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Sample records for gourd cucurbita ficifolia

  1. Acid phosphatases in seeds and developing of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in protein content and acid phosphatase activity were followed during germination (imbition through seedlings development in extracts from cotyledons of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia. It has been shown that the activity of acid phosphatase was initially low and than increased to a maximum after 6 days of imbition. Acid phosphates were isolated from cotyledons of seeds and from 6-, 10- and 22-days old seedlings by extraction the proteins with 0.1 M acetate buffer pH 5.1, precipitation with ethanol and by affinity chromatography on con A-Sepharose. Two glycoprotein enzymes AcPase Ba and AcPase Bb which differ in their affinity to immobilized con A were obtained. Both acid phosphatates retained the enzyme activity after binding to free con A. Rocket affinity electrophoresis of AcPase Ba and AcPase Bb, isolated from cotyledons of seeds and seedlings, revealed differences in their ability to bind to con A during seeds germination and seedling develop-ment indicating changes in their sugar component. Con A was found to activate both enzymes. The enzymes cross-reacted with monospecific antibodies raised against grass seed acid phosphatate Ba indicating an antigenic relationship between squash and grass acid phosphatases.

  2. Cucurbita ficifolia (Cucurbitaceae) modulates inflammatory cytokines and IFN-γ in obese mice.

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    Fortis-Barrera, Á; García-Macedo, R; Almanza-Perez, J C; Blancas-Flores, G; Zamilpa-Alvarez, A; Flores-Sáenz, J L; Cruz, M; Román-Ramos, R; Alarcón-Aguilar, F J

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché on systemic chronic inflammation in an obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) via modulating the expression of adipokines (TNF-α, IL-6, resistin, and adiponectin) and immune-regulatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10). Cucurbita ficifolia extract was administered daily by gavage to lean and MSG-obese mice for 30 days. At the end of treatment, cytokine mRNA expression in adipose tissue was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the protein levels of these cytokines were also quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cucurbita ficifolia extract decreased body mass and inflammation in MSG-obese mice by reducing the expression of TNF-α and IL-6; these decreases were parallel to significant reductions in protein levels. The extract also increased protein levels of IL-10 in lean mice and IFN-γ in both lean and MSG-obese mice. In conclusion, C. ficifolia extract modulates systemic chronic inflammation in MSG-obese mice and could have a beneficial effect on the adaptive immune system in obesity.

  3. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes.

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    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients.

  4. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A HYPOGLYCEMIC EXTRACT FROM CUCURBITA FICIFOLIA BOUCHE THAT INDUCES LIVER GLYCOGEN ACCUMULATION IN DIABETIC MICE.

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    Jessica, Garcia Gonzalez; Mario, Garcia Lorenzana; Alejandro, Zamilpa; Cesar, Almanza Perez Julio; Ivan, Jasso Villagomez E; Ruben, Roman Ramos; Javier, Alarcon-Aguilar Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia ( C. ficifolia ) fruit has demonstrated hypoglycemic effect, which may be attributed to some components in the extract. However, the major secondary metabolites in this fruit have not yet been identified and little is known about its extra-pancreatic action, in particular, on liver carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, in addition to the isolation and structural elucidation of the principal components in the aqueous extract of C. ficifolia , the aim of this study was to determine whether or not the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia ( C. ficifolia ) fruit is due to accumulation of liver glycogen in diabetic mice. The aqueous extract from fruit of C. ficifolia was fractionated and its main secondary metabolites were purified and chemically characterized (NMR and GC-MS). Alloxan-induced diabetic mice received daily by gavage the aqueous extract (30 days). The liver glycogen content was quantified by spectroscopic method and by PAS stain; ALT and AST by spectrometric method; glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase and GLUT2 by Western blot; the mRNA expression of GLUT2 and glucagon-receptor by RT-PCR; while serum insulin was quantified by ELISA method. A liver histological analysis was also performed by H&E stain. Chemical fingerprint showed five majoritarian compounds in the aqueous extract of C. ficifolia : p -coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicin, stigmast-7,2,2-dien-3-ol and stigmast-7-en-3-ol. The histological analysis showed accumulation of liver glycogen. Also, increased glycogen synthase and decreased glycogen phosphorylase were observed. Interestingly, the histological architecture evidenced a liver-protective effect due the extract. Five compounds were identified in C. ficifolia aqueous extract. The hypoglycemic effect of this extract may be partially explained by liver glycogen accumulation. The bioactive compound responsible for the hypoglycemic effect of this extract will be

  5. Effect of Cucurbita ficifolia and Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Blood Glucose, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory Marker in Type 2 Diabetes

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    Bayat, Azade; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Feizi, Awat; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Control of blood sugar, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are key factors in diabetes management. Cucurbita ficifolia (pumpkin) is a vegetable which has been used traditionally as a remedy for diabetes in Iran. In addition, consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects on people with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was an investigation of the effects of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt consumption alone or at the same time on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty eligible participants randomly were assigned to four groups: 1 - green C. ficifolia (100 g); 2 - probiotic yogurt (150 g); 3 - C. ficifolia plus probiotic yogurt (100 g C. ficifolia plus 150 g yogurt); and 4 -control (dietary advice) for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, glycemic response, lipid profile, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly in yogurt and yogurt plus C. ficifolia groups (within groups P = 0.010, and P < 0.001, respectively). C. ficifolia plus yogurt consumption resulted in a decrease in triglyceride (TG) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (within groups P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). All interventions led to a significant decrease in blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hsCRP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level within groups. Blood pressure decreased significantly in Cucurbita group and yogurt group (within groups P < 0.001, and P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure [SBP] and P < 0.001, and P = 0.004 for diastolic blood pressure [DBP], respectively). All variables changed between groups significantly except LDL-C level. Conclusions: Variables including TG, HDL-C, TC, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, SBP, DBP, and hsCRP changed beneficially between groups. It seems that consumption of C. ficifolia and probiotic yogurt may help treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:26955460

  6. Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché increases insulin secretion in RINm5F cells through an influx of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum.

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    Miranda-Perez, Maria Elizabeth; Ortega-Camarillo, Clara; Del Carmen Escobar-Villanueva, Maria; Blancas-Flores, Gerardo; Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco Javier

    2016-07-21

    Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché(C. ficifolia) is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to control type 2 diabetes (T2D). The hypoglycemic effect of the fruit of C. ficifolia has been demonstrated in different experimental models and in T2D patients. It has been proposed that D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is the active compound of the fruit. Additionally, it has been reported that C. ficifolia increases the mRNA expression of insulin and Kir 6.2 (a component of the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(+)ATP) channel, which is activated by sulphonylurea) in RINm5F cells. However, it remains unclear whether C. ficifolia and DCI causes the secretion of insulin by increasing the concentration of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) through K(+)ATP channel blockage or from the reservoir in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The aqueous extract of C. ficifolia was obtained and standardized with regard to its DCI content. RINm5F pancreatic β-cells were incubated with different concentrations (50, 100, 200 and 400μM) of DCI alone or C. ficifolia (9, 18, 36 and 72µg of extract/mL), and the [Ca(2+)]i of the cells was quantified. The cells were preloaded with the Ca(2+) fluorescent dye fluo4-acetoxymethyl ester (AM) and visualized by confocal microscopy. Insulin secretion was measured by an ELISA method. Subsequently, the effect of C. ficifolia on the K(+)ATP channel was evaluated. In this case, the blocker activator diazoxide was used to inhibit the C. ficifolia-induced calcium influx. In addition, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-receptor-selective inhibitor 2-amino-thoxydiphenylborate (2-APB) was used to inhibit the influx of calcium from the ER that was induced by C. ficifolia. It was found that DCI alone did not increase [Ca(2+)]i or insulin secretion. In contrast, treatment with C. ficifolia increased [Ca(2+)]i 10-fold compared with the control group. Insulin secretion increased by 46.9%. In the presence of diazoxide, C. ficifolia decreased [Ca(2+)]i by 50%, while insulin secretion

  7. Effect of an aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché on the glutathione redox cycle in mice with STZ-induced diabetes.

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    Díaz-Flores, M; Angeles-Mejia, S; Baiza-Gutman, L A; Medina-Navarro, R; Hernández-Saavedra, D; Ortega-Camarillo, C; Roman-Ramos, R; Cruz, M; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J

    2012-10-31

    Cucurbita ficifolia is used in Mexican traditional medicine as an anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent and its actions can be mediated by antioxidant mechanisms. Disturbance in the homeostasis of glutathione has been implicated in the etiology and progression of diabetes mellitus and its complications. It was evaluated, the effect of an aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia on glycemia, plasma lipid peroxidation; as well as levels of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione and activities of enzymes involved in glutathione redox cycle: glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) in liver, pancreas, kidney and heart homogenates of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Increased blood glucose and lipid peroxidation, together with decreased of GSH concentration, GSH/GSSG ratio and its redox potential (E(h)), and enhanced activity of GPx and GR in liver, pancreas and kidney were the salient features observed in diabetic mice. Administration of the aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia to diabetic mice for 30 days, used at a dose of 200 mg/kg, resulted in a significant reduction in glycemia, polydipsia, hyperphagia and plasma lipid peroxidation. Moreover, GSH was increased in liver, pancreas and kidney, and GSSG was reduced in liver, pancreas and heart, therefore GSH/GSSG ratio and its E(h) were restored. Also, the activities involved in the glutathione cycle were decreased, reaching similar values to controls. An aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia with hypoglycemic action, improve GSH redox state, increasing glutathione pool, GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio and its E(h), mechanism that can explain, at least in part, its antioxidant properties, supporting its use as an alternative treatment for the control of diabetes mellitus, and prevent the induction of complications by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro biocompatibility and proliferative effects of polar and non-polar extracts of cucurbita ficifolia on human mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Aristatile, Balakrishnan; Alshammari, Ghedeir M

    2017-05-01

    Cucurbita ficifolia (C. ficifolia) has been traditionally known for its medicinal properties as an antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent. However, there has been an enduring attention towards the identification of unique method, to isolate the natural components for therapeutic applications. Our study focuses on different polar and non-polar solvents (methanol, hexane and chloroform) to extract the bioactive components from C. ficifolia (pumpkin) and to study the biocompatibility and cytotoxicity effects on human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). The extracts were screened for their effects on cytotoxicity, cell proliferation and cell cycle on the hBM-MSCs cell line. The assays demonstrated that the chloroform extract was highly biocompatible, with less cytotoxic effect, and enhanced the cell proliferation. The methanol extract did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity when compare to the control. Concordantly, the cell cycle analysis confirmed that chloroform extract enhances the proliferation at lower concentrations. On the other hand, hexane extract showed high level of cytotoxicity with apoptotic and necrotic changes in hBM-MSCs. Collectively, our data revealed that chloroform is a good candidate to extract the bioactive components from C. ficifolia. Furthermore, our results suggest that specific gravity and density of the solvent might play a crucial role in the extraction process, which warrants further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication.

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    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A; Ryan, Timothy M; Clarke, Andrew C; Smith, Bruce D; Perry, George H

    2015-12-08

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops' progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval.

  10. Hydrolysis with Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease reduces antigenic response to bovine whey protein concentrate and αs-casein.

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    Babij, Konrad; Bajzert, Joanna; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Lubec, Gert; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Willak-Janc, Ewa; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the effect of hydrolysis with non-commercial Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease on a reduction of the IgE and IgG binding capacity of whey protein concentrate and αs-casein was investigated. The intensity of the protein degradation was analyzed by the degree of hydrolysis, the free amino groups content and RP-HPLC. The ability to bind the antibodies by native proteins and their hydrolysates was determined using a competitive ELISA test. Deep hydrolysis contributed to a significant reduction of immunoreactive epitopes present in WPC. In the case of IgE and IgG present in the serum pool of children with CMA, the lowest binding capacity was detected in the 24 h WPC hydrolysate, where the inhibition of the reaction with native WPC was ≤23 and ≤60 %, respectively. The analysis of the IgG reactivity in the antiserum of the immunized goat showed that the lowest antibody binding capacity was exhibited also by 24 h WPC hydrolysate at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml where the inhibition of the reaction with nWPC was ≤47 %. One-hour hydrolysis of α-casein was sufficient to significant reduction of the protein antigenicity, while the longer time (5 h) of hydrolysis probably lead to the appearance of new epitopes reactive with polyclonal.

  11. Genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as viewed with high frequency oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

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    Cucurbita pepo is a highly diverse, economically important member of the Cucurbitaceae. C. pepo encompasses hundreds of cultivars of pumpkins, squash, and gourds. Although C. pepo has been scrutinized with various types of DNA markers, the relationships among the cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. p...

  12. Immunologically related lectins from stems and roots of developing seedlings of Cucurbita ficifolia: purification and some properties of root and stem lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinating activity has been found in acetate extracts from roots and stems of squash seedlings (Cucurbita ficifolia. The hemaglutinating activity changes during seeds germination and seedling development. Dot blot and Western blot techniques have shown that proteins from these vegetative tissues cross-reacted with antibodies raised against endogenous cotyledons lectin CLBa and Con A.Lectins were isolated from stems and roots of 6-day old seedlings by precipitation with ethanol, affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose, gel filtration on Bio-gel P100 and separated by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Three purified lectins (RLA1, RLA2, RLA3 were obtained from roots and four from stems (SLA1, SLA2, SLA3, SLA4. The purified lectins from roots and stems agglutinated all human red blood cells, but sheep erythrocytes were most sensitive to agglutination. The hemagglutination of the root lectins RLA2 and RLA3 was inhibited by a very low concentration of arabinose, while RLA1, of xylose and Ga1NAc. Arabinose and Xylose were also found to be the most effective inhibitors of all stem lectins.

  13. Egg-yolk protein by-product as a source of ACE-inhibitory peptides obtained with using unconventional proteinase from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia).

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    Eckert, Ewelina; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Polanowski, Antoni; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2014-10-14

    In the present study angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were isolated from egg-yolk protein preparation (YP). Enzymatic hydrolysis conducted using unconventional enzyme from Cucurbita ficifolia (dose: 1000 U/mg of hydrolyzed YP (E/S (w/w)=1:7.52)) was employed to obtain protein hydrolysates. The 4-h hydrolysate exhibited a significant (IC₅₀=482.5 μg/mL) ACE inhibitory activity. Moreover, hydrolysate showed no cytotoxic activity on human and animal cell lines which makes it a very useful multifunctional method for peptide preparation. The compiled isolation procedure (ultrafiltration, size-exclusion chromatography and RP-HPLC) of bioactive peptides from YP hydrolysate resulted in obtaining peptides with the strong ACE inhibitory activity. One homogeneous and three heterogeneous peptide fractions were identified. The peptides were composed of 9-18 amino-acid residues, including mainly arginine and leucine at the N-terminal positions. To confirm the selected bioactive peptide sequences their analogs were chemically synthesized and tested. Peptide LAPSLPGKPKPD showed the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC₅₀ value of 1.97 μmol/L. Peptides with specific biological activity can be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food industries. Because of their potential role as physiological modulators, as well as theirhigh safety profile, they can be used as natural pharmacological compounds or functional food ingredients. The development of biotechnological solutions to obtain peptides with desired biological activity is already in progress. Studies in this area are focused on using unconventional highly specific enzymes and more efficient methods developed to conduct food process technologies. Natural peptides have many advantages. They are mainly toxicologically safe, have wide spectra of therapeutic actions, exhibit less side effects compared to synthetic drugs and are more efficiently absorbed in the intestinal tract. The complexity of

  14. The Evaluation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase (DPP)-IV, α-Glucosidase and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activities of Whey Proteins Hydrolyzed with Serine Protease Isolated from Asian Pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia).

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    Konrad, Babij; Anna, Dąbrowska; Marek, Szołtysik; Marta, Pokora; Aleksandra, Zambrowicz; Józefa, Chrzanowska

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, whey protein concentrate (WPC-80) and β-lactoglobulin were hydrolyzed with a noncommercial serine protease isolated from Asian pumpkin ( Cucurbita ficifolia ). Hydrolysates were further fractionated by ultrafiltration using membranes with cut-offs equal 3 and 10 kDa. Peptide fractions of molecular weight lower than 3 and 3-10 kDa were further subjected to the RP-HPLC. Separated preparations were investigated for their potential as the natural inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP-IV), α-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). WPC-80 hydrolysate showed higher inhibitory activities against the three tested enzymes than β-lactoglobulin hydrolysate. Especially high biological activities were exhibited by peptide fractions of molecular weight lower than 3 kDa, with ACE IC50 food ingredients in the diet of patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Transferability of Cucurbita SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment of Turkish bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) genetic resources

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    The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characte...

  16. Chemical characterization of a hypoglycemic extract from Cucurbita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aqueous extract of Cucurbita ficifolia (C. ficifolia) fruit has demonstrated hypoglycemic effect, which may be attributed to some components in the extract. However, the major secondary metabolites in this fruit have not yet been identified and little is known about its extra-pancreatic action, in particular, ...

  17. Genetic relationships and evolution in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as revealed by simple sequence repeat polymorphisms.

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    Gong, Li; Paris, Harry S; Nee, Michael H; Stift, Gertraud; Pachner, Martin; Vollmann, Johann; Lelley, Tamas

    2012-03-01

    Genetic relationships among 104 accessions of Cucurbita pepo were assessed from polymorphisms in 134 SSR (microsatellite) and four SCAR loci, yielding a total of 418 alleles, distributed among all 20 linkage groups. Genetic distance values were calculated, a dendrogram constructed, and principal coordinate analyses conducted. The results showed 100 of the accessions as distributed among three clusters representing each of the recognized subspecies, pepo, texana, and fraterna. The remaining four accessions, all having very small, round, striped fruits, assumed central positions between the two cultivated subspecies, pepo and texana, suggesting that they are relicts of undescribed wild ancestors of the two domesticated subspecies. In both, subsp. texana and subsp. pepo, accessions belonging to the same cultivar-group (fruit shape) associated with one another. Within subsp. pepo, accessions grown for their seeds or that are generalists, used for both seed and fruit consumption, assumed central positions. Specialized accessions, grown exclusively for consumption of their young fruits, or their mature fruit flesh, or seed oil extraction, tended to assume outlying positions, and the different specializations radiated outward from the center in different directions. Accessions of the longest-fruited cultivar-group, Cocozelle, radiated bidirectionally, indicating independent selection events for long fruits in subsp. pepo probably driven by a common desire to consume the young fruits. Among the accessions tested, there was no evidence for crossing between subspecies after domestication.

  18. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

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    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R. [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore (India). Div. of Entomology and Nematology

    2006-07-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers ({approx} 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval

  19. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers (∼ 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval-pupal parasitoid

  20. Bitter Gourd: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd fruits are a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and have the highest nutritive value among cucurbits. Moreover, the crude protein content (11.4-20.9 g.kg-1) of bitter gourd fruits is higher than that of tomato and cucumber. This book chapter focuses on the ...

  1. Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché (Cucurbitaceae) and D-chiro-inositol modulate the redox state and inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortis-Barrera, Ángeles; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco Javier; Banderas-Dorantes, Tania; Díaz-Flores, Margarita; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Cruz, Miguel; García-Macedo, Rebeca

    2013-10-01

    Cucurbita ficifolia (characterised by its D chiro inositol (DCI) content) and of synthetic DCI on the redox state, mRNA expression and secretions of proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, we evaluated the insulin-mimetic action of both treatments by assessing protein kinase B (PKB) activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes were treated with C. ficifolia and synthetic DCI. The redox state was determined by spectrophotometry as changes in the reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities; H2 O2 levels were measured by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression and the protein level of cytokines were determinate by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The activation of PKB activation was detected by Western blot. C. ficifolia extract and synthetic DCI reduced oxidative stress by decreased H2 O2 levels, increased glutathione peroxidase activity and changes in the GSH/GSSG ratio. Furthermore, DCI decreased the mRNA expression and secretion of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and resistin, while C. ficifolia reduced protein levels of resistin and increased IL-6 levels. Only DCI demonstrated insulin-mimetic action. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of C. ficifolia extract can be explained in part by its DCI content, which modulates the GSH/GSSG ratio and contributes to a reduced proinflammatory state. C. ficifolia and DCI treatments may reduce the disturbances caused by oxidative stress. Additionally, DCI may improve insulin sensitivity through its insulin-mimetic effects. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  3. Agronomics characteristics and nutritional quality of fruits and seeds of pumpkin Cucurbita sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rodríguez R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Butternut Squash is food security in ancient pre-Columbian America for its agronomic plasticity and culinary versatility. Today its value in use is evident in both its diversity within the genus Cucurbita and 20-27 species, where the most used are: Cucurbita maxima, C. moschata, C. pepo, C. argyrosperma; C. ficifolia. The high biological value in the pulp (80% in vitro digestibility and oil in the seeds (45%, where 55% are unsaturated (56% linoleic acid fatty. The processed pumpkin is a competitive and sustainable raw material for agro food industry, and is a source of carotenoids, lutein, Vitamima A, Vitamin C, starch, long chain polyunsaturated oils, and this entire means an increase in research in squash due to its comprehensive utility in the pulp and seed.

  4. First Known Image of Cucurbita in Europe, 1503–1508

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARIS, HARRY S.; DAUNAY, MARIE-CHRISTINE; PITRAT, MICHEL; JANICK, JULES

    2006-01-01

    • Background The genus Cucurbita (pumpkin, squash, gourd) is native to the Americas and diffused to other continents subsequent to the European contact in 1492. For many years, the earliest images of this genus in Europe that were known to cucurbit specialists were the two illustrations of C. pepo pumpkins that were published in Fuchs' De Historia Stirpium, 1542. Images of fruits of two Cucurbita species, drawn between 1515 and 1518, were recently discovered in the Villa Farnesina in Rome. • Findings An even earlier image of Cucurbita exists in the prayer book, Grandes Heures d'Anne de Bretagne, illustrated by Jean Bourdichon in Touraine, France, between 1503 and 1508. This image, which shows a living branch bearing flowers and fruits, had not been examined and analysed by cucurbit specialists until now. The image is identified as depicting Cucurbita pepo subsp. texana. Unlike some of the fruits of Cucurbita depicted in the Villa Farnesina a decade later, this image does not depict an esculent and does not constitute evidence of early European contact with New World agriculture. Based on the descriptive, ecological and geographical accounts of C. pepo subsp. texana in the wild, the idea is considered that the image was based on an offspring of a plant found growing along the Gulf Coast of what is now the United States. PMID:16687431

  5. Earliest Cucurbita from the Great Lakes, Northern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, G. William; Lovis, William A.; Egan-Bruhy, Kathryn C.

    2006-03-01

    Directly dated Cucurbita from archaeological sites near Lake Huron expand the range and human usage of adventive, cultivated wild gourds or squash into the Great Lakes region, USA, by 4000 14C yr BP. The data also show that domesticated C. pepo squash was cultivated there by 3000 14C yr BP. Although milder Hypsithermal climate may have been a contributing factor, squash and gourds expanded northward during the mid-Holocene mainly by human agency and may be the first human-introduced adventive plant in temperate North America. Even after 3000 14C yr BP, when domesticated squash generally replaced wild varieties at northern sites, squash stands were probably informally managed rather than intensively cultivated.

  6. Application of Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia) serine proteinase for production of biologically active peptides from casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Babij, Konrad; Pokora, Marta; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine potential application of a serine proteinase derived from Asian pumpkin for obtaining biologically active peptides from casein. The course of casein hydrolysis by three doses of the enzyme (50, 150, 300 U/mg of protein) was monitored for 24 hours by the determinations of: hydrolysis degree DH (%), free amino group content (μmole Gly/g), RP HPLC peptide profiles and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In all hydrolyzates analyzed antioxidant activities were determined using three tests: the ability to reduce iron ions in FRAP test, the ability to scavenge free radicals in DPPH test, and Fe(2+) chelating activity. The antimicrobial activity of obtained peptide fractions was determined as the ability to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens in a diffusion plate test. The deepest degradation, expressed as the DH [%] and the free amino group content (67% and 7528 µmole Gly/mg, respectively), was noted in samples hydrolyzed with 300 U/ml of enzyme for 24 hours, while in other samples the determined values were about three and two times lower. The results were in agreement with the peptide profiles obtained by RP HPLC. The highest antioxidative activities determined in all tests were seen for the casein hydrolysate obtained with 300 U/mg protein of serine proteinase after 24 h of reaction (2.15 µM Trolox/mg, 96.15 µg Fe(3+)/mg, 814.97 µg Fe(2+)/mg). Antimicrobial activity was presented in three preparations. In other samples no antimicrobial activity was detected.

  7. Efficacy of protein bait sprays in controlling melon fruit fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] in vegetable agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, Z.U.A.; Baloch, N.

    2017-01-01

    Melon fruit fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] is an injurious pest of vegetables and fruits throughout the cosmos. Vegetables are key source of proteins, minerals and vitamins for human nutrition. However, a number of factors, such as Tephritid flies, confine production of vegetables. Among them , B. cucurbitae is most deleterious pests of the vegetables. In the present investigation, conducted at two field locations of district, Hyderabad during 2016, efficacy of various bait sprays was evaluated in controlling Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) infestation. The field locations were Jeay Shah and Dehli farm and the cucurbit vegetable crops were bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) and bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia). For this purpose, three food attractants such as Nu-lure, Protein hydrolysate and Prima were sprayed on onemeter square per field area, as spot treatment. Significantly higher reductions in B. cucurbitae infestations (24.80+-2.63, 21.20+-2.75) were recorded with Protein hydrolysate followed by Nu-lure (27.80+-3.26, 24.20+-3.57), as compared with untreated plots, at both field locations (P<0.05). Moreover, higher number of pupae were recovered (121.40+-13.81, 115.00+-14.17) and higher number of flies and trap catches were observed in control (P<0.05). This study established that Protein hydrolysate is an effective food attractant for reducing B. cucurbitae in all the tested cucurbits. Results of the present investigation would be useful in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the cucurbit agro-ecosystem. (author)

  8. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjur, Oris I; Piperno, Dolores R; Andres, Thomas C; Wessel-Beaver, Linda

    2002-01-08

    We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico.

  9. Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGIII, from Corymbia ficifolia detritus in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandón, P; Sánchez, A; Firacative, C; Castañeda, E

    2010-06-01

    An environmental sampling survey was carried out in different areas of Bogotá, Colombia, to obtain isolates of members of the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex from Corymbia ficifolia trees. During a 6-month period in 2007, 128 samples consisting of bark, soil around trunk bases, detritus, seeds and flowers were collected from 91 trees and processed according to standard procedures. The molecular type was determined using URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and the mating type was established by PCR using specific primers for Mfalpha and Mfa C. gattii was isolated from 15 of the 128 (11.7%) samples, of which three (20%) were recovered from the red flower extract and the remaining 12 from C. ficifolia detritus. URA5 RFLP analysis revealed that all 15 isolates belonged to the molecular type VGIII and mating type specific PCR revealed that all were mating type a. The isolation of C. gattii from C. ficifolia represents an important finding since this is the first report revealing C. ficifolia as a habitat for C. gattii and adds additional information to the ever growing spectrum of tree species from which C. gattii can be recovered.

  10. (cucurbita pepo) and sorghum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    ... properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) flour blends fermented with pure strains of Lactobacillus ... good storage characteristics and affordable cost. (Akinrele ... (MRS), Nutrient agar (NA) and Potato dextrose.

  11. Cucurbita moschata L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité antiparasitaire de la poudre de graines de courge ( Cucurbita moschata L.) sur les helminthes gastro-intestinaux de la chèvre locale élevée à Lubumbashi en République Démocratique du Congo.

  12. Competitive Interactions between Immature Stages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, K; Hu, J; Wu, B; An, K; Zhang, J; Liu, J; Zhang, R

    2014-08-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and the pumpkin fly, Bactrocera tau (Walker), are economically important pests that attack mainly cucurbitacean fruits. The two fruit fly species have similar natural distributions, host ranges, and population growth capacities. This study was designed to assess the asymmetrical competitions through resource exploitation between the larvae of B. cucurbitae and B. tau at different density levels and temperatures, and on different hosts by comparing the relative effects of interspecific and intraspecific interactions on four life history parameters: survival rate, puparial mass, puparial duration, and developmental duration. Our results showed that intraspecific and interspecific competitions occurred under some laboratory conditions, and B. cucurbitae took advantage over B. tau at the high-density level and at low and high temperatures on pumpkin, bitter gourd, and bottle gourd when interspecific competition took place. Intraspecific and interspecific competitions mainly affected the puparial mass and the survival rate of the two fruit fly species but had no marked effect on the puparial duration or development duration.

  13. Economic feasibility of intercropping of chili with sweet gourd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Hossain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI, Ishurdi, Pabna during two consecutive years of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 to find out the suitable combination of intercropping of chili with sweet gourd for increasing the productivity and economic return. The treatments were T1=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 40% chili (50cm x 100cm + 100% recommended fertilizer (RF of chili, T2=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 40% chili (50cm x 100cm + 75% RF of chili, T3=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 40% chili (50cm x 100cm + 50% RF of chili, T4=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 100% RF of chili, T5=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 75% RF of chili, T6=100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 50% RF of chili, T7=Sole sweet gourd, T8= Sole chili. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Fruit yield was calculated for sweet gourd and chili in ton per hectare considering the whole plot as harvested area. Results revealed that the yield of both sweet gourd and chili significantly affected by plant population and fertilizer dose in the intercropping systems. The highest equivalent yield of sweet gourd (21.21 t ha-1, land equivalent ratio (1.59, gross return (Tk. 318150.00 ha-1, gross margin (Tk. 237935.00 ha-1 and benefit cost ratio (3.97 were obtained from 100% sweet gourd (2m x 2m + 50% chili (50cm x 80cm + 100% RF of chili (T4. Sole crop of chili (T8 gave the lowest equivalent yield of sweet gourd (7.38 t ha-1, gross return (Tk. 110700.00 ha-1, gross margin (Tk. 37455.00 ha-1 and benefit cost ratio (1.51. Therefore, sweet gourd (100% and chili (50% with recommended fertilizer (100% of chili might be economically profitable for chili with sweet gourd intercropping system.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjur, Oris I.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Andres, Thomas C.; Wessel-Beaver, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico. PMID:11782554

  15. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Alvaro; Smith, Bruce D; Gifford, John A; Green, Richard E; Newsom, Lee A; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-02-25

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315-18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication.

  16. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Álvaro; Smith, Bruce D.; Gifford, John A.; Green, Richard E.; Newsom, Lee A.; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315–18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication. PMID:24516122

  17. Qualitative and quantitative differences in carotenoid composition among Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Meleiro, Cristiane H; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2007-05-16

    Squashes and pumpkins are important dietary sources of carotenoids worldwide. The carotenoid composition has been determined, but reported data have been highly variable, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the present work, the carotenoid composition of squashes and pumpkins currently marketed in Campinas, Brazil, were determined by HPLC-DAD, complemented by HPLC-MS for identification. Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and C. moschata 'Goianinha' had similar profiles, with beta-carotene and alpha-carotene as the major carotenoids. The hybrid 'Tetsukabuto' resembled the Cucurbita pepo 'Mogango', lutein and beta-carotene being the principal carotenoids. Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' had a different profile, with the predominance of violaxanthin, followed by beta-carotene and lutein. Combining data from the current study with those in the literature, profiles for the Cucurbita species could be observed. The principal carotenoids in C. moschata were beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, whlereas lutein and beta-carotene dominate in C. maxima and C. pepo. It appears that hydroxylation is a control point in carotenoid biosynthesis.

  18. Nutritional value OF Bottle Gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria ) Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole seeds, dehulled seeds and seed coats of bottle gourd seed (Lagenaria siceraria) were analysed for their proximate, amino acids and mineral compositions. The results of the analysis showed that, whole seed has highest content of moisture (17.5 0.21%) and ash (5.80 0.83%) while dehulled had highest amount ...

  19. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in sponge gourd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows-7

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... the Middle East and India, China, Japan and Malaysia. (Porterfield, 1955). Sponge gourd is native to Tropical. Asia, probably India and South East Asia. The tender fruit is used as vegetable which is easily digestible and increase appetite when consumed (Okusanya et al.,. 1981). Besides being a vegetable ...

  20. Immediate effect of bitter gourd, ash gourd, Knol-khol juices on blood sugar levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Selvakumar

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: This study shows the significance of hypoglycemic effects of bitter gourd and Knol khol juices among the type 2 Diabetic patients. Hence Bitter gourd juice, Knol khol juices may be beneficial in Diabetes patients to reduce the blood glucose level.

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia is widely cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal herb in many Asian and African countries. After the sequencing of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, and melon (Cucumis melo genomes, bitter gourd became the fourth cucurbit species whose whole genome was sequenced. However, a comprehensive analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs in bitter gourd, including a comparison with the three aforementioned cucurbit species has not yet been published. Here, we identified a total of 188,091 and 167,160 SSR motifs in the genomes of the bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘OHB3-1,’ respectively. Subsequently, the SSR content, motif lengths, and classified motif types were characterized for the bitter gourd genomes and compared among all the cucurbit genomes. Lastly, a large set of 138,727 unique in silico SSR primer pairs were designed for bitter gourd. Among these, 71 primers were selected, all of which successfully amplified SSRs from the two bitter gourd lines ‘Dali-11’ and ‘K44’. To further examine the utilization of unique SSR primers, 21 SSR markers were used to genotype a collection of 211 bitter gourd lines from all over the world. A model-based clustering method and phylogenetic analysis indicated a clear separation among the geographic groups. The genomic SSR markers developed in this study have considerable potential value in advancing bitter gourd research.

  2. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, R. S. S.; Yadav, K. S.; Yadav, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K m values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydroge...

  3. Cucurbit powdery mildew-resistant bitter gourd breeding lines reveal four races of Podosphaera xanthii in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a commercially and nutritionally important market vegetable in Asia cultivated mainly by smallholder farmers. Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii (Px) is a nearly ubiquitous and serious fungal disease of bitter gourd. Five bitter gourd...

  4. Increase in the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd by a heat-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Shaoyun, Wang; Shutao, Liu; Jianwu, Zhou; Lijing, Ke; Pingfan, Rao

    2013-12-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) is widely regarded as one of the best remedy foods for diabetes. The positive effect of bitter gourd on diabetes has been attributed in part to the remarkable free radical scavenging activity of its boiled water extract from sun-dried fruits. It is well known that a heat process significantly influences the antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. However, the heat drying processes of bitter gourd have not been studied so far. Here, we show that the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd extract significantly increases after the heat drying process, while the content of flavonoids and phenols, which are generally regarded as the main antioxidant components in bitter gourd, remain unaffected. Furthermore, the content of free amino acids and the total reducing sugar were found to decrease with increasing browning index, indicating the progression of the Maillard reaction, products of which are known to possess significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, it suggests that Maillard reaction products may be the main contributors to the increase in antioxidant capability. Finally, the bitter gourd extract with the higher antioxidant activity, was shown to manifest a corresponding higher proliferation activity on NIT-1 beta-cells. These results suggest that controllable conditions in the heat-drying processing of fresh bitter gourd fruit is of significance for enhancing the total free radical scavenging capacity, beta-cell proliferation activity and possibly the anti-diabetic activity of this fruit.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J-S; Kim, C K; Park, S H; Hirschi, K D; Mok, I- G

    2005-03-01

    We describe a procedure for producing transgenic bottle gourd plants by inoculating cotyledon explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 that carries the binary vector pCAMBIA3301 containing a glufosinate ammonium-resistance (bar) gene and the beta-D-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The most effective bacterial infection was observed when cotyledon explants of 4-day-old seedlings were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 6-8 days on co-cultivation medium supplemented with 0.1-0.001 mg/l L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine (AVG). The putatively transformed shoots directly emerged at the proximal end of cotyledon explants after 2-3 weeks of culturing on selection medium containing 2 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. These shoots were rooted after 3 weeks of culturing on half-strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l indole acetic acid and 1 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. Transgenic plants were obtained at frequencies of 1.9%. Stable integration and transmission of the transgenes in T1 generation plants were confirmed by a histochemical GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses. Genetic segregation analysis of T1 progenies showed that transgenes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in bottle gourd.

  6. Morphological and Molecular Analysis Using RAPD in Biofield Treated Sponge and Bitter Gourd

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Gopal; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Branton, Alice; Gangwar, Mayank; Jana, Snehasis

    2015-01-01

    Plants are known to have sense and can respond to touch, electric and magnetic field. The present study was designed on the sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seeds with respect to biofield energy treatment. The seeds of each crop were divided into two groups, one was kept control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi' biofield energy treatment. The variabilities in growth contributing parameters were studied and compared with their control. T...

  7. Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Kitamura, Takayuki; Kang, Yi-Lan; Yu, Shou-Wen; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Chirality plays a significant role in the physical properties and biological functions of many biological materials, e.g., climbing tendrils and twisted leaves, which exhibit chiral growth. However, the mechanisms underlying the chiral growth of biological materials remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate how the Towel Gourd tendrils achieve their chiral growth. Our experiments reveal that the tendrils have a hierarchy of chirality, which transfers from the lower levels to the higher. The change in the helical angle of cellulose fibrils at the subcellular level induces an intrinsic torsion of tendrils, leading to the formation of the helical morphology of tendril filaments. A chirality transfer model is presented to elucidate the chiral growth of tendrils. This present study may help understand various chiral phenomena observed in biological materials. It also suggests that chirality transfer can be utilized in the development of hierarchically chiral materials having unique properties. PMID:24173107

  8. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R S S; Yadav, K S; Yadav, H S

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K(m) values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2 mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with K(i) value of 3.35 mM.

  9. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. S. Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The Km values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2 mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with Ki value of 3.35 mM.

  10. Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbert Domenech, Maria Carmen; Picó Sirvent, María Belén N:2949; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Gisbert Domenech, MC.; Picó Sirvent, MBN.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Regeneration in selected Cucurbita spp. germplasm. Report- Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative. 33-34:53-54. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/62926 Senia 53 54 33-34

  11. Sensory, chemical and morphological characterization of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata genotypes from different geographical origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pevicharova Galina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita spp. is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. They are characterized by great polymorphism according plants and fruits traits. The fruits are consumed in different ways as boiled, baked, dried or processed in puree and juice. The aim of the study was to assess variation of fruit sensory, chemical and morphological characteristics of Cucurbita genotypes in order to find appropriate parental components for the future high quality breeding programme. During 2-year period nine winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. and three pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. genotypes originating from different geographical regions were tested on their morphological characters, basic chemical components and sensory profile. Cluster analysis and Principle component analysis were applied in order to identify similarities of different genotypes. According to the fruit characteristics and plant habitus significant differences were recorded. Considerable variation in the content of dry matter, ascorbic acid, total sugars, total pigments, beta-carotene and sensory assessment of the boiled fruits was established. Accession Moskatna carotina had the best flavour and chemical composition. The studied Cucurbita genotypes are a good basis for performing a breeding program to improve the sensory quality of fruits and increase basic chemical components especially those with antioxidant effect.

  12. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Teresa A; Paris, Harry S

    2016-07-01

    Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  13. Seed Characteristics Diversity in Sponge Gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. Germplasms from Hatay Region in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazım MAVİ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate seed characteristics of sponge gourd, to establish a core collection of sponge gourd with the germplasm collected throughout the Hatay region. A mini-core collection was assessed for morphological performance and some seed traits. Substantial variations of seed characteristics: seed length, seed width, seed thickness (mm, seed index (length/width, seed size (length × width, mm2, seed colour, seed-coat surface, seed shape, seed wing, and 100-seed weight were investigated. Seed length, width and thickness were varied as 15.12-8.97 mm, 9.71-6.25 mm and 2.86-2.16 mm respectively. The seed sizes were determined from small (31 DÖ 06 to big (31 DE 04. Seed colours were ranged from black to white, even a brown colour like 07 MA 01. A hundred seed weights were observed as 16.43 g (31 AL 02 and 7.41 (31 DÖ 06. The results of dendrogram indicated that seed traits of the sponge gourd genotypes were separating in five groups. This collection of sponge gourds will be useful for the gene pools and a wide range of phenotypic variations to provide a good source of diversity for developing of sponge gourd cultivars in breeding programs.

  14. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in AVRDC collections of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is an important market vegetable in Asia, where it is also used in folk medicine to manage type 2 diabetes. Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a serious fungal disease of bitter gourd and yield losses of up to 50% have been reported. After observi...

  16. First Report of Anthracnose on Bitter Gourd Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Korea

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    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose occurred in bitter gourd grown in Jeongup areas of Korea in 2011. Anthracnose of bitter gourd appeared as dark brown circular spots on naturally infected leaves and fruits. The symptoms of infected leaves and fruits were small brown to dark brown spots and gradually enlarged to larger cylindrical dark brown lesions. The causal fungus of anthracnose isolated from the diseased plants was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on the morphological and cultural characteristics and ITS rDNA sequence analysis. All isolates of C. gloeosporioides produced symptoms on the host leaves by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of anthracnose on bitter gourd caused by C. gloeosporioides in Korea.

  17. Different AT-rich satellite DNAs in Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganal, M; Hemleben, V

    1986-11-01

    The AT-rich highly repeated satellite DNA of Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) and Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) were cloned and their DNA structure was investigated. DNA sequencing revealed that the repeat length of satellite DNA in Cucurbita pepo is 349-352 base pairs. The percentage of AT-base pairs is about 61%. This satellite is highly conserved in restriction enzyme pattern and DNA sequence; sequence heterogeneity is about 10%. In contrast, the satellite DNA of Cucurbita maxima has a repeat length of 168-169 base pairs. This satellite is also rich in AT-base pairs (64%), existing in at least three different variants as revealed by restriction enzyme analysis and DNA sequencing. The sequence heterogeneity between these variants is about 15%. The two satellite DNAs showed no cross-hybridization to each other and sequence homology is only limited. Nevertheless, we found in the C. pepo genome a high amount of sequences resembling the satellite of C. maxima. In contrast, the satellite repeat of C. pepo is found in the C. maxima DNA only in a few copies. These observations were discussed with respect to satellite DNA evolution and compared to the data received from monocotyledonous species.

  18. Draft genome sequence of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), a vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasaki, Naoya; Takagi, Hiroki; Natsume, Satoshi; Uemura, Aiko; Taniai, Naoki; Miyagi, Norimichi; Fukushima, Mai; Suzuki, Shouta; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Sakamoto, Moriaki; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is an important vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions globally. In this study, the draft genome sequence of a monoecious bitter gourd inbred line, OHB3-1, was analyzed. Through Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly, scaffolds of 285.5 Mb in length were generated, corresponding to ∼84% of the estimated genome size of bitter gourd (339 Mb). In this draft genome sequence, 45,859 protein-coding gene loci were identified, and transposable elements accounted for 15.3% of the whole genome. According to synteny mapping and phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes, bitter gourd was more related to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) than to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) or melon (C. melo). Using RAD-seq analysis, 1507 marker loci were genotyped in an F2 progeny of two bitter gourd lines, resulting in an improved linkage map, comprising 11 linkage groups. By anchoring RAD tag markers, 255 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map. Comparative analysis of genome sequences and predicted genes determined that putative trypsin-inhibitor and ribosome-inactivating genes were distinctive in the bitter gourd genome. These genes could characterize the bitter gourd as a medicinal plant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  19. Effect of heat on loofah gourd seeds chemical composition and fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dehulled loofah gourd seeds (DLGS), Luffah cylindrica was divided into three parts namely; raw (DLGSR), boiled for 5 min at 100 oC (DLGSB) and cooked for 30 min (DGLSC). Proximate composition, amino acids, amino acid scores and energy were determined in DLGSR, DLGSB and DLGSC and fatty acids constituents ...

  20. Effect of gamma rays on morphogenesis from different explants of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.D.; Rao, A.M.; Nirmala, N.; Mallaiah, B.

    1993-01-01

    Different doses of irradiation were used on seeds of bitter gourd to elucidate their effect of morphogenetic response. Lower doses like 2-4 kRs favoured in multiple shoots induction and higher doses proved as the lethal. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  1. Phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials by hydroponic Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Niroj; Reinhold, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Consumer use of antimicrobial-containing products continuously introduces triclocarban and triclosan into the environment. Triclocarban and triclosan adversely affect plants and animals and have the potential to affect human health. Research examined the phytoaccumulation of triclocarban and triclosan by pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Howden) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Gold Rush) grown hydroponically. Pumpkin and zucchini were grown in nutrient solution spiked with 0.315 microg/mL triclocarban and 0.289 microg/mL triclosan for two months. Concentrations of triclocarban and triclosan in nutrient solutions were monitored weekly. At the end of the trial, roots and shoots were analyzed for triclocarban and triclosan. Research demonstrated that pumpkin and zucchini accumulated triclocarban and triclosan. Root accumulation factors were 1.78 and 0.64 and translocation factors were 0.001 and 0.082 for triclocarban and triclosan, respectively. The results of this experiment were compared with a previous soil column study that represented environmentally relevant exposure of antimicrobials from biosolids and had similar root mass. Plants were not as efficient in removing triclocarban and triclosan in hydroponic systems as in soil systems. Shoot concentrations of antimicrobials were the same or lower in hydroponic systems than in soil columns, indicating that hydroponic system does not overpredict the concentrations of antimicrobials.

  2. Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Seed Extracts of Cucurbita Maxima Duchense

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Sharma; Ashish K. Sharma; Tara Chand; Manoj Khardiya; Kailash Chand Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima Duchense (family:Cucurbitaceae) is a trailing annual herb, widely cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world, for used as vegetables as well as medicines. The present study deals with preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of seed extract of Cucurbita maxima. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detailed analysis. Different physicochemical parameters such as ash value (total ash, aci...

  3. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome, and development of SSR markers in wax gourd (Benicasa hispida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wax gourd is a widely used vegetable of Cucuribtaceae, and also has important medicinal and health values. However, the genomic resources of wax gourd were scarcity, and only a few nucleotide sequences could be obtained in public databases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we examined transcriptome in wax gourd. More than 44 million of high quality reads were generated from five different tissues of wax gourd using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 4 Gbp data were generated, and de novo assembled into 65,059 unigenes, with an N50 of 1,132 bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known protein database, 36,070 (55.4% showed significant similarity to known proteins in Nr database, and 24,969 (38.4% had BLAST hits in Swiss-Prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,994 of wax gourd unigenes were assigned to GO term annotation, and 23,977 were found to have COG classifications. In addition, a total of 18,713 unigenes were assigned to 281 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, 6,242 microsatellites (simple sequence repeats were detected as potential molecular markers in wax gourd. Two hundred primer pairs for SSRs were designed for validation of the amplification and polymorphism. The result showed that 170 of the 200 primer pairs were successfully amplified and 49 (28.8% of them exhibited polymorphisms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study enriches the genomic resources of wax gourd and provides powerful information for future studies. The availability of this ample amount of information about the transcriptome and SSRs in wax gourd could serve as valuable basis for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, molecular genetics and molecular breeding of this important vegetable crop.

  4. De novo assembly of the zucchini genome reveals a whole-genome duplication associated with the origin of the Cucurbita genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Pau, Javier; Blanca, José; Bombarely, Aureliano; Ziarsolo, Peio; Esteras, Cristina; Martí-Gómez, Carlos; Ferriol, María; Gómez, Pedro; Jamilena, Manuel; Mueller, Lukas; Picó, Belén; Cañizares, Joaquín

    2017-11-07

    The Cucurbita genus (squashes, pumpkins and gourds) includes important domesticated species such as C. pepo, C. maxima and C. moschata. In this study, we present a high-quality draft of the zucchini (C. pepo) genome. The assembly has a size of 263 Mb, a scaffold N50 of 1.8 Mb and 34 240 gene models. It includes 92% of the conserved BUSCO core gene set, and it is estimated to cover 93.0% of the genome. The genome is organized in 20 pseudomolecules that represent 81.4% of the assembly, and it is integrated with a genetic map of 7718 SNPs. Despite the small genome size, three independent lines of evidence support that the C. pepo genome is the result of a whole-genome duplication: the topology of the gene family phylogenies, the karyotype organization and the distribution of 4DTv distances. Additionally, 40 transcriptomes of 12 species of the genus were assembled and analysed together with all the other published genomes of the Cucurbitaceae family. The duplication was detected in all the Cucurbita species analysed, including C. maxima and C. moschata, but not in the more distant cucurbits belonging to the Cucumis and Citrullus genera, and it is likely to have occurred 30 ± 4 Mya in the ancestral species that gave rise to the genus. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on glycoconjugate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, B; Kumar, G Suresh; Salimath, P V

    2009-01-01

    Changes in glycoconjugate metabolism during the development of diabetic complications and their modulation by feeding bitter gourd and spent turmeric as fiber-rich source. This was studied by measuring the contents of total sugar, uronic acid, amino sugar, and sulfate in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Total sugar content decreased in liver, spleen, and brain, while an increase was observed in heart and lungs. Uronic acid content in liver, spleen, and brain decreased, and marginal increase was observed in testis. Amino sugar content decreased in liver, spleen, lungs and heart during diabetes, and augmentation was observed to different extents. Decrease in sulfation of glycoconjugates was observed in liver, spleen, lungs and heart during diabetes and was significantly ameliorated by bitter gourd and spent turmeric, except brain. Protein content decreased in liver, while an increase was observed in brain. The studies clearly showed alteration in glycoconjugate metabolism during diabetes and amelioration to different extents by feeding bitter gourd and spent turmeric. Improvement is due to slow release of glucose by fiber in the gastrointestinal track and short-chain fatty acid production from fiber by colon microbes.

  6. Bitter gourd reduces elevated fasting plasma glucose levels in an intervention study among prediabetics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawinkel, Michael B; Ludwig, Christine; Swai, Mark E; Yang, Ray-Yu; Chun, Kwok Pan; Habicht, Sandra D

    2018-04-24

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus have become major health issues even in non-industrialized countries. As access to clinical management is often poor, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. For bitter gourd, Momordica charantia L., antidiabetic properties have been claimed. The main objective of the intervention study was to assess antidiabetic effects of daily bitter gourd consumption of 2.5g powder over the course of eight weeks among prediabetic individuals. In a randomized placebo-controlled single blinded clinical trial, 52 individuals with prediabetes were studied after consuming a bitter gourd or a cucumber juice. For reducing the impact of between subject differences in the study population, a crossover design was chosen with eight weeks for each study period and four weeks washout in between. Fasting plasma glucose was chosen as the primary outcome variable. Comparing the different exposures, the CROS analysis (t=-2.23, p=0.031, r=0.326) revealed a significant difference in the change of FPG of 0.31mmol/L (5.6mg/dL) with a trend (R 2 =0,42387). The number of 44 finally complete data sets achieved a power of 0.82, with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d 0.62). The effect was also proven by a general linear mixed model (estimate 0.31; SE: 0.12; p: 0.01; 95%CI: 0.08; 0.54). Not all participants responded, but the higher the initial blood glucose levels were, the more pronounced the effect was. No serious adverse effects were observed. Bitter gourd supplementation appeared to have benefits in lowering elevated fasting plasma glucose in prediabetes. The findings should be replicated in other intervention studies to further investigate glucose lowering effects and the opportunity to use bitter gourd for dietary self-management, especially in places where access to professional medical care is not easily assured. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic networks of Cucurbita maxima phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2003-03-01

    Metabolomic analysis aims at a comprehensive characterization of biological samples. Yet, biologically meaningful interpretations are often limited by the poor spatial and temporal resolution of the acquired data sets. One way to remedy this is to limit the complexity of the cell types being studied. Cucurbita maxima Duch. vascular exudates provide an excellent material for metabolomics in this regard. Using automated mass spectral deconvolution, over 400 components have been detected in these exudates, but only 90 of them were tentatively identified. Many amino compounds were found in vascular exudates from leaf petioles at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than in tissue disks from the same leaves, whereas hexoses and sucrose were found in far lower amounts. In order to find the expected impact of assimilation rates on sugar levels, total phloem composition of eight leaves from four plants was followed over 4.5 days. Surprisingly, no diurnal rhythm was found for any of the phloem metabolites that was statistically valid for all eight leaves. Instead, each leaf had its own distinct vascular exudate profile similar to leaves from the same plant, but clearly different from leaves harvested from plants at the same developmental stage. Thirty to forty per cent of all metabolite levels of individual leaves were different from the average of all metabolite profiles. Using metabolic co-regulation analysis, similarities and differences between the exudate profiles were more accurately characterized through network computation, specifically with respect to nitrogen metabolism.

  8. Genetics of oil pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. belongs to alternative crops grown for seeds and high quality seed oil. One of the basic prerequisites of successful production of oil pumpkin is the proper choice of cultivar. The genetics of different traits of oil pumpkin represents the basis for breeding of new cultivars of oil pumpkin. Of special interest for oil pumpkin breeding are the genetics of seed- coat, plant growth type, resistance to diseases and genetic basis of male sterility. For practical breeding of oil pumpkin the theory of monogenic inheritance of seed coat is quite satisfactory. In light of the theory of developmental reversal of dominance, it may be concluded for C. pepo that the bush type of growth is almost completely dominant over the vine habit at the beginning of plant growth, be- coming incompletely dominant in the second part of the season. In C. moshata several resistance genes of interest in oil pumpkin breeding for virus resistance were discovered. Male sterility, which was transferred to different genotypes of naked seeded oil pumpkin has potential for production of F1 hybrid seed. In addition to traits mention above, other genes of interest for genetics and breeding of oil pumpkin are also mentioned in this paper.

