and their payments. The author concludes that A.A. Zakrevsky’s suggestions were of a purely declarative character. The discussion of the ideas by the Minister of the Internal Affairs at the high governmental circles showed that the representatives of the supreme power had found it necessary to keep “The Institute of the Russian Empire province ruling” in 1775 and had been reluctant to consider any changes in it. The author came to the conclusion that the most important criteria of administrative changes at that time were the tasks to create such an apparatus of government which would be cheap, efficient and could provide the best correlation between the power authority of the local and central bodies. The key moment becomes an idea of the Minister of Finance who provided financial grounds by any changes and reforms.
Hansen, Steen Juul
Bogen A Government that Worked Better and Cost Less? er en evaluering af 30 års New Public Management reformer i Storbritanien. Evalueringen viser, at NPM ikke holder hvad det lover. Reformer har ikke givet mere velfærd for færre penge tværtimod, reformerne har giver mindre velfærd for flere penge....
Larsen, Lars Thorup; Stone, Deborah
We compare free choice reforms in Denmark and the United States to understand what ideas and political forces could generate such similar policy reforms in radically different political contexts. We analyze the two cases using our own interpretation of neoliberalism as having "two faces." The first face seeks to expand private markets and shrink the public sector; the second face seeks to strengthen the public sector's capacity to govern through incentives and competition. First, we show why these two most-different cases offer a useful comparison to understand similar policy tools. Second, we develop our theoretical framework of the two faces of neoliberalism. Third, we examine Denmark's introduction of a free choice of hospitals in 2002, a policy that for the first time allowed some patients to receive care either in a public hospital outside their local area or in a private hospital. Fourth, we examine the introduction of free choice among private managed care plans into the US Medicare program in 1997. We show how policy makers in both countries used neoliberal reform as a mechanism to make their public health care sectors governable. Fifth, on the basis of our analysis, we draw five lessons about neoliberal policy reforms. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.
Edyanus Herman Halim
Full Text Available This study attempts to examine the effect of the Risk Management Committee on firm performance, and the intervening effect of the Risk Management Committee on the relationship between Corporate Governance, Firm Size, Financial Reporting Risk, and Firm Performance. Using the purposive sampling method, 299 firms were selected as the sample. This study used secondary data obtained from the companies’ annual reports, and the data was then analyze using SPSS, version 20.0. The results of this study indicate that the entire research hypothesis is accepted. This study found that the Risk Management Committee affects firm performance, and that Risk Management Committee acts as the intervening variable in the relationship between corporate governance, firm size, and financial reporting risk on firm performance. The existence of RMC would facilitate the company to control better the quality of financial reporting risks.
This study aims at identifying the practices that should be taken into consideration by audit committees as a tool of corporate governance in Libyan commercial banks by investigating various perceptions on this topic. The study is based on a questionnaire submitted to audit committees ‘members at Libyan commercial banks, directors of internal audit departments as well as members of board of directors at these banks in addition to a number of external auditors and academic staff from Libyan un...
Nor Azizah Zainal Abidin
Full Text Available The Asian Financial Crisis in 1997 not only introduced the term of corporate governance but also drew attention of the public about the weaknesses of Malaysian corporate governance practice. After 1998, Malaysian government decided to adopt corporate reform that could enhance the quality of good corporate management practice. Thisreform is clearly stated in the code and rules of corporate governance. The purpose of this research is to study the significance of implementing the code and rules of corporategovernance since the public already realize the close relationship between business and politics. Three companies were chosen as indicators for this study. As a result, it was found that companies which are involved in corporate malpractice but have goodrelationship with states will always be excluded from the legal corporate action.
Walker, Richard M.; Boyne, George A.
We present the first empirical assessment of the U.K. Labour government's program of public management reform. This reform program is based on rational planning, devolution and delegation, flexibility and incentives, and enhanced choice. Measures of these variables are tested against external and internal indicators of organizational performance.…
Full Text Available The broad idea of ‘Open Government’ is widely accepted as a facilitator for rebuilding trust and validation in governments around the world. The Open Government Partnership is a significant driver of this movement with over 75 member nations, 15 subnational government participants and many others local governments implementing reforms within their national frameworks. The central tenets of transparency, accountability, participation, and collaboration are well understood within scholarly works and practitioner publications. However, open government is yet to be attributed with a universally acknowledged definition. This leads to questions of adaptability and salience of the concept of open government across diverse contexts. This paper addresses these questions by utilizing a human systems framework called the Dialogue Boxes. To develop an understanding of how open government is currently positioned within scholarly works and practitioner publications, an extensive literature search was conducted. The search utilized major search engines, often-cited references, direct journal searches and colleague provided references. Using existing definitions and descriptions, this paper populates the framework with available information and allow for context specific content to be populated by future users. Ultimately, the aim of the paper is to support the development of open government action plans that maximize the direct positive impact on people’s lives.
Brault, Isabelle; Denis, Jean-Louis; Sullivan, Terrence James
Introducing change is a difficult issue facing all health care systems. The use of various clinical governance levers can facilitate change in health care systems. The purpose of this paper is to define clinical governance levers, and to illustrate their use in a large-scale transformation. The empirical analysis deals with the in-depth study of a specific case, which is the organizational model for Ontario's cancer sector. The authors used a qualitative research strategy and drew the data from three sources: semi-structured interviews, analysis of documents, and non-participative observations. From the results, the authors identified three phases and several steps in the reform of cancer services in this province. The authors conclude that a combination of clinical governance levers was used to transform the system. These levers operated at different levels of the system to meet the targeted objectives. To exercise clinical governance, managers need to acquire new competencies. Mobilizing clinical governance levers requires in-depth understanding of the role and scope of clinical governance levers. This study provides a better understanding of clinical governance levers. Clinical governance levers are used to implement an organizational environment that is conducive to developing clinical practice, as well as to act directly on practices to improve quality of care.
Yoon Je Cho
Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis has highlighted the importance of international monetary and financial system reform. The current system is deemed to be no longer adequate to meet the needs of a complex, integrated world economy. With regards to the reform of the international monetary system, there have been various proposals both in demand and supply sides. These include proposals to build a stronger global financial safety net, to diversify the supply of international reserve currency and so on. These proposals face trade-offs between desirability and political feasibility. Given this situation, a practical transition would be to strengthen policy coordination among the major economies and to reform the International Monetary Fund. The success on both fronts depends heavily on global economic governance reform and the role of the G20. Increased status and representation of Asian countries in the G20 give both privileges and responsibilities to Asians. To meet these responsibilities, Asians should put forth greater efforts to develop their intellectual leadership in global economic issues through creating new forum and institutions.
Evgeniy J. Il'in
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the process of reforming the global financial system and world economic organizations since the foundation of the International Monetary Fund at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 to present time. Special attention is given to results of cooperation of the IMF and the "Group of Twenty"in the context of the world financial crisis 2008-2009. This article mentions the key benchmarks of the historical development of world economy: foundation of the Bretton Woods financial system, rejection of the gold standard at the Jamaica Conference, transition to the floating exchange rates, the wave of crises in the 1990-s, the world financial crisis of 2008-2009. The process of evolution of the IMF within the framework of these global events is considered here. The cooperation of EU, IMF and "Group of Twenty" is considered. The reforms of the IMF and their results are analyzed. The policy of the IMF at different historical stages of its evolution is estimated. As well as it results, the article also deals with the formation and development of the "Group of Twenty". The increasing role of the "Group of Twenty" in the global economic governance and reforming the IMF is considered. Especially is marked the necessity of the further reforms of the IMF and increasing of participation of the "G-20" in the world economic and politic system.
Typically corporate governance is analyzed and understood on the basis of agency theory. This theory is not only the dominant one in academic research, it is also understood as the dominant lens by which policy makers and practitioners ought to see the field. Nevertheless, in order to provide more
Full Text Available Indonesia has taken initiatives to reform its public sector financial management. One of the reform agendas was to introduce ‘cash to accrual’ accounting for improved financial reporting. It is expected that improved financial reporting will enhance financial accountabilities of the governmental agencies and will assist both internal and external decision makers whose decisions will be based on the financial reports. However, it has been observed that there is a significant increase in the number of qualified audit reports when these financial reports were audited. This also means that these financial reports are lacking in providing true and fair views on the financial activities of the governmental agencies, thereby not assisting in discharging their accountabilities. This study seeks to answer the question as to why the numbers of qualified audit reports have increased despite the existence of various governmental accounting reform agendas. Based on the in-depth case studies of three Indonesian local governments, it is found that the demand, the supply and the quality assurance of the accounting information outputs in these local governments are not in parity, and this lacking in parties actually has impacted in producing unqualified and usable accounting reports.
Magnusson, Roger S; Patterson, David
Addressing non-communicable diseases ("NCDs") and their risk-factors is one of the most powerful ways of improving longevity and healthy life expectancy for the foreseeable future - especially in low- and middle-income countries. This paper reviews the role of law and governance reform in that process. We highlight the need for a comprehensive approach that is grounded in the right to health and addresses three aspects: preventing NCDs and their risk factors, improving access to NCD treatments, and addressing the social impacts of illness. We highlight some of the major impediments to the passage and implementation of laws for the prevention and control of NCDs, and identify important practical steps that governments can take as they consider legal and governance reforms at country level.We review the emerging global architecture for NCDs, and emphasise the need for governance structures to harness the energy of civil society organisations and to create a global movement that influences the policy agenda at the country level. We also argue that the global monitoring framework would be more effective if it included key legal and policy indicators. The paper identifies priorities for technical legal assistance in implementing the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020. These include high-quality legal resources to assist countries to evaluate reform options, investment in legal capacity building, and global leadership to respond to the likely increase in requests by countries for technical legal assistance. We urge development agencies and other funders to recognise the need for development assistance in these areas. Throughout the paper, we point to global experience in dealing with HIV and draw out some relevant lessons for NCDs.
... that the cost of operation is excessive in relation to the benefits accruing to the Federal Government... the expiration of the time explicitly specified in the statute, or implied by operation of the statute. (c) Balanced membership. An advisory committee must be fairly balanced in its membership in terms of...
Chmutova Iryna M.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to summarize the international experience of reforming the system of higher education governance and develop directions that will contribute to increasing the effectiveness of the Ukrainian model for governance of higher education and ensuring its autonomy. There identified common elements and trends in European higher education reforms: greater autonomy for higher education institutions with less direct administrative intervention; greater emphasis on private rather than public funding; emphasis on the quality and effectiveness of education. The tools for implementing reforms in the European higher education system are identified: the New Public Management (NPM model, governance through networks, and new forms of governance. The changes in the university autonomy of European countries for the period of 2010-2016 are summarized. The content of the reforms in terms of increasing the autonomy of HEIs in the countries of Asia is disclosed. Possible vectors for reforming the system of higher education governance in Ukraine are identified: introduction of a model for funding HEIs on the basis of combining a one-time full budgeting and financing by results; assigning universities ownership of their buildings and their sale in the market; strengthening the decentralization of government control of higher education; development of legislative bases for the self-sufficiency of HEIs; inclusion of external stakeholders in decision-making governing bodies of HEIs; maximum involvement of students in decision-making.
A. le R. du Plooy
Full Text Available This article adopts an ecclesiological approach and concentrates on the prominent concepts the keys of the kingdom and building up the church. The article attempts to determine the significance those concepts may have for the government of the church and emphasises the close relationship between the keys of the kingdom and the building up of the church. According to Reformational viewpoints the administering of the keys serves the edification of the church. It becomes clear that the notae ecclesiae and the keys of the kingdom function as the basic elements of the church order and must be regarded as the basis or pillars upon which the church is built.
Full Text Available This research aims to know and study the strategy of resource development policy reform of local government district of Makassar Sidenreng Rappang. The research method used is descriptive qualitative study type, while the phenomenological approach is used. This is intended to give description in a systematic, factual and actual response object is examined. Results of the research implementation of education and training is not conducted in a planned and timely to get quality apparatus of the abilities, knowledge, skills, expertise, and job skills, as well as a good mental attitude, and optimal performance. Whereas in the era of regional autonomy, it takes the resources of local government apparatus that is intelligent and responsive to the needs of an increasingly complex society services.
Full Text Available The Moscow Exchange in conjunction with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD continues to address improvements in Russian corporate governance by conducting annual roundtables (OECD, 2017. My research relates to corporate governance provided by audit committees. I examine relationships between former audit partner (FAP audit committee members and auditors, via a network similar to the interlocking directorate. Using a dataset of U.S. auditor dismissals, I construct unique network variables measuring the relational ties between FAP audit committees and auditors. I find some evidence suggesting ties created by former audit partners may increase auditor switching possibly indicating impaired auditor independence. This outcome suggests implications for Russian corporate governance because it is likely Russian Boards of Directors would experience similar circumstances as their U.S. counterparts. As the Moscow Exchange continues its partnership with the OECD to improve corporate governance, audit quality and auditor independence should be considered in the dialogue.
Housego, Ian E.
In 1974 local government in England underwent external and internal reform. The external reforms involved changes in governmental structures and functions, while the internal reforms involved the introduction of "corporate management," a concept stressing more centralized administration and fewer local executive bodies. This paper first…
The National Committee on Radiation Protection is a private, self-perpetuating body of radiation experts founded in 1928 which, except during World War II, has established the basic guidelines for radiation safety in the United States. This dissertation examines three themes in its history from 1928 to 1960. On an intellectual level, how do scientists make judgments when called upon to perform a legal function, instead of conduct research? On an institutional level, how does a scientific committee develop when it serves a medical, industrial, and legal constituency larger than the research community of the scientist themselves? On a political level, how has the development of atomic energy influenced both the intellectual content of the radiation safety standards and the institutional form of the NCRP? Institutional and political concerns were found to play a significant role in the NCRP's intellectual work from 1928 to 1960. The time span can be divided into three periods, revealing a growing politicization of radiation safety: professional self-regulation (1928-1941), government advisory committee (1946-1954), and public controversy and increasing legislation (1954-1960). In 1959, political controversy led to the establishment of the Federal Radiation Council, a government agency which was to replace the NCRP
Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie
Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.
Full Text Available The UK coalition government is bound by equality duties to have regard to the impact of its policies on various groups, including women. This article investigates how far this legislative commitment is influencing debates about current welfare reforms, especially plans for ‘universal credit’ (a new means-tested benefit. The authors draw on findings from recent studies of within-household distribution from a gender perspective, including their own qualitative research. A major aim of this research was to facilitate more nuanced analysis of the effects of welfare reforms in terms of gender roles and relationships within the household. This article therefore examines how far findings from qualitative studies, in conjunction with the key principles they develop for assessing the gender impact of welfare reforms, can be used to examine ‘universal credit’; and to what extent these influenced the UK government’s proposals and analysis in the light of its commitment to equality duties. Los derechos de igualdad obligan al gobierno de coalición del Reino Unido a tener en cuenta el impacto de sus políticas sobre varios grupos, incluidas las mujeres. En este artículo se investiga hasta qué punto este compromiso legislativo está influyendo en los debates sobre las reformas de bienestar actuales, especialmente los planes de “crédito universal” (un nuevo beneficio de ingreso. Los autores se basan en los resultados de estudios recientes sobre la distribución dentro de los hogares desde una perspectiva de género, incluida su propia investigación cualitativa. Un objetivo principal de esta investigación era el de facilitar un análisis más matizado de los efectos de las reformas de bienestar en términos de roles y relaciones de género dentro del hogar. Por tanto, este artículo examina hasta qué punto los resultados de estudios cualitativos, en relación con los principios fundamentales que se desarrollan para evaluar el impacto de g
Sue Fei Tan
Full Text Available Over the last two decades a feature of local government reforms globally has been the introduction of New Public Management (NPM. Under this broad approach to public administration there is an expectation that councillors play a greater strategic role and move away from involvement in day-to-day management. This research, carried out in the state of Victoria, Australia, examines councillors’ understandings of their roles. Based on 17 in-depth interviews and two focus groups, we found that despite the evolving legislative requirements framing councillors as policymakers not managers, most councillors continued to seek involvement in the day-to-day management of councils. We argue that this gap may be linked to the diversity of views concerning the role of the councillor and the idea of representation and how both play out at the local level. It may also signal a lack of awareness as to how the legislatively inscribed role for councillors has changed over time.
Felipe Corral de Freitas
Full Text Available With the defeat in the 2002 elections, the PSDB was characterized as the "strong opposition" to the government of the PT. He reached the command of the Executive in 2003, implemented a reform in Social Security, thus constituting the first time the opposition PSDB. Thus, the objective of this work is to understand the discursive behavior of federal PSDB deputies, held during the sessions of the Great Expedient of the Federal Chamber, when dealing with this reform. For the analysis, the theoretical and methodological aspects of discourse theory of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe were used. It was possible to identify that the new political context has changed the identities of PT and PSDB, but kept the antagonistic relationship. Moreover, because it is the first time opposition, the PSDB did not build hegemonic discourse against the reform, but critical of its formatting.
The actual distribution of powers about energy is more discussed after the reform of the art. 117 of the constitution. In front of a contradiction in terms, the government is been obliged to take some emergency solutions, that are witnessed by the reiterated petition to the urgent decree. It was a question of some measures justified, about the matter, from several points of view but they risked cracking seriously the relation between state and regions. The system of energy has naturally and objectively a national configuration and so people demand how the decentralization politics of the competencies has to be interpreted, that was introduced by the reform of title 5. of the constitution. The art. 117 of the Constitution implies the energy among the subjects of competing law, and let the State to determinate the basic principles, in order to ensure the basic homogeneity of the subject. The limits of such regional power are: 1) the limit of national interest (disappeared from the literal diction of the art. 117, but there are debates above its survival; 2) the basic principles role; 3) the normative settlement and the admissibility of 'accomodating' state detail norms in the subordinate matters to the competing legislative power. Even if in the Constitutional text does not exist any longer national interest just like a 'passe-par tout' to limit and coerce the regional interventions, this does not mean that national interest are disappeared: national interest has one of its substantial variability and only the State can be its interpreter, as only representative of the joint republican interest. The Consulta has recently asserted that if on one hand the Constitution has moved the centre of the legislative power in aid of the districts, on the other has strengthened the role and the importance of the basic principles; at least, it has done it for the subjects of competing law. In fact, someone confirmed that the principles may be deducible without an explicit
Full Text Available Successful implementation of any broad-scale immigrant legalization program requires an adequately funded infrastructure of immigrant-serving organizations. In 2014, President Obama announced an expanded Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA program, as well as the Deferred Action for Parents of Citizens and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA program, which would make it possible for approximately five million people to attain lawful, albeit temporary, status and employment authorization. As the initial DACA program instituted in 2012 has already stretched the capacity of immigrant-serving organizations to their limits or even beyond them, the possibility of full implementation of DAPA and the expanded DACA programs presents a formidable challenge for these organizations.In this paper, the Human Resources Working Group of the Committee for Immigration Reform Implementation (CIRI draws on the lessons of the Immigrant Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA, DACA, and other initiatives to provide a roadmap for immigrant service delivery agencies and their partners in planning for implementation of the expanded DACA and the DAPA programs, with an eye (ultimately to broad legislative reform. In particular, this paper focuses on the funding and human resources that the immigrant service delivery field, writ large, would require to implement these programs.If expanded DACA and DAPA were implemented, the CIRI Working Group estimates that, of the total of five million that may be eligible, 1.08 million individuals will require extensive application assistance, generating the need for approximately three times more full-time staff than are currently in the field. Moreover, without additional funding and staff, agencies will likely not be able to shift a portion of staff time to accommodate any new program, even taking the typical fee-for-service model into account. Thus, the paper identifies a pressing need for “upfront” funding as early in the
Gorman, Susanna M
Australian Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) have to contend with ever-increasing workloads and responsibilities which go well beyond questions of mere ethics. In this article, I shall examine how the roles of HRECs have changed, and show how this is reflected in the iterations of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research 2007 (NS). In particular I suggest that the focus of the National Statement has shifted to concentrate on matters of research governance at the expense of research ethics, compounded by its linkage to the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research (2007) in its most recent iteration. I shall explore some of the challenges this poses for HRECs and institutions and the risks it poses to ensuring that Australian researchers receive clear ethical guidance and review.
Haigh, Matthew; de Graaf, Frank Jan
Emergent practices of reform-oriented shareholder engagement are characterised as a professional social movement which gains credibility by influencing the institutional networks imbricating investors. The limitations of structuralist and atomistic tendencies in social movement analysis are resol...
Monir Mir; Wahyu Sutiyono
Indonesia has taken initiatives to reform its public sector financial management. One of the reform agendas was to introduce ‘cash to accrual’ accounting for improved financial reporting. It is expected that improved financial reporting will enhance financial accountabilities of the governmental agencies and will assist both internal and external decision makers whose decisions will be based on the financial reports. However, it has been observed that there is a significant increa...
De Smit, Elisabeth; Kearns, Lisa S; Clarke, Linda; Dick, Jonathan; Hill, Catherine L; Hewitt, Alex W
Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) and Research Governance Offices (RGOs) across Australia. In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a "National Ethics Application Form" and three a "Low Negligible Risk" form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22) and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days). We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently.
The main contents of theoretical studies on grid investment and governance include the business investment patterns,the regulated investment patterns,and the incentive and efficiency issues of the power grid ownership and the operating right under the implementation of the integrated structure and separated structure.The commercial investment mode relies on the assumption of near-perfect competition and the separated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right,which in reality is prone to distorted incentives for grid investment and easy to generate team moral hazards,thus it is difficult to ensure effective grid investment in the competitive electricity market.By relying on incentive regulation,the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the system operating right under the regulated investment mode can avoid moral hazard in the teams and various distorted investment incentives.Comparatively speaking,the regulated investment mode is a more appropriate one to be the main target pattern for the grid investment during China's power market reform.The power grid governance should focus on the release of the potential efficiency under the integrated structure of the grid ownership and the right to operate the system.The power system reform must take a coordinated promotion of the construction of a competitive market and the reform of the grid management system,so as to avoid becoming a simple interest re-adjustment.
This ROSC assessment of corporate governance in Malaysia benchmarks law and practice against the OECD Principles of Corporate Governance, and focuses on listed companies. Important corporate governance reforms have been implemented in Malaysia since 1998, when a high-level Finance Committee on Corporate Governance, consisting of both government and industry, was formed to identify and address weaknesses highlighted by the Asian financial crisis. Key reforms have included the development of a ...
Full Text Available This article includes evidence on equity, governance and health financing outcomes of the Mexican health system. An evaluative research with a cross-sectional design was oriented towards the qualitative and quantitative analysis of financing, governance and equity indicators. Taking into account feasibility, as well as political and technical criteria, seven Mexican states were selected as study populations and an evaluative research was conducted during 2002-2010. The data collection techniques were based on in-depth interviews with key personnel (providers, users and community leaders, consensus technique and document analysis. The qualitative analysis was done with ATLAS TI and POLICY MAKER softwares. The Mexican health system reform has modified dependence at the central level; there is a new equity equation for resources allocation, community leaders and users of services reported the need to improve an effective accountability system at both municipal and state levels. Strategies for equity, governance and financing do not have adequate mechanisms to promote participation from all social actors. Improving this situation is a very important goal in the Mexican health democratization process, in the context of health care reform. Inequality on resources allocation in some regions and catastrophic expenditure for users is unequal in all states, producing more negative effects on states with high social marginalization. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the main strengths and weaknesses, as relevant evidences for other Latin American countries which are designing, implementing and evaluating reform strategies in order to achieve equity, good governance and a greater financial protection in health.
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service on self-regulatory... EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.63 Service on self-regulatory organization governing boards or committees by persons with disciplinary histories. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Self-regulatory...
The number of reported spills from domestic fuel oil systems increased dramatically in Newfoundland, which prompted the Minister of Government Services and Lands to arrange a meeting with representatives from consumers, the fuel service industry and the insurance industry to ensure proper measures were taken for the prevention of domestic fuel spills. A joint committee consisting of industry and government representatives was formed as a result of this meeting, to examine and investigate the situation and report to the Minister of Government Services and Lands. Advice on means to address the problems associated with domestic fuel oil spills was provided, as well as mechanisms to minimize such occurrences in the future. Also included in the review were small commercial storage tanks units of no more than 2500 litres, as small commercial establishments often have heating systems similar in size to residential units. Gradual leaks that go undetected for years often occur, as do the catastrophic rupture of the fuel storage tank itself. Rusting and exterior tubing are some of the causes of spills. The contamination of surrounding soil and/or groundwater can occur as a result of the spills, and fumes can enter residences through foundation walls of the sewer system. Condensation within the tank can lead to corrosion of the fuel tanks. A number of recommendations were made in the report, such as the establishment of regulations pertaining to the construction, installation, servicing and fueling of domestic and small commercial fuel systems, the proper enforcement of the regulations, a public education campaign, an emergency response capability, tax incentives to consumers for expenditures associated with the upgrading or replacement of inadequate systems, support funding, the establishment of an emergency respond fund, and environmental cleanup requirements. figs
The government welcomes the Committee's endorsement of its view that no restrictions were necessary on milk and fresh vegetables and of the action level of 1000Bq/kg for sheep meat. The government agrees with the Committee's findings that there was no danger to public health in the UK as a result of the action taken by the government. The recommendations and conclusions of the Committee are mostly accepted with a small number which are not. The points of agreement include the need for better methods of informing the public on radiation levels found, the need to review and revise the derived emergency reference levels, the need for additional monitoring, the marking of sheep, the need for more research into radioactive pathways and the need to improve its capability for the rapid surveillance of large areas of environmental deposition. The points not accepted include the lack of sufficient co-ordination between government departments, food chain safety, the sale of unmarked sheep in Scotland, compensation, monitoring of water and information given to local authorities. (U.K.)
... accommodations for persons with disabilities), and how to submit comments to the committee can be found in the ``Research'' section of the ACUS Web site. Go to www.acus.gov and click on Research - > Committee Meetings...