  9. Development of Insertion and Deletion Markers for Bottle Gourd Based on Restriction Site-associated DNA Sequencing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi WU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd is an important cucurbit crop worldwide. To provide more available molecular markers for this crop, a bioinformatic approach was employed to develop insertion–deletions (InDels markers in bottle gourd based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq data. A total of 892 Indels were predicted, with the length varying from 1 bp to 167 bp. Single-nucleotide InDels were the predominant types of InDels. To validate these InDels, PCR primers were designed from 162 loci where InDels longer than 2 bp were predicated. A total of 112 InDels were found to be polymorphic among 9 bottle gourd accessions under investigation. The rate of prediction accuracy was thus at a high level of 72.7%. DNA fingerprinting for 4 cultivars were performed using 8 selected Indels markers, demonstrating the usefulness of these markers.

  10. Identification and Validation of a New Male Sex-Specific ISSR Marker in Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinchan Adhikari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism.

  11. Some Plant Characteristics Of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne and Cucurbita moschata Duchesne Genotypes Collected From Western Anatolia Region

    OpenAIRE

    Babaoğlu, Dursun; Türkmen, Önder

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a total of 147 Cucurbita maxima Duchesne species collected from the cities of İstanbul, Tekirdağ, Edirne, Kırklareli, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, İzmir, Aydın, Denizli, Muğla, Manisa, Afyon, Kütahya, Uşak, Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik, Kocaeli, Sakarya, Düzce, Bolu, Yalova, Ankara, Konya, Karaman, Antalya, Isparta, Burdur where 76% of winter pumpkin production is made in Turkey and, a total of 54 Cucurbita moschata Duchesne were compiled. The pumpkins were sown on 23th of May 2013 in Ha...

  12. Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Auxin Efflux Carrier Differentially Expressed in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

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    Yi-Li Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin regulates various developmental programs in plants, including cell growth, cell division and cell differentiation. The auxin efflux carriers are essential for the auxin transport. To show an involvement of auxin transporters in the coordination of fruit development in bitter gourd, a juicy fruit, we isolated novel cDNAs (referred as McPIN encoding putative auxin efflux carriers, including McPIN1, McPIN2 (allele of McPIN1 and McPIN3, from developing fruits of bitter gourd. Both McPIN1 and McPIN3 genes possess six exons and five introns. Hydropathy analysis revealed that both polypeptides have two hydrophobic regions with five transmembrane segments and a predominantly hydrophilic core. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that McPIN1 shared the highest homology to the group of Arabidopsis, cucumber and tomato PIN1, while McPIN3 belonged to another group, including Arabidopsis and tomato PIN3 as well as PIN4. This suggests different roles for McPIN1 and McPIN3 in auxin transport involved in the fruit development of bitter gourd. Maximum mRNA levels for both genes were detected in staminate and pistillate flowers. McPIN1 is expressed in a particular period of early fruit development but McPIN3 continues to be expressed until the last stage of fruit ripening. Moreover, these two genes are auxin-inducible and qualified as early auxin-response genes. Their expression patterns suggest that these two auxin transporter genes play a pivotal role in fruit setting and development.

  13. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Cucurbita pepo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of the extracts of Cucurbita pepo (backpeel and seeds) against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi were carried out using standard procedures. The extraction was achieved using percolation method with ethanol and methanol as solvents. Higher yield of the ...

  14. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty (20) adult female wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on immunity. The rats were divided randomly into four groups (A,B,C and D) with five rats in each group. Group A, served as control while group B, C and D served as the experimental groups.

  15. Genetic diversity in Cucurbita pepo landraces from northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dendrogram mainly grouped the populations according to their mature fruit colour, and then according to their geographical origin. All genetic parameters indicated that there was plentiful genetic diversity in C. pepo landraces of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Key words: Cucurbita pepo landraces, genetic ...

  16. An overview of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Balkaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita L. species of the pumpkin and winter squash are grown all over the world. Winter squash and pumpkin are two of the most important Cucurbit vegetable crops in Turkey. Turkey is one of the important diversity areas, for the cultivated cucurbits because of their adaptation to diverse ecological conditions as a result of both natural selection and also the selection by farmers. Farmers have maintained the local population of winter squash and pumpkin, which are mainly sold in local markets. Only one improved cultivar of the winter squash is currently grown commercially in Turkey. It is a traditional vegetable often grown in small gardens. In this contribution, the last status of winter squash and pumpkin production in Turkey, the growing techniques and problems of these winter squash and pumpkin species, their genetic collection and characterization, and the utilization of the presented species in Turkey are examined.

  17. Cardanol-based thermoset plastic reinforced by sponge gourd fibers (Luffa cylindrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leandro da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A growing global trend for maximum use of natural resources through new processes and products has enhanced studies and exploration of renewable natural materials. In this study, cardanol, a component of the cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, was used as a building block for the development of a thermosetting matrix, which was reinforced by raw and modified sponge gourd fibers (Luffa cylindrica. DSC and TG results showed that among biocomposites, the one reinforced by sponge gourd fibers treated with NaOH 10 wt% (BF10 had the highest thermal stability, besides the best performance in the Tensile testing, showing good incorporation, dispersion, and adhesion to polymer matrix, observed by SEM. After 80 days of simulated soil experiments, it has been discovered that the presence of treated fiber allowed better biodegradability behavior to biocomposites. The biobased thermoset plastic and biocomposites showed a good potential to several applications, such as manufacturing of articles for furniture and automotive industries, especially BF10.

  18. Evolutionary and domestication history of Cucurbita (pumpkin and squash) species inferred from 44 nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Heather R; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2017-06-01

    Phylogenetics can facilitate the study of plant domestication by resolving sister relationships between crops and their wild relatives, thereby identifying the ancestors of cultivated plants. Previous phylogenetic studies of the six Cucurbita crop lineages (pumpkins and squashes) and their wild relatives suggest histories of deep coalescence that complicate uncovering the genetic origins of the six crop taxa. We investigated the evolution of wild and domesticated Cucurbita using the most comprehensive and robust molecular-based phylogeny for Cucurbita to date based on 44 loci derived from introns of single-copy nuclear genes. We discovered novel relationships among Cucurbita species and recovered the first Cucurbita tree with well-supported resolution within species. Cucurbita comprises a clade of mesophytic annual species that includes all six crop taxa and a grade of xerophytic perennial species that represent the ancestral xerophytic habit of the genus. Based on phylogenetic resolution within-species we hypothesize that the magnitude of domestication bottlenecks varies among Cucurbita crop lineages. Our phylogeny clarifies how wild Cucurbita species are related to the domesticated taxa. We find close relationships between two wild species and crop lineages not previously identified. Expanded geographic sampling of key wild species is needed for improved understanding of the evolution of domesticated Cucurbita. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. First Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya ringspot virus-W Isolated from a Gourd in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhtar

    2017-01-12

    In the United States, the Papaya ringspot virus was first reported from papaya in Florida in 1949. Here, we determined the first complete genome sequence (10,302 nucleotides) of a Papaya ringspot virus-W isolate, which was collected from a commercial field of gourd in Tulsa, OK. Copyright © 2017 Ali.

  20. A preliminary report on the genetic variation in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S; Biswas, A; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Ghosh, P D

    2014-06-01

    Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is an economically important cucurbit and is extensively propagated through vegetative means, viz vine and root cuttings. As the accessions are poorly characterized it is important at the beginning of a breeding programme to discriminate among available genotypes to establish the level of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of 10 pointed gourd races, referred to as accessions was evaluated. DNA profiling was generated using 10 sequence independent RAPD markers. A total of 58 scorable loci were observed out of which 18 (31.03%) loci were considered polymorphic. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, Shannon's index, percent polymorphism, Nei's gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC)] for RAPD along with UPGMA clustering based on Jaccard's coefficient were estimated. The UPGMA dendogram constructed based on RAPD analysis in 10 pointed gourd accessions were found to be grouped in a single cluster and may represent members of one heterotic group. RAPD analysis showed promise as an effective tool in estimating genetic polymorphism in different accessions of pointed gourd.

  1. Proteomic analysis of heat treated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. Hong Kong Green) using 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Zhi Xiang; Chua, Kek Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the proteome of bitter gourd prior to and after subjecting to boiling and microwaving. A comparative analysis of the proteome profiles of raw and thermally treated bitter gourds was performed using 2D-DIGE. The protein content and number of protein spots in raw sample was higher when compared to the cooked samples. Qualitative analysis revealed that 103 (boiled sample) and 110 (microwaved sample) protein spots were up regulated whereas 120 (boiled sample) and 107 (microwaved sample) protein spots were down regulated. Ten protein spots with the highest significant fold change in the cooked samples were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolisms and stress responses. Small heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglycerate kinase play a role in heat-stress-mediated protection of bitter gourd. This study suggests that appropriate heat treatment (cooking methods) can lead to induction of selected proteins in bitter gourd. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Drought tolerance of selected bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] landraces assessed by leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashilo, Jacob; Odindo, Alfred O; Shimelis, Hussein A; Musenge, Pearl; Tesfay, Samson Z; Magwaza, Lembe S

    2017-11-01

    Successful cultivation of bottle gourd in arid and semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa and globally requires the identification of drought tolerant parents for developing superior genotypes with increased drought resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the level of drought tolerance among genetically diverse South African bottle gourd landraces based on leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic efficiency and identify promising genotypes for breeding. The responses of 12 bottle gourd landraces grown in glasshouse under non-stressed (NS) and drought-stressed (DS) conditions were studied. A significant genotype x water regime interaction was observed for gs, T, A, A/C i , IWUE, WUE ins , F m ', F v '/F m ', Ф PSII , qP, qN, ETR, ETR/A and AES indicating variability in response among the studied bottle gourd landraces under NS and DS conditions. Principal component analysis identified three principal components (PC's) under drought stress condition contributing to 82.9% of total variation among leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters measured. PC1 explained 36% of total variation contributed by gs, T, F 0 ', F m ', F v '/F m ' and qN, while PC2 explained 28% of the variation and highly correlated with A, A/C i , IWUE, WUE ins ETR/A and AES. PC3 explained 14% of total variation contributed by Ф PSII , qP and ETR. Principal biplot analysis allowed the identification of drought tolerant genotypes such as BG-27, BG-48, BG-58, BG-79, BG-70 and BG-78 which were grouped based on high gs, A, F m 'F v '/F m ', qN, ETR/A and AES under DS condition. The study suggests that the identified physiological traits could be useful indicators in the selection of bottle gourd genotypes for increased drought tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  4. Effects of dehydration, packaging and irradiation on the microbial and sensory quality of bitter gourd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.S.; Zeb, A.; Alam, S.; Hashim, M.M.; Hashmi, M.S.; Riaz, A.

    2007-01-01

    The research was carried out in the Food Technology Section at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Peshawar, Pakistan during 2004-05 to study the effect of potassium metabisulphite, packaging and irradiation on the dehydrated bitter gourd. Samples were stored at ambient temperature for a period of three months and analyzed after 15 days of intervals for microbial (Total bacterial count, Total fungal count) and organoleptic (appearance, taste, after-taste, overall acceptability) characteristics. Mean score of taste panel for appearance, taste, after-taste and overall acceptability significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased, while microbial growth significantly (p less than 0.05) increased during storage. Results showed that sample (T5) i.e. (Blanched+0. I% potassium metabisulphite + Dehydrated + Irradiation (3kGy) + Packed) had negligible microbial growth, maintained maximum nutrients stability and best quality characteristics during storage

  5. An Update Review on the Anthelmintic Activity of Bitter Gourd, Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolperm, Sutthaya; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2017-01-01

    Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitales ), as known as bitter melon or gourd, is a daily consumption as food and traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and Indo-China. It has been shown to possess anticancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, charantin, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, tannins, and terpenoids. This plant is rich in various saponins including momordicin, momordin, momordicoside, karavilagenin, karaviloside, and kuguacin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic infections. Based on established literature on the anthelmintic activity of M. charantia and possible mode of action, this review article has attempted to compile M. charantia could be further explored for the development of potential anthelmintic drug.

  6. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies.

  7. Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: A preliminary dietary supplementation trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chung-Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. is a common tropical vegetable that has been used in traditional or folk medicine to treat diabetes. Wild bitter gourd (WBG ameliorated metabolic syndrome (MetS in animal models. We aimed to preliminarily evaluate the effect of WBG supplementation on MetS in Taiwanese adults. Methods A preliminary open-label uncontrolled supplementation trial was conducted in eligible fulfilled the diagnosis of MetS from May 2008 to April 2009. A total of 42 eligible (21 men and 21 women with a mean age of 45.7 ± 11.4 years (23 to 63 years were supplemented with 4.8 gram lyophilized WBG powder in capsules daily for three months and were checked for MetS at enrollment and follow-up monthly. After supplementation was ceased, the participants were continually checked for MetS monthly over an additional three-month period. MetS incidence rate were analyzed using repeated-measures generalized linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results After adjusting for sex and age, the MetS incidence rate (standard error, p value decreased by 7.1% (3.7%, 0.920, 9.5% (4.3%, 0.451, 19.0% (5.7%, 0.021, 16.7% (5.4%, 0.047, 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229 and 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229 at visit 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 compared to that at baseline (visit 1, respectively. The decrease in incidence rate was highest at the end of the three-month supplementation period and it was significantly different from that at baseline (p = 0.021. The difference remained significant at end of the 4th month (one month after the cessation of supplementation (p = 0.047 but the effect diminished at the 5th and 6th months after baseline. The waist circumference also significantly decreased after the supplementation (p Conclusion This is the first report to show that WBG improved MetS in human which provides a firm base for further randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of WBG supplementation.

  8. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variability, heritability, character association, path analysis and morphological diversity in snake gourd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Mahbubur Rahman Khan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability, heritability and path coefficient analysis were studied in 21 genotypes of snake gourd. The phenotypic coefficient of variations was found slightly higher than the genotypic coefficient of variations for all characters studied, indicating that the apparent variation is not only genetic but also influenced by the growing environment in the expression of the traits. The genotypic coefficient of variation was high for the fruit yield, number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. High heritability coupled with high-to-moderate genetic advance was estimated for all characters studied. Correlation studies revealed that the fruit yield had a significant, positive correlation with the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight. Importantly, more than 90% of the genotypic total variation was contributed by the characters included in the path analysis. The highest, direct, positive effect was recorded for the number of fruits per vine. The divergence value for cluster analysis indicated that the genotypes from clusters II and III had the highest inter-cluster distance and were expected to provide high heterosis in hybridization and to show wide variability in genetic architecture. The selection of high yielding genotypes should give emphasis to the number of fruits per vine, length of fruit and single fruit weight.

  10. Antifungal Potential of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against Myrothecium Leaf Spot of Bitter Gourd ( Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bitter gourd is of great importance due to its usage against the treatment of numerous ailments in human beings. A comprehensive survey at four localities of Southern Punjab, Pakistan was carried out to determine the severity of Myrothecium leaf spot. Maximum disease severity was at C1 (Chak 11/NP and least at C2 (Kot Mehtab. Among isolated species Myrothecium roridum was found more prevalent and pathogenic as compared to M. verrucaria. Antifungal activity using solvent extracts of five medicinal plants (Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, Nicotiana tabacum, Moringa oleifera and Eucalyptus globosum were evaluated against isolated species by agar well diffusion method at various concentrations (0.01, 0.10, 1.0 and 10.0 µg / mL. N. tabacum revealed maximum zone size (13.40 mm and 8.28 mm with ethanol and chloroform solvents respectively followed by M. azedarach (9.00mm and 6.48mm. However, least inhibition was observed with ethanol and chloroform extracts of E. globosum (6.04mm and 3.88mm zone size respectively. Ethanol extracts showed highest activity when compared to chloroform extracts. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that all the selected plants are rich in chemical compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenols whereas Saponins was only present in N. tabacum while absent in rest of the extracts.

  11. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of quantitative characters in spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliya, F; Begum, H; Reddy, M T; Sivaraj, N; Pandravada, S R; Narshimulu, G

    2014-05-01

    Fifty genotypes of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb.) were evaluated in a randomized block design with two replications at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India during kharif, 2012. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were carried out to study the character association and contribution, respectively for twelve quantitative characters namely vine length (m), number of stems per plant, days to first female flower appearance, first female flowering node, days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period (days), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per plant and fruit yield per plant (kg) for identification of the potential selection indices. Correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that fruiting period and number of fruits per plant not only had positively significant correlation with fruit yield but also had positively high direct effect on it and are regarded as the main determinants of fruit yield. Days to first fruit harvest had positively moderate direct effect on fruit yield and its association was negatively significant, days to last fruit harvest had negatively high direct effect on fruit yield and its association was significant positively, hence restricted simultaneous selection can be made for days to first fruit harvest and days to last fruit harvest. The improvement in fruit yield can be effective if selection is based on days to first fruit harvest, days to last fruit harvest, fruiting period and number of fruits per plant.

  12. Pollen Deposition Is More Important than Species Richness for Seed Set in Luffa Gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Saeed, S; Sajjad, A

    2016-10-01

    In the context of global biodiversity decline, it is imperative to understand the different aspects of bee communities for sustaining the vital ecosystem service of pollination. Bee species can be assigned to functional groups (average difference among species in functionally related traits) on the basis of complementarity (trait variations exhibited by individual organisms) in their behavior but is not yet known which functional group trait is most important for seed set. In this study, first, the functional groups of bees were made based on their five selected traits (pollen deposition, visitation rate, stay time, visiting time of the day, body size) and then related to the seed set of obligate cross-pollinated Luffa gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca). We found that bee diversity and abundance differed significantly among the studied plots, but only the bee species richness was positively related to the seed set. Functional group diversity in terms of pollen deposition explained even more of the variance in seed set (r 2  = 0.74) than did the species richness (r 2  = 0.53) making it the most important trait of bee species for predicting the crop reproductive success.

  13. Karyotype stability and unbiased fractionation in the paleo-allotetraploid Cucurbita genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Honghe; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Guoyu; Jiao, Chen; Guo, Shaogui; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Gong, Guoyi; Jia, Zhangcai; Zhang, Fan; Tian, Jiaxing; Lucas, William; Doyle, Jeff; Li, Haizhen

    2017-01-01

    The Cucurbita genus contains several economically important species in the Cucurbitaceae family. Interspecific hybrids between C. maxima and C. moschata are widely used as rootstocks for other cucurbit crops. We report high-quality genome sequences of C. maxima and C. moschata and provide evidence supporting an allotetraploidization event in Cucurbita. We are able to partition the genome into two homoeologous subgenomes based on different genetic distances to melon, cucumber and watermelon in...

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of a galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Thyageshwar; Sharma, Alok; Vijayan, M.

    2010-01-01

    A galactose-specific lectin purified from the seeds of bitter gourd (M. charantia) has been crystallized and preliminary X-ray study of the crystals has been carried out. A galactose-specific lectin from the seeds of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a four-chain type II ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) resulting from covalent association through a disulfide bridge between two identical copies of a two-chain unit. The available structural information on such four-chain RIPs is meagre. The bitter gourd lectin was therefore crystallized for structural investigation and the crystals have been characterized. It is anticipated that the structure of the orthorhombic crystals will be analysed using molecular replacement by taking advantage of its sequence, and presumably structural, homology to normal two-chain type II RIPs

  15. A RAD-Based Genetic Map for Anchoring Scaffold Sequences and Identifying QTLs in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Junjie; Luo, Shaobo; Niu, Yu; Huang, Rukui; Wen, Qingfang; Su, Jianwen; Miao, Nansheng; He, Weiming; Dong, Zhensheng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Hu, Kailin

    2018-01-01

    Genetic mapping is a basic tool necessary for anchoring assembled scaffold sequences and for identifying QTLs controlling important traits. Though bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is both consumed and used as a medicinal, research on its genomics and genetic mapping is severely limited. Here, we report the construction of a restriction site associated DNA (RAD)-based genetic map for bitter gourd using an F2 mapping population comprising 423 individuals derived from two cultivated inbred lines, the gynoecious line ‘K44’ and the monoecious line ‘Dali-11.’ This map comprised 1,009 SNP markers and spanned a total genetic distance of 2,203.95 cM across the 11 linkage groups. It anchored a total of 113 assembled scaffolds that covered about 251.32 Mb (85.48%) of the 294.01 Mb assembled genome. In addition, three horticulturally important traits including sex expression, fruit epidermal structure, and immature fruit color were evaluated using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. As a result, we identified three QTL/gene loci responsible for these traits in three environments. The QTL/gene gy/fffn/ffn, controlling sex expression involved in gynoecy, first female flower node, and female flower number was detected in the reported region. Particularly, two QTLs/genes, Fwa/Wr and w, were found to be responsible for fruit epidermal structure and white immature fruit color, respectively. This RAD-based genetic map promotes the assembly of the bitter gourd genome and the identified genetic loci will accelerate the cloning of relevant genes in the future. PMID:29706980

  16. A RAD-Based Genetic Map for Anchoring Scaffold Sequences and Identifying QTLs in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Cui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mapping is a basic tool necessary for anchoring assembled scaffold sequences and for identifying QTLs controlling important traits. Though bitter gourd (Momordica charantia is both consumed and used as a medicinal, research on its genomics and genetic mapping is severely limited. Here, we report the construction of a restriction site associated DNA (RAD-based genetic map for bitter gourd using an F2 mapping population comprising 423 individuals derived from two cultivated inbred lines, the gynoecious line ‘K44’ and the monoecious line ‘Dali-11.’ This map comprised 1,009 SNP markers and spanned a total genetic distance of 2,203.95 cM across the 11 linkage groups. It anchored a total of 113 assembled scaffolds that covered about 251.32 Mb (85.48% of the 294.01 Mb assembled genome. In addition, three horticulturally important traits including sex expression, fruit epidermal structure, and immature fruit color were evaluated using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. As a result, we identified three QTL/gene loci responsible for these traits in three environments. The QTL/gene gy/fffn/ffn, controlling sex expression involved in gynoecy, first female flower node, and female flower number was detected in the reported region. Particularly, two QTLs/genes, Fwa/Wr and w, were found to be responsible for fruit epidermal structure and white immature fruit color, respectively. This RAD-based genetic map promotes the assembly of the bitter gourd genome and the identified genetic loci will accelerate the cloning of relevant genes in the future.

  17. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis;Isolamento de pectina de abobora (Cucurbita moschata, L.) por hidrolise acida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose R.R.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Lab. de Polimeros; Brito, Edy S. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR {sup 1}H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  18. THE CURRENT STATE OF SEED PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES AND GOURDS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION; NATIONAL FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of seed market of vegetable and gourds in Russian Federation in the frame of national food safety program is given in the article. Russia as a country with well-developed  seed production  in the last century has now  ceded  its  position,  and according  to  last experts’ association estimations the 80%  of  required volume of seeds of vegetables and gourds, amounting from 8 to 12 thousand per year is imported.  Not  less than 15 thousands  of  hectares  are  needed  to  be  necessary  for demand  of  Russian seed  production  sector,  however, presently only 2 thousands of hectares is a total certified land used for seed production.  Moreover, the seed production sector of some countries that export seeds rises becoming a profitable branch of agriculture, and providing local employment. The lack of competitiveness in Russia causes that many foreign companies increase annually purchasing prices for seeds and their production services. Therefore, now the total volume of seeds imported  in  Russian Federation has nearly been  twice less for the last years than in 2012, but in currency earnings in exporting countries the insignificant changes can be seen, where deviation is only 19-25%  from  average annual value, that means 1675 thousand dollars per year. Besides, for the Russian budget in the ruble currency the total cost of imported seeds has become 2.5 times more expensive since 2012, but the increase of combined cost of  marketable  vegetables  has been  over  2.7  billion  of rubles.  The  main  idea  that  the  seed  production  is  a process requiring the participation of breeders, seed producers and seed companies is main factor to succeed in recovering seed production sector. Exception of any participant or ignoring his interests may destroy all process. For instance, there is a chronic problem of plagiarism and royalty nonpayment causes the break between the business and

  19. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  20. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-04-16

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  1. Three New Triterpene Esters from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kikuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2, and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4. Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5–93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  2. PRELIMINARY NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF FIVE SPECIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pumpkin or squash gourd), Cucurbita moschata (musk melon), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd or calabash) and Cucumis sativus (“Ibo” egusi). The moisture content was determined by drying in an oven to constant weight, crude protein content by ...

  3. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  4. Effect of bitter gourd and spent turmeric on constituents of glycosaminoglycans in different tissues in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Suresh; Vijayalakshmi, B; Salimath, P V

    2006-06-01

    Diet is now one of the well established means in the management of diabetes. Bitter gourd and spent turmeric at 10% level were tested for their efficacy on glycosaminoglycan metabolism in various tissues viz., liver, spleen, lungs, heart and testis in control, diabetic and treated rats. The glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were isolated from defatted and dried tissues. The contents of sulfated GAGs decreased in all the tissues and the decrease was more prominent in heart and testis. In the isolated GAGs, contents of total sugar, amino sugar, uronic acid and sulfate were studied. Decrease in total sugar content was maximum in testis. Amino sugar content decreased considerably in testis (38%) and lungs (15%). The content of uronic acid also decreased in testis (33%) besides heart (29%) and liver (25%). Sulfate groups in GAGs perform pivotal functions in many biological events and decrease in sulfate content was significant in heart (40%), testis (37%) and liver (37%). GAGs profile on the cellulose acetate electrophoresis revealed that heparan sulfate (HS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) were present in liver, spleen and lungs. HS, CS were present in heart, DS/CS was observed in testis. The observed beneficial effects in GAGs metabolism during diabetes may be due to the presence of high amounts of dietary fibres present in bitter gourd and spent turmeric, besides, possible presence of bioactive compounds in one or both of them.

  5. Accumulation and distribution characteristics of biomass and nitrogen in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) under different fertilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baige; Li, Mingzhu; Li, Qiang; Cao, Jian; Zhang, Changyuan; Zhang, Fusuo; Song, Zhao; Chen, Xinping

    2018-05-01

    The elemental uptake and allocation patterns of crops create insight for nutrient management. Two-year field experiments were conducted to determine the growth and nitrogen (N) uptake patterns of bitter gourd and to evaluate different N management strategies. Two N practices during the nursery stage, namely the conventional fertilizer method (Scon) and the controlled-release fertilizer management method (Scrf), combined with three N management strategies after transplanting, namely zero N fertilizer application (Nno), the conventional strategy (Ncon) and the systematic N management strategy (Nopt), were assessed. Averaged over two years, the Scrf-Nopt treatment performed best, producing 33.1 t ha -1 fruit yield with 310 kg N ha -1 , indicating that the yield was 22.6% greater by using 18.8% less fertilizer N than in the Scon-Ncon treatment. The Scrf-Nopt treatment facilitated plant growth by accumulating 20.0% more total dry weight and prioritized its allocation to productive organs (57.2%), while the Scon-Ncon strategy was biased toward leaves (56.3%) over fruits (43.8%). Nitrogen uptake and distribution closely followed the pattern of biomass. The Scrf-Nopt fertilization strategy coordinated the important role that N plays in total accumulation and well proportion of biomass and N in bitter gourd developmental processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary ...

  7. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Cucurbita maxima Duchense (Pumpkin) Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish K. Sharma; Ashok Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of seeds of Cucurbita maxima for its purported use in diabetes. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of different extracts of Cucurbita maxima seeds was evaluated in wistar albino rats against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.) at dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days. Glibenclamide (500µg/kg) was used as reference drug. Fasting blood g...

  8. Isolation of pectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) by acid hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jose R.R.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.; Paula, Regina C.M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) constitutes an excellent source of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A. Besides, it also that constitutes also a great natural source of low-cost pectin. Pectin is a heterogeneous complex polysaccharide found in the primary cell wall of most plants and its effect on health is receiving increasing interest from the scientific community. In this work, high-methoxy pectin was obtained from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L.) through the acid hydrolysis methodology. The pectin obtained was characterized by FTIR, NMR 1 H, GPC and rheology. (author)

  9. Extracellular Glycoproteins in Embryogenic Culture of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Čipčić Paljetak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular proteins in three distinctly induced embryogenic lines of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. cultivated in four MS media modified regarding the nitrogen composition or auxin presence/absence have been analyzed. Extracellular glycoproteins containing α-D-mannose were specifically detected by the lectine concavalin A. During the cultivation of embryogenic tissue in the medium supplemented with reduced nitrogen, the embryos were mostly arrested at preglobular and globular developmental stages, which coincide with the absence of protein secretion. Secreted glycoproteins of 76, 68, 37 and 34 kDa were detected only if any of the three lines were cultivated in the medium that stimulates embryo development, irrespectively of the addition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or tunicamycin. The glycoprotein of 64 kDa was detected in all lines cultivated in hormone-free MS medium with conventional nitrogen sources and it appears to be associated with embryo maturation. Tunicamycin treatment did not influence embryogenesis, although it specifically affected glycosylation of proteins in the investigated lines. Our results show that besides auxin, the source of nitrate is of great importance for proper protein glycosylation, excretion and developmental transition of pumpkin somatic embryos.

  10. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  11. Gamma radiation in the conservation Cucurbita moschata processed minimally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Laboratório de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Harder, Márcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dep. Roque Trevisan; Arthur, Paula B.; Pires, Juliana; Filho, Jorge C., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: juliana.angelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on (Cucurbita moschata) processed minimally. The zucchinis were acquired in of Horticulture Department of the ESALQ/ USP, Piracicaba, SP. Brazil, and taken to the laboratory of Food Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in cubes. The squash cubes were dipped in a solution of sodium hypochlorite 15ml/L for 4 minutes and kept in plastic box (polypropylene). They were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy, in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 with a dose rate of 0.666 kGy/h, and stored in temperature of 5°C. After 1, 3 and 7 days of irradiation were realized analyses of: color (factors L, a, b), pH, Brix and acidity. By obtained results conclude that there is not statistics difference between the treatments processed by irradiation and the control. Therefore the dose of 2.0 kGy can be used to reduce the level of microbial load without affects the physical chemical characteristics of minimally processed zucchini. (author)

  12. Sensory Acceptability of Squash (Cucurbita Maximain Making Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available - This experimental research was conducted to determine the sensory acceptability of mashed squash (Cucurbita Maxima of different proportions in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, texture, taste and general acceptability. Five treatments were formulated in the study—four of which utilized mashed squash at various proportions and one treatment was used as the control variable which contains no mashed squash at all. The respondents of the study were the 20 Food Technology students and 10 faculty members of West Visayas State University Calinog Campus who were selected through random sampling. The respondents evaluated the finished products using a modified sensory evaluation score sheet based on Six Point Hedonic Scale. The statistical tools used were the means, standard deviation, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The 0.01 alpha level was used as the criterion for acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis. The result of the study led to the conclusion that there is a significant difference that existed in the level of acceptability of mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of appearance, aroma, and general acceptability, therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. However, no significant difference in the level of acceptability of using mashed squash in making ice cream in terms of taste and texture.

  13. Gamma radiation in the conservation Cucurbita moschata processed minimally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Arthur, Valter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on (Cucurbita moschata) processed minimally. The zucchinis were acquired in of Horticulture Department of the ESALQ/ USP, Piracicaba, SP. Brazil, and taken to the laboratory of Food Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in cubes. The squash cubes were dipped in a solution of sodium hypochlorite 15ml/L for 4 minutes and kept in plastic box (polypropylene). They were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy, in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 with a dose rate of 0.666 kGy/h, and stored in temperature of 5°C. After 1, 3 and 7 days of irradiation were realized analyses of: color (factors L, a, b), pH, Brix and acidity. By obtained results conclude that there is not statistics difference between the treatments processed by irradiation and the control. Therefore the dose of 2.0 kGy can be used to reduce the level of microbial load without affects the physical chemical characteristics of minimally processed zucchini. (author)

  14. Purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, MCha-Pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Wei, Yunming; Li, Jing; Yang, Xingyong

    2015-03-01

    An antifungal protein, designated MCha-Pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex, an additional gel filtration on HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 30, and finally, HPLC on a SOURCE 5RPC column. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 25733.46Da. Automated Edman degradation was used to determine the N-terminal sequence of MCha-Pr, and the amino acid sequence was identified as V-E-Y-T-I-T-G-N-A-G-N-T-P-G-G. The MCha-Pr protein has some similarity to the pathogenesis-related proteins from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Analysis of the circular dichroism spectra indicated that MCha-Pr predominantly contains α-helix and β-sheet structures. MCha-Pr had inhibitory effects towards a variety of fungal species and the 50% inhibition of fungal growth (IC50) for Alternaria brassicae, Cercospora personata, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor sp., and Rhizoctonia solani are 33 μM, 42 μM, 37 μM, 40 μM, and 48 μM, respectively. In addition, this antifungal protein can inhibit the germination of A. brassicae spores at 12.5 μM. These results suggest that MCha-Pr in bitter gourd leaves plays a protective role against phytopathogens and has a wide antimicrobial spectrum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of humoral immune response in rabbits fed with Cucurbita maxima seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Aim : The objective of the study was to estimate the humoral immune response in rabbits treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male Newzealand White rabbits were divided into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI of six in each. Group I was the untreated control. Group II was treated with dexamethasone sodium (2 mg/Kg, i.m for 7 days. Group III was treated with levamisole hydrochloride at 2.5 mg/kg (s.c thrice a week. Group IV was treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Group V was treated with levamisole and dexamethasone and Group VI was treated with dexamethasone and Cucurbita maxima seeds. The seed was given @ 1000 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Antibody titre and serum immunoglobulin concentration were estimated along with haematology. Results: Dexamethasone caused significant decreases in the antibody titre, immunoglobulin concentration where as Curcurbita maxima, Dexamethasone + Curcurbita maxima and dexamethasone + levamisole groups showed significant increase in these entities. There were no significant differences in RBC count, Haemoglobin contents among all the groups studied. Conclusion: Results suggest that Cucurbita maxima seeds has the ability to stimulate humoral immune response in rabbits. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 396-399

  16. Pre-inoculation by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus enhances male reproductive output of Cucurbita foetidissima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary L. Pendleton

    2000-01-01

    Male and female reproductive output of Cucurbita foetidissima, a gynodioecious native perennial, was examined in a 2-yr greenhouse/outplanting study. Plants were divided into three treatment groups: (1) a lowphosphorus (P) soil mix control; (2) a low-P soil mix with the addition of mycorrhizal inoculum (Glomus intraradices); and (3) a high-P soil mix. Plants were...

  17. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty (30) adult wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid profile. The rats were divided randomly into two groups, that is, normal diet group and high fat diet group. Each group was further subdivided into three sub groups (A1,B1,C1 for the normal diet group and ...

  18. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  19. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  20. Macrogeographic population structuring in the cosmopolitan agricultural pest Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, M; Delatte, H; Backeljau, T; De Meyer, M

    2010-07-01

    The macrogeographic population structure of the agricultural pest Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated in order to identify the geographic origin of the species and reconstruct its range expansion. Individuals of B. cucurbitae were collected from 25 worldwide-distributed localities (n = 570) and genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. The Bayesian clustering reveals that B. cucurbitae can be subdivided into five main groups corresponding to populations from (i) the African continent, (ii) La Réunion, (iii) Central Asia, (iv) East Asia and (v) Hawaii. The proportions of inter-regional assignments and the higher values of genetic diversity in populations from Pakistan, India and Bangladesh suggest that B. cucurbitae originated in Central Asia and expanded its range to East Asia and Hawaii on one hand and to Africa and the islands of the Indian Ocean on the other. A number of outliers (10-19 specimens according to different clustering algorithms) show high levels of admixture (Q > 0.70) with populations from different regions and reveal complex patterns of inter-regional gene flow. Anthropogenic transport is the most plausible promoter of this large-scale dispersal. The introduction of individuals from geographically distant sources did not have a relevant role in the most recent African invasions, which originated from the expansion of local populations. These results could provide a useful background to better evaluate invasion risks and establish priorities for the management of this cosmopolitan agricultural pest.

  1. The Effect of Pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo L) Seeds and L-Arginine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds supplementation on androgenic diet-induced atherosclerosis. Rat were divided into two main groups , normal control and atherogenic control rats , each group composed of three subgroups one of them supplemented with 2% arginine in ...

  2. RESCUE OF Cucurbita spp. GERMPLASM IN RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRACE KELLY LEITE DE LIMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de resgatar germoplasma de Cucurbita spp. da agricultura familiar do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, quantificar a variabilidade fenotípica e identificar as principais espécies cultivadas, foram organizadas 17 expedições para coleta de acessos, nos municípios de Baraúna, Rio do Fogo e Touros (principais fornecedores de frutos para o comercio estadual e de mais oito municípios de diferentes microrregiões do Estado (Apodi, Caraúbas, Ceará Mirim, Cerro Corá, Currais Novos, João Câmara, Lagoa Nova e Macaíba. Cada acesso coletado foi composto por um fruto ou aproximadamente vinte sementes fornecidas pelo próprio agricultor. Todos os acessos foram identificados quanto à espécie botânica e realizados os procedimentos de acondicionamento, identificação e armazenamento das sementes em câmara fria para preservação do material. Uma amostra dos acessos coletados como frutos e uma pequena parte dos acessos obtidos como sementes da espécie C. moschata foram multiplicados usando-se autofecundação das plantas. Plantas e frutos foram caracterizados preliminarmente com auxílio de descritores morfológicos. Resgatou-se acessos em todos os municípios visitados, sendo 112 de C. moschata e 50 de C. maxima. Verificou-se predominância do cultivo da espécie C. moschata bem como constatou-se grande variabilidade para vários descritores de planta e fruto nos acessos que foram caracterizados.

  3. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  4. Molecular Evidence for Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Ash Gourd (Benincasa hispida) Germplasm Showing a Severe Yellow Stunt Disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Spoorthi, P; Panwar, G; Bag, Manas Kumar; Prasad, T V; Kumar, Gunjeet; Gangopadhyay, K K; Dutta, M

    2013-06-01

    An evaluation of 70 accessions of ash gourd germplasm grown at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India during Kharif season (2010) showed natural occurrence of a yellow stunt disease in three accessions (IC554690, IC036330 and Pusa Ujjwal). A set of begomovirus specific primers used in PCR gave expected amplicon from all the symptomatic plants; however no betasatellite was detected. Complete genome of the begomovirus (DNA-A and DNA-B), amplified through rolling circle amplification, was cloned and sequenced. The begomovirus under study shared high sequence identities to different isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and clustered with them. Among those isolates, the DNA-A and DNA-B of the present begomovirus isolate showed highest 99.6 and 96.8 % sequence identities, respectively with an isolate reported on pumpkin from India (DNA-A: AM286433, DNA-B: AM286435). Based on the sequence analysis, the begomovirus obtained from ash gourd was considered as an isolate of ToLCNDV. Thus, the present findings constitute the first report of occurrence of a new yellow stunt disease in ash gourd from India and demonstrated the association of ToLCNDV with the symptomatic samples. Occurrence of ToLCNDV in ash gourd germplasm not only adds up a new cucurbitaceous host of this virus but also raises the concern about the perpetuation of this virus in absence of its main host tomato and thus has an epidemiological relevance for understanding the rapid spread of this virus in tomato and other hosts in Indian sub-continent.

  5. Microsatellites for the genus Cucurbita and an SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L.; Stift, G.; Kofler, R.; Pachner, M.

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, only a few microsatellites have been available for Cucurbita, thus their development is highly desirable. The Austrian oil-pumpkin variety Gleisdorfer Ölkürbis (C. pepo subsp. pepo) and the C. moschata cultivar Soler (Puerto Rico) were used for SSR development. SSR-enriched partial genomic libraries were established and 2,400 clones were sequenced. Of these 1,058 (44%) contained an SSR at least four repeats long. Primers were designed for 532 SSRs; 500 primer pairs produced fragments of expected size. Of these, 405 (81%) amplified polymorphic fragments in a set of 12 genotypes: three C. moschata, one C. ecuadorensis, and eight C. pepo representing all eight cultivar groups. On an average, C. pepo and C. moschata produced 3.3 alleles per primer pair, showing high inter-species transferability. There were 187 SSR markers detecting polymorphism between the USA oil-pumpkin variety “Lady Godiva” (O5) and the Italian crookneck variety “Bianco Friulano” (CN), which are the parents of our previous F2 mapping population. It has been used to construct the first published C. pepo map, containing mainly RAPD and AFLP markers. Now the updated map comprises 178 SSRs, 244 AFLPs, 230 RAPDs, five SCARs, and two morphological traits (h and B). It contains 20 linkage groups with a map density of 2.9 cM. The observed genome coverage (Co) is 86.8%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-008-0750-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18379753

  6. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%–42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G − ) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R 2 = 0.719, p − bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R 2 = 0.590, p − bacteria contributed significantly to soil PCB dissipation. • Fungi have a great potential in the dissipation of high chlorinated biphenyls. -- Cucurbita associated fungi and G − bacteria have important influence on soil PCB dissipation rate and congener profile

  7. High-throughput SNP genotyping in Cucurbita pepo for map construction and quantitative trait loci mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteras, Cristina; Gómez, Pedro; Monforte, Antonio J; Blanca, José; Vicente-Dólera, Nelly; Roig, Cristina; Nuez, Fernando; Picó, Belén

    2012-02-22

    Cucurbita pepo is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, the second- most important horticultural family in terms of economic importance after Solanaceae. The "summer squash" types, including Zucchini and Scallop, rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide. There are few genomic tools available for this species.The first Cucurbita transcriptome, along with a large collection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), was recently generated using massive sequencing. A set of 384 SNP was selected to generate an Illumina GoldenGate assay in order to construct the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita and map quantitative trait loci (QTL). We herein present the construction of the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita pepo using a population derived from the cross of two varieties with contrasting phenotypes, representing the main cultivar groups of the species' two subspecies: Zucchini (subsp. pepo) × Scallop (subsp. ovifera). The mapping population was genotyped with 384 SNP, a set of selected EST-SNP identified in silico after massive sequencing of the transcriptomes of both parents, using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. The global success rate of the assay was higher than 85%. In total, 304 SNP were mapped, along with 11 SSR from a previous map, giving a map density of 5.56 cM/marker. This map was used to infer syntenic relationships between C. pepo and cucumber and to successfully map QTL that control plant, flowering and fruit traits that are of benefit to squash breeding. The QTL effects were validated in backcross populations. Our results show that massive sequencing in different genotypes is an excellent tool for SNP discovery, and that the Illumina GoldenGate platform can be successfully applied to constructing genetic maps and performing QTL analysis in Cucurbita. This is the first SNP-based genetic map in the Cucurbita genus and is an invaluable new tool for biological research, especially considering that most of these markers are located in

  8. Transcriptome characterization and high throughput SSRs and SNPs discovery in Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca, José; Cañizares, Joaquín; Roig, Cristina; Ziarsolo, Pello; Nuez, Fernando; Picó, Belén

    2011-02-10

    Cucurbita pepo belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. The "Zucchini" types rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide, and other C. pepo and related Cucurbita spp., are food staples and rich sources of fat and vitamins. A broad range of genomic tools are today available for other cucurbits that have become models for the study of different metabolic processes. However, these tools are still lacking in the Cucurbita genus, thus limiting gene discovery and the process of breeding. We report the generation of a total of 512,751 C. pepo EST sequences, using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs were obtained from normalized cDNA libraries (root, leaves, and flower tissue) prepared using two varieties with contrasting phenotypes for plant, flowering and fruit traits, representing the two C. pepo subspecies: subsp. pepo cv. Zucchini and subsp. ovifera cv Scallop. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 49,610 Cucurbita unigenes (average length of 626 bp) that represent the first transcriptome of the species. Over 60% of the unigenes were functionally annotated and assigned to one or more Gene Ontology terms. The distributions of Cucurbita unigenes followed similar tendencies than that reported for Arabidopsis or melon, suggesting that the dataset may represent the whole Cucurbita transcriptome. About 34% unigenes were detected to have known orthologs of Arabidopsis or melon, including genes potentially involved in disease resistance, flowering and fruit quality. Furthermore, a set of 1,882 unigenes with SSR motifs and 9,043 high confidence SNPs between Zucchini and Scallop were identified, of which 3,538 SNPs met criteria for use with high throughput genotyping platforms, and 144 could be detected as CAPS. A set of markers were validated, being 80% of them polymorphic in a set of variable C. pepo and C. moschata accessions. We present the first broad survey of gene sequences and allelic variation in C. pepo, where limited prior genomic

  9. The responses of antioxidant system in bitter melon, sponge gourd, and winter squash under flooding and chilling stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuong Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the responses of antioxidant system and physiological parameters of bitter melon (BM), sponge gourd (SG), and winter squash (WS) under waterlogged and low temperature conditions. The BM and SG plants were subjected to 0-72 h flooding treatments, and BM and WS plants were exposed to chilling at 12/7 °C (day/night) for 0-72 h. Different genotypes responded differently to environmental stress according to their various antioxidant system and physiological parameters. Increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities provided SG and WS plants with increased waterlogging and chilling stress tolerance, respectively, compared to BM plants. The APX gene from SG and the SOD gene from WS were then cloned, and the regulation of APX and SOD gene expressions under flooding and chilling stress, respectively, were also measured. Increased expression of APX and SOD genes was accompanied by the increased activity of the enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to those stresses. Both APX and SOD activities can be used for selecting BM lines with the best tolerances to water logging and chilling stresses.

  10. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  11. An Empirical Study for the Mobile Food Trace ability: Private Trace ability System for the White Gourd in Tianjin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yu-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the food supply chain globalization became inevitable, transparency in the way agriculture was grown and handled throughout the supply chain process resulted in an important issue of ‘traceability’ in global food trade and safety for health management. Traceability in agriculture is faced with the technological challenges including food product label and identification, activity/process characterization, information systems for data capture, analysis, storage, and the integration of the overall traceable data for the supply chain, i.e., from farm to table. While some field data can be automatically acquired and transmitted by sensor networking, most agricultural activity information was recorded by manual handwriting for the traceability information systems. System architecture, operation scenarios, and the implementation examples for the mobile farming data collection system to automatically record the agricultural activities information for famers were proposed in this research. The farming information for farming activities is coded in two-dimensional labels of quick response (QR codes. By scanning the proper operation labels, the corresponding farming data can be captured and uploaded simultaneously to the back-end web server. A collaborative research project for the traceability of white gourd planting in Tianjin was performed. The system can be implemented for public traceability system data collection and importing, as well as playing the roles of a private traceability system. The consumers’ confidence for healthy food choices with clear food traceability can be improved.

  12. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB. Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS. Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  13. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  14. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  15. Identification of a novel ga-related bush mutant in pumpkin (cucurbita moschata duchesne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Cao, J.

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) bush mutant plants were characterized by short stems. The sensitivity of pumpkin bush mutant plants to exogenous hormones was identified in this study. Results revealed that internode elongation of bush mutant plants could respond to gibberellins (GA4+7 and GA3), but not to indole acetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroids (BR); by contrast, the mutant phenotype of bush mutant plants could not be fully rescued by GA4+7 and GA3. The internode of bush mutant plants yielded a lower KS expression level than that of vine plants. Therefore, pumpkin bush mutant plants were designated as GA-related mutant plants eliciting a partial response to GAs; the action of IAA and BR might not be involved in the internode growth of pumpkin bush mutant plants, specifically Cucurbita moschata Duch. (author)

  16. Population genetic structure of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), from China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Zhang, Jun L; Nardi, Francesco; Zhang, Run J

    2008-11-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, is a species of fruit flies of significant agricultural interest. Of supposed Indian origin, the melon fly is now widely distributed throughout South East Asia up to China, while it has been recently eradicated from Japan. The population structure of seven geographic populations from coastal China, as well as samples from other regions of South East Asia and Japan, including lab colonies, have been studied using a 782 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequence. The observed genetic diversity was exceedingly low, considering the geographic scale of the sampling, and one single haplotype was found to be predominant from Sri Lanka to China. We confirm that Bactrocera cucurbitae exists in South East Asia as a single phyletic lineage, that Chinese populations are genetically uniform, and that no apparent genetic differentiation exists between these and three available Japanese melon fly sequences.

  17. Effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) candy

    OpenAIRE

    Sabeera Muzzaffar; Waqas N Baba; Nuzhat Nazir; F.A. Masoodi; Mohd Munaff Bhat; Rafiya Bazaz

    2016-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is highly nutritious and antioxidant-rich vegetable widely grown all over the world. Present study reports the effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial, and antioxidant properties of pumpkin candy. Pumpkin and its candy were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics like moisture content, ash, total soluble solids (TSS), titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, and color. Beta-carotene and vitamin-C content of pumpkin and its candy were also st...

  18. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima) FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Wasmo Wakmana; M.S. Kontong; D.S. Teakle; D.M. Persley

    2016-01-01

    A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven di...

  19. Watermelon Mosaic Virus Of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Maxima) From Sulawesi: Identification, Transmission, And Host Range

    OpenAIRE

    Wakmana, Wasmo; Kontong, M.S; Teakle, D.S; Persley, D.M

    2002-01-01

    A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven di...

  20. Transcription and translation of phloem protein (PP2) during phloem differentiation in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, M H; Northcote, D H

    1987-03-01

    The synthesis of a major phloem protein, PP2, was investigated by measurement of the mRNA at various stages of phloem development in Cucurbita. Quantitative assays with immuno-electrophoresis showed that the amounts of PP2 in hypocotyls of Cucurbita seedlings increased with the age of seedlings. An increase in mRNA for PP2 during the early stages of seedling growth was also observed by immunoprecipitation of the invitro translation products of hypocotyl polyadenylated RNA. There was close timing in the variations of PP2 synthesised in vivo and in the changes in amounts of translatable PP2-mRNA during the course of seedling growth. A complementary-DNA (cDNA) library to polyadenylated RNA from hypocotyls of 3-d-old Cucurbita seedlings has been constructed. Two cDNA clones, A and B, have been identified by hybrid-release translation to be complementary to the mRNA coding for PP2. The levels of total mRNA for PP2 measured with clone A were found to increase in the first 4 d of seedling growth but decreased to lower levels in older seedlings. Regulatory controls on both transcription and modification of transcripts appeared to occur during the synthesis of PP2.

  1. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress

  2. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Richard [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)]. E-mail: rp232604@muhlenberg.edu; Kelsey, Jason W. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)]. E-mail: kelsey@muhlenberg.edu; White, Jason C. [Department of Soil and Water, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, New Haven, CT 06504 (United States)]. E-mail: jason.white@po.state.ct.us

    2007-07-15

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media. - Availability of p,p'-DDE to earthworms and plants was dramatically different in soil and compost.

  3. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard; Kelsey, Jason W; White, Jason C

    2007-07-01

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media.

  4. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Richard; Kelsey, Jason W.; White, Jason C.

    2007-01-01

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media. - Availability of p,p'-DDE to earthworms and plants was dramatically different in soil and compost

  5. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of grafting-responsive mRNA in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Fu, Xinxing; Zhang, Li; Tang, Kai; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Hu, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-04-01

    Grafting is an important agricultural technique widely used to improve plant growth, yield, and adaptation to either biotic or abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced physiological processes remain unclear. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Grafting technique is commonly used in watermelon production for improving its tolerance to stresses, especially to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform a genome-wide transcript analysis of scions from watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks. Our transcriptome and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling data provided insights into the molecular aspects of gene regulation in grafted watermelon. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, there were 787 and 3485 genes differentially expressed in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks, respectively. These genes were associated with primary and secondary metabolism, hormone signaling, transcription factors, transporters, and response to stimuli. Grafting led to changes in expression of these genes, suggesting that they may play important roles in mediating the physiological processes of grafted seedlings. The potential roles of the grafting-responsive mRNAs in diverse biological and metabolic processes were discussed. Obviously, the data obtained in this study provide an excellent resource for unraveling the mechanisms of candidate genes function in diverse biological processes and in environmental adaptation in a graft system.

  6. Three New Multiflorane-Type Triterpenes from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2, and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  7. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Takebayashi, Mika; Shinto, Mayumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-05-14

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2), and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  8. P-protein distribution in mature sieve elements of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, R F; Eschrich, W; Eichhorn, S E

    1972-09-01

    Portions of the hypocotyls of 16-day-old Cucurbita maxima plants, from which the cotyledons and first foliage leaves had been removed 2 days earlier, were fixed in glutaraldehyde and postfixed in osmium tetroxide for electron microscopy. In well over 90% of the mature sieve elements examined the P-protein was entirely parietal in distribution in both the lumina and sieve-plate pores. In addition to the parietal P-protein, the unoccluded sieve-plate pores were lined by narrow callose cylinders and the plasmalemma. Segments of endoplasmic reticulum also occurred along the margins of the pores.

  9. In vitro health beneficial activities of Pumpkin seeds from Cucurbita moschata cultivated in Lemnos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danai Sakka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seeds are commonly consumed in Greece. Although Cucurbita moschata is locally grown in Lemnos and is traditionally used in pumpkin pies, the seeds are currently discarded after consumption of the fruit flesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the nutritional functionality of pumpkin seeds from Cucurbita moschata grown in Lemnos.Cucurbita moschatas’ seeds, raw or roasted, were appropriately extracted and the results are presented for raw versus (vs roasted seed extracts. The phenolic content was expressed as μg gallic acid/g of seeds according to Folin-Ciocalteau assay (370.3 ± 19.1 vs 551.0 ± 22.0. Antioxidant capacity was expressed as equivalent amount for 50% scavenging in mg of seeds for DPPH (50.03 ± 5.91 vs 25.82 ± 6.77 and ABTS (17.85 ± 0.77 vs 12.77 ± 0.76 assays, and as μmol of trolox/g of seeds for FRAP (1.19 ± 0.05 vs 2.50 ± 0.23 and CUPRAC (2.13 ±0.11 vs 3.25 ± 0.06 assays. Anti-inflammatory/anti-thrombotic and anti-diabetic activities were expressed as mg of seeds for 50% inhibition of platelet activating factor (0.62 vs 0.15 and as μg of seeds for 25% inhibition of alpha-glycosidase (40.0 vs 61.0 activities respectively. Moreover, anti-atherogenic activity was expressed as the % increase in lag time of human plasma oxidation (62.7 versus 163.2Raw and roasted pumpkin seed extracts exert anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic/anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and antidiabetic activities. Cucurbita moschata seeds may represent a novel opportunity for development of functional foods, with a local interest in Lemnos that would contribute also to the regional public health improvement.