... accommodations for persons with disabilities), and how to submit comments to the committee can be found in the ``Research'' section of the ACUS Web site. Go to http://www.acus.gov and click on Research -> Committee...
Electricity reforms, democracy and technological change. (Electricity systems, 'market liberalization' reforms, internationalisation, and the need for new democratic governance system - the Danish case)
At the end of the 1990s, Danish energy policy reached a turning point because of technical challenges due to the high proportion of fluctuating wind power production and the increased cogeneration share, and because of new regulation regimes being introduced in Denmark and its neighbouring countries. In this specific historical situation, with the above background, the questions that will be analysed in this publication are as follows: 1) Which governance systems are most efficient, with regard to achieving optimal goal performance by means of the present typical uranium/fossil fuel electricity supply systems? 2) Which governance systems are the most efficient in the transformation process from the present uranium/fossil fuel electricity supply systems to renewable energy-/conservation based electricity system? 3) Which changes in goal performance of the Danish electricity supply system has the 1999 Danish electricity 'liberalization' reform induced? 4) Will the Danish electricity supply system be able to maintain its consumer ownership institutions and remain independent of the 'third party' shareholder ownership structure after the 1999 Danish 'liberalization' reform? a) Are the Danish electricity companies able to compete on the Danish electricity market with foreign suppliers? b) Will the Danish energy companies be able to compete on the market for energy capital goods, or will foreign companies, for instance German power companies, buy them? Will the Danish consumer ownership model survive? c) Will the Danish 'flat' price structure survive on the future electricity market? d) Will the 1975-2000 energy technology innovation process survive under the new market conditions? How will conditions on the German market influence this development? The relevance of these questions is particulary enhanced when seen in relation to the goals of international, and especially Danish, energy policy. The main question therefore, is: will the development outlined under 1
Elisabeth De Smit
Full Text Available Background Conducting ethically grounded research is a fundamental facet of all investigations. Nevertheless, the administrative burdens of current ethics review are substantial, and calls have been made for a reduction in research waste. Aims To describe the heterogeneity in administration and documentation required by Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs and Research Governance Offices (RGOs across Australia. Methods In establishing a nationwide study to investigate the molecular aetiology of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA, for which archived pathological specimens from around Australia are being recruited, we identified variation across separate HREC and RGO requirements. Submission paperwork and correspondence from each collaborating site and its representative office for research were reviewed. This data was interrogated to evaluate differences in current guidelines. Results Twenty-five pathology departments across seven Australian States collaborated in this study. All states, except Victoria, employed a single ethics review model. There was discrepancy amongst HRECs as to which application process applied to our study: seven requested completion of a “National Ethics Application Form” and three a “Low Negligible Risk” form. Noticeable differences in guidelines included whether electronic submission was sufficient. There was variability in the total number of documents submitted (range five to 22 and panel review turnaround time (range nine to 136 days. Conclusion We demonstrate the challenges and illustrate the heavy workload involved in receiving widespread ethics and governance approval across Australia. We highlight the need to simplify, homogenise, and nationalise human ethics for non-clinical trial studies. Reducing unnecessary administration will enable investigators to achieve research aims more efficiently
... with some 145 staff members on five continents, working through field-based analysis ... And, the fourth will examine the dual challenge of meaningful political reform and ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India ... to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, ...
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Sørensen, Torben; Taber, Christopher
In this paper, we investigate the responsiveness of the demand for college to changes in student aid arising from a Danish reform. We separately identify the effect of aid from that of other observed and unobserved variables such as parental income. We exploit the combination of a kinked aid sche...
For much of the 20th century, state agencies were central to the provision of welfare state services in Western democracies. In its final decades, however, radical reforms placed the state in a facilitative role, incentivizing private not-for-profit and commercial actors to deliver programs of
Bruckmann, Sofia; Carvalho, Teresa
Portuguese public higher education institutions have been undergoing a major reform process since 2007. The most noticeable changes were introduced by Law 62/2007, which gave higher education institutions the option to choose between two different institutional models (foundational and public institute), and allowed the implementation of new…
And, the fourth will examine the dual challenge of meaningful political reform and the rise of Islamism. In addition, Crisis Group will publish a briefing ... HarassMap et Uber Égypte nouent un partenariat pour sensibiliser la population à la question du harcèlement sexuel. L'organisation HarassMap, soutenue par le CRDI, ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this two-part article is to examine the regulatory environment governing hearsay electronic evidence in South Africa – with a view to providing clear, practical suggestions for regulatory reform in the context of the South African Law Reform Commission's most recent Discussion Paper on electronic evidence. Technology has become an indispensable part of modern life. In particular, the Internet has facilitated new forms of business enterprise, and shifted basic communication norms. From a legal perspective, technology has presented several novel challenges for courts and legal practitioners to deal with – one of these key challenges relates to electronic evidence and in particular the application of the hearsay rules to the digital environment. The South African Law Reform Commission has identified the application of the hearsay rule as one of the core concerns with regard to electronic evidence, and certain academic analysis has revealed inefficiency in the current legal position which may involve multiple sources of law. Moreover, the Law Society of South Africa has stated that there is some confusion amongst members of the profession in relation to hearsay as it applies to electronic evidence. With the pervasive and burgeoning nature of technology, and with the Internet in mind, it is natural to assume that electronic evidence will be relevant in most forms of legal proceedings in future, and hearsay electronic evidence in particular will play an increasingly important role in years to come. Consequently, part one of this article will consider the key definitional concept in relation to electronic evidence – data messages - and examine whether the definition should be revised. In addition, part one of this article will answer two further critical questions posed by the South African Law Reform Commission in relation to data messages and hearsay evidence, namely: should a data message constitute hearsay? And, how should one
Over the past two decades, Italy's administrative reforms have institutionalized evaluation to improve program effectiveness, staff productivity, and results-driven accountability against waste and corruption. Across ministries, regional governments, universities, schools and environmental protection agencies, seemingly unexpected consequences have emerged out of the implementation of performance measurement and evaluation regimes within public organizations. Formal compliance to legally binding evaluation procedures, judicially-sanctioned managerial accountability and lack of cross-agency coordination coupled with long-standing cultural separations among evaluators are some of the ambiguities associated with a performance-based governance system within Italian public administration. Building upon the 'new governane theory,' and qualitative fieldwork, I explore the political consequences of evaluation and performance measurement for possible improvements. From a normative perspective, greater integration between program evaluation and performance measurement can support organizational learning and democratic accountability both at the central and local level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kharuk Kateryna B.
Full Text Available The article determines the peculiarities of formation and development of the labor potential in the process of the reforming local self-government in Ukraine. It has been found that an integration of population, the system of economic entities, infrastructure units, scientific-technical potential allows to determine the need for modern spatial forms of concentration of labor potential, i.e. for consolidated territorial communities. With the purpose of formation and development of labor potential, considering impacts of the reform of local self-government in Ukraine, the following activities has been proposed to be carried out: improving the living standards of rural residents, creation of productive jobs, socio-economic cooperation between communities, infrastructure development, use of natural resources, socio-labor, agricultural and industrial capacities, effective use of rural socio-labour potential, development of agricultural production, rural non-farm activities, development of social infrastructure, creation of advisory service and introduction of a system of continuous education, development of family medicine, collaboration with regional and central authorities, involvement of the regional budget funds, establishment of a fund for economic development, cooperation with domestic and foreign investors. It has been determined that the introduction of the above measures will affect the increase in employment within the consolidated territorial communities.
This report summarizes the group discussions of the Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee's (EMGC) over the past 6 months regarding the implementation of new rules for power competition in Nova Scotia's electricity market. Emphasis has been placed on external influences, defining the size and form of the short-term competitive portion of the Nova Scotia market, and a detailed consideration of the current transmission system and the changes needed to achieve a sustainable, world class energy sector that would enhance the quality of life for Nova Scotians. The report provides recommendations regarding how competition can be encouraged. The main drivers for electricity restructuring have been energy efficiency, risk-allocation, reliability, environmental impact, and consumer protection. The external influences on the Nova Scotia electricity market include: (1) economics of electricity restructuring, (2) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, (3) New Brunswick and electricity restructuring, and (4) Nova Scotia and the energy strategy. This report described the market scope and basic market model with reference to bilateral contract market, fully competitive wholesale pool market, and a single buyer market. The transmission issues discussed in this report included the importance of transmission, transmission tariff options, transmission services offered, design issues, and congestion management policies. The EMGC was directed to examine market design issues to accommodate an Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT). As such, this report identifies some transmission issues that must be resolved to implement tariffs, and conditions of access to the transmission system and its impact on open access market design. The final report is expected to be available in March 2003
Salmon, Thomas; Sayed, Yusuf
The governance of teachers during apartheid in South Africa was characterised by high levels of disparity in teacher distribution and in conditions of labour. In the post-apartheid context policies and interventions that govern teachers are critical, and teachers can be seen to be placed in a central role as actors whose distribution, employment,…
Chan, Jacqueline K. S.
"Soft" policy has newly emerged as a policy implementation concept in relation to governance. Non-binding in character, "soft" policy is designed for multi-level systems of governance in which there is relative autonomy at different levels of collective decision-making. "Soft" policy has gained attention since the…
The article analyses the problems of EU risk regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) through the lens of deliberative theories of EU law and governance, such as deliberative supranationalism and experimentalist governance. Previous research had suggested that the GMO issue is not
Full Text Available The governance of teachers during apartheid in South Africa was characterised by high levels of disparity in teacher distribution and in conditions of labour. In the post-apartheid context policies and interventions that govern teachers are critical, and teachers can be seen to be placed in a central role as actors whose distribution, employment, recruitment and deployment can serve to redress the past, promote equity and build trust for social cohesion. In this context, this paper examines several teacher governance mechanisms and interventions, namely the post provisioning norm and standards (PPNs, the Funza Lushaka Bursary Programme (FLBP, and the South African Council of Educators. The analysis suggests that undifferentiated policy frameworks for teacher governance result in measures that weakly account for differing contextual realities and persistent inequality. Additionally, the emphasis on technocratic measures of accountability in teacher governance interventions constrains teachers’ agency to promote peace and social cohesion.
張源泉 Yuan-Chuan Chang
Full Text Available 當代德國高等教育正處於劇變轉型過程，改革政策不斷地湧現，此來自其陷入危機，因而冀由改革方案汰舊換新。本研究先釐清治理的意涵與機制，再進一步探析其陷入危機之背景、改革內容，並於最後提出評析。本研究從治理角度探究此議題，係著眼於「治理」涵蓋多元之調控機制，較能對改革動向有一整全觀照。德國大學治理改革內容包含：一、國家管制鬆綁，尤其是預算編列方式與大 學法律地位之變革；二、透過目標協議與高等學校校務諮詢委員會，強化外部利害關係人之調控；三、增強競爭態勢，此包含績效導向之資源分配、卓越計畫，以及教授薪資制度；四、強化行政上自主調控，並縮減學術自治之相關權限。惟高等教育經費依然拮据，且相關績效指標過於抽象。但競爭態勢則已明顯提升。 Higher education in Germany today is in a stage of great transformation. Due to the educational crisis, new reform policies are constantly emerging to replace former ones. This study began with a clarification of the significance and mechanisms of governance, and then presented a deeper analysis of the background of the crisis, reform measures, and concludes with a concluding discussion. The reform measures of university governance in Germany included: 1 Deregulation of state control, particularly in terms of budgeting and stipulation of university regulations; 2 Enhancing the authority of external stakeholders through the higher education advisory committee and negotiations regarding university objectives; 3 Bolstering competitive advantages, including performance-based resource allocation, excellence initiatives, and faculty salaries; 4 Enhancing independent regulation of administrative affairs and decreasing the authority accorded to academic self-governance. Although funds for higher education remain insufficient and
Full Text Available City Managers came into being in the early 1900.s because of the corruption, waste, and lack of responsiveness of local governments in the United States. Business leaders in large cities had begun to recognise that major changes in their local governments were desperately needed for their businesses to grow and prosper. Andrew Carnegie, a founder of United States Steel, had indicated that business needed a stable society to prosper. Local government had to become responsive to the changing needs of the poor, abused and neglected children, the mentally ill and the elderly, to cite a few examples.
Full Text Available The deep transformations of the society induced by the development of IT had determined significant changes in almost all the fields of activity. Many countries started to implement information and communication technology in the public administration as a fast way to the performance and efficiency of its services. This paper aims to underline the significant improvement determined by the use of information technology, with focus on e-services. It is mentioned also the effort of Romanian Government to align with the requirements of the EU on the computerization of governance. Also there are presented some recommendations for the improvement of e-governance in Romania.
Full Text Available This study aims to provide an opinion on the state-of-the-art of changes and reforms of water policies in South Korea, as well as the challenges along with their implications for sustainable water governance and management. In parallel with change in water resource characteristics generated by physical, environmental and socio-economic challenges such as: (1 uncertainties about climate change (flooding and drought including seasonal and regional variation in precipitation; (2 significant increase in water use caused by rapid urbanization and population growth in industrialized urban areas; (3 inadequate water pricing mechanism which covers only around 80% of the production cost and makes it harder to maintain water systems; and (4 recursive water quality degradation and conflicts over water rights between regions resulting from non-point source pollution in highland versus lowland areas, Korean water policies have been developed through diverse reforms over 100 years. Nevertheless, new challenges for sustainable water management are continuously emerging. To meet those challenges we provide two ideas: (i provider-gets-principle (payment for ecosystem services of cost-benefit sharing among stakeholders who benefit from water use; and (ii water pricing applying full-cost pricing-principle internalizing environmental externalities caused by the intensive water use. Funds secured from the application of those methods would facilitate: (1 support for upstream (rural low income householders suffering from economic restrictions; (2 improvement in water facilities; and (3 efficient water use and demand management in South Korea’s water sectors. We expect that this paper can examine the lessons relevant to challenges that South Korea faces and offer some implications on the formulation of new integration and further reforms of the institutions, laws and organizations responsible for managing water resources in South Korea.
Taylor, A L; Alfven, T; Hougendobler, D; Tanaka, S; Buse, K
As countries contend with an increasingly complex global environment with direct implications for population health, the international community is seeking novel mechanisms to incentivize coordinated national and international action towards shared health goals. Binding legal instruments have garnered increasing attention since the World Health Organization adopted its first convention in 2003. This paper seeks to expand the discourse on future global health lawmaking by exploring the potential value of non-binding instruments in global health governance, drawing on the case of the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS. In other realms of international concern ranging from the environment to human rights to arms control, non-binding instruments are increasingly used as effective instruments of international cooperation. The experience of the Global AIDS Reporting Mechanism, established pursuant to the Declaration, evidences that, at times, non-binding legal instruments can offer benefits over slower, more rigid binding legal approaches to governance. The global AIDS response has demonstrated that the use of a non-binding instrument can be remarkably effective in galvanizing increasingly deep commitments, action, reporting compliance and ultimately accountability for results. Based on this case, the authors argued that non-binding instruments deserve serious consideration by the international community for the future of global health governance, including in the context of WHO reform. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Full Text Available Agropastoral systems in Kyrgyzstan have undergone dramatic change in recent decades. In large part, change has resulted from the introduction of legislation that devolves authority and responsibility for the management of common-pool agropastoral resources to community-level pasture users associations. By applying Ostrom’s principles of common resource governance, this paper analyzes the institutions and norms that currently shape local management practices in rural areas of Naryn Province in Kyrgyzstan and the views of different actors on pasture governance, including points of disagreement. Our research and analysis reveal that the community-initiated and -owned systems of pasture governance that were expected to develop and mature under the new Pasture Law have not yet been entirely realized. Decentralization occurred without the participation or awareness of most local resource users. As a consequence, users are creating and reinforcing their own community-defined practices and internal rules, leaving official management plans largely ignored and unenforced. Resource users tend to perceive the government-sanctioned pasture users associations not as public or democratic organizations that represent their interests, but rather as agencies that aim primarily to control the use of resources, exclude some people from decision-making, or impose taxation. Sustainable management of pasturelands therefore may best be served when community perspectives are more suitably integrated—from the planning phase through to collaborative governance and implementation of locally agreed upon management options.
Full Text Available This article examines the impact of the reformist agenda implemented in English local government since the election in 1997 of the first Blair government. Under 18 years of Conservative administrations (1979-1997, English local government had survived what some described as a legislative onslaught which had been designed to direct, control and remove functions from local authorities. Against this background, the first Blair administration inherited a system of local government upon which it would depend for key policy implementation. However, many within the Blair inner circles were deeply suspicious as to the motivations and capacity of local government to deliver on these key policies. The result therefore was a widespread overall of how local authorities were to be managed and importantly how they were to connect with their respective communities. As the article will examine, one of the key strategies for achieving Blair’s objectives was to be, in terms of the UK, both a radical and controversial innovation. Central to the Blairite agenda was the introduction to the UK of the concept of a directly elected mayor.
Agung, P.; Galudra, G.; Noordwijk, van M.; Maryani, R.
Indonesia has turned its alleged role as global leader of land-based carbon emissions into a role as a global trailblazer exploring modalities for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). REDD+ readiness is largely about improving forest governance, but this itself is a
Ward, Claire Leonie; Shaw, David; Sprumont, Dominique; Sankoh, Osman; Tanner, Marcel; Elger, Bernice
In line with the policy objectives of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, this commentary seeks to examine the extent to which provisions of international health research guidance promote capacity building and equitable partnerships in global health research. Our evaluation finds that governance of collaborative research partnerships, and in particular capacity building, in resource-constrained settings is limited but has improved with the implementation guidance of the International Ethical Guidelines for Health-related Research Involving Humans by The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) (2016). However, more clarity is needed in national legislation, industry and ethics guidelines, and regulatory provisions to address the structural inequities and power imbalances inherent in international health research partnerships. Most notably, ethical partnership governance is not supported by the principal industry ethics guidelines - the International Conference on Harmonization Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceutical for Human Use (ICH) Good Clinical Practice (ICH-GCP). Given the strategic value of ICH-GCP guidelines in defining the role and responsibility of global health research partners, we conclude that such governance should stipulate the minimal requirements for creating an equitable environment of inclusion, mutual learning, transparency and accountability. Procedurally, this can be supported by i) shared research agenda setting with local leadership, ii) capacity assessments, and iii) construction of a memorandum of understanding (MoU). Moreover, the requirement of capacity building needs to be coordinated amongst partners to support good collaborative practice and deliver on the public health goals of the research enterprise; improving local conditions of health and reducing global health inequality. In this respect, and in order to develop consistency between sources of research governance, ICH
Leadership Team of the IAHR Committee for Hydraulic Machinery and Systems Eduard EGUSQUIZA, UPC Barcelona, Spain, Chair François AVELLAN, EPFL-LMH, Switzerland, Past Chair Richard K FISHER, Voith Hydro Inc., USA, Past Chair Fidel ARZOLA, Edelca, Venezuela Michel COUSTON, Alstom Hydro, France Niklas DAHLBÄCKCK, Vatenfall, Sweden Normand DESY, Andritz VA TECH Hydro Ltd., Canada Chisachi KATO, University of Tokyo, Japan Andrei LIPEJ, Turboinstitut, Slovenija Torbjørn NIELSEN, NTNU, Norway Romeo SUSAN-RESIGA, 'Politehnica' University Timisoara, Romania Stefan RIEDELBAUCH, Stuggart University, Germany Albert RUPRECHT, Stuttgart University, Germany Qing-Hua SHI, Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., China Geraldo TIAGO, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Brazil International Advisory Committee Shouqi YUAN (principal) Jiangsu University China QingHua SHI (principal) Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co. China Fidel ARZOLA EDELCA Venezuela Thomas ASCHENBRENNER Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Anton BERGANT Litostroj Power doo Slovenia B C BHAOYAL Research & Technology Centre India Hermod BREKKE NTNU Norway Stuart COULSON Voith Hydro Inc. USA Paul COOPER Fluid Machinery Research Inc USA V A DEMIANOV Power Machines OJSC Russia Bart van ESCH Technische Universiteit Eindhoven Netherland Arno GEHRER Andritz Hydro Graz Austria Akira GOTO Ebara Corporation Japan Adiel GUINZBURG The Boeing Company USA D-H HELLMANN KSB AG Germany Ashvin HOSANGADI Combustion Research and Flow Technology USA Byung-Sun HWANG Korea Institute of Material Science Korea Toshiaki KANEMOTO Kyushu Institute of Technology Japan Mann-Eung KIM Korean Register of Shipping Korea Jiri KOUTNIK Voith Hydro GmbH & Co. KG Germany Jinkook LEE Eaton Corporation USA Young-Ho LEE Korea Maritime University Korea Woo-Seop LIM Hyosung Goodsprings Inc Korea Jun MATSUI Yokohama National University Japan Kazuyoshi Mitsubishi H I Ltd, Japan MIYAGAWA Christophe NICOLET Power Vision Engineering Srl Switzerland Maryse PAGE Hydro
This report consists of the government's response to the Energy Committee's conclusions about the cost of nuclear power generation in the United Kingdom and the practicalities involved in the possible privatisation of the nuclear power industry. The report was published on 5th December 1990. The report covers the process of privatisation criticisms of Kleinwort Benson, arrangements accounting for and calculating costs of nuclear power and the risks associated with nuclear generating capacity, the Fossil Fuel Levy, some issues particular to Scotland and Sizewell B power station. (author)
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In oral history interviews, Guyanese healthcare workers emphasize continuity in public health governance throughout the late twentieth century, despite major shifts in broader systems of governance during this period. I argue that these healthcare workers' recollections reflect long-term scarcities and the discourses through which both socialist politicians and neoliberal reformers have narrated them. I highlight the striking similarities in discourses of responsibility and efficiency advanced by socialist politicians in 1970s Guyana and by World Bank representatives designing the country's market transition in the late 1980s, and the ways these discourses have played out in Guyana's health system. Across diverging ideologies, politicians and administrators have promoted severe cost-control as the means to a more prosperous future, presenting short-term pains as necessary to creating new, better, leaner ways of life. In the health sector this has been enacted through a focus on self-help, and on nutrition as a tool available without funds dedicated for pharmaceuticals, advanced medical technologies, or a fully staffed public health system. I argue that across these periods Guyanese citizens have been offered a very similar recipe of ongoing sacrifice. I base my analysis on oral histories with forty-six healthcare workers conducted between 2013 and 2015 in Guyana in Regions 3, 4, 5, 9, and 10, as well as written records from World Bank and Guyanese national archives; I analyze official discourses as well as recollections and experiences of public health governance by those working in Guyana's health system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.
In this report, the General Accounting Office (GAO) responds to a July 8, 1988, inquiry by the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Joint Committee on Printing about the Government Printing Office's (GPO) efforts to acquire and supply microfiche copies of government documents to approximately 1,400 depository libraries. In August 1987, GPO had…
J-L. W. Mitchell Van der Zahn
Full Text Available We use a sample of 964 executive directors representing 354 Singapore publicly listed firms to examine linkage between firm performance and cash-based bonus payments. As a pooled OLS regression model may hide different models that characterize subsets of observations we use latent class analysis to further examine the data and to identify more specifically the influence of corporate governance features. Our latent class analysis results indicate that remuneration committees with members having their interests better aligned with shareholders (such as presence of a significant owner appear more likely to consider the incremental value of tying executive director compensation to intellectual capital performance. Remuneration committees with a lower risk of influence from managerial power were also found to be more likely to support a compensation linkage for executive directors to intellectual capital performance. The influence of the remuneration committee features is evident for both entrepreneurial and traditional firms. Overall, our findings are consistent with both the optimal-contract pricing and managerial power views of executive compensation setting.
Mancilla Rendón María Enriqueta; Saavedra García María Luisa
The purpose of this paper is to study the principles of the international standard ISO 26000, and the relation between social responsibility and internal control rules management organizations establish their business and relationship with Corporate Social Responsibility the board of directors and the audit committee to strengthen corporate trust and manage corporate risk. The research is based on a survey of companies listed on the Mexican stock market, in 2011. The variables have been studi...
Samuel Kakui Kilika
Full Text Available The purpose of thisstudy is to present a case for the need for audit committee in Constituency DevelopmentFund to promote corporate governance and accountability in constituencydevelopment fund management in Nairobi Province, Kenya. The study provides ananalysis and critique of the extent of engagement research in the field ofcorporate governance and accountability in constituency Development Fundmanagement and present case for further research that may be directed tooutside Nairobi province. The study found that the extent of literature in thefield of corporate governance and accountability and reporting in contrast tothe field to management CDF in Nairobi had largely ignored the practice withinCDF organizations. The study argues thatCDF can benefit from the methodological and theoretical insights of auditcommittee and other disciplines. The study suggests where further contributionsmight be made by future research endeavors engaging with audit committees withorganizations. Engaging audit committee in CDF governance and accountabilityhas the potential to improve theorizing practice and the sustainabilityperformance with organizations. Drawing on the methods and theories of otherdisciplines and the papers in the special issues (of audit committee the studypresents away forward for researchers engaging with audit committees in organizationalpracticing corporate governance and accountability.
Telecom Reform: Principles, Policies and Regulatory Practices, provides a comprehensive and definitive review and assessment of the unfolding telecom reform process, and its implications for information society development. It is an invaluable resource and authoritative reference on telecom reform...... and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...
Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...
Reuer, Jeffrey; Devarakonda, S.V.
Recent research on the governance of hybrid organizational forms has investigated the contractual foundations of collaborations by examining how firms craft complex contracts as well as plan for changing circumstances during contract execution. We build upon and extend this research by considering
Wilhelmsson, Anna-Britta; Berge, Britt-Marie
Mental disability is one of the most serious health problems facing Europe today. The reform of psychiatric care inSweden has passed much of the rehabilitation and daily care of these people on to their families/relatives. The aim of this article is to analyze how the psychiatric reform in Sweden has affected everyday life experiences among close relatives of persons with mental disabilities. It is an explorative and descriptive study using inductive qualitative content analysis of 18 individ...
Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy
Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.
Vaas, Jocelyn R
The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term.