  10. Mathematical modelling of light-induced electric reaction of Cucurbita pepo L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stolarek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioelectRIc reactions of 14-16 day old plants of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and internodal cells of Nitellopsis obtusa to the action of visible and ultraviolet light (UV-C were studied. The possibility of analyzing the bioelectric reaction of pumpkin plants induced by visible light by means of mathematical modelling using a linear differential equation of the second order was considered. The solution of this equation (positive and negative functions can, in a sufficient way, reflect the participation of H+ and CI- ions in the generation of the photoelectric response in green plant cells.

  11. [Influence of a variation potential on photosynthesis in pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, V S; Shesterneva, O N; Surova, L M; Rumiantsev, E A; Vodeneev, V A

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a variation potential on photosynthesis in pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L.) was investigated in our work. It was shown that the variation potential induced by cotyledon burning propagates into a leaf. It decreases CO2 assimilation and transpiration as well as increases nonphotochemical quenching. Investigation of isolated chloroplasts showed that lowering of the pH in incubation medium from 6.9-7.2 to 6.5 increases nonphotochemical quenching. It was proposed that lowering of the cytoplasmic pH induced by the variation potential takes place in the photosynthetic response development.

  12. A Chromosome-scale assemby of the Bactrocera cucurbitae genome provides insight to the genetic basis of white pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, is a destructive agricultural pest and is the subject of strict quarantines that are enforced to prevent its establishment outside of its current geographic range. In addition to quarantine efforts, additional control measures are necessary for its eradication i...

  13. Changes in endogenous cytokinin levels in cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) during natural and dark-induced senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ananieva, H.; Malbeck, Jiří; Kamínek, Miroslav; Staden, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 1 (2004), s. 133-142 ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Cucurbita pepo L. (zucchini) * chlorophyll content * Cytokinin Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2004

  14. Biodegradation of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane by transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata that accumulate recombinant bacterial LinA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Namiki, Sayuri; Oshima, Masao; Moriuchi, Ryota; Konagaya, Ken-Ichi; Seike, Nobuyasu; Otani, Takashi; Nagata, Yuji; Tsuda, Masataka; Tabei, Yutaka

    2016-09-01

    γ-HCH was successfully degraded using LinA-expressed transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata . Fusing an endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal peptide to LinA was essential for stable accumulation in the hairy roots. The pesticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that raises public health and environmental pollution concerns worldwide. Although several isolates of γ-HCH-degrading bacteria are available, inoculating them directly into γ-HCH-contaminated soil is ineffective because of the bacterial survival rate. Cucurbita species incorporate significant amounts of POPs from soils compared with other plant species. Here, we describe a novel bioremediation strategy that combines the bacterial degradation of γ-HCH and the efficient uptake of γ-HCH by Cucurbita species. We produced transgenic hairy root cultures of Cucurbita moschata that expressed recombinant bacterial linA, isolated from the bacterium Sphingobium japonicum UT26. The LinA protein was accumulated stably in the hairy root cultures by fusing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeting signal peptide to LinA. Then, we demonstrated that the cultures degraded more than 90 % of γ-HCH (1 ppm) overnight and produced the γ-HCH metabolite 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, indicating that LinA degraded γ-HCH. These results indicate that the gene linA has high potential for phytoremediation of environmental γ-HCH.

  15. Reconstructing a comprehensive transcriptome assembly of a white-pupal translocated strain of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Bactrocera cucurbitae is an important agricultural pest. Basic genomic information is lacking for this species and this would be useful to inform methods of control, damage mitigation, and eradication efforts. Here, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated a comprehensive transcriptom...

  16. Oviposition punctures in cucurbit fruits and their economic damage caused by the sterile female melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, T.; Irabu, T.; Higa, R.

    1993-01-01

    Oviposition punctures caused by sterile females of the tephritid Bactrocera cucurbitae in cucurbit fruits were examined and economic damage was evaluated in Okinawa, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Cage experiments in the field confirmed that sterile females make punctures (sterile stings) on fruits. The features of sterile stings differed depending on fruit species and were classified into 5 types

  17. Response of the pearly eye melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae) mutant to host-associated visual cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a pearly eye mutant (PEM) line generated from a single male Bactrocera cucurbitae collected in Kapoho, Hawaii. Crossing experiments with colony wild-type flies indicate that the locus controlling this trait is autosomal and the mutant allele is recessive. Experiments with females to ass...

  18. First report of powdery mildew on cucumis zambianus, cucurbita digitata and zehneria scabraCaused by podosphaera xanthii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious disease of cucurbit crops worldwide. In the fall of 2016, symptoms of powdery mildew were observed on 2-month old plants of Cucumis zambianus, Cucurbita digitata and Zehneria scabra in research plots in Charleston, SC. Incidence on 28 plants of C. zambianus was 64.3%. On ...

  19. Attraction of wild-like and colony-reared Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Cuelure in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attraction of wild tephritids to semiochemical-based lures are the ideal basis for trap network design in detection programs, but in practice, mass-reared colony insects are usually used to determine trap efficiency. For Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, a lower response by wild males compared w...

  20. Transgenic virus resistance in crop-wild Cucurbita pepo does not prevent vertical transmission of zucchini yellow mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. E. Simmons; Holly Prendeville; J. P. Dunham; M. J. Ferrari; J. D. Earnest; D. Pilson; G. P. Munkvold; E. C. Holmes; A. G. Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important pathogen of cucurbits that is transmitted both horizontally and vertically. Although ZYMV is seed-transmitted in Cucurbita pepo, the potential for seed transmission in virus-resistant transgenic cultivars is not known. We crossed and backcrossed a transgenic...

  1. Immunocytochemical localisation of phloem lectin from Cucurbita maxima using peroxidase and colloidal-gold labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L M; Sabnis, D D; Johnson, R P

    1987-04-01

    Antibodies were raised against lectin purified from the sieve-tube exudate of Cucurbita maxima. Immunocytochemistry, using peroxidase-labelled antibodies and Protein A-colloidal gold, was employed to determine the location of the lectin within the tissues and cells of C. maxima and other cucurbit species. The anti-lectin antibodies bound to P-protein aggregates in sieve elements and companion cells, predominantly in the extrafascicular phloem of C. maxima. This may reflect the low rate of translocation in these cells. Under the electron microscope, the lectin was shown to be a component of P-protein filaments and was also found in association with the sieve-tube reticulum which lines the plasmalemma. The anti-lectin antibodies reacted with sieve-tube proteins from other species of the genus Cucurbita but showed only limited reaction with other genera. We suggest that the lectin serves to anchor P-protein filaments and associated proteins to the parietal layer of sieve elements.

  2. [Preclinical studies of cucurbita maxima (pumpkin seeds) a traditional intestinal antiparasitic in rural urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Obregón, Daysi; Lloja Lozano, Luis; Carbajal Zúñiga, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Experimental research was carried out at the Parasitology and Chemistry laboratories of the Jorge Basadre Grohmann National University, in Tacna. The process involved two phases: (1) determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cucurbita Maxima as an antiparasitic agent using canine tapeworms with an intestinal isolation of 5 to 6 hours, and (2) determination of the side-effects of Curbita Maxima on exposed albino rats. It was found that the MIC of 23 gr. of pumpkin seed in 100 ml. of distilled water can produce an antihelminthic effect. This concentration is equivalent to +/- 73 pumpkin seeds (x2 = 5.6, p 23 gr. There is a protheolithic effect with an average survival time of 38.4 minutes. Microscopically the mature proglottids present a destruction of the tegument involving the basal membrane. In the gravid proglottids there is egg destruction. These findings are accentuated when experimenting with Cucurbita Maxima in a concentration of 30 and 32 gr. Superficial non-erosive gastritis was found in weys rats after 4 hours of administering 9 gr/kg.

  3. Synthesis of P-protein in mature phloem of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, J; Eschrich, W

    1976-01-01

    Cotyledons of Cucurbita maxima Duch. seedlings were provided with (14)C-labeled amino acids for 12 h. Besides the bulk of labeled amino acids the sieve-tube exudate also carried labeled proteins. 80% of the incorporated radioactivity was found in the P-protein, 20% in a neutral protein, and traces were found in acidic proteins after fractionation on diethyl-aminoethyl cellulose columns. The radioactive elutes were characterized by autoradiographs of both disc- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-gelelectropherograms, and by isoelectric focusing. The P-protein fraction appeared with the void volume from the diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column. Obviously, this is the protein that gels when oxidized and that is reversibly precipitable giving rise to filaments when processed for electron microscopy. Its main component has a molecular weight of 115,000 Dalton. By isoelectric focusing this fraction separated into 3 proteins with isoelectric points of 9.8, 9.4, and 9.2. The isoelectric point 9.2-protein probably is identical with an oligomer of a 30,000 Dalton protein with neutral isoelectric point, which keeps 20% of the incorporated label. Microautoradiographs suggest that the labeled proteins were synthesized in companion cells. The results indicate that P-protein of Cucurbita maxima is synthesized continuously in mature phloem. It can be assumed that P-protein has a relatively high turn-over rate. Therefore it seems unlikely that P-protein is a "structural" protein.

  4. Karyotype Stability and Unbiased Fractionation in the Paleo-Allotetraploid Cucurbita Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Honghe; Wu, Shan; Zhang, Guoyu; Jiao, Chen; Guo, Shaogui; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Gong, Guoyi; Jia, Zhangcai; Zhang, Fan; Tian, Jiaxing; Lucas, William J; Doyle, Jeff J; Li, Haizhen; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2017-10-09

    The Cucurbita genus contains several economically important species in the Cucurbitaceae family. Here, we report high-quality genome sequences of C. maxima and C. moschata and provide evidence supporting an allotetraploidization event in Cucurbita. We are able to partition the genome into two homoeologous subgenomes based on different genetic distances to melon, cucumber, and watermelon in the Benincaseae tribe. We estimate that the two diploid progenitors successively diverged from Benincaseae around 31 and 26 million years ago (Mya), respectively, and the allotetraploidization happened at some point between 26 Mya and 3 Mya, the estimated date when C. maxima and C. moschata diverged. The subgenomes have largely maintained the chromosome structures of their diploid progenitors. Such long-term karyotype stability after polyploidization has not been commonly observed in plant polyploids. The two subgenomes have retained similar numbers of genes, and neither subgenome is globally dominant in gene expression. Allele-specific expression analysis in the C. maxima × C. moschata interspecific F 1 hybrid and their two parents indicates the predominance of trans-regulatory effects underlying expression divergence of the parents, and detects transgressive gene expression changes in the hybrid correlated with heterosis in important agronomic traits. Our study provides insights into polyploid genome evolution and valuable resources for genetic improvement of cucurbit crops. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina Pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Montesano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as “Berrettina” (Cucurbita maxima L., was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn-positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively. The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ7,22,25-stigmastatrienol, Δ7,25-stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%. The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals.

  6. Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina) Pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Domenico; Blasi, Francesca; Simonetti, Maria Stella; Santini, Antonello; Cossignani, Lina

    2018-03-01

    Pumpkin ( Cucurbita spp.) has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as "Berrettina" ( Cucurbita maxima L.), was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG) was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn -positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively) in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively). The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ 7,22,25 -stigmastatrienol, Δ 7,25 -stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%). The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals.

  7. Estudio Farmacognóstico de la droga cruda de la semilla de calabaza (Cucurbita SPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abreu Payrol

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan algunos parámetros farmacognósticos de la droga cruda de la semilla de calabaza, con vistas a su posterior uso en formulaciones antiparasitarias. Se comparan semillas de 3 variedades: Cucurbita pepo var RG, C. moschata Duch ex Lam Duch ex Porr (Cuba Cueto 8574 y C. maxima var INIVIT C88, en cuanto a masa, humedad residual, cenizas, sustancias solubles y tamizaje fitoquímico, a fin de proponer la mejor para su empleo como antiparasitario, y se trata de forma breve la propuesta de una técnica sencilla para la extracción del principio activo de la semilla (cucurbitina.Some pharmacognostic parameters of the raw drug from the pumpkin seed are presented in order to use it later in antiparasitic formulations. The seeds of 3 varieties are compared: Cucurbita pepo var RG, C. moschata Duch ex Lam Duch ex Porr (Cuba Cueto 8574 and C. maxima var INIVIT C88. Mass, residual humidity, ashes, soluble substances and phytochemical screening were analyzed aimed at proposing the best for its use as antiparasitic. The proposal of a simple technique for the extraction of the active principle of the seed (cucurbitina is briefly explained.

  8. Effect of radiation processing on shelf life and antioxidant properties of minimally processed ready to cook (RTC) cauliflower and ash gourd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishnav, Jasraj; Tripathi, Jyoti; Variyar, Prasad S.

    2017-01-01

    The demand for minimally processed vegetables are increasing because consumers now spend less time for cooking every day due to their busy life style, while insisting on more hygienic premium quality products with minimal change in nutritional and sensory properties. Minimally processed cauliflower and ash gourd products were developed using radiation processing. Products were irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation (0.5-2.5kGy), and stored at different temperatures (4,10 and 15 °C). At optimum processing conditions (0.5 kGy; 4 °C) RTC cauliflower was analyzed for their microbial and nutritional qualities (DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and total ascorbic acid content) during a storage period of 21 days. An irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy extended the shelf life by 7 days as compared to the control which has shelf life of 14 days, along with significant increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content. While in case of RTC ash gourd, optimum processing condition (2kGy;10 ° C) improved the shelf life by 7 days in comparison to control samples which have shelflife of 5 days. Irradiated samples had total phenolic content of 103.3 ± 5.2 mg kg"-"1 and total antioxidant activity of 384.2 ± 9.7 mg kg"-"1 while corresponding values for control samples were 67.8 ± 5.4 and 115.5 ± 7.0 mg kg"-1 at the end of storage period. However no significant effect was observed in total ascorbic acid content in both the products due to radiation processing. (author)

  9. In vitro and in vivo α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities of the protein extracts from two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovitha, Sundar; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-07-18

    α-amylase and α-glucosidase digest the carbohydrates and increase the postprandial glucose level in diabetic patients. Inhibiting the activity of these two enzymes can control postprandial hyperglycemia, and reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Bitter gourd or balsam pear is one of the important medicinal plants used for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes patients. However, there is limited information available on the presence of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting compounds. In the current study, the protein extracts from the fruits of M. charantia var. charantia (MCC) and M. charantia var. muricata (MCM) were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities in vitro, and glucose lowering activity after oral administration in vivo. The protein extract from both MCC and MCM inhibited the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase through competitive inhibition, which was on par with Acarbose as indicated by in vitro percentage of inhibition (66 to 69 %) and IC50 (0.26 to 0.29 mg/ml). Both the protein extracts significantly reduced peak blood glucose and area under the curve in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, which were orally challenged with starch and sucrose. Protein extracts from the fruits of the two varieties of bitter gourd inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro and lowered the blood glucose level in vivo on par with Acarbose when orally administrated to Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Further studies on mechanism of action and methods of safe and biologically active delivery will help to develop an anti-diabetic oral protein drug from these plants.

  10. Polinização entomófila em abóbora caipira, Cucurbita mixta (Curcubitaceae = Entomophilus pollination in pumpkins, Cucurbita mixta (Curcubitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Lattaro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os insetos visitantes nas flores masculinas e femininas da abóbora caipira (Cucurbita mixta, em Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo. Para isso, foram realizadas contagens dos insetos presentes nas flores das 7h00 às 18h00, durante 10 minutos em cada horário, com três repetições (três dias distintos, em agosto de 2004. Observou-se que abelha africanizada (Apis mellifera foi o inseto visitante mais freqüente nas flores. Essa abelha visitou as flores até 13h00 e preferiu coletar néctar nasflores masculinas (68,4%, em comparação ao pólen nas flores masculinas (18,6% e ao néctar nas flores femininas (13,0%. A freqüência dessas abelhas nas flores diminuiu no decorrer do dia. A relação de flor masculina para feminina foi 3,2:1.This study aimed to evaluate the insect visitors in the male and female flowers of the pumpkin, Cucurbita mixta, in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in August, 2004. The insects in the flowers were counted from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00p.m., for 10 minutes, every hour, with three replications and in three different days. It was observed that the insect which most frequently visited the flowers was the Africanized honey bee, Apis mellifera. That bee visited flowers until 1:00 p.m. and preferred to collect nectar from the male flowers (68.4%, when compared to pollen from the male flowers (18.6% and nectar from the female flowers (13.0%. The frequency of those bees in the flowers decreased in elapsing of the day. The relationship between male and female flowers was 3.2:1.

  11. Biologia floral em moranga (Cucurbita maxima Duch. var. “Exposição” = Pumpkin floral biology (Cucurbita maxima Duch. var. “Exposição”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar a biologia floral em moranga (Cucurbita maxima, variedade Exposição, realizaram-se dois ensaios, utilizando-se 128 plantas, numa área de 2.000 m2. A abertura e o murchamento das flores ocorreu, em média, às 6h35 e 13h52, respectivamente. Havia, em média, 2,26 flores masculinas para cada flor feminina. As flores femininas produziram, em média, 138,9% mais néctar que as masculinas. A produção de néctar foi menor no segundo ensaio devido à menor precipitação e menor umidade relativa do ar. A concentração total de açúcares do néctar foi 0,3 e 3,8% maior nas flores femininas em relação às masculinas, respectivamente, para o primeiro e segundo ensaios. As flores masculinas produziram, em média, 129.021 grãos de pólen por flor, com 91,2% viáveis às 9h00. O estigma das flores femininas foi receptivo aos grãos de pólen, em média, até às 13h40. As flores femininas foram mais atrativas que as masculinas.In order to study pumpkin floral biology (Cucurbita maxima var. “Exposição”, were conduced two tests, using 128 plants, in 2,000 m2. The opening and the withering of the flowers happened, on average, 6h35 and 13h52, respectively. There were, on average, 2.26male flowers for each female flower. The female flowers produced, on average 138.9% more nectar than the male ones. The nectar production was smaller in the second test because of a lesser due precipitation and smaller relative humidity of the air. The sugar concentration in the nectar was 0.3 and 3.8% larger in the female flowers in relation to the male ones, respectively for the 1st and 2nd tests. The male flowers produced 129,021 pollen grains for flower, with 91.2% viable at 9h00. The stigma of the female flowers was receptive to the pollen grains, on average, to the 13h40. The female flowers were more attractive than the male ones.

  12. Bioactive compounds in lipid fractions of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp) seeds for use in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronezi, Carolina Médici; Jorge, Neuza

    2012-06-01

    Seeds are considered to be agro-industrial residues, which can be used as source of macronutrients and/or raw material for extraction of vegetable oils, since they present great quantities of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to characterize the lipid fractions and the seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita sp) varieties Nova Caravela, Mini Paulista, Menina Brasileira, and Moranga de Mesa aiming at using them in food. The chemical composition of the seeds was performed according to the official methods of American Oil Chemists' Society and Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were determined by spectrophotometry, while the levels of tocopherols were analyzed by high efficiency liquid chromatography. It was noted that the seeds contain high amounts of macronutrients that are essential for the functioning of the human organism. As to total carotenoids, Mini Paulista and Menina Brasileira pumpkin varieties presented significant amounts, 26.80 and 26.03 μg/g, respectively. Mini Paulista and Nova Caravela pumpkin varieties showed high amounts of total phenolic compounds in the lipid fractions and in the seeds. It was also found that γ-tocopherol is the isomer that stood out in the lipid fractions and in the seeds, mainly in Menina Brasileira. Finally, the consumption of these seeds and use of lipid fractions provide the supply of large quantities of compounds that are beneficial for health and that may be potentially used in food, besides representing an alternative to better use of agro-industrial residues. Bioactive compounds, besides presenting basic nutritional functions, provide metabolic and physiological health benefits when consumed as part of the usual diet. Therefore, there is a growing interest in vegetable oils of special composition, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds. The seeds of Cucurbita sp are shown to be promising sources of oils, and especially the Cucurbita moschata and maxima species have not yet

  13. Carotenogenic gene expression and carotenoid accumulation in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrero, Ángeles; González-Verdejo, Clara I; Die, Jose V; Gómez, Pedro; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Román, Belén

    2013-07-03

    The control of gene expression is a crucial regulatory mechanism in carotenoid accumulation of fruits and flowers. We investigated the role of transcriptional regulation of nine genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in three varieties of Cucurbita pepo with evident differences in fruit color. The transcriptional levels of the key genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis were higher in flower-, leaf-, and fruit skin tissues than flesh tissues. This correlated with higher concentration of carotenoid content in these tissues. The differential expression among the colored and white cultivars detected for some genes, such as LCYe, in combination with other regulatory mechanisms, could explain the large differences found in terms of carotenoid content among the three varieties. These results are a first step to elucidate carotenogenesis in C. pepo and demonstrate that, in general, regulation of the pathway genes is a critical factor that determines the accumulation of these compounds.

  14. Degradation of disperse dye from textile effluent by free and immobilized Cucurbita pepo peroxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherit, N.; Abouseoud, M.; Adour, L.

    2012-06-01

    Disperse dyes constitute the largest group of dyes used in local textile industry. This work evaluates the potential of the Cucurbita peroxidase(C-peroxidase) extracted from courgette in the decolourization of disperse dye in free and immobilized form. The optimal conditions for immobilization of C-peroxidase in Ca-alginate were identified. The immobilization was optimized at 2%(w/v) of sodium alginate and 0.2 M of calcium chloride. After optimization of treatment parameters, the results indicate that at pH 2, dye concentration: 80 mg/L(for FCP) and 180 mg/L(for ICP), H2O2 dose: 0,02M (for FCP) and 0,12M(for ICP), the decolourization by free and immobilized C-peroxidase were 72.02% and 69.71 % respectively. The degradation pathway and the metabolic products formed after the degradation were also predicted using UV-vis spectroscopy analysis.

  15. Two new ent-kaurane-type diterpene glycosides from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ando, Hiromi; Maekawa, Ken-Ichiro; Arie, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-12-01

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides; 12α-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-7β-hydroxykaurenolide (1) and 7β-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-12α-hydroxykaurenolide (2), a new steroid; (24S)-stigmasta-7,22E,25-trien-3-one (12), and known compounds (3-11, 13-14) were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds. The absolute structures of 1 and 2 were determined by acid hydrolysis and application of a modified Moscher's method. Furthermore, isolated compounds (1-14), and a derivative, 1a, were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on macrophage activation by an inhibitory assay of nitric oxide (NO) production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanahara, A.; Kirihara, S.; Kakinohana, H.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  17. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  18. Flowering, nectar production and insects visits in two cultivars of Cucurbita maxima Duch. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on experimental plots in the conditions of Lublin. In the years 1998-2000 flowering, nectar secretion and insect visitation of male and female flowers of two winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. cultivars: 'Ambar' and 'Amazonka', were studied. The plants flowered from July to October. The flower life span was within the range of 7-10 hours. Female flowers of cv. Ambar were marked by the most abundant nectar secretion (129 mg. The nectar sugar content can be estimated as average (25%-35%. Winter squash nectar contained 84% of sucrose as well as 8-9% of fructose and 7%-8% of glucose. Flowers of the studied taxa were frequently foraged by the honey bee (66%-98% of total insects and bumblebees (1%-30%.

  19. A new protein inhibitor of trypsin and activated Hageman factor from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Gong, Y X; Richardson, M

    1990-10-29

    A protein inhibitor (CMTI-V; Mr 7106) of trypsin and activated Hageman factor (Factor XIIa), a serine protease involved in blood coagulation, has been isolated for the first time from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds by means of trypsin-affinity chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The dissociation constants of the inhibitor complexes with trypsin and Factor XIIa have been determined to be 1.6 x 10(-8) and 4.1 x 10(-8) M, respectively. The primary structure of CMTI-V is reported. The protein has 68 amino acid residues and one disulfide bridge and shows a high level of sequence homology to the Potato I inhibitor family. Furthermore, its amino terminus consists of an N-acetylates Ser. The reactive site has been established to be the peptide bond between Lys44-Asp45. The modified inhibitor which has the reactive site peptide bond hydrolyzed inhibits trypsin but not the Hageman factor.

  20. Short Communication: Genetic linkage map of Cucurbita maxima with molecular and morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y; Li, X; Yang, X X; Cui, C S; Qu, S P

    2015-05-22

    Cucurbita maxima is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables in China and exhibits distinct morphological characteristics. In this study, genetic linkage analysis with 57 simple-sequence repeats, 21 amplified fragment length polymorphisms, 3 random-amplified polymorphic DNA, and one morphological marker revealed 20 genetic linkage groups of C. maxima covering a genetic distance of 991.5 cM with an average of 12.1 cM between adjacent markers. Genetic linkage analysis identified the simple-sequence repeat marker 'PU078072' 5.9 cM away from the locus 'Rc', which controls rind color. The genetic map in the present study will be useful for better mapping, tagging, and cloning of quantitative trait loci/gene(s) affecting economically important traits and for breeding new varieties of C. maxima through marker-assisted selection.

  1. PHOSPHOLIPIDS FROM PUMPKIN (Cucurbita moschata (Duch. Poir SEED KERNEL OIL AND THEIR FATTY ACID COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Raharjo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipids (PL of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata (Duch Poir seed kernel and their fatty acid composition were investigated. The crude oil was obtained by maceration with isopropanol followed by steps of extraction yielded polar lipids. The quantitative determination of PLs content of the dried pumpkin seed kernel and their polar lipids were calculated based on the elemental phosphorus (P contents which was determined by means of spectrophotometric methods. PL classes were separated from polar lipids via column chromatography. The fatty acid composition of individual PL was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The total of PL in the pumpkin seed kernels was 1.27% which consisted of phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylserine (PS and phosphatidyletanolamine (PE. The predominant fatty acids of PL were oleic and palmitic acid in PC and PE while PS's fatty acid were dominantly consisted of oleic acid and linoleic acid.

  2. Evaluación de poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata por caracteres de importancia agroindustrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el potencial agroindustrial de siete poblaciones de zapallo (Cucurbita moschata derivadas de la recombinación de genotipos de alto desempeño en caracteres asociados con rendimiento y calidad de fruto. Los análisis de varianza para los resultados obtenidos en los semestres 2008-A y 2008-B permitieron detectar diferencias altamente significativas (P < 0.01 entre poblaciones, para todas las variables, con excepción de color de fruto en el semestre 2008-A. Las poblaciones 1 y 5 mostraron consistencia para el contenido de materia seca en los dos ciclos de recombinación genética.

  3. Nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in male and female flowers of Cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stpiczynska, M.; Nepi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The production and secretion of nectar has an energy cost that can be a substantial part of the energy economy of the plant. Plants may therefore recover part of the energy allocated to nectar secretion by reabsorbing nectar not collected by pollinators. This energy-saving strategy has been demonstrated by several authors by different methods. Here we demonstrate nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in Cucurbita pepo by means of microautoradiography. Our results confirm that the dynamics of nectar reabsorption is different in male and female flowers. Differences in the dynamics of nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation were also found in pollinated and unpollinated female flowers. Pollinated female flowers reabsorbed sugar very quickly and translocated it to developing fruits in which ovules were the main sugar sink. Sugar translocation was slower and ovules did not label in unpollinated female flowers. (author)

  4. Cellulase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Cucurbita moschata and their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-30

    In this study, cellulase-assisted extraction of water soluble polysaccharides from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and their antibacterial activity were investigated. The polysaccharides yield was monitored during the extraction process. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: time, 40 min; temperature, 55°C; pH, 4.5; and cellulase amount, 4,000 U/g. The extracts were centrifuged, filtered, proteins removed by Sevag method, concentrated to approximately 15% (w/v), precipitated with 5 volumes of absolute ethanol, freeze-dried, and pulverized to yield a water soluble powder of pumpkin polysaccharides (PP). The sugar content of the product was 68.3%, and the yield was 17.34% (w/w), respectively. The PP had high antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli at the concentration of 100 mg/mL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Haymer, David S.; Chou, Ming-Yi; Feng, Hai-Tung; Chen, Hsaio-Han; Huang, Yu-Bing; Mau, Ronald F. L.

    2012-01-01

    Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad. PMID:22629193

  6. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Loi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  7. Protective effect of Cucurbita pepo fruit peel against CCl4 induced neurotoxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaib, Sania; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-11-01

    Cucurbita pepo is a common vegetable used all over the world. In folk medicine it is used in gastroenteritis, hepatorenal and in brain anomalies. In the present study, protective effect of Cucurbita pepo fruit peel against CCl4-induced neurotoxicity in rats was investigated. In this study, 36 Sprague-Dawley female rats (190±15 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each. Group I was given 1 ml/kg bw (body weight) of corn oil intraperotoneally (i.p); Group II, III and IV were treated with 20% CCl4 in corn oil (1ml/kg bw i.p.). However, animals of Group III and IV were also treated with CPME (methanol extract of C. pepo fruit peel) at 200 and 400mg/kg bw respectively. Animals of Group V and VI were administered only with CPME at 200 and 400mg/kg bw respectively. These treatments were administered 3 days a week for two weeks. Administration of CCl4 cause acute neurotoxicity as depicted by significant depletion (p<0.05) in the activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, quinone reductase, while enhanced the γ-glutamyl transferase level in brain samples. CCl4 intoxication decreased the reduced glutathione (GSH) level whereas markedly (p<0.05) enhanced lipid peroxidation in brain samples. Co-treatment of CPME significantly (p<0.05) protected the brain tissues against CCl4 constituted injuries by restoring activities of antioxidant enzymes and ameliorated lipid peroxidation in a dose dependent fashion. These neuroprotective effects might be due to the presence of antioxidant constituents.

  8. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M.; Plaut, Z.; Ben-Hur, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl– uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg−1, respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl– concentrations were quite similar among the different scion–rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons. PMID:20729482

  9. Are trichomes involved in the biomechanical systems of Cucurbita leaf petioles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajączkowska, Urszula; Kucharski, Stanisław; Guzek, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Trichomes are involved in petiole movement and likely function as a part of the plant biomechanical system serving as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure. The large, non-glandular trichomes on Cucurbita petioles occur across collenchyma strands. Time-lapse imaging was used to study the leaf reorientation of Cucurbita maxima 'Bambino' plants placed in horizontal position. The experiment comprised four variants of the large non-glandular petiole trichomes: (1) intact, (2) mechanically removed, (3) dehydrated, and (4) intact but with longitudinally injured petioles. Isolated strands of collenchyma with intact epidermis or epidermis mechanically removed from the abaxial and adaxial sides of the petiole were subjected to breaking test. The stiffness of the non-isolated tissue with intact epidermis was measured using the micro-indentation method. Petioles without trichomes did not exhibit tropic response, and the dehydration of trichomes slowed and prevented complete leaf reorientation. Isolated strands of collenchyma showed no correlation between strength values and position on the petiole. However, strands of collenchyma with epidermis exhibited a significantly greater strength regardless of their position on the petiole. The indentation test showed that non-isolated collenchyma is stiffer on the abaxial side of the petiole. Trichomes from the abaxial side of the petiole were larger at their base. The application of the 'tensile triangles method' revealed that these trichomes had a biomechanically optimized shape in comparison to the adaxial side. We conclude that trichomes can be involved in plant biomechanical system and serve as an additional reservoir of hydrostatic pressure that is necessary for maintaining petioles in the prestressed state.

  10. Sodium and chloride exclusion and retention by non-grafted and grafted melon and Cucurbita plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, M; Plaut, Z; Ben-Hur, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of grafting on Na and Cl(-) uptake and distribution in plant tissues were quantified in a greenhouse experiment using six combinations of melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Arava) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne×Cucurbita moschata Duchesne cv. TZ-148): non-grafted, self-grafted, melons grafted on pumpkins, and pumpkins grafted on melons. Total Na concentration in shoots of plants with pumpkin or melon rootstocks was 400 mmol kg(-1), respectively, regardless of the scion. In contrast, shoot Cl(-) concentrations were quite similar among the different scion-rootstock combinations. Na concentrations in exudates from cut stems of plants with a pumpkin rootstock were very low (<0.18 mM), whereas those in the exudates of plants with melon rootstocks ranged from 4.7 mM to 6.2 mM, and were quite similar to the Na concentration in the irrigation water. Root Na concentrations averaged 11.7 times those in the shoots of plants with pumpkin rootstocks, while in plants with melon rootstocks, values were similar. Two mechanisms could explain the decrease in shoot Na concentrations in plants with pumpkin rootstocks: (i) Na exclusion by the pumpkin roots; and (ii) Na retention and accumulation within the pumpkin rootstock. Quantitative analysis indicated that the pumpkin roots excluded ∼74% of available Na, while there was nearly no Na exclusion by melon roots. Na retention by the pumpkin rootstocks decreased its amount in the shoot by an average 46.9% compared with uniform Na distribution throughout the plant. In contrast, no retention of Na could be found in plants grafted on melons.

  11. Transcriptome profiling of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. leaves infected with powdery mildew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Guo

    Full Text Available Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM is one of the most severe fungal diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PM resistance remain largely unknown, especially in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.. The goal of this study was to identify gene expression differences in PM-treated plants (harvested at 24 h and 48 h after inoculation and untreated (control plants of inbred line "112-2" using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. The inbred line "112-2" has been purified over 8 consecutive generations of self-pollination and shows high resistance to PM. More than 7600 transcripts were examined in pumpkin leaves, and 3129 and 3080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in inbred line "112-2" at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation (hpi, respectively. Based on the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database and GO (Gene Ontology database, a complex regulatory network for PM resistance that may involve hormone signal transduction pathways, transcription factors and defense responses was revealed at the transcription level. In addition, the expression profiles of 16 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. Among these genes, the transcript levels of 6 DEGs, including bHLH87 (Basic Helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ERF014 (Ethylene response factor, WRKY21 (WRKY domain, HSF (heat stress transcription factor A, MLO3 (Mildew Locus O, and SGT1 (Suppressor of G-Two Allele of Skp1, in PM-resistant "112-2" were found to be significantly up- or down-regulated both before 9 hpi and at 24 hpi or 48 hpi; this behavior differed from that observed in the PM-susceptible material (cultivar "Jiujiangjiaoding". The transcriptome data provide novel insights into the response of Cucurbita moschata to PM stress and are expected to be highly useful for dissecting PM defense mechanisms in this major vegetable and for improving pumpkin breeding with enhanced resistance to PM.

  12. Biosynthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Callus Cultures of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R Indira; Panda, Tapobrata

    2018-08-01

    The potential of callus cultures and field-grown organs of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles of the noble metals gold and silver has been investigated. Biosynthesis of AuNPs (gold nanoparticles) and AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) was obtained with flowers of C. maxima but not with pulp and seeds. With callus cultures established in MS-based medium the biogenesis of both AuNPs and AgNPs could be obtained. At 65 °C the biogenesis of AuNPs and AgNPs by callus extracts was enhanced. The AuNPs and AgNPs have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and XRD. Well-dispersed nanoparticles, which exhibited a remarkable diversity in size and shape, could be visualized by TEM. Gold nanoparticles were found to be of various shapes, viz., rods, triangles, star-shaped particles, spheres, hexagons, bipyramids, discoid particles, nanotrapezoids, prisms, cuboids. Silver nanoparticles were also of diverse shapes, viz., discoid, spherical, elliptical, triangle-like, belt-like, rod-shaped forms and cuboids. EDX analysis indicated that the AuNPs and AgNPs had a high degree of purity. The surface charges of the generated AuNPs and AgNPs were highly negative as indicated by zeta potential measurements. The AuNPs and AgNPs exhibited remarkable stability in solution for more than four months. FTIR studies indicated that biomolecules in the callus extracts were associated with the biosynthesis and stabilisation of the nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs could catalyse degradation of methylene blue and exhibited anti-bacterial activity against E. coli DH5α. There is no earlier report of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles by this plant species. Callus cultures of Cucurbita maxima are effective alternative resources of biomass for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  13. Variabilidad en frutos y semillas de Cucurbita moschata Duch. y Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia L.H. Bailey Merrick & D.M. Bates: Fruit and seeds variability in butternut squash Cucurbita moschata Duch. and Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia L. H.Bailey Merrick & D.M. Bates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Piedad Valdés Restrepo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En las cucurbitáceas (zapallo se presenta una gama amplia de variantes para el color de la semilla, desde blanco a café, que pueden tener significado evolutivo y de distribución geográfica. Se evaluó la variabilidad en semillas de 295 introducciones de Cucurbita moschata Duch. y 99 de Cucurbita argyrosperma subsp. sororia, todas procedentes de libre polinización. El análisis de conglomerados evidenció 11 grupos para cada una de las especies, las cuales expresaron alta variabilidad entre y dentro de las introducciones para los caracteres porcentaje de extracto etéreo en semilla (EE, peso de semilla por fruto (PSPF y número de frutos por planta (NFP. En C. moschata se destacaron dos grupos (5 y 9 por presentar altos promedios para producción por planta (PPL, peso de semilla por fruto (PSPF y extracto etéreo por planta (EEPP, con coeficientes de variación (CV entre 52% y 93%. En C. argyrosperma subsp. sororia se destacaron para los mismos caracteres los grupos 5 y 11, con un CV entre 53% y 79%. Los elevados coeficientes de variación evidenciaron amplia variabilidad entre y dentro de introducciones para los caracteres de importancia agronómica y agroindustrial. Teniendo en cuenta el análisis de agrupamiento y el índice de selección ponderado (ISP se seleccionaron las seis mejores introducciones en cada especie.

  14. Transcriptome profiling of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) leaves infected with powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Li; Chen, Bi-Hua; Chen, Xue-Jin; Guo, Yan-Yan; Yang, He-Lian; Li, Xin-Zheng; Wang, Guang-Yin

    2018-01-01

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PM resistance remain largely unknown, especially in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.). The goal of this study was to identify gene expression differences in PM-treated plants (harvested at 24 h and 48 h after inoculation) and untreated (control) plants of inbred line "112-2" using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The inbred line "112-2" has been purified over 8 consecutive generations of self-pollination and shows high resistance to PM. More than 7600 transcripts were examined in pumpkin leaves, and 3129 and 3080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in inbred line "112-2" at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation (hpi), respectively. Based on the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway database and GO (Gene Ontology) database, a complex regulatory network for PM resistance that may involve hormone signal transduction pathways, transcription factors and defense responses was revealed at the transcription level. In addition, the expression profiles of 16 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. Among these genes, the transcript levels of 6 DEGs, including bHLH87 (Basic Helix-loop-helix transcription factor), ERF014 (Ethylene response factor), WRKY21 (WRKY domain), HSF (heat stress transcription factor A), MLO3 (Mildew Locus O), and SGT1 (Suppressor of G-Two Allele of Skp1), in PM-resistant "112-2" were found to be significantly up- or down-regulated both before 9 hpi and at 24 hpi or 48 hpi; this behavior differed from that observed in the PM-susceptible material (cultivar "Jiujiangjiaoding"). The transcriptome data provide novel insights into the response of Cucurbita moschata to PM stress and are expected to be highly useful for dissecting PM defense mechanisms in this major vegetable and for improving pumpkin breeding with enhanced resistance to PM.

  15. Development of novel simple sequence repeat markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through enriched genomic libraries and their utilization in analysis of genetic diversity and cross-species transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Swati; Singh, Archana; Archak, Sunil; Behera, Tushar K; John, Joseph K; Meshram, Sudhir U; Gaikwad, Ambika B

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are the preferred markers for genetic analyses of crop plants. The availability of a limited number of such markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) necessitates the development and characterization of more SSR markers. These were developed from genomic libraries enriched for three dinucleotide, five trinucleotide, and two tetranucleotide core repeat motifs. Employing the strategy of polymerase chain reaction-based screening, the number of clones to be sequenced was reduced by 81 % and 93.7 % of the sequenced clones contained in microsatellite repeats. Unique primer-pairs were designed for 160 microsatellite loci, and amplicons of expected length were obtained for 151 loci (94.4 %). Evaluation of diversity in 54 bitter gourd accessions at 51 loci indicated that 20 % of the loci were polymorphic with the polymorphic information content values ranging from 0.13 to 0.77. Fifteen Indian varieties were clearly distinguished indicative of the usefulness of the developed markers. Markers at 40 loci (78.4 %) were transferable to six species, viz. Momordica cymbalaria, Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera, Momordica balsamina, Momordica dioca, Momordica cochinchinesis, and Momordica sahyadrica. The microsatellite markers reported will be useful in various genetic and molecular genetic studies in bitter gourd, a cucurbit of immense nutritive, medicinal, and economic importance.

  16. Amino-acid sequence of two trypsin isoinhibitors, ITD I and ITD III from squash seeds (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilusz, T; Wieczorek, M; Polanowski, A; Denton, A; Cook, J; Laskowski, M

    1983-01-01

    The amino-acid sequences of two trypsin isoinhibitors, ITD I and ITD III, from squash seeds (Cucurbita maxima) were determined. Both isoinhibitors contain 29 amino-acid residues, including 6 half cystine residues. They differ only by one amino acid. Lysine in position 9 of ITD III is substituted by glutamic acid in ITD I. Arginine in position 5 is present at the reactive site of both isoinhibitors. The previously published sequence of ITD III has been shown to be incorrect.

  17. Insights into the evolution of mitochondrial genome size from complete sequences of Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Andrew J; Wei, XiaoXin; Rice, Danny W; Stern, David B; Barry, Kerrie; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2010-06-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are unusually large and vary in size by at least an order of magnitude. Much of this variation occurs within a single family, the Cucurbitaceae, whose genomes range from an estimated 390 to 2,900 kb in size. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of Citrullus lanatus (watermelon: 379,236 nt) and Cucurbita pepo (zucchini: 982,833 nt)--the two smallest characterized cucurbit mitochondrial genomes--and determined their RNA editing content. The relatively compact Citrullus mitochondrial genome actually contains more and longer genes and introns, longer segmental duplications, and more discernibly nuclear-derived DNA. The large size of the Cucurbita mitochondrial genome reflects the accumulation of unprecedented amounts of both chloroplast sequences (>113 kb) and short repeated sequences (>370 kb). A low mutation rate has been hypothesized to underlie increases in both genome size and RNA editing frequency in plant mitochondria. However, despite its much larger genome, Cucurbita has a significantly higher synonymous substitution rate (and presumably mutation rate) than Citrullus but comparable levels of RNA editing. The evolution of mutation rate, genome size, and RNA editing are apparently decoupled in Cucurbitaceae, reflecting either simple stochastic variation or governance by different factors.

  18. Effects of indian coral tree, Erythrina indica lectin on eggs and larval development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2009-07-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of D-galactose binding lectin from Erythrina indica Lam. on the eggs and second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). The lectin from E. indica seeds was extracted and purified by affinity chromatography using asilofetuin linked porous amino activated silica beads. The effects of various concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 microg ml(-1)) of lectin were studied on freshly laid eggs (0-8 hr) of B. cucurbitae which showed non-significant reduction in percent hatching of eggs. However, the treatment of second instar larvae (64-72 hr) with various test concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 microg ml(-1)) of lectin significantly reduced the percent pupation and percent emergence of B. cucurbitae depicting a negative correlation with the lectin concentration. The LC50 (81 microg ml(-1)) treatment significantly decreased the pupal weight. Moreover, the treatment of larvae had also induced a significant increase in the remaining development duration. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of LC50 concentration of lectin for three exposure intervals (24, 48 and 72 hr). It significantly suppressed the activity of all the enzymes after all the three exposure intervals except for esterases which increased significantly.

  19. Studies on the nature of the incompatibility in a cucurbitaceous graft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, de H.C.M.

    1956-01-01

    Musk melon (M), cucumber (C) and Cucurbita ficifolia (F) could succesfully be grafted in all single combinations, except for M/F which required foliage on the stock to survive. Defoliation of this stock caused the plant to wilt and die, generally in 4-5 days; necrosis started in the stock: a rapid

  20. Thick root of cucumber: other susceptible plants and the effect of pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der D.J.; Paternotte, P.; Hamelink, R.

    2002-01-01

    Thick root is a relatively new disorder of cucumber grown in artificial substrates. Plants of cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, lupin, anthurium, Cucurbita ficifolia, C. maxima and two lines from crosses between C. maxima and C. moschata were grown in thick root disease (TRD)-infested nutrient

  1. Effects of Gamma Rays on the Keeping Quality of Pumpkin Powder (Cucurbita Pepo L.); Pengaruh Iradiasi Gama pada Kualitas Tepung Labu Parang (Cucurbita Pepo L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irawati, Zubaidah [Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia); Atika, M. A .N. [Bogor Institute of Agriculture, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2004-02-15

    Pumpkin powder (Cucurbita pepo L.) can be used as food diversification originally derived from plant as local product and raw material for making jam, cookies, spaghetti and instant noodles. Effects of gamma irradiation on pumpkin powder at medium doses during storage was observed. Whole pumpkin was cut into small pieces, then blanched at 90 {sup o}C for 5 min. followed by transforming it into paste form using wet grinder. The pumpkin paste was dried using drum drier then powdered by willey mill until a 60 mesh particle size was obtained. The powder was packed in a high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouch at 0.01 mm thickness. Pumpkin powder was irradiated at doses of 3 and 5 kGy respectively then stored at 28-30 {sup o}C for 2 and 4 months, respectively. Unirradiated individual pouch was also used as control. Irradiation with doses of 3 dan 5 kGy could reduce 2 log cycle of total bacterial count, no mold nor yeast growth in irradiated samples. Irradiation with doses of 3 and 5 kGy could effectively reduce the microbiological counts of the pumpkin powder observed. Pumpkin powder originated from 2 different habitat i.e., Cipanas and Brebes did not show any differences in some physico-chemical characteristics such as moisture content, Aw, protein, fat, starch, amylose contents, colour, but significantly different in sugar content. Both radiation and storage treatments could significantly reduce some of the physico-chemical characteristics of the investigated samples, but did not affect the general quality of pumpkin powder. (author)

  2. Oils and rubber from arid land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. D.; Hinman, C. W.

    1980-05-01

    In this article the economic development potentials of Cucurbita species (buffalo gourd and others), Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), Euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) are discussed. All of these plants may become important sources of oils or rubber.

  3. Accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDTs in hybridized Cucurbita pepo cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar; White, Jason C

    2012-08-01

    Cucurbita pepo spp pepo (zucchini) is known as an exceptional weathered dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) accumulator, whereas Cucurbita pepo ssp ovifera (squash) is termed a nonaccumulator. Experiments were conducted with hybridized zucchini and squash to assess the inheritance pattern of DDX (the sum of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE]) accumulation potential in xylem sap and tissues of parental, F1 hybrids, and F1 backcross (BC) generations of plants. Plants were grown in pots containing soil with weathered DDX at 732 to 1,130 ng/g soil or under field conditions in soil with 322 to 2,700 ng/g. The DDX stem bioconcentration factors and xylem sap values showed differences between parental and hybridized plants of squash and zucchini. For squash grown in greenhouse conditions, the DDX flow rate in the xylem sap was 17.3, 121, and 40.8 ng/h in parental, F1 hybrids, and F1 BC plants, respectively. Similarly, the stem DDX content of parental, F1, and F1 BC squash was 11, 253, and 96 ng/g (dry wt), respectively. A similar inheritance pattern for squash was observed when the plants were grown under field conditions. The DDX flow rates in the xylem sap of pot-grown parental, F1, and F1 BC zucchini cultivars were 100, 8.5, and 26 ng/hr, respectively, and the stem DDX content was 191, 102, and 142 ng/g, respectively. Again, similar trends in accumulation potential were observed for hybridized zucchini grown under field conditions. The DDX concentrations in parental plants matched the expected pattern, with hybrids midway between the two species, and the backcross being more like the parent again for both species. This inheritance pattern of contaminant accumulation and translocation ability follows classical Mendelian segregation and suggests single-gene or single-locus control. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  4. The role of Cucurbita pepo in the management of patients affected by lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Rocco; Cai, Tommaso; Fornara, Paolo; Franzese, Corrado Antonio; Leonardi, Rosario; Mirone, Vincenzo

    2016-07-04

    Phytotherapeutic compounds are largely used in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) due to low side-effect profiles and costs, high level of acceptance by patients and a low rate of dropout. Here, we aimed to analyze all available evidence on the role of Cucurbita pepo in the treatment of LUTS-BPH. In May 2016 a systematic search was carried out thorough National Library of Medicine Pubmed, Scopus database and the ISI Web of Knowledge official website in order to identify all published studies on Cucurbita pepo and BPH. The following search strings were used: "Cucurbita pepo" OR "pumpkin seed" AND "prostate"; "Cucurbita pepo" AND "antiandrogen" OR "antiproliferative" OR "anti-inflammatory" OR "antioxidant activities"; "cucurbita pepo" OR "pumpkin seed" AND "LUTS" AND "symptoms improvement" OR "quality of life". We consider for the present analysis only studies related to LUTS-BPH. Among all 670 screened, 16 were related to LUTSBPH and finally analyzed. Among all, ten of them were performed in "in vitro setting" showing anti-inflammatory and antiandrogen effect, and a reduction in prostate growth and detrusor activity, while six were clinical studies. In all studies an improvement in International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry parameters has been reported. In 4 studies, an improvement in quality of life has been reported. On the basis of our narrative review, the use of Cucurbita pepo in the management of patients affected by LUTS-BPH seems to be useful for improving symptoms and quality of life. However, future clinical trials are requested to confirm these promising results.

  5. Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its active component, β-carotene effectively promote the immune responses through the activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Yun; Nam, Sun-Young; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-10-01

    Cucurbita moschata Duch. has long been used for traditional health food in many countries. However, to enhance the immune system of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its major component, β-carotene is not clear. Here, we determined the immune enhancement effect of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene in mouse splenocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. We prepared baked Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Sweetme Sweet Pumpkin(TM), SSP) and steamed Cucurbita moschata Duch. (SC). Splenocytes isolated from the spleen of BALB/c mice were treated with SSP, SC, and β-carotene for 24 h. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ) for 6 h before treatment with SSP, SC, or β-carotene. SSP, SC and β-carotene significantly up-regulated the proliferation of splenocyte and mRNA expression of KI-67. The levels of interleukin-2 and IFN-γ were up-regulated by SSP, SC, or β-carotene in the splenocytes. SC and β-carotene also increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the splenocytes. In addition, SSP, SC, or β-carotene significantly increased the levels of TNF-α through the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB and phosphorylation of IκBα in the rIFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 cells. These data indicate that Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene may have an immune-enhancing effect through the production of Th1 cytokines by activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

  6. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the

  7. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Xie

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch. and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch., with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small

  8. Degradation of direct azo dye by Cucurbita pepo free and immobilized peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherit, Nabila; Abouseoud, Mahmoud; Adour, Lydia

    2013-06-01

    Enzymatic decolourization of the azo dye, Direct Yellow (DY106) by Cucurbita pepo (courgette) peroxidase (CP) is a complex process, which is greatly affected by pH, temperature, enzyme activity and the concentrations of H2O2 and dye. Courgette peroxidase was extracted and its performance was evaluated by using the free-CP (FCP) and immobilized-CP (ICP) forms in the decolourization of DY106. Immobilization of peroxidase in calcium alginate beads was performed according to a strategy aiming to minimize enzyme leakage and keep its activity at a maximum value by optimizing sodium alginate content, enzyme loading and calcium chloride concentration. The initial conditions at which the highest DY106 decolourization yield was obtained were found at pH 2, temperature 20 degrees C, H2O2 dose 1 mmol/L (FCP) and 100 mmol/L (ICP). The highest decolourization rates were obtained for dye concentrations 50 mg/L (FCP) and 80 mg/L (ICP). Under optimal conditions, the FCP was able to decolorize more than 87% of the dye within 2 min. While with ICP, the decolourization yield was 75% within 15 min. The decolourization and removal of DY106 was proved by UV-Vis analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis was also performed on DY106 and enzymatic treatment precipitated byproduct.

  9. Remote-controlled stop of phloem mass flow by biphasic occlusion in Cucurbita maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C. U.; Zimmermann, Matthias R.; Will, Torsten; Hafke, Jens B.; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between damage-induced electropotential waves (EPWs), sieve tube occlusion, and stop of mass flow were investigated in intact Cucurbita maxima plants. After burning leaf tips, EPWs propagating along the phloem of the main vein were recorded by extra- and intracellular microelectrodes. The respective EPW profiles (a steep hyperpolarization/depolarization peak followed by a prolonged hyperpolarization/depolarization) probably reflect merged action and variation potentials. A few minutes after passage of the first EPW peak, sieve tubes gradually became occluded by callose, with maximum synthesis occurring ∼10 min after burning. Early stop of mass flow, well before completion of callose deposition, pointed to an occlusion mechanism preceding callose deposition. This obstruction of mass flow was inferred from the halt of carboxyfluorescein movement in sieve tubes and intensified secretion of aqueous saliva by feeding aphids. The early occlusion is probably due to proteins, as indicated by a dramatic drop in soluble sieve element proteins and a simultaneous coagulation of sieve element proteins shortly after the burning stimulus. Mass flow resumed 30–40 min after burning, as demonstrated by carboxyfluorescein movement and aphid activities. Stop of mass flow by Ca2+-dependent occlusion mechanisms is attributed to Ca2+ influx during EPW passage; the reversibility of the occlusion is explained by removal of Ca2+ ions. PMID:20584788

  10. First TILLING platform in Cucurbita pepo: a new mutant resource for gene function and crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Dólera, Nelly; Troadec, Christelle; Moya, Manuel; del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Pomares-Viciana, Teresa; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Picó, Belén; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Although the availability of genetic and genomic resources for Cucurbita pepo has increased significantly, functional genomic resources are still limited for this crop. In this direction, we have developed a high throughput reverse genetic tool: the first TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) resource for this species. Additionally, we have used this resource to demonstrate that the previous EMS mutant population we developed has the highest mutation density compared with other cucurbits mutant populations. The overall mutation density in this first C. pepo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1/133 Kb by screening five additional genes. In total, 58 mutations confirmed by sequencing were identified in the five targeted genes, thirteen of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was studied in a peroxidase gene, revealing that the phenotype of seedling homozygous for one of the isolated mutant alleles was albino. These results indicate that the TILLING approach in this species was successful at providing new mutations and can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to biological function and also the identification of novel variation for crop breeding.