Vitello, Sylvia; Williamson, Joanna
The distinction between external assessment and internal assessment underpins a major reform to vocational qualifications underway in England. To be approved by the Department for Education, vocational qualifications must now include a minimum proportion of external assessment, regardless of subject. This paper discusses the nature and…
Mallin, Chris; Mullineux, Andy; Wihlborg, Clas
In 1992 the Cadbury Committee report on the financial aspects of corporate governance waspublished. The Committee had been established following the failures of a number of highprofile businesses in the UK which had shaken confidence in the market. Some nine yearslater, in 2001, the collapse...... of Enron sent shockwaves through the US market. As a result of theEnron collapse and various other high profile scandals in the years since its occurrence, the USis examining its own corporate governance structures and provisions to determine how thesemight be improved and help avoid another Enron. The EU...... similarly is developing principlesand legislation to improve corporate governance, and scandals such as Royal Ahold andParmalat have helped drive further governance reforms.In this paper we detail the development of corporate governance codes in the UK and theadaptation of similar codes in the EU. We...
Waller, P; Cassell, J A; Saunders, M H; Stevens, R
In order to promote understanding of UK governance and assurance relating to electronic health records research, we present and discuss the role of the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC) for MHRA database research in evaluating protocols proposing the use of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We describe the development of the Committee's activities between 2006 and 2015, alongside growth in data linkage and wider national electronic health records programmes, including the application and assessment processes, and our approach to undertaking this work. Our model can provide independence, challenge and support to data providers such as the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database which has been used for well over 1,000 medical research projects. ISAC's role in scientific oversight ensures feasible and scientifically acceptable plans are in place, while having both lay and professional membership addresses governance issues in order to protect the integrity of the database and ensure that public confidence is maintained.
Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH)
IPH responded to the Seanad Consultation Committee on the consultation topic ‘Changes in lifestyle can prevent approximately one third of cancers. How does Government and Society respond to this challenge?’. Between 2010 and 2020 the total number of cancers in Ireland is projected to increase by 40% for women and by just over 50% for men (National Cancer Registry). A focus is needed on developing social, economical and built environments that support healthy choices. I...
Bălăceanu Cristina; Predonu Andreea – Monica
Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization), in effect re...
Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.
Barrilleaux, Charles; Brace, Paul
We identify two policy strategies that state governments pursue to reduce uninsurance, and we classify policies as being either state based or market based. The two policy strategies are distinguished by whether states rely on the institutional capabilities of the state or market processes to provide insurance. We develop and test models to explain states' adoptions of each type of policy. Using Poisson regression, we evaluate hypotheses suggested by the two strategies with data from U.S. states in the 1990s. The results indicate that institutionally more-capable state governments with strong liberal-party presence in the legislature adopt more state-based policies and fewer market-based policies. By contrast, the model of market-based, business-targeted reforms reveals that government capability plays a smaller role. Instead, these policies are driven by economic affluence, political competition, higher incomes, greater uninsurance, and more previous attempts to address the uninsurance problem. These findings reveal distinct institutional, partisan, electoral and demographic influences that shape state-based and market-based strategies. First, policy choices can be driven by the presence or absence of state capability. The domain of feasible policy choices open to states with institutional capability may be decidedly different than that available to states with fewer institutional resources. Second, while market-based policy approaches may be the most feasible politically, they may be the least successful in remedying practical uninsurance issues. These results thus reveal that institutional characteristics of states create an important foundation for policy choice and policy success or failure. These results would suggest that the national government's strategy of pursuing market-based solutions to the problem will not result in its being solved.
Statements concerning the safety of air transport of hazardous and radioactive materials presented before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations of the House of Representatives are presented. Statements of various personnel involved in air transport including the Air Line Pilots Association and the US Postal Service and the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization are presented for the record. Also included are appendices concerning the Minneapolis-Saint Paul Metropolitan Airport Commission Ordinance number 44, Air Line Pilots Association procedures for the safe transportation of passengers, and a personal statement concerning the handling procedures of radioactive materials by the US Postal Service
Staisloff, Richard L.
This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…
The House of Commons Energy Committee recently reported in the Department of Energy's spending plans for 1990-91. This Memorandum represents the Government's response to their recommendations. A review of the structure and size of research and development expenditure is anticipated. Research should focus on pollution reduced coal-based electricity generation and wave energy provided prospects prove sufficiently promising. The reasons for the closure of the Winfrith Reactor are outlined. Fusion power is seen as expensive, too long term and unlikely to be economically viable, but the Joint European Torus (JET) programme will be supported until 1996. Cost of decommissioning JET are a cause for concern. Nuclear Electric is deemed to be acting too slowly in setting proper financial targets. No change is envisaged in the Government's arrangements to fund overseas atomic energy programmes in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Authority. The costs of publicity promoting civilian nuclear programmes is seen as too high. (author)
Andy Knight; David Malone; Faith Mitchell. Finance and Audit Committee. Members: Denis Desautels (Chairman); Ahmed Galal;. Frieda Granot; Elizabeth Parr-Johnston; Andrés Rozental;. Gordon Shirley. Governance Committee. Members: The Honourable Barbara McDougall (Chairman);. Claude-Yves Charron; Denis ...
"The Decision on Several Major Issues Regarding the Deepening of Reform" adopted by the Third Plenum of the Eighteenth Session of the CPC Central Committee gave a new position to the next round of tax reform,and proposed its objectives,tone,mission,and core tasks.The new round of tax reform should cover a wide range of issues,including state governance,tax legislation,economic reform and development,social management,globalization,ecological and environmental protection,improvement of tax collection,as well as other related issues.Particular attention should be paid to replacing business tax with VAT,completing legislation on VAT,adjusting the scope,collection mechanisms,and rates of consumption tax;strengthening regulation and control,implementing a personal income tax system that considers both aggregate income and income by source,promoting real estate tax legislation,expanding the ad valorem natural resource tax,accelerating the gradual replacement of fees with taxes,and introducing legislation on environmental protection taxes.
Successful privatisation of the United Kingdom nuclear industry requires the best solution for the future of nuclear liabilities associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and management of the resultant radioactive wastes. At least some of these liabilities will remain in the public sector. The UKAEA Government Division was brought into being in 1994 to manage the UKAEA's nuclear liabilities. The evidence presented suggests how the experience and expertise of this organisation may be valuable in deciding how public sector nuclear liabilities in general can best be handled. In particular, a number of operating principles have been established which could be successfully applied to the management of other nuclear liabilities. (UK)
... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Practices and Procedures...) Compensation committee; and (3) Nominating/corporate governance committee. [67 FR 38370, June 4, 2002...
Horden, P.; Kellock, I.
The impact of the Federal Government's tax reform package on the Australian gas industry will be generally negative, particularly in terms of infrastructure investment, according to Pricewaterhouse Coopers' Peter Hordern and Ian Kellock. This article examines the critical aspects of the package. Overall, the impact of the tax reform package (consisting of the Ralph committee's report and the Government's initial response) on the Australian gas industry would appear to be negative. The removal of accelerated depreciation and the potential for severe limitations on leasing arrangements is particularly bad news. While the proposed reduction in the company tax rate may appear positive, this is unlikely to provide significant benefit to the industry. The reality is existing gas infrastructure investors are generally in tax losses and will derive no immediate benefit from the rate change. For new investors, the reduction in rate will not offset the loss of accelerated depreciation deductions
Nicholson, Caroline; Jackson, Claire; Marley, John
Internationally, key health care reform elements rely on improved integration of care between the primary and secondary sectors. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesise the existing published literature on elements of current integrated primary/secondary health care. These elements and how they have supported integrated healthcare governance are presented. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature from PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Informit Health Collection, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service, the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, European Foundation for Primary Care, European Forum for Primary Care, and Europa Sinapse was undertaken for the years 2006-2012. Relevant websites were also searched for grey literature. Papers were assessed by two assessors according to agreed inclusion criteria which were published in English, between 2006-2012, studies describing an integrated primary/secondary care model, and had reported outcomes in care quality, efficiency and/or satisfaction. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies evaluated the process of integrated governance and service delivery structures, rather than the effectiveness of services. They included case reports and qualitative data analyses addressing policy change, business issues and issues of clinical integration. A thematic synthesis approach organising data according to themes identified ten elements needed for integrated primary/secondary health care governance across a regional setting including: joint planning; integrated information communication technology; change management; shared clinical priorities; incentives; population focus; measurement - using data as a quality improvement tool; continuing professional development supporting joint working; patient/community engagement; and, innovation. All examples of successful primary/secondary care integration reported in the literature have focused on a combination
Background Internationally, key health care reform elements rely on improved integration of care between the primary and secondary sectors. The objective of this systematic review is to synthesise the existing published literature on elements of current integrated primary/secondary health care. These elements and how they have supported integrated healthcare governance are presented. Methods A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature from PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Informit Health Collection, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service, the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, European Foundation for Primary Care, European Forum for Primary Care, and Europa Sinapse was undertaken for the years 2006–2012. Relevant websites were also searched for grey literature. Papers were assessed by two assessors according to agreed inclusion criteria which were published in English, between 2006–2012, studies describing an integrated primary/secondary care model, and had reported outcomes in care quality, efficiency and/or satisfaction. Results Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies evaluated the process of integrated governance and service delivery structures, rather than the effectiveness of services. They included case reports and qualitative data analyses addressing policy change, business issues and issues of clinical integration. A thematic synthesis approach organising data according to themes identified ten elements needed for integrated primary/secondary health care governance across a regional setting including: joint planning; integrated information communication technology; change management; shared clinical priorities; incentives; population focus; measurement – using data as a quality improvement tool; continuing professional development supporting joint working; patient/community engagement; and, innovation. Conclusions All examples of successful primary/secondary care integration reported in
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activities of self-regulatory... COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1.59 Activities of self-regulatory organization employees, governing...) Self-regulatory organization means “self-regulatory organization,” as defined in Commission regulation...
... on security sector reform, constitutional reform, governance of diversity and critical dialogues in MENA societies. ... Reform will take time and one of the tests for those involved in this process is exercising patience and .... Related articles ...
Full Text Available Brazil has embedded the socio-ecological learning process in the participatory management of river basin councils through its “sister laws” on water and the environment. GTHIDRO or, Grupo Transdisciplinar de Pesquisas em Governança da Água e do Território/Tecnologias Sociais para a Gestão da Água (TSGA, a transdisciplinary group of researchers at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, took these laws and developed new interpretations of socio-ecological learning. They incorporated an ethical component and a dynamic and complex program of participatory “cycles of learning” that brought committees and communities to a common understanding of socio-ecological processes, laws, and potential for collective action. Using resilience theory as a framework for understanding how to sustain and enhance adaptive capacity (Folke et al., 2002, this paper analyzes the processes of socio-ecological learning, including focus groups, physical dynamics that blend the conceptual with the physical, visioning, socio-ecological mapping, project planning and community celebrations through interviews, meeting notes, and written documents of the six case studies. The potential for socio-ecological learning as a tool for building the capacity of basin committees (Turvo, Ermo, Nova Veneza, Orleans e Braço do Norte in the southern part of the state, Urubici in the mountainous region, and Concordia in the middle eastern part to plan and implement projects is substantiated as an important tool for building the resilience of the combined systems. The case studies indicate that their greatest achievement is the Strategic Planning Model for Sustainable Development, entitled PEDS, which diagrams how to improve the management core group’s capacity to plan and implement projects of their own design, using strategies they have learned and networks they have established in their watershed and state. While the potential for conflict over water and energy between the
private universities development, and created the current system of federal public institutions (IFES and during the military regime (1968 that reorganized the university system, introduced the post-graduation courses and its ways of public financing. The text takes as reference the concept of university reform settled down in Cordoba's tradition (1918, in the universities mobilization from Brazil (1960-63 and analyze the new context of the current reform, emphasizing that it's carried out for the first time in a democratic regime, utilizing a methodology that try to involve the university community, its representative bodies and sectors of the organized civil society. Analyze the challenges to be faced by the current government proposal, through the discussion of the relevant literature produced by Latin American specialists and draw out about the strategies adopted by the international organizations, especially the World Bank. Finally, shows, as a condition to the viability of the MEC (Ministry of Education and Culture proposal, the directionament of critical questions through a new Organizational Higher Education Law: the effective implementation of the university autonomy, as it is prescribed in the Constitution of 1988; the enlargement of the public financing taking in view to recover and to increase the federal public institutions, and the introduction of a more complete system of evaluation that look for the academic qualification of the whole Brazilian higher education.
This paper discusses four papers concerned with tax reform. It is concluded that tax reform has had a rather limited impact on behaviour so far but that governments should press ahead with gradual improvement and not expect dramatic results.
Biggs, John H.
The investment committee of the college or university governing board is charged with determining, overseeing, and assessing the policies and processes by which institutional funds are invested. The committee has fiduciary duty to ensure that the terms of investment of donors' gifts are met and to maximize investment returns within an appropriate…
Läti Majandusministeeriumi reformist. Regionaalarengu ja kohalike omavalitsuste minister Edgars Zalansi ettepanekud edaspidisteks reformideks ministeeriumides. Riigikontrolör Inguna Sudraba leiab, et need on pealiskaudsed
Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs
National Nutrition Policy Study--1974; Part 7-Nutrition and Government; and Part 7A-Appendix. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, Second Session. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 21, 1974.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.
These hearings of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs opened with a statement by Senator McGovern, chairman. The Panel on Nutrition and Government then delivered its report and recommendations to the committee. The panel was concerned with surveillance, research, the training of professional personnel, and the overall…
Joy, V. P.; Raman Nair, R.; Ayub, M.
Importance of library and information services in higher education was emphasized in India by many committees of Government of India from 1917 including Calcutta University Commission under Sir Michael Saddler, University Education Commission (1949) chaired by Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, Ranganathan Committee (1958), Education Commission (1966) chaired by D.S. Kothari, as well as Sen Committee, Mehrotra Committee etc of UGC. But as education being a State subject; union government could not go beyo...
Full Text Available Seeking asylum is a human right, enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (“Refugee Convention” and its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (“1967 Protocol” prohibit the United States from returning refugees to persecution, and the 1980 Refugee Act set up a formal process for applying for asylum in the United States. However, the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA created a barrage of new barriers to asylum. These impediments have blocked many refugees from accessing asylum in the United States and inserted additional layers of technicalities, screening, and processing, undermining the effectiveness of the US asylum system. The barriers imposed by IIRIRA are significant. They include a filing deadline on asylum applications, which prevents genuine refugees from receiving asylum if they cannot prove they have filed the application within one year of arriving in the United States. IIRIRA also established summary deportation procedures, including “expedited removal” and “reinstatement of removal,” which block asylum seekers from even applying for asylum or accessing an immigration court removal hearing, unless they first pass through a screening process. Finally, IIRIRA imposed “mandatory detention” on certain immigrants, including asylum seekers who are placed in expedited removal proceedings upon their arrival at a US port of entry. Each of these provisions imposed new processes and procedures that have contributed to an increasingly ineffective immigration system. The current backlog in the immigration courts has reached a record high, surpassing half a million cases, while the backlog of affirmative asylum cases before the Asylum Division of US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS has increased by a factor of six [check] in just three years. Backlogs, which lead to long delays in adjudication
Full Text Available Government officials, development agents and scholars showcase Senegal's 1996 regionalization reforms as a step towards the deepening of decentralisation. Yet this article shows that the reforms narrowed down local democracy via neoliberal processes. The reforms defined the regional councils as development intermediaries, to serve as a space for the negotiation of public-private partnership contracts between local governments and business interests. Focusing on Tambacounda Region of Senegal, the article analyses the effects of the reforms on forest governance at regional and rural-community scales. First, using two project case studies, it illustrates the use of forest management plans and project-based environmental committees in enabling privatisation of rural community forest governance at the expense of democratic processes. Second, it examines how the intermediary role of the regional council compromised its ability to represent the substantive interests of base-level rural communities and helped instrumentalise the council to promote different privatisation alternatives offered by 'community-based' projects. This role was facilitated by a public-private development agency of the council. The discursive analysis of a regional council meeting illustrates that rather than offering a deliberative and participatory forum, council meetings were used to make representation claims about the 'local people' and to push a market-based neoliberal rationality.
Casiano Flores, Cesar Augusto; Vikolainen, Vera; Bressers, Johannes T.A.
In the last decades, policy reforms, new instruments development, and economic resources investment have taken place in water sanitation in Mexico; however, the intended goals have not been accomplished. The percentage of treated wastewater as intended in the last two federal water plans has not
Acquisition Management: Agencies Can Improve Training on New Initiatives. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
A study assessed strategies agencies use to ensure that their workforces are receiving the training necessary to implement acquisition initiatives. Focus was on the General Services Administration (GSA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD). Findings indicated that the critical elements important to…
Proprietary Schools. Millions Spent To Train Students for Oversupplied Occupations. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.
The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined the extent to which the financial aid provided under Title IV of the Higher Education Act to students enrolled in proprietary schools is being spent to train individuals for demand occupations. Job opening projections in 12 states were used to estimate job demand, the National Center for Education…
La reforma constitucional mexicana del 9 de agosto de 2012, entre racionalización débil de la forma de gobierno presidencial y tímida apertura a la democracia participativa = The mexican constitutional reform of august 9, 2012. between the form of presidential govern¬ment and timid opening weak rationalization to participatory democracy
The reforms of 2012 includes some modernizations of the Mexican Constitution of 1917, but leave unchanged the contradictions of the Mexican system of government, that since 1997 is characterized by a «divided government» where an American-style separation of powers works with some difficulties with a European-style party system and with a Latin American presidentialist political culture.
.... Fundamental reforms in Colombia should begin by directly strengthening the moral legitimacy of the government, holistically enhancing socioeconomic development, and meticulously reforming the legal...
Albert Einstein and the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists (ECAS) conducted a reform-based public communication campaign for the international control of atomic energy after the Second World War. The Committee raised funds and sought publicity for its proposed solution to the problem of war and the management of peace. Its solution was the…
Cruz, Cesi; Keefer, Philip
The challenge of public administration reform is well-known: politicians often have little interest in the efficient implementation of government policy. Using new data from 439 World Bank public sector reform loans in 109 countries, we demonstrate that such reforms are significantly less likely to succeed in the presence of non-programmatic political parties. Earlier research uses evidence from a small group of countries to conclude that clientelistic politicians resist reforms that restrict...
Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis
Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....
With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity…
Radioactive waste. The Government's response to the Environment Committee's report. Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Environment, the Secretary of State for Scotland, and the Secretary of State for Wales
The Environment Committee's report on radioactive waste (published 12 March 1986) was comprehensive and made a number of recommendations each of which has been considered by the Government. Its first stage report was published in May in which the Government commented on the recommendations directly relevant to the proposal to develop a near surface facility for the disposal of radioactive waste. This response incorporates that material, replies to the remaining recommendations and defines the Government's overall strategy for the disposal of all levels of radioactive waste. Its recommendations are considered, including specific ones about the THORP plant at Sellafield and the Drigg near-surface disposal site and more general points about storage versus reprocessing for spent fuels, seabed disposal of intermediate level waste disposal etc. (UK)
Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina
In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.
Full Text Available In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.
Comunitarismo, sociedade civil e a reforma da educação na era FHC (1995-2002/Communitarianism, civil society and the education reforms in Brazil during the Fernando Henrique Cardoso government (1995-2002
Sidney Reinaldo da Silva
Full Text Available Este artigo discute a relação entre as reformas da educação e a concepção de sociedde civil na era FHC, a partir de uma crítica ao comunitarismo. Apontamos que a concepção de formação humana pressuposta nas reformas do período em questão, voltada para a aprendizagem do trade off econômico e moral (ajudar os pobres como forma de compensar os benefícios recebidos pela sociedade, como o emprego, bolsas de estudos coaduna-se com o neoliberalismo e com o reforço da histórica cisão “moral” da sociedade brasileira. This paper argues the relationship between education reforms and the civil society conception in Brazil during the Fernando Henrique Cardoso government (1995-2002. We analizes the communitarian people moral formation conception of such reforms showing how it harmonises with the neoliberal values like the exigence of the apprenticeship of the economic and moral trade-off: the market rationality. But such a trend does not help the brazilian people eliminate his historical moral cision grounded on deep economic inequalities conected with an “imoral” social subornination even for liberal values.
To support the political and governance-related processes taking place, the Arab Reform Initiative ... In the summer of 2012, several papers were commissioned on Egypt's constitutional reform looking at specific issues such ... Related articles ...
... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters.... SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...
Full Text Available Measurement of financial reporting quality is a problematic task because financial reporting is difficult to observe and measure. The aim of the article is to present the methods of financial reporting quality meas-urement and a systematic review of literature on the effects of corporate governance reforms on the qualityof financial reporting. The main research questions are: (1 what are the possibilities of measuring financial reporting for research purposes, (2 which of the methods of measuring the quality of financial reporting are used in research on corporate governance, and (3 which variables used in measuring corporate gov-ernance factors affect financial reporting quality? To answer these questions, a critical analysis of literature and a systematic review of research results using meta-analysis was made. For selecting the best articles a three-step collection strategy was used, which resulted in a database of 38 publications. The review has shown that for measuring the quality of financial reporting researchers most frequently use models based on measurement of risk management, and the most common independent variables describing corporate governance are: the size of the audit committee, presence of independent directors on the supervisory board, dual role of CEO, proportion of independent directors in the audit committee, size of the supervisory board, proportion of accounting experts in the audit committee, and frequency of audit committee meetings
Martin, Graham P
The ‘modernization’ of British public services seeks to broaden public sector governance networks, bringing the views of third sector organizations, the public and service users (among others) to the design, management and delivery of welfare. Building on previous analyses of the contradictions generated by these roles, this paper draws on longitudinal qualitative research to enunciate the challenges faced by one third-sector organization in facilitating service user influence in a UK National Health Service (NHS) pilot programme, alongside other roles in tension with this advocacy function. The analysis highlights limits in the extent to which lateral governance networks pluralize stakeholder involvement. The ‘framing’ of governance may mean that traditional concerns outweigh the views of new stakeholders such as the third sector and service users. Rather than prioritizing wider stakeholders' views in the design and delivery of public services, placing third sector organizations at the centre of governance networks may do more to co-opt these organizations in reproducing predominant priorities.
30th November 2010 - Norwegian Ministry of Government Administration, Reform and Church Affairs State Secretary R. Valle signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; visiting CERN Computer Centre with Information Technology Department Head F. Hemmer.
30th November 2010 - Norwegian Ministry of Government Administration, Reform and Church Affairs State Secretary R. Valle signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; visiting CERN Computer Centre with Information Technology Department Head F. Hemmer.
Full Text Available Objective. This paper aims at assessing the contribution of Chile’s Health Care Integrating Councils (CIRA, Spanish acronym to strengthening governance in health. Materials and methods. A literature review on the official documents related to the process of creation and development of CIRA was carried out; an ad hoc questionnaire was applied to all 29 health services of the country; finally, 35 semi-structure in-depth interviews were carried on a sample of six CIRA. Results. The CIRAs have become a tool for functional integration and a valuable space for dialogue, cooperation and learning for all of the actors of the Chilean public health network. Conclusions. In this study, we conclude that there is room for improvements of CIRA’s role regarding governance of the health care network as long as CIRA is authorized to deal with strategic topics, such as investment in infrastructure, technology and human resources, and budgeting.
Anderson, Malcolm; Holcombe, Liz
This article stresses the importance of within-government capacity build as the optimal approach to minimizing landslide risk to the most vulnerable communities in the developing world. Landslide risk is an integrated issue that demands strong managerial leadership and multidisciplinary inclusion to develop structures that deliver sustainable improvements in the reduction of risk. The tension between projects demanding international technical and financial intervention and those capable of "within-country" solutions are examined. More particularly, the challenges of developing a management methodology capable of energizing inter-ministry collaboration to achieve community-level action is examined in the context of a recently established program of slope stability management in St. Lucia. The program, Management of Slope Stability in Communities (MoSSaiC), is shown to have successfully fostered not only extensive technical collaboration within government but also to have energized local communities in the shared mission of capacity build through their direct involvement in the management process.
Full Text Available Kenya’s Grand Coalition Government was formed in the aftermath of a serious post-electoral crisis including widespread violence. No political progress has been recorded; in striking contrast to all expectations for more moderation and consensual preparation of a constitutional reform. Based on secondary data from textbooks, newspapers, journals, and documents from both governmental and non-governmental organisations, the author finds that the continuing wrangles within the Grand Coalition Government, the fear of the debilitating effects of a constitutional referendum and the hard-line positions on the contentious issues pose a big threat to the achievement of a new constitution before the 2012 Elections. Die Große Koalition in Kenia wurde im Anschluss an eine heftige, gewaltsam ausgetragene Nachwahlkrise gebildet. Entgegen aller Erwartung, jetzt werde eine moderate und gemeinsam abgestimmte Vorbereitung der Verfassungsreform möglich, wurden keine politischen Fortschritte erzielt. Der Autor analysiert Sekundärdaten aus Monografien, Zeitungs- und Zeitschriftenartikeln sowie Dokumenten von Regierungs- und Nichtregierungsorganisationen und kommt zu dem Schluss, dass der fortgesetzte Streit innerhalb der Koalitionsregierung, die Furcht vor den Unwegsamkeiten eines Verfassungsreferendums und die verhärteten Positionen zu den umstrittenen Fragen die Realisierung einer neuen Verfassung vor den Wahlen 2012 wenig wahrscheinlich machen.
Statement of Donald Mancuso Deputy Inspector General Department of Defense Before the Subcommittee on Government Management Information and Technology House Government Reform Committee, United States House of Representatives on Defense Financial Management
.... Likewise, new statutory requirements for audited annual financial statements caught the Department unprepared and without the automated systems needed to compile commercial type accounting data...
Testimony: Statement of Paul J. Granetto Director Defense Financial Auditing Service Office of the Inspector General Department of Defense to the Subcommittee on Government Efficiency and Financial Management House Government Reform Committee on Defense Financial Management
.... Decision-makers responsible for planning military actions need reliable financial information so that they can prudently manage available resources and allocate dollars to those processes that yield...