  11. Identification of the proteins responsible for SAR DNA binding in nuclear matrix of ''Cucurbita pepo''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzepecki, R.; Markiewicz, E.; Szopa, J.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear matrices from White bush (''Cucurbita pepo var. patisonina'') cell nuclei have been isolated using three methods: I, standard procedure involving extraction of cell nuclei with 2 M NaCl and 1% Triton X-100; II, the same with pre-treatment of cell nuclei with 0.5 mM CuSO 4 (stabilisation step); and III, method with extraction by lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS), and compared the polypeptide pattern. The isolated matrices specifically bind SAR DNA derived from human β-interferon gene in the exogenous SAR binding assay and in the gel mobility shift assay. Using IgG against the 32 kDa endonuclease we have found in the DNA-protein blot assay that this protein is one of the proteins binding SAR DNA. We have identified three proteins with molecular mass of 65 kDa, 60 kDa and 32 kDa which are responsible for SAR DNA binding in the gel mobility shift assay experiments. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  12. Eradication of melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) of the Kume Island using sterile males under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahashi, Osamu

    1984-01-01

    On the assumption that there were approximately 250,000 normal melon flies (Dacus cucurbitae) in the Kume Island as of February 1975, sterile flies have been released into the field. A previous experiment undertaken in the Kudaka Island revealed that the number of sterile pupae (with 7 kR of irradiation) should be ten times larger than that of normal flies for obtaining satisfactory results. 2,500,000 or more pupae per week were required for the purpose of eradication in the Kume Island. Satisfactory results were not obtained because of the limited production of sterile flies (1,000,000 per week). Since a mass-production facility was established in Autumn 1975, the weekly release of 1,500,000 - 2,000,000 flies became possible. Since May 1976, 3,500,000 - 4,000,000 sterile flies began to be released weekly. As a result, the rate of hatchability of eggs decreased with increasing the proportion of sterile flies to normal flies. The number of female flies caught in monitor traps also suggested that there were few normal male flies. The incidence of injuried fruits of Melothria japonica Maxim. Okinawa began to decrease remarkably from May 1976. None of 156,000 fruits were injuried between October 1976 and September 1977. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Genetic diversity in a collection of ornamental squash (Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Emina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is collecting and preserving of unique Cucurbita pepo germplasm in Serbia. This study also describes the intraspecific variation of C. pepo within twenty germplasm accessions. Conservation work aimed to develop a representative core collection of C. pepo germplasm, to guide future studies and breeding of its ornamental use. A wide range of C. pepo germplasm was collected from diferent parts of the world. Nineteen variables were recorded in 20 varieties to determine the overall degree of polymorphism and to detect similarities among them. Qualitative traits of fruit such is shape, color and texture, showed immense variation. Coefficient of variation were highest for fruit length, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant (CV=56.69161.32%, while they were the lowest for leaf length (CV=20.65%. Morphological characterization is need to facilitate the use of C. pepo varieties in breeding work. Based on the PCA results, 20 accessions of squash are separate in five groups. Those groups are unique in qualitative and quantitative traits. Knowledge of genetic divergence among varieties is essential for breeding.

  14. Expression Profile of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase Genes in Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Verdejo, Clara I; Obrero, Ángeles; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Carotenoids are important dietary components that can be found in vegetable crops. The accumulation of these compounds in fruit and vegetables is altered by the activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) enzymes that produce their degradation. The aim of this work was to study the possible implication of CCD genes in preventing carotenoid storage in the horticultural crop summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). The relationship between the presence of these compounds and gene expression for CCDs was studied in three varieties showing different peel and flesh colour. Expression analysis for the CCD genes CpNCED1, CpNCED2, CpNCED3, CpNCED9, CpCCD1, CpCCD4a, CpCCD4b and CpCCD8 was carried out on different organs and at several fruit developmental stages. The results showed that the CpCCD4a and CpCCD4b genes were highly expressed in the variety with lowest carotenoid content suggesting a putative role in carotenoid accumulation pattern in summer squash fruit.

  15. Relationship Between Seed Yield And Some of Fruit Traits in Iranian Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. Accissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barzegar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of squash (Cucurbita pepo seed yield per fruit and its relations with other characteristics of fruit include: length, diameter, length: diameter ratio (fruit shape, flesh thickness, thousand seed weight and fruit weight, an experiment was conducted using 24 accessions of squash as a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Morphological traits were evaluated according to UPOV descriptor and UPGMA clustering algorithm clustered the accessions in 4 groups (predominantly on the basis of fruit shape. Correlation, regression and path analysis were done for mentioned characteristics in 4 type-fruit groups. There was negative correlation between seed yield of individual fruit and its length and fruit length: diameter ratio. But fruit weight, fruit diameter, and thousand seeds weight had positive correlation with seed yield. Seed weight: fruit weight ratio had negative relationship with fruit weight. Therefore small size fruit is more suitable for seed yield per area. Path analysis was showed fruit weight had the most positive direct effect on seed yield per fruit in all groups.

  16. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash ( Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agulló, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-12-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes ( Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan.

  17. Nano-silicon dioxide mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Manzer H; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Faisal, Mohammad; Al Sahli, Abdulaziz A

    2014-11-01

    Research into nanotechnology, an emerging science, has advanced in almost all fields of technology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 ) in plant resistance to salt stress through improvement of the antioxidant system of squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. white bush marrow). Seeds treated with NaCl showed reduced germination percentage, vigor, length, and fresh and dry weights of the roots and shoots. However, nano-SiO2 improved seed germination and growth characteristics by reducing malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide levels as well as electrolyte leakage. In addition, application of nano-SiO2 reduced chlorophyll degradation and enhanced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate, and water use efficiency. The increase in plant germination and growth characteristics through application of nano-SiO2 might reflect a reduction in oxidative damage as a result of the expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase. These results indicate that nano-SiO2 may improve defense mechanisms of plants against salt stress toxicity by augmenting the Pn , gs , transpiration rate, water use efficiency, total chlorophyll, proline, and carbonic anhydrase activity in the leaves of plants. © 2014 SETAC.

  18. Physico-chemical studies and evaluation of diuretic activity of Cucurbita maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkattapuram Sampath Saravanan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study physico-chemical nature and diuretic activity was evaluated to establish the purity and diuretic activity by comparing with the standard acetazolamide. Pulp of Cucurbita maxima is a common cost effective Indian dish, rich in nutrients. Physico-chemical parameters like ash values, extractive values and loss on drying were performed to find the purity. The hydro-alcoholic extract was prepared by extracting the powder in soxhlet apparatus for 36 hrs. The laboratory qualitative analysis was done and constituents like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, flavonoids, alkaloids and vitamin C were found. The two doses of extract (150 and 300 mg/kg were given to the rats. Group I served as control, Group II served as standard and Group III and IV served as test. Electrolytes and urine volume was measured after 5 hrs of treatment and the same was compared with the control and the standard drug acetazolamide. Physico-chemical parameters were in the limit and the extract shows significant (p<0.01 diuretic activity at the dose of 300 mg/kg when compared with control.

  19. Rapid affinity-purification and physicochemical characterization of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-04-21

    The chito-oligosaccharide-specific lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on chitin. After SDS/PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, the pumpkin phloem lectin yielded a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa, whereas ESI-MS (electrospray ionization MS) gave the molecular masses of the subunit as 24645 Da. Analysis of the CD spectrum of the protein indicated that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 9.7% alpha-helix, 35.8% beta-sheet, 22.5% beta-turn and 32.3% unordered structure. Saccharide binding did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The haemagglutinating activity of pumpkin phloem lectin was mostly unaffected in the temperature range 4-70 degrees C, but a sharp decrease was seen between 75 and 85 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetric and CD spectroscopic studies suggest that the lectin undergoes a co-operative thermal unfolding process centred at approx. 81.5 degrees C, indicating that it is a relatively stable protein.

  20. Interaction of xylem and phloem during exudation and wound occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2013-01-01

    Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut, which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Remote-controlled stop of phloem mass flow by biphasic occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Will, Torsten; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E

    2010-08-01

    The relationships between damage-induced electropotential waves (EPWs), sieve tube occlusion, and stop of mass flow were investigated in intact Cucurbita maxima plants. After burning leaf tips, EPWs propagating along the phloem of the main vein were recorded by extra- and intracellular microelectrodes. The respective EPW profiles (a steep hyperpolarization/depolarization peak followed by a prolonged hyperpolarization/depolarization) probably reflect merged action and variation potentials. A few minutes after passage of the first EPW peak, sieve tubes gradually became occluded by callose, with maximum synthesis occurring approximately 10 min after burning. Early stop of mass flow, well before completion of callose deposition, pointed to an occlusion mechanism preceding callose deposition. This obstruction of mass flow was inferred from the halt of carboxyfluorescein movement in sieve tubes and intensified secretion of aqueous saliva by feeding aphids. The early occlusion is probably due to proteins, as indicated by a dramatic drop in soluble sieve element proteins and a simultaneous coagulation of sieve element proteins shortly after the burning stimulus. Mass flow resumed 30-40 min after burning, as demonstrated by carboxyfluorescein movement and aphid activities. Stop of mass flow by Ca(2+)-dependent occlusion mechanisms is attributed to Ca(2+) influx during EPW passage; the reversibility of the occlusion is explained by removal of Ca(2+) ions.

  2. Microbacterium horti sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from Cucurbita maxima cultivating soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Shahina; Park, Jae Hee; Yin, Chang Shik

    2016-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain THG-SL1(T) was isolated from a soil sample of Cucurbita maxima garden and was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Cells were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile and rod-shaped. The strain was aerobic, catalase positive and weakly positive for oxidase. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis but it shared highest similarity with Microbacterium ginsengisoli KCTC 19189(T) (96.6 %), indicating that strain THG-SL1(T) belongs to the genus Microbacterium. The DNA G + C content of the isolate was 68.9 mol %. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0 (39.7 %), anteiso-C17: 0 (24.4 %) and iso-C16: 0 (18.5 %). The major polar lipids of strain THG-SL1(T) were phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and an unidentified glycolipid (GL). The predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone-11 and menaquinone-12. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ornithine. Based on the results of polyphasic characterization, strain THG-SL1(T) represented a novel species within the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium horti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-SL1(T) (=KACC 18286(T)=CCTCC AB 2015117(T)).

  3. Plant growth regulators induced urease activity in Cucurbita pepo L. cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shora, Hamed M; Ali, Awatif S

    2016-03-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activity of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, urea amidohydrolase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea in 5-day-old Cucurbita pepo cotyledons subjected to various concentrations of different growth regulators. The treatment of C. pepo cotyledons with different concentrations (100-600 μmol) of different auxins [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA), indole propionic acid (IPA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)]; or with different concentrations (100-300 μmol) of different cytokinins [kinetin, zeatin and benzyladenine (6-BA)] resulted in a significant increase of urease activity, compared to control. The optimal effects were recorded for each of 500 μmol of IAA and 300 μmol of zeatin treatments. A gradual increase in urease activity was detected in cotyledons treated with various concentrations (0.2-1.0 mM) of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL), in relative to control. A substantial increase in urease activity was observed in cotyledons subjected to different concentrations of triazole (10-60 mg L(-1)), containing either triadimefon (TDM) or hexaconazole (HEX), compared to control. The combination of 300 μmol zeatin with any of protein inhibitors, namely 5-fluorouridine (FUrd), cordycepin and α-amanitin, resulted in the alleviation of their inhibitory effect on the urease activity.

  4. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung-Hun

    2015-12-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat.

  5. The morphology and ultrastructure of the nectaries of marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. convar. giromontiina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the size and structure of the nectaries in flowers of marrow – Cucurbita pepo convar. giromontiina cv. ‘Weiser Busch’. The diameter and thickness of nectariferous layer were compared in female and male flowers of this taxon. The micromorphology as well as the anatomical and ultrastructural characters of the nectary from the female flower were observed using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The density and size of stomata of the nectary epidermis from both types of flowers were examined using light microscopy. The nectaries in female flowers were found to have a larger size than in male flowers. The stomata occurring in the nectary epidermis of both types of flowers have a similar size and density. We observed that nectar was released onto the surface of the nectary not only via the stomata, but also through the walls of the epidermal cells. In TEM examination, large nuclei, different-shaped plastids, ER tubules, dictyosomes, and ribosomes were observed in the nectariferous tissue cells. A large number of mitochondria accompanying the plastids were found in the parenchyma cells of the nectary. The degradation of the nectary parenchyma cells in the flowers living for about 6 hours was asynchronous.

  6. Morphological and Nutritive Variation in a Collection of Cucurbita pepo L. Growing in Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sali ALIU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo is the one of the important diversity centers for Cucurbita pepo because of their adaptation to diverse agro ecological conditions as a result of natural and also farmer�s selection. In Kosovo, in most cases C. pepo is grown both in maize fields and vegetable gardens as well as in other more intensive systems. Our expedition have identified different location in the part of Kosovo where were collected a samples at altitudes from 545 till 748 MASL. Kjeldahl method we have used to determine Protein content (PC. Lipids were determined by extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and diethyl ether was used as extraction solvent. The aim of the present investigation was carried out to study morphological diversity, protein and lipids content. Pumpkin populations show great diversity in morphological characteristics, particularly fruit weight (FW, fruit shape (FSH. All populations for FW were on higher genetic variability + 2556.9 g or 97.71%. The collection showed appreciable phenotypic variation in fruit shape (FSH. The greater part of variance was accounted for protein content (PC and lipids content (LC. The estimation overall value ? in seed for PC and LC were 14.59%, and 32.99% respectively. This evaluation of traits variability can assist breeders to identify populations with desirable characteristics for inclusion in variety breeding programs.

  7. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant and burn wound healing activities of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne fruit peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Bahramsoltani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (pumpkin is a well-known plant with several pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess burn wound healing activity of C. moschata peel extract (CE. Also, standardized CE was assessed for antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against major pathogens of burns. Materials and Methods: Healing properties of topical preparation of 10% and 20% concentrations of CE were assessed on second degree burn in rats during a 14-day period as well as histological studies, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and total thiol content of skin tissue samples. Results: Radical scavenging IC50 and ferric-reducing antioxidant power value were 4.015±0.20 mg/ml and 142.63±2.65 mmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Total mucilage content was 13.8%. The optimal results were obtained by 20% CE that showed 90.80±5.86 % wound closure and tissue repair as well as significant reduction of tissue oxidative stress biomarkers. Histological analyses confirmed wound healing activity of pumpkin peel extract. Conclusion: Considering the high mucilage content of the plant, providing a moist environment for wound, C. moschata peel extract could be a natural remedy for treatment of burns. Further clinical studies are suggested to confirm C. moschata peel extract as a wound healing agent.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALTITUDES AND THE CONTENTS OF PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suranto Tjiptowibisono

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita moschata or pumpkin can be used as an alternative food mainly due to its carbohydrate content, and it is very easy to grow in many different habitats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the biochemical contents of C. moschata based on the altitudes and also to examine whether any relationship between the environmental conditions and protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. Proximate analysis was used for statistical consideration of the results obtained. Chemical analysis was conducted by using mesocarp of pumpkin after cleaning, peeling and removing seeds from the center of fruits. Kjedahl and soxhlet methods were used to look at the content of protein and lipid respectively. Meanwhile, the method of difference was employed to measure the percentage of carbohydrates. Although there was no significant relationship between the biochemical contents and the environmental conditions, it was recorded that plants grown at higher altitudes with high soil pH and air temperature tended to have higher protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents, compared to that of higher soil moisture. This results showed that the highest biochemical contents of protein, carbohydrate and lipid of two varieties C. moschata were evident at the lowest altitude.

  9. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Carotenoids from Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix. PMID:24756094

  10. Evaluation of phytochemicals, antioxidant and burn wound healing activities of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne fruit peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Rahimi, Roja; Samadi, Nasrin; Heidari, Mohammad; Esfandyari, Mohammadamin; Baeeri, Maryam; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Soltani, Saba; Pourvaziri, Ali; Amin, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Cucurbita moschata Duchesne (pumpkin) is a well-known plant with several pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess burn wound healing activity of C. moschata peel extract (CE). Also, standardized CE was assessed for antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against major pathogens of burns. Materials and Methods: Healing properties of topical preparation of 10% and 20% concentrations of CE were assessed on second degree burn in rats during a 14-day period as well as histological studies, total antioxidant power, lipid peroxidation and total thiol content of skin tissue samples. Results: Radical scavenging IC50 and ferric-reducing antioxidant power value were 4.015±0.20 mg/ml and 142.63±2.65 mmol Fe2+/g, respectively. Total mucilage content was 13.8%. The optimal results were obtained by 20% CE that showed 90.80±5.86 % wound closure and tissue repair as well as significant reduction of tissue oxidative stress biomarkers. Histological analyses confirmed wound healing activity of pumpkin peel extract. Conclusion: Considering the high mucilage content of the plant, providing a moist environment for wound, C. moschata peel extract could be a natural remedy for treatment of burns. Further clinical studies are suggested to confirm C. moschata peel extract as a wound healing agent. PMID:28852445

  11. Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhu, Junxiang; Diao, Wenchao; Wang, Chengrong

    2014-11-26

    An efficient ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) of Cucurbita moschata polysaccharides (CMCP) was established and the CMCP antioxidant activities were studied. The UAEE operating parameters (extraction temperature, ultrasonic power, pH, and liquid-to-material ratio) were optimized using the central composite design (CCD) and the mass transfer kinetic study in UAEE procedure was used to select the optimal extraction time. Enzymolysis and ultrasonication that were simultaneously conducted was selected as the UAEE synergistic model and the optimum extraction conditions with a maximum polysaccharide yield of 4.33 ± 0.15% were as follows: extraction temperature, 51.5 °C; ultrasonic power, 440 W; pH, 5.0; liquid-to-material ratio, 5.70:1 mL/g; and extraction time, 20 min. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro suggested that CMCP has good potential as a natural antioxidant used in the food or medicine industry because of their high reducing power and positive radical scavenging activity for DPPH radical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash (Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Yossen, Mariana [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC), CONICET-Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ruta Nacional 168-Paraje ' El Pozo' , 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Cifone, Norma; Agullo, Enrique [Laboratorio de Investigaciones Basicas Aplicadas en Quitina, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Andreucetti, Noemi, E-mail: andreuce@criba.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Avenida Alem 1253, B8000CPB Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes (Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan. - Highlights: > Original Chitosan was radiation depolymerized producing chitosans with lower molecular weights. > Gamma-irradiated chitosans only exhibit chain scission. > SEC-MALLS-RI chromatography is a useful tool in molecular weight analysis. > Depolymerized chitosans were the best in maintaining the quality and the storage life of coated squashes.

  13. Movement of soil-applied imidacloprid and thiamethoxam into nectar and pollen of squash (Cucurbita pepo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Stoner

    Full Text Available There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars "Multipik," "Sunray" and "Bush Delicata" when applied to soil by two methods: (1 sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2 applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10 ± 3 ppb (mean ± s.d for imidacloprid and 11 ± 6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14 ± 8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12 ± 9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees.

  14. Effects of amendments on the uptake and distribution of DDT in Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Lunney, Alissa I. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.c [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of soil amendments on the phytoextraction of SIGMADDT (DDT + DDD + DDE) from soil ([SIGMADDT] approx 1500 ng/g) by a pumpkin variety of Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo were tested and the patterns of SIGMADDT storage throughout the plant shoot were examined. The soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT extracted into plant shoots, but new information about SIGMADDT distribution in the plants was obtained. As observed previously, the SIGMADDT concentration in plant leaves (mean 290 ng/g) was significantly lower than in plant stems (mean 2600 ng/g). Further analysis revealed that SIGMADDT composition was consistent throughout the plant shoot and that SIGMADDT concentration in leaves and stems decreased exponentially as distance from the root increased, which was previously unknown. This new information about the patterns of SIGMADDT uptake and translocation within pumpkin plants highlights the need for appropriate plant sampling strategies in future POPs phytoextraction research. - Patterns of SIGMADDT storage in a pumpkin plant are elucidated and specific surfactant and mycorrhizal soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT phytoextracted into plant shoots.

  15. Seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. depending on the presowing gamma irradiation and postradiational temperature treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranov, A.

    1977-01-01

    In field experiments the seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. of the Big White 48/4 cultivar was determined after presowing gamma irradiation with 4000 R and 50000 R and postradiational temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes. The presowing gamma irradiation was carried out at the IRI-200O nuclear reactor with dose capacity of 630 R/min (1968 and 1969) and 504 R/min (1970), and the postradiational heating of the seeds in a drying oven at the laboratory. It is established that the presowing gamma radiation with 4000 R stimulates the seed yield of the large-fruited pumpkin (137.06%), and the 50000 R inhibits them (25.50%). The presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes is stimulating or indicates tendency towards seed yield stimulation. The postradiational presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 9Odeg C in the course of 30 minutes of the 4000 R stimulative variant decrease the seed yield stimulation, and with the 50000 R inhibitive variant - repairs or displays tendency towards seed yield reparation. (author)

  16. Effects of amendments on the uptake and distribution of DDT in Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Lunney, Alissa I.; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of soil amendments on the phytoextraction of ΣDDT (DDT + DDD + DDE) from soil ([ΣDDT] ∼ 1500 ng/g) by a pumpkin variety of Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo were tested and the patterns of ΣDDT storage throughout the plant shoot were examined. The soil amendments did not increase the total amount of ΣDDT extracted into plant shoots, but new information about ΣDDT distribution in the plants was obtained. As observed previously, the ΣDDT concentration in plant leaves (mean 290 ng/g) was significantly lower than in plant stems (mean 2600 ng/g). Further analysis revealed that ΣDDT composition was consistent throughout the plant shoot and that ΣDDT concentration in leaves and stems decreased exponentially as distance from the root increased, which was previously unknown. This new information about the patterns of ΣDDT uptake and translocation within pumpkin plants highlights the need for appropriate plant sampling strategies in future POPs phytoextraction research. - Patterns of ΣDDT storage in a pumpkin plant are elucidated and specific surfactant and mycorrhizal soil amendments did not increase the total amount of ΣDDT phytoextracted into plant shoots.

  17. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-09-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH · ) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  18. Solution properties of a heteropolysaccharide extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Ni, Yuanying; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-05

    A water-soluble galactoglucofucomannan was extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety). GC-MS analysis indicated that the polysaccharide was composed of 1,6-linked-glucosyl, 1,2,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,3,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, terminal fucosyl and terminal glucose. The solution properties of the polysaccharide were studied systematically by using size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering, viscometry and dynamic light scattering at 25 °C. The weight average molecular masses (Mw), intrinsic viscosity [η], radius of gyration (Rg) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh) were found to be 12.7 × 10(5)g/mol, 780 ml/g, 68 nm and 116 nm, respectively. The fraction dimension and value of ρ (Rg/Rh) of the polysaccharide revealed that it existed in a sphere-like conformation in distilled water. The dependence of zero shear specific viscosity on the coil overlap parameter was analyzed using different models. Furthermore, degradation of samples upon autoclaving has been observed and quantified by intrinsic viscosity determination and SEC-MALLS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit extract improves physical fatigue and exercise performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Yi; Huang, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Chung; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ho, Chin-Shan; Huang, Wen-Pei; Hou, Chia-Chung; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2012-10-09

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME) on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test) were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen) and release (as blood glucose), and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  20. Carbohydrate metabolism before and after dehiscence in the recalcitrant pollen of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, C; Guarnieri, M; Pacini, E

    2015-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) pollen is starchy, sucrose-poor and recalcitrant, features opposite to those of several model species; therefore, some differences in carbohydrate metabolism could be expected in this species. By studying pumpkin recalcitrant pollen, the objective was to provide new biochemical evidence to improve understanding of how carbohydrate metabolism might be involved in pollen functioning in advanced stages. Four stages were analysed: immature pollen from 1 day before anthesis, mature pollen, mature pollen exposed to the environment for 7 h, and pollen rehydrated in a culture medium. Pollen viability, water and carbohydrate content and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were quantified in each stage. Pollen viability and water content dropped quickly after dehiscence, as expected. The slight changes in carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity during pollen maturation contrast with major changes recorded with ageing and rehydration. Pumpkin pollen seems highly active and closely related to its surrounding environment in all the stages analysed; the latter is particularly evident among insoluble sucrolytic enzymes, mainly wall-bound acid invertase, which would be the most relevant for sucrose cleavage. Each stage was characterised by a particular metabolic/enzymatic profile; some particular features, such as the minor changes during maturation, fast sucrolysis upon rehydration or sharp decrease in insoluble sucrolytic activity with ageing seem to be related to the lack of dormancy and recalcitrant nature of pumpkin pollen. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Developmental instability: measures of resistance and resilience using pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, D. Carl; Brown, Michelle L.; Dobson, Melissa; Jordan, Yolanda; Kizy, Anne; Micallef, Chris; Hancock, Leandria C.; Graham, John H.; Emlen, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry measures random deviations from bilateral symmetry, and thus estimates developmental instability, the loss of ability by an organism to regulate its development. There have been few rigorous tests of this proposition. Regulation of bilateral symmetry must involve either feedback between the sides or independent regulation toward a symmetric set point. Either kind of regulation should decrease asymmetry over time, but only right–left feedback produces compensatory growth across sides, seen as antipersistent growth following perturbation. Here, we describe the developmental trajectories of perturbed and unperturbed leaves of pumpkin, Cucurbita pepoL., grown at three densities. Covering one side of a leaf with aluminium foil for 24 h perturbed leaf growth. Reduced growth on the perturbed side caused leaves to become more asymmetrical than unperturbed controls. After the treatment the size-corrected asymmetry decreased over time. In addition, rescaled range analysis showed that asymmetry was antipersistent rather than random, i.e. fluctuation in one direction was likely to be followed by fluctuations in the opposite direction. Development involves right–left feedback. This feedback reduced size-corrected asymmetry over time most strongly in the lowest density treatment suggesting that developmental instability results from a lack of resilience rather than resistance. 

  2. Chemical composition and biological activity of ripe pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egyptian habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Sherif E A; Shaaban, Mohamed; Elkholy, Yehya M; Helal, Maher H; Hamza, Akila S; Masoud, Mohamed S; El Safty, Mounir M

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of three parts (rind, flesh and seeds) of pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in Egypt were studied. Chemical analysis of fibre, protein, β-carotene, carbohydrates, minerals and fatty acids present in the rind, flesh, seeds and defatted seeds meal was conducted. Chemical, GC-MS and biological assays of organic extracts of the main fruit parts, rind and flesh established their unique constituents. Chromatographic purification of the extracts afforded triglyceride fatty acid mixture (1), tetrahydro-thiophene (2), linoleic acid (3), calotropoleanly ester (4), cholesterol (5) and 13(18)-oleanen-3-ol (6). GC-MS analysis of the extract's unpolar fraction revealed the existence of dodecane and tetradecane. Structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were confirmed by NMR and EI-MS spectrometry. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumour activities of the fruit parts were discussed. The promising combined extract of rind and flesh was biologically studied for microbial and cytotoxic activities in comparison with the whole isolated components.

  3. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash (Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agullo, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-01-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes (Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan. - Highlights: → Original Chitosan was radiation depolymerized producing chitosans with lower molecular weights. → Gamma-irradiated chitosans only exhibit chain scission. → SEC-MALLS-RI chromatography is a useful tool in molecular weight analysis. → Depolymerized chitosans were the best in maintaining the quality and the storage life of coated squashes.

  4. Diagnosis and Integrated Management of Fruit Rot in Cucurbita argyrosperma, Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Díaz Nájera

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit rot is the principal phytopathological problem of pipiana pumpkin (Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber in the state of Guerrero. The aims of this research were to 1 identify the causal agent of southern blight on pumpkin fruits by morphological, pathogenic, and molecular analysis (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2; 2 evaluate in vitro Trichoderma spp. strains and chemical fungicides; and 3 evaluate under rainfed field conditions, the strains that obtained the best results in vitro, combined with fungicides during two crop cycles. Number of commercial and non-commercial fruits at harvest, and seed yield (kg ha-1 were registered. Morphological, pathogenic and molecular characterization identified Sclerotium rolfsii as the causal agent of rot in pipiana pumpkin fruits. Now, in vitro conditions, the highest inhibition of S. rolfsii were obtained by Trichoderma virens strain G-41 (70.72%, T. asperellum strain CSAEGro-1 (69%, and the fungicides metalaxyl (100%, pyraclostrobin (100%, quintozene (100%, cyprodinil + fludioxonil (100%, and prochloraz (100%. Thiophanate-methyl only delayed growth (4.17%. In field conditions, during the spring-summer 2015 cycle, T. asperellum strain CSAEGro-1 + metalaxyl, and T. asperellum + cyprodinil + fludioxonil, favored the highest number of fruits and seed yield in the crop.

  5. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Carotenoids from Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriana Durante

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE, have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1 dehydration pre-treatments; (2 extraction parameters (temperature and pressure; the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  6. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-21

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix.

  7. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  8. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eevers, N.; Hawthorne, J.R.; White, J.C.; Vangronsveld, J.; Weyens, N.

    2016-01-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. - Highlights: • Cucurbita pepo accumulates DDE and can be used for phytoremediation. • Phytoremediation capacity might be enhanced with endophytic bacteria. • The differences in bacterial communities without and with DDE are investigated. • Several DDE-tolerant bacteria are discovered and might be used in phytoremediation. - DDE-exposure and DDE-uptake of Cucurbita pepo lead to increases in both diversity

  9. Oil from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds: evaluation of its functional properties on wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardaa, Sana; Ben Halima, Nihed; Aloui, Fatma; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Jabeur, Hazem; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Sahnoun, Zouheir

    2016-04-11

    Increasing natural drug demand for pharmaceutical uses has encouraged scientifics all over the world to explore medicinal plants recognized as efficient remedies. In this context, extracted oil from pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.) is an interesting target, as it is composed with prominent pharmacological properties to possible wound healing treatments. The composition and content of certain bioactive constituents of the cold pressed oil obtained from pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.) were analyzed and studied for their wound healing properties. Uniform wounds were induced on the dorsum of 18 rats, randomly divided into three groups. The wounds were photographed, and topically treated with saline solution (control group), 0.13 mg/mm(2) of a reference drug ("Cicaflora cream®"), and 0.52 μl/mm(2) of pumpkin's oil each 2 days until the first group is completely healing and so far biopsies were histologically assessed. The composition and content of tocopherols, fatty acids, and phytosterols were determined. The results showed an excellent quality of pumpkin oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (Linoleic acid: 50.88 ± 0.106 g/100 g of total fatty acids), tocopherols (280 ppm) and sterols (2086.5 ± 19.092 ppm). High content of these bioactive components were in agreement with an efficient wound healing by the mean of an in vivo study. In fact, morphometric assessment and histological findings revealed healed biopsies from pumpkin oil treated group of rats, unlike untreated group, and a full re-epithelialization with reappearance of skin appendages and well organized collagen fibers without inflammatory cells. This study showed the significance of oil from pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.) as a promising drug to healing wounds in animal assays. As a whole, pumpkin's oil would be recommended in the nutritional and medicinal purposes.

  10. A Chromosome-Scale Assembly of the Bactrocera cucurbitae Genome Provides Insight to the Genetic Basis of white pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheina B. Sim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic sexing strains (GSS used in sterile insect technique (SIT programs are textbook examples of how classical Mendelian genetics can be directly implemented in the management of agricultural insect pests. Although the foundation of traditionally developed GSS are single locus, autosomal recessive traits, their genetic basis are largely unknown. With the advent of modern genomic techniques, the genetic basis of sexing traits in GSS can now be further investigated. This study is the first of its kind to integrate traditional genetic techniques with emerging genomics to characterize a GSS using the tephritid fruit fly pest Bactrocera cucurbitae as a model. These techniques include whole-genome sequencing, the development of a mapping population and linkage map, and quantitative trait analysis. The experiment designed to map the genetic sexing trait in B. cucurbitae, white pupae (wp, also enabled the generation of a chromosome-scale genome assembly by integrating the linkage map with the assembly. Quantitative trait loci analysis revealed SNP loci near position 42 MB on chromosome 3 to be tightly linked to wp. Gene annotation and synteny analysis show a near perfect relationship between chromosomes in B. cucurbitae and Muller elements A–E in Drosophila melanogaster. This chromosome-scale genome assembly is complete, has high contiguity, was generated using a minimal input DNA, and will be used to further characterize the genetic mechanisms underlying wp. Knowledge of the genetic basis of genetic sexing traits can be used to improve SIT in this species and expand it to other economically important Diptera.

  11. Toxicologic evaluation of acute and subacute oral administration of Cucurbita maxima seed extracts to rats and swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz-Neto, A; Mataqueiro, M I; Santana, A E; Alessi, A C

    1994-06-01

    The extract prepared from dried seeds of Cucurbita maxima was administered to rats and pigs. Following a single dose or 4 weeks of daily oral administration, the extract produced no changes in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, total protein, uric acid, GOT, GPT, LDH or blood counts. Urine analysis (urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, Na and K), as well as histopathological investigation, showed no abnormalities. These results taken as a whole indicate that the seeds of C. maxima as used in Brazilian folk medicine are not toxic for rats and swine.

  12. Combined impact of solar UV-B radiation and selenium treatment on respiratory potential in pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germ, M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ambient and filtered solar UV-B radiation and of selenium treatment on respiratory potential measured by electron transport system (ETS) activity in pumpkins, Cucurbita pepo L. were studied. Measurements were conducted three times in the growth period. Solar UV-B radiation decreased ETS activity in plants, regardless selenium treatment. The results suggested that the solar UV-B radiation impaired flow of electrons in the respiratory chain. Selenium decreased ETS activity in plants exposed to solar UV-B radiation in the end of the vegetation period

  13. Evolution and loss of long-fringed petals: a case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds, Trichosanthes (Cucurbitaceae

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    de Boer Hugo J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cucurbitaceae genus Trichosanthes comprises 90–100 species that occur from India to Japan and southeast to Australia and Fiji. Most species have large white or pale yellow petals with conspicuously fringed margins, the fringes sometimes several cm long. Pollination is usually by hawkmoths. Previous molecular data for a small number of species suggested that a monophyletic Trichosanthes might include the Asian genera Gymnopetalum (four species, lacking long petal fringes and Hodgsonia (two species with petals fringed. Here we test these groups’ relationships using a species sampling of c. 60% and 4759 nucleotides of nuclear and plastid DNA. To infer the time and direction of the geographic expansion of the Trichosanthes clade we employ molecular clock dating and statistical biogeographic reconstruction, and we also address the gain or loss of petal fringes. Results Trichosanthes is monophyletic as long as it includes Gymnopetalum, which itself is polyphyletic. The closest relative of Trichosanthes appears to be the sponge gourds, Luffa, while Hodgsonia is more distantly related. Of six morphology-based sections in Trichosanthes with more than one species, three are supported by the molecular results; two new sections appear warranted. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses suggest an Oligocene origin of Trichosanthes in Eurasia or East Asia, followed by diversification and spread throughout the Malesian biogeographic region and into the Australian continent. Conclusions Long-fringed corollas evolved independently in Hodgsonia and Trichosanthes, followed by two losses in the latter coincident with shifts to other pollinators but not with long-distance dispersal events. Together with the Caribbean Linnaeosicyos, the Madagascan Ampelosicyos and the tropical African Telfairia, these cucurbit lineages represent an ideal system for more detailed studies of the evolution and function of petal fringes in plant

  14. Model of the process with piecewise-constant extremals to minimize losses of vitamins during the melting of melons and gourds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Inochkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of periods of storage of fruits of gourds is an urgent task processing industry. The most developed and available for injection is a method of dehydration of raw materials due to supply of heat transfer fluids. In addition to solid dry frame in raw materials is 80–90% water. In the period of moisture removal from raw material changes of thermal-physical and structural-mechanical and physicochemical characteristics. The ratio of water and dry matter in vegetative raw materials largely determines the modes of drying and storage conditions of the finished product. During drying, there are a number of limitations: the drying temperature should not exceed the degradation temperature of vitamins and proteins, and the magnitude of course, the moisture content of the product depends on the reaction prevention malonodinitrile sugars at the critical moisture content. An important problem of the drying of production is quality control stages of drying, the dynamics of which is quite difficult to describe using mathematical models. The main factors of optimization of industrial drying processes is preservation of valuable components of the feedstock, the drying time, energy and resource conservation. Development of effective control algorithm for the process of dehydration of raw materials described in the article on the example of drying of slices of melon. Experimental approach a two-stage process of drying of melon varieties Taman, the proposed regression model with the relaxation-based on humidity and content of vitamin C from the variable in time temperature and pressure, based on the available literature and own experimental data. According to the optimal control of the drying process to search for the thermobaric regime that maximizes the vitamin C content at the end of the drying, under specified conditions, the humidity. The main findings are the solution of the problem for the case of piecewise constant temperature and pressure in

  15. Study of mechanical and morphological properties of bio-based polyethylene (HDPE) and sponge-gourds (Luffa-cylindrica) agroresidue composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escocio, Viviane A.; Visconte, Leila L. Y.; Cavalcante, Andre de P.; Furtado, Ana Maria S.; Pacheco, Elen B. A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Brazil has a remarkable position in the use of renewable energy. The potential of natural resources in Brazil has motivated the use of these renewable resources to make technologies more sustainable. From the large variety of commercially available High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) from different sources, two were chosen for investigation: one produced from sugarcane ethanol, and the other one, a conventional polyethylene, produced from fossil resources. In the preparation of the composites, sponge-gourds also called Luffa cylindrica were selectec. The main application of this product is as bath sponge, whose production generates scraps that are generally burnt. In this work, the composites were prepared by blending the sponge scrap at different proportions (10, 20, 30 and 40% wt/wt) with high density polyethylene (HDPE) from renewable source by extrusion. The melt flow index analysis of the composites was determined and specimens were obtained by injection molding for the assessment of mechanical properties such as tensile (elasticity modulus), flexural and Izod impact strengths. The microstructure of the impact fractured surface of the specimen also was determined. The results showed that the addition of sponge scrap affects positively all the properties studied as compared to HDPE. The results of tensile strength, elasticity modulus and flexural strength were similar to those observed in the literature for composites of HDPE from fossil source. The microstructure corroborates the results of mechanical properties. It was shown that the sponge scrap has potential to be applied as cellulosic filler for renewable polyethylene, providing a totally renewable material with good mechanical properties.

  16. Effect of disruption of a cutinase gene (cutA) on virulence and tissue specificity of Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 2 toward Cucurbita maxima and C. moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowhurst, R N; Binnie, S J; Bowen, J K; Hawthorne, B T; Plummer, K M; Rees-George, J; Rikkerink, E H; Templeton, M D

    1997-04-01

    A 3.9-kb genomic DNA fragment from the cucurbit pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 2 was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 690 nucleotides interrupted by a single 51-bp intron. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences showed 92 and 98% identity, respectively, to those of the cutA gene of the pea pathogen F. solani f. sp. pisi. A gene replacement vector was constructed and used to generate cutA- mutants that were detected with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Seventy-one cutA- mutants were identified among the 416 transformants screened. Vector integration was assessed by Southern analysis in 23 of these mutants. PCR and Southern analysis data showed the level of homologous integration was 14%. Disruption of the cutA locus in mutants was confirmed by RNA gel blot hybridization. Neither virulence on Cucurbita maxima cv. Delica at any of six different inoculum concentrations, nor pathogenicity on intact fruit of four different species or cultivars of cucurbit or hypocotyl tissue of C. maxima cv. Crown, was found to be affected by disruption of the cutA gene.

  17. Secagem de fatias de abóboras (Cucurbita moschata, L. por convecção natural e forçada Drying of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L. slices by natural and forced convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Vilela Borges

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora (Cucurbita moschata, L. é uma importante fonte de provitamina A, de baixo custo, e sob a forma desidratada oferece diferentes opções de utilização e consumo. Secagens por convecção natural e forçada foram comparadas quanto ao grau de secagem atingido e encolhimento, em função da temperatura, velocidade de ar e dimensões do produto. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o uso de fatias com volume de 6,25 cm³ em secador por convecção forçada a 50 °C e à velocidade de 5,5 x 10-4 ms-1 resultaram em produtos de menor encolhimento, sendo recomendadas estas condições.Besides its low price, Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata, L. is an important source of provitamin-A, and when dehydrated it offers different options of utilizations and consumption. Natural and forced convection drying were compared according to the drying degree shrinkage as a function of temperature, and air velocity and product dimensions. The obtained results showed that slices with the volume of 6.25 cm³ in forced convection oven at 50 °C and at the velocity of 5.5 x 10-4 ms-1 resulted in a lower shrinkage products, so these conditions were recommended.

  18. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), infestation in host fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan before the initiation of Island-wide population suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern...

  19. Partially resistant Cucurbita pepo showed late onset of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus infection due to rapid activation of defense mechanisms as compared to susceptible cultivar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, S.; Flores-Ramirez, G.; Glasa, M.; Danchenko, M.; Fiala, R.; Škultéty, L'udovít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, APR 2015 (2015), s. 1-14 ISSN 1664-462X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cucurbita pepo cultivars * Zucchini yellow mosaic virus * resistance to phytopatogen Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.495, year: 2015

  20. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Rouphael

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low-pH and aluminium (Al stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.‘Ekron’ either non-grafted or grafted onto ‘P360’ (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F. Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Exp. 1, 14 d and pH 6, pH 3.5 and pH 3.5 +0.75 mM Al (Exp. 2, 67 d. Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to i a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, ii a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, iii a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as iv the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage. Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber.

  1. Changes in the composition of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita moschata during development and maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petkova, Zh. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the chemical and lipid composition of Cucurbita moschata seeds and seed oils at different stages of development were investigated. The oil content of the seeds at 30, 60 and 90 days after flowering was 10.7, 41.1, and 47.1%, respectively. The amount of proteins was 26.0, 35.9, and 38.2%. The contents of carbohydrates soluble in ethanol were 9.5, 1.8 and 1.3%. The starch and fiber percentage contents were 16.3, 6.8, 2.3 and 4.0, 6.9 and 10.0, respectively and the ash contents were 7.2, 4.7, and 4.5%. The total sterol percentages were found to be 2.0, 0.8 and 0.6 in the oils and 0.2, 0.3 and 0.3 in the seeds. The tocopherol contents were 2010, 512 and 527 mg·kg−1 in the oil, and 215, 210 and 250 mg·kg−1 in the seeds. The total phospholipid percentages were 8.7, 0.8 and 0.4 in the oils and 0.9, 0.3 and 0.2 in the seeds. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography and the major fatty acids in the oils at all stages of ripening were linoleic (40.8–50.2% followed by palmitic (21.5–25.9% and oleic (20.5–21.0%.Se determinaron los cambios en la composición química y en los lípidos de semillas de Cucurbita moschata así como en los aceites extraídos en diferentes etapas del desarrollo de las semillas. El contenido de aceite a los 30, 60 y 90 días después de la floración fue de 10,7, 41,1 y 47,1%, respectivamente. La cantidad de proteínas fue del 26,0, 35,9 y 38,2% y el contenido de hidratos de carbono solubles en etanol fue de 9,5, 1,8 y 1,3%. Los contenidos de almidón y fibras fueron 16,3, 6,8, 2,3% y 4,0, 6,9 y 10,0%, respectivamente y el contenido de cenizas fue de 7.2%, 4.7% y 4.5%. Se encontró un contenido total de esteroles del 2,0, 0,8 y 0,6% en los aceites y de 0,2, 0,3 y 0,3% en las semillas. El contenido de tocoferoles fue 2010, 512 y 527 mg·kg−1 en el aceite, y 215, 210 y 250 mg·kg−1 en las semillas. Los contenidos de fosfolípidos totales fueron de 8,7, 0,8 y 0,4% en los aceites y 0,9, 0

  2. Scale brightness of common goldfish on diet supplemented with seaweed Sargassum sp. and pumpkin Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfina Manda Astari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The common goldfish Carassius auratus auratus is an ornamental freshwater fish species with  high market value. The market value of ornamental fish can be determined through some parameters, one of them is brightness of the fish scales. Brightness level may be enhanced by supplementing plant powder containing carotenoid into fish diet. The purpose of this research was to examine the scale brightness level of common goldfish fed diet supplemented with Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder, and to determine the dose of those powders that allows higher brightness level of scale.  The feed of common goldfish was supplemented with either Sargassum sp. or pumpkin powder at the doses of 10, 20 and 30%, and without supplementation as control. Fishes were reared for 75 days and fed diet at feeding rate of 5% biomass daily. The results of ANOVA test showed that the Sargassum sp. and pumpkin mill addition on food significantly improved of scales brightness of  common goldfish. Increasing supplementation levels of Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder increased brightness level of scale. The highest improvement in brightness was the fish that fed by 30% concentration of Sargassum sp. flour with the value scale of brightness was 2.67 and the total number of 2,890.67 chromatophore cells. The results suggest that Sargassum sp. powder is better to improve the brightness level of common goldfish scale. Keywords: Carassius auratus auratus, Sargassum sp., Cucurbita moschata, carotenoid, brightness  ABSTRAK Ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus merupakan salah satu spesies ikan hias air tawar yang memiliki nilai jual tinggi. Nilai jual ikan hias dapat ditentukan melalui beberapa parameter, salah satunya yaitu kecerahan sisik ikan. Kecerahan sisik ikan dapat ditingkatkan melalui pemberian pakan yang diperkaya karotenoid. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji tingkat kecerahan warna sisik ikan komet setelah diberi pakan dengan tambahan tepung Sargassum sp. dan

  3. Effects of Gamma Rays on the Keeping Quality of Pumpkin Powder (Cucurbita Pepo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah Irawati; Atika, M. A .N.

    2004-01-01

    Pumpkin powder (Cucurbita pepo L.) can be used as food diversification originally derived from plant as local product and raw material for making jam, cookies, spaghetti and instant noodles. Effects of gamma irradiation on pumpkin powder at medium doses during storage was observed. Whole pumpkin was cut into small pieces, then blanched at 90 o C for 5 min. followed by transforming it into paste form using wet grinder. The pumpkin paste was dried using drum drier then powdered by willey mill until a 60 mesh particle size was obtained. The powder was packed in a high density polyethylene (HDPE) pouch at 0.01 mm thickness. Pumpkin powder was irradiated at doses of 3 and 5 kGy respectively then stored at 28-30 o C for 2 and 4 months, respectively. Unirradiated individual pouch was also used as control. Irradiation with doses of 3 dan 5 kGy could reduce 2 log cycle of total bacterial count, no mold nor yeast growth in irradiated samples. Irradiation with doses of 3 and 5 kGy could effectively reduce the microbiological counts of the pumpkin powder observed. Pumpkin powder originated from 2 different habitat i.e., Cipanas and Brebes did not show any differences in some physico-chemical characteristics such as moisture content, Aw, protein, fat, starch, amylose contents, colour, but significantly different in sugar content. Both radiation and storage treatments could significantly reduce some of the physico-chemical characteristics of the investigated samples, but did not affect the general quality of pumpkin powder. (author)

  4. Determining the mineral composition in Cucurbita pepo fruit using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael; Gómez, Pedro; Blanco-Díaz, Teresa; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes

    2014-12-01

    Efforts through conventional breeding to improve the mineral content in horticultural crops have not always been successful mainly due to the fact that standard analytical methods are both costly and time-consuming. We investigated the feasibility of applying near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to the estimation of essential mineral composition in the skin and flesh of summer squash fruits (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo) using a 200-sample set from diverse morphotypes. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (R(2) VAL) obtained for the skin and flesh of the fruit were: total mineral content, 0.84 and 0.70; P, 0.74 and 0.62; K, 0.83 and 0.67; Ca, 0.57 and 0.60; Mg, 0.78 and 0.45; Fe, 0.78 and 0.65; Cu, 0.67 and 0.66; Mn, 0.67 and 0.64; Zn, 0.80 and 0.79 and Na, 0.33 and 0.33; respectively. NIRS combined with different spectral transformations by modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression has shown to be useful in determining the mineral composition of summer squash fruit, being a fast and low-cost analytical technique. Components such as chlorophyll, starch and lipids were used by MPLS for modelling the predicting equations. The promotion of micronutrient-rich summer squash varieties could have a significant long-term beneficial impact on the health of mineral deficient human populations. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Inheritance profile of weathered chlordane and p,p'-DDTs accumulation by Cucurbita pepo hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar; Hawthorne, Joseph; Berger, William; White, Jason C

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo (zucchini) accumulates significant levels of persistent organic pollutants in its roots, followed by unexpectedly high contaminant translocation to the stems. Most other plant species, including the closely related C. pepo ssp ovifera (squash), do not have this ability. To investigate the mechanism of contaminant accumulation, two cultivars each of parental zucchini and squash, as well as previously created first filial (F1) hybrids and F1 backcrosses (BC) of those parental cultivars, were grown under field conditions in a soil contaminated with weathered chlordane (2.29 microg/g) and DDX residues (0.30 microg/g; sum of DDT, DDE, DDD). The parental zucchini had stem-to-soil bioconcentration factors (BCF, contaminant ratio of stem to soil) for chlordane and DDX of 6.23 and 3.10; these values were 2.2 and 3.7 times greater than the squash, respectively. Chlordane and DDX translocation factors, the ratio of contaminant content in the stems to that in the root, were 2.1 and 3.2 times greater for zucchini than for squash. The parental zucchini and squash also differed significantly in chlordane component ratios (relative amounts of trans-nonachlor [TN], cis-chlordane [CC], trans-chlordane [TC]) and enantiomer fractions for the chiral CC and TC. Hybridization of the parental squash and zucchini resulted in significant differences in contaminant uptake. For both the three separate component ratios (CR) and two sets of enantiomer fraction (EF) values, subspecies specific differences in the parental generation became statistically equivalent in the F1 hybrid zucchini and squash. When backcrossed (BC) with the original parental plants, the zucchini and squash F1 BC cultivars reverted to the statistically distinct CR and EF patterns. This pattern of trait segregation upon hybridization suggests either single gene or single locus control for persistent organic pollutant (POP) uptake ability by C. pepo ssp pepo.

  6. Cadmium induced changes in subcellular glutathione contents within glandular trichomes of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Dagmar; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther; Zechmann, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Plants cope with cadmium (Cd) stress by complexation with phytochelatins (Pc), metallothioneins and glutathione and sequestration within vacuoles. Especially glutathione was found to play a major role in Cd detoxification as Cd shows a high binding affinity towards thiols and as glutathione is a precursor for Pc synthesis. In the present study, we have used an immunohistochemical approach combined with computer-supported transmission electron microscopy in order to measure changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during Cd-stress in mesophyll cells and cells of different glandular trichomes (long and short stalked) of Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: . Even though no ultrastructural alterations were observed in leaf and glandular trichome cells after the treatment of plants with 50 microM cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) for 48 h, all cells showed a large decrease in glutathione contents. The strongest decrease was found in nuclei and the cytosol (up to 76%) in glandular trichomes which are considered as a major side of Cd accumulation in leaves. The ratio of glutathione between the cytosol and nuclei and the other cell compartments was strongly decreased only in glandular trichomes (more than 50%) indicating that glutathione in these two cell compartments is especially important for the detoxification of Cd in glandular trichomes. Additionally, these data indicate that large amounts of Cd are withdrawn from nuclei during Cd exposure. The present study gives a detailed insight into the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during Cd exposure in mesophyll cells and glandular trichomes of C. pepo L. plants.

  7. Movement of Soil-Applied Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam into Nectar and Pollen of Squash (Cucurbita pepo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Kimberly A.; Eitzer, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars “Multipik,” “Sunray” and “Bush Delicata”) when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10±3 ppb (mean ± s.d) for imidacloprid and 11±6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14±8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12±9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees. PMID:22761727

  8. Inheritance of p,p'-DDE phytoextraction ability in hybridized Cucurbita pepo cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jason C

    2010-07-01

    Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo (zucchini) has been shown to uniquely phytoextract percent level amounts of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and other organic contaminants from soil. Since C. pepo ssp ovifera (squash) does not have this ability, a three-year field trial was conducted to follow the inheritance pattern of DDE accumulation for cross pollinated C. pepo cultivars. Parental zucchini and squash cultivars (3 each) had stem-to-soil bioconcentration factors (BCF, contaminant ratio of stem to soil) of 16 and 1.7, respectively, and phytoextracted 1.8 and 0.18% of the DDE from soil. The 18 possible first filial (F1) hybrids of zucchini and squash accumulated significantly different DDE levels than the respective parents. The zucchini F1 hybrid (zucchini pollinated with squash) stem BCFs and percent phytoextraction values were 10 and 0.96, respectively, or 36% and 47% less than the parental zucchini. The squash F1 hybrid (squash pollinated with zucchini) stem BCFs and percent phytoextraction values were 8.3 and 0.68, respectively, or 490% and 370% greater than the parental squash. When backcrossed (BC) with the original parent, the nine zucchini F1 BC cultivars did not regain the capability to take up DDE; stem BCFs and percent phytoextraction values were equivalent to those of the F1 generation. However, the nine squash F1 BC cultivars lost much of the DDE uptake capability of the F1 generation; stem BCFs and percent phytoextraction values were intermediate but closer to those of the parental squash. The inheritance patterns suggest single locus control for persistent organic pollutant (POP) uptake ability in C. pepo ssp pepo.

  9. Subunit structure and interactions of the phloem proteins of Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, S M; Northcote, D H

    1983-08-15

    The two major proteins from the phloem exudate of Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin), PP1 and PP2, were stable in the absence of reducing agents after modification of their accessible cysteine residues with iodoacetamide. This permitted their purification without precautions to prevent oxidation. PP2, a lectin specific for oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, was shown by sedimentation-equilibrium ultracentrifugation to be a dimer of Mr of 48000. Neither dithiothreitol nor tri-(N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) altered this value. The constituent polypeptides were linked by two buried disulphide bridges. PP2 behaved aberrantly on gel-filtration on both Sephadex and Bio-Gel unless tri-(N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) was added to the elution buffer; the Mr was then measured as 46000. Other proteins which bind oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine are also retarded on gel-filtration. Soluble phloem filaments were prepared by collection of exudate into deaerated buffer containing iodoacetamide but no reducing agent. Oxidative gellation of the filaments was prevented by rapid modification of their many accessible cysteine residues, and is assumed to have maintained the degree of polymerisation found in vivo. Those disulphide bridges which were present allowed the incorporation of approximately 60% of the PP1 and 80% of the PP2 into polymeric material. It is concluded that PP1 and PP2 are both structural proteins present in the filaments observable in vivo. PP2 had an elongated binding-site for oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. It is suggested that this lectin immobilises bacteria and fungi to the cross-linked filaments which seal wounded phloem sieve-tubes, and thus maintains sterility.

  10. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  11. Purification and partial amino-acid sequence of gibberellin 20-oxidase from Cucurbita maxima L. endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T

    1994-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from Cucurbita maxima endosperm by fractionated ammonium-sulphate precipitation, gel-filtration chromatography and anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Average purification after the last step was 55-fold with 3.9% of the activity recovered. The purest single fraction was enriched 101-fold with 0.2% overall recovery. Apparent relative molecular mass of the enzyme was 45 kDa, as determined by gel-filtration HPLC and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that GA 20-oxidase is probably a monomeric enzyme. The purified enzyme degraded on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, giving two protein spots: a major one corresponding to a molecular mass of 30 kDa and a minor one at 45 kDa. The isoelectric point for both was 5.4. The amino-acid sequences of the amino-terminus of the purified enzyme and of two peptides from a tryptic digest were determined. The purified enzyme catalysed the sequential conversion of [14C]GA12 to [14C]GA15, [14C]GA24 and [14C]GA25, showing that carbon atom 20 was oxidised to the corresponding alcohol, aldehyde and carboxylic acid in three consecutive reactions. [14C]Gibberellin A53 was similarly converted to [14C]GA44, [14C]GA19, [14C]GA17 and small amounts of a fourth product, which was preliminarily identified as [14C]GA20, a C19-gibberellin. All GAs except [14C]GA20 were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cofactor requirements in the absence of dithiothreitol were essentially as in its presence (Lange et al., Planta 195, 98-107, 1994), except that ascorbate was essential for enzyme activity and the optimal concentration of catalase was lower.

  12. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed.

  13. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman She

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum. The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies

  14. Kinetic and thermodynamic investigation on ascorbate oxidase activity and stability of a Cucurbita maxima extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Tatiana S; Porto, Camila S; Cavalcanti, Maria T H; Filho, José L Lima; Perego, Patrizia; Porto, Ana L F; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic and thermodynamic properties of ascorbate oxidase (AO) activity and stability of a Cucurbita maxima extract were investigated. Activity tests performed at 25 degrees C using initial ascorbic acid concentration in the range 50-750 M allowed estimating the Michaelis constant for this substrate (Km = 126 microM) and the maximum initial rate of ascorbic acid oxidation (A0,max = 1.57 mM min-1). The main thermodynamic parameters of the enzyme reaction (DeltaH* = 10.3 kJ mol-1; DeltaG* = 87.2 kJ mol-1; DeltaS* = -258 J mol-1 K-1) were estimated through activity tests performed at 25-48 C. Within such a temperature range, no decrease in the initial reaction rate was detected. The long-term thermostability of the raw extract was then investigated by means of residual activity tests carried out at 10-70 degrees C, which allowed estimating the thermodynamic parameters of the irreversible enzyme inactivation as well (DeltaH*D = 51.7 kJ mol-1; DeltaG*D = 103 kJ mol-1; S*D = -160 J mol-1 K-1). Taking into account the specific rate of AO inactivation determined at different temperatures, we also estimated the enzyme half-life (1047 min at 10 degrees C and 21.2 min at 70 degrees C) and predicted the integral activity of a continuous system using this enzyme preparation. This work should be considered as a preliminary attempt to characterize the AO activity of a C. maxima extract before its concentration by liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

  15. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Irans climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  16. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Iran�s climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  17. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiaoman; Yu, Lin; Lan, Guobing; Tang, Yafei; He, Zifu

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum . The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies for C. maxima wilt

  18. Anti-insect potential of lectins from Arisaema species towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Kuljinder; Rup, Pushpinder J; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2009-11-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), also known as melon fruit fly, is one of the major insect pests of cucurbits in several parts of Asia, Africa and Pacific. In the present investigation, effect of lectins from two sources i.e. Arisaema intermedium Blume and Arisaema wallichianum Hook f. (Family-Araceae) has been studied on the development of second instar larvae of melon fruit fly. The lectins were incorporated separately in artificial diet at a concentration of 10 to 160 microg ml(-1) and fed adlibitum to the second instar larvae. Both the lectins were found to prolong the development period and significantly inhibited the pupation and emergence in a dose dependent manner. Total development period was found to be prolonged by 3.5 and 2.3 days in case of larvae fed on artificial diet containing A. intermedium (AIL) and A. wallichianum (AWL), respectively. LC50 values calculated on the basis of adult emergence came out to be 32.8 and 29 microg ml(-1) for AIL and AWL, respectively. Both the lectins tested, were found to increase the activity of esterases as larvae proceeded from 24 to 72 hr of treatment. The activity of acid phosphatase decreased significantly in larvae reared on diet containing LC50 of AIL, while in case of AWL significant decrease was observed only at 72 hr of treatment. Alkaline phosphatase activity decreased significantly on treatment with both of these lectins. These results showed that AIL and AWL have promising anti-insect potential. So, lectin gene/s from either of these species can be cloned and subsequently can be employed to develop transgenics to control melon fruit flies specifically and insect pests in general. This approach could be used as a part of Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies.

  19. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B.

  20. Cytoprotective Effects of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) Fruit Extract against Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, Reyhaneh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Adiban, Hasan; Kardan, Azin; Keyhanfar, Fariborz; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder that is associated with significant mortality and morbidity due to microvascular and macrovascular complications. Diabetes complications accompanied with oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in different organs of human body because of the increased generation of free radicals and impaired antioxidant defense systems. In the meantime, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) have key mediatory roles in the development and progression of diabetes complications. Therapeutic strategies have recently focused on preventing such diabetes-related abnormalities using different natural and chemical compounds. Pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata ) is one of the most important vegetables in the world with a broad-range of pharmacological activities such as antihyperglycemic effect. Methods In the present study, the cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of C. moschata fruit on hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonylation model) were investigated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Results The extract of C. moschata (50 μg/ml) excellently prevented oxidative and carbonyl stress markers, including hepatocyte lysis, ROS production, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal damage, and cellular proteolysis. In addition, protein carbonylation was prevented by C. moschata in glyoxal-induced carbonyl stress. Conclusion It can be concluded that C. moschata has cytoprotective effects in oxidative stress and carbonyl stress models and this valuable vegetable can be considered as a suitable herbal product for the prevention of toxic subsequent of oxidative stress and carbonyl stress seen in chronic hyperglycemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Some biological effects of one water based ferrofluid in cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racuciu, M.; Creanga, D.; Olteanu, Z.; Horga, E. I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The biological interest in the ferrofluid effect in living organisms represents an important application field, mainly for biotechnological use, since the small ferrophase size allows the penetration through the biological membranes. Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of an aqueous ferrofluid on the assimilatory pigments, the peroxide level, nucleic acid level and on the substance accumulation. Water based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added in various concentrations (10-50-100- 150-200-250 micro L/L) (after vigorous shaking) in the culture medium of Cucurbita pepo plantlets (pumpkin). Spectrophotometric standard assay methods have been applied in order to get experimental data regarding the levels of assimilatory pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenes), nucleic acids and peroxydase like enzymes. JASCO V350 spectrophotometer provided with. The stimulatory effect of relatively high ferrofluid concentrations have been observed in the ratio chlorophyll a/b, known as a measure of photosynthesis ratio. Non-significant changes in the nucleic acid level were noticed. Inhibitory effect upon the enzyme biosynthesis was assigned to the ferrofluid addition. The statistic analysis was accomplished by considering five repetitions of every measurement in ferrofluid samples and control ones. Average values of ferrofluid samples and control ones have been compared by means of t-test. Statistic significance was revealed in comparison to the significance threshold of 0.05. (Also one figure included.) References: [1] C. Gro , K.Buescher, E. Romanus, C,A, Helm, W.Weitschies, European cells and Materials, 2002, 3(2), 163. [2] M.M.Zamfirache, G. Capraru, D. Creanga, M. Racuciu, Gh. Calugaru, Ferrofluid experiment for simulating pollution effect on plant growth, The Annals of University Galati, 2004(XXVII), Fasc.II, 37. [3] A.Goodarzi, Y.Sahoo, M.T.Swihart, P.N. Prasad, Mat.Res.Soc.Symp.Proc., 2004,Vol.789, N6.6.1

  2. Effect of mycorrhizal fungi on the phytoextraction of weathered p,p-DDE by Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jason C; Ross, Daniel W; Gent, Martin P N; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, Maryjane Incorvia

    2006-10-11

    Field experiments were conducted to assess the impact of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi on the accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil by three cultivars of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo cv Costata Romanesco, Goldrush, Raven). Three commercially available mycorrhizal products (BioVam, Myco-Vam, INVAM) were inoculated into the root system of the zucchini seedlings at planting. In agreement with our previous findings, plants not inoculated with fungi accumulated large but variable amounts of contaminant, with root bioconcentration factors (BCFs, ratio of p,p'-DDE, on a dry weight basis, in the root to that in the soil) ranging from 10 to 48 and stem BCFs ranging from 5.5 to 11. The total amount of contaminant phytoextracted during the 62 day growing season ranged from 0.72-2.9%. The effect of fungal inoculation on the release of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil and on the subsequent uptake of the parent compound by zucchini appeared to vary at the cultivar level. For Goldrush, fungal inoculation generally decreased tissue BCFs but because of slightly larger biomass, did not significantly impact the percent contaminant phytoextracted. Alternatively, for Costata, BioVam and Myco-Vam generally enhanced p,p'-DDE accumulation from soil, and increased the amount of contaminant phytoextracted by up to 34%. For Raven, BioVam reduced contaminant uptake whereas Myco-Vam and INVAM increased contaminant phytoextraction by 53 and 60%, respectively. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of C. pepo ssp. pepo. The apparent cultivar specific response to mycorrhizal inoculation is unexpected and the subject of ongoing investigation.

  3. Effects of plant lectin from cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth on development of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuljinder; Kaur, Manpreet; Rup, Pushpinder J; Singh, Jatinder

    2008-11-01

    The lectin from tubers of cobra lily, Arisaema curvatum Kunth was purified by affinity chromatography using asialofetuin-linked amino activated porous silica beads. The concentration dependent effect of lectin was studied on second instar larvae (64-72 hr) of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.). The treatment not only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage pupation and emergence of the adults from treated larvae but it also prolonged the remaining larval development period. A very low LC50 value, 39 mgl(-1) of lectin was obtained on the basis of adult emergence using probit analysis. The activity of three hydrolase enzymes (esterases, acid and alkaline phosphatases), one oxidoreductase (catalase) and one group transfer enzyme (GSTs: Glutathione S-transferases) was assayed in second instar larvae under the influence of the LC50 of lectin at increasing exposure intervals (0, 24, 48 and 72 hr). The Arisaema curvatum lectin significantly decreased the activity of all the enzymes except for esterases, where the activity increased as compared to control at all exposure intervals. The decrease in pupation and emergence as well as significant suppression in the activities of two hydrolases, one oxidoreductase and one GST enzyme in treated larvae of B. cucurbitae indicated that this lectin has anti-metabolic effect on the melon fruit fly larvae.

  4. Characterization of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and minerals in landraces of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata cultivated in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PRIORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability for the synthesis of bioactive compounds and minerals in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata landraces. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals were evaluated in 10 accessions of Cucurbita moschata landraces from the Genebank of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture (Pelotas - RS, Brazil. Twenty plants of each accession were cultivated in the field during the spring/summer of 2013/2014. After harvesting of mature fruits, the seeds were discarded and opposite longitudinal portions of the pulp were manually prepared for analysis of the bioactive compounds. For the determination of minerals, pumpkin samples were frozen in plastic bags, and after freeze-dried and milled. All analysis were performed in triplicate. The data obtained showed high genetic variability for the synthesis of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals. The accessions C52, C81, C267 e C389 showed high levels of antioxidants and minerals, being recommended for use in pumpkin breeding programs. The accessions C52 and C389 are promising, especially because they present the highest levels of total carotenoids.

  5. Characterization of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and minerals in landraces of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata cultivated in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PRIORI

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability for the synthesis of bioactive compounds and minerals in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata landraces. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals were evaluated in 10 accessions of Cucurbita moschata landraces from the Genebank of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture (Pelotas - RS, Brazil. Twenty plants of each accession were cultivated in the field during the spring/summer of 2013/2014. After harvesting of mature fruits, the seeds were discarded and opposite longitudinal portions of the pulp were manually prepared for analysis of the bioactive compounds. For the determination of minerals, pumpkin samples were frozen in plastic bags, and after freeze-dried and milled. All analysis were performed in triplicate. The data obtained showed high genetic variability for the synthesis of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals. The accessions C52, C81, C267 e C389 showed high levels of antioxidants and minerals, being recommended for use in pumpkin breeding programs. The accessions C52 and C389 are promising, especially because they present the highest levels of total carotenoids.

  6. Designing a New Nano-Plant Composite of Cucurbita pepo for Wound Repair of Skin in Male Albino Mice: A New Nano Approach for Skin Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Naghsh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : The Cucurbita pepo is one of plants that are functional in traditional therapy. This plant has antioxidant and skin damage repair properties. This study investigated the effect of Cucurbita pepo nano silver as a new nano-plant composition in wound repair skin in male mice.   Materials & Methods: In this investigation, male albino mice were places in 8 groups, each containing 8 animals. Group I – VIII were treated with nano silver (500, 250, and 125 ppm concentrations and different concentrations of extracts [70%, 50%, and 25%] and the control group received a mixture of 25% Cucurbita pepo extract (125 ppm nano silver. The eighth group, as control, was treated with sterile deionizer water after the induction of wound skin. The average diameter of the wounds was measured 28 days after treatment in the control and treatment groups. These data were analyzed using the t-test and ANOVA statistical method.   Results: The results of this study showed that ethanol extraction (80% has its highest repair effect 28 days post treatment. The average diameter of the wounds in the control group was 1.16 ±. 0.46 cm, which was decreased to 0 cm and 0.12 ±. 0.23 cm in the ethanol extract (70% of the Cucurbita pepo and component groups, respectively (p value ≤ 0.01.   Conclusion: In this project, nano silver-Cucurbita pepo ethanol extraction for wound repair in albino male mice was more effective than single materials. These findings show that the repair synergic effects are between alcoholic extract and nano silver in this nano composite.

  7. 40 CFR 180.920 - Inert ingredients used pre-harvest; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... than 0.2 pt of pesticide formulation Light stabilizer Hydroxypropyl guar gum Thickener Isobornyl... per acre Preservative/stabilizer Boric acid Sequestrant Buffalo gourd root powder (Cucurbita foetidissima root powder); or, Zucchini juice (Cucurbita pepo juice) or Hawkesbury melon Citrullus lanatus. No...

  8. Xylan-degrading enzymes in male and female flower nectar of Cucurbita pepo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepi, M.; Bini, L.; Bianchi, L.; Puglia, M.; Abate, M.; Cai, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Nectar is a very complex mixture of substances. Some components (sugars and amino acids) are considered primary alimentary rewards for animals and have been investigated and characterized in numerous species for many years. In contrast, nectar proteins have been the subject of few studies and little is known of their function. Only very recently have detailed studies and characterization of nectar proteins been undertaken, and then for only a very few species. This current work represents a first step in the identification of a protein profile for the floral nectar of Cucurbita pepo. In this regard, the species studied is of particular interest in that it is monoecious with unisexual flowers and, consequently, it is possible that nectar proteins derived from male and female flowers may differ. Methods Manually excised spots from two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis were subjected to in-gel protein digestion. The resulting peptides were sequenced using nanoscale LC–ESI/MS-MS (liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry). An MS/MS ions search was carried out in Swiss-Prot and NCBInr databases using MASCOT software. Key Results Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed a total of 24 spots and a different protein profile for male and female flower nectar. Four main proteins recognized by 2-D electrophoresis most closely resemble β-d-xylosidases from Arabidopsis thaliana and have some homology to a β-d-xylosidase from Medicago varia. They were present in similar quantities in male and female flowers and had the same molecular weight, but with slightly different isoelectric points. Conclusions A putative function for xylosidases in floral nectar of C. pepo is proposed, namely that they may be involved in degrading the oligosaccharides released by the nectary cell walls in response to hydrolytic enzymes produced by invading micro-organisms. Several types of oligosaccharides have been reported to increase the pathogenic

  9. Hormonal and epigenetic regulation during embryogenic tissue habituation in Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leljak-Levanić, Dunja; Mrvková, Mihaela; Turečková, Veronika; Pěnčík, Aleš; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; Mihaljević, Snježana

    2016-01-01

    Habituated embryogenic line of pumpkin contained more CKs and IAA, but less ABA than the non-habituated line. Pronounced hypomethylation correlated with the absence of 2,4-D, addition of 5-azaC, and the process of habituation. A comparative analysis between habituated and non-habituated embryogenic cultures of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) in relation to endogenous phytohormones, global DNA methylation, and developmental and regeneration capacities of the cultures was conducted. The analysis revealed more cytokinins (CKs) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but less abscisic acid (ABA) in the habituated HEC line than in the non-habituated DEC line. Ribosides and ribotides were the most abundant CK forms in both HEC and DEC lines (75.9 and 57.6 %, respectively). HEC contained more free-base CKs (5.8 vs. 3.2 %), whereas DEC contained considerably more O-glycosides (39.1 vs. 18.3 %). Although prevalence of IAA was common for both lines, relative ratio of CKs and ABA differed between DEC and HEC lines. ABA was prevailing over CKs in DEC, while CKs prevailed over ABA in HEC line. Taking into account the importance of ABA for embryo maturation, the reduced endogenous ABA content in HEC line might be the reason for a 5-fold reduction in regeneration capacity compared to DEC. Both habituated and non-habituated embryogenic lines were highly methylated in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Pronounced hypomethylation correlated with the absence of 2,4-D, addition of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC), but also with the process of habituation. The habituated line was resistant to the effect of hypomethylation drug 5-azaC and remained highly methylated even after the addition of 5-azaC. Also, 5-azaC did not change the developmental pattern in the habituated line, indicating the existence of separate mechanisms by which 2,4-D influences global DNA methylation in comparison to habituation-related global DNA methylation.

  10. Three-dimensional solution structure of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M; Gong, Y; Kao, J L; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1995-04-18

    The solution structure of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V), which is also a specific inhibitor of the blood coagulation protein, factor XIIa, was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy in combination with a distance-geometry and simulated annealing algorithm. Sequence-specific resonance assignments were made for all the main-chain and most of the side-chain hydrogens. Stereospecific assignments were also made for some of the beta-, gamma-, delta-, and epsilon-hydrogens and valine methyl hydrogens. The ring conformations of all six prolines in the inhibitor were determined on the basis of 1H-1H vicinal coupling constant patterns; most of the proline ring hydrogens were stereospecifically assigned on the basis of vicinal coupling constant and intraresidue nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) patterns. Distance constraints were determined on the basis of NOEs between pairs of hydrogens. Dihedral angle constraints were determined from estimates of scalar coupling constants and intraresidue NOEs. On the basis of 727 interproton distance and 111 torsion angle constraints, which included backbone phi angles and side-chain chi 1, chi 2, chi 3, and chi 4 angles, 22 structures were calculated by a distance geometry algorithm and refined by energy minimization and simulated annealing methods. Both main-chain and side-chain atoms are well-defined, except for a loop region, two terminal residues, and some side-chain atoms located on the molecular surface. The average root mean squared deviation in the position for equivalent atoms between the 22 individual structures and the mean structure obtained by averaging their coordinates is 0.58 +/- 0.06 A for the main-chain atoms and 1.01 +/- 0.07 A for all the non-hydrogen atoms of residues 3-40 and 49-67. These structures were compared to the X-ray crystallographic structure of another protein of the same inhibitor family-chymotrypsin inhibitor-2 from barley seeds [CI-2; McPhalen, C. A., & James, M. N. G. (1987) Biochemistry 26

  11. Development of a hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil press-cake spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Vujasinović, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    A stable, oil-based spread rich in the omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids was developed using a hull-less pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oil press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, along with cold-pressed hemp oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of two factors, as the formulation's compositional variables: a commercial stabilizer (X(1) ) and cold-pressed hemp oil (X(2) ) added to the pumpkin seed oil press-cake in the spread formulations. A central composite, 2-factorial experimental design on 5 levels was used to optimize the spreads where model responses were ω-3 fatty acids content, spreadability (hardness), oil separation, and sensory evaluation. The selected responses were significantly affected by both variables (P spreads resembled commercial peanut butter, both in appearance, texture and spreadability; were a source of ω-3 fatty acids and with no visual oil separation after 1 mo of storage. An optimum spread was produced using 1.25% (w/w) of stabilizer and 80% of hemp oil (w/w, of the total added oil) which had 0.97 g of ω-3 fatty acids per serving size; penetration depth of 68.4 mm; oil separation of 9.2% after 3 mo of storage; and a sensory score of 17.5. A use of by-products generated from different food processing technologies, where the edible waste is successfully incorporated as a value-added ingredient, has become a very important area of research to support global sustainability efforts. This study contributes to the knowledge of a product design process for oil-based spread development, where oil press-cake, a by-product of the oil pressing process of the naked pumpkin seeds, was used and where results have demonstrated that a new product can be successfully developed and potentially manufactured as a functional food. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Carboxylesterase-involved metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Chen, Siyuan; Chao, Yuanqing; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and accumulation by plants is a significant pathway in the migration and transformation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment. However, limited information is available on the mechanisms of PAE metabolism in plants. Here, we investigated the metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently detected PAEs, in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings via a series of hydroponic experiments with an initial concentration of 10 mg L -1 . DnBP hydrolysis occurred primarily in the root, and two of its metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and phthalic acid (PA), were detected in all plant tissues. The MnBP concentration was an order of magnitude higher than that of PA in shoots, which indicated MnBP was more readily transported to the shoot than was PA because of the former's dual hydrophilic and lipophilic characteristics. More than 80% of MnBP and PA were located in the cell water-soluble component except that 96% of MnBP was distributed into the two solid cellular fractions (i.e., cell wall and organelles) at 96 h. A 13-20% and 29-54% increase of carboxylesterase (CXE) activity shown in time-dependent and concentration-dependent experiments, respectively, indicated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. The level of CXE activity in root subcellular fractions was in the order: the cell water-soluble component (88-94%) > cell wall (3-7%) > cell organelles (3-4%), suggesting that the cell water-soluble component is the dominant locus of CXE activity and also the domain of CXE-catalyzed hydrolysis of DnBP. The addition of triphenyl phosphate, a CXE inhibitor, led to 43-56% inhibition of CXE activity and 16-25% increase of DnBP content, which demonstrated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. This study contributes to our understanding of enzymitic mechanisms of PAE transformation in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comportamiento de dos variedades de sandía Citrullus lanatus (Thunb Matsura y Nakan, injertadas sobre los portainjertos de calabaza, Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita máxima y estropajo Luffa cylindrica The performance of two varieties of water melon Citrullus lanatus (Thub Matsura and nakai, grafted over pumpkin Lagenaria siceraria, zapallo Cucurbita moschata, ahuyama Cucurbita maxima and estropajo Luffa cylindrica graftholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Juan Carlos

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En 1987-I, se realizó en predios de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Palmira un estudio para evaluar la viabilidad de los injertos, cuantificar la producción e introducir alternativas de manejo de los problemas fitosanitarios. El suelo bien estructurado tiene textura FArL, pH 7.0, materia orgánica 3%, P 48 ppm, K .7 me/100g de suelo y una CIC de 19 me/100g de suelo. Se realizó un injerto de púa o escudete con plántulas de sandía de las variedades Charleston Gray y Sugar baby sobre los patrones de las especies citadas. Al patrón se le eliminó el meristemo apical y se rajó longitudinalmente 1.0 - 1.5 cm y se le introdujo la púa en forma de cuña. La púa consistió en el 50% del tallo, las hojas cotiledonares y el meristemo apical. Las unidades experimentales en el campo se distribuyeron en bloques completos al azar, en donde los tratamientos fueron las plantas injertadas y los tratamientos testigos las variedades de sandía sembradas directamente por semillas. El prendimiento de las púas superó el 90% en todos los casos. Los portainjertos Lagenaria y Cucurbita influyeron en mayor aumento de área foliar, mientras que Luffa disminuyó ostensiblemente. Los portainjertos no desmejoraron las características organolépticas de las frutas de las dos variedades. El número de frutos en las plantas infestadas sobre zapallo y estropajo disminuyeron.

    In the first semester of 1987 was done this experiment at Universidad Nacional, Palmira. The objectives were to evaluate grafts viability, to quantify production and to give alternatives to phytosanitary problems. It was done a prick or escutcheon graft with water melon small plants from Charleston Gray and Sugar Baby. The summit bud was eliminated and it was longitudinally cut 1.0 - 1.5 cm for inserting the prick cotyledon leaves and the summit bud. Experimental units were distributed in random complete blocks, where experiment treatments were grafted plants and control the

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the flight activity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    The duration and distance of flight and the flight velocity of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett, were investigated by using a flight mill system. Mean flight duration of the normal female flies was significantly longer than that of the sterile ones which were irradiated with a dose of 7, 20, 30 KR γ-ray. No significant differences were recognized between normal and sterile male flies irradiated with 7 KR. No adverse effect of irradiation on the flight velocity was detected. Flight distance was the longest for the unirradiated flies and it decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses, but the difference among normal and sterile flies irradiated with either 7 or 20 KR was not statistically significant. Generally, the flight ability decreased with the increase of the irradiation doses. (author)

  15. Changing the inhibitory specificity and function of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, L; Lee, I; Chen, G; Huang, J K; Gong, Y; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1995-02-27

    Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V) is also a specific inhibitor of human blood coagulation factor beta-factor XIIa. A recombinant version of CMTI-V has allowed probing of roles of individual amino acid residues including the reactive site residue, lysine (P1), by site-directed mutagenesis. The K44R showed at least a 5-fold increase in inhibitory activity toward human beta-factor XIIa, while there was no change toward bovine trypsin. This result demonstrates that beta-factor-XIIa prefers an arginine residue over lysine residue, while trypsin is non-specific to lysine or arginine in its binding pocket. On the other hand, the specificity of CMTI-V could be changed from trypsin to chymotrypsin inhibition by mutation of the P1 residue to either leucine or methionine (K44L or K44M).

  16. Comparison of two methodologies to estimate microbial activity in a pumpkin crop (Cucurbita maxima) in blooming and maturity phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadena, Silvio F; Madrinan, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The measure of soil microbial activity is a significant feature in fertility and conservation diagnostic thinking about it, we compared two methodologies: volumetric Calcimeter that measures CO 2 released by soil into closed atmospheric system (glass tubes), cab method that retains CO 2 released during incubation phase in a closed system (glass bottles) at 23 degrades celsius subsequently titrate with HCL 0.5N. Results showed microbial activity in a pumpkin crop (Cucurbita maxima) in Palmira, Valle del Cauca - Colombia, is higher in maturity than blooming phase. It occurs beca use contribution of nutritive substances from pumpkin's roots as it is in physiological maturity and microclimate offered by full foliage of pumpkin. Because in CAB method, soil is put on trial with its natural wet the numeric results express as mgC-CO 2 .g 1 of soil are most reliable than volumetric Calcimeter method. The cost analysis showed that cab is twenty percent cheaper than volumetric Calcimeter method

  17. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  18. The effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L) seeds and L-arginine supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in atherogenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelgassim, Abuelgassim O; Al-showayman, Showayman I A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds supplementation on atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerosis. Rat were divided into two main groups , normal control and atherogenic control rats , each group composed of three subgroups one of them supplemented with 2% arginine in drinking water and the other supplemented with pumpkin seeds in diet at a concentration equivalent to 2% arginine. Supplementation continued for 37 days. Atherogenic rats supplemented with pumpkin seeds showed a significant decrease (ppumpkin seeds significantly decreased serum concentrations of TC and LDL-C. Our findings suggest that pumpkin seeds supplementation has a protective effect against atherogenic rats and this protective effect was not attributed to the high arginine concentrations in pumpkin seeds.

  19. Effect of acetylation on antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of polysaccharides isolated from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuyu; Duan, Liusheng; Zhou, Chunli; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Li, Quanhong; Hu, Xiaosong

    2013-10-15

    Acetylation of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety) polysaccharide using acetic anhydride with pyridines as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale. Furthermore, antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of pyridine as catalyst could increase the degree of substitution, whereas volume of acetic anhydride had little effect. The acetylated polysaccharides in DPPH scavenging radical activity assay, superoxide anion radical activity assay and reducing power assay exhibited higher antioxidant activity than that of unmodified polysaccharide. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by pumpkin polysaccharide and its acetylated derivatives and the derivatives presented higher protective effects. On the whole, acetylated polysaccharide showed relevant antioxidant activity both in vitro and in a cell system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Two and three dimensional characterization of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus induced structural alterations in Cucurbita pepo L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnig, Günther; Pöckl, Michael Herbert; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Infection of plants by Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) induces severe ultrastructural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate ultrastructural changes during ZYMV-infection in Cucurbita pepo L. plants on the two and three dimensional (2D and 3D) level and to correlate these changes with the spread of ZYMV throughout the plant by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. This study revealed that after inoculation of the cotyledons ZYMV moved into roots [3 days post inoculation (dpi)], then moved upwards into the stem and apical meristem (5 dpi), then into the first true leaf (7 dpi) and could finally be found in all plant parts (9 dpi). ZYMV-infected cells contained viral inclusion bodies in the form of cylindrical inclusions (CIs). These CIs occurred in four different forms throughout the cytosol of roots and leaves: scrolls and pinwheels when cut transversely and long tubular structures and bundles of filaments when cut longitudinally. 3D reconstruction of ZYMV-infected cells containing scrolls revealed that they form long tubes throughout the cytosol. The majority has a preferred orientation and an average length and width of 3 μm and 120 nm, respectively. Image analysis revealed an increased size of cells and vacuoles (107% and 447%, respectively) in younger ZYMV-infected leaves leading to a similar ratio of cytoplasm to vacuole (about 1:1) in older and younger ZYMV-infected leaves which indicates advanced cell growth in younger tissues. The collected data advances the current knowledge about ZYMV-induced ultrastructural changes in Cucurbita pepo. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular characterization of a phloem-specific gene encoding the filament protein, phloem protein 1 (PP1), from Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A M; Jacobsen, K R; Bostwick, D E; Dannenhoffer, J M; Skaggs, M I; Thompson, G A

    1997-07-01

    Sieve elements in the phloem of most angiosperms contain proteinaceous filaments and aggregates called P-protein. In the genus Cucurbita, these filaments are composed of two major proteins: PP1, the phloem filament protein, and PP2, the phloem lactin. The gene encoding the phloem filament protein in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) has been isolated and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the reconstructed gene gPP1 revealed a continuous 2430 bp protein coding sequence, with no introns, encoding an 809 amino acid polypeptide. The deduced polypeptide had characteristics of PP1 and contained a 15 amino acid sequence determined by N-terminal peptide sequence analysis of PP1. The sequence of PP1 was highly repetitive with four 200 amino acid sequence domains containing structural motifs in common with cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Expression of the PP1 gene was detected in roots, hypocotyls, cotyledons, stems, and leaves of pumpkin plants. PP1 and its mRNA accumulated in pumpkin hypocotyls during the period of rapid hypocotyl elongation after which mRNA levels declined, while protein levels remained elevated. PP1 was immunolocalized in slime plugs and P-protein bodies in sieve elements of the phloem. Occasionally, PP1 was detected in companion cells. PP1 mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization in companion cells at early stages of vascular differentiation. The developmental accumulation and localization of PP1 and its mRNA paralleled the phloem lactin, further suggesting an interaction between these phloem-specific proteins.

  2. A comparative analysis of phloem exudate proteins from Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, D D; Hart, J W

    1976-01-01

    Proteins in sieve tube exudate from Cucumis melo L., Cucumis sativus L. and Cucurbita maxima Duch. were analysed by gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Estimated molecular weights and isoelectric points for the major and minor proteins from each plant species are presented. Electrophoresis revealed striking differences between the protein complements of exudatc from the two genera investigated. Similarly, although a few exudate proteins from the two species of Cucumis possessed identical molecular weights, several major proteins were peculiar to each species. Isoelectric focusing of proteins in exudate samples from the three plants confirmed the marked differences in their protein complements. Furthermore, focusing also revealed differences between cultivars of Cucumis sativus. Both Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima possessed relatively large amounts of basic proteins; these were absent in exudate from Cucumis melo. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to present concepts regarding the interrelationships and possible functional roles of P-proteins.

  3. Disulfide bond effects on protein stability: designed variants of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodszky, M; Chen, C W; Huang, J K; Zolkiewski, M; Wen, L; Krishnamoorthi, R

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to increase protein stability by insertion of novel disulfide bonds have not always been successful. According to the two current models, cross-links enhance stability mainly through denatured state effects. We have investigated the effects of removal and addition of disulfide cross-links, protein flexibility in the vicinity of a cross-link, and disulfide loop size on the stability of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V; 7 kD) by differential scanning calorimetry. CMTI-V offers the advantage of a large, flexible, and solvent-exposed loop not involved in extensive intra-molecular interactions. We have uncovered a negative correlation between retention time in hydrophobic column chromatography, a measure of protein hydrophobicity, and melting temperature (T(m)), an indicator of native state stabilization, for CMTI-V and its variants. In conjunction with the complete set of thermodynamic parameters of denaturation, this has led to the following deductions: (1) In the less stable, disulfide-removed C3S/C48S (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -4 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = -22 degrees C), the native state is destabilized more than the denatured state; this also applies to the less-stable CMTI-V* (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -3 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = -11 degrees C), in which the disulfide-containing loop is opened by specific hydrolysis of the Lys(44)-Asp(45) peptide bond; (2) In the less stable, disulfide-inserted E38C/W54C (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -1 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = +2 degrees C), the denatured state is more stabilized than the native state; and (3) In the more stable, disulfide-engineered V42C/R52C (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = +1 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = +17 degrees C), the native state is more stabilized than the denatured state. These results show that a cross-link stabilizes both native and denatured states, and differential stabilization of the two states causes either loss or gain in protein stability. Removal of hydrogen

  4. Evidence for the control of phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits by the hard rind (Hr) genetic locus: Archaeological and ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Holst, Irene; Wessel-Beaver, Linda; Andres, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    Many angiosperms, both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, heavily impregnate their vegetative and reproductive organs with solid particles of silicon dioxide (SiO2) known as opaline phytoliths. The underlying mechanisms accounting for the formation of phytoliths in plants are poorly understood, however. Using wild and domesticated species in the genus Cucurbita along with their F1 and F2 progeny, we have demonstrated that the production of large diagnostic phytoliths in fruit rinds exhibits a one-to-one correspondence to the lignification of these structures. We propose that phytolith formation in Cucurbita fruits is primarily determined by a dominant genetic locus, called hard rind (Hr), previously shown to code for lignin deposition. If true, this evidence represents a demonstration of genetic control over phytolith production in a dicotyledon and provides considerable support to hypotheses that silica phytoliths constitute another important system of mechanical defense in plants. Our research also identifies Hr as another single locus controlling more than one important phenotypic difference between wild and domesticated plants, and establishes rind tissue cell structure and hardness under the effects of Hr as an important determinant of phytolith morphology. When recovered from pre-Columbian archaeological sites, Cucurbita phytoliths represent genetically controlled fossil markers of exploitation and domestication in this important economic genus. PMID:12149443

  5. Correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales en Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baena García D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio estimó las correlaciones fenotípicas, genéticas y ambientales entre doce caracteres agronómicos en dos dialélicos de zapallo (uno entre cinco variedades y otro entre cinco líneas S1, originadas de las anteriores. Se usó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con 15 tratamientos (5 progenitores + 10 cruzamientos F1 para cada dialélico y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados señalaron mayor estimación de las correlaciones (en magnitud y significancia estadística a favor del dialélico de líneas S1. Las correlaciones genéticas fueron superiores a las fenotípicas y las ambientales. La producción por planta (PFP presentó las correlaciones parciales fenotípicas y genéticas más altas con el peso por fruto (PPF y el número de frutos por planta (NFP (rPF y rPG > 0.80. El PPF y NFP pueden usarse como criterios de selección para la obtención de cultivares de altos rendimientos en C. moschata. ABSTRACT Phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir. The study evaluated phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations among 12 agronomy characters, in two set diallelic from five parents each one. The first set from five open pollinated varieties and the second one from five self-pollinated lines S1, obtained from the previous varieties. The two experiments were in completely randomized blocks with five replications. A higher estimation of correlation (in magnitude and statistical significance was observed in favor of the S1 lines diallelic. The genetic correlations were higher than the phenotypic and environmental correlations. The plant yield (PFP showed the highest partial phenotypic and genetic correlations with the fruit weight (PPF and fruits per plant (NFP (rPF and rPG > 0.80. It is suggested to use the PPF and NFP as selection criteria for breeding of C. moschata for development of high yield cultivars. Key words: Calabaza (cucurbita, genetic correlation, agronomic

  6. Exposure of Cucurbita pepo to DDE-contamination alters the endophytic community: A cultivation dependent vs a cultivation independent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Hawthorne, J R; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE) is the most abundant and persistent degradation product of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) and is encountered in contaminated soils worldwide. Both DDE and DDT are classified as Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) due to their high hydrophobicity and potential for bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the food chain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and other POPs and has been proposed as a phytoremediation tool for contaminated soils. The endophytic bacteria associated with this plant may play an important role in the remedial process. Therefore, this research focuses on changes in endophytic bacterial communities caused by the exposure of C. pepo to DDE. The total bacterial community was investigated using cultivation-independent 454 pyrosequencing, while the cultivable community was identified using cultivation-dependent isolation procedures. For both procedures, increasing numbers of endophytic bacteria, as well as higher diversities of genera were observed when plants were exposed to DDE. Several bacterial genera such as Stenotrophomonas sp. and Sphingomonas sp. showed higher abundance when DDE was present, while, for example Pseudomonas sp. showed a significantly lower abundance in the presence of DDE. These findings suggest tolerance of different bacterial strains to DDE, which might be incorporated in further investigations to optimize phytoremediation with the possible use of DDE-degrading endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison between cultivated and total bacterial communities associated with Cucurbita pepo using cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eevers, N; Beckers, B; Op de Beeck, M; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacteria often have beneficial effects on their host plants that can be exploited for bioremediation applications but, according to the literature, only 0.001-1% of all endophytic microbes should be cultivable. This study compared the cultivated endophytic communities of the roots and shoots of Cucurbita pepo with the total endophytic communities as determined by cultivation-dependent techniques and 454 pyrosequencing. The ten most abundant taxa of the total communities aligned well with the cultivated taxa; however, the abundance of these taxa in the two communities differed greatly. Enterobacter showed very low presence in the total communities, whereas they were dominantly present in the cultivated communities. Although Rhizobium dominated in total root and shoot communities, it was poorly cultivable and even then only in growth media containing plant extract. Since endophytes likely contribute to plant-growth promotion, cultivated bacterial strains were tested for their plant-growth promoting capabilities, and the results were correlated with their abundance in the total community. Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed promising results when considering cultivability, abundance in the total community and plant-growth promoting capability. This study demonstrated that, although a limited number of bacterial genera were cultivable, current cultivation-dependent techniques may be sufficient for further isolation and inoculation experiments that aim to improve phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacterial degradation of Aroclor 1242 in the mycorrhizosphere soils of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi

    2014-11-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Acaulospora laevis, Glomus caledonium, and Glomus mosseae, on the soil bacterial community responsible for Aroclor 1242 dissipation. The dissipation rates of Aroclor 1242 and soil bacteria abundance were much higher with the A. laevis and G. mosseae treatments compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA) and Rhodococcus-like 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (bphC) genes were more abundant in AM inoculated soils, suggesting that the bphA and Rhodococcus-like bphC pathways play an important role in Aroclor 1242 dissipation in the mycorrhizosphere. The soil bacterial communities were dominated by classes Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the relative proportion of Actinobacteria was significantly (F=2.288, P<0.05) correlated with the PCB congener profile in bulk soil. Our results showed that AM fungi could enhance PCB dissipation by stimulating bph gene abundance and the growth of specific bacterial groups.

  9. RNA transcription in isolated chloroplasts during senescence and rejuvenation of intact cotyledons of CUCURBITA PEPO L. (ZUCCHINI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, K.; Ananiev, E.; Denev, L.; Radeva, G.

    2006-01-01

    RNA transcription was studied in intact chloroplasts isolated from cotyledons of Cucurbita pepoL. (zucchini) during their growth and development including natural senescence and rejuvenation. Rejuvenation of cotyledons was studied after decapitation of the epicotyl above the senescing yellow cotyledons. Maximal incorporation of [32P] UTP into overall chloroplast RNA was measured two days after exposure of seedlings to light (day 6 th after the onset of germination), followed by a gradual decrease reaching minimal values at the age of 25-28 days when cotyledons began to yellow and eventually die. Rejuvenation of cotyledons completely restored chloroplast RNA synthesis and fifteen days after decapitation (at the age of 40 days), the values of chloroplast transcription even exceeded that of the maximal transcriptional activity in young cotyledons. Inhibitory analysis with tagetitoxin (a specific inhibitor of plastid encoded chloroplast RNA polymerase (PEP)) showed that in young and rejuvenated cotyledons about 85% of chloroplast RNA polymerase activity was due to PEP and only 15% corresponded to the nuclear encoded plastid RNA polymerase (NEP). Definite regions of two chloroplast encoded genes were amplified by means of PCR technique using specific DNA primers for Rubisco large subunit gene (rbcL) and the housekeeping gene for chloroplast 16S rRNA as well as chloroplast DNA as a template. The appropriate lengths of the amplified DNA fragments were checked by restriction analysis

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS Y PIGMENTACIÓN EN POLLOS ALIMENTADOS CON HARINA ZAPALLO (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA CARVAJAL TAPIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On the farms you can get different products from small farming system that can contribute to the economy of the poultyman farmer, for example, the squash (Cucurbita moschata. With the squash flour was evaluated pigmentation of skin and productive parameters in broilers. With the inclusion of 0, 7,5 and 15 percent in diets. A design completely at random (DCA was used with four repetitions and four animals per experimental unit. The analysis of variety did not show statistic differences (p≤0,05 for the feed intake in the two phases, either in weight gain and feed conversion in the ending phase; there were showed meaningful statistic differences for weight gain and feed conversion in the starter phase and the pigmentation in the final phase, the skin pigmentation of animals fed with squash flour was intense yellow according to the variety of colors DMS compared to those fed with the witness treatment. The inclusion of squash flour in diets for feeding broiler chicken bigger than 7,5% y less than 15%, is considered as a no conventional raw material that helps to the pigmentation of the skin, without affecting productive parameters in the ending phase and it becomes in an alternative for the productive systems of the small producers generating a value added in terms of skin pigmentation.

  11. Tryptophan exposure and accessibility in the chitooligosaccharide-specific phloem exudate lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). A fluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2009-10-06

    The exposure and accessibility of the tryptophan residues in the chitooligosaccharide-specific pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin (PPL) have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission lambda(max) of native PPL, seen at 338nm was red-shifted to 348nm upon denaturation by 6M Gdn.HCl in the presence of 10mM beta-mercaptoethanol, indicating near complete exposure of the tryptophan residues to the aqueous medium, whereas a blue-shift to 335nm was observed in the presence of saturating concentrations of chitotriose, suggesting that ligand binding leads to a decrease in the solvent exposure of the tryptophan residues. The extent of quenching was maximum with the neutral molecule, acrylamide whereas the ionic species, iodide and Cs(+) led to significantly lower quenching, which could be attributed to the presence of charged amino acid residues in close proximity to some of the tryptophan residues. The Stern-Volmer plot for acrylamide was linear for native PPL and upon ligand binding, but became upward curving upon denaturation, indicating that the quenching occurs via a combination of static and dynamic mechanisms. In time-resolved fluorescence experiments, the decay curves could be best fit to biexponential patterns, for native protein, in the presence of ligand and upon denaturation. In each case both lifetimes systematically decreased with increasing acrylamide concentrations, indicating that quenching occurs predominantly via a dynamic process.

  12. Growth of Cucurbita maxima L. plants in the presence of the cycloartenol synthase inhibitor U18666A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, G P; Raphiou, I

    1995-03-01

    Squash, like other Cucurbitaceae, have unique sterol profiles that offer an excellent opportunity to examine the relationship between sterol biosynthesis and plant growth. To determine the effect of sterol biosynthesis inhibition on squash growth, Cucurbita maxima seedlings with and without cotyledons were subjected to increasing concentrations of the cycloarternol synthase (EC 5.4.99.8) inhibitor 3 beta-(2-diethylaminoethoxy)androstenone (U18666A). Inhibition of shoot growth was concentration-dependent (from 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 microM); plants with intact cotyledons grew to 26.4, 23.7, 21.6, 20.0, and 15.6 cm, respectively, at the above inhibitor concentrations, compared to 25.5, 19.4, 17.0, 12.0, and 11 cm for plants with severed cotyledons. In plants with severed cotyledons, 10 and 20 microM U18666A caused rapid necrosis of the first two, newly emerged, primary leaves, and halted new leaf formation. Secondary root formation was initially affected at all inhibitor concentrations regardless of whether cotyledons were present or not. Vegetative tissue showed a decrease in the accumulation of the major squash sterol, 7,22-stigmastadienol, accompanied by increased accumulation of minor sterol components. Sterol profiles in cotyledons were unaltered. The data show that sterols are crucial for maintaining plant growth and viability, but do not address the cotyledonary effect on growth with respect to sterol biosynthesis.

  13. FORMULASI TEPUNG LABU KUNING (Cucurbita maxima DAN TERIGU TERHADAP DERAJAT PENGEMBANGAN ADONAN DAN SIFAT ORGANOLEPTIK ROTI MANIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the formulation of pumpkin flour and wheat flour for producing the best of dough improvement and organoleptic properties of sweet bread. The research was carried out in a complete randomized block design, single factor with 8 treatments and 3 replications. The 8 formulations of pumpkin flour and wheat flour  were: (F consisted of F1 (0:100, F2 (5:95, F3 (10:90, F4 (15:85, F5 (20:80, F6 (25:75, F7 (30:70, and F8 (35:65. The results showed that F3 was the best formulation to produce sweet bread with a dough improvement  2.51% and organoleptic with score of color 4.07 (yellow, texture 3.43 (somewhat soft, taste 3.50 (sweet, flavor 3.00 (somewhat typical pumpkin, and overall acceptance 3.70  (like. The sweet bread of F3 contained moisture 18.90%, ash 1.18%, fat 8.63%, protein 9.47%, crude fiber 3.11%, and carbohydrate (by difference 58.71%. Keywords:  Cucurbita maxima, pumpkin flour, sweet bread, wheat flour

  14. Characterization of Hungarian isolates of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, potyvirus) transmitted by seeds of Cucurbita pepo var Styriaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóbiás, István; Palkovics, László

    2003-04-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) has emerged as an important pathogen of cucurbits within the last few years in Hungary. The Hungarian isolates show a high biological variability, have specific nucleotide and amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region of coat protein and form a distinct branch in the phylogenetic tree. The virus is spread very efficiently in the field by several aphid species in a non-persistent manner. It can be transmitted by seed in holl-less seeded oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo (L) var Styriaca), although at a very low rate. Three isolates from seed transmission assay experiments were chosen and their nucleotide sequences of coat proteins have been compared with the available CP sequences of ZYMV. According to the sequence analysis, the Hungarian isolates belong to the Central European branch in the phylogenetic tree and, together with the ZYMV isolates from Austria and Slovenia, share specific amino acids at positions 16, 17, 27 and 37 which are characteristic only to these isolates. The phylogenetic tree suggests the common origin of distantly distributed isolates which can be attributed to widespread seed transmission.

  15. Activity of β-Galactosidase and Polygalacturonase in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. Stored at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Renato Balandrán-Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When fruits are exposed to chilling temperatures, enzymatic systems are affected and normal cell metabolism is altered; cell wall enzymes are the least studied in this respect. Our objective is to determine the effect of storage temperature and/or kind of tissue on the activity of the enzymes polygalacturonase (PG and β-galactosidase (β-gal in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L. subjected to 2.5 and/or 12 °C for 16 days. Exocarp and endocarp samples were analyzed every 4 days for PG and β-gal activities. The highest β-gal activity was found in the exocarp at 12 °C; in both tissues β-gal decreased with time at 2.5 °C, but increased at 12 °C. PG activity was higher in the endocarp (highest activity at 2.5 °C than in the exocarp (highest activity at 12 °C. It was concluded that PG activity in the exocarp constitutes an adequate system for studying the relationship between chilling injury and cell wall biological activity.

  16. In silico analysis of compounds characterized from ethanolic extract of Cucurbita pepo with NF-κB-inhibitory potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon O. Rotimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NF-κB controls cellular growth properties of cells and its regulation is key to the management of disease like cancer. Although plant-derived bioactives have been reported to inhibit NF-κB, there is limited knowledge on the interactions between the phytochemicals and NF-κB. In this study, we identified the phytochemicals in ethanolic extract of Cucurbita pepo using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy technique and used in silico approach to understand the interaction between the identified phytochemicals and NF-κB using Molegro Virtual Docker. The docking algorithm showed that nine phytochemicals fit well into the pocket on NF-κB. Our analysis showed that Lys144 is a prominent residue by involving in the binding of 9-octadecenoic acid (Z-, methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and octadecanoic acid, methyl ester with the moldock score of -55.5264, -57.4634 and -61.1258 respectively. Hence, the binding of these phytochemicals to NF-κB could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer property of C. pepo.

  17. Physiological response of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo mycorrhized by Sonoran desert native arbuscular fungi to drought and salinity stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citlalli Harris-Valle

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plants response to symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF under water stress is important to agriculture. Under abiotic stress conditions native fungi are more effective than exotics in improving plant growth and water status. Mycorrhization efficiency is related to soil fungi development and energy cost-benefit ratio. In this study, we assessed the effect on growth, water status and energy metabolism of Cucurbita pepo var. pepo when inoculated with native AMF from the Sonoran desert Mexico (mixed isolate and field consortium, and compared with an exotic species from a temperate region, under drought, low and high salinity conditions. Dry weights, leaf water content, water and osmotic potentials, construction costs, photochemistry and mycorrhization features were quantified. Under drought and low salinity conditions, the mixed isolate increased plant growth and leaf water content. Leaf water potential was increased only by the field consortium under drought conditions (0.5-0.9 MPa. Under high salinity, the field consortium increased aerial dry weight (more than 1 g and osmotic potential (0.54 MPa, as compared to non-mycorrhized controls. Plants inoculated with native AMF, which supposedly diminish the effects of stress, exhibited low construction costs, increased photochemical capacity, and grew larger external mycelia in comparison to the exotic inoculum.

  18. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Rm 0626 Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: > Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. > Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. > [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  19. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 μg g -1 ). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: → Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. → Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. → [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  20. Estratégia Reprodutiva de Cucurbita moschata Poir (Cucurbitaceae e Atividades de Forrageio dos seus Visitantes Florais

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    Paulo Abreu Tavares

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. An essential factor in maintaining agricultural productivity is pollination. Among the various pollinators, the insects are considered the main active agents in pollination of most cultures. The work aimed to understand the reproductive strategy of Cucurbita moschata Poir (Cucurbitaceae through analysis of the pollination methods used by the plant and the record of the diversity and behavior of floral visitors. To assess the efficiency of pollinators, 10 flowers of C. moschata were labeled to check the formation of fruit under natural conditions. Other 10 flowers were wrapped in waterproof bags to prevent contact with visiting insects. The insects were collected directly in the flowers, from 07:00 to 11:15 am, during 15 minutes of every hour, recording the values of temperature, luminosity, relative humidity and wind speed. The reproductive success of C. moschata depends on pollinators, since the reproductive isolation of the flowers did not allow the formation of fruit. The most abundant order was Diptera, followed by Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera. The effective pollinators of C. moschata were represented by species of bees of large body size: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, Centris sp., Oxaea flavescens Klug and Bombus sp. These species visited the flowers to collect nectar and pollen. The abiotic factors had little influence on foraging activities of floral visitors.