... Committee will observe market developments regarding the freedom and openness of the Internet and will focus..., Technology Policy and Internet Governance, Cisco Systems Charles Slocum, Assistant Executive Director...
Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne
This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems related to the reform of land management from the beginning of the land reform ill the presentine. This need has arisen due to making another attempt to reorganize the structure of the land structures. With the launch of the land reform established the State Committee of Ukraine for Land Resources in 1992. To speed up land reform and land privatization in 2001 formed the administrative bodies of the State Committee for Land Resources of Ukraine. In order to improve the system of state land management in 2011 created the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine, which was reorganized in 2014 into the State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre. Over the years, in order to "optimize" the system of central executive body, content of this body has not been changed and constantly was changing its name and subordination, namely: the State Committee for Land Resources - Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine - Ministry of Agrarian policy and Food of Ukraine, State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre - Ministry of regional development, construction and housing. On the basis of analysis concerning the powers of the central executive authorities, local authorities found that the newly farmed Service State Land Cadastre das not contribute to the effectiveness of the administration, especially at the national level, as these features ave not provided by "Regulations on State Land Cadastre " and other regulations. In addition, the local level detected removal of local government in matters of land relations. In conclusion, proposed system based redistribution of powers on the level of central executive bodies and local authorities to reform the system of land management with regard to decentralized processes in Ukraine. It is advisable to restore central authority for land reform and regulation of land relations to the
Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene
Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....
The Federal German Government is pushing more entrepreneurial responsibility, more deregulation and more competition. Consequently, the option 'A' - boosting of governmental planning competence - is eliminated. To be realized is option 'C' - modernization of the law without fundamental change of its substance. Within, the meaning of option 'B' - boosting of the undertakers' and consumers' own responsibility by deregulation - it is necessary to carefully review each individual instance described in the law in order to decide whether it can be rendered superfluous by less stringent regulation of the market. With regard to ten problems, the article indicates the attitude taken by the Federal German ministry of economy in the light of talks so far held, e.g.: enlargement of the catalogue of targets by pollution abatement and careful management of resources; equal regulatory effort for electric power and gas; federally uniform approval procedure for overhead power transmission lines from 110 kV; energy-economic investments supervision etc. (HSCH).
Full Text Available Le réchauffement climatique, la pauvreté ou la menace d’une catastrophe nucléaire comptent parmi les défis majeurs auxquels l’humanité se doit de faire face collectivement en ce début de 21e siècle. Malgré la gravité et l’urgence de la situation, les moyens dont nous disposons pour résoudre de tels problèmes demeurent limités et incomplets. Il est dès lors non seulement essentiel mais aussi urgent de penser comment faire face à de tels enjeux globaux. Les solutions passent par des mécanismes de gouvernance globale et se doivent de répondre aux exigences de solidarité, de démocratie, de justice sociale et d’efficacité politique. Il s’agit notamment d’assurer à chaque personne la possibilité d’influencer les conditions sociales qui façonnent sa vie. Il est donc encore possible d’agir sur le cours des choses, mais si aucune réponse n’est rapidement apportée à ces défis majeurs, le futur de l’humanité risque d’être compromis.Global warming, poverty and the threat of nuclear catastrophe are among the major challenges humanity has to face collectively in this early 21st century. In spite of the seriousness and the urgency of the situation, the means at our disposal to solve such problems remain limited and incomplete. It is therefore not only essential but also urgent to think about how to face these growing global challenges. It requires new mechanisms of global governance and taking steps toward solidarity, democracy, justice and policy effectiveness. Among these key issues is the need to ensure the possibility for each person to influence the social conditions that shape his or her life. Thus, there is still hope that the vital task of reframing global governance may be pursued with an increasing sense of urgency. If this does not happen, the very future of humanity is at risk.
Contrasts Karl Popper's theory of social reform with a Marxist theory of reform. Concludes that a liberal approach to educational reform, as exemplified by A.S. Neill's self-governing school at Summerhill, is generally more satisfactory. (Author/DB)
Matthews, Mark; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
This paper presents the results of a literature review on educational methodology reforms. The first section discusses five factors in broad-based school reforms: change theory; organizational theory; state/national politics; local politics/governance; and leadership theory. Five types of reforms for school-wide success are described in the second…
Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…
Administrative Committees are responsible for those functions required for the overall performance or well-being of AGU as an organization. These committees are Audit and Legal Affairs, Budget and Finance*, Development, Nominations*, Planning, Statutes and Bylaws*, Tellers.Operating Committees are responsible for the policy direction and operational oversight of AGU's primary programs. The Operating Committees are Education and Human Resources, Fellows*, Information Technology, International Participation*, Meetings, Public Affairs, Public Information, Publications*.
Md. Borhan Uddin Bhuiyan
Full Text Available A sizable volume of corporate governance literature documents that an independent and competent board of directors matter for organizational success. In order to function effectively, board comprises of different sub-committees and the three most common sub-committees are audit committees, compensation committees and nomination committees. Surprisingly, there is a paucity of research in understanding the determinants of nomination committee notwithstanding the importance of an independent nomination committee in board selection process. We contribute to the nomination committee literature by investigating the factors associated with the determination of nomination committees in New Zealand. We find that cross-sectional variation in the firm-specific characteristics affect the existence of nomination committees. This finding casts doubt on the „one-size-fits all‟ approach of corporate governance. Our logistic regression of the nomination committee determinants indicates that firm size, governance regulation and busy directors are positively associated with the existence of nomination committees, whereas firm leverage, controlling shareholders, and director independence are negatively related to the formation of nomination committees.
... Part 1622 to remove from its requirements the Board's Governance & Performance Review Committee when it.... Audit Committee 11 a.m. 2. Governance & Performance Review Committee. 3. Provision for the Delivery of.... Governance and Performance Review Committee Agenda 1. Approval of Agenda. 2. Approval of Minutes of the...
Saeed Rabea Baatwah
Full Text Available This study reviews the literature on audit committee expertise and financial reporting timeliness. Financial reporting timeliness and audit committee expertise are two areas of research gaining the attention of a large number of stakeholders because they contribute to the reliability and the relevancy of financial reporting. Indeed, the focus of this review is primarily on the recent developments in the pertinent literature in order to show the limitations of such research and encourage future research to overcome these limitations. By also looking at the development of the audit committee expertise literature, this study concludes that (1 like most audit committee literature, financial reporting timeliness literature continues to assume the absence of the contribution of expertise other than financial expertise, and ignore the role of audit committee chair; (2 most of this literature fails to find a significant effect because it ignores the interaction among corporate governance mechanisms. Accordingly, this study posits that ignoring the issues raised in such research by future research would lead to major mistakes in reforms relating to how the quality of financial reporting can be enhanced.
Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole
Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor s...
School governance reform in post-apartheid South Africa aimed to democratize schooling while accommodating diverse school histories of underdevelopment or self-management. Analysis of relevant legislation shows the reform was structured to allow representative democracy and partnerships. But two recent studies suggest that governance reforms have…
Full Text Available Local government councils (LGC rely on a number of funding sources including state and federal governments as well as their community constituents to enable them to provide a range of public services. Given the constraints on these funding sources councils need to have in place a range of strategies and policies capable of providing good governance and must appropriately discharge their financial accountabilities. To assist LGC with meeting their governance and accountability obligations they often seek guidance from their key stakeholders. For example, in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW, the Office of Local Government has developed a set of guidelines, the Internal Audit Guidelines. In 2010 the NSW Office of Local Government issued revised guidelines emphasising that an internal audit committee is an essential component of good governance. In addition, the guidelines explained that to improve the governance and accountability of the councils, these committees should be composed of a majority of independent members. To maintain committee independence the guidelines indicated that the Mayor should not be a member of the committee. However these are only guidelines, not legislated requirements and as such compliance with the guidelines, before they were revised, has been demonstrated to be quite low (Jones & Bowrey 2013. This study, based on a review of NSW Local Government Councils’ 2012/2013 reports, including Annual Reportsrelation to internal audit committees, to determine if the guidelines are effective in improving local government council governance.
... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...
... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...
... advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management... Communications and Information on needed reforms to domestic spectrum policies and management in order to... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information...
Legal Reform, De-colonization and State-building in Palestine. Demands for legal reform have come from both inside and outside Palestine. Inside Palestine, legal reform is seen as a prerequisite for democracy and good governance. Outside, legal reform is perceived as integral to the continued peace process with Israel.
With a view to preventing, controlling and reducing the release of pollutants into the aquatic environment, thus promoting the implementation of the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, pending its entry into force, it is recommended that ECE Governments, taking into account, inter alia, current water quality, water-quality requirements of present and future water users in the relevant catchments, requirements of aquatic and riparian flora and fauna, assessments of the risks involved, the urgency of control measures, and the economic feasibility
王小万; 陈丽萍; 刘丽杭
基于英国NHS在管理体制与机制上所实施的结构性改革措施,从完善法律、建立问责机制、完善财务管理和经营模式4个维度,系统阐述了NHS的结构性改革与治理模式的特点;作为一种"公共利益公司",NHS所属公立医院基于公私伙伴关系的原则,在坚持公益性的前提下,引入企业经营行为组建了信托基金医疗联合体,并根据NHS的核心原则,免费医疗、需求导向、可负担性等,基于购买合同向辖区患者或居民提供医疗保健服务.随着相关改革措施的逐步实施,NHS信托基金医疗联合体的法人地位和自主决策权得到明显提升,能真正做到对自身的发展负责;同时,随着对提供者行为的规范,以及医疗服务市场竞争与规制机制的完善,也极大的促进了医疗机构之间的有序竞争和医疗服务供给的多元化发展.%Based on the structural reform approaches of management system and mechanism implemented by the British NHS, this paper systematically introduced governance models and characteristics of NHS Foundation Trusts(FTs)from the four dimensions:perfecting the laws,establishing accountability framework,improving finan-cial management,and operational governance business model.As a public benefit corporation, on the basis of the principle of public-private partnerships(Public-Private-Partnership, PPP), NHS foundation trusts currently intro-duces a number of entrepreneurial practices under the premise of public welfare attribute, and provide goods and services according to entrustment contract and core NHS principles-free medical care,demand-oriented,affordability and so on.With these reform measures being implemented,the legal status and independent decision-making power of NHS Trust Fund Medical Consortium will be remarkably improved,so as the Foundation Trusts will be much more"on their own"and take complete responsibility for ensuring that they are successful.At the same time, with the norms of
María Cecilia Erbetta
Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo es mostrar el inicio en la provincia de Buenos Aires, a partir de la ley 11.184, del proceso de reforma del Estado provincial durante la primera gobernación de Eduardo Duhalde. Esto es, indagar en qué medida el contexto le otorga sentido a las prácticas y discursos de sus protagonistas, a fin de comprender cómo conviven simultáneamente una política de ajuste con la llegada de nuevos fondos de origen federal.O objetivo principal deste trabalho é mostrar o início na província de Buenos Aires, a partir da lei 11.184, do processo de reforma do Estado provincial durante o primeiro governo de Eduardo Duhalde. Isto é, indagar em que medida o contexto outorga sentido às práticas e discursos de seus protagonistas, a fim de compreender como convive simultaneamente uma política de ajuste com a chegada de novos fundos de origem federal.The principal aim of this article is to describe the beginnings of the Provincial State's process of reform in the Province of Buenos Aires, which started with the law 11.184, during Eduardo Duhalde's first government,. This is, to study in which way the context gives sense to the practices and speeches of its main actors, in order to understand how an adjustment policy coexists with the arrival of new public funds of federal origin.
The Australian Federal and state governments have been introducing neoliberal reforms to the governance of their education systems for a number of decades. One of the most recent programs of reform is the Western Australian Independent Public Schools (IPS) initiative. Similar to decentralizing reforms around the world, the IPS program seeks…
Full Text Available In the matter of corporate governance reforms, an important aspect is whether the implementation of corporate governance principles and codes has a positive impact on firm performance. The literature testing the relationship between different corporate governance mechanisms and firm performance is extensive. Over time, a lot of corporate governances mechanisms were studied in relation to firm performance and the most used are: CEO duality, board size, proportion of non- executive directors, board committees, ownership structure and concentration, managers’ compensation and incentives schemes. With time, different authors began to use more comprehensive measures for corporate governance rather than a single variable or a single governance mechanism, the so called corporate governance indexes. Regarding performance there are three main approaches to firm performance in social science research: research based on market prices, accounting ratios and total factor profitability.The most used performance measures are: Tobin’s Q, return on equity, return on asset and economic value added. In our paper, we present the studies undertaken since the 1990’s regarding the relationship between different mechanisms of corporate governance and firm performance and between corporate governance index and performance for both developed and developing countries around the world. Regarding the working tools used in this theoretical research we can mention the longitudinal method, by presenting the evolution in time of empirical studies on the research topic and the comparative method used in presenting the resulys of different studies mentioned in our paper. The results of the studies are inconclusive, some studies founded a strog positive relation, others founded a negative correlation between corporate governance and firm performance, while a third category of studies didn’t found any relationship at all. We used participative observation method by issuing
Gunter, Aleksei, 1979-
Keskerakonna ja Reformierakonna valitsuse ametisseastumise aastapäeva konverentsil esinesid kõnedega Edgar Savisaar ja Siim Kallas. Politoloog Rein Toomla tutvustas parlamendierakondade põhjal tehtud uurimust erakondade sobivusest koalitsiooni
Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.
... providing notice that it will hold a public meeting on Monday, February 22, 2010, in the Multipurpose Room... reports on a work plan for environmental, social, and governance disclosure and on financial reform...
Workers at every one of this Nation's 69 operating commercial nuclear powerplants conduct a constant vigil of great importance to this country's economy and to the health and safety of its citizens. They must constantly observe, assess and respond to the subtle and complex changes in the operating conditions of a reactor facility. They must do so skillfully enough to prevent major accidents and outages. It is for that reason that extraordinary efforts to train people to anticipate and understand unexpected events are necessary in the nuclear industry. It is for that reason that nuclear powerplant systems must be designed with unusually intricate safeguards against failure, that their maintenance must be meticulous and incessant, and that the condition of those systems must be constantly understood by nuclear plan management to prevent unanticipated degradation or breakdowns. Regrettably, facts disclosed by an oversight investigation by the Government Operations Subcommittee on Environment, Energy and Natural Resources indicate that those high standards have not yet been consistently attained by the nuclear industry or by the NRC. Significant mistakes in judgment and operational errors continue to occur at many operating nuclear powerplants, and the NRC inspection program too often fails to backstop the licensee. Utility failings are not discovered by the NRC in time to prevent costly and even dangerous mistakes from being made
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan
. In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural......The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...
General Services Administration — The Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) database is used by Federal agencies to continuously manage an average of 1,000 advisory committees government-wide. This...
... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment AGENCY... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee to make recommendations on the implementation of a nationwide health information technology...
Head of monitoring committee: the Research Commission of the government of French Polynesia. Panel members Representatives of the following organisations: IRD centre in Papeete Oceanologic Center of the Pacific/Ifremer Investment Promotion Authority Environment Division EPIC Vanille Institut Louis-Malardé Gepsun “Natural Substances process engineering” technology platform (cf. Abbreviations) Fisheries Division Economic Affairs Division External Trade Division Development of Industry and the...
The Chairman, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight; the Chairman, House Subcommittee on National Security, International Affairs, and Criminal Justice, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight...
In this paper, I examine the effects of tax reforms for an economy in a welfare state. I do this by a macroeconomic model, which includes not only households, firms and a government but also a monopoly labour union. The households are of two types, workers and entrepreneurs. The workers are employed by the firms, which are owned by the entrepreneurs. This paper shows that decreasing labour taxation and increasing consumption taxation would have a number of positive effects. These include incr...
Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.
Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Ribeiro, Filipa; Amaral, Alberto
This paper aims at looking at governance instruments beyond managerial technicality. It intends to do so by analysing the impact of governance reforms on the universities autonomy assumed as a regulation instrument to politically steer systems and institutions. The regulation efforts undertaken at the European and national levels reflect a trend…
The Russian Government is pursuing a strategy of very high economic growth, with the objective of doubling gross domestic product in ten years. It recognises the central role the electricity sector has to play to achieve this target and has embarked on a highly ambitious program of electricity reform. If it is to succeed, the reform program will have to create market structures, market rules and a regulatory framework that will foster competitive wholesale and retail electricity markets. At the same time, it will have to deal with sensitive social issues related to tariff rebalancing and the removal of cross subsidies. Only competitive markets based on transparent prices that reflect costs can deliver the efficient, reliable and internationally competitive performance needed to meet the government's economic targets. Such markets are essential to attract new investment that will be required to ensure security of electricity supply after 2010. This book focuses on key aspects of the proposed reform that could have an important bearing on its success. It also raises concerns as to the pace of reform in related areas, such as the need for complementary reforms in the Russian natural gas sector. The IEA commends the Russian Government on its efforts to embrace this electricity reform - a key element critical to meeting the challenges ahead in terms of its economic growth and energy security. 17 figs., 10 tabs., 3 maps.
van der Elst, C.F.
In 2014 the European Union reformed the regulatory framework of statutory audits in Directive 2014/56/EC and Regulation (EU) Nr. 537/2014. Part of the new legislation addresses the composition and responsibilities of the audit committee of public-interest entities. This contribution studies the
Full Text Available The issue of corporate governance has become increasingly important as globalisation has begun to accelerate and the economic and financial turmoil have intensified. Post-crisis context has imposed the need to expand the prospects for analysis over governance and companies, as well as the need to identify new ways of administration and resource management. From this perspective, the author aims to highlight the conditions, factors and events that have generated profound changes within the business environment, while the analysis is focusing on contemporary changes in the systems of corporate governance and economic mutations, especially in terms of the companies. The establishment of new governance rules is demanding a theoretical approach based on new methodological requirements which are needed to reform theoretical foundations and to promote creative and effective shapes and governance systems.
Hearing on 'Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - US Immigrant Integration,' Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Serial No. 110-27. May 16, 2007. Abstract: In this statement to a House Hearing on comprehensive immigration reform focusing on immigrant integration, English and foreign language competencies, preferences and use among immigrants and thei...
Susanto Basu; David Li
By bureaucratic institutions or bureaucracy, we mean the rules and regulations that are implemented by government agencies. Burdensome bureaucratic institutions are leading obstacles to economic development and therefore the target of economic reform of many countries in today's world. In this paper, we provide a theoretical framework to analyze the reform of bureaucratic institutions. The analysis shows the key to the reform is to properly incentivize the incumbent generation of bureaucrats,...
The Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) is a standing committee under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications of the National Academy of Sciences--National Research Council. Plasma sciences represent a broad and diverse field. The PLSC has accepted the responsibility of monitoring the continuing development and assessing the general health of the field as whole. Although select advisory bodies have been created to address specific issues that affect plasma science, such as the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC), the PLSC provides a focus for the plasma science community that is unique and essential. The membership of the PLSC is drawn from research laboratories in universities, industry, and government. Areas of expertise on the committee include accelerators and beams, space physics, astrophysics, computational physics and applied mathematics, fusion plasmas, fundamental experiments and theory, radiation sources, low temperature plasmas, and plasma-surface interactions. The PLSC is well prepared to respond to requests for studies on specific issues. This report discusses ion of the PLSC work
Mendonca, A.F.; Dahl, C.
Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)
Coal allocation in China is a seminal case of e-government in the political economy. The empirical phenomenon of market supporting e-government has not been systematically analysed. By developing and applying a digital governance model this article examines institutional change in a case of coal...... allocation reform in China. The case shows how the central state used e-government to get rid of planning overload. Coal allocation meetings were abolished in favour of an ecology of online market solutions. The findings suggest that further research on Chinese e-government would benefit from attention...
Nuclear damage compensation and energy reform were closely related. Nuclear damage compensation cost should be part of generation cost of nuclear power. Extend of nuclear damage compensation was limited by compensation standard of Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO) following guidelines of Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation. TEPCO had already paid compensation of about two trillion yen until now, which was only a part of total damage compensation cost. TEPCO had been provided more than 3.4 trillion yen by Nuclear Damage Liability Facilitation Cooperation, which would be put back by nuclear operators including TEPCO. TEPCO could obtain present raising funds and try to reconstruct business with restart of nuclear power, which might disturb energy reform. Present nuclear damage compensation scheme had better be reformed with learning more from Minamata disease case in Japan. (T. Tanaka)
This site will provide all stakeholders, including the general public, with access to information about meetings of advisory committees, and how we work with state, territory, and tribal government partners.
... providing notice that it will hold a public meeting on Monday, May 17, 2010, in the Multipurpose Room, L-006... Committee; (iii) briefing on the Investor as Owner Subcommittee's environmental, social, and governance...
The Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ), which meets three times a year, was established by Congress to coordinate the activities of the Federal Government on issues relating to Indoor Air Quality.
Tountas, Yannis; Karnaki, Panagiota; Pavi, Elpida
The National Health System (ESY) in Greece, which was established in 1983, is in a state of continuous crisis. This situation is caused mainly by the system's problematic administration, low productivity and inadequate Primary Health Care. These have led the re-elected PASOK government to introduce by the end of 2000 a radical reform of the health system. The 200 reform measures announced by the new Minister of Health and Welfare include changes aiming at: the decentralization of the ESY, the creation of a unified financing system for the social insurance funds, a new management structure in public hospitals, the organization of a Primary Health System in urban areas, and the strengthening of Public Health and Health Promotion. These changes are presented and discussed in this paper.
Nigeria undertook a major bank structure reform between 2004 and 2006. A pivotal plank of that reform was the pegging of government ownership in deposit money banks to 10%. This was informed by the general economic theory that state ownership in commercial undertakings hurts operating performance. This paper ...
The Mozambican government has introduced reforms of basic education, notably the introduction of interdisciplinarity, learner-centredness and new teaching pedagogies. This is a case study of how these curriculum reforms have been implemented at Marrere Teachers' Training College. We conducted interviews with ...
textabstractAbstract This introductory article to the special issue on European Union, development policies and governance discusses how notions of ('good') governance have come to dominate development discourses and policies since the mid-1990s. The article argues that governance was part of the so-called Post-Washington Consensus, which understands governance reform as part of the creation of market societies. Although academics have commonly emphasised the fact that governance concerns the...
Meijer, A.J.; Zouridis, S.
Throughout the world, e-government has become a key element of modernization and government reform programs. E-government has put a spell on public administration from Singapore to Uruguay and from the United States to Hong Kong. This worldwide movement is interesting from the perspective of
Tishler, A.; Newman, J.; Spekterman, I.; Woo, C.K.
In June 2003, the Israeli government decided to reform the Israeli electricity industry, which is currently dominated by Israel electric corporation (IEC), a government-owned vertically integrated electric utility. The first step of the planned reform will be taken in 2006, when IEC will be functionally separated into generation, transmission, local distribution, and customer services. Immediately thereafter will be the second step, which by 2012 will result in the deregulation and privatization of the wholesale generation and customer services. Transmission and distribution (T and D) services will remain regulated but will be available to all T and D users under mandatory open access. This paper summarizes a cost-benefit analysis of the government's reform plan. Relative to a regulated regime, the government's plan, even if carried out flawlessly, may only yield a small net benefit. However, it entails a large increase in electricity producer profit and government tax receipt, at the expense of electricity consumers. A less-than-perfect transition to competition can easily wipe out the potential gain of the government plan. Market reform experience to date shows that electricity market reform can easily fail, and the factors for success do not exist in Israel. Since the outcome of a failing reform can be disastrous, it will be imprudent to implement the government's plan in 2006, when the current electricity law expires. Hence, we recommend performance-based regulation for the period of 2006-2010. Subject to an updated cost-benefit analysis, possible decentralization, privatization and competition may follow
Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Raakjær, Jesper
-making process as reform according to this ‘grand reform’ discourse was blocked by a combination of small-scale fishers’ informal networks and the power of the parliamentary majority. After a parliamentary shift in power the new government implemented the ‘grand reform’ gradually whilst new patterns...... of participation and exclusion emerged. In this process, the identities of the participating participants were reinterpreted to fit the new patterns of influence and participation. The article argues that fishery reform does not necessarily start with the collective recognition of a problem in marine resource use...... and a power-neutral process of institutional learning. Instead, it argues that fishery reform is likely to be the ‘reform of somebody’ and that this ‘somebody’ is itself a changing identity....
Schultze, Rainer-Olaf (Prof.)
Constitutional reform as process. - In: The politics of constitutional reform in North America / Rainer-Olaf Schultze ... (eds.). - Opladen : Leske + Budrich, 2000. - S. 11-31. - (Politikwissenschaftliche paperbacks ; 30)
... including electronic media (television, radio), print media, Internet-based social networking tools ... Researchers will identify gaps in media coverage of proposed governance reforms; identify ... Giving girls and women the power to decide.
Underhill, G.R.D.; Zhang, X.
Despite regular and serious systemic volatility, reform of international financial architecture remains limited, retaining market-oriented characteristics and adjustment mechanisms. A failure of the architecture to focus on the political underpinnings of global financial and monetary governance
Van de Walle, Steven
textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with regard to organizational structures. It provides readers a fairly comprehensive overview of the key reforms that have taken place in Western public sectors. Structural reforms in the public sector show ...
A vote on reforming the nation's health care system seems likely this summer as President Obama makes good on a campaign pledge. Although the Democratic leadership in Congress appears ready to push through reform legislation before the next election, TMA and AMA leaders say very little is known about what that "reform" likely will look like.
Groenewegen, P.P.; Jong, J.D. de; Delnoij, D.M.J.
Background: The new health insurance law builds on a history of 30 years of reform plans and small steps, eventually leading to the recent reform. Methods: We use policy documents and papers from government, advisory bodies, and independent analysts to describe backgrounds of the reform and actual
Fredriksen, Dennis; Heide, Kim Massey; Holmøy, Erling; Solli, Ingeborg Foldøy
Abstract: Ageing combined with generous welfare state schemes makes the present fiscal policy in Norway unsustainable, despite large government petroleum revenues. We estimate to what extent two suggested reforms of the public pension system improve fiscal sustainability and stimulate employment, two main objectives of the reforms. To this end we apply two large models iteratively: 1) a detailed dynamic micro simulation model to estimate government pension expenditures; 2) a la...