  1. Effect of squash seed meal (Cucurbita moschata on broiler performance, sensory meat quality, and blood lipid profile

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    YM Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, 240 Cobb-500® broilers reared from1 to 49 days, and distributed according to a completely experimental randomized design with four treatments of four replicates each in order to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of 0, 33, 66 or 100 g/kg of squash seed meal (SSM (Cucurbita moschata on the performance, carcass yield, serum lipid profile and sensory meat quality of broilers. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected in performance, carcass weight, weight and breast yield, and leg weight. The best results were obtained with 33 and 66 g/kg as compared to the control diet and 100 g SSM /kg. Abdominal fat decreased with the inclusion of 66 and 100 g SSM / kg, but the sensory quality of breast and thighs was not affected by the inclusion of SSM. The serum levels of total cholesterol, very low density (VLDL and low density (LDL lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and atherogenic index decreased with the inclusion of 100 g/kg of SSM, except for high density lipoproteins (HDL, which increased. The inclusion of 0, 33, 66 and 100 g/kg of SSM in broiler diets, partially replacing soybean meal and vegetable oil, improved live performance and edible portions yield. In addition, abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids were reduced, whereas serum levels of beneficial lipids increased. There was no effect on meat sensory quality.

  2. A high-density linkage map and QTL mapping of fruit-related traits in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Yang-Yang; Li, Jun-Xing; Yu, Ting; Wu, Ting-Quan; Luo, Jian-Ning; Luo, Shao-Bo; Huang, He-Xun

    2017-10-06

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is an economically worldwide crop. Few quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were reported previously due to the lack of genomic and genetic resources. In this study, a high-density linkage map of C. moschata was structured by double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing, using 200 F2 individuals of CMO-1 × CMO-97. By filtering 74,899 SNPs, a total of 3,470 high quality SNP markers were assigned to the map spanning a total genetic distance of 3087.03 cM on 20 linkage groups (LGs) with an average genetic distance of 0.89 cM. Based on this map, both pericarp color and strip were fined mapped to a novel single locus on LG8 in the same region of 0.31 cM with phenotypic variance explained (PVE) of 93.6% and 90.2%, respectively. QTL analysis was also performed on carotenoids, sugars, tuberculate fruit, fruit diameter, thickness and chamber width with a total of 12 traits. 29 QTLs distributed in 9 LGs were detected with PVE from 9.6% to 28.6%. It was the first high-density linkage SNP map for C. moschata which was proved to be a valuable tool for gene or QTL mapping. This information will serve as significant basis for map-based gene cloning, draft genome assembling and molecular breeding.

  3. Atomic resolution structure of cucurmosin, a novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xiaomin; Meehan, Edward J.; Xie, Jieming; Huang, Mingdong; Chen, Minghuang; Chen, Liqing (UAH); (Fujian); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-10-27

    A novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) designated cucurmosin was isolated from the sarcocarp of Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin). Besides rRNA N-glycosidase activity, cucurmosin exhibits strong cytotoxicities to three cancer cell lines of both human and murine origins, but low toxicity to normal cells. Plant genomic DNA extracted from the tender leaves was amplified by PCR between primers based on the N-terminal sequence and X-ray sequence of the C-terminal. The complete mature protein sequence was obtained from N-terminal protein sequencing and partial DNA sequencing, confirmed by high resolution crystal structure analysis. The crystal structure of cucurmosin has been determined at 1.04 {angstrom}, a resolution that has never been achieved before for any RIP. The structure contains two domains: a large N-terminal domain composed of seven {alpha}-helices and eight {beta}-strands, and a smaller C-terminal domain consisting of three {alpha}-helices and two {beta}-strands. The high resolution structure established a glycosylation pattern of GlcNAc{sub 2}Man3Xyl. Asn225 was identified as a glycosylation site. Residues Tyr70, Tyr109, Glu158 and Arg161 define the active site of cucurmosin as an RNA N-glycosidase. The structural basis of cytotoxicity difference between cucurmosin and trichosanthin is discussed.

  4. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins.

  5. Physiological effects of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanhua; Kou, Xiaoming; Pei, Zhiguo; Xiao, John Q; Shan, Xiaoquan; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-03-01

    To date, knowledge gaps and associated uncertainties remain unaddressed on the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on plants. This study was focused on revealing some of the physiological effects of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) NPs on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita mixta cv. white cushaw) plants under hydroponic conditions. This study for the first time reports that Fe(3)O(4) NPs often induced more oxidative stress than Fe(3)O(4) bulk particles in the ryegrass and pumpkin roots and shoots as indicated by significantly increased: (i) superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme activities, and (ii) lipid peroxidation. However, tested Fe(3)O(4) NPs appear unable to be translocated in the ryegrass and pumpkin plants. This was supported by the following data: (i) No magnetization was detected in the shoots of either plant treated with 30, 100 and 500 mg l(-1) Fe(3)O(4) NPs; (ii) Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study confirmed that the coordination environment of Fe in these plant shoots was similar to that of Fe-citrate complexes, but not to that of Fe(3)O(4) NPs; and (iii) total Fe content in the ryegrass and pumpkin shoots treated with Fe(3)O(4) NPs was not significantly increased compared to that in the control shoots.

  6. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. A novel 3α-p-Nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate and two new triterpenoids from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reiko; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nakasuji, Saori; Ue, Yasuhiro; Shuto, Daisuke; Igarashi, Keishi; Okada, Rina; Yamada, Takeshi

    2013-06-26

    Three novel multiflorane-type triterpenoids, 3α-p-nitrobenzoylmultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (1), 3α-acetoxymultiflora-7:9(11)-diene-29-benzoate (2), and 3α-acetoxymultiflora-5(6):7:9(11)-triene-29-benzoate (3), along with two known related compounds 4 and 5 were isolated from the seeds of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L). Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HREIMS. Triterpenoids possessing a nitro group were not isolated previously.

  8. Nutrientes e propriedades funcionais em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Nutrients and functional properties in pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência dos processamentos térmicos sobre os nutrientes e propriedades funcionais das sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima. As sementes foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes processamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises de composição centesimal, minerais e propriedades funcionais. Não houve diferença significativa entre os processamentos para os níveis de proteína bruta, fibra alimentar, extrato etéreo, cinzas, S, P, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn, solubilidade do nitrogênio (nos pH 4, 5 e 6, absorção de água e óleo, volume de espuma e estabilidade de emulsão. O cozimento em água em ebulição reduziu o teor de K. Todos os processamentos térmicos diminuíram os níveis de Mn e Fe. As sementes cruas apresentaram a maior solubilidade do nitrogênio nos pH 2, 3, 7, 8 e 9. Conclui-se que os processamentos acarretaram diferença significativa apenas nos teores de K, Mn, Fe e solubilidade do nitrogênio; e que as sementes apresentam potencial para serem incorporadas, provavelmente, em alimentos que requeiram elevada taxa de absorção de óleo.The objective of this paper was to verify the influence of the thermal processings on the nutrients and functional properties of the pumpkin seeds Cucurbita maxima. Seeds were, in four repetitions, submitted to the following processings: used in the raw form; cooked in boiling water for three times: 5, 10 and 15 minutes; and cooked in steam for 10 minutes. Thereafter were freeze-dried, grinded and stored at room temperature up to accomplishment of the analyses of centesimal composition, minerals and functional properties. There wasn't significant difference among the processings to the levels of crude protein, dietary fiber, ether

  9. Componentes antinutricionais e digestibilidade proteica em sementes de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima submetidas a diferentes processamentos Antinutritional components and protein digestibility in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita maxima submitted to different processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Paula Naves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subprodutos vegetais têm sido utilizados na dieta com a finalidade de melhorar o estado nutricional de populações desnutridas. Entretanto, os antinutrientes presentes nesses alimentos podem acarretar efeitos indesejáveis. Portanto, os teores de polifenóis, cianeto, saponinas, inibidor de tripsina, atividade hemaglutinante e a porcentagem da digestibilidade proteica in vitro de sementes de abóbora cruas e tratadas termicamente foram investigados com o objetivo de selecionar o processamento que acarrete maior redução dos antinutrientes e maior digestibilidade proteica. Sementes da abóbora Cucurbita maxima foram, em quatro repetições, submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: utilizadas na forma crua; cozidas em água em ebulição (AE por três tempos: 5, 10 e 15 minutos; e cozidas no vapor por 10 minutos. Posteriormente foram liofilizadas, trituradas e armazenadas em temperatura ambiente até a realização das análises. Não houve diferença significativa, entre os tratamentos, quanto aos níveis de polifenóis. As sementes cruas apresentaram o maior teor de cianeto, o menor nível de inibidor de tripsina e a menor digestibilidade proteica. O cozimento em AE por 10 minutos acarretou o menor nível de saponinas e a maior digestibilidade proteica. Não foi detectada atividade hemaglutinante em nenhuma amostra. Conclui-se que o cozimento em AE por 10 minutos foi o que proporcionou melhores resultados.Vegetable subproducts have been used in diets with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of undernourished populations. However, the antinutrients present in those foods can cause adverse health effects. Therefore, the contents of polyphenols, cyanide, saponins, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglutinin activity, and the percentage of the in vitro protein digestibility of raw and thermally treated pumpkin seeds were investigated with the objective of selecting the processing that results in major antinutrient reduction and greater protein

  10. 'Brasileirinha': cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata de frutos bicolores com valor ornamental e aptidão para consumo verde 'Brasileirinha': an ornamental bicolor squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar for immature fruit consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S Boiteux

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available 'Brasileirinha' é uma cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata com frutos bicolores que foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de disponibilizar um produto diferenciado devido ao aspecto ornamental e a composição nutricional de seus frutos. Esta cultivar foi selecionada na geração F7, sendo obtida via cruzamentos convencionais entre um acesso de frutos bicolores, provavelmente devido à presença de um alelo do gene B, e a cultivar Mocinha (com frutos imaturos de cor verde uniforme. A característica peculiar da cultivar Brasileirinha é a produção de frutos com casca apresentando uma marcante coloração bicolor (coloração amarela na região proximal e verde na posição distal dos frutos. A polpa apresenta coloração amarela-esverdeada em frutos colhidos imaturos e, à medida que o fruto amadurece, intensifica-se uma coloração alaranjada. Beta-caroteno e luteína são os principais carotenóides presentes em frutos para consumo verde. Em frutos em completo estádio de maturação (polpa laranja intensa verifica-se a acumulação de beta-caroteno e alfa-caroteno (precursores da vitamina A em torno de 243 mg g-1. A cultivar Brasileirinha tem apresentado boa resistência de campo a diferentes raças de oídio (Podosphaera xanthii. Esta cultivar é preferencialmente recomendada para consumo como abobrinha verde (no estádio de fruto imaturo e para fins ornamentais (frutos em todos os estádios. Uma opção é o uso de frutos jovens em conservas. A cultivar Brasileirinha é recomendada para plantio em todas as tradicionais regiões produtoras do país. O sistema de produção para esta cultivar tem sido o mesmo adotado para outros tipos de abóboras.'Brasileirinha' is a squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar developed by Embrapa Vegetable Crops, with a appealing ornamental appearance and carotenoid composition of its fruits might provide raw material for the development of value-added products targeting new market niches. This cultivar is an F7

  11. Eficiência de acessos de Cucurbita maxima como polinizadores de abóbora híbrida do tipo "Tetsukabuto" Efficiency of Cucurbita maxima accessions as pollinators in the commercial production of pumpkin ("Tetsukabuto" type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora tipo “Tetsukabuto” é um híbrido interespecífico, macho estéril, resultante do cruzamento entre Cucurbita maxima e C. moschata. Uma das estratégias utilizadas para produção comercial de frutos de “Tetsukabuto” tem sido o plantio adjacente e concomitante de acessos de C. maxima ou C. moschata como polinizadores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes acessos de C. maxima como fontes de pólen para produção comercial de abóbora tipo “Tetsukabuto”. A cultivar de moranga "Exposição" e o acesso "Nirvana" foram utilizados como polinizadores para produção de frutos de dois híbridos do tipo varietal “Tetsukabuto” ("Jabras" e "Kyoto". Foram avaliados os tratamentos (cruzamentos Jabras x Exposição, Jabras x Nirvana, Tetsukabuto x Exposição, Tetsukabuto x Nirvana, em quatro repetições. Foram determinados os parâmetros massa dos frutos, diâmetro dos frutos, espessura da polpa, número e massa de sementes. O acesso "Nirvana" (cultivar em fase de validação pode ser utilizado na produção comercial como polinizador de abóboras deste grupo varietal sem nenhum prejuízo quando comparado com a moranga "Exposição"."Tetsukabuto" pumpkins are interspecific hybrids between Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata accessions. Such hybrids, however, are often male-sterile due to the impaired ability of the staminate flowers to produce functional pollen. The use of intervening rows of staminate (pollen-donor plants is one strategy employed in order to have commercial fruit production. In the present work, two C. maxima accessions ["Exposição" (E and "Nirvana" (N] were employed as pollen-donors (staminate parents and their efficiency was compared considering fruit and seed yield parameters. Two pistillate Tetsukabuto hybrids ["Jabras" (J and "Kyoto Tetsukabuto" (KT] were employed in four possible unidirectional crosses (J x E, J x N, KT x E and KT x N. Fruits were produced using standard manual

  12. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) as a rich source of bioactive components to combat cancer naturally: Are we on the right track to fully unlock its potential as inhibitor of deregulated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Khalid, Sumbul; Tahir, Fatima; Sabitaliyevich, Uteuliev Yerzhan; Yaylim, Ilhan; Attar, Rukset; Xu, Baojun

    2018-05-10

    Research over decades has progressively explored pharmacological actions of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia). Biologically and pharmacologically active molecules isolated from M. charantia have shown significant anti-cancer activity in cancer cell lines and xenografted mice. In this review spotlight was set on the bioactive compounds isolated from M. charantia that effectively inhibited cancer development and progression via regulation of protein network in cancer cells. We summarize most recent high-quality research work in cancer cell lines and xenografted mice related to tumor suppressive role-play of M. charantia and its bioactive compounds. Although M. charantia mediated health promoting, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory effects have been extensively investigated, there is insufficient information related to regulation of signaling networks by bioactive molecules obtained from M. charantia in different cancers. M. charantia has been shown to modulate AKT/mTOR/p70S6K signaling, p38MAPK-MAPKAPK-2/HSP-27 pathway, cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-associated proteins in different cancers. However, still there are visible knowledge gaps related to the drug targets in different cancers because we have not yet developed comprehensive understanding of the M. charantia mediated regulation of signal transduction pathways. To explore these questions, experimental platforms are needed that can prove to be helpful in getting a step closer to personalized medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tocopherol from seeds of Cucurbita pepo against diabetes: validation by in vivo experiments supported by computational docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Sudhanshu Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Neeraj Kumar; Prakash, Om; Jaiswal, Sudhir Kumar; Krishnan, Supriya; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Awanish

    2013-11-01

    Tocopherol from raw pumpkin seeds has been reported to be effective in the alleviation of diabetes through its antioxidant activities. This study evaluates the antidiabetic activities of the tocopherol fraction of raw seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. (CPSE) in a diabetic rat model. In addition, the putative action mechanisms of its botanicals were computationally investigated. Seed water activity (Aw) was assessed. Tocopherol was extracted and quantified from raw seed oil. The effect of CPSE was studied in poloxamer-407 (PX-407)-induced type 2 diabetic Wistar rats. Glycemic, insulinemic, and lipid profiles, as well as lipid peroxidation status, were evaluated. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) content in the cecum was evaluated and histopathological analysis of the pancreas was performed. Further, HYBRID and FRED docking were performed for 10 documented CPSE botanicals, for putative action mechanisms concerning three proteins [protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV)] known to have diabetic therapeutic potential. The Aw of raw seeds was found to be 0.544 ± 0.002. Using tocopherol standards, HPLC determination of CPSE revealed the presence of tocopherol isomers (α, β, γ, and δ). The tocopherol content was found to be 107.4 ± 2.9 mg/100 g of CPSE. When compared to diabetic control (DC) rats, the CPSE-treated diabetic rats presented a significant amelioration of glycemia, insulinemia, and lipid dysmetabolism. A remarkable reduction in oxidative markers and improved cecal and pancreatic characteristics were also observed. Tocopherol isomers have shown a considerable interaction potential with the aforesaid proteins in docking. The results provide pharmacological evidence of CPSE as an antihyperglycemic mediated by the interaction of various botanicals with multiple targets operating in diabetes mellitus (DM).

  14. Effect of Cucurbita mixta (L.) seed meal enrichment diet on growth, immune response and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Mohamed Saiyad; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Arun Kumar, Meenatchi Sundaram; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2017-09-01

    The impact of Cucurbita mixta (L.) seed meal enriched diet on growth performance, innate immune response, and disease resistance in Oreochromis mossambicus against Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. O. mossambicus was fed with 2 g kg -1 , 4 g kg -1 , and 6 g kg -1  C. mixta seed meal diets for a period of 4 weeks. The results indicated that C. mixta seed meal diets at 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 significantly (P < 0.05) enhances the survival rate, weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio (PER), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed efficiency (FE) from weeks 1-4 when compared to control. C. mixta seed meals administered as feed supplements significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the complement activity, phagocytic activity, respiratory burst activity, and lysosome activity in infected fish fed with 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 of C. mixta seed meal enriched diet from weeks 2-4. The cumulative mortality was lower in the fish fed with 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 of C. mixta seed meal enriched diets (15% and 18%) than with 2 g kg -1 diet (26%). The present investigation suggested that C. mixta seed meal enriched diet at 4 g kg -1 and 6 g kg -1 enhance the better growth performance, innate immunity, and disease resistance against A. hydrophilla in O. mossambicus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Lateral root initiation and formation within the parental root meristem of Cucurbita pepo: is auxin a key player?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Kiryushkin, Alexey S; Semenova, Victoria A; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2018-04-19

    In some plant families, including Cucurbitaceae, initiation and development of lateral roots (LRs) occur in the parental root apical meristem. The objective of this study was to identify the general mechanisms underlying LR initiation (LRI). Therefore, the first cellular events leading to LRI as well as the role of auxin in this process were studied in the Cucurbita pepo root apical meristem. Transgenic hairy roots harbouring the auxin-responsive promoter DR5 fused to different reporter genes were used for visualizing of cellular auxin response maxima (ARMs) via confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3-D imaging. The effects of exogenous auxin and auxin transport inhibitors on root branching were analysed. The earliest LRI event involved a group of symmetric anticlinal divisions in pericycle cell files at a distance of 250-350 µm from the initial cells. The visualization of the ARMs enabled the precise detection of cells involved in determining the site of LR primordium formation. A local ARM appeared in sister cells of the pericycle and endodermis files before the first division. Cortical cells contributed to LR development after the anticlinal divisions in the pericycle via the formation of an ARM. Exogenous auxins did not increase the total number of LRs and did not affect the LRI index. Although exogenous auxin transport inhibitors acted in different ways, they all reduced the number of LRs formed. Literature data, as well as results obtained in this study, suggest that the formation of a local ARM before the first anticlinal formative divisions is the common mechanism underlying LRI in flowering plants. We propose that the mechanisms of the regulation of root branching are independent of the position of the LRI site relative to the parental root tip.

  17. Translocation of heavy metals from soils into floral organs and rewards of Cucurbita pepo: Implications for plant reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Erna; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhao, Jimin; Guo, Jixun

    2017-11-01

    Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction. The results showed that metals taken up by squash did translocate into its floral organs and rewards, although metal accumulation varied depending on different metal types and concentrations as well as floral organ/reward types. Mean foraging time of honey bees to each male and female flower of squash grown in metal-supplemented soils was shorter relative to that of plants grown in control soils, although the visitation rate of honeybees to both male and female flowers was not affected by metal treatments. Pollen viability, pollen removal and deposition as well as mean mass per seed produced by metal-treated squash that received pollen from plants grown in control soils decreased with elevated soil-supplemented metal concentrations. The fact that squash could translocate soil-supplemented heavy metals into floral organs and rewards indicated possible reproductive consequences caused either directly (i.e., decreasing pollen viability or seed mass) or indirectly (i.e., affecting pollinators' visitation behavior to flowers) to plant fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Suchandra; Xiang, Yu; Schobert, Christian; Thompson, Gary A.; Lucas, William J.

    1997-01-01

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injection of individual fluorescently labeled phloem proteins, provided unambiguous evidence that these proteins have the capacity to interact with mesophyll plasmodesmata in cucurbit cotyledons to induce an increase in size exclusion limit and traffic cell to cell. Plasmodesmal size exclusion limit increased to greater than 20 kDa, but less than 40 kDa, irrespective of the size of the injected protein, indicating that partial protein unfolding may be a requirement for transport. A threshold concentration in the 20–100 nM range was required for cell-to-cell transport indicating that phloem proteins have a high affinity for the mesophyll plasmodesmal binding site(s). Parallel experiments with glutaredoxin and cystatin, phloem sap proteins from Ricinus communis, established that these proteins can also traffic through cucurbit mesophyll plasmodesmata. These results are discussed in terms of the requirements for regulated protein trafficking between companion cells and the sieve tube system. As the threshold value for plasmodesmal transport of phloem sap proteins falls within the same range as many plant hormones, the possibility is discussed that some of these proteins may act as long-distance signaling molecules. PMID:9391168

  19. Mutational analysis of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin, PP2 reveals Ser-104 is crucial for carbohydrate binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbili, Kishore Babu; Bandari, Shyam; Grobe, Kay; Swamy, Musti J

    2014-07-18

    The pumpkin phloem lectin (PP2) is an RNA-binding, defense-related, chitooligosaccharide-specific, homodimeric lectin of Mr 48 kDa expressed at high concentrations in the sieve elements and companion cells of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). In the present study, PP2 was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris with the Saccharomyces α-factor sequence to direct the recombinant protein into the secretory pathway as a prerequisite for unimpaired folding and posttranslational glycosylation of recombinant PP2. Previous computational modeling and ligand docking studies predicted a putative chitooligosaccharide-binding site on the PP2 surface, which was divided into three subsites, with two amino acid residues in each subsite identified as possible candidates for interaction with chitooligosaccharides (CHOs). In this work, mutational analysis and hemagglutination assays were employed to verify the role of the predicted residues in the carbohydrate binding activity of the protein. The results obtained revealed that mutation of Ser-104 to Ala (S104A) at subsite-2 resulted in about 90% loss of agglutination activity of the protein, indicating that Ser-104 is crucial for the binding of CHOs to PP2. Also, L100A (at subsite-1) and K200A (at subsite-3) independently decreased the lectin activity by about 40%, indicating that these two residues also contribute significantly to sugar binding by PP2. Together, these findings confirm that all the three subsites contribute to varying degrees toward PP2-carbohydrate interaction, and confirm the validity of the computational model, as proposed earlier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, S; Xiang, Y; Schobert, C; Thompson, G A; Lucas, W J

    1997-12-09

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injection of individual fluorescently labeled phloem proteins, provided unambiguous evidence that these proteins have the capacity to interact with mesophyll plasmodesmata in cucurbit cotyledons to induce an increase in size exclusion limit and traffic cell to cell. Plasmodesmal size exclusion limit increased to greater than 20 kDa, but less than 40 kDa, irrespective of the size of the injected protein, indicating that partial protein unfolding may be a requirement for transport. A threshold concentration in the 20-100 nM range was required for cell-to-cell transport indicating that phloem proteins have a high affinity for the mesophyll plasmodesmal binding site(s). Parallel experiments with glutaredoxin and cystatin, phloem sap proteins from Ricinus communis, established that these proteins can also traffic through cucurbit mesophyll plasmodesmata. These results are discussed in terms of the requirements for regulated protein trafficking between companion cells and the sieve tube system. As the threshold value for plasmodesmal transport of phloem sap proteins falls within the same range as many plant hormones, the possibility is discussed that some of these proteins may act as long-distance signaling molecules.

  1. Nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of Cleome rutidosperma, Lagenaria siceraria, and Cucurbita maxima seeds from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiako, O A; Igwe, C U

    2007-12-01

    Flours produced from the seeds of Cleome rutidosperma (DC), Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.), and Cucurbita maxima (Duch) were evaluated for proximate and elemental compositions. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also carried out on the seed flours, which revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, pentose, and reducing sugars in all the seed types. Tannins, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides were also detected in only C. rutidosperma seed. The results also showed that the seeds of C. rutidosperma, L. siceraria, and C. maxima contained carbohydrates (74.43%, 45.93%, and 24.30%), fats (7.20%, 38.92%, and 51.49%), and proteins (11.73%, 8.93%, and 16.80%), respectively. The major mineral contents of the three defatted seed flours were found to include potassium (39.00 ppm, 19.50 ppm, and 39.00 ppm), sodium (23.00 ppm, 11.50 ppm, and 11.50 ppm), and calcium (18.00 ppm, 12.00 ppm, and 15.00 ppm), respectively. They were also found to contain zinc (0.013 ppm, 0.04 ppm, and 0.084 ppm) and iron (0.014 ppm, 0.028 ppm, and 0.032 ppm), respectively. The proximate and mineral compositions suggest that the seeds are potential sources of carbohydrate, fats, protein, and micro- and macrominerals and may find use as human food or for incorporation into livestock feed. However, the seeds were revealed to also contain slight traces of lead, although at such very low concentrations they may be artifacts. This calls for further research into possible lead toxicity after prolonged consumption of these seeds.

  2. Reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V: function, thermodynamic stability, and NMR solution structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M; Gong, Y; Prakash, O; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1995-09-26

    Reactive-site (Lys44-Asp45 peptide bond) hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V*) was prepared and characterized: In comparison to the intact form, CMTI-V* exhibited markedly reduced inhibitory properties and binding affinities toward trypsin and human blood coagulation factor XIIa. The equilibrium constant of trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis, Khyd, defined as [CMTI-V*]/[CMTI-V], was measured to be approximately 9.4 at 25 degrees C (delta G degrees = -1.3 kcal.mol-1). From the temperature dependence of delta G degrees, the following thermodynamic parameters were estimated: delta H degrees = 1.6 kcal.mol-1 and delta S degrees = 9.8 eu. In order to understand the functional and thermodynamic differences between the two forms, the three-dimensional solution structure of CMTI-V* was determined by a combined approach of NMR, distance geometry, and simulated annealing methods. Thus, following sequence-specific and stereospecific resonance assignments, including those of beta-, gamma-, delta-, and epsilon-hydrogens and valine methyl hydrogens, 809 interhydrogen distances and 123 dihedral angle constraints were determined, resulting in the computation and energy-minimization of 20 structures for CMTI-V*. The average root mean squared deviation in position for equivalent atoms between the 20 individual structures and the mean structure obtained by averaging their coordinates is 0.67 +/- 0.15 A for the main chain atoms and 1.19 +/- 0.23 A for all the non-hydrogen atoms of residues 5-40 and residues 48-67.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Gibberellin biosynthesis in cell-free extracts from developing Cucurbita maxima embryos and the identification of new endogenous gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T; Hedden, P; Graebe, J E

    1993-03-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathways from GA12-aldehyde, GA12 and GA53 were investigated in cell-free systems from developing embryos of Cucurbita maxima L. Gibberellin A12-aldehyde and GA12 were converted to GA25, putative 12α-hydroxyGA25, GA13 and GA39 as main products. Minor products were GA4, GA34 and, when GA12 was the substrate, putative 12α-hydroxyGA12. The intermediates GA15 and GA24 accumulated at low protein concentrations. The influence of various factors on GA12 metabolism was examined. At low 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at acid pH, 3β-hydroxylated products predominated, whereas with increasing 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at neutral pH, the yield of 12α-hydroxylated GAs increased. Gibberellin A53 was metabolised mainly to the C20-GAs GA44, GA19, GA17, GA23 and GA28, with the C19-GAs GA20, GA1 and GA8 as minor products. Only C19-GAs were 2β-hydroxylated, which is a main characteristic of the embryo systems. In addition to GA13, GA25, GA39, GA43, GA49, GA58, GA74, 12α-hydroxyGA25 and GA39 3-isovalerate, which were known previously from embryos of C. maxima, GA1, GA4, GA17, GA28, GA37, GA38, GA48, GA85, 12α-hydroxyGA37 and putative 12α-hydroxyGA43 were identified as endogenous components by full-scan capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Evidence for putative 2β-hydroxyGA28 and GA23 was also obtained but it was less conclusive because of contamination.

  4. Dynamics of Selected Bioactive Substances Changes in Cucurbita Moschata Duch. Ex Poir. After Storage and Different Methods of Technological Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Andrejiová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The winter squash is an important source of antioxidants, especially carotenoids. The aim of submitted research work was to determine the effect of genotype, storage and different methods of technological processing (baking, boiling and sterilization on the content of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids in fruits of winter squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir.. The small-plot field experiment was established at Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2013. Five cultivars of winter squash (‘Liscia’, ‘Orange’, ‘Hannah’, ‘UG 205 F1’ and ‘Waltham’ were examined in experiment. The total carotenoids content in the pulp of fresh fruits was ranged from 9.33 to 15.10 mg.100 g−1. Its highest value was determined in case of ‘Orange’ variety. The storage and the thermal treatment of fruit pulp in case of baking had positive impact from the total carotenoid content point of view. The baking resulted in the increase of its value in winter squash. On the contrary, sterilization tended to the decrease of total carotenoid content in edible part of squash. The total carotenoids content in the baking pulp was ranged from 14.27 to 31.87 mg.100 g−1. The vitamin C content before storage and technological processing ranged in interval from 13.88 to 18.69 mg.100 g−1. Particular thermal methods of processing and storage resulted in decrease of vitamin C content in the pulp of all winter squash varieties.

  5. Winter squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch fruit as a source of biologically active components after its thermal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To one of the most valuable pumpkin fruit belongs winter squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch. The aim of this work was to assess the quality of C. moschata fruit and to assess the dynamics of compositional changes after the heat treatment of the pulp. We used six varieties Liscia, Orange, Hannah, UG 201 F1, Waltham, Serpentine. In the samples were analyzed carbohydrate content (glucose, fructose and sucrose, total polyphenols, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity. The fresh pulp and pulp after the heat treatment were observed. Content of carbohydrates was determined by FTIR infrared spectroscopy. Content of total carotenoids, polyphenols and antioxidant activity was determined by spectrophotometry. As the dominant sugar was found to be sucrose. The lowest content of all carbohydrates was found in the variety Serpentine. Fructose content ranged from 7.59 to 12.32 g.100 g-1 dry matter, glucose content from 7.23 to 9.79 g.100 g-1 dry matter and sucrose content 38.67 to 55.94 g.100 g-1 dry matter. After processing there was found a decrease in the sucrose and the slight increase in glucose and fructose content. Total carotenoid content in fruits ranged from 39.01 to 97.67 g mg.100 g-1 dry matter, the content of total polyphenols from 443.98 to 565.44 mg GAE.100 g-1 dry matter and antioxidant activity from 680.18 to 851.87 mg AA.100 g-1 dry matter. After the heat treatment, there was found some decrease in total carotenoids, polyphenols and antioxidant activity as well.

  6. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE BIOMASA Y ACUMULACIÓN DE PLOMO EN CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L. CULTIVADA EN SUELO CONTAMINADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriberto Solis-Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto del suelo contaminado con plomo en el híbrido experimental de calabacita (Cucurbita pepo L. denominado 'Termo'. Se cultivó calabacita en bolsas negras de polietileno, a cielo abierto. Se evaluaron las variables distribución de la producción de biomasa, altura de planta, contenido de clorofila y acumulación de plomo en raíz, tallo, hoja, flor y fruto. Los tratamientos fueron 0, 65, 300 y 1000 ppm de plomo aplicado al suelo a través de Pb(NO32. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con seis repeticiones, y la unidad experimental fue una bolsa negra de polietileno con dos plantas. Las evaluaciones se hicieron 50 días después del trasplante para altura de planta y contenido de clorofila, y a los 52 días para peso fresco, peso seco y acumulación de plomo. Se observó que la altura de planta fue significativamente menor cuando se aplicó plomo a cualquier dosis. También se observó que la mayor acumulación de biomasa en raíz y tallo fue producida con la dosis 300 ppm y en fruto con 65 ppm de plomo, en tanto que la biomasa total y las unidades SPAD (clorofila no resultaron afectadas. De las estructuras comestibles, la flor presentó una mayor acumulación del metal que el fruto. A bajas dosis de plomo, la flor fue la estructura que más lo acumuló. Esto sugiere que es conveniente evaluar el contenido de metales pesados en productos agrícolas para consumo humano, aun cuando provengan de suelos contaminados sin intención.

  7. Does crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata inter-row cultivation in restoration plantings control invasive grasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gomes César

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to control invasive fodder grasses are necessary to reduce the use of herbicides in forest restoration, which has been carried out primarily in riparian zones. We sought to investigate if inter-row cultivation of crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora DC or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duschene ex. Poir with native tree species is an efficient strategy to control invasive fodder grasses in restoration plantings. We tested five treatments in a randomized block design, namely (1 control of brachiaria grass (Urochloa decumbens (Stapf. Webster with glyphosate in the implementation and post-planting grass control of the reforestation, (2 and 3 glyphosate use in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (2 or pumpkin (3, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase, (4 and 5 mowing in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (4 or pumpkin (5, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase. Post-planting grass control was carried out four and nine months after tree seedling planting. Throughout 13 months, we evaluated the percentage of ground cover by brachiaria grass, pumpkin production, and native tree seedling mortality, height and crown cover. The exclusive use of glyphosate, without inter-row sowing of pumpkin or crotalaria showed the most favorable results for controlling brachiaria grass and, consequently, for tree seedling development. Hence, inter-row cultivation of green manure or short-lived crop species is not enough to control invasive grasses in restoration plantings, and complementary weeding is necessary to reduce the highly competitive potential of C4 grasses for supporting native species seedlings growth.

  8. Effects of different fixation and freeze substitution methods on the ultrastructural preservation of ZYMV-infected Cucurbita pepo (L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmann, Bernd; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther

    2005-08-01

    Different fixation protocols [chemical fixation, plunge and high pressure freezing (HPF)] were used to study the effects of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) disease on the ultrastructure of adult leaves of Styrian oil pumpkin plants (Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca Greb.) with the transmission electron microscope. Additionally, different media were tested for freeze substitution (FS) to evaluate differences in the ultrastructural preservation of cryofixed plant leaf cells. FS was either performed in (i) 2% osmium tetroxide in anhydrous acetone containing 0.2% uranyl acetate, (ii) 0.01% safranin in anhydrous acetone, (iii) 0.5% glutaraldehyde in anhydrous acetone or (iv) anhydrous acetone. No ultrastructural differences were found in well-preserved cells of plunge and high pressure frozen samples. Cryofixed cells showed a finer granulated cytosol and smoother membranes, than what was found in chemically fixed samples. HPF led in comparison to plunge frozen plant material to an excellent preservation of vascular bundle cells. The use of FS-media such as anhydrous acetone, 0.01% safranin and 0.5% glutaraldehyde led to low membrane contrast and did not preserve the inner fine structures of mitochondria. Additionally, the use of 0.5% glutaraldehyde caused the cytosol to be fuzzy and partly loosened. ZYMV-induced ultrastructural alterations like cylindrical inclusions and dilated ER-cisternae did not differ between chemically fixed and cryofixed cells and were found within the cytosol of infected leaf cells and within sieve tube elements. The results demonstrate specific structural differences depending on the FS-medium used, which has to be considered for investigations of selected cell structures.

  9. Evaluation of Cucurbita maxima extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats: implication of tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Talha; Shakya, Ashok K; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima (CM) seed oil is commonly used in Indian folk medicine to treat various ailments. We have investigated the effect of CM seed oil on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were administered scopolamine 1 mg/kg body weight, i.p. or 1.25 mg/kg body weight, s.c. to induce memory impairment. The nootropic agent piracetam 100 mg/kg body weight, i.p. and CM seed oil 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. were administered daily for five consecutive days. The memory function was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, the social recognition test (SRT), the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and the pole climbing test (PCT). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress parameters were estimated in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the brains after completion of the behavioural studies. The effects of scopolamine on the levels of the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) transcript were also investigated. Scopolamine caused memory impairment in all the behavioural paradigms along with a significant increase in the AChE activity and oxidative stress in the brain. Scopolamine also caused a significant increase in the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. CM seed oil exhibited antiamnesic activity as indicated by a significant reduction in the latency time in the MWM test and decreased social interaction during trial 2 in the SRT. Further, treatment with CM seed oil significantly decreased the AChE activity and malondialdehyde levels and increased the glutathione level in brain regions. CM seed oil also significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. The effect of CM seed oil on behavioural and biochemical parameters was comparable to that observed in rats treated with piracetam. These results indicate that CM seed oil may exert antiamnesic activity which may be attributed to the inhibition of AChE and inflammation as well as its antioxidant activity in the brain.

  10. Differential responses in yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) and nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.) to the application of three animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W; Okorogbona, A O M

    2010-04-01

    Crop responses to different manures differs considerably, however, the factors responsible for it have not been conclusively elucidated. Consequently, this study examined the biomass response of Cucurbita maxima and Solanum retroflexum to application rates of chicken and kraal manures of cattle and goat, and soil factors related to salinity. The crops' biomass yield increased linearly with increase in application rates of kraal and chicken manures, but steeper in the latter. Results showed that significant decline in biomass yield in chicken manure at rates above 8.5 tons ha(-1) were not due to salinity. The crops' response to cattle and goat kraal manures was linear but polynomial (cubic) in layer chicken manure. It was concluded that the yield decline in chicken manure was due to other manure factors except salinity, probably toxicity effect of the manure fatty acids. Further research was however, recommended to elucidate this claim. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of a wild-type and three mutant Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-encoding genes by a single-strand approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botes, D P; Qobose, M D; Corfield, V A

    1991-09-15

    A single-strand approach to gene assembly, based on a modification of an in vitro complementary oligodeoxyribonucleotide template-directed ligation of the desired sequence to a linearized vector [Chen et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (1990) 871-878], is described. The gene coding for the wild-type Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor of 29 amino acid residues [Bode et al., FEBS Lett. 242 (1989) 285-292], as well as three mutant forms of the gene, in which two of the three disulfide bonds have been replaced singly or as a pair, have been synthesized in a single synthesis run with minimal manual intervention. Subsequent to ligation to pUC9 and in vivo gapped duplex repair by Escherichia coli, their sequences have been verified.

  12. Anti obese potential of Cucurbita maxima seeds oil: effect on lipid profile and histoarchitecture in high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, A; Sathibabu Uddandrao, V V; Brahmanaidu, P; Saravanan, Ganapathy; Nivedha, P R; Tamilmani, P; Swapna, K; Vadivukkarasi, Sasikumar

    2017-10-19

    In this study, we made an attempt to evaluate the potential of Cucurbita maxima seeds oil (CSO) against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rats. We investigated the effect of CSO (100 mg/kg body weight) supplementation over 30 days on the changes of HFD-induced obese rats in body weight, biochemical parameters and lipid profile as well as investigated the effects of CSO on the histopathological changes. Oral administration with CSO revealed significant diminution in body weight gain, glucose and insulin levels, which altered the activity of lipid profile and restored the pathological alterations. It demonstrated that CSO had considerably altered these parameters when evaluated with HFD control rats. In conclusion, this study established that CSO prevents the HFD-induced obesity by altering the markers important to lipid metabolism.

  13. Molecular and functional characterization of CpACS27A gene reveals its involvement in monoecy instability and other associated traits in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Barrera, Alejandro; Boualem, Adnane; Garrido, Dolores; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    A number of Cucurbita pepo genotypes showing instable monoecy or partial andromonoecy, i.e. an incomplete conversion of female into bisexual flowers, have been detected. Given that in melon and cucumber andromonoecy is the result of reduction of ethylene production in female floral buds, caused by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7 and CsACS2; we have cloned and characterized two related C. pepo genes, CpACS27A and CpACS27B. The molecular structure of CpACS27A and its specific expression in the carpels of female flowers during earlier stages of flower development suggests that this gene is the Cucurbita ortholog of CmACS7 and CsACS2. CpACS27B is likely to be a paralogous pseudogene since it has not been found to be expressed in any of the analyzed tissues. CpACS27A was sequenced in Bolognese (Bog) and Vegetable Spaghetti (Veg), two monoecious inbred lines whose F2 was segregating for partial andromonoecy. The Bog allele of CpACS27A carried a missense mutation that resulted in a substitution of the conserved serine residue in position 176 by an alanine. Segregation analysis indicated that this mutant variant is necessary but not sufficient to confer the andromonoecious phenotype in squash. In concordance with its involvement in stamen arrest, a reduction in CpACS27A expression has been found in bisexual flower buds at earlier stages of development. This reduction in CpACS27A expression was concomitant with a downregulation of other ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes during earlier and later stages of ovary development. The role of CpACS27A is discussed regarding the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes in the control of andromonoecy-associated traits, such as the delayed maturation of corolla and stigma as well as the parthenocarpic development of the fruit.

  14. Determinação de paracetamol em produtos farmacêuticos usando um biossensor de pasta de carbono modificado com extrato bruto de abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo

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    Vieira Iolanda Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of several vegetables such as peach (Prunus persica, yam (Alocasia macrorhiza, manioc (Manihot utilissima, artichoke (Cynara scolymus L, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., turnip (Brassica campestre ssp. rapifera, horseradish (Armoracia rusticana and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo were investigated as the source of peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7. Among those, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo crude extract was found to be the best one. This enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide catalyses the oxidation of paracetamol to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine which the electrochemical reduction back to paracetamol was obtained at a peak potential of fraction three-quarters0.10V. A cyclic voltammetric study was performed by scanning the potential from + 0.5 to fraction three-quarters 0.5 V. The recovery of paracetamol from two samples ranged from 97.3 to 106% and a rectilinear calibration curve for paracetamol concentration from 1.2x10-4 to 2.5x10-3 mol L-1 (r=0.9965 were obtained. The detection limit was 6.9x10-5 mol L-1 and the relative standard deviation was less than 1.1% for a solution containing 2.5x10-3 mol L-1 paracetamol and 2.0x10-3 mol L-1 hydrogen peroxide (n=12. The results obtained for paracetamol in pharmaceutical products using the proposed biosensor and Pharmacopoeial procedures are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  15. Solution structure and backbone dynamics of recombinant Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Prakash, O; Cai, M; Gong, Y; Huang, Y; Wen, L; Wen, J J; Huang, J K; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1996-02-06

    The solution structure of recombinant Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (rCMTI-V), whose N-terminal is unacetylated and carries an extra glycine residue, was determined by means of two-dimensional (2D) homo and 3D hetero NMR experiments in combination with a distance geometry and simulated annealing algorithm. A total of 927 interproton distances and 123 torsion angle constraints were utilized to generate 18 structures. The root mean squared deviation (RMSD) of the mean structure is 0.53 A for main-chain atoms and 0.95 A for all the non-hydrogen atoms of residues 3-40 and 49-67. The average structure of rCMTI-V is found to be almost the same as that of the native protein [Cai, M., Gong, Y., Kao, J.-L., & Krishnamoorthi, R. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 5201-5211]. The backbone dynamics of uniformly 15N-labeled rCMTI-V were characterized by 2D 1H-15N NMR methods. 15N spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation rate constants (R1 and R2, respectively) and [1H]-15N steady-state heteronuclear Overhauser effect enhancements were measured for the peptide NH units and, using the model-free formalism [Lipari, G., & Szabo, A. (1982) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 4546-4559, 4559-4570], the following parameters were determined: overall tumbling correlation time for the protein molecule (tau m), generalized order parameters for the individual N-H vectors (S2), effective correlation times for their internal motions (tau e), and terms to account for motions on a slower time scale (second) due to chemical exchange and/or conformational averaging (R(ex)). Most of the backbone NH groups of rCMTI-V are found to be highly constrained ((S2) = 0.83) with the exception of those in the binding loop (residues 41-48, (S2) = 0.71) and the N-terminal region ((S2) = 0.73). Main-chain atoms in these regions show large RMSD values in the average NMR structure. Residues involved in turns also appear to have more mobility ((S2) = 0.80). Dynamical properties of rCMTI-V were compared with those of two other

  16. Efeito do tamanho de fruto e do método de extração na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de porongo Effect of fruit size and extraction method on the physiological quality of bottle gourd seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    1997-03-01

    temperatura, umidade e aeração. germinam após terem atingido 43,4% de umidade.Bottie gourd - Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl - the fruits harvested from a farm localed in Restinga Seca county, were used to evaluate seeds in the Seed Laboratory of the Federal University of Santa Maria. The effect of fruit size on seed physiological quality was studied using seeds from ten large, medium and small bottle gourd fruits. Fruits were characterized by the length, the diameter. the shell thickness, and by the number of seeds. The seeds were characterized by the length, the width, the thickness, and the weight of 1000 seeds. Water fermentation during 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours and dipping in HCl solution by 10, 20, and 30% during 30 minutes were used to compare methods of extracting seeds from medium bottle gourd fruits stored for 60 days. The manual extraction of seeds was considered as the control treatment. The physiological quality of the seeds was evaluated by the germination and the first counting test and averaging time of germination parameters. Results indicated that the size of botlle gourd fruit can be characterized either by the length or the width. Lighter seeds with smaller width and thickness were extracted from smaller fruits. The treatment with HCl solution specially on 20 and 30% concentration was not efficient for the extracting bottle gourd seeds because the cleaning process was more difficult and qffècted negatively seed germination and the vigor. The results show that as the size of the fruits increase the number and weight of seeds also increase without changing the ability to produce normal seedlings. The cleaning process of bottle gourd seeds in HCl solution reduces their vigor. The best period of fermentation of seeds was observed in water at 25°C for 72 hours, however, the period from 48 to 96 hours improved their physiological quality and also facilitated the cleaning process. The bottle gourd seeds germinate in environment with 43.4% of humidity

  17. Cultivation and uses of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated cucurbits have spread through trade and exploration from their respective Old and New World centers of origin to the six arable continents and are important in local, regional and world trade. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), pumpkin, squash and gourd (Cucurbita spp...

  18. Differential spatial expression of A- and B-type CDKs, and distribution of auxins and cytokinins in the open transverse root apical meristem of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Bruno, Leonardo; Salimonti, Amelia; Muto, Antonella; Jones, Jessica; Rogers, Hilary J; Francis, Dennis; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2011-05-01

    Aside from those on Arabidopsis, very few studies have focused on spatial expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in root apical meristems (RAMs), and, indeed, none has been undertaken for open meristems. The extent of interfacing between cell cycle genes and plant growth regulators is also an increasingly important issue in plant cell cycle studies. Here spatial expression/localization of an A-type and B-type CDK, auxin and cytokinins are reported in relation to the hitherto unexplored anatomy of RAMs of Cucurbita maxima. Median longitudinal sections were cut from 1-cm-long primary root tips of C. maxima. Full-length A-type CDKs and a B-type CDK were cloned from C. maxima using degenerate primers, probes of which were localized on sections of RAMs using in situ hybridization. Isopentenyladenine (iPA), trans-zeatin (t-Z) and indole-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) were identified on sections by immunolocalization. The C. cucurbita RAM conformed to an open transverse (OT) meristem typified by an absence of a clear boundary between the eumeristem and root cap columella, but with a distinctive longitudinally thickened epidermis. Cucma;CDKA;1 expression was detected strongly in the longitudinally thickened epidermis, a tissue with mitotic competence that contributes cells radially to the root cap of OT meristems. Cucma;CDKB2 was expressed mainly in proliferative regions of the RAM and in lateral root primordia. iPA and t-Z were mainly distributed in differentiated cells whilst IAA was distributed more uniformly in all tissues of the RAM. Cucma;CDKA;1 was expressed most strongly in cells that have proliferative competence whereas Cucma;CDKB2 was confined mainly to mitotic cells. iPA and t-Z marked differentiated cells in the RAM, consistent with the known effect of cytokinins in promoting differentiation in root systems. iPA/t-Z were distributed in a converse pattern to Cucma;CDKB2 expression whereas IAA was detected in most cells in the RAM regardless of their proliferative

  19. Effect of Irrigation Intervals, Black Plastic Mulch and Biofertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.

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    H Abbasi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. Styriaca is one of the medicinal plants belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. It is valuable in terms of seed oil and its fatty acids. The seed oil of this crop is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Reduction of agrochemicals (herbicides and fertilizers is considered as research priority in medicinal plants production. Therefore, the selected practices and inputs should be environmentally sound, cost-effective and lead to high yield. Because of large inter-row space in pumpkin field, there is vast area of the bare soil which leads to weed establishment and loss of soil moisture. It seems that black plastic mulch protects soil moisture and controls weeds, thus increases seed yield. Also, biofertilizers due to available micronutrients, solubility of phosphorus, biological nitrogen fixation and phyto-hormones production increase the yield and improve the quality characteristics such as the seed oil and seed protein content. Therefore, in this research, the effect of black plastic mulch and biofertilizer on yield and quality of pumpkin under different irrigation intervals were studied. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out as split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, Bu-Ali Sina University of Hamedan during 2013 growing season. Treatments were included two irrigation intervals (I1: 7 days and I2: 12 days interval, black plastic mulch in two levels (M1: mulch and M2: no mulch, and four fertilizer regimes (F1: Supply 25% of nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of plants from chemical sources (urea + triple super phosphate + biofertilizers (nitroxin+bio-phosphate, F2: Supply 50% of nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of plants from chemical sources + biofertilizers, F3: Supply 75% of nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of plants from chemical sources + biofertilizers and F4: Supply 100% of nitrogen and

  20. Efeito do tratamento térmico em sementes de abóboras (Cucurbita spp. sobre os níveis de fatores antinutricionais e/ou tóxicos Effect of the thermal processing on pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp. on the levels of antinutritionales factors and/or toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauciemar Del-Vechio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os teores de alguns antinutrientes de sementes cruas, cozidas e tostadas de três espécies de abóboras, Cucurbita maxima (CMA, C. moschata (CMO e o híbrido F1 (CMA X CMO, foram investigados, a fim de assegurar o seu uso em preparações dietéticas, produtos industrializados e formulações de novos produtos. Não foram detectados em nenhuma das espécies estudadas teores de ácido oxálico e nitrato. A espécie C. maxima apresentou os níveis mais baixos de cianeto e de polifenóis e maior digestibilidade protéica in vitro. O cozimento acarretou redução nos níveis de cianeto, inibidor de tripsina, da atividade de hemaglutinina e de polifenóis e aumento da digestibilidade protéica in vitro. Dos tratamentos térmicos utilizados, o cozimento foi o mais eficiente na redução desses constituintes.The contents of some antinutrients of raw, boiled and toasted seeds of three pumpkin species, Cucurbita maxima (CMA, C. moschata (CMO and the F1 hybrid (CMA x CMO, were investigated in order to assure the use in dietary preparations industrialized products and formulations of new products. Levels of oxalic acid and nitrate were not detected in any of the species studied. CMA presented the lowest levels of cyanide, polyphenols and highest in vitro protein digestibility. Cooking brought about reduction in the levels of cyanide, trypsin inhibitor, hemaglutinin activity and polyphenols and increased of in vitro protein digestibility. Of the thermal processing employed, cooking was the most efficient in reducing of that constituints.

  1. Sterilization of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), with gamma-radiation: Effect of dose on oviposition behavior of irradiated females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, T.