In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.
Heijdra, Ben J.; Ligthart, Jenny E.
A key obstacle to reducing payroll taxes in many industrialized and transition countries is the direct revenue loss to the government that it implies. This paper studies a simple and practical labor tax reform of reducing a payroll tax and increasing a progressive wage tax that keeps the marginal
Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert
This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial…
Organizing Committee. V M Datar (Chairman). Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. D C Biswas (Convener). Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. K Mahata (Secretary). Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. Z Ahmed. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. P V Bhagwat.
Government Accountability Office, 2007
The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…
CBO Testimony: Statement of Robert Dennis, Assistant Director Macroeconomic Analysis Division, Issues Affecting the Bureau of Economic Analysis Before the Subcommittee on the Census, Committee on Government Reform, US House of Representatives
...), the enormously respected keeper of the national income and product accounts (NIPAs). This report also discusses the crucial role those accounts play in shaping public understanding of the U.S...
Global Positioning System : significant challenges in sustaining and upgrading widely used capabilities : report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), which provides positioning, navigation, and timing data to users worldwide, has become essential to U.S. national security and a key tool in an expanding array of public service and commercial applications at home...
Department of Education's Student Loan Programs: Are Tax Dollars at Risk? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.
This hearing was held to consider whether the student loan programs of the Department of Education place tax dollars at risk. In his opening remarks, Representative John L. Mica (Florida) pointed out that for nearly 10 years, the U.S. General Accounting Office has labeled these programs as a high risk for fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement. In…
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.
a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...
Luminiţa Maria Crăciun
Full Text Available Governance and governing are two distinct concepts, but they intertwine. “Good governing” exercises good influence on development. “Good governance” supposes first a relationship of power focused on a series of reforms structured at three levels: the political – administrative level, the economic level, and the level of civil society. As this dimension is difficult to measure, the qualitative evaluation of the governing act raised the interest of the World Bank researchers, who elaborated and monitored the dynamics of a set of indicators, which includes six major dimensions of the governing. A retrospective concerning the image of governing in Romania during the period from 1996 to 2005 suggests a modest increase of the score: from -0.138 (1996 to 0.008 (2002; that was partially achieved based on the voice and responsibility index and on the political stability index, not on those that measure more directly the administrative performance or the integrity of the governing act. For a comparative study, we chose seven countries for the purposes of analysis (two new European Union member states: Romania and Bulgaria; two older member countries of the European Union: Slovenia and Latvia; three non-member states: Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia, which reveal the quality of the governing from a comparative perspective. Corruption control completes the image created by the analyzed indicators. The mere formal accomplishment of commitments made in the pre-accession activity, doubled by recent internal evolutions, bring doubts about the credibility of the anticorruption reforms, as Romania continues to be considered the country with the highest CPI in the European Union. The pessimism of public opinion and the fact that only 34% of the Romanian people consider that the level of corruption will decrease in the following three years constitutes an alarm signal addressed to the governance, in view of the real reformation of the administration system
Allan Silveira dos Santos
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze tax reform necessity and the barriers to the implementation of tax reform at the light of public choice theory. The research identifies the arguments that provides the explanation for the tax reform does not occur in Brazil. The question that the article searches to answer is: what are the justifications for the Brazil not have done tax reform? The literature review addresses the failures of government, public choice theory and the theory of optimal taxation. The evidence and studies show that there are reasons to think about a tax system more consistent with the Brazilian reality, indicating the existence of "government failures" that may be the probable cause of impairment of the tax reform.
After the 18th National Congress, the Chinese government should speed up tax reform and tax reduction. Tax structure should switch to direct tax. Consumption tax reform of lower tax burden could start within a short time. Replacing business tax by value-added tax should be quickly completed. Personal income tax reform should move toward comprehension. Uneven resource distribution should be taken into consideration in resource tax reform. Property tax should be included in the local financing ...
Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu
Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study confirmed…
In February 2014, the Parliament adopted a legislative resolution on the Commission's 2012 proposal to reform the Insolvency Regulation. The Council adopted its first-reading position in March 2015, following trilogue negotiations. The Legal Affairs Committee now proposes the Parliament approves the
Magalhaes, Antonio; Veiga, Amelia; Amaral, Alberto; Sousa, Sofia; Ribeiro, Filipa
The implementation of the governance reform of Portuguese higher education has been developed under the influence of "new public management" resulting in the loss of collegial governance. Additionally, the need for meta-governance of the higher education system and institutions to monitor institutional performance against policy…
Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour
Bajaj, Harbans L; Sharma, Deepak
India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.
Sacks, Audrey; Rahman, Erman; Turkewitz, Joel; Buehler, Michael; Saleh, Imad
A central policy of the Government of Indonesia's strategy for enhancing its country's economic and social development is to develop infrastructure and expand service delivery. Public procurement reform is a key component of this policy. Despite the decentralization of financial responsibility and authority to relatively autonomous local level governments, procurement reform in Indonesia i...
Moore, Andrew; Donnelly, Andrew
What should authorities establish as the job of ethics committees and review boards? Two answers are: (1) review of proposals for consistency with the duly established and applicable code and (2) review of proposals for ethical acceptability. The present paper argues that these two jobs come apart in principle and in practice. On grounds of practicality, publicity and separation of powers, it argues that the relevant authorities do better to establish code-consistency review and not ethics-consistency review. It also rebuts bad code and independence arguments for the opposite view. It then argues that authorities at present variously specify both code-consistency and ethics-consistency jobs, but most are also unclear on this issue. The paper then argues that they should reform the job of review boards and ethics committees, by clearly establishing code-consistency review and disestablishing ethics-consistency review, and through related reform of the basic orientation, focus, name, and expertise profile of these bodies and their actions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available After President Lula’s two terms of office, the election of Dilma Rousseff generated all kinds of different expectations, whether because of the candidate’s lack of a political career within the Workers’ Party (PT, or because of her rather uncharismatic personality and poor propensity towards political negotiations with the allied parties that favoured the governability of the previous term of office. The country she has inherited is in a much better situation than the one inherited by the first PT government, with a stabilised economy and inflation under control. The sustainable policies for reducing poverty have generated conditions that encourage the enlargement of the middle class which, together with the creation of popular credit mechanisms, have served to halt the effects of the world crisis and have generated enormous expectations of social mobility. This scenario, together with the country’s increasingly recognised presence as an important international actor, provides unprecedented possibilities for the advancement of the “development with social inclusion” project. Nevertheless, certain reforms still need to be implemented that could threaten governability: political reform, federative agreement and tax reform, as well as social reforms.
Full Text Available Since the reformation and democratization movement in 1998, Indonesians have faced a chronic corruption problem. At the beginning of reformation era in 1998 to fight against corruption, the Indonesian government reforms the organization structure of the Indonesia Police to be an independent body separated from the Military organization. The police reforms begun in 1999 and got legal foundation with Act No. 2/2002. However, since fourteen years, the level of police reform has not yet succeed because of low community satisfaction on police service and the intense conflicts always occur whenever ACA investigates the case of corruptions conducted by police leaders. Three conflicts between police institution and ACA have taken placed. By using institutionalism approach, this research focus on the reform in police themselves are major actors on how reforms are organized and managed. This study is interpretative in nature gained only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, documents, tools, and other artefacts’. This finding revealed that this unsuccessful institutionalization process took place in a context of the main task of police for communicty service. Second, the study has demonstrated that three concepts from institutional theory as aforementioned provided vocabularies and insights to explain the phenomenon under study.
Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke
unintended consequences. Theoretically, we draw on different management and governance theories, e.g. performance management. Empirically, the study is based on surveys to teachers and students at all Danish vocational colleges and interviews with school leaders, teachers and students at six colleges (cases...... and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges......For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...
This article describes the activity among charitable committees to provide education and shelter to orphans and homeless children in India. "Save The Children Committee" of the All India Women's Conference began operations during the Bengal famine of 1943 by providing shelter to children who were homeless or did not know where their parents were. The Bengal Relief Committee also provided shelters, which later became Children's Homes, which were operated by the Save The Children Committee. Funding support for the homes came from individual donors and organizations. The Bengal government provided Rs.25/month/child for 450 children. Children's homes were set up in Phola, Mymensingh, and Brahmanberia, in the present day Bangladesh, and in Bankura. The Committee took over homes in Mahishadal, Khagda, and Belbeni. After 1948, the Children's Homes in East Pakistan were transferred to India. In 1952, several Children's Committees merged. Funds were supplied by international organizations. Government support levels varied over time. Schools for orphans changed from an emphasis on self-reliance and work to ordinary schooling. Brief descriptions are provided for homes at Pifa, Mangalgunge in Bongaon Subdivision, Thakurpukur in 24-Parganas, and Khagda in Midnapore district. For example, the home at Khagda was begun by the Bengal Relief Committee at the time of the famine of 1944. Save The Children Committee took over its operations in 1946. It is now a home for 21 boys. The boys have access to a good high school, have achieved academically, and received respect from the community.
Lundberg, George D
John Peters and his committee had a few basic goals. One was that local, state, and federal governments needed to provide money to construct facilities, support medical research and education, and care for the poor. And they wanted experts to call the shots. Over time, Peters and the committee got what they wanted for the most part: Hill-Burton money for building the hospitals, the rise of the National Institutes of Health, Medicare, Medicaid, a Veterans Administration system, and new and expanded medical schools. The experts calling the shots included David Kessler at the Food and Drug Administration and Surgeon General C. Everett Koop. In the halcyon days of American health system reform, back in 1993, Yale's Paul Beeson wrote about the Committee of 430 Physicians and its goals in the Pharos of Alpha Omega Alpha. Beeson was optimistic and he quoted from my 1991 JAMA health system reform editorial as a sharp contrast to what Fishbein had written - although coincidentally, we both quote Lincoln. My editorial began, "'with malice toward none, with charity for all...' so spoke Abraham Lincoln in his second inaugural address recognizing that he had no political consensus regarding either the constitutionality of states seceding or the morality of slavery being abolished. Nonetheless, he knew what was right and was able, through persuasive, often inspiring rhetoric, to conclude a bloody and decisive Civil War and constitute the foundation for this great republic.... Yet access to basic medical care for all of our inhabitants is still not a reality in this country. There are many reasons for this, not the least of which is a long-standing, systematic, institutionalized racial discrimination.... An aura of inevitablitiy is upon us. It is not acceptable morally, ethically, or economically for so many of our people to be medically uninsured or seriously underinsured. We can solve this problem. We have the knowledge and the resources, the skills, the time, and the moral
The history of the Nigerian local government system has been one long episode of trails and errors aimed at achieving viable local government institution without much success. Local government in the country began its long series of reforms from the colonial period when the colonial government attempted to ...
Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth
This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...
Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...
Busse, Reinhard; Blümel, Miriam; Knieps, Franz; Bärnighausen, Till
Bismarck's Health Insurance Act of 1883 established the first social health insurance system in the world. The German statutory health insurance system was built on the defining principles of solidarity and self-governance, and these principles have remained at the core of its continuous development for 135 years. A gradual expansion of population and benefits coverage has led to what is, in 2017, universal health coverage with a generous benefits package. Self-governance was initially applied mainly to the payers (the sickness funds) but was extended in 1913 to cover relations between sickness funds and doctors, which in turn led to the right for insured individuals to freely choose their health-care providers. In 1993, the freedom to choose one's sickness fund was formally introduced, and reforms that encourage competition and a strengthened market orientation have gradually gained importance in the past 25 years; these reforms were designed and implemented to protect the principles of solidarity and self-governance. In 2004, self-governance was strengthened through the establishment of the Federal Joint Committee, a major payer-provider structure given the task of defining uniform rules for access to and distribution of health care, benefits coverage, coordination of care across sectors, quality, and efficiency. Under the oversight of the Federal Joint Committee, payer and provider associations have ensured good access to high-quality health care without substantial shortages or waiting times. Self-governance has, however, led to an oversupply of pharmaceutical products, an excess in the number of inpatient cases and hospital stays, and problems with delivering continuity of care across sectoral boundaries. The German health insurance system is not as cost-effective as in some of Germany's neighbouring countries, which, given present expenditure levels, indicates a need to improve efficiency and value for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
FEMA's purchase of a radiological training package: an avoidable disaster. Twenty-Third Report by the Committee on Government Operations, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, House Report 99-367, November 12, 1985
A congressional study of allegations against the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) management of a training program to prepare for a transportation emergency involving radioactive materials focused on contracting procedures. The study uncovered a lack of concern on the part of the agency in its response to committee inquiries and hearings. The findings fault FEMA for noncompetitive procurement, ignoring the advice of a scientific interagency, poor training and operating procedures, and other failures involving the Bradford training package. The committee recommends a thorough review of contracting procedures and an improved relationship with the radiological technical advisors
Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A
According to Law 14/2007 and Royal Decree 1090/2015, biomedical research must be assessed by an Research Ethics Committee (REC), which must be accredited as an Research ethics committee for clinical trials involving medicinal products (RECm) if the opinion is issued for a clinical trial involving medicinal products or clinical research with medical devices. The aim of this study is to ascertain how IEC and IECm accreditation is regulated. National and regional legislation governing biomedical research was analysed. No clearly-defined IEC or IECm accreditation procedures exist in the national or regional legislation. Independent Ethics Committees are vital for the development of basic or clinical biomedical research, and they must be accredited by an external body in order to safeguard their independence, multidisciplinary composition and review procedures. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
A 2003 study of Electricity Supply Industry (ESI) reform experience in the 21 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies emphasised that the overriding principle of ESI reform must be to maintain the security and stability of the entire power system. This is what differentiates ESI reform from reform of other industries. For all economies, particularly developing economies, attracting private investment in the ESI is a vital ongoing need. However, since the mid-1990s, private investors have become more risk-averse. Today, it is less safe for governments to assume that their 'reformed' electricity sectors will attract the requisite level of private investment. The APEC study found that competitive electricity markets are unsuited to developing economies in the early stages of reform. However, enterprise level reforms can produce major gains by commercialising and corporatising electricity utilities and by providing them with economic incentives to operate to high technical and commercial standards. The APEC study also emphasised that governments must remain responsible for the outcomes of ESI reform irrespective of any changes in industry structure and ownership. This is a fundamental responsibility which cannot be left to a regulator. (Author)
Global assessments of consumption and the Indonesian case show the relevance of non-household consumers of subsidized energy products. As shown in this study, understanding in more nuance how reforms affect them has the potential to improve the reforms that will be developed by policy-makers worldwide. Further study can reinforce the many benefits of successful reform for the countries and societies slowly turning away from these policies of the past. Estimates regarding the amount of public funds utilized to subsidize the production or consumption of fossil fuels are staggering. For 2011, they range from $83 billion in OECD member states, to nearly $4.1 trillion worldwide if environmental externalities are considered. Numerous studies have demonstrated that subsidies repress economic growth, undermine energy sector investment, increase public debt, benefit wealthy citizens over the poor, instigate a rise in illicit activities, and engender greater global and local pollution. The negative effects of fossil fuel subsidies have led numerous governments to reform their energy policies. There has also been a growing international consensus in favor of reform. While the components of successful reform programs have been identified through past case studies, the nature of reforms adopted by several governments that target non-households have not been systematically examined. Since the late 1990s, the Indonesian government has implemented numerous reforms of its fossil fuel subsidies, including measures targeting household as well as non-household energy consumption. In doing so, it has incurred significant fiscal savings. However, an innovative budgetary analysis reveals that households receive a minority, and a declining share, of fossil fuel subsidy funds. This is the case despite the fact that subsidies were implemented to ensure poor households have access to cheap energy. These findings demonstrate the need to consider non-household sectors in the design of fossil
Full Text Available Poor performance of government-managed irrigation systems persists globally. This paper argues that addressing performance requires not simply more investment or different policy approaches, but reform of the bureaucracies responsible for irrigation management. Based on reform experiences in The Philippines, Mexico, Indonesia, and Uzbekistan, we argue that irrigation (policy reform cannot be treated in isolation from the overall functioning of government bureaucracies and the wider political structure of the states. Understanding of how and why government bureaucracies shape reform processes and outcomes is crucial to increase the actual significance of reforms. To demonstrate this, the paper links reform processes in the irrigation sector with the wider discourse of bureaucratic reform in the political science, public administration, and organisational science literature. Doing so brings to light the need for systematic comparative research on the organisational characteristic of the irrigation bureaucracies, their bureaucratic identities, and how these are shaped by various segments within the bureaucracies to provide the insights needed to improve irrigation systems performance.
Huang, Lei; Cheng, Liming; Cai, Qiaoling; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Yun; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Guo-Tong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen
Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools has attracted a lot of attention recently. Several leading medical schools in China have undergone exploratory reforms and in so doing, have accumulated significant experience and have made considerable progress. An analysis of the reforms conducted by 38 Chinese medical colleges that were targeted by the government for upgrade was performed. Drawing from both domestic and international literature, we designed a questionnaire to determine what types of curricular reforms have occurred at these institutions and how they were implemented. Major questions touched upon the purpose of the reforms, curricular patterns, improvements in teaching methods post-reform, changes made to evaluation systems post-reform, intra-university reform assessment, and what difficulties the schools faced when instituting the reforms. Besides the questionnaire, relevant administrators from each medical school were also interviewed to obtain more qualitative data. Out of the 38 included universities, twenty-five have undergone major curricular reforms. Among them, 60.0% adopted an organ system-based curriculum model, 32.0% adopted a problem-based curriculum model, and 8.0% adopted a hybrid curriculum model. About 60.0% of the schools' reforms involved both the "pre-clinical" and the "clinical" curricula, 32.0% of the schools' reforms were limited to the "pre-clinical" curricula, and 8.0% of the schools' reforms only involved the "clinical" curricula. Following curricular reform, 60.0% of medical schools experienced an overall reduction in teaching hours, 76.0% reported an increase in their students' clinical skills, and 60.0% reported an increase in their students' research skills. Medical curricular reform is still in its infancy in China. The republic's leading medical schools have engaged in various approaches to bring innovative teaching methods to their respective institutions. However, due to limited resources and the shackle of traditional
H.J. de Vries (Henk)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report provides recommendations about the governance of electrotechnical standardisation in Europe to seven independent National Committees: DKE (Germany), Electrosuisse (Switzerland), OVE (Austria), NEC (the Netherlands), NEK (Norway), SEK (Sweden), and SESKO
Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Mishra, Bidhu Bhusan
Orissa is the first state in India to have undergone reform in the power sector, with the government withdrawing its control. The model of this reform is known as the WB-Orissa model. The goal of this paper is to examine the impact of this reform on consumers of electricity, which has been measured using multiple regression models. The variables represent the parameters that consumers are most interested in, and the regression coefficients represent the weights of the corresponding variables. The data were collected using a survey methodology. The impact of reform was found to be mixed. Some groups of consumers saw benefits, while others felt a negative impact. A focus group study was conducted to identify the variables of interest to consumers of electricity. The model was used to estimate consumer benefit and was validated using primary data and structural equation modeling. The study revealed beneficial aspects of reform and areas with no benefits. - Highlights: → Linear regression model with seven variables explains consumer benefit. → Governance issue exists after power sector reform of Orissa. → Reform benefited most consumers with a few exceptions. → Reform affected agricultural consumers.
This digest in Spanish explains why public-school governance is receiving increasing scrutiny. It identifies who is held accountable for results in the current governance system and describes recent proposals for transforming governance structures. Since many reforms of the past decade bypassed the school board and district office, reformers are…
Requero Ibáñez, José Luís
The article focuses on the different factors and circumstances that have led to the reform of Spanish Abortion Law (1985). Judicial investigations of several abortion clinics have demonstrated that up until today there has been a widespread tendency of the clinics to practice beyond the limits established by the law. Nonetheless, the reaction of the government has not been to protect the life of the unborn. Its reaction has been, however, to cover the irregularities committed by the abortionists through the legalization of their abusive practices. Besides, the reform of the law has been inspired by elements of radical feminism. The author points out the major reasons that make this reform unconstitutional and offers alternative solutions for the protection of the mother and the unborn child.
Ruger, Jennifer Prah
While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.
S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)
textabstractPublic sectors have undergone major transformations. Public sector reform touches upon the core building blocks of the public sector: organizational structures, people and finances. These are objects of reform. This chapter presents and discusses a set of major transformations with
Ries, Nola M; Thompson, Katie A; Lowe, Michael
Research is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In Australia, participation in research by people with cognitive impairment is governed by a national ethics statement and a patchwork of state and territorial laws that have widely varying rules. We contend that this legislative variation precludes a consistent approach to research governance and participation and hinders research that seeks to include people with impaired capacity. In this paper, we present key ethical principles, provide a comprehensive review of applicable legal rules in Australian states and territories, and highlight significant differences and ambiguities. Our analysis includes recommendations for reform to improve clarity and consistency in the law and reduce barriers that may exclude persons with dementia from participating in ethically approved research. Our recommendations seek to advance the national decision-making principles recommended by the Australian Law Reform Commission, which emphasize the rights of all adults to make their own decisions and for those with impaired capacity to have access to appropriate supports to help them make decisions that affect their lives.
Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C
Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture.
Hendricson, W D; Payer, A F; Rogers, L P; Markus, J F
Numerous study commissions have contended that departmental territoriality and lack of coordinated planning are stagnating contemporary medical education. As a cure, these commissions have recommended the creation of centralized academic management units empowered to oversee revitalization of the curriculum through a series of reforms, including better definition of graduation competencies, community-based training, interdisciplinary courses, problem-based learning, and modernization of evaluation strategies. To determine the extent to which these recommendations were being adopted, in 1990 the authors sent a questionnaire on curriculum committee functions, current innovation efforts, and future priorities to academic administrators and members of medical school curriculum committees at 143 North American medical schools. Responses were received from administrators (primarily associate deans for academic affairs) at 118 schools and committee members (primarily faculty) at 111 schools. Recommendations for enhancing curriculum committee effectiveness were also elicited. The authors conclude that centralization of curricular management has occurred at very few institutions, and that the commonly mentioned reforms are being adopted at a modest pace. The results are analyzed in light of theories of the institutional change process and strategies for introducing educational innovations into established institutions.
Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J
Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The correlation between theoretical and empirical of corporate governance (CG and corporate financial performance (CFP is not there without controversy. This paper aims to determine the moderating effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR, on the relationship between corporate governance and corporate financial performance. The sample of this research are banking companies that are listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange between the period of 2010-2014, taken by using purposive sampling method. Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA analysis was used in this study. The results of this study indicate that corporate governance affects the company's financial performance positively. Aspects of corporate governance such as audit committees and number of board meetings have a positive relationship with financial performance, but there is no relationship from the aspect of independent board of commissioners. Furthermore, CSR can only strengthen the positive relationship between the number of board of commissioners’ meetings and the financial performance of the company. The frequency intensity of board of commissioners’ meetings can increasingly address corporate governance reforms by improving and realizing social responsibility as part of sustainability innovation by optimizing media and CSR reporting methods.
Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy
Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...
The book reports on the rapidly changing face of the electricity business in China. Reforms by the central government and the need for more and more electric power have pushed the electricity sector from a central planned economy to a markets-based system. The international ramifications of China's reform programme are discussed. The author describes electricity industry reform in other countries including the USA and UK. The author points out that in China after 1998 there was a move to recentralise control but by then it was too late to reverse the reforms. The problems of tariff policies, pricing, and sources of new investments, including from foreign countries, are discussed. The final section of the book deals with problems arising from the need for massive retrenchment of power-section workers, cross-subsidies, and triangular debts. The book is said to provide a sound description of the political economy of power reform in China without getting bogged down in economic modelling
The JLC globalization committee has been requested to study organizational issues which are necessary and relevant for Global LC Center (GLCC) to be built in Japan. Particularly, how to realize GLCC is the central issue to be answered. The mandate given by the Director General of KEK to the committee is: 1. Define the basic structure of GLCC, including the management and decision making processes. 2. Define the relations of GLCC with KEK, the Japanese Government, participating institutions, governments that participating institutes belong to, HEP-related NGO's (ACFA, ECFA, ICFA and HEPAP), and users. 3. Define the relationships among national governments. 4. Define the structural change of the host institute in terms of its organization, operation and management. 5. Define a road-map to establish GLCC. 6. Define the relation between the prefectural/municipal governments and GLCC. 7. Define the roles of the local governments especially concerning the natural and social environment and living conditions. In thi...
Davidson, A R
The health policy New Directions committed the British Columbia government to a population health perspective and extensive community involvement in the health services reform process. The policy envisaged elected citizen boards with authority to raise revenues and exercise a significant degree of local autonomy. Academic and public attention has been paid to the decision in November 1996 to collapse New Directions' two-tier governance structure into a single level. Less attention has been paid to the profound changes that occurred prior to the government's reversal on the question of governance. This paper focuses on those changes. During the critical three years between the 1993 launch of the reform and its formal revision in 1996, the government's positions on elections, taxation power, local autonomy and scope of action for regional boards all changed. Those changes marked a retreat from political accountability to the community and an advance towards managerial accountability to the government.
Segouin, C; Thayer, C
In 1996, the French government introduced a wide-ranging health care reform which aimed to resolve the problems of rising health expenditure and a levelling off in health sector income. Changes in the regulation of the health care system sought to strengthen quality while improving professional practice. At the same time the changes were intended to encourage greater synergy both between professionals and between the different parts of the system, thus promoting greater cost-effectiveness. The tools designed to achieve these results included: the creation of new regional hospital agencies, the introduction of cash-limited budgets at national and regional level, the launching of a contracting procedure between health authorities and hospitals and the setting up of a new health care accreditation agency. With some signs of improvement in the overall health insurance budgetary situation, the Jospin government seems to be supporting the broad lines of the reform introduced by its predecessor.
Lagowski, J. J.
, the infrastructure to accommodate all teachers must be created as well. Most states' strategies include building statewide capacity for professional development beyond the opportunities sponsored directly by the SSI's. Three factors are explicitly recognized: (1) the SSI's do not have the resources to reach all teachers in most states, (2) the SSI's funding will eventually run out, and (3) the need for professional development will be on-going. Some states have developed regional centers to serve the on-going professional development needs of teachers. Another capacity-building strategy involves the use of technology to support teachers' efforts to change their practices. New non-governmental organizations are also playing key leadership roles in a number of states. Such organizations are of particular interest because they have the potential to build broad-based, bipartisan support that can sustain the SSI vision and its activities across electoral cycles. One of the central tenets of systematic reform is the alignment of the myriad of public policies governing the educational enterprise, from teacher credentiality to student assessment to textbook adoption, with the new goals and standards. In localities where the revision of state policies is simply not considered a fruitful strategy, strong traditions of local control are to be found. Some SSI's are working to improve the preparation of teachers. A common strategy has been to issue a request for proposals (RFP) to institutions for higher education to design and implement innovative pre-service teacher education programs. Scientists and mathematicians can have an enormous impact on this aspect of the SSI's mission, by becoming intimately involved in the development of courses that are meaningful for would-be teachers. This is the area where scientists and mathematicians can leverage their technical knowledge and skills to help educate teachers. Creating and sustaining a coalition of groups powerful enough to launch
Werneck Rogério L. F.
Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the tax-reform effort launched by the newly elected Lula government in 2003. It analyzes how the envisaged reform had to be changed and scaled down, in the wake of strong political resistance, after a failed attempt to develop a consensual proposal, fully supported by state-governors. The main effective changes are then evaluated. Challenges ahead are discussed at the end.
Seitenova, Ai-Gul S.; Becker, Charles M.
Five years ago, Kazakhstan embarked on a dramatic reform of its pension and social security system in order to move from an unsustainable public defined benefit ("solidarity") system to one of defined mandatory contributions (accumulative system). While assessment of long-run success is premature, early results have exceeded expectations. This paper considers the reform's rationale and initial impact: Why did the Government of Kazakhstan decide to introduce a new pension system? What advantag...
Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt
pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six......Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been...... challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure....
Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes
A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.
In mid-1975, Deng Xiaoping, with Mao’s blessing, initiated reforms that targeted the negative consequences of the Cultural Revolution. To bolster Deng’s effort, Mao endowed him with penultimate authority over the Party, government, and military. However, in late October, Mao turned on Deng, and within five months, Mao and the radicals toppled Deng from power. As a foreign student at Peking University, David Zweig observed and photographed four key points in this historic struggle: (1) the ini...
Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Chow, Danny; Day, Ronald
In our comparative study, we surveyed an emerging literature on the use of consolidation in government accounting and develop a research agenda. We find heterogeneous approaches to the development of consolidation models across the five countries (Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada and Sweden...... of financial reporting (GAAP)-based reforms when compared with budget-centric systems of accounting, which dominate government decision-making. At a trans-national level, there is a need to examine the embedded or implicit contests or ‘trials of strength’ between nations and/or institutions jockeying...... for influence. We highlight three arenas where such contests are being played out: 1. Statistical versus GAAP notions of accounting value, which features in all accounting debates over the merits and costs of ex-ante versus ex-post notions of value (i.e., the relevance versus reliability debate); 2. Private...
Löfgren, Karl; Pedersen, John Storm
Is it possible to imagine New Public Management without marketization? In Denmark the present liberal-conservative Government has, throughout its 10 years in power, designed and implemented more than 15 major management reforms in the public sector. Although most of the reforms are rhetorically...... firmly rooted in neo-liberal ideologies they have, in practice, promoted tools and mechanisms of the “traditional,” or Old, Public Management. Based on an empirical study of the reforms, we suggest that the notion of “pragmatic” New Public Management is introduced to enhance the current understanding...... of New Public Management in the Western industrialized societies....
Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...
Angelova, Mariyana; Bäck, Hanna; Müller, Wolfgang C; Strobl, Daniel
Veto player theory generates predictions about governments' capacity for policy change. Due to the difficulty of identifying significant laws needed to change the policy status quo, evidence about governments' ability to change policy has been mostly provided for a limited number of reforms and single-country studies. To evaluate the predictive power of veto player theory for policy making across time, policy areas and countries, a dataset was gathered that incorporates about 5,600 important government reform measures in the areas of social, labour, economic and taxation policy undertaken in 13 Western European countries from the mid-1980s until the mid-2000s. Veto player theory is applied in a combined model with other central theoretical expectations on policy change derived from political economy (crisis-driven policy change) and partisan theory (ideology-driven policy change). Robust support is found that governments introduce more reform measures when economic conditions are poor and when the government is positioned further away from the policy status quo. No empirical support is found for predictions of veto player theory in its pure form, where no differentiation between government types is made. However, the findings provide support for the veto player theory in the special case of minimal winning cabinets, where the support of all government parties is sufficient (in contrast to minority cabinets) and necessary (in contrast to oversized cabinets) for policy change. In particular, it is found that in minimal winning cabinets the ideological distance between the extreme government parties significantly decreases the government's ability to introduce reforms. These findings improve our understanding of reform making in parliamentary democracies and highlight important issues and open questions for future applications and tests of the veto player theory.
Shim, Kieun; Jung, Yonghun
The decline in government revenues due to tariff reductions has become a major concern for most developing countries, including Korea. This paper focuses on the Korean oil industry to examine which post-trade liberalization tax reform strategy is optimal, depending on the government's priority between social welfare and government revenue. We find that the important factors for choosing an optimal tax reform policy are price elasticity of demand and market competition. Based on a price-inelastic demand and the low competitive market for Korea's oil industry, if the goal of a tax reform policy is to increase social welfare, the recommended strategy is to raise the consumption tax by a scale of less than the sum of tariff cuts times the crude oil price and oil import tax cuts. This strategy would also reduce inflation, but it could be detrimental to government revenue. However, if the policy's goal is the preservation of government revenue, the recommended strategy is to raise the consumption tax by a scale equal to the sum of tariff cuts times the crude oil price at the pre-tax reform and oil import tax cuts. This strategy does not change either government revenue or social welfare. - Highlights: ▶ Which post-trade liberalization tax reform is optimal for Korea's oil industry? ▶ Both final and intermediate markets are modeled under imperfect competition. ▶ Both price elasticity and market competition are important for an optimal tax reform. ▶ The optimal tax reform depends on the priority between welfare and government revenue.
Full Text Available ENGLISH: Taxation, in the modern state, has long been a mass phenomenon with an interdisciplinary outlook. On the macro level of the state, a new generation of administrative reforms has crystallized under the label “good public governance”. These reforms seek to resolve regulatory interdependence of state and non - state actors by way of cooperation and interaction. In parallel, on the micro level of businesses, “corporate governance” – voluntary compliance with legal and ethical standards – has become an increasingly important issue. With a view to tax law and tax collection, these developments open up new possibilities to raise tax compliance by means of consensual and cooperative instruments and, accordingly, address taxation as a mass phenomenon. DEUTSCH: Besteuerung ist im modernen Staat ein Massenphänomen und längst interdisziplinär ausgerichtet. Auf der Makro-Ebene des Staates hat sich unter dem Begriff Good Public Governance eine neue Generation von Staats- und Verwaltungsreformen herausgebildet, die Regelungsbeziehungen von staatlichen und nichtstaatlichen Akteuren durch Kooperationen und Interaktionen zu lösen versucht. Parallel dazu hat auf der Mikro-Ebene der Unternehmen mit dem Thema Corporate Governance die freiwillige Einhaltung von rechtlichen und ethischen Regeln an Bedeutung gewonnen. Für das Steuerrecht und den Steuervollzug resultieren aus diesen Entwicklungen neue Möglichkeiten, durch Nutzung konsens- und kooperationsorientierter Instrumente die Tax Compliance zu erhöhen und so dem Massenphänomen Besteuerung gerecht zu werden.
Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry
A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.
Trippestad, Tom Are
This article presents a critical rhetorical analysis of the governing and reform ideology of the Norwegian school system of the 1990s. It uses Karl Popper's "The Open Society and its Enemies" as a critical resource in the reading of the reforms, and discusses some of the consequences of the regime's models of leadership and public…
The author begins by examining the functions of the school and the basic principles governing the provision of education in the American democracy as a way of providing a framework for analyzing proposals for the reform of secondary education. He then examines proposals for reform. His major focus is on ten proposals made by agencies,…
Groenewald, S.F.; Berg, van den M.M.
Governments around the world have embraced trade liberalisation as a means of enhancing efficiency to realise economic growth and alleviate poverty. Likewise, the Mexican government implemented neoliberal policy reforms, the NAFTA in particular, to stimulate sustainable development. Using the
Lowitzsch, Jens; Hashi, Iraj; HASHANI, Alban
Following a 2010 initiative opinion by the European Economic and Social\\ud Committee and a 2012 study on employee financial participation (EFP)\\ud commissioned by the European Parliament, in December 2012 the European\\ud Commission included the promotion of employee share ownership\\ud (ESO) in its Action Plan to reform European company law and corporate\\ud governance (European Commission, COM/2012/0740). This marks an extension\\ud in the perception of the issue of EFP in general and ESO in pa...
Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Mishra, Bidhu Bhusan
Orissa is the first state in India to have undergone reform in the power sector with the Government withdrawing its control. The state government owned integrated Electricity Board which was responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity was unbundled into separate generating, transmitting, distributing and trading companies. The structure and ownership changed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the reform and privatization on employees. The impact of reform on employees was measured with the help of multiple regression models. The variables represent the parameters that employees are most interested in, and the regression coefficients represent the weights of the corresponding variables. The data were collected using a survey methodology. The impact of reform was observed to be mixed one. Some employees felt benefits while others mentioned negative impact. The study revealed beneficial aspects of reform and areas with no benefits. - Highlights: ► Employee benefit is a linear function of 11 variables. ► Eleven variables predict 95.8% of employees benefit. ► Money received by the employees increased after reform. ► Employees benefit due to reform is a mixed one.
Carlos Ranulfo Melo
Full Text Available This article analyzes Brazilian social security reform during the Fernando Henrique and Lula Administrations. After comparing the contexts in which the different Constitutional Amendment proposals (PECs were submitted and the behavior by Members of Congress during the two periods, we argue that a contextual change (namely a switch in places between government and opposition affected the distribution of preferences and resources between the players and impacted the government in the various arenas in which the game was being played, and that as a result the reformist agenda has made more progress under the current Workers' Party administration.
Greer, Scott L; Jacobson, Peter D
Health policy debates are replete with discussions of federalism, most often when advocates of reform put their hopes in states. But health policy literature is remarkably silent on the question of allocation of authority, rarely asking which levels of government ought to lead. We draw on the larger literatures about federalism, found mostly in political science and law, to develop a set of criteria for allocating health policy authority between states and the federal government. They are social justice, procedural democracy, compatibility with value pluralism, institutional capability, and economic sustainability. Of them, only procedural democracy and compatibility with value pluralism point to state leadership. In examining these criteria, we conclude that American policy debates often get federalism backward, putting the burden of health care coverage policy on states that cannot enact or sustain it, while increasing the federal role in issues where the arguments for state leadership are compelling. We suggest that the federal government should lead present and future financing of health care coverage, since it would require major changes in American intergovernmental relations to make innovative state health care financing sustainable outside a strong federal framework.
.... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...
Martynova, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.
The issue of appropriate corporate governance framework has been a focal point of recent reforms in many countries. This study provides a comprehensive comparative analysis of corporate governance regulatory systems and their evolution over the last 15 years in 30 European countries and the US. It
Wu, J. H.; Nash, C.
The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...
The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)
With the fastest growing energy demand in the world, China is now the largest electricity consumer after the United States. How can the government best assure affordable and environmentally sustainable electricity supply in the future? The Chinese government has initiated electricity sector reforms to overhaul an antiquated system and attain new energy security and environmental objectives. How China proceeds with these reforms will have lasting consequences, both locally and globally. Assessing the current state of electricity regulation in China, this report draws on experience elsewhere to explore how better to develop and communicate strategy, how to moderate growth in demand through increased efficiency, how to integrate environmental goals into planning and operation, how to ensure sufficient supply when and where it is needed, and how to handle institutional and governance challenges. In this respect, electricity sector reform in other countries offers valuable lessons as to how China might proceed.
Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...
: Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts About Â» Leadership, Governance Leadership national security and energy challenges. Leadership, Governance Ethics, Accountability Los Alamos National . Director's Office terry wallace in leadership, governance Director Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Terry C. Wallace, Jr
Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy
to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... of governance. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for future work in adapting ST to the e-government context....
Full Text Available In the South African common law of contract there appears to be support for the open norm of public policy as a general clause to ameliorate the effects of unfair contracts and terms which are contrary to public policy. The courts have on several occasions held that contracts or terms would be regarded as contrary to public policy had they come about where the parties were in an unequal bargaining relationship and this inequality was linked with another factor(s. In this case note it is argued that the element of unequal bargaining position may be contrary to public policy if it is linked with exploitation as the other factor. The element of exploitation was highlighted in the recent court decision of Uniting Reformed Church, De Doorns v President of the Republic of South Africa 2013 5 SA 205 (WCC. In this case the applicant church owned three properties on which were three schools under the control of the State. The church and the State had concluded 20-year notarial leases in respect of each of the properties. A term in the contract provided that after the expiration of the lease period the church would transfer the properties to the State free of charge. After the expiration of the leases the State demanded the transfer of the properties. The church disputed the claim, averring that the term was unenforceable because the parties had been in an unequal bargaining position and that the enforcement of the term constituted expropriation in contravention of the property clause of the Constitution. It is submitted that expropriation without compensation is not only contrary to section 25 of the Constitution but constitutes exploitation. It is suggested that where exploitation results from an unequal bargaining relationship it provides the "further factor" that, together with the inequality in bargaining power, is sufficient to establish that the term or contract is in conflict with public policy. This contributes to giving meaning to the term
Hasegawa, A.; Shirai, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Osugi, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Ishida, T.; Shimazaki, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
The department of Nuclear Energy System serves as a secretarial of the following four research committees organized by JAERI; Japanese Nuclear Data Committee, Atomic and Molecular Data Research Committee, Research Committee on Reactor Physics and Research Committee on Marine Reactors. The purpose and the expected task of each committee are summarized here. The detailed activities of each committee are presented in this paper. (author)
Mak Yuen Teen; Phillip H. Phan
This paper surveys the regulatory and structural environment as it relates to corporate governance in Singapore, and present empirical evidence on corporate governance practices in areas such as ownership structure, disclosure, board and directors, the use of share option schemes, and the impact of government corporate ownership. It reviews corporate governance reforms that have been implemented or proposed, and assesses their likely impact on future corporate governance practices in Singapor...
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Governing principles. 270.3 Section 270.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPEN MARKET COMMITTEE OPEN MARKET OPERATIONS OF... Governing principles. As required by section 12A of the Federal Reserve Act, the time, character, and volume...
Khan, Muhammad Ehsan
FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes Behavioral Assumptions Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern Incomplete Contracting Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp
Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude
Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....
Full Text Available This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in politics and governance. However, coal tax reform proposal has induced many controversies in China. The causes of that include value conflicts of all actors, competing interests of all parties and institutional barriers of economic, politics and legislation. Therefore, the government cannot regulate coal issues only through taxation. The case reveals that good governance on coal cannot be achieved only by economic tools as coal system contains so high stake and involves so many players.
... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy... its 20 members. ARRA requires that one member have expertise in health information privacy and...
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Environmental Technologies Trade... meeting of the Environmental Technologies Trade Advisory Committee (ETTAC). DATES: The meeting is... review the role of the U.S. government in supporting the early adoption of environmental technologies and...
.... II. Structure The Committee shall consist of 17 members appointed by the Bank's Board of Directors on..., services, and State government, with not less than three members being representative of the small business... members being representative of the [[Page 72205
Carlos Menem (1989–99), respectively a radical and a Peronist, implemented civil-military reform of the security forces. Initially, the reforms...purging the ranks, while Menem used indirect methods, while pointing to the on-going economic crisis to legitimize continuation of his reforms. In all...Politics 35, no. 1 (October 2002): 1. 93 Ibid., 2 94 David Pion-Berlin, 110. 39 civilian government, whereas Menem took advantage of the general
Ringard, Ånen; Saunes, Ingrid Sperre; Sagan, Anna
In several European countries, including Norway, polices to increase patient choice of hospital provider have remained high on the political agenda. The main reason behind the interest in hospital choice reforms in Norway has been the belief that increasing choice can remedy the persistent problem of long waiting times for elective hospital care. Prior to the 2013 General Election, the Conservative Party campaigned in favour of a new choice reform: "the treatment choice reform". This article describes the background and process leading up to introduction of the reform in the autumn of 2015. It also provides a description of the content and discusses possible implications of the reform for patients, providers and government bodies. In sum, the reform contains elements of both continuity and change. The main novelty of the reform lies in the increased role of private for-profit healthcare providers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Junjan, Veronica; Balogh, Marton
Background: There is an increased attention in the administrative reform literature accorded to the mechanisms governing the processes of institutionalisation of changes and of diffusion of innovations in local governments. Objectives: Current paper investigates mechanisms that influence the process
Curtis, Scipiaruth Kendall
The continual emergence of technologies has infiltrated government and industry business infrastructures, requiring reforming organizations and fragile network infrastructures. Emerging technologies necessitates countermeasures, commitment to cybersecurity and information technology governance for organization's survivability and sustainability.…
Elena Desdentado Daroca
Full Text Available This paper analyses the latest Spanish reforms regarding domestic work. The Spanish legislator, doubtlessly influenced by the ILO Domestic Work Convention nº 189 – which, however, was not later ratified in Spain- made a deep reform on domestic work in 2011. This legal reform implied a striking change that affected both working conditions and social security of employees in the family home. The aim of this reform has been to bring the regulation in domestic work closer to the general regulation for other workers, although maintaining certain specialties. Regarding working conditions, their setting as “particular employment relationship” has been held. However, the differences between this relationship and the common ones have been reduced. As for social security, domestic employees have been incorporated into the General Social Security System, but with important specialties, thus erasing the Special Domestic Employees System. The paper also examines the legal changes that have taken place in this field after the new Government arose.
Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.
Abdulmalik, Salau O.; Ahmad, Ayoib Che
The paper examines the extent which risk management committee and corporate governance committee predict audit fees in Nigeria. We employed random panel data (unbalance) regression analysis to establish whether risk management committee and corporate governance committee affect audit fees. We obtained the data used for this study from the annual reports of public listed companies on the Nigerian Stock Exchange for the periods 2008-2013. Our results indicate a positive relationship between est...
This study will answer three main questions: 1) how is the reduction of Weber???s theory in the bureaucracy appearance?; 2) How is the model of government bureaucracy in rationalistic and quantum era?; and 3) how is the reality of government bureaucracy reformation model in rationalistic and quantum era? This study was employed empirically by using qualitative method and content analysis techniques with the focus on the bureaucracy reformation as a result of rational thinking application in q...
Baverstock, Keith; Ball, David J
The UK Committee on Radioactive Waste Management is charged with recommending to Government, by July 2006, options for the long term management of the UK's radioactive waste legacy. These options should inspire public confidence. Now, more than halfway into the time allotted, we, as two former members of the Committee, express our concerns at the wayward approach that has been adopted. The Committee has placed emphasis on gaining public confidence but this has been done at the expense of recruiting the best scientific expertise in the management of radioactive waste, an act which we believe will actually undermine public confidence. Furthermore, given also the immense importance of this decision to public safety, national security and the national interest, we believe urgent steps should be taken to review the Committee's process, its management and its sponsorship. (opinion)
Among the competitive electricity reforms that have been implemented in Europe and the US for the last 18 years, none has 'survived' over several years without major changes. Their changing nature raises the question of their adaptability. Two characteristics of reforms play a key role on their adaptation properties. Firstly, they are 'modular' objects in the sense of [Baldwin, C., 2008. Where do transactions come from? Modularity, transactions, and the boundaries of firms. Industrial and Corporate Change 17 (1), 155-195]. Secondly, they are produced in an institutional process which leads to 'incomplete' rules and designs [Pistor, K., Xu, C., 2003. Incomplete law. International Law and Politics 35, 931-1013]. We propose a typology of adaptations based on the framework proposed by [Williamson, O.E., 1991. Comparative economic organization: the analysis of discrete structural alternatives. Administrative Science Quarterly 36 (2), 269-296] for contracts: (1) in case of small disturbances, adaptations are realized quasi-automatically, by autonomous decisions of the institutions governing the implementation of reforms; (2) in case of middle-range disturbances, adaption is made by Coasian bargaining; (3) finally, in case of strong disturbances, or when bargaining is not feasible, the adaptation of reforms is in the hands of legislative and executive institutions [North, D.C., 2005. Le processus du developpement economique. Editions d'Organisation]. These institutions can reform the reforms [Joskow, P.L., 2006. Introduction to electricity sector liberalization: lessons learned from cross-country studies. In: Sioshansi, F.P. (Ed.), Electricity Market Reform: An International Perspective. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 1-32; Hogan, W.W., 2002. Electricity market restructuring: reforms of reforms. Journal of Regulatory Economics 21, 103-132]. The role of these types of adaptations in each electricity reform is a consequence of the allocation of rights to the regulator, to
..., Non-motorized Outfitter and Guide Recreation, Local Environmental, State Tourism, Local Government...: a. A State tourism official to represent the State; b. A person who represents affected Indian... and per diem expenses for regularly scheduled committee meetings. All Recreation RAC meetings are open...
LE , TRANG THI NHA
The Vietnamese government has implemented a reform of public financial management in a realm of government accounting. The current government accounting regime has met requirements of budget management. However, it provides very little information of financial position and performance. Furthermore, in the context of the increasing international integration and requirements of public sector management reform, the Vietnamese government accounting needs to be improved with applying full accrual ...
Cesar G. Saldaña
The Asian Development Bank initiated a study of Corporate Governance and Finance in Selected developing Member Countries in November 1998. The objectives of the study for the Philippines are to evaluate the history and current state of corporate governance in the Philippines; establish a sound analytic basis for policy and regulatory reform measures to strengthen corporate governance of Philippine companies and recommend reform measures for the Philippine government and the Bank. It analyzes ...
Li, Ling; Fu, Hongqiao
This paper discusses the progress and prospects of China's complex health care reform beginning in 2009. The Chinese government's undertaking of systemic reform has achieved laudable achievements, including the expansion of social health insurance, the reform of public hospitals, and the strengthening of primary care. An innovative policy tool in China, policy experimentation under hierarchy, played an important role in facilitating these achievements. However, China still faces gaps and challenges in creating a single payer system, restructuring the public hospitals, and establishing an integrated delivery system. Recently, China issued the 13th 5-year plan for medical reform, setting forth the goals, policy priorities, and strategies for health reform in the following 5 years. Moreover, the Chinese government announced the "Healthy China 2030" blueprint in October 2016, which has the goals of providing universal health security for all citizens by 2030. By examining these policy priorities against the existing gaps and challenges, we conclude that China's health care reform is heading in the right direction. To effectively implement these policies, we recommend that China should take advantage of policy experimentation to mobilize bottom-up initiatives and encourage innovations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available In this paper, we review the past two decades of administrative reform in South Korea and argue that the dominant models and theories in the fi eld, i.e., New Public Management (NPM, post-NPM, and traditional public administration have been in a state of fusion in implementing measures without a coherent reform model. We observe that the reform movements can neither challenge nor undermine the traditional bureaucracy and maintain that they are the result of a complex mix of both environmental events and contextual factors. We specifi cally examine the co ncrete change and development of administrative reform during the Kim Dae Jung (1998- 2003, Roh Moo Hyun (2003-2008, and Lee Myung Bak (2008-2013 administrations in South Korea. Among the cases being considered are the restructuring of government ministries, the executive agency system, and rationalization of public enterprises, as well as such performance management schemes as the evaluation system for government departments and the Open Position System. We conclude that the developmental state and the hierarchical bureaucracy are still salient in South Korea’s inconsistent administrative reform since the 1990s and that it is crucial to design a prudent reform strategy to achieve a more effective public sector.
Full Text Available The openness and liberalization of China’s financial market is expected to accelerate with her entrance to the WTO. China plans to carry out liberalization measures, including the expansion of the Renminbi business scope. Openness and liberalization will expedite the integration of internal and external sectors, thereby making the domestic financial market more vulnerable to environmental changes. Consequently, China should establish a strong financial system to efficiently cope with the contagion effects of an external financial crisis. However, China’s financial system is still very weak, mainly due to the enormous bad loans to SOEs (state-owned enterprises. Accordingly, the Chinese government should carry out financial reform measures such as strengthening the financial supervision system, dealing with bad bank loans and restructuring the financial institutions. On the whole, China’s entrance to the WTO is expected to have a positive influence on her financial sector by accelerating such reform policies as financial reform and SOE reform. Entrance to the WTO will make society recognize the necessity of reform and openness. The Chinese government can decide to push some difficult reform policies which would not have been considered without WTO entrance.
Ullah, Kafait; Arentsen, Maarten J.; Lovett, Jon C.
The electricity supply sector in Pakistan has performed poorly in recent years. Reforms were introduced in the mid-1990s to improve the sector, but progressed slowly with no significant impacts on pre-reform performance. This study uses new institutional economics as a theoretical basis to elucidate reasons for the failure of power sector reforms in Pakistan to make improvements. Interviews with 23 experts using Q-methodology generated 215 statements that were used as a Q concourse. Of these, 51 statements were selected for the Q sample and ranked by 34 respondents depending on their importance. Analysis revealed four important discourses on the determinants of power sector reform failure in Pakistan. These included weak governance structure, country and sectoral endowments, inefficient regulator and unspecified political institutions or unfriendly political contexts. The study recommends establishment of institutions that support a market based power supply sector and improvements to the contractual arrangements between stakeholders to reduce opportunistic behaviour. - Highlights: • This study utilizes New Institutional Approach to study power sector reforms in Pakistan. • Work of Douglass North and Oliver Williamson help create analytical frame. • Q methodology helps overcome data limitations. • Results reveal institutional aspects as important for poor performance of reforms. • Study suggests policy recommendations to improve institutional environment and governance of power sector in Pakistan.