    1990-01-01

    In a laboratory condition, the visiting and the puncturing frequencies of gamma-irradiated Dacus cucurbitae females on cucumber Cucumis sativus fruits were examined. In the non-irradiated females, the frequencies reached equilibrium ca. 1 week after adult emergence. The frequencies of the irradrated females decreased with irradiation dosage, but gradually resumed frequency with age. A similar trend was found in the relationship between the irradiation dose and the rates of the puncturing frequency to the visiting frequency. As the irradiation dose increased, the rate of under-developed ovaries increased. The ratio of cumulative puncturing frequency in the 70 Gy irradiated (completely sterile) females to that of the non-irradiated females was estimated as 1/200 when daily survival rate in the field was assumed to be 0.85. The completely sterile adult females (40 days old) made punctures on all sizes of cucumber cultivated in a greenhouse. However, these punctures do not significantly damage the fruit. The sting of the sterile melon fly would not be a serious problem in eradication programs based on the Sterile Insect Technique

  2. Application of cavitation system to accelerate aqueous enzymatic extraction of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo L. and evaluation of hypoglycemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhu-Gang; Wang, Xun; Han, Jun-Yan; Zhang, Bo; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Chun-Jian

    2016-12-01

    Cavitation-accelerated aqueous enzymatic extraction (CAEE) of seed oil from Cucurbita pepo was performed. An enzyme cocktail comprised of cellulose, pectinase and proteinase can work synergistically in releasing the oil. The CAEE extraction conditions were optimized by a Plackett-Burman design followed by a central composite methodology. A maximal extraction yield of 58.06% was achieved under optimal conditions of vacuum degree -0.07, enzyme amount 1.05% and extraction time 69min. As compared to soxhlet extraction (SE)-derived oil, CAEE-derived oil exhibited similar physical properties and better oxidation stability. In addition, chemical composition analyzing showed that the content of linoleic acid obtained by CAEE (47.67%) was higher than that of SE (44.51%). Moreover, the IC50 of oil obtained by CAEE and SE, as measured by α-amylase inhibition assay, were 40.68μg/mL and 45.46μg/mL. All results suggest that CAEE represents an excellent alternative protocol for production of oil from oil-bearing materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Studies on the dispersal behavior of melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae coquilett (Diptera: Tephritidae), and the influence of gamma-irradiation on dispersal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Ryoichi

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of released male adults of the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, was not the same in three directions from the release point. This bias seemed to depend on the habitat selection of melon flies because these was a linear relationship between the number of released flies caught and that of wild flies caught. The mean dispersal distance ranged from 50 m to 90 m and there were no remarkable differences in the values among groups which were allowed to disperse for different periods. Flies released at one point reached a stable distribution pattern in two or three days after their release. Another group of flies released at a different point, where the environment was less favourable to melon flies, showed a wider range of dispersal. It was concluded that in planning the arrangement of release points for the sterile male technique, a preliminary survey is needed to determine whether habitats favorable to the insect, that is, areas of high population density, exist continuously or not. A preliminary test to assess the influence of γ-irradiation on dispersal showed that the dosage of 10000 R reduced the dispersing ability of male adults of the melon fly. (author)

  4. Comparison of acoustic properties of tethered flight sounds for wild, mass-reared, and irradiated melon flies, Dacus cucurbitae COQUILLETT (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanmiya, Kenkichi; Nakagawa, Kohjin; Tanaka, Akira; Kamiwada, Hidemi.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic properties of tethered flight sounds produced by the male melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae COQUILLETT in wild (W-), mass-reared (M-), and irradiated (I-) strains were analyzed. Properties included fundamental frequency (FFQ), peak power density of FFQ (PPD), overall root mean square value (ORMS), total harmonic RMS (THRMS), total harmonic distortion (THDIST), bandwidth of FFQ (BWFF), and the number of harmonics and wing-strokes. M- and I-strains developed FFQ 3 days earlier than the W-strain. The W-strain had a greater variance in the mean, and overall lower values for FFQ, PPD, and ORMS than M- and I-strains. The fluctuation of acoustic properties of wild strain with aging was markedly different from that of the laboratory strains. The fact that values of these parameters for laboratory strains developed at earlier adult age and continued relatively high may by due to selection effects. No significant differences were observed between laboratory strains resulting from effect of irradiation. There were, however, significant differences among the 6 parameters in 8 age groups which were recognized for 12 cases between W- and I-, 8 between W- and M-, and 4 between M- and I-strains. (author)

  5. Sugar Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K; Sakurai, N; Kuraishi, S

    1990-07-01

    The elongation growth of stem segments is determined by the outer cell layers (epidermis and collenchyma). We measured the sugar composition and molecular weight distribution of pectin and hemicellulose fractions obtained from inner and outer tissues of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls. In addition, we studied the changes in these parameters after a 9 hour period of incubation of the segments. The results show that outer tissues have higher molecular weight pectin and hemicellulose compared to inner tissues (2-3 times higher). Incubation results in a 13 to 25% decrease in the amount of pectin and hemicellulose in inner tissues and an increase of 11 to 32% in the outer tissues. This increase in the outer tissues is accompanied by a decrease in the molecular weight of some of the components. These results clearly show that cell wall metabolism during elongation growth differs markedly in inner and outer tissues, and that future studies on the effect of auxin need to take these differences into account.

  6. Analysis of the complexity of protein kinases within the phloem sieve tube system. Characterization of Cucurbita maxima calmodulin-like domain protein kinase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lucas, William J

    2002-05-03

    In angiosperms, functional, mature sieve elements lack nuclei, vacuoles, ribosomes, and most of the endomembrane network. In this study, the complexity, number, and nature of protein kinases within the phloem sap of Cucurbita maxima were investigated to test the hypothesis that the enucleate sieve tube system utilizes a simplified signal transduction network. Supporting evidence was obtained in that only five putative protein kinases (three calcium-independent and two calcium-dependent protein kinases) were detected within the phloem sap extracted from stem tissues. Biochemical methods were used to purify one such calcium-dependent protein kinase. The gene for this C. maxima calmodulin-like domain protein kinase 1 (CmCPK1), was cloned using peptide microsequences. A combination of mass spectrometry, peptide fingerprinting, and amino-terminal sequencing established that, in the phloem sap, CmCPK1 exists as an amino-terminally cleaved protein. A second highly homologous isoform, CmCPK2, was identified, but although transcripts could be detected in the companion cells, peptide fingerprint analysis suggested that CmCPK2 does not enter the phloem sap. Potential substrates for CmCPK1, within the phloem sap, were also detected using an on-membrane phosphorylation assay. Entry of CmCPK1 into sieve elements via plasmodesmata and the potential roles played by these phloem protein kinases are discussed.

  7. Investigation of fruit seeds of Cucurbita maxima Duch., in relation to the pre-sowing γ-irradiation and postirradiation temperature effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranov, A.I.

    1974-01-01

    Investigations have been made of the seeds (weight, number, and colour) of the fruit of Cucurbita maxima Duch. White Big variety 48/4, obtained from seeds, treated before sowing with γ-rays - 4000 R and 50000 R with dose efficiency 504-630 R min and after irradiation with 80 0 C and 90 0 C/30 min. The colour of the seeds has been determined by the Bondartsev scale (1954). It has been established that the post-irradiation temperature effect of 80 0 and 90 0 C for a period of 3 min probably stimulates the weight of the seeds and the number of the empty seeds and doses have any substantial effect on the process of seed formation. An irradiation dose of 4000 R γ-rays stimulates the weight of the seeds and causes a probable stimulation of the total number of seeds (among them the full seeds) and decreases the percent of the empty seeds. The post-irradiation pre-sowing temperature effect demonstrates a tendency of taking off the stimulation and inhibition effects of the seeds (weight, number and full and empty seeds included). Basic seeds colours are: 06-Atro cremeus, K 3 -Pallido arenicolour, 3 3 -Pallido ochraceus and K 1 -Isabellimus, which include about 75% of the colours. The basic colours are being affected by the temperature and post-irradiation temperature impact and without disappearing, change their percent ratio. (M.Ts.)

  8. Cucurbitacin delta 23-reductase from the fruit of Cucurbita maxima var. Green Hubbard. Physicochemical and fluorescence properties and enzyme-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirr, H W; Schabort, J C; Weitz, C

    1986-02-01

    Cucurbitacin delta 23-reductase from Cucurbita maxima var. Green Hubbard fruit displays an apparent Mr of 32,000, a Stokes radius of 263 nm and a diffusion coefficient of 8.93 X 10(-7) cm2 X s-1. The enzyme appears to possess a homogeneous dimeric quaternary structure with a subunit Mr of 15,000. Two tryptophan and fourteen tyrosine residues per dimer were found. Emission spectral properties of the enzyme and fluorescence quenching by iodide indicate the tryptophan residues to be buried within the protein molecule. In the pH range 5-7, where no conformational changes were detected, protonation of a sterically related ionizable group with a pK of approx. 6.0 markedly influenced the fluorescence of the tryptophan residues. Protein fluorescence quenching was employed to determine the dissociation constants for binding of NADPH (Kd 17 microM), NADP+ (Kd 30 microM) and elaterinide (Kd 227 microM). Fluorescence energy transfer between the tryptophan residues and enzyme-bound NADPH was observed.

  9. Design, chemical synthesis and kinetic studies of trypsin chromogenic substrates based on the proteinase binding loop of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor (CMTI-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesner, A; Brzozowski, K; Kupryszewski, G; Rolka, K

    2000-03-05

    A series of trypsin chromogenic substrates with formula: Y-Ala-X-Abu-Pro-Lys-pNA, where X = Gly, Ala, Abu, Val, Leu, Phe, Ser, Glu and Y = Ac, H; pNA = p-nitroanilide was synthesized. The Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor CMTI-III molecule was used as a vehicle to design the trypsin substrates. To evaluate the influence of position P(4) on the substrate-enzyme interaction, kinetic parameters of newly synthesized substrates with bovine beta-trypsin were determined. The increasing hydrophobicity of the amino acid residue (Gly, Ala, Abu, Val) introduced in position P(4) significantly enhanced the substrate specificity (k(cat)/K(m)) which was over 8 times higher for the last residue than that for the first one. The introduction of residues with more hydrophilic side chain (Glu, Ser) in this position reduced the value of this parameter. These results correspond well with those obtained using molecular dynamics of bovine beta-trypsin with monosubstituted CMTI-I analogues, indicating that in both trypsin substrate and inhibitor position 4 plays an important role in the interaction with the enzyme. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Natural abundance 15N NMR assignments delineate structural differences between intact and reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Nemmers, S; Tobias, B

    1992-06-15

    15N NMR assignments were made to the backbone amide nitrogen atoms at natural isotopic abundance of intact and reactive-site (Arg5-Ile6) hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI-III and CMTI-III*, respectively) by means of 2D proton-detected heteronuclear single bond chemical shift correlation (HSBC) spectroscopy, utilizing the previously made sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments (Krishnamoorthi et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 898-904). Comparison of the 15N chemical shifts of the two forms of the inhibitor molecule revealed significant changes not only for residues located near the reactive-site region, but also for those distantly located. Residues Cys3, Arg5, Leu7, Met8, Cys10, Cys16, Glu19, His25, Tyr27, Cys28 and Gly29 showed significant chemical shift changes ranging from 0.3 to 6.1 ppm, thus indicating structural perturbations that were transmitted throughout the molecule. These findings confirm the earlier conclusions based on 1H NMR investigations.

  11. Overexpression of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) 16 kDa phloem protein CmPP16 increases tolerance to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Ortega, Francisco Arturo; Herrera-Pola, Paul Starsky; Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The phloem plays an important role in the delivery of nutrients and signals between photosynthetic to heterotrophic tissues. Proteins and RNAs in the phloem translocation stream may have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the sieve tube system, as well as in long-distance signaling. CmPP16 is a pumpkin phloem protein, which has been shown to bind RNA in a non-sequence specific manner, and move it cell-to-cell and conceivably, long-distance. The protein and RNA are found in both companion cell (CC) and sieve elements (SE). However, a more precise function for this protein is not known. In this work we report the overexpression of CmPP16 fused to GFP via transformation of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cv. Big Max) plants in the cotyledonary stage by direct inoculation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plants overexpressing CmPP16 did not show an obvious phenotype. However, these plants displayed higher photosynthetic capacity during drought than wild-type (WT) pumpkin or transformed with another construct. These results suggest that CmPP16 may be involved in the response to stress through long-distance signaling.

  12. Differential Effect of Auxin on Molecular Weight Distributions of Xyloglucans in Cell Walls of Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K; Sakurai, N; Kuraishi, S

    1991-04-01

    Effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the mechanical properties of cell walls and structures of cell wall polysaccharides in outer and inner tissues of segments of dark grown squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls were investigated. IAA induced the elongation of unpeeled, intact segments, but had no effect on the elongation of peeled segments. IAA induced the cell wall loosening in outer tissues as studied by the stress-relaxation analysis but not in inner tissues. IAA-induced changes in the net sugar content of cell wall fractions in outer and inner tissues were very small. Extracted hemicellulosic xyloglucans derived from outer tissues had a molecular weight about two times as large as in inner tissues, and the molecular weight of xyloglucans in both outer and inner tissues decreased during incubation. IAA substantially accelerated the depolymerization of xyloglucans in outer tissues, while it prevented that in inner tissues. These results suggest that IAA-induced growth in intact segments is due to the cell wall loosening in outer tissues, and that IAA-accelerated depolymerization of hemicellulosic xyloglucans in outer tissues is involved in the cell wall loosening processes.

  13. Two-dimensional NMR studies of squash family inhibitors. Sequence-specific proton assignments and secondary structure of reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisnamoorthi, R.; Yuxi Gong; Chanlan Sun Lin (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States)); VanderVelde, D. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States))

    1992-01-28

    The solution structure of reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI-III*) was investigated by two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy. CMTI-III*, prepared by reacting CMTI-III with trypsin which cleaved the Arg5-Ile6 peptide bond, had the two fragments held together by a disulfide linkage. Sequence-specific {sup 1}H NMR resonance assignments were made for all the 29 amino acid residues of the protein. The secondary structure of CMTI-III*, as deduced from NOESY cross peaks and identification of slowly exchanging hydrogens, contains two turns, a 3{sub 10}-helix, and a triple-stranded {beta}-sheet. Sequential proton assignments were also made for the virgin inhibitor, CMTI-III, at pH 4.71, 30C. Comparison of backbone hydrogen chemical shifts of CMTI-III and CMTI-III* revealed significant changes for residues located far away from the reactive-site region as well as for those located near it, indicating tertiary structural changes that are transmitted through most of the 29 residues of the inhibitor protein. These chemical shift changes were relatively small compared to changes that occurred upon hydrolysis of the reactive-site peptide bond between Arg 5 and Ile6 in CMTI-III.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene synthase B from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S; Saito, T; Abe, H; Yamane, H; Murofushi, N; Kamiya, Y

    1996-08-01

    The first committed step in the formation of diterpenoids leading to gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis is the conversion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to ent-kaurene. ent-Kaurene synthase A (KSA) catalyzes the conversion of GGDP to copalyl diphosphate (CDP), which is subsequently converted to ent-kaurene by ent-kaurene synthase B (KSB). A full-length KSB cDNA was isolated from developing cotyledons in immature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.). Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed from the amino acid sequences obtained from the purified protein to amplify a cDNA fragment, which was used for library screening. The isolated full-length cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which demonstrated the KSB activity to cyclize [3H]CDP to [3H]ent-kaurene. The KSB transcript was most abundant in growing tissues, but was detected in every organ in pumpkin seedlings. The deduced amino acid sequence shares significant homology with other terpene cyclases, including the conserved DDXXD motif, a putative divalent metal ion-diphosphate complex binding site. A putative transit peptide sequence that may target the translated product into the plastids is present in the N-terminal region.

  15. Energy-dispersive x-Ray Analysis of Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium in Globoid Crystals in Protein Bodies from Different Regions of Cucurbita maxima Embryos 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, John N. A.; Greenwood, John S.; Vollmer, Catherine M.; Buttrose, Mark S.

    1978-01-01

    The seeds of Cucurbita maxima contain protein bodies with electrondense globoid crystals. Because of their density globoid crystals are ideal material for energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis studies of elemental composition. Fixation trials were carried out to test globoid crystal extraction during glutaraldehyde fixation, water washing, and ethanol dehydration. Glutaraldehyde fixation without subsequent washing or dehydration alone produced no significant changes in elemental composition of cotyledon globoid crystals. If glutaraldehyde fixation was followed by water washes or ethanol dehydration there was some loss of the major globoid crystal elements but the relative percentages of the elements P, K, Ca, and Mg remained relatively unchanged. In this paper results of a study of the P, K, Mg, and Ca content of globoid crystals in different tissues of squash embryos are presented. The globoid crystals in the radicle were found to be the least dense in the embryo. Globoid crystals from all embryo regions contained P, K, and Mg. In the various embryo regions P and Mg maintained relatively constant proportions of the globoid crystal composition while K and Ca varied. Of particular significance is the distribution of Ca which is generally an immobile element. Calcium was found in highest amounts in the globoid crystals of the radicle and stem regions while globoid crystals in much of the cotyledon contained little, if any, Ca. The Ca storage thus seems to be spatially arranged in a manner that would aid early growth of the root-shoot axis. PMID:16660439

  16. Effects of cooking on the cell walls (dietary fiber) of 'Scarlet Warren' winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) studied by polysaccharide linkage analysis and solid-state (13)C NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R M Sunil; Sims, Ian M; Newman, Roger H; Melton, Laurence D

    2011-07-13

    Cell wall polysaccharides of 'Scarlet Warren' winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated before and after thermal processing. Linkage analysis of polysaccharides was done by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The linkage analysis showed the cell wall polysaccharide compositions of raw and cooked squash were similar. The total pectic polysaccharides (galacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan, arabinan, and arabinogalactan) contents of the cell walls of both raw and cooked squash were 39 mol %. The amounts of pectic polysaccharides and xyloglucan in the cell walls of squash showed little alteration on heating. The cellulose content of the raw and cooked cell walls was relatively high at 47 mol %, whereas the xyloglucan content was low at 4 mol %. Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques were used to examine the molecular motion of the polysaccharides in the cell walls. The mobility of highly flexible galactan depends on the water content of the sample, but no difference was seen between raw and cooked samples. Likewise, the mobility of semimobile pectic polysaccharides was apparently unaltered by cooking. No change was detected in the rigid cellulose microfibrils on cooking.

  17. Sugar Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Kuraishi, Susumu

    1990-01-01

    The elongation growth of stem segments is determined by the outer cell layers (epidermis and collenchyma). We measured the sugar composition and molecular weight distribution of pectin and hemicellulose fractions obtained from inner and outer tissues of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls. In addition, we studied the changes in these parameters after a 9 hour period of incubation of the segments. The results show that outer tissues have higher molecular weight pectin and hemicellulose compared to inner tissues (2-3 times higher). Incubation results in a 13 to 25% decrease in the amount of pectin and hemicellulose in inner tissues and an increase of 11 to 32% in the outer tissues. This increase in the outer tissues is accompanied by a decrease in the molecular weight of some of the components. These results clearly show that cell wall metabolism during elongation growth differs markedly in inner and outer tissues, and that future studies on the effect of auxin need to take these differences into account. PMID:16667612

  18. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, PESTICIDE RESIDUE AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COLD PRESSED PUMPKIN SEED (Cucurbita pepo L. OILS FROM CENTRAL ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATMA NUR ARSLAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physicochemical characteristics, pesticide residues and aflatoxin contaminations of cold pressed pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L. oils cultivated in four different central Anatolia regions of Turkey, were investigated. Lab-scale screw press machine was used to produce cold pressed pumpkin seed oils and the oil contents were found between 42.8%−47.4% for naked seeds. The physicochemical characteristic (refractive index, viscosity, color value, triglyceride profile analysis, peroxide value, iodine value, free fatty acid, saponification number, unsaponified matter, specific extinction values at 232 and 270 nm of cold pressed oils were determined by using different analytical techniques. The results showed that there was a non-significant difference between cold pressed pumpkin seed oils from different regions, in terms of physicochemical characteristics. The contents of pesticide residue and aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 contamination were determined by using validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. The chlorpyrifos pesticide residue was detected under the limit value declared by official authorities for the quality assessment of edible oils. Aflatoxins weren’t detected in any of studied pumpkin seed oils. Therefore, in food industry the positive effect of screw-pressing application could be useful for preservation of bioactive compounds during edible oil production and also enhancing of their functional properties.

  19. Photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet irradiance absorbance of Cucurbita pepo L. leaves exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation (280 to 315 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, growth, and ultraviolet (uv) radiation absorbance were determined for the first leaf of Cucurbita pepo L. exposed to two levels of uv-B irradiation and a uv-B radiation-free control treatment. Absorbance by extracted flavonoid pigments and other uv-B radiation-absorbing compounds from the first leaves increased with time and level of uv-B radiation impinging on leaf surfaces. Although absorbance of uv-B radiation by extracted pigments increased substantially, uv-B radiation attenuation apparently was insufficient to protect completely the photosynthetic apparatus or leaf growth processes. Leaf expansion was repressed by daily exposure to 1365 Joules per meter per day of biologically effective uv-B radiation by not by exposure to 660 Joules per meter per day. Photosynthesis measured through ontogenesis of the first leaf was depressed by both uv-B radiation treatments. Repression of photosynthesis by uv-B radiation was especially evident during the ontogenetic period of maximum photosynthetic activity

  20. Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, R H; Glew, R S; Chuang, L-T; Huang, Y-S; Millson, M; Constans, D; Vanderjagt, D J

    2006-06-01

    Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids. On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Effect of drying and co-matrix addition on the yield and quality of supercritical CO₂ extracted pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello S; D'Amico, Leone; Piro, Gabriella; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    In this work a process for obtaining high vitamin E and carotenoid yields by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) is described. The results show that the use of a vacuum oven-dried [residual moisture (∼8%)] and milled (70 mesh sieve) pumpkin flesh matrix increased SC-CO₂ extraction yields of total vitamin E and carotenoids of ∼12.0- and ∼8.5-fold, respectively, with respect to the use of a freeze-dried and milled flesh matrix. The addition of milled (35 mesh) pumpkin seeds as co-matrix (1:1, w/w) allowed a further ∼1.6-fold increase in carotenoid yield, besides to a valuable enrichment of the extracted oil in vitamin E (274 mg/100 g oil) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These findings encourage further studies in order to scale up the process for possible industrial production of high quality bioactive ingredients from pumpkin useful in functional food or cosmeceutical formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Macrocospic and physiochemical characterization of a sugarless and gluten-free cake enriched with fibers made from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima, L. flour and cornstarch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mesquita da Silva Gorgônio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Consumers' interest for products with caloric reduction has increased, and their development is a technological challenge. The consumption of cakes has grown in importance and the demand for dietary products has stimulated the use of sweeteners and the optimization of bakery products. The consumption of fibers is related to chronic diseases prevention. Pumpkin seeds (maximum Cucurbita, L., rich in fibers, can be used as a source of fiber in food products. A gluten-free diet is not easy to follow since gluten free products are not always available. The objective of this work was to perform a physicochemical characterization of cakes prepared with flours blends (FB based on Pumpkin Seed Flour (PSF. The cakes were elaborated with FB in the ratios of 30:70 (C30 and 40:60 (C40 of PSF and cornstarch (CS, respectively. The results showed gluten absence and near-neutral pH. The chemical analysis of C30 and B40 showed increase of ashes, lipids, proteins, and insoluble dietary fiber and a decrease in the content of carbohydrates and calories. The chemical composition of C40 presented the greatest content of lipids, proteins, and dietary fibers, the lowest content of calories, and the best physical parameters. Therefore, both products proved suitable for human consumption.

  3. Effect of oil extraction assisted by ultrasound on the physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Santos, Betsabé; Rodríguez-Miranda, Jesús; Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Torruco-Uco, Juan G; Carmona-García, Roselis; Juárez-Barrientos, José M; Chávez-Zamudio, Rubí; Martínez-Sánchez, Cecilia E

    2016-07-01

    The effects of amplitude and time of ultrasound-assisted extraction on the physicochemical properties and the fatty acid profile of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo) were evaluated. Ultrasound time (5-30 min) and the response variables amplitude (25-100%), extraction yield, efficiency, oxidative stability in terms of the free fatty acids (FFA) of the plant design comprising two independent experiments variables, peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (AV), totox value (TV) and the fatty acid profile were evaluated. The results were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The time and amplitude showed significant differences (P<0.05) for all variables. The highest yield of extraction was achieved at 5 min and amplitude of 62.5% (62%). However, the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasound time of 26.34 min and amplitude of 89.02%. All extracts showed low FFA (2.75-4.93% oleic acid), PV (1.67-4.68 meq/kg), AV (1.94-3.69) and TV (6.25-12.55) values. The main fatty acids in all the extracts were oleic and linoleic acid. Therefore, ultrasound-assisted oil extraction had increased performance and reduced extraction time without affecting the oil quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer of rRNA genes in excised cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. (Zucchini) after hormone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananiev, E.; Abdulova, G.; Grozdanov, P.; Karagyozov, L.

    2003-01-01

    High molecular mass genomic DNA was isolated from excised marrow cotyledons (Cucurbita pepo L. zucchini) treated with 6-benzyladenine (BA) of methyl ester of jasmonic acid (MeJA) for 24 h in darkness. DNA purified from contaminating polysaccharides with Celite column was completely digested with the restriction enzyme Eco RI and the changes in the methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer (IGS) of r RNA genes were studied after subsequent digestion with the couple of restriction enzymes-isoschizomers MSP I and Hpa II by the method of 'indirect end labelling'. As rDNA units probe a cloned 32 P-labelled Eco RI 2.1 kb fragment spanning in the most part of 18S r RNA gene from flax rDNA was used. Results showed heavy methylation of the rRNA genes. As judged from the almost total lack of digestion with HPA II, there were no methylation free regions in repeated rDNA units or little if any were observed. A hypo methylated Hps II site was detected near the promoter region in some of the repeats. Digestion with Msp I affected nearly 50% of the repeating units. The Msp digestion fragments of the 6.2 kb Eco RI fragment of r DNA were few in number and large in size (0.5 - 2.5 kb). This suggested that in addition with -CpG- sequences, methylation in -CpNpG- might not be random. Methylation pattern in IGS was not changed upon treatment of the cotyledons in vivo with BA and MeJA. Thus, previously observed hormone-mediated effects on the eactivity of rRNA gene expression were not accompanied by any significant changes of the methylation pattern in IGS. (authors)

  5. Cloning and characterisation of a putative pollen-specific polygalacturonase gene (CpPG1) differentially regulated during pollen development in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, F; Garrido, D; Jamilena, M; Rosales, R

    2014-03-01

    Studies in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. spp. pepo) pollen have been limited to the viability and morphology of the mature pollen grain. The enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) is involved in pollen development and pollination in many species. In this work, we study anther and pollen development of C. pepo and present the cloning and characterisation of a putative PG CpPG1 (Accession no. HQ232488) from pollen cDNA in C. pepo. The predicted protein for CpPG1 has 416 amino acids, with a high homology to other pollen PGs, such as P22 from Oenothera organensis (76%) and PGA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (73%). CpPG1 belongs to clade C, which comprises PGs expressed in pollen, and presents a 34 amino acid signal peptide for secretion towards the cell wall. DNA-blot analysis revealed that there are at least another two genes that code for PGs in C. pepo. The spatial and temporal accumulation of CpPG1 was studied by semi-quantitative- and qRT-PCR. In addition, mRNA was detected only in anthers, pollen and the rudimentary anthers of bisexual flowers (only present in some zucchini cultivars under certain environmental conditions that trigger anther development in the third whorl of female flowers). However, no expression was detected in cotyledons, stem or fruit. Furthermore, CpPG1 mRNA was accumulated throughout anther development, with the highest expression found in mature pollen. Similarly, exo-PG activity increased from immature anther stages to mature anthers and mature pollen. Overall, these data support the pollen specificity of this gene and suggest an involvement of CpPG1 in pollen development in C. pepo. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Dehydrodiconiferyl Alcohol Isolated from Cucurbita moschata Shows Anti-adipogenic and Anti-lipogenic Effects in 3T3-L1 Cells and Primary Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Jonghyun; Choi, Hyounjeong; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Jeong, Jinhyun; Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    A water-soluble extract from the stems of Cucurbita moschata, code named PG105, was previously found to contain strong anti-obesity activities in a high fat diet-induced obesity mouse model. One of its biological characteristics is that it inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. To isolate the biologically active compound(s), conventional solvent fractionation was performed, and the various fractions were tested for anti-adipogenic activity using Oil Red O staining method. A single spot on thin layer chromatography of the chloroform fraction showed a potent anti-adipogenic activity. When purified, the structure of its major component was resolved as dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan, by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. In 3T3-L1 cells, synthesized DHCA significantly reduced the expression of several adipocyte marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparg), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (Cebpa), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), sterol response element-binding protein-1c (Srebp1c), and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (Scd), and decreased lipid accumulation without affecting cell viability. DHCA also suppressed the mitotic clonal expansion of preadipocytes (an early event of adipogenesis), probably by suppressing the DNA binding activity of C/EBPβ, and lowered the production level of cyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), coinciding with the decrease in DNA synthesis and cell division. In addition, DHCA directly inhibited the expression of SREBP-1c and SCD-1. Similar observations were made, using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Taken together, our data indicate that DHCA may contain dual activities, affecting both adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:22262865

  7. Two-dimensional NMR studies of squash family inhibitors. Sequence-specific proton assignments and secondary structure of reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Gong, Y X; Lin, C L; VanderVelde, D

    1992-01-28

    The solution structure of reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI-III*) was investigated by two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy. CMTI-III*, prepared by reacting CMTI-III with trypsin which cleaved the Arg5-Ile6 peptide bond, had the two fragments held together by a disulfide linkage. Sequence-specific 1H NMR resonance assignments were made for all the 29 amino acid residues of the protein. The secondary structure of CMTI-III*, as deduced from NOESY cross peaks and identification of slowly exchanging hydrogens, contains two turns (residues 8-12 and 24-27), a 3(10)-helix (residues 13-16), and a triple-stranded beta-sheet (residues 8-10, 29-27, and 21-25). This secondary structure is similar to that of CMTI-I [Holak, T. A., Gondol, D., Otlewski, J., & Wilusz, T. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 210, 635-648], which has a Glu instead of a Lys at position 9. Sequential proton assignments were also made for the virgin inhibitor, CMTI-III, at pH 4.71, 30 degrees C. Comparison of backbone hydrogen chemical shifts of CMTI-III and CMTI-III* revealed significant changes for residues located far away from the reactive-site region as well as for those located near it, indicating tertiary structural changes that are transmitted through most of the 29 residues of the inhibitor protein. Many of these residues are functionally important in that they make contact with atoms of the enzyme in the trypsin-inhibitor complex, as revealed by X-ray crystallography [Bode, W., Greyling, H. J., Huber, R., Otlewski, J., & Wilusz, T. (1989) FEBS Lett. 242, 285-292].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Structural consequences of the natural substitution, E9K, on reactive-site-hydrolyzed squash (Cucurbita maxima) trypsin inhibitor (CMTI), as studied by two-dimensional NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Lin, C L; VanderVelde, D

    1992-06-02

    Sequence-specific hydrogen-1 NMR assignments were made to all of the 29 amino acid residues of reactive-site-hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor I (CMTI-I*) by the application of two-dimensional NMR (2D NMR) techniques, and its secondary structural elements (two tight turns, a 3(10)-helix, and a triple-stranded beta-sheet) were identified on the basis of short-range NOESY cross peaks and deuterium-exchange kinetics. These secondary structural elements are present in the intact inhibitor [Holak, T. A., Gondol, D., Otlewski, J., & Wilusz, T. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 210, 635-648] and are unaffected by the hydrolysis of the reactive-site peptide bond between Arg5 and Ile6, in accordance with the earlier conclusion reached for CMTI-III* [Krishnamoorthi, R., Gong, Y.-X., Lin, C. S., & VanderVelde, D. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 898-904]. Chemical shifts of backbone hydrogen atoms, peptide NH's, and C alpha H's, of CMTI-I* were compared with those of the intact inhibitor, CMTI-I, and of the reactive-site-hydrolyzed, natural, E9K variant, CMTI-III*. Cleavage of the Arg5-Ile6 peptide bond resulted in changes of chemical shifts of most of the backbone atoms of CMTI-I, in agreement with the earlier results obtained for CMTI-III. Comparison of chemical shifts of backbone hydrogen atoms of CMTI-I* and CMTI-III* revealed no changes, except for residues Glu9 and His25. However, the intact forms of the same two proteins, CMTI-I and CMTI-III, showed small but significant perturbations of chemical shifts of residues that made up the secondary structural elements of the inhibitors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Proton NMR studies of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitors: evidence for pH-dependent conformational change and His25-Tyr27 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Lin, C L; Gong, Y X; VanderVelde, D; Hahn, K

    1992-01-28

    A pH-dependent His25-Tyr27 interaction was demonstrated in the case of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitors (CMTI-I and CMTI-III) by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. pH titration, line widths, peak shapes, deuterium exchange kinetics, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) were employed to characterize a conformational change involving Tyr27, which was shown to be triggered by deprotonation of His25 around pH 6. A hydrogen bond is proposed to be formed between N epsilon of His25 and OH of Tyr27, as a distance between the atoms, His25 N epsilon and Tyr27 OH, of 3.02 A is consistent with a model built with NOE-derived distance constraints. Both the X-ray [Bode, W., Greyling, J.H., Huber, R., Otlewski, J., & Wilusz, T. (1989) FEBS Lett. 242, 282-292] and NMR [Holak, T.A., Gondol, D., Otlewski, J., & Wilusz, T. (1989) J. Mol. Biol. 210, 635-648] structures of CMTI-I at low pH (4.7-5.3) rule out such an interaction between the two aromatic rings, as the ring planes are oriented about 10 A away from each other. The presently characterized relative orientations of His25 and Tyr27 are of functional significance, as these residues make contact with the enzyme in the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Furthermore, trypsin assay and inhibitor-binding studies showed that conformations of trypsin and the squash inhibitor were functionally relevant only in the pH range 6-8. The pKa of His25 was determined and found to be influenced by Glu9/Lys substitution and by the hydrolysis of the reactive-site peptide bond between Arg5 and Ile6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Direct and individual analysis of stress-related phytohormone dispersion in the vascular system of Cucurbita maxima after flagellin 22 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel

    2014-03-01

    • The stress-related phytohormones, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and the three jasmonates, jasmonic acid (JA), cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), and (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), were investigated in phloem and xylem exudates of Cucurbita maxima. • Phloem and xylem exudates were separately collected and analysed via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. • We show direct evidence for all three jasmonates, ABA, and SA in both phloem and xylem exudates of C. maxima. JA and JA-Ile concentrations are higher in xylem (JA: c(xylem) ≈ 199.5 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 43.9 nM; JA-Ile: c(xylem) ≈ 7.9 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 1.6 nM), whereas ABA and SA concentrations are higher in phloem exudates (ABA: c(xylem) ≈ 37.1 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 142.6 nM; SA: c(xylem) ≈ 61.6 nM, c(phloem) ≈ 1319 nM). During bacteria-derived flagellin 22 (flg22)-triggered remote root-to-shoot signalling, phytohormone concentration changed rapidly both in phloem and xylem. • The unequal distribution of phytohormones suggests that phloem and xylem have distinct roles in defence responses. Our data shed light on systemic phytohormone signalling and help explain how plants cope with environmental challenges by lateral exchange between phloem and xylem. Our analysis is a starting point for further investigations of how phytohormones contribute to phloem- and xylem-based defence signalling. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Proton NMR studies of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitors: Evidence for pH-dependent conformational change and his25 - try27 interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthi, R.; Chanlan Sun Lin; Yuxi Gong (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States)); VanderVelde, D. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (United States)); Hahn, K. (Univ. of Colorado, Denver (United States))

    1992-01-28

    A pH-dependent His25-Tyr27 interaction was demonstrated in the case of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitors (CMTI-I and CMTI-III) by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. pH titration, line widths, peak shapes, deuterium exchange kinetics, and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) were employed to characterize a conformational change involving Tyr27, which was shown to be triggered by deprotonation of His25 around pH 6. A hydrogen bond is proposed to be formed between N{sub {epsilon}} of His25 and OH of Tyr27, as a distance between the atoms, His25 N{epsilon} and Tyr25 OH, of 3.02 {angstrom} is consistent with a model built with NOE-derived distance constraints. The presently characterized relative orientations of His25 and Tyr27 are of functional significance, as these residues make contact with the enzyme in the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Furthermore, trypsin assay and inhibitor-binding studies showed that conformations of trypsin and the squash inhibitor complex. Furthermore, trypsin assay and inhibitor-binding studies showed that conformations of trypsin and the squash inhibitor were functionally relevant only in the pH range 6-8. The pK{sub a} of His25 was determined and found to be influenced by Glu9/Lys substitution and by the hydrolysis of the reactive-site peptide bond between Arg5 and Ile6. As these sites are located far (>10 {angstrom}) from His25, the results point out conformational changes that are propagated to a distant site in the protein molecule.

  12. Use of video surveillance to measure the influences of habitat management and landscape composition on pollinator visitation and pollen deposition in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Phillips

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo production relies on insect-mediated pollination, which is provided by managed and wild pollinators. The goals of this study were to measure the visitation frequency, longevity and temporal activity patterns of pumpkin pollinators and to determine if local habitat management and landscape composition affected this pollination service. We used video surveillance to monitor bee acitivty within male and female pumpkin flowers in 2011 and 2012 across a pollination window of 0600–1200 h. We also quantified the amount of pollen deposited in female flowers across this time period. In 2011, A. mellifera made significantly more floral visits than other bees, and in 2012 Bombus spp. was the dominant pumpkin pollinator. We found variation in visitation among male and female pumpkin flowers, with A. mellifera visiting female flowers more often and spending longer per visit within them than male flowers in both 2011 and 2012. The squash bee P. pruinosa visited male flowers more frequently in 2012, but individuals spent equal time in both flower sexes. We did not find variation in the timing of flower visitation among species across the observed pollination window. In both 2011 and 2012 we found that the majority of pollen deposition occurred within the first two hours (0600–0800 h of observation; there was no difference between the pollen deposited during this two-hour period and full pollination window (0600–1200 h. Local additions of sweet alyssum floral strips or a field buffer strip of native wildflowers did not have an effect on the foraging activity of bees or pollen deposition. However, semi-natural and urban habitats in the surrounding landscape were positively correlated with the frequency of flower visitation by wild pollinators and the amount of pollen deposited within female flowers.

  13. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-17

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  14. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL, (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases and a crude load of 25% (w/w at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  15. Toxicity assessment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Cucurbita pepo L. under well-watered and water-stressed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Mehrnaz

    2017-08-01

    The rapid increase in the production and application of various types of nanomaterials increases the possibility of their presence in total environment, which subsequently raises concerns about their potential threats to the first trophic level of organisms, specifically under varying environmental constraints. In this work, seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. were cultured in MS basal medium exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at different concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000μgmL -1 ) under two levels of water potential, well-watered (0MPa) and water stress (-1.5MPa) induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) for 14 days. Seeds exposed to MWCNTs showed reduction in germination percentage, root and shoot length, biomass accumulation and vigor index in a dose-dependent manner. However, seedlings germinated in MWCNTs-fortified media had significantly lower germination and growth attributes than those of control under water stress conditions. This happened due to increased oxidative injury indices including hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, as well as electrolyte leakage index (ELI) of tissues. The impaired morpho-physiological and biochemical processes of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of MWCNTs under both PEG-induced stress and non-stress growing conditions were consequence of changes in the activation of various cellular antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (POD). Taken together, our findings reveal that MWCNTs played negative role on seed germination and subsequent growth of C. pepo L. seedlings under both levels of water potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluación de la eficiencia de tres fertilizantes edáficos sobre el rendimiento y calidad del zapallo (Cucurbita maxima var. Unapal- Mandarino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Menjivar-Flores

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La investigación evaluó la eficiencia agronómica del cultivo de zapallo (Cucurbita máxima var Unapal Mandarino por efecto de la aplicación de tres fertilizantes edáficos en el desarrollo, producción y rendimiento del cultivo en condiciones del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se estableció un diseño completamente al azar con tres tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones para un total de 12 unidades experimentales. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron T1: dosis comercial, T2: dosis comercial + 25%. T3: dosis comercial +50%. La variables de respuesta evaluadas incluyen: peso total de frutos y número de frutos por unidad experimental, peso del fruto, diámetro polar, diámetro ecuatorial, índice de esfericidad, espesor de la pulpa, color de pared, número total de semillas, peso total de semillas, peso de 100 semillas, peso unitario de semilla y % materia seca. Los resultados mostraron que la eficiencia agronómica en los tratamientos dosis comercial y dosis comercial +25% no presentaron diferencias significativas, sin embargo en el tratamiento con dosis comercial +50% se encontraron diferencias significativas especialmente en variables de peso total de frutos, diámetro ecuatorial del fruto, diámetro polar del fruto, número total de semillas por fruto y en el peso total de semillas por fruto, por tanto al aumentar la dosis comercial del fertilizante, se aumentan las características agronómicas del fruto.

  17. Use of video surveillance to measure the influences of habitat management and landscape composition on pollinator visitation and pollen deposition in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Benjamin W; Gardiner, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) production relies on insect-mediated pollination, which is provided by managed and wild pollinators. The goals of this study were to measure the visitation frequency, longevity and temporal activity patterns of pumpkin pollinators and to determine if local habitat management and landscape composition affected this pollination service. We used video surveillance to monitor bee acitivty within male and female pumpkin flowers in 2011 and 2012 across a pollination window of 0600-1200 h. We also quantified the amount of pollen deposited in female flowers across this time period. In 2011, A. mellifera made significantly more floral visits than other bees, and in 2012 Bombus spp. was the dominant pumpkin pollinator. We found variation in visitation among male and female pumpkin flowers, with A. mellifera visiting female flowers more often and spending longer per visit within them than male flowers in both 2011 and 2012. The squash bee P. pruinosa visited male flowers more frequently in 2012, but individuals spent equal time in both flower sexes. We did not find variation in the timing of flower visitation among species across the observed pollination window. In both 2011 and 2012 we found that the majority of pollen deposition occurred within the first two hours (0600-0800 h) of observation; there was no difference between the pollen deposited during this two-hour period and full pollination window (0600-1200 h). Local additions of sweet alyssum floral strips or a field buffer strip of native wildflowers did not have an effect on the foraging activity of bees or pollen deposition. However, semi-natural and urban habitats in the surrounding landscape were positively correlated with the frequency of flower visitation by wild pollinators and the amount of pollen deposited within female flowers.

  18. Characteristics of hot spots of melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sterile fly release areas on Okinawa island [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamori, H.; Shiga, M.; Kinjo, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae COQUILLETT, in the southern part of Okinawa Island where an eradication program using sterile flies has been conducted, were analyzed in relation to the seasonal succession and abundance of wild and cultivated host fruits. The study areas were classified into four major zones according to the seasonal abundance of flies caught by cue-lure traps and the availability of host fruits including Diplocyclos palmatus, Melothria liukiuensis and Momordica charantia var. pevel. Zone-I is characterized by the continuous presence of host fruits and a relatively-high population density of the melon fly indicated by the cue-lure trap catch of more than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day throughout the year. Zone-II has a characteristic decline in both number of host fruits and fly density during the fall-winter period with an annual average of less than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day. Zone-III includes areas where host fruits and flies (about 1 fly/trap/day) were relatively abundant only during the winter-spring period. Zone-IV is characterized by constantly low availability of host fruits and low fly density throughout the year. Hot spots, which are defined as areas where the ratio of sterile to wild flies hardly increases despite frequent and intensive release of sterile flies, were found in the Zone-I areas. Therefore, the continuous presence and abundance of host fruits appears to hot spots. For effective control of this species, it is essential to locate such areas and release sterile flies

  19. Cloning and characterisation of two CTR1-like genes in Cucurbita pepo: regulation of their expression during male and female flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; Gómez, Pedro; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Ethylene is an essential regulator of flower development in Cucurbita pepo, controlling the sexual expression, and the differentiation and maturation of floral organs. To study the action mechanism of ethylene during the male and female flower development, we have identified two CTR1 homologues from C. pepo, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2, and analysed their expressions during female and male flower development and in response to external treatments with ethylene. CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 share a high homology with plant CTR1-like kinases, but differ from other related kinases such as the Arabidopsis EDR1 and the tomato LeCTR2. The C-terminal ends of both CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 have all the conserved motifs of Ser/Thr kinase domains, including the ATP-binding signature and the protein kinase active site consensus sequence, which suggests that CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 could have the same function as CTR1 in ethylene signalling. The transcripts of both genes were detected in different organs of the plant, including roots, leaves and shoots, but were mostly accumulated in mature flowers. During the development of male and female flowers, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 expressions were concomitant with ethylene production, which indicates that both genes could be upregulated by ethylene, at least in flowers. Moreover, external treatments with ethylene, although did not alter the expression of these two genes in seedlings and leaves, were able to upregulate their expression in flowers. In the earlier stages of flower development, when ethylene production is very low, the expression of CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 is higher in male floral organs, which agrees with the role of these genes as negative regulators of ethylene signalling, and explain the lower ethylene sensitivity of male flowers in comparison with female flowers. The function of the upregulation of these two genes in later stages of female flower development, when the production of ethylene is also increased, is discussed.

  20. A high-density genetic map for anchoring genome sequences and identifying QTLs associated with dwarf vine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoyu; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Jia, Zhangcai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong; Li, Haizhen

    2015-12-24

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is an economically important crop belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. However, very few genomic and genetic resources are available for this species. As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence the pumpkin genome, high-density genetic map is essential for anchoring and orienting the assembled scaffolds. In addition, a saturated genetic map can facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A set of 186 F2 plants derived from the cross of pumpkin inbred lines Rimu and SQ026 were genotyped using the genotyping-by-sequencing approach. Using the SNPs we identified, a high-density genetic map containing 458 bin-markers was constructed, spanning a total genetic distance of 2,566.8 cM across the 20 linkage groups of C. maxima with a mean marker density of 5.60 cM. Using this map we were able to anchor 58 assembled scaffolds that covered about 194.5 Mb (71.7%) of the 271.4 Mb assembled pumpkin genome, of which 44 (183.0 Mb; 67.4%) were oriented. Furthermore, the high-density genetic map was used to identify genomic regions highly associated with an important agronomic trait, dwarf vine. Three QTLs on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 3 and 4, respectively, were recovered. One QTL, qCmB2, which was located in an interval of 0.42 Mb on LG 3, explained 21.4% phenotypic variations. Within qCmB2, one gene, Cma_004516, encoding the gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase in the GA biosynthesis pathway, had a 1249-bp deletion in its promoter in bush type lines, and its expression level was significantly increased during the vine growth and higher in vine type lines than bush type lines, supporting Cma_004516 as a possible candidate gene controlling vine growth in pumpkin. A high-density pumpkin genetic map was constructed, which was used to successfully anchor and orient the assembled genome scaffolds, and to identify QTLs highly associated with pumpkin vine length. The map provided a valuable resource for gene cloning and marker assisted breeding in pumpkin and

  1. Biosynthesis of 12α-and 13-hydroxylated gibberellins in a cell-free system from Cucurbita maxima endosperm and the identification of new endogenous gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T; Hedden, P; Graebe, J E

    1993-03-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis in cell-free systems from Cucurbita maxima L. endosperm was reinvestigated using incubation conditions different from those employed in previous work. The metabolism of GA12 yielded GA13, GA43 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 as major products, GA4, GA37, GA39, GA46 and four unidentified compounds as minor products. The intermediates GA15, GA24 and GA25 accumulated at low protein concentrations. The structure of the previously uncharacterised 12α-hydroxyGA43 was inferred from its mass spectrum and by its formation from both GA39 and GA43. Gibberellin A39 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 were formed by a soluble 12α-hydroxylase that had not been detected before. Gibberellin A12-aldehyde was metabolised to essentially the same products as GA12 but with less efficiency. A new 13-hydroxylation pathway was found. Gibberellin A53, formed from GA12 by a microsomal oxidase, was converted by soluble 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxidases to GA1 GA23, GA28, GA44, and putative 2β-hydroxyGA28. Minor products were GA19, GA20, GA38 and three unidentified GAs. Microsomal 13-hydroxylation (the formation of GA53) was suppressed by the cofactors for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes. Reinvestigation of the endogenous GAs confirmed the significance of the new metabolic products. In addition to the endogenous GAs reported by Blechschmidt et al. (1984, Phytochemistry 23, 553-558), GA1, GA8, GA25, GA28, GA36, GA48 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 were identified by full-scan capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Thus both the 12α-hydroxylation and the 13-hydroxylation pathways found in the cell-free system operate also in vivo, giving rise to 12α-hydroxyGA43 and GA1 (or GA8), respectively, as their end products. Evidence for endogenous GA20 and GA24 was also obtained but it was less conclusive due to interference.

  2. The reduction of nitrate, nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia by enzymes from Cucurbita pepo L. in the presence of reduced benzyl viologen as electron donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, C. F.; Hageman, R. H.; Hewitt, E. J.; Hucklesby, D. P.

    1965-01-01

    1. Enzyme systems from Cucurbita pepo have been shown to catalyse the reduction of nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia in yields about 90–100%. 2. Reduced benzyl viologen serves as an efficient electron donor for both systems. Activity of the nitrite-reductase system is directly related to degree of dye reduction when expressed in terms of the function for oxidation–reduction potentials, but appears to decrease to negligible activity below about 9% dye reduction. 3. NADH and NADPH alone produce negligible nitrite loss, but NADPH can be linked to an endogenous diaphorase system to reduce nitrite to ammonia in the presence of catalytic amounts of benzyl viologen. 4. The NADH– or NADPH–nitrate-reductase system that is also present can accept electrons from reduced benzyl viologen, but shows relationships opposite to that for the nitrite-reductase system with regard to effect of degree of dye reduction on activity. The product of nitrate reduction may be nitrite alone, or nitrite and ammonia, or ammonia alone, according only to the degree of dye reduction. 5. The relative activities of nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase systems show different relationships with degree of dye reduction and may become reversed in magnitude when effects of degree of dye reduction are tested over a suitable range. 6. Nitrite severely inhibits the rate of reduction of hydroxylamine without affecting the yield of ammonia as a percentage of total substrate loss, but hydroxylamine has a negligible effect on the activity of the nitrite-reductase system. 7. The apparent Km for nitrite (1 μm) is substantially less than that for hydroxylamine, for which variable values between 0·05 and 0·9mm (mean 0·51 mm) have been observed. 8. The apparent Km values for reduced benzyl viologen differ for the nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase systems: 60 and 7·5 μm respectively. 9. It is concluded that free hydroxylamine may not be an intermediate in the reduction of nitrite

  3. Evaluation of microbial products for the control of zucchini foot and root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta ROBERTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial products containing bacteria (Cedomon [Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA342, PC-MA342], Mycostop [Streptomyces sp. K61, SG-K61], Proradix®Agro [Pseudomonas sp. DSMZ13134, PS-DSMZ13134] and fungi (Clonotry [Trichoderma harzianum and Clonostachys rosea, TH+CR], Remedier [T. asperellum ICC012 and T. gamsii ICC080, TA-ICC012+TG-ICC080], Rootshield WP [T. harzianum T22, TH-T22] were tested for efficacy against Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1 (FSC7 strain on zucchini. They were applied to seeds (S, plant growth substrate (PGS and both (S+PGS in a growth chamber experiment, and to PGS, transplantation soil mixture (TSM and both (PGS+TSM in a greenhouse experiment. FSC7 was inoculated in PGS at sowing time in the growth chamber and in TSM at transplant in the greenhouse. In the growth chamber, the most effective products were Cedomon (S and S+PGS treatments, Rootshield (PGS treatment and Proradix (S+PGS treatment, reducing the disease by 39.7, 43.1, 25.8 and 36.4%, respectively. In the greenhouse, all tested products applied to PGS reduced the disease severity and more markedly when applied to PGS+TSM. In the PGS and PGS+TSM treatments, Cedomon was the most effective product showing a disease decrease by 42.4 and 59.5%, respectively. The data obtained in vivo were consistent with the ability of the antagonists to colonize zucchini rhizosphere and with their inhibitory effects on the growth of the pathogen in in vitro assays. The bacteria caused the greatest growth inhibition of FSC7 showing abnormal morphology, while Trichoderma spp. parasitized FSC7 hyphae. Bacteria were the most active in reducing pathogen colony growth through antibiotic metabolites. All antagonists produced exo- and endochitinase enzymes. Trichoderma strains showed greater levels of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and endochitinase, whereas SG-K61 was the most active producer of chitin 1,4-β-chitobiosidase. These results indicate that the studied bioproducts have potential

  4. Antioxidative effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate in CCl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, C Z; Opoku, A R; Terblanche, S E

    2006-11-01

    The effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the plasma activity levels of catalase (CA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in liver homogenates and lipid peroxidation (LPO-malondialdehyde-MDA) levels in liver homogenates and liver microsomal fractions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) were investigated. A group of male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a low-protein diet for 5 days were divided into three subgroups. Two subgroups were injected with carbon tetrachloride and the other group with an equivalent amount of olive oil. Two hours after CCl(4) intoxication one of the two subgroups was administered with pumpkin seed protein isolate and thereafter switched onto a 20% pumpkin seed protein isolate diet. The other two groups of rats were maintained on the low-protein diet for the duration of the investigation. Groups of rats from the different subgroups were killed at 24, 48 and 72 h after their respective treatments. After 5 days on the low-protein diet the activity levels of all the enzymes as well as antioxidant levels were significantly lower than their counterparts on a normal balanced diet. However, a low-protein diet resulted in significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation. The CCl(4) intoxicated rats responded in a similar way, regarding all the variables investigated, to their counterparts on a low-protein diet. The administration of pumpkin seed protein isolate after CCl(4) intoxication resulted in significantly increased levels of all the variables investigated, with the exception of the lipid peroxidation levels which were significantly decreased. From the results of the present study it is concluded that pumpkin seed protein isolate administration was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects associated with protein

  5. Kompostų įtaka sunkiųjų metalų kiekio kaupimuisi aliejinių moliūgų (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca) vaisiuose

    OpenAIRE

    Neverauskaitė, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Magistrantūros studijų baigiamajame darbe pateikiami aliejinių moliūgų sausųjų medžiagų, sunkiųjų metalų: kadmio, švino, chromo, vario, cinko ir nikelio duomenys, gauti juos auginant augalinių ir komunalinių atliekų kompostuose. Darbo objektas – aliejiniai moliūgai (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Styriaca) ‘Olivia’, auginti augalinių ir komunalinių atliekų kompostuose. Darbo metodai. Standartiniais metodais tirta sausųjų medžiagų kiekis aliejinio moliūgo minkštime, žievėje ir sėklose. Sunkiųjų metalų...