Full Text Available Saskatchewan has gone further than any other Canadian province in implementing health system process improvements using Lean, a production line discipline that originated with the automobile industry. The goal of the Lean reform is to reduce waste and improve quality and overall health system performance by long-term changes in behaviour. Lean enjoys a privileged position on the provincial government’s agenda because of the policy’s championing by the Deputy Minister of Health and the policy’s fit with the government’s patient-centred care agenda. The implementation of reform depends on a major investment of time in the training and Lean-certification of key leaders and managers in the provincial health system. The Saskatchewan Union of Nurses, the union representing the single largest group of health workers in the province, has agreed to co-operate with the provincial government in implementing Lean-type reforms. Thus far, the government has had limited independent evaluation of Lean while internal evaluations claim some successes.
Allen, William; Hyde, Mervyn; Whannel, Robert; O'Neill, Maureen
Regional and national interest in reforming teaching in Indonesia has seen governments, NGOs and education specialists combine to drive pedagogical changes among school teachers there. Results of these programs have been indifferent at best. This paper reports on teacher reform programs in Provinsi Papua, one of the most marginal societies in…
Little, Angela W.
In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…
This paper examines Uganda's recent undertaking to reform her Primary School education System with a focus on the effect of structural dynamics of education reforms and the quality of primary education. Structural dynamics in the context of this study is in reference to the organizational composition of the education system at the government,…
Wang, De; Fu, Meiying
Along with the reform of Chinese Government public finance, higher education belongs to the public product, gradually changes from "fund investment management" to the "expenditure performance management". The evaluation of expenditure performance system becomes the key point of higher education investment mechanism reform. This…
This examination of the New American Schools Development Corporation initiative in Bensenville (Illinois) details the controversy over the reform effort and argues that factors such as school governance, local control, and school finance played major roles in determining program outcomes. The importance of political influences in reform efforts is…
Veenstra , Anne; Janssen , Marijn
Part 5: Evaluation; International audience; A main objective of transformational government (t-government) is to realize public sector reform. Initiatives of public sector reform, commonly referred to as New Public Management (NPM), often failed to achieve the desired results and led to undesired outcomes. Hence, a new reform approach, referred to as Public Value Management (PVM), emerged to overcome these negative effects and to which the use of information technology (IT) is central. This p...
Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie
Many cases highlight the need for responsible management in regards to transparency of organisations and involvement of stakeholders in decisions that will impact citizens, patients, customers and/or clients. Often these cases take an outside-in approach as they illustrate why it is essential...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...
In recent decades, decentralization has been upheld by governments, donors and policy makers in many developing countries as a means of improving people’s participation and public services delivery. In 1996, the government of Tanzania embarked on major local government reforms reflecting the
Black Hawk Coll., Moline, IL.
An advisory committee is generally comprised of persons outside the education profession who have specialized knowledge in a given area. The committee advises, makes recommendations, and gives service to the college and its students, instructors, and administrators. At Black Hawk College, there are four types of advisory committees: community,…
ought to be adopted, in part stemming from differing views on the nature of the organizational challenges besetting the Department of Defense. The...House Armed Services Committee formally expresses its diagnosis of the defense reform challenge in H.Rept. 114-537, stating: The committee recognizes...this critical organizational framework, while still preserving its spirit and intent. For example, we can see in some areas how the pendulum between
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to address the legislative reform of the recreational boating legislation currently pending in Italy (Law 167/2015, which has delegated the power to reform the Yachting Code to the Italian Government with a specific focus on the relationship between the Yachting Code and the Navigation Code. The issue will be addressed through an analysis of the history of the relationship between the rules governing recreational boating and the general navigation legislation in Italy. Starting with an analysis of the first few rules of the Navigation Code devoted to recreational boating, which had been regulated together with the forms of operation of the ship for economic purposes, the discussion will then review the contents of Law 50/1971 (s.c. ‘’piccolo codice della nautica da diporto’’, which led to the first division between recreational boating and general navigation legislation. Law 172/2003 – a piece of legislation which was intended to reorganize and boost recreational boating and nautical tourism – will also be mentioned, considering the legislator’s attempt to make the rules governing recreational boating fully autonomous from the general maritime legislation. Law 171/2005 (s.c. ‘’codice della nautica da diporto’’ will then be briefly reviewed, with particular emphasis on the legislator’s choice to recognize that recreational boating rules have a special nature in relation to general navigation legislation, but are not fully autonomous from it. The paper will finally focus on the choice made by the legislator through Law 167/2015 – an act which delegates the Government to reform the Yacting Code – which confirms the approach chosen by the ‘’codice della nautica da diporto’’, and on the consequences of such choice on legal institutions such as the shipowner’s limitation of liability.
Argentina was one of the first countries in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector. Among developing countries only Chile has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces the history of the Argentine reform, which began in 1992, and assesses its progress and its lessons. We conclude that the reform was very successful prior to the collapse of the Argentine peso in early 2002. We suggest lessons for the generation, transmission and distribution (and retailing) sectors, as well as the economic regulation of electricity and the general institutional environment. We note that the achievements of the sector have been severely strained by the government's poor energy policy since the crisis
Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni
the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The article finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships in the commissioning...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behavior’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, experts’ professional context, and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analyzing fractal distinctions provides a useful way to understand...... of work, constituent audiences, and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....
Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni
to understand the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The contribution finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behaviour’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, the experts' professional context and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analysing fractal distinctions provides a useful way...... in the commissioning of work, constituent audiences and reform priorities among governing institutions, rather than distinct ‘European’ and ‘American’ ideas....
Pollitt, Michael [Judge Business School and ESRC Electricity Policy Research Group, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
Argentina was one of the first countries in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector. Among developing countries only Chile has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces the history of the Argentine reform, which began in 1992, and assesses its progress and its lessons. We conclude that the reform was very successful prior to the collapse of the Argentine peso in early 2002. We suggest lessons for the generation, transmission and distribution (and retailing) sectors, as well as the economic regulation of electricity and the general institutional environment. We note that the achievements of the sector have been severely strained by the government's poor energy policy since the crisis. (author)
Friche, Nanna; Slottved, Mette
In 2014, a new reform of the VET system in Denmark was decided by a broad political coalition in the Parliament. This reform implies fundamental changes in VET, for example by changing the course structure and design, by an intended boost of teaching quality, by limited access, and a separation...... and targets reflects governance principles of performance management. Performance management is an idea that is growing in popularity, in Europa and abroad. In Denmark, the VET reform represents an example of how management philosophy and ideas of performance management inform a number of current reforms...... in the policy area of education. The logic of performance management is that organizations and individuals are given objectives, measurable indicators are derived from these objectives, and features such as authority or incentives are deployed in order for organizational actors to meet or improve performance...
Full Text Available This paper examines the reform of water and irrigation management in Africa and compares it with similar reforms in Asia. Several things are evident from the review. First, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is at an earlier stage of irrigation development and reform than Asia. Second, the articulated need for reform is much stronger in Asia than it is in SSA. Third, the productivity of small-scale irrigated farms is significantly lower in SSA compared to Asia. Thus any irrigation investment strategy in SSA should be different from Asia and focus on increasing small-farm productivity as well as small-scale irrigation projects. Finally, all direct government irrigation investments should be done jointly with decisions regarding the type of project management.
The electricity industry of China has been in a process of reforms since the 1980s. This paper gives a review on the three main stages of reforms in China so as to trace out key features of various reform measures including those for power investment financing, the separation between government and power enterprises, and the division between power generation firms and power grids. The findings suggest that further regulatory change in China's electricity market reform is necessary when integration of the electricity markets and increased competition are paving the way ahead for a market-oriented structure. Prospective electricity regulation in the form of a strong legal system and effective institutions that protect market competition and promote appropriate incentives for efficiency are suggested in the paper. (author)
Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured
Full Text Available This article examines China's proposals on the reform of global governance, and discusses the main features of China's proposing behavior in the cases of the WTO Doha Round negotiation and G-20 Process. The main findings are: (1 in the critical junctures of global governance reform, China engaged the reform of the global governance institutions proactively, and put forward a series of reform proposals; (2 in proposing behavior, China argued the global governance institutions should be properly adjusted without intention to change the basic principles, refrained from playing a leadership role while proposing jointly with other countries, and upheld the principled idea of pro-development.
Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje
Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....
Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.
A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately
The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded…
Full Text Available This article considers the role of the European Union in international financial governance after the institutional reforms it undertook in connection with the global financial crisis. It suggests that the new administrative actors that support the governance of the European Union's single financial market, notably the European Supervisory Authorities, have the potential to reshape how the European Union engages with international financial governance. It finds that the European Union’s effectiveness in influencing international financial governance—and the effectiveness of international financial governance more generally—is likely to strengthen as a result.
Full Text Available Thanks to slow way to political, legal, social and economic reform, the corporate governance appears in Romania, from concept and filing, until the early 2000`s. This paper analyzes the evolution of corporate governance in the period 2000-2015, it is presented the OECD principles of corporate governance of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange and it analyse the situation of the public entities who had the obligation to apply the provisions of O.U.G 109/2011 on corporate governance of public entities and to publish on its Web site the Annual Report
Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob
, the current wave of New Public Governance reforms perceives collaboration between relevant and affected actors from the public and private sector as the primary vehicle of public innovation, and tends to see governance networks as potential arenas for collaborative innovation. The new focus on collaborative...... innovation in networks poses a fundamental challenge for public managers, elected politicians, and others aiming to metagovern governance networks. Hence, we claim that a specific metagovernance strategy is needed when the purpose of governance networks is to stimulate efficiency, effectiveness...
Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.
Borkowski, David C
To meet the national security demands of the 21st century, the U.S. Government's interagency structure and process require legislative reform equivalent to an interagency Goldwater-Nichols Act. The U.S...
Kitt, John J
.... The implementation of appropriate security-sector reform by transitional governments in areas of regional instability, such as Iraq, Argentina, and El Salvador, is an issue of considerable concern...
Hyndman, Noel; Liguori, Mariannunziata; Meyer, Renate
Since the late 1980s, there has been a significant and progressive movement away from the traditional Public Administration (PA) systems, in favour of NPM-type accounting tools and ideas inspired by the private sector. More recently, a new focus on governance systems, under the banner Public...... with different administrative regimes (the UK, Italy and Austria), we examine public sector accounting and budgeting reforms and the underlying discourses put forward in order to support the change. We investigate the extent to which the actual content of the reforms and the discourses they are embedded within...... are decided gradually, and only after they have been announced well in advance in the political debate. We find that in all three countries the new ideas and concepts layer and sediment above the existing ones, rather than replace them. Although all three countries underwent similar accounting and budgeting...
Hyndman, Noel; Liguori, Mariannunziata; Meyer, Renate
Since the late 1980s, there has been a significant and progressive movement away from the traditional Public Administration (PA) systems, in favour of NPM-type accounting tools and ideas inspired by the private sector. More recently, a new focus on governance systems, under the banner Public...... with different administrative regimes (the UK, Italy and Austria), we examine public sector accounting and budgeting reforms and the underlying discourses put forward in order to support the change. We investigate the extent to which the actual content of the reforms and the discourses they are embedded within...... are decided gradually, and only after they have been announced well in advance in the political debate. We find that in all three countries the new ideas and concepts layer and sediment above the existing ones, rather than replace them. Although all three countries underwent similar accounting and budgeting...
Nabsiah Abdul Wahid
Full Text Available The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN Act (Act 654 and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655; these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989, while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955. Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006 on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain
Full Text Available This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government's clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among stake-holders. They recommend decentralized governance and restructuring for better management and more citizen participation. Although Canada's health care system remains committed to safeguarding its guiding principles, the balance of power may be shifting from providers to citizens and "technocrats". Also, all provinces are likely to increase their pressure on physicians by means of salary caps, by exploring payment methods such as capitation, limiting access to costly technology, and by demanding practice changes based on evidence of cost-effectiveness.
Globalization and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) took the world by storm ... of directors and audit committees failed to constrain “creative” accounting to keep up ... the system of internal controls and procedures by which individual companies are ..... Banking Reforms and its Impact on Nigerian Economy.
Henk J Kloppers
Full Text Available In reaction to the unequal land ownership brought about by decades of apartheid, the first democratically elected government embarked on an extensive land reform programme - a programme consisting of the three constitutionally protected pillars: restitution, redistribution and tenure reform. The aim of this programme is not only to provide for restitution to persons who lost their land as a result of racially based measures, but also provide previously disadvantaged South Africans with access to land in order to address the unequal land ownership. This research focuses on the restitution and redistribution pillars of the land reform programme. The progress made in terms of both these sub-programmes has been disappointing. With reference to redistribution the government has set the target to redistribute 30% of white owned commercial agricultural land to black persons by 2014. To date, less than 10% of this target has been achieved and all indications are that the overwhelming majority of land which has been redistributed is not being used productively or have fallen into a state of total neglect. The state of the redistributed land can be attributed to a variety of causes, with the main cause being the government's inability to provide proper post-settlement support to land reform beneficiaries. Against this background it is clear that alternative options have to be identified in order to improve the result of land reform. This article identifies corporate social responsibility (CSR as one of the missing ingredients in the recipe for a successful land reform programme. The article introduces CSR and discusses the business case for CSR; identifies its benefits; considers its possible limitations; and examines the major drivers behind the notion. From the discussion of these topics it will become evident that an assumption of social responsibility by businesses in especially the agricultural sector might contribute to an improved land reform
Wilson, David N.
Review of technical and technological educational reform in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sweden shows that reform takes time to complete effectively, long-term approaches are needed, and reform is linked to industrial development, regional cooperation, and decentralized decision making. (SK)
Fernandez, Esther; Perez, Rafaela; Ruiz, Jesus
In an stylized endogenous growth economy with a negative externality created by CO2 emissions and in which abatement activities are made by private firms, we find a wide range of dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend without any need to assume a complex production structure or tax system, or a variety of externalities in production. As a remarkable finding, we obtain certain scenarios in which increasing the emissions tax up to the Pigouvian level and removing completely the income tax is dynamically feasible and, also, it is the second-best reform. Hence, as a difference to previous literature, in these scenarios the first-best tax mix is implementable, allowing for the elimination of both environmental and non-environmental inefficiencies. Our result arises because of the consideration of public debt issuing and the management of the government budget balance with an intertemporal perspective. The result is obtained for an intermediate range of environmental bearing in preferences, the valid range being contingent on the pre-existing income tax rate. The type of tax reform that we propose could also be implemented for different energy taxes. - Highlights: → We use an endogenous growth model with a negative externality from CO2 emissions. → Abatement activities are made by private firms to reduce payment of emissions taxes. → We find dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend result. → Our result arises thanks to the inclusion of public debt issuing as a financing device. → The type of tax reform proposed can be implemented for other energy taxes.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the role of corporate governance to increase firm performance. The measure of corporate governance are corporate governance mechanism and Corporate Governance Perception Index (CGPI. Samples are companies that followed CGPI award at 2005-2014. The examination of the relationship of corporate governance and firm performance is conducted by regression of corporate governance mechanism variables and control variables to profitability. Corporate governance mechanisms are board size, board independence, outside directors, audit committee size, audit committee meeting, audit quality, and CGPI. Control variables are leverage and firm size. The results of this study indicate that board independence negatively influence profitability, audit committee meeting positively influence profitability, audit quality positively influence profitability, CGPI positively influence profitability, leverage negatively influence profitability, and firm size negatively influence profitability.
Mallin, Chris; Mullineux, Andy; Wihlborg, Clas
In 1992 the Cadbury Committee report on the financial aspects of corporate governance was published. The Committee had been established following the failures of a number of high profile businesses in the UK which had shaken confidence in the market. Some nine years later, in 2001, the collapse of Enron sent shockwaves through the US market. As a result of the Enron collapse and various other high profile scandals in the years since its occurrence, the US is examining its own c...
Conclusion: First, it seems that various issues and aspects related to tariff determination should be considered. Furthermore, some preliminaries should be provided before tariffs' reformation or some actions should be taken in line with that for the success of tariff reformation process. These measures and reformations are related to the Ministry of Health, insurances, and the government.
Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)
Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented
Nuclear regulatory reform is divided into two parts. The first part contains all those matters for which new legislation is required. The second part concerns all those matters that are within the power of the Commission under existing statutes. Recommendations are presented.
Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Dahl, Søren; Jensen, Anker Degn
Steam reforming (SR) of oxygenated species like bio-oil or ethanol can be used to produce hydrogen or synthesis gas from renewable resources. However, deactivation due to carbon deposition is a major challenge for these processes. In this study, different strategies to minimize carbon deposition...
Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.
A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…
This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…
This article examines the national energy policy legislation being developed with respect to Public Utilities Holding Company Act issues. The topics of the article include the proposals to encourage competition among electric power producers, those involved in the process, qualifying facilities, independent power producers, competition and efficiency, and the outlook for reform
Sidney Jard da Silva
Full Text Available This article analyzes the interaction between organized labor and government during reform of the pension system in Argentina. The purpose is to investigate the political and institutional conditions favorable to the inclusion of trade unions in a negotiated pension reform process. The Argentine pattern of union-government interaction was shown to be shaped more by the peculiarities of the decision-making process than by the demands and power of union organizations.
Loos, Gregory P
Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.
This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in poli...
requirement to reform Mexico’s energy sector. Subsequent analysis demonstrates government ownership of Petroleos Mexico (Pemex) is the fundamental...ownership of Petroleos Mexico (Pemex) is the fundamental destabilizing flaw in regulatory policy, by tracing various problems back to this root cause... Petroleos Mexico (Pemex) is the second largest company in Latin America and the seventh largest producer of oil in the world.1 The government of
Fisher, Ronald C.; Papke, Leslie E.
Provides a primer for policymakers about the economics of education grants and draws implications for school finance reform. Includes an overview of the types of education grants that states and the federal government have used to aid local spending and summarizes findings from states' experiences with different forms of education finance.…
Full Text Available Although the Reformation took place some four hundred years ago, one area in which reformation is really needed today is the counselling of people. Since Wilhelm Wundt started the “study of the mind” in 1879, William James and Sigmund Freud followed and secular psychology gradually has developed to take the “front seat”; hence moving Biblical counselling, which has been practised since the times of the New Testament, to the “back burner”. This development had been going on for the greater part of the 20th century, up to the publication of Competent to Counsel by Jay E. Adams in 1970. In the model for counselling suggested by Adams, the principles of the Reformation of the sixteenth century, Soli Deo Gloria, Soli Scriptura, Soli Fidei, Sola Gratia, etc. were again implemented in assisting and counselling people with personal and interpersonal problems. The epistomological and anthropological approach of secular psychology differs radically from that of Biblical principles, thus necessitating a new “reformation” of counselling. Within this new form counselling, inter alia, implies the following: the Word of God has its rightful place, sin has to be taken seriously and the work of the Holy Spirit should be recognised. In this article it is proposed that the “reformation” of counselling was started by scholars with a Biblical Reformational approach and that this method of counselling followed the parameters of the Reformation of the sixteenth century. This “reformation” developed into a new direction in counselling and still continues today with fascinating new frontiers opening up for Biblical counselling.
... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION U.S. Chief Financial Officer Council; Grants Policy Committee (GPC... committee of the U.S. Chief Financial Officers (CFO) Council. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB... Government. The GPC is charged with improving the management of federal financial assistance government-wide...
...: Health IT Policy Committee's Governance Workgroup. General Function of the Health IT Policy Committee: To... use of health information as is consistent with the Federal Health IT Strategic Plan and that includes... needed. Purpose of the Governance Workgroup: To draft a set of recommendations on the scope and process...
Mügge, D.; Stellinga, B.
The credit crisis that began in the summer of 2007 has fundamentally challenged much financial regulation and the political institutions that produced it. Measured against the criticisms that have been brought forth against previous financial governance, the extent of governments’ overall reform
Guthrie, James W.
Recommends the implementation of school-based management systems as one way to meet government demands for educational reform. Describes the functions of principals, school advisory councils, school-site budgeting and accounting, and annual planning and performance reports in successful school-based management systems. Presents examples of…
Koyama, Jill; Kania, Brian
Utilizing "assemblage," a notion associated with Actor-Network Theory (ANT), we explore what discourses of transparency can, and cannot, accomplish in a network of education reform that includes schools, government agencies, and community organizations. Drawing on data collected between July 2011 and March 2013 in an…
Alm, James; Annez, Patricia; Modi, Arbind
The authors review the options for reform of stamp duties on immovable property transfers collected by Indian state governments. After briefly reviewing some of the many administrative difficulties experienced with the tax, they turn to an examination of its economic impacts. A review of stamp duties internationally indicates that Indian rates are exceptionally high, at rates often above 1...
The Government of China has adopted a national reform program aimed at making budgeting more transparent and accountable through public involvement and enhanced oversight. Building on work carried out under Phase I (102965), the China Development Research Foundation (CDRF) will analyze China's current ...
Ahmad, Rahimah Haji
Discusses educational development in Malaysia, focusing on curriculum changes, issues, and future perspectives. Discusses the development of values education, its importance in the curriculum, and the government's efforts to mold a united nation with Malaysian values. Current reforms target tertiary education. The school curriculum has not been…
Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss
and more delimited policy areas take place. In our analysis we apply four governance perspectives (rational-instrumental, rational-interest based, institutional-cultural and a chaos perspective) in a comparative analysis of the evaluations of two large-scale public sector reforms in Denmark and Norway. We...
In a rare glimpse of the policy direction of the present government led by President Umar Yaradua, the Minister of Finance Shamsuddeen Usman discusses the significant macroeconomic and structural reforms being put in place. According to him, the direction of the current administration is to sustain macroeconomic ...
The current economic crisis appears to vindicate strident calls for financial sector reforms to enthrone sound financial practices and good corporate governance as means to ensuring sustainable economic growth and development. It is thus appropriate in the current adverse global economic circumstances, to determine the ...
2 juin 2008 ... Featuring a Foreword by Dr Gordon Smith, an Afterword by the Right Honourable Paul Martin, former Prime Minister of Canada, and a glossary of terms, Globalization and Summit Reform provides a unique, insiders' perspective on the process of international governance and its future prospects. A course ...
Since 1999, Tanzania has been actively pursuing reforms of the way in which the central government finances local government activities. This paper looks at the current incidence of central government allocations to local authorities in Tanzania through: 1) examining of potential problems with the current financing method, 2) showing large variations between local government allocations, and 3) finding that surprisingly what drives t his distribution of resources maybe substantial pro-wealthy...
Cha, Min Suk
Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.
The NEA Nuclear Development Committee (NDC) recently completed a study that looks into the evolving role of governments in nuclear energy matters. Many decisions on government intervention in recent decades have been based on the earlier experience of what works best. The report suggests some considerations that all governments could take into account when establishing their respective roles. (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between corporate governance and Intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2009 using a regression based model. The study investigates the impacts of three some independent variables of the corporate governance (i.e. the number of board members, the relative extent of nonexecutive to executive directors, the auditing committee. The results suggest that corporate governance had no special effect on intellectual capital in the pharmaceutical companies. Furthermore among corporate governance's variables, the first one (i.e. board size had negative impact on firms' intellectual capital and the second and the third variables had no effects on intellectual capital.
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.
This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...
Oelofse, Suzanna HH
Full Text Available of governance in Africa. The next section focuses on regulation, and the status of the regulatory frameworks in different African countries. Shortcomings in the regulatory framework are highlighted through examples in various countries. Specific policy...
The Governing Board held its 108th and 109th meetings on 5 February and 5 March respectively. At the first of these meetings, the Board heard a report by its Chairman, P. Levaux, on the CERN Council Session of December 2001. The Chairman reported that the Board that the 0.8% adjustment of pensions proposed by the Governing Board had been accepted as well as an amendment to the Rules of the Fund reducing the period of service required for entitlement to a deferred retirement pension from 10 to 5 years. The Governing Board also heard a report by the Chairman of the Investment Committee, G. Maurin, on the Committee's two January meetings. At the first of these, the Committee had addressed its structure and operating methods. Various proposals had been put forward aimed at increasing the Committee's efficiency and response time. Specific proposals will be submitted to the Governing Board during the year. In addition, on the basis of two specially commissioned studies, the Committee had examined the issue of curre...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.
Siti Rohaya Mat Rahim
Full Text Available Risk governance has evolved tremendously in the banking industry. Risk governance recommends the imperative roles of Chief Risk Officer (CRO to oversee risk. This study explores risk governance influence over the Islamic banks performances. Multivariate analysis techniques measure simultaneously via Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. This study employed cross-sectional sample of 200 Islamic banks across 21 countries for the year 2014. To examine risk governance and Islamic banks performance, the study captures seventeen variables developed from risk management and corporate governance (ROA, ROE, Profit Margin, CRO, Shariah committee member, CEO, board size, remuneration meeting, credit rating, external audit, accounting standard, loan loss provision, capital adequacy ratio, total deposit ratio, GDP, central bank lending rate and inflation. The simulation result reveals, risk governance act as mediating variables towards Islamic banks performance. This study has practical and significance contribution for Islamic banks to understand risk governance, aligning with the fundamental risk management and corporate governance
van den Heever, Alexander Marius
In 2011, the South African government published a Green Paper outlining proposals for a single-payer National Health Insurance arrangement as a means to achieve universal health coverage (UHC), followed by a White Paper in 2015. This follows over two decades of health reform proposals and reforms aimed at deepening UHC. The most recent reform departure aims to address pooling and purchasing weaknesses in the health system by internalising both functions within a single scheme. This contrasts with the post-apartheid period from 1994 to 2008 where pooling weaknesses were to be addressed using pooling schemes, in the form of government subsidies and risk-equalisation arrangements, external to the public and private purchasers. This article reviews both reform paths and attempts to reconcile what may appear to be very different approaches. The scale of the more recent set of proposals requires a very long reform path because in the mid-term (the next 25 years) no single scheme will be able to raise sufficient revenue to provide a universal package for the entire population. In the interim, reforms that maintain and improve existing forms of coverage are required. The earlier reform framework (1994-2008) largely addressed this concern while leaving open the final form of the system. Both reform approaches are therefore compatible: the earlier reforms addressed medium- to long-term coverage concerns, while the more recent define the long-term institutional goal. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anthony R. Bowrin
Full Text Available This study describes the regulatory framework governing audit committees (AC of publicly traded companies in the West Indies and examines the extent to which the provisions of these AC regulations are similar to the International Federation of Accountants guidelines for AC. Also, it examines the actual AC policies of publicly traded West Indian firms and determines whether they vary systematically with industry affiliation or firm size. The sample comprised companies traded on Barbados, Jamaica Stock Exchange, and Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchanges in 2002. Larger companies and those in the financial industry provided better audit committee disclosures than their smaller counterparts and those in non-financial industries.