  6. Efeito da farinha de semente de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima, L. sobre o metabolismo glicídico e lipídico em ratos The pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, L. seed flour effect on the rat glucose and lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Machado de Cerqueira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da farinha de semente de abóbora (Cucurbita maxima, L. sobre o metabolismo glicídico e lipídico em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte ratos Wistar machos recém-desmamados, distribuídos em quatro grupos, receberam por 10 dias, rações controle e experimental com farinhas de semente de abóbora integral, peneirada ou residual substituindo 30% do valor total de amido e dextrina da dieta controle. As dietas foram isocalóricas. Foram determinados os macronutrientes e a fibra insolúvel nas farinhas. As dietas tiveram a composição química calculada a partir dos dados dos rótulos dos produtos, da tabela de composição de alimentos e da análise química das farinhas de semente de abóbora. O peso corporal e a ingestão dos animais foram tomados a cada 48 horas. O sangue, coletado por punção cardíaca, teve os níveis de triacilgliceróis, colesterol e glicose analisados por métodos enzimáticos. RESULTADOS: As farinhas de semente de abóbora foram boas fontes de proteínas, lipídeos e, especialmente, fibras alimentares. Os animais tiveram ganho ponderal e ingestão semelhante (p>0,05. Os níveis de glicose e triacilgliceróis foram reduzidos significantemente para os grupos que receberam dietas com farinhas de semente de abóbora integral e peneirada. CONCLUSÃO: Frente às suas propriedades química e funcional, concluiu-se que a farinha de semente de abóbora interferiu no metabolismo do rato diminuindo significantemente os níveis de glicose e triacilgliceróis séricos.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present research was to evaluate the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, L. seed flour effect on the rat glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: Twenty recent weaned male Wistar rats, divided in four groups, received for 10 days control and experimental diets containing whole, sifted and residual pumpkin seed flour on the rate of 30% of the total starch and dextrin in the control diet. All diets were

  7. Repelência e deterrência na oviposição de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B pelo uso de extratos vegetais em Cucurbita pepo L Repellence and deterrence on oviposition of Bemisia tabaci biotype B by the use of vegetal extracts in Cucurbita pepo L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G.F. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci biótipo B é um dos principais insetos-praga na cultura da abobrinha (Cucurbita pepo L.. O manejo dessa mosca-branca tornou-se grande desafio aos agricultores, uma vez que esta apresenta rápida capacidade de desenvolver resistência a diferentes classes de inseticidas. Como alternativa vem sendo investigado o uso de extratos vegetais com atividades inseticida e/ou insetistática, os quais têm revelado resultados promissores no combate a inseto. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os possíveis efeitos de sete extratos provenientes de cinco espécies vegetais, Ruta graveolens L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas + ramos, Trichilia pallida Swartz (ramos, T. pallida (folhas, A. indica (amêndoas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (inflorescências + ramos+ folhas e Mentha pulegium L. (folhas, sobre Bemisia tabaci biótipo B em abobrinha, por meio de testes de repelência e deterrência para oviposição. Em teste com chance de escolha, avaliou-se a atratividade e determinou-se o índice de repelência após 6, 24 e 48 horas da aplicação dos extratos. A oviposição foi verificada após a terceira contagem do número de adultos. O extrato à base de folhas de M. pulegium mostrou repelência e deterrência à oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B, podendo ser recomendado como alternativa para o manejo do inseto.Bemisia tabaci biotype B is one of the main pests in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.. The management of this whitefly has become a major challenge to growers, since they have the ability to quickly develop resistance to different classes of insecticides. Alternatively, the use of plant extracts with insecticide and/or insectistatic activities has been investigated, showing promising results for the whitefly control. The present study evaluated the possible effects of seven extracts from five plant species, Ruta graveolens L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves + branches, Trichilia pallida Swartz (branches

  8. CRITERIOS DE SELECCIÓN EN LOS PROCESOS DE MANIPULACIÓN VEGETAL: EL APORTE DE LA ETNOBOTÁNICA A LA INTERPRETACIÓN DE RESTOS ARQUEOBOTÁNICOS DE CUCURBITA SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica S. Lema

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza el estudio etnobotánico-etnoarqueológico de diversos cultivos locales de Cucurbita maxima subsp. maxima, Cucurbitaceae. El objetivo es comprobar si los caracteres cuantitativos y cualitativos de las semillas procedentes de los mencionados cultivos, así como también de plantas resultantes de prácticas de cultivo o cuidado, se agrupan o no en morfotipos diferenciales que reflejen materialmente la diversidad localmente reconocida y los distintos comportamientos involucrados. La generación de dichos morfotipos se propone como una vía para explorar si es factible reconocer cultivares locales y distintas formas de relación hombre - planta en muestras arqueobotánicas. Las plantas domesticadas son el producto de la puesta en práctica de criterios de selección socialmente construidos y por lo tanto susceptibles de constituir morfotipos diferenciales que operen como portadores de significados sociales. De allí que podamos hablar de una etnobotánica etnoarqueológica generadora de modelos a contrastar en el trabajo paleoetnobotánico. Se aplicaron los descriptores morfológicos macroscópicos comúnmente empleados en paleoetnobotánica y arqueobotánica para el estudio de semillas de Cucurbita sp., así como también un conjunto nuevo de descriptores micro morfológicos. Se constató que los caracteres cuantitativos micro morfológicos son los que mejor sirven para crear morfotipos que se corresponden con los cultivares localmente reconocidos y con las prácticas de cultivo o cuidado ejercidas sobre las poblaciones vegetales.

  9. Биологические свойства ассоциативных ризобактерий Cucurbita pepo L

    OpenAIRE

    АРТАМОНОВА М.Н.; ПОТАТУРКИНА-НЕСТЕРОВА Н.И.

    2013-01-01

    It has been studied root zone microbocenosis of Cucurbita pepo. It has been identified bacteria that inhabit the rhizosphere and rhizoplan of pumpkin. It has been researched species composition in the rhizosphere of different periods of the growing season. It has been established that gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas and Enterobacter were prevailed in pumpkin’s rhizosphere of the early vegetative stages and spore-forming bacillus were dominated in the later phases. Thus, the highest species...

  10. VEGETABLE PEELS: A PROMISING FEED RESOURCE FOR LIVESTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Emran HOSSAIN; Syeda Ayesha SULTANA; Mohammad Hasanul KARIM; Md. Imran AHMED

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different vegetable peels available in Rangunia, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Total 10 different vegetable peels i.e., Banana blossom (Musa sapientum), Bottle gourd peel (Lagenaria siceraria), Brinjal peel (Solanum melongena), Gram husk (Cicer arietinum), Green banana peel (Musa sapieutum), Green coconut peel (Cocos nucifera), Pea husk (Pisum sativum), Potato peel (Solanum tuberosum), Pumpkin peel (Cucurbita maxima), Ripe banana peel...

  11. Sequence variations in the FAD2 gene in seeded pumpkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y; Chang, Y; Xu, W L; Cui, C S; Qu, S P

    2015-12-21

    Seeded pumpkins are important economic crops; the seeds contain various unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, which are crucial for human and animal nutrition. The fatty acid desaturase-2 (FAD2) gene encodes delta-12 desaturase, which converts oleic acid to linoleic acid. However, little is known about sequence variations in FAD2 in seeded pumpkins. Twenty-seven FAD2 clones from 27 accessions of Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, and Cucurbita ficifolia were obtained (totally 1152 bp; a single gene without introns). More than 90% nucleotide identities were detected among the 27 FAD2 clones. Nucleotide substitution, rather than nucleotide insertion and deletion, led to sequence polymorphism in the 27 FAD2 clones. Furthermore, the 27 FAD2 selected clones all encoded the FAD2 enzyme (delta-12 desaturase) with amino acid sequence identities from 91.7 to 100% for 384 amino acids. The same main-function domain between 47 and 329 amino acids was identified. The four species clustered separately based on differences in the sequences that were identified using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Geographic origin and species were found to be closely related to sequence variation in FAD2.

  12. Wound-induced ethylene synthesis and expression and formation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase, ACC oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase in wounded mesocarp tissue of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M; Hayakawa, Y; Hyodo, H; Ikoma, Y; Yano, M

    2000-04-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase was rapidly induced in mesocarp tissue of Cucurbita maxima after wounding in the cut surface layer in 1 mm thickness (ca. 9 cells) (first layer) in both the enzyme activity and the levels of transcript. This led to a rapid accumulation of ACC and hence ethylene production. In the inside tissue (1-2 mm) (second layer), no significant induction of ACC synthase was observed, which resulted in a low level of ACC, although ethylene was evolved at a much lower rate than the first one. In contrast to ACC synthase, ACC oxidase was induced markedly in both the first and second layers and the development of its activity and the levels of mRNA remained high until later stages. It was considered that wound ethylene was closely associated with the development of ACC oxidase, since 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD), an inhibitor of ethylene action, substantially suppressed it. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) greatly increased in activity after wounding similarly to that of ACC synthase, in which increase in PAL activity occurred predominantly in the first layer. Induction of peroxidase activity after wounding had a close correlation in profile with that of ACC oxidase in that marked increases in the activity were observed in both the first and second layers and were strongly suppressed by NBD application. Four peroxidase isozymes were found by PAGE, among which a fraction was newly detected after wounding.

  13. Differential Effect of Auxin on Molecular Weight Distributions of Xyloglucans in Cell Walls of Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Kuraishi, Susumu

    1991-01-01

    Effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the mechanical properties of cell walls and structures of cell wall polysaccharides in outer and inner tissues of segments of dark grown squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls were investigated. IAA induced the elongation of unpeeled, intact segments, but had no effect on the elongation of peeled segments. IAA induced the cell wall loosening in outer tissues as studied by the stress-relaxation analysis but not in inner tissues. IAA-induced changes in the net sugar content of cell wall fractions in outer and inner tissues were very small. Extracted hemicellulosic xyloglucans derived from outer tissues had a molecular weight about two times as large as in inner tissues, and the molecular weight of xyloglucans in both outer and inner tissues decreased during incubation. IAA substantially accelerated the depolymerization of xyloglucans in outer tissues, while it prevented that in inner tissues. These results suggest that IAA-induced growth in intact segments is due to the cell wall loosening in outer tissues, and that IAA-accelerated depolymerization of hemicellulosic xyloglucans in outer tissues is involved in the cell wall loosening processes. PMID:16668092

  14. Karakteristik Organoleptik Formulasi Biskuit Berbasis Tepung Labu Kuning (Cucurbita moschata, Tepung Kacang Koro (Mucuna prurien, dan Tepung Sagu (Metroxilon sago (The Organoleptic Characteristics of Biscuit Formulation with Curcubita moschata, Mucuna prurien, and Metroxilon sago Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachma Wati

    2016-07-01

    Riskesdas (2013 shows that prevelance of children under nutrition in Aceh province based on index weight for age, height for age, and weight for height are above National prevalency, comprising 25%, 40%, and 15% respectively. One of the efforts conducted to reduce nutrition problem is the adminstration of supplementary food for children. Development of biscuit from local food can be used as supplemetary food to help the unfortunate children. This research was aimed to study the  organoleptic characteristic of biscuit formulation based on local food pumpkin flour (Cucurbita moschata, koro bean flour (mucuna prurien and sago flour (Metroxilon sago. The research design used was one factor complete randomized design, with  the combination of pumpkin flour, koro bean and sago in biscuit combination. The quality of the biscuits was assessed organolepticaly using 30 semi trained panelists.  The result of the analysis of variance of colours and flavour paramaters showed a significant difference at  95% confident interval. The analysis of variance resulted in confident interval 95% (α=0,05, while from the smell and texture parameter it does not show a significantly different result. Based on the characteristic of organoleptics, the preferrred biscuit formulation chosen by panelists is biscuit with the combination of 20 g pumpkin flour, 10 g koro bean flour and 20 g sago flour. Keywords : biscuit, pumpkin flour, koro bean flour, sago flour, organoleptic

  15. Formación de un banco de adn en la especie cucurbita moschata (duchesne ex lam.) duchesne ex poir y evaluación de ocho marcadores moleculares como código de barras para su autenticación

    OpenAIRE

    Cañar Serna, Dubert Yamil; Vallejo Cabrera, Franco Alirio; Muñoz Florez, Jaime Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    En Colombia, Cucurbita moschata es la especie domesticada de mayor importancia por su área de siembra, producción, versatilidad y consumo directo (Vallejo y Estrada, 2004). Como método de conservación, los bancos de ADN en plantas son el equivalente a las bibliotecas que contienen colecciones de alícuotas vegetales viables, con el propósito de mantener vivo este material y preservar sus características para el beneficio futuro de la humanidad y el medio ambiente (Painting et al., 1995). Actua...

  16. Reassessing Coxcatlan Cave and the early history of domesticated plants in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D

    2005-07-05

    Reanalysis and direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of the cucurbit assemblage from Coxcatlan Cave provide information on the timing and sequence of the initial appearance of three domesticated plants in the Tehuacán Valley (Puebla, Mexico) and allow reassessment of the overall temporal context of plant domestication in Mexico. Cucurbita pepo is the earliest documented domesticate in the cave, dating to 7,920 calibrated calendrical (cal) years B.P. The bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is dated at 7,200 cal years B.P. Cucurbita argyrosperma does not appear until 2,065 cal years B.P. The earlier identification of Cucurbita moschata specimens is not confirmed. Seventy-one radiocarbon dates, including 23 accelerator mass spectrometry dates on cucurbits, provide ample evidence of postdepositional vertical displacement of organic materials in the western half of Coxcatlan Cave, but they also indicate that the eastern half of the cave was largely undisturbed.

  17. Analysis of phloem protein patterns from different organs of Cucurbita maxima Duch. by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy combined with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, J; Haebel, S; Blechschmidt-Schneider, S; Willmitzer, L; Steup, M; Fisahn, J

    1999-02-01

    Sieve tubes mediate the long-distance transport of nutrients and signals between source and sink organs of plants. To detect mobile phloem proteins that are differentially distributed in source and sink organs of Cucurbita maxima, we used both one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Both techniques revealed that phloem protein patterns depend on the sampling site: whilst several proteins were consistently observed in all phloem samples studied others appeared to occur in a organ-specific manner. For a characterization and identification of distinct phloem polypeptides, two approaches were chosen. First, protein bands resolved by SDS-PAGE were eluted from the polyacrylamide gel and the masses of the proteins were then determined by MALDI-TOF MS. Second, proteins resolved by SDS-PAGE were subjected to proteolytic degradation and the resulting peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS: the masses of the proteolytic peptides were used for a database search. By the latter approach, three mobile phloem compounds were identified as the phloem-specific protein PP2 (D.E. Bostwick et al., 1992, The Plant Cell 4, 1539-1548) a chymotrypsin and an aspartic proteinase inhibitor. None of the other polypeptides studied corresponded to any of the protein sequences present in the database. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS analyses indicated that some of the mobile phloem proteins occur in a covalently modified form and that the extent of the modification depends upon the plant organ.

  18. Dondurarak Kurutma İşleminin Balkabaği (Cucurbita Moschata Püresi Tozu Üretimi ve Ürünün Toz Özellikleri Üzerine Etkisinin Belirlenmesi (İngilizce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nur Dirim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Balkabağı (Cucurbita moschata bileşimini oluşturan karotenoid, pektin, mineral, vitamin, fenolik bileşikler ve terpenoidlerin iyi bir kaynağıdır. Bu çalışmada makarna, ekmek, kek, ve çorba gibi ürünlerin besin değerini ve lezzetini arttırmak amacıyla, bu ürünlerde katkı maddesi olarak kullanılabilecek dondurarak kurutulmuş balkabağı püresi tozu üretilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Dondurarak kurutma işlemi boyunca örneklerin ağırlığındaki değişim izlenerek toplam kuruma zamanı 9 saat olarak bulunmuştur. Balkabağı tozlarının nem ve su aktivitesi değerleri güvenli depolama için uygun sınırlar içinde bulunmuştur. Dondurarak kurutma işlemi C vitamin içeriğinde %18, toplam karotenoit içeriğinde %26 ve toplam fenolik madde içeriğinde %3 azalmaya neden olmuştur. Toz ürünün yığın yoğunluğu 0.113 g/ml ve ortalama ıslanabilirlik ve çözünürlük süreleri ise sırasıyla 710 ve 16 saniye olarak bulunmuştur. “Carr Index” ve “Hausner Ratio” olarak belirlenen akabilirlik ve yapışkanlık değerleri orta seviye olarak belirlenmiştir.

  19. Ethanolic leaf extract of Langenaria breviflora (bitter gourd) inhibits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: Gastrointestinal toxicity remains a barrier to applications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ... acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin and indomethacin ..... Hepatic and Renal Function of Rats. IOSR.

  20. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in sponge gourd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows-7

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... fiber used in industries for filter and cleaning the motor car, glass wares, kitchen ... The fibrous vascular system inside the fruit after been separated from the skin, ... was carried out to gather information on genetic variability ...

  1. Teratogenic effect of the water extract of bitter gourd ( Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also showed that 31.2% of all the malformed litters had multiple congenital malformations. It also showed that the experimental rats had nine resorption sites while control had none. This demonstrates that the water extract of Momordica charantia is teratogenic in Sprague Dawley rats and should be used with caution in ...

  2. Allelopathic Stress Produced by Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with in vitro effects of allelochemicals present in leaf and fruit leachate of Momordica charantia in vitro on plant growth and metabolism of Lycopersicon esculentum. Momordica was selected as a donor plant and tomato as recipient. Seeds of tomato were shown in pots and after germination different concentrations viz. 25, 50, 75 and 100% of leaf and fruit leachates were applied as treatment. Twenty days old seedlings were harvested for biophysical and biochemical analyses. The root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of the seedlings decreased in dose dependent manner. The reduction in pigment and protein contents and nitrate reductase activity was concentration dependent. Membrane leakage increased as the concentration of leachates increased. Activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POX activities significantly enhanced under allelopathic stress. Inhibition of various metabolic activities under allelopathic stress resulted in decreased plant growth and development. The fruit leachate of Momordica was more inhibitory than leaf leachate.

  3. Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer.

  4. Cold-pressed pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L. oils from the central Anatolia region of Turkey: Characterization of phytosterols, squalene, tocols, phenolic acids, carotenoids and fatty acid bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Akin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in cold-pressed oils because they present high contents of bioactive compounds. These oils have the characteristic properties of seeds and are specific products of their regions. The aim of this study was to determine the compositions and contents of fatty acids, phytosterols, squalene, tocols, phenolic acids, carotenoids and phenolic bioactives, and the free radical scavenging as well as antioxidant activities of cold-pressed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed oils. Oil samples from raw pumpkin seeds cultivated in four different central Anatolia regions of Turkey were prepared using a laboratory screw-pressing machine. The results indicate that cold-pressed pumpkin seed oils (PSO have excellent quality with high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids (%ΣPUFAs (53.60 ±0.06-53.73 ±0.05, total phytosterols (782.1±9.7–805.2 ±11.3 mg/100 g oil, squalene (591.3±10.6–632.5±11.4 mg/100 g oil, tocols (97.79 ±0.76?94.29 ±0.34 mg/100 g oil, phenolic acids (22.73 ±0.41–23.98 ±0.46 mg/100 g oil, carotenoids (6.95 ±0.03–7.60 ±0.03 mg/100 g oil, total phenolics (3.96 ±0.13 –5.82±0.15 mg GAE/100 g, free radical-scavenging activity (5.70 ±0.13?7.35 ±0.15 mg GAE/100 g and total antioxidant activity (26.67±0.97-38.89±1.41 mg GAE/100 g values. Thus, this study demonstrates that the cold- pressed PSOs from the central Anatolia regions of Turkey are an excellent source of natural bioactive compounds, free of chemical contaminants and nutritious.

  5. Internal mobility of reactive-site-hydrolyzed recombinant Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V characterized by NMR spectroscopy: evidence for differential stabilization of newly formed C- and N-termini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Prakash, O; Huang, Y; Wen, L; Wen, J J; Huang, J K; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1996-09-24

    The solution structure and internal dynamics of the reactive-site (Lys44-Asp45 peptide bond) hydrolyzed form of recombinant Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (rCMTI-V*) were characterized by the application of two-dimensional 1H-15N NMR methods to the uniformly 15N-labeled protein. The 1H-15N chemical shift correlation spectra of rCMTI-V* were assigned, and the chemical shift data were compared with those available for rCMTI-V [Liu, J., Prakash, O., Cai, M., Gong, Y., Huang, Y., Wen, L., Wen, J. J., Huang, J.-K., & Krishnamoorthi, R. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 1516-1524] and CMTI-V* [Cai, M., Gong, Y., Prakash, O., & Krishnamoorthi, R. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 12087-12094] for which three-dimensional solution structures have been determined. It was deduced that the solution structure of rCMTI-V* was almost the same as that of CMTI-V*. 15N spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation rate constants (R1 and R2, respectively) and ¿1H¿-15N steady-state heteronuclear Overhauser effects were measured for the peptide NH units and arginine and tryptophan N epsilon H groups in rCMTI-V*, and the model-free parameters [Lipari, G., & Szabo, A. (1982) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 4546-4559, 4559-4570] were computed. Most of the backbone of rCMTI-V* is found to be highly constrained (S2 = 0.85), including the N-terminal residues 3-6 (S2 = 0.77). Residues 39-44, forming the C-terminal fragment of the binding loop, exhibit increased mobility (S2 = 0.51); however, the N-terminal segment (residues 46-48) retains rigidity as in the intact form (S2 = 0.83). The S2 values, 0.78 and 0.59, respectively, of Arg50 and Arg52 side chain NHs provide evidence not only for the conservation of the Arg hydrogen-bonds with the binding loop segments but also for the difference in strength between them. This is consistent with the earlier observation made from a study of rCMTI-V at two different pHs and its R50 and R52 mutants [Cai, M., Huang, Y., Prakash, O., Wen, L., Dunkelbarger, S. P., Huang, J.-K., Liu, J

  6. Differential modulation of binding loop flexibility and stability by Arg50 and Arg52 in Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V deduced by trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis and NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M; Huang, Y; Prakash, O; Wen, L; Dunkelbarger, S P; Huang, J K; Liu, J; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1996-04-16

    The side chains of Arg50 and Arg52 iin Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V) anchor the binding loop to the scaffold region [Cai, M., Gong, Y., Kao, J.L-F., & Krishnamoorthi, R. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 5201-5211]. The consequences of these hydrogen-bonding and electrostatic interactions on the conformational flexibility and stability of the binding loop were evaluated by trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of CMTI-V mutants, in which each of the arginines was individually replaced with Ala, Lys, or Gln by genetic engineering methods. All mutants exhibited significantly increased vulnerability to the protease attack at many sites, including the reactive-site (Lys44-Asp45 peptide bond), with the R50 mutants showing much more pronounced effects than the R52 counterparts. For CmTI-V and the mutants studied, a qualitative correlation was inferred between binding loop flexibility and retention time on a reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography C-18 column. The R50 mutants were found to be more flexible than the corresponding R52 versions. These results demonstrate that Arg50 contributes more to the stability and function of CMTI-V. The differing strengths of the hydrogen bonds made by Arg50 and Arg52 were characterized by determining the internal dynamics of their side chains at pH 5.0 and 2.5: 15N NMR longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates and 15N-1H nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) enhancements were measured for the main-chain and side-chain NH groups in 15N-labeled recombinant CMTI-V (rCMTI-V) and the model-free parameters [Lipari, G., & Szabo, A.(1982) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 4546-59; 4559-4570] were calculated. At both pH 5.0 and 2.5, the arginines at positions 26, 47, 58 and 66 are found to be highly mobile, as the caluculated general order parameters, S2 values, of their NepsilonH groups fall in the range 0.03-0.18. The corresponding values for Arg50 amd Arg52 are 0.73 and 0.63, respectively, at pH 5.0, thus confirming that the two arginines are

  7. MANFAAT BIJI LABU (Cucurbita sp. UNTUK KESEHATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Hargono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Daging buah C. moschata Duch. ex Poir yang telah masak dapat dimakan setelah dikukus, disayur atau dijadikan kolak. Daun tumbuhan yang muda dan kuncup bunganya dimakan sebagai sayuran. Bijinya setelah diasin dan dikeringkan di sinar matahari atau cara lain dikonsumsi sebagai kuaci. Daging buah dan biji C. pepo L dan C. maxima Duch dimakan setelah diolah seperti daging buah dan biji C. moschata Duch. ex Poir. Secara tradisional biji C. moschata Duch ex Poir digunakan sebagai obat kecacingan, terutama untuk cacing pita.

  8. Antigenotoxic spinasterol from Cucurbita maxima flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, I M; Lemon, P; Palileo, A; Bremner, J B

    1996-06-10

    The antigenotoxic constituent of squash flowers was isolated by solvent partitioning and repeated vacuum liquid chromatography. The micronucleus test, an in vivo method, was used to monitor the antigenotoxicity of the various fractions during the isolation process. Isolate SQFwB2D from the chloroform extract of squash flowers is the most antigenotoxic isolate. It decreased the mutagenicity of tetracycline by 64.7% at a dosage of 100 mg/kg mouse. Statistical analysis using Kruskall Wallis one-way analysis of variance by Ranks showed that SQFw2D is different from the control group (tetracycline + corn oil) at alpha = 0.001. GC-MSD of isolate SQFwB2D shows 2 peaks at Rt = 19.860 (SQFwB2D-1) and 20.242 min (SQFwB2D-2) with relative peak heights of 16:1, respectively. Spectral analyses show that SQFwB2D-1 is 24 alpha-ethyl-5 alpha-cholesta-7,trans-22-dien-3 beta-ol or spinasterol.

  9. The refined 2.0 A X-ray crystal structure of the complex formed between bovine beta-trypsin and CMTI-I, a trypsin inhibitor from squash seeds (Cucurbita maxima). Topological similarity of the squash seed inhibitors with the carboxypeptidase A inhibitor from potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, W; Greyling, H J; Huber, R; Otlewski, J; Wilusz, T

    1989-01-02

    The stoichiometric complex formed between bovine beta-trypsin and the Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor I (CMTI-I) was crystallized and its X-ray crystal structure determined using Patterson search techniques. Its structure has been crystallographically refined to a final R value of 0.152 (6.0-2.0 A). CMTI-I is of ellipsoidal shape; it lacks helices or beta-sheets, but consists of turns and connecting short polypeptide stretches. The disulfide pairing is CYS-3I-20I, Cys-10I-22I and Cys-16I-28I. According to the polypeptide fold and disulfide connectivity its structure resembles that of the carboxypeptidase A inhibitor from potatoes. Thirteen of the 29 inhibitor residues are in direct contact with trypsin; most of them are in the primary binding segment Val-2I (P4)-Glu-9I (P4') which contains the reactive site bond Arg-5I-Ile-6I and is in a conformation observed also for other serine proteinase inhibitors.

  10. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprints and post source decay: a tool for the identification and analysis of phloem proteins from Cucurbita maxima Duch. separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebel, S; Kehr, J

    2001-08-01

    A combination of gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was used to analyze the soluble proteins from phloem sap of Cucurbita maxima Duch. Phloem proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Coomassie-stained spots were cut out and subjected to tryptic digestion. To identify proteins, peptide mass fingerprints were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. In addition, MALDI-TOF post source decay measurements were used to obtain partial sequence information for the proteins. Results from both approaches were used for database searches. In this study, 17 proteins in the mass range 5-50 kDa were analyzed. Of these proteins six could be clearly identified, seven showed significant homologies to known plant proteins, and four were not significantly homologous to database entries. The present study suggests that the applied method is feasible for a large-scale analysis and identification of phloem proteins derived from different organs or from plants kept under various physiological conditions.

  11. KARAKTERISTIK SERBUK LABU KUNING (Cucurbita moschata [Characteristic of Pumpkin Powder (Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O G3

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant powder of pumpkins was made by mollen dryer in order to extend the product shelf life The aim of the research was to determine the characteristics of the pumpkin powder. The research had been designed using completely randomized block factorial pattern, two levels of drying-up temperature and three levels of mollen dryer speed rotation on two blocks of pumpkin (I and II groups. The parameters measured were percentage of yield, water content, ash, solubility, and sugar, pH, bulk density (g/ml, beta-carotene (µg/g, colors, and hedonic test (scale 1 = not accepted through 5 = really accepted. The research result showed that the drying temperature affected solubility, and the speed rotation affected sugar content of pumpkin powder. The best pumpkin powder was produced by mollen dryer at 60ºC degree and 6 rpm speed rotation which was characterized by high yield and solubility, also produced best hedonic value on taste, color and performance as compared to the other treatment.

  12. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 9...

  13. Mapping of the gynoecy in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia using RAD-seq analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Matsumura

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia is a monoecious plant of the Cucurbitaceae family that has both male and female unisexual flowers. Its unique gynoecious line, OHB61-5, is essential as a maternal parent in the production of F1 cultivars. To identify the DNA markers for this gynoecy, a RAD-seq (restriction-associated DNA tag sequencing analysis was employed to reveal genome-wide DNA polymorphisms and to genotype the F2 progeny from a cross between OHB61-5 and a monoecious line. Based on a RAD-seq analysis of F2 individuals, a linkage map was constructed using 552 co-dominant markers. In addition, after analyzing the pooled genomic DNA from monoecious or gynoecious F2 plants, several SNP loci that are genetically linked to gynoecy were identified. GTFL-1, the closest SNP locus to the putative gynoecious locus, was converted to a conventional DNA marker using invader assay technology, which is applicable to the marker-assisted selection of gynoecy in M. charantia breeding.

  14. Mapping of the Gynoecy in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia) Using RAD-Seq Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hideo; Miyagi, Norimichi; Taniai, Naoki; Fukushima, Mai; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Urasaki, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a monoecious plant of the Cucurbitaceae family that has both male and female unisexual flowers. Its unique gynoecious line, OHB61-5, is essential as a maternal parent in the production of F1 cultivars. To identify the DNA markers for this gynoecy, a RAD-seq (restriction-associated DNA tag sequencing) analysis was employed to reveal genome-wide DNA polymorphisms and to genotype the F2 progeny from a cross between OHB61-5 and a monoecious line. Based on a RAD-seq analysis of F2 individuals, a linkage map was constructed using 552 co-dominant markers. In addition, after analyzing the pooled genomic DNA from monoecious or gynoecious F2 plants, several SNP loci that are genetically linked to gynoecy were identified. GTFL-1, the closest SNP locus to the putative gynoecious locus, was converted to a conventional DNA marker using invader assay technology, which is applicable to the marker-assisted selection of gynoecy in M. charantia breeding. PMID:24498029

  15. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of hermaphrodite ridge gourd (Luffa hermaphrodita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhakar; Ansari, W A; Choudhary, B R; Pandey, Maneesh; Jena, S N; Singh, A K; Dubey, R K; Singh, Bijendra

    2018-01-01

    Out of 103 microsatellite markers used for studying the genetic diversity among local landraces of Luffa species, 56 were found polymorphic, including 38 gSSR and 18 eSSR, respectively. A total of 197 amplification products were obtained. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.52. The PIC ranged from 0.037 to 0.986, while size of amplified product ranged from 105 to 500 bp. Cucumber-derived SSRs were amplified within L. acutangula (68%), L. aegyptiaca (61.16%), and L. hermaphrodita (60.2%), with an average of 63.12% cross-transferability. The Jaccard's coefficient ranged from 0.66 to 0.97, with an average of 0.81. High genetic variability was observed for node of 1st hermaphrodite flower (6.4-17), days to 1st hermaphrodite flower (38-52.1), days to 1st fruit harvest (43-65), number of fruit per cluster (1-5.9), fruit length (3.9-25 cm), fruit weight (18.4-175 g), number of fruit per plant (20-147.5), and yield per plant (2.2-4.7 kg). Two sub-populations were identified including 21 genotypes (sub-population I) and 06 genotypes (sub-population II), these two sub-populations showed 0.608-0.395% of the ancestral relationship to each other. This study provides information for future exploration, collection, and utilization of Luffa genotypes, as well as the polymorphic markers identified could be available for the study of landmarks in linkages, genomic structures, evolutionary ecology, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in Luffa species.

  16. NMR studies of internal dynamics of serine proteinase protein inhibitors: Binding region mobilities of intact and reactive-site hydrolyzed Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor (CMTI)-III of the squash family and comparison with those of counterparts of CMTI-V of the potato I family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Gong, Y; Prakash, O; Wen, L; Lee, I; Huang, J K; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1998-01-01

    Serine proteinase protein inhibitors follow the standard mechanism of inhibition (Laskowski M Jr, Kato I, 1980, Annu Rev Biochem 49:593-626), whereby an enzyme-catalyzed equilibrium between intact (I) and reactive-site hydrolyzed inhibitor (I*) is reached. The hydrolysis constant, Khyd, is defined as [I*]/[I]. Here, we explore the role of internal dynamics in the resynthesis of the scissile bond by comparing the internal mobility data of intact and cleaved inhibitors belonging to two different families. The inhibitors studied are recombinant Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (rCMTI-III; Mr 3 kDa) of the squash family and rCMTI-V (Mr approximately 7 kDa) of the potato I family. These two inhibitors have different binding loop-scaffold interactions and different Khyd values--2.4 (CMTI-III) and 9 (CMTI-V)--at 25 degrees C. The reactive-site peptide bond (P1-P1') is that between Arg5 and Ile6 in CMTI-III, and that between Lys44 and Asp45 in CMTI-V. The order parameters (S2) of backbone NHs of uniformly 15N-labeled rCMTI-III and rCMTI-III* were determined from measurements of 15N spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation rates, and [1H]-15N steady-state heteronuclear Overhauser effects, using the model-free formalism, and compared with the data reported previously for rCMTI-V and rCMTI-V*. The backbones of rCMTI-III [(S2) = 0.71] and rCMTI-III* [(S2) = 0.63] are more flexible than those of rCMTI-V [(S2) = 0.83] and rCMTI-V* [(S2) = 0.85]. The binding loop residues, P4-P1, in the two proteins show the following average order parameters: 0.57 (rCMTI-III) and 0.44 (rCMTI-III*); 0.70 (rCMTI-V) and 0.40 (rCMTI-V*). The P1'-P4' residues, on the other hand, are associated with (S2) values of 0.56 (rCMTI-III) and 0.47 (rCMTI-III*); and 0.73 (rCMTI-V) and 0.83 (rCMTI-V*). The newly formed C-terminal (Pn residues) gains a smaller magnitude of flexibility in rCMTI-III* due to the Cys3-Cys20 crosslink. In contrast, the newly formed N-terminal (Pn' residues) becomes more flexible

  17. Correlation of binding-loop internal dynamics with stability and function in potato I inhibitor family: relative contributions of Arg(50) and Arg(52) in Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V as studied by site-directed mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mengli; Gong, Yu-Xi; Wen, Lisa; Krishnamoorthi, Ramaswamy

    2002-07-30

    The side chains of Arg(50) and Arg(52) at positions P(6)' and P(8)', respectively, anchor the binding loop to the protein scaffold by means of hydrogen bonds in Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V), a potato I family member. Here, we have investigated the relative contributions of Arg(50) and Arg(52) to the binding-loop flexibility and stability by determining changes in structure, dynamics, and proteolytic stability as a consequence of individually mutating them into an alanine. We have compared chemical shift assignments of main-chain hydrogens and nitrogens, and (1)H-(1)H interresidue nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) for the two mutants with those of the wild-type protein. We have also measured NMR longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates and (15)N-(1)H NOE enhancements for all backbone and side-chain NH groups and calculated the model-free parameters for R50A-rCMTI-V and R52A-rCMTI-V. The three-dimensional structures and backbone dynamics of the protein scaffold region remain very similar for both mutants, relative to the wild-type protein. The flexibility of the binding loop is increased in both R50A- and R52A-rCMTI-V. In R52A-rCMTI-V, the mean generalized order parameter () of the P(6)-P(1) residues of the binding loop (39-44) decreases to 0.68 +/- 0.02 from 0.76 +/- 0.04 observed for the wild-type protein. However, in R50A-rCMTI-V, the flexibility of the whole binding loop increases, especially that of the P(1)'-P(3)' residues (45-47), whose value drops dramatically to 0.35 +/- 0.03 from 0.68 +/- 0.03 determined for rCMTI-V. More strikingly, S(2) values of side-chain N epsilon Hs reveal that, in the R50A mutant, removal of the R50 hydrogen bond results in the loss of the R52 hydrogen bond too, whereas in R52A, the R50 hydrogen bond remains unaffected. Kinetic data on trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of the reactive-site peptide bond (P(1)-P(1)') suggest that the activation free energy barrier of the reaction at 25 degrees C is reduced by 2.1 kcal

  18. [Effects of NaCl stress on cation contents in different pumpkin cultivars' seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xin; Chen, Gui-Lin; Ren, Liang-Yu; Wang, Peng

    2008-03-01

    With the seedlings of 19 pumpkin cultivars as test materials, this paper studied the variations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SN+, K+ and SNa+, ca2+ in their shoots and roots under the stress of 300 mmol NaCl x L(-1). The results showed that after an 8-day exposure to 300 mmol NaCl x L(-1), the Na+ content in the seedlings increased significantly while the K+ content decreased, resulting in the brokenness of ion balance. The root Na+ content, shoot Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ ratios, and SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+ of Cucurbita moschata (Q1) were significantly higher than those of C. maxima (H2) and C. ficifolia (H3). The variation tendency of these parameters of different pumpkin cultivars' seedlings were nearly consistent with the salt injury index of the seedlings under NaCl stress, which further proved that the strong salt-tolerance of Q1 was related to the lower values of shoot Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+, and the high contents of K+ and Ca2+, while the salt-sensitivity of H2 and H3 was related to the higher values of shoot Na+/K+, Na+/Ca2+, SNa+, K+ and SNa+, Ca2+, and low contents of K+ and Ca2+ under NaCl stress.

  19. Biological activity of egg-yolk protein by-product hydrolysates obtained with the use of non-commercial plant protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zambrowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysis leads to improved functional and biological properties of protein by-products, which can be further used as nutraceuticals and protein ingredients for food applications.The present study evaluated ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant and immunostimulating activities in hydrolysates of egg-yolk protein by-product (YP, generated during industrial process of delipidation of yolk. The protein substrate was hydrolyzed using non-commercial protease from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia. The reaction was conducted in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 at temperature of 37°C for 4 hours using different enzyme doses (100-1000 U/mg of substrate. The protein degradation was monitored by the determination of the degree of hydrolysis (DH, release of free amino groups (FAG and by RP-HPLC. In the obtained hydrolysates we also evaluated biological activities. It was shown that the highest DH of substrate (46.6% was obtained after 4h of reaction at the highest amount of enzyme. This hydrolysate exhibited antioxidant activity, including ferricion reducing (FRAP (56.41 μg Fe2+/mg, ferric ion chelating (695.76 μg Fe2+/mg and DPPH free radical scavenging (0.89 μmol troloxeq/mg as well as ACE-inhibitory (IC50=837.75 μg/mL activities.The research showed improved biological properties of enzymatically modified YP by-product.

  20. Accumulation and phytotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Joseph; Musante, Craig; Sinha, Saion K; White, Jason C

    2012-04-01

    The effect of bulk and engineered nanoparticle (NP) Ag, Au, Cu, Si, and C at 250 and 750 mg/L on zucchini biomass, transpiration, and element content was determined. The pH of bulk and NP solutions prior to plant growth frequently differed. Nanoparticle Cu solution pH was significantly higher than bulk Cu, whereas for Ag and C, the NPs had significantly lower pH. Plants were unaffected by Au, regardless of particle size or concentration. NP Ag reduced plant biomass and transpiration by 49-91% compared to equivalent bulk Ag. NP Si at 750 mg/L reduced plant growth and transpiration by 30-51% relative to bulk Si. Bulk and NP Cu were phytotoxic but much of the effect was alleviated by humic acid. The shoot Ag and Cu content did not differ based on particle size or concentration. The accumulation of bulk Au was greater than the NP, but humic acid increased the accumulation of NP and bulk Au by 5.6-fold and 80%, respectively. The uptake of NP Si was 5.6-6.5-fold greater than observed with the bulk element. These findings show that the NPs may have unique phytotoxicity or accumulation patterns and that solution properties can significantly impact particle fate and effects.

  1. Expression analysis of a ''Cucurbita'' cDNA encoding endonuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, J.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear matrices of plant cell nuclei display intrinsic nuclease activity which consists in nicking supercoiled DNA. A cDNA encoding a 32 kDa endonuclease has been cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and deduced amino-acid sequences show high homology to known 14-3-3-protein sequences from other sources. The amino-acid sequence shows agreement with consensus sequences for potential phosphorylation by protein kinase A and C and for calcium, lipid and membrane-binding sites. The nucleotide-binding site is also present within the conserved part of the sequence. By Northern blot analysis, the differential expression of the corresponding mRNA was detected; it was the strongest in sink tissues. The endonuclease activity found on DNA-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coincided with mRNA content and was the highest in tuber. (author). 22 refs, 6 figs

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliki Xanthopoulou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita pepo (squash, pumpkin, gourd, a worldwide-cultivated vegetable of American origin, is extremely variable in fruit characteristics. However, the information associated with genes and genetic markers for pumpkin is very limited. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers, we performed a transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq of two contrasting pumpkin cultivars. Leaves and female flowers of cultivars, ‘Big Moose’ with large round fruits and ‘Munchkin’ with small round fruits, were harvested for total RNA extraction. We obtained a total of 6 GB (Big Moose; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056882 and 5 GB (Munchkin; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Traces/sra/?run=SRR3056883 sequence data (NCBI SRA database SRX1502732 and SRX1502735, respectively, which correspond to 18,055,786 and 14,824,292 150-base reads. After quality assessment, the clean sequences where 17,995,932 and 14,774,486 respectively. The numbers of total transcripts for ‘Big Moose’ and ‘Munchkin’ were 84,727 and 68,051, respectively. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. This study provides transcriptome data for two contrasting pumpkin cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses. Keywords: RNA-Seq, Pumpkin, Contrasting cultivars, Cucurbita pepo

  3. 鹿児島県産作物に関するビフィズス菌増殖因子の検討

    OpenAIRE

    村山, 恵美子; 純浦, めぐみ; 吉元, 誠

    2015-01-01

    Effects of upland crops in Kagoshima prefecture on the growth of Bifidobacteria were examined in these edible and waste portions.The edible portion of wax gourd, sponge gourd, chayote (white, green), blue zuiki, stems of malabar nightshade, manchurian wild rice and the waste portion of wax gourd, sponge gourd, chayote, cotton of broad beans had large effect on the growth of the five species of Bifidobacteria. Especially wax gourd, sponge gourd, chayote (white), chayote (green), and manchuria...

  4. Jasmonic and salicylic acids enhanced phytochemical production and biological activities in cell suspension cultures of spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2017-03-01

    In vitro cell suspension culture was established for the production of commercially valuable phytochemicals in Momordica dioica. The influence of elicitors in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) increased their effect on phytochemical production and biomass accumulation in M. dioica. The results indicate that compared with non-elicited cultures, JA- and SA-elicited cell suspension cultures had significantly enhanced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid production, as well as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Furthermore, elicited cultures produced 22 phenolic compounds, such as flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, and hydroxybenzoic acids. Greater biomass production, phytochemical accumulation, and biological activity occurred in JA- than in SA-elicited cell cultures. This study is the first to successfully establish M. dioica cell suspension cultures for the production of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as for biomass accumulation.

  5. BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momordica charantia is a perennial plant with reported health benefits. BG-4, a novel peptide from Momordica charantia, was isolated, purified and characterized. The trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 is 8.6 times higher than purified soybean trypsin inhibitor. The high trypsin inhibitory activity ...

  6. Estimation of time-series properties of gourd observed solar irradiance data using cloud properties derived from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T.; Nohara, D.

    2017-12-01

    The shorter temporal scale variation in the downward solar irradiance at the ground level (DSI) is not understood well because researches in the shorter-scale variation in the DSI is based on the ground observation and ground observation stations are located coarsely. Use of dataset derived from satellite observation will overcome such defect. DSI data and MODIS cloud properties product are analyzed simultaneously. Three metrics: mean, standard deviation and sample entropy, are used to evaluate time-series properties of the DSI. Three metrics are computed from two-hours time-series centered at the observation time of MODIS over the ground observation stations. We apply the regression methods to design prediction models of each three metrics from cloud properties. The validation of the model accuracy show that mean and standard deviation are predicted with a higher degree of accuracy and that the accuracy of prediction of sample entropy, which represents the complexity of time-series, is not high. One of causes of lower prediction skill of sample entropy is the resolution of the MODIS cloud properties. Higher sample entropy is corresponding to the rapid fluctuation, which is caused by the small and unordered cloud. It seems that such clouds isn't retrieved well.

  7. BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Vermont P; Krishnan, Hari B

    2016-09-15

    Momordica charantia is a perennial plant with reported health benefits. BG-4, a novel peptide from Momordica charantia, was isolated, purified and characterized. The trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 is 8.6 times higher than purified soybean trypsin inhibitor. The high trypsin inhibitory activity of BG-4 may be responsible for its capability to cause cytotoxicity to HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells with ED50 values of 134.4 and 217.0 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment, respectively. The mechanism involved in the cytotoxic effect may be associated with induction of apoptosis as evidenced by increased percentage of HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells undergoing apoptosis from 5.4% (untreated) to 24.8% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h) and 8.5% (untreated) to 31.9% (BG-4 treated, 125 μg/mL for 16 h), respectively. The molecular mechanistic explanation in the apoptosis inducing property of BG-4 is due to reduced expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression of Bax leading to increased expression of caspase-3 and affecting the expression of cell cycle proteins p21 and CDK2. This is the first report on the anti-cancer potential of a novel bioactive peptide isolated from Momordica charantia in vitro supporting the potential therapeutic property of BG-4 against colon cancer that must be addressed using in vivo models of colon carcinogenesis.

  8. Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous Extract of Luffa aegyptiaca (Sponge gourd) Leave Sample from Northern Nigeria: A Short Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mhya DH; Mankilik, M

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous extract of the leaves of Luffa aegyptiaca was preliminary screened with the aim of assessing the availability of some biologically active compounds. Pulverized leaves sample of Luffa aegyptiaca was extracted with water; the filtrate was concentrated on water bath and then air-dried at 25oC. The prepared aqueous-extract was used for the phytochemical screening study which was carried out using standard methods. The phytochemicals screened from the aqueous extract of Luffa aegyptiaca sh...

  9. Comprehensive Mineral Nutrition Analysis of Watermelon Grafted onto Two Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grafting is a widely used practice in fruit-bearing vegetables. However, why grafting affects plant growth, fruit yield, and quality, especially from the aspect of mineral nutrition, remains unclear. In this study, watermelon cultivar ‘Zaojia 8424’ was grafted onto bottle gourd ‘Jingxinzhen 1’ (Lagenaria siceraria and pumpkin ‘Qingyanzhen 1’ (Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata. Non-grafted plants were used as the control. Results show that rootstock grafting significantly increases plant growth and single fruit weight of watermelon. Watermelon grafted onto rootstocks, especially pumpkin, exhibits significantly higher root volume, root surface area, and number of root tips and forks in comparison with non-grafted plants. Fruit flesh, rind firmness, and rind thickness were enhanced by grafting. However, fruit soluble solids and taste significantly decreased in plants grafted onto pumpkin. The total uptake (mg ⋅ plant−1 and concentration (mg ⋅ g−1 DW of N, K, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in root, stem, leaf, fruit rind, and flesh were generally higher in grafted plants compared to non-grafted ones, especially for N of pumpkin rootstock-grafted plants. The total uptake of nutrients of plants grafted onto bottle gourd and pumpkin was increased by 30.41% and 49.14% at fruit development stage and by 21.33% and 47.46% at fruit maturation stage, respectively, compared with non-grafted plants. We concluded that watermelon grafting onto suitable rootstocks can increase the uptake of mineral nutrition, especially for N in the pumpkin rootstock grafted plants, thereby affecting plant growth, fruit yield, and quality.

  10. Molecular characterization of colombian introductions of squash Cucurbita moschata Caracterización molecular de introducciones colombianas de zapallo Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Javier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular characterization was carried out by means of the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP of 121 introductions of C. moschata, of the germoplasm bank of the Vegetables Research Program of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia campus Palmira, originating from eight departments of Colombia. The AFLP data were evaluated utilizing multiple correspondence analysis (MCA, genetic distance, genetic analysis with the TFPGA program and the UPGMA cluster analysis. The genetic diversity of these introductions was high and was according with the morphoagronomic diversity previously studied. The Fst values indicated that exist genetic structure between most of the introductions. The most of the genetic variation between the introductions corresponded to variations between them inside each department.Se realizó la caracterización molecular mediante el polimorfismo en la longitud de fragmentos amplificados (AFLP de 121 introducciones de C. moschata, del Banco de Germoplasma del Programa de Investigación en Hortalizas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira, provenientes de ocho departamentos de Colombia. Los datos AFLP se evaluaron utilizando análisis de correspondencia múltiple (ACM, distancia genética, análisis genético con el programa TFPGA y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA. La diversidad genética de estas introducciones fue alta y estuvo de acuerdo con la diversidad morfoagronómica estudiada previamente. Los valores Fst indicaron que existe estructura genética entre la mayoría de las introducciones. La mayoría de la variación genética entre las introducciones se atribuyó a variación entre individuos dentro de cada departamento.

  11. KARAKTERISASI KIMIA, FISIKOKIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK JAM DAN JELLY JONJOT LABU KUNING (Cucurbita maxima [Chemical, Physicochemical and Sensory Characterization of Jam and Jelly Made from Pumpkin Strands (Cucurbita maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdijati Gardjito1

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to examine the contents of pectin,carotene and sugars of the pumpkin strands, and to evaluate the effects of sugar addition and pH on the chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of jam and jelly made from pumpkin strands. The preparation of jam and jelly were conducted with sugar addition of 55%, 60%, and 65% and pH values of 3.0, 3.2, and 3.4. The products were analyzed for moisture, sugar,carotene, and soluble solid, and were evaluated for firmness and sensory properties.The results showed that the moisture content of jelly was between 26.36 - 35.27% and that of the jam between 39.53 - 45.67%. Beta-carotene of jelly was between 241.79 - 404.42 RE/100g (db and that of jam was between 235.58 - 487.51 RE/100g (db. The decreasing of pH and increasing of sugar addition tended to increase the content of reducing sugars and soluble solid of the products. Jelly could be made from pumpkin strands by addition of 55% or 60% sugar, and the firmness increased by decreasing of pH value. There were no significance differences between the treatments for color, flavor and overall preference score. The addition of 60% sugar and pH of 3.2 was the best condition for making jam and jelly from pumpkin strands.

  12. Growth and yield of grafted cucumbers in soil infested with root-knot nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Goreta Ban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rootstocks on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants in soils infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Cucumber 'Adrian' was grown with its own roots or was grafted onto three rootstocks of Lagenariasiceraria (Molina Standi. ('Emphasis', 'S-1', and 'Gourd', two interspecific hybrid rootstocks of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne x C. moschata Duchesne ('Strong Tosa' and 'RS 841 Improved' and zucchini Cucurbita pepo L. ('Romanesco Zucchini'. The experiments were conducted in commercial greenhouse, with cucumber grafted onto three rootstocks in the first season and onto six rootstocks in the second spring-summer season. The number of leaves was considerably affected by the rootstock in both seasons, and was the highest for the plants grafted onto interspecific rootstocks (28.0 in the first and 44.9 in the second season. The plants grafted onto 'Strong Tosa' had higher total number of fruits (19.9 and yield (5.38 kg compared to other rootstocks or non-grafted plants in first season, and the same result was found for two interspecific rootstocks in the second season (6.96 kg and more than 28.9 fruits per plant. The total soluble solids, pH and electrical conductivity of the fruit were not affected by rootstock, while titratable acidity changed with the rootstock type. The grafting of cucumber plants onto different rootstocks was confirmed as an acceptable non-chemical method to compete with the limitations of soils infected with root-knot nematodes, but the effect was highly dependent on the choice of the rootstock.

  13. Composite Cucurbita pepo plants with transgenic roots as a tool to study root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Elena L; Logachov, Anton A; Laplaze, Laurent; Demchenko, Nikolay P; Pawlowski, Katharina; Demchenko, Kirill N

    2012-07-01

    In most plant species, initiation of lateral root primordia occurs above the elongation zone. However, in cucurbits and some other species, lateral root primordia initiation and development takes place in the apical meristem of the parental root. Composite transgenic plants obtained by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation are known as a suitable model to study root development. The aim of the present study was to establish this transformation technique for squash. The auxin-responsive promoter DR5 was cloned into the binary vectors pKGW-RR-MGW and pMDC162-GFP. Incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) was used to evaluate the presence of DNA-synthesizing cells in the hypocotyl of squash seedlings to find out whether they were suitable for infection. Two A. rhizogenes strains, R1000 and MSU440, were used. Roots containing the respective constructs were selected based on DsRED1 or green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence, and DR5::Egfp-gusA or DR5::gusA insertion, respectively, was verified by PCR. Distribution of the response to auxin was visualized by GFP fluorescence or β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining and confirmed by immunolocalization of GFP and GUS proteins, respectively. Based on the distribution of EdU-labelled cells, it was determined that 6-day-old squash seedlings were suited for inoculation by A. rhizogenes since their root pericycle and the adjacent layers contain enough proliferating cells. Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000 proved to be the most virulent strain on squash seedlings. Squash roots containing the respective constructs did not exhibit the hairy root phenotype and were morphologically and structurally similar to wild-type roots. The auxin response pattern in the root apex of squash resembled that in arabidopsis roots. Composite squash plants obtained by A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation are a good tool for the investigation of root apical meristem development and root branching.

  14. Sterilization of the melon fly, dacus cucurbitae coquillett, with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, Tadashi; Zukeyama, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between radiation dose and mating competitiveness of gamma irradiated melon fly males were studied with two methods; those being FRIED's method and the method of the direct counting of normal and irradiated flies in copula under the coexistence of normal females, normal males and irradiated males. In the former method, the mating competitiveness of irradiated males did not reduced significantly with doses from 1 to 10 kR, but at 30 kR, reduced significantly. In