Barbara A. Cosens
Full Text Available The term "governance" encompasses both governmental and nongovernmental participation in collective choice and action. Law dictates the structure, boundaries, rules, and processes within which governmental action takes place, and in doing so becomes one of the focal points for analysis of barriers to adaptation as the effects of climate change are felt. Adaptive governance must therefore contemplate a level of flexibility and evolution in governmental action beyond that currently found in the heavily administrative governments of many democracies. Nevertheless, over time, law itself has proven highly adaptive in western systems of government, evolving to address and even facilitate the emergence of new social norms (such as the rights of women and minorities or to provide remedies for emerging problems (such as pollution. Thus, there is no question that law can adapt, evolve, and be reformed to make room for adaptive governance. In doing this, not only may barriers be removed, but law may be adjusted to facilitate adaptive governance and to aid in institutionalizing new and emerging approaches to governance. The key is to do so in a way that also enhances legitimacy, accountability, and justice, or else such reforms will never be adopted by democratic societies, or if adopted, will destabilize those societies. By identifying those aspects of the frameworks for adaptive governance reviewed in the introduction to this special feature relevant to the legal system, we present guidelines for evaluating the role of law in environmental governance to identify the ways in which law can be used, adapted, and reformed to facilitate adaptive governance and to do so in a way that enhances the legitimacy of governmental action.
Ngan, H.W.; Wang, J.H.; Engriwan, W.; Lo, K.L.
With the current scheme of control regulation for the Hong Kong electricity supply industry expiring in 2008, the Government has sent out a consultation paper seeking views from the general public on its reform and possible future development. This paper investigates the characteristics of the current agreement and the rationale for feasible reform of the Hong Kong ESI. It leads to a discussion on a proposed feasible reform using performance-based regulation approach modeling and the associated implementation issues related to price capping, risk analysis, performance indices, quality monitoring and governance
Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez
Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill
Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.; Tennfjord, B.S.
The report evaluates the effects of the petroleum taxation in Norway. In connection with the general reform of the Norwegian industry taxation, changes are proposed in the petroleum tax law. The report gives a survey of the development in the Norwegian petroleum taxation, and analyses the effects of changing the tax revenue both for the Government and for the companies concerned. The effects of incentives caused by changing the taxation are looked upon. In the appendix the depreciation rules in connection with petroleum taxation are discussed. 18 refs., 17 figs
Schuppli, C A; Fraser, D
Research ethics committees - animal ethics committees (AECs) for animal-based research and institutional research boards (IRBs) for human subjects - have a key role in research governance, but there has been little study of the factors influencing their effectiveness. The objectives of this study were to examine how the effectiveness of a research ethics committee is influenced by committee composition and dynamics, recruitment of members, workload, participation level and member turnover. As a model, 28 members of AECs at four universities in western Canada were interviewed. Committees were selected to represent variation in the number and type of protocols reviewed, and participants were selected to include different types of committee members. We found that a bias towards institutional or scientific interests may result from (1) a preponderance of institutional and scientist members, (2) an intimidating atmosphere for community members and other minority members, (3) recruitment of community members who are affiliated with the institution and (4) members joining for reasons other than to fulfil the committee mandate. Thoroughness of protocol review may be influenced by heavy workloads, type of review process and lack of full committee participation. These results, together with results from the literature on research ethics committees, suggested potential ways to improve the effectiveness of research ethics committees.
Mohamad Naimi Mohamad-Nor;
This paper examines audit report lag in Malaysian public listed companies, following the implementation of the Malaysian Code on Corporate Governance in 2001. It departs from the standard audit report lag studies by incorporating characteristics of the board of directors and the audit committee. Multivariate analysis using 628 annual reports for the year ended 2002 indicates that active and larger audit committees shorten audit lag. However, we fail to find evidence that audit committee indep...
Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.
Full Text Available Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.
Chen, Yixi; Hu, Shanlian; Dong, Peng; Kornfeld, Åsa; Jaros, Patrycja; Yan, Jing; Ma, Fangfang; Toumi, Mondher
Objectives In 2009, the Chinese government launched a national healthcare reform programme aiming to control healthcare expenditure and increase the quality of care. As part of this programme, a new drug pricing reform was initiated on 1 June 2015. The objective of this study was to describe the changing landscape of drug pricing policy in China and analyse the potential impact of the reform. Methods The authors conducted thorough research on the drug pricing reform using three Chinese databases (CNKI, Wanfang, and Weipu), Chinese health authority websites, relevant press releases, and pharmaceutical blogs and discussion forums. This research was complemented with qualitative research based on targeted interviews with key Chinese opinion leaders representing the authorities’ and prescribers’ perspectives. Results With the current reform, the government has attempted to replace its direct control over the prices of reimbursable drugs with indirect, incentive-driven influence. Although the exact implementation of the reform remains unclear at the moment, the changes introduced so far and the pilot project designs indicate that China is considering adaptation of some form of internal and external reference pricing policies, commonly used in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Several challenges related to the potential new mechanism were identified: 1) the risk of hospital underfunding, if hospital funding reform is not prioritised; 2) the risk of promoting the use of cheap, low-quality drugs, if a reliable quality control system is not in place and discrepancy between the available drugs is present; 3) the risk of increasing disparity in access to care between poor and rich regions, in case of country-wide price convergence; and 4) the risk of industry underinvestment, resulting in reduced competition, issues with quality and sustainability of supply, and potentially negative social impact. Conclusions Foreign pricing policies
... and work plan, and reviewing past trust reform and FACA committee efforts. A final agenda will be... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary National Commission on Indian Trust... Office of the Secretary is announcing that the National Commission on Indian Trust Administration and...
.... FDA-2013-N-1380] Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination AGENCY: Food... announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. This document removes the Veterinary Advisory Committee from the Agency's list of standing advisory committees. DATES: This rule is...
A naphta fraction is subjected to a catalytic reforming process in several series-connected reactors. The first reactor is equipped with a moving catalyst bed containing not more the 30% of volume of the total catalyst amount. The other reactors are designed as packed-bed systems. The content of coke deposited on the catalyst of the first reactor owing to the reforming process is maintained at below 1% of weight. This is effected by periodic removal of a proportion of the contaminated catalyst from the bottom part of the bed, by its regeneration and re-feeding to the top part of the bed. This results in prolonged service life of the catalyst and simultaneous improvement of the anti-knock value of the product.
In 2002 Nepal's parliament passed a liberal abortion law, after nearly three decades of reform efforts. This paper reviews the history of the movement for reform and the combination of factors that contributed to its success. These include sustained advocacy for reform; the dissemination of knowledge, information and evidence; adoption of the reform agenda by the public sector and its leadership in involving other stakeholders; the existence of work for safe motherhood as the context in which the initiative could gain support; an active women's rights movement and support from international and multilateral organisations; sustained involvement of local NGOs, civil society and professional organisations; the involvement of journalists and the media; the absence of significant opposition; courageous government officials and an enabling democratic political system. The overriding rationale for reforming the abortion law in Nepal has been to ensure safe motherhood and women's rights. The first government abortion services officially began in March 2004 at the Maternity Hospital in Kathmandu; services will be expanded gradually to other public and private hospitals and private clinics in the coming years.
Ashish Chaturvedi; Manjeet S. Saluja; Abhijit Banerjee; Rachna Arora
The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR) and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of imp...
ownership and genuine reform. His experience in Diyala Province indicated that the most effective means of pursuing transition and transformation among...that I have no solution to the security situation in Afghanistan, or to the questions of violence, crime, insurrection, or militias vs . army vs ...than to merge those interests into a greater whole. Franchising of problems or solutions is often the result. In Afghanistan, problems and
von Bergmann, K
Increasing numbers of clinical research projects are submitted to ethical committees (institutional review boards) for approval. New therapeutic developments have to be evaluated by these committees to protect patients/volunteers. Thus, the responsibility of ethical committees is increasing. The "Nürnberger Kodex" and the "Declaration of Helsinki" are the background for these evaluations. According to the German drug law the physician is obligated by law to submit the protocol to such a committee. In addition, local state physician authorities require such a procedure. Important considerations during the review process besides ethical aspects are the informed consent, which should be written in an understandable form, and the obligations of the insurance.
Moreno, J D
Following a brief account of the puzzle that ethics committees present for the Western Philosophical tradition, I will examine the possibility that social contract theory can contribute to a philosophical account of these committees. Passing through classical as well as contemporary theories, particularly Rawls' recent constructivist approach, I will argue that social contract theory places severe constraints on the authority that may legitimately be granted to ethics committees. This, I conclude, speaks more about the suitability of the theory to this level of analysis than about the ethics committee phenomenon itself.
Full Text Available At first glance, it doesn't seem as though socialism and health-care reform have a whole lot to do with each other. After all, the most visible "left" position in the current discussion of health-care reform merely advocates for the government to assume the function of national insurer, leaving the delivery of health care - from its often-questionable content to its hierarchical relationships - firmly in place. As such, a single payer, Medicare-for-All insurance program is a modest, even tepid reform. Those of us on the left who have been active in the single payer movement have always seen it as a steppingstone toward health-care justice: until the question of access to care is solved, how do we even begin to address not only health care but also health inequities? How, for example, can working-class Americans, Americans of color, and women demand appropriate, respectful, humane, first-rate care when our ability to access any health-care services at all is so tightly constrained?
... Documents under the general direction of the Administrative Committee. The online edition of the Manual... Government Printing Office (44 U.S.C. 4101). [54 FR 9677, Mar. 7, 1989, as amended at 58 FR 64872, Dec. 10...
Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette
to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...
On 16 March and 7 May, the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) held its fourth and fifth meetings The first of these meetings was primarily dedicated to the examination of the strategic asset allocation. The PFGB reaffirmed the main goal of the new strategic asset allocation: to improve the Pension Fund’s position with regard to risk by lowering overall portfolio volatility through suitable investments in less volatile asset classes such as real estate and absolute return strategies, where the return does not depend on market trends and negative growth is extremely unlikely. The finalised document will be presented to the Finance Committee and the Council at their June meetings for approval, in accordance with the provisions of the Levaux report. The PFGB also took note of the Internal Audit’s report on Pension Fund operations and decided to refer it to Working Group I as a working document for establishing a control and internal monitoring system for Pension Fund oper...
A recent decision by the High Court of Australia (Wong v Commonwealth; Selim v Professional Services Review Committee (2009) 236 CLR 573) (the PSR case) has not only clarified the scope of the Australian constitutional prohibition on "any form of civil conscription" in relation to federal legislation concerning medical or dental services (s 51xxiiiA), but has highlighted its importance as a great constitutional guarantee ensuring the mixed State-federal and public-private nature of medical service delivery in Australia. Previous decisions of the High Court have clarified that the prohibition does not prevent federal laws regulating the manner in which medical services are provided. The PSR case determined that the anti-overservicing provisions directed at bulk-billing general practitioners under Pt VAA of the Health Insurance Act 1973 (Cth) did not offend the prohibition. Importantly, the High Court also indicated that the s 51(xxiiiA) civil conscription guarantee should be construed widely and that it would invalidate federal laws requiring providers of medical and dental services (either expressly or by practical compulsion) to work for the federal government or any specified State, agency or private industrial employer. This decision is likely to restrict the capacity of any future federal government to restructure the Australian health care system, eg by implementing recommendations from the National Health and Hospitals Reform Commission for either federal government or private corporate control of presently State-run public hospitals.
Full Text Available The principle of decentralization is a fundamental principle for the establishment and operation of local government. It refers to the process of redistributing the authority and responsibility for certain functions from central government to local government units. In many countries, particularly in developing countries, fiscal decentralization and local governance issues are addressed as highly important to the economic development. According to Stigler (1957, fiscal decentralization brings government closer to the people and a representative government works best when it is closer to the people. Albania is still undergoing the process of decentralization in all aspects: political, economic, fiscal and administrative. Decentralization process is essential to sustainable economic growth and efficient allocation of resources to meet the needs of citizens. Albania has a fragmented system of local government with a very large number of local government units that have neither sufficient fiscal or human capacity to provide public services at a reasonable level (World Bank. However, recent administrative and territorial reform is expected to have a significant impact in many issues related to local autonomy and revenue management. This paper is focused on the progress of fiscal decentralization process in Albania, stating key issues and ongoing challenges for an improved system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of recent territorial reform, identifying problems and opportunities to be addressed in the future.
van der Heijden, J.J.
This paper focuses on the impacts of hybrid forms of governance. Such hybrids are characterized by an arrangement of tasks and responsibilities, regarding regulatory governance, between public and private sector agencies. Empirically the paper is based on regulatory reforms in Australian and
This article examines the status of the local government under the tripartite governmental system in Nigeria that has been in operation since 1979. It reviews the various reforms that the administration of local government has gone through from the colonial era till 1999 when the extant Constitution of Nigeria came into force.
Cosens, Barbara A.; Craig, Robin K.; Hirsch, Shana Lee; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Benson, Melinda H.; DeCaro, Daniel A.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gosnell, Hannah; Ruhl, J.B.; Schlager, Edella
The term “governance” encompasses both governmental and nongovernmental participation in collective choice and action. Law dictates the structure, boundaries, rules, and processes within which governmental action takes place, and in doing so becomes one of the focal points for analysis of barriers to adaptation as the effects of climate change are felt. Adaptive governance must therefore contemplate a level of flexibility and evolution in governmental action beyond that currently found in the heavily administrative governments of many democracies. Nevertheless, over time, law itself has proven highly adaptive in western systems of government, evolving to address and even facilitate the emergence of new social norms (such as the rights of women and minorities) or to provide remedies for emerging problems (such as pollution). Thus, there is no question that law can adapt, evolve, and be reformed to make room for adaptive governance. In doing this, not only may barriers be removed, but law may be adjusted to facilitate adaptive governance and to aid in institutionalizing new and emerging approaches to governance. The key is to do so in a way that also enhances legitimacy, accountability, and justice, or else such reforms will never be adopted by democratic societies, or if adopted, will destabilize those societies. By identifying those aspects of the frameworks for adaptive governance reviewed in the introduction to this special feature relevant to the legal system, we present guidelines for evaluating the role of law in environmental governance to identify the ways in which law can be used, adapted, and reformed to facilitate adaptive governance and to do so in a way that enhances the legitimacy of governmental action. PMID:29780426
Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind
The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...
Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
John Armour; Rizwaan Jameel Mokal
English corporate insolvency law has been reshaped by the Enterprise Act 2002. The Act was intended to ‘to facilitate company rescue and to produce better returns for creditors as a whole’. Administrative receivership, which placed control of insolvency proceedings in the hands of banks, is for most purposes being abolished. It is being replaced by a ‘streamlined’ administration procedure. Whilst it will still be possible for banks to control the appointment process, the administrator once in...
Full Text Available This article draws on an original survey of 892 displaced persons in Bamako and Mopti/Sevare right before the 2013 presidential elections, which ushered Mali back into multi-party democracy. Our data demonstrates their prioritization of good governance reform as an important solution for the Malian crisis. We then leverage public opinion polling between 2014 and 2015 in Bamako to evaluate how far the government has come in good governance reform. We demonstrate Malians’ dissatisfaction with the government’s efforts to reduce corruption as well as concerns about instability in the capital.
This thesis investigates whether corporate governance conformance by Malaysian banks improves their financial reporting quality. It is motivated by the controversies surrounding corporate governance reforms and the calls for systematic research on its efficacy in the post-reform period. Malaysian banks have been subject to international standards of corporate governance since before and after the 1997–1998 Asian Financial Crisis. Malaysia’s common-law tradition, greater level of financial and...
... organizations --Relations with non-governmental organizations --World Maritime Day --International Maritime... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7879] Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee...-second Session of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Technical Co-operation Committee (TCC 62...
Liu, Huihui; Chen, ZhanMing; Wang, Jianliang; Fan, Jihong
Contributing to approximately two-thirds of primary energy consumption, coal usage is the focus of China's energy policies. To regulate the resource taxation system and reduce the burden of coal enterprises, the Chinese government launched a reform of its resource tax system in 2014 for coal, introducing the ad valorem system to replace the volume-based system that had been in place for the preceding thirty years. To assess the impact of the tax reform, this paper constructs two-stage dynamic game models by taking the coal and coal-fired power industries as the players. The market situations of shortage and oversupply are investigated separately. Empirical data are collected to estimate the model parameters for numerical simulations. The model results suggest that the tax reform will reduce both coal prices and the coal industry profitability if the tax levied on each ton of coal is maintained at the same level as before the reform, regardless of whether the market is in a shortage or an oversupply situation. However, the increased buyer's power will amplify the effect of the tax reform. The numerical simulations also provide an estimation of the tax rate of the ad valorem system that maintains the profit of the coal industry. Considering the demand and supply situations in China's coal market, policy recommendations are provided to guide further reform of China's resource tax system. - Highlights: • The paper examines the influence of resource tax reform on China's coal industry. • We construct two-stage game models between coal and coal-fired power industries. • Market situations of shortage and oversupply are studied in two taxation systems. • Coal price will decrease if maintaining the tax levied on each ton of coal the same. • To achieve the reform objective, the ad valorem tax rate should not be set too high.
Andersen, Kathleen S.
Since 1991, leaders in health policy from the legislative and executive branches of state government have come together, with financial support and staff collaboration from the Milbank Memorial Fund, to share their experiences and to work on practical solutions to pressing health care problems. What began with a handful of states at the forefront of health reform is now the Reforming States Group (RSG), a bipartisan, voluntary association that includes leaders from over 40 states. This article describes the origins, history, and future prospects of the RSG. PMID:9510901
Wu, Fenghong; Chi, Yan
With the explosive economic growth and social development, China's regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined.
Laura Ard; Alexander Berg
Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...
Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte
, with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....
In recent years Mexico has implemented remarkable structural changes in its economy. However, until recently its large and key energy sector was largely unreformed. This is now changing. In 1995 the Mexican Government introduced legislative changes permitting private sector involvement in natural gas storage, transportation and distribution. Subsequent directives set up a detailed regulatory framework. These developments offer considerable promise, not only for natural gas sector development but also for growth in the closely linked electricity sector. This study analyses the changes which have taken place and the rationale for the regulatory framework which has been established. The study also contains recommendations to assist the Government of Mexico in effectively implementing its natural gas sector reforms and in maximizing the benefits to be realised through the new regulatory framework. (author)
Jeffrey D. Sachs; Wing Thye Woo; Xiaokai Yang
This paper investigates the relationship between economic reforms and constitutional transition, which has been neglected by many transition economists. It is argued that assessment of reform performance might be very misleading if it is not recognized that economic reforms are just a small part of large scale of constitutional transition. Rivalry and competition between states and between political forces within each country are the driving forces for constitutional transition. We use Russia...
Abazi, Enika; Bumci, Aldo; Hide, Enri; Rakipi, Albert
International audience; This paper analyses security sector reform (SSR) in Albania. In all its enterprises in reforming the security sector,Albania is assisted by different initiatives and projects that provide expertise and financial support. To assesswhether reforms improved the overall security environment (national and human) of the country, it is necessaryto measure the effectiveness of the various initiatives and projects. This is gauged by how well the initiatives andprojects achieved...
SCIENCE ADVISOR WASHINGTON, DC -- Today, House Science Committee Chairman Sherwood Boehlert (R-NY23) and Advisor nominee Dr. John H. Marburger. The Senate Commerce Committee has scheduled a nomination hearing for this afternoon, and Boehlert and Grucci have been invited to testify. Dr. Marburger was nominated
Prof. B. B. P. Gupta
INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. Bengaluru. 83rd ANNUAL MEETING. 3–5 November 2017, NEHU, Shillong. LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE. Local Organizing Committee. 1. Prof. S. K. Srivastava. Chairman. Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong. 2. Prof. B. B. P. Gupta. Organising Secretary. Department of Zoology ...
Full Text Available Since the early 1990s, the pace of educational reform in Hong Kong has accelerated and broadened to incorporate almost all areas of schooling. The reforms introduced during this period can be subsumed under what has generally been labelled the quality movement. In this paper, we review and comment on a number of policy reform initiatives in the four areas of "Quality Education," English Language Benchmarking, Initial Teacher Training and the Integration of Pupils with Special Needs into Ordinary Classrooms. Following a brief description of each policy initiative, the reforms are discussed in terms of their consistency, coherence and cultural fit.
Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)
A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.
Meyers, Michelle M; Costanzo, Cindy
Shared governance in health care empowers nurses to share in the decision-making process, which results in decentralized management and collective accountability. Share governance practices have been present in hospitals since the late 1970s. However, shared governance in ambulatory care clinics has not been well established. The subjects of this quality project included staff and administrative nurses in a clinic system. The stakeholder committee chose what model of shared governance to implement and educated clinic staff. The Index of Professional Nursing Governance measured a shared governance score pre- and postimplementation of the Clinic Nursing Council. The Clinic Nursing Council met bimonthly for 3 months during this project to discuss issues and make decisions related to nursing staff. The Index of Professional Nursing Governance scores indicated traditional governance pre- and postimplementation of the Clinic Nursing Council, which is to be expected. The stakeholder committee was beneficial to the initial implementation process and facilitated staff nurse involvement. Shared governance is an evolutionary process that develops empowered nurses and nurse leaders.
A transcription of a panel discussion at the 1982 Nuclear Commerce Conference was presented. Particular interest was given to a discussion of the standardization of nuclear power plant design. Topics also discussed included reform of licensing legislation, promotion of nuclear energy by government agencies, and international nuclear power projects
Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an overview of the equalization grant system in Canada and the issues that have been raised concerning the reform of the fiscal transfer system. Any reforms to the equalization grant system have to balance three concerns — “efficiency” effects that arise through federal financing of transfers, and the incentive effects on provincial fiscal policies, “entitlement” to reasonably comparable public services at reasonably comparable levels of taxation, and “ownership” of resources and independence of fiscal policies by provincial governments. Five proposals for reform of the equalization system are discussed. With regard to the inclusion rate for resource revenues in equalization formula, we argue that the rate should be reduced from 50 per cent to 25 per cent and that ceiling on total equalization payments should be eliminated. We argue against the proposal to exempt from the calculation of equalization entitlements that are deposited in provincial sovereign wealth funds because this would not reduce total equalization entitlements in present value terms, it would be complex to implement if it extended to all forms of savings by provinces (such as debt reduction, and it would not alter the resource rich provinces’ incentives to save more of their resource revenues. We argue against a proposal to reduce CHT and CST to provinces with above average fiscal capacities because this would reduce their incentive to develop and tax their resources, and it would be counter to the purpose of these block grants, which is to reduce the vertical fiscal imbalance between the federal and the provincial governments. We review the Gusen (2012a proto-type model for incorporating variations in costs and needs in the computation of the equalization entitlements and argue that this procedure seems feasible and merits further analysis.
Glazebrook, S G; Buchanan, J G
This paper describes a model of clinical governance that was developed at South Auckland Health during the period 1995 to 2000. Clinical quality and safety are core objectives. A multidisciplinary Clinical Board is responsible for the development and publicising of sound clinical policies together with monitoring the effects of their implementation on quality and safety. The Clinical Board has several committees, including an organization-wide Continuous Quality Improvement Committee to enhance the explicit nature of the quality system in terms of structure, staff awareness and involvement, and to develop the internal audit system. The second stream stems from the Chief Medical Officer and clinical directors in a clinical management sense. The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors covers both clinical and financial audit. The reporting lines back to that committee are described and the role of the external auditor of clinical standards is explained. The aim has been to create a supportive culture where quality initiatives and innovation can flourish, and where the emphasis is not on censure but improvement.
Borovecki, A; ten Have, H; Oresković, S
To study knowledge and attitudes of hospital ethics committee members at the first workshop for ethics committees in Croatia. Before/after cross-sectional study using a self administered questionnaire. Educational workshop for members of hospital ethics committees, Zagreb, 2003. Knowledge and attitudes of participants before and after the workshop; everyday functioning of hospital ethics committees. The majority of the respondents came from committees with at least five members. The majority of ethics committees were appointed by the governing bodies of their hospitals. Most committees were founded after the implementation of the law on health protection in 1997. Membership structure (three physicians and two members from other fields) and functions were established on the basis of that law. Analysis of research protocols was the main part of their work. Other important functions-education, case analysis, guidelines formation-were neglected. Members' level of knowledge was not sufficient for the complicated tasks they were supposed to perform. However, it was significantly higher after the workshop. Most respondents felt their knowledge should be improved by additional education. Their views on certain issues and bioethical dilemmas displayed a high level of paternalism and over protectiveness, which did not change after the workshop. The committees developed according to bureaucratic requirements. Furthermore, there are concerns about members' knowledge levels. More efforts need to be made to use education to improve the quality of the work. Additional research is necessary to explore ethics committees' work in Croatia especially in the hospital setting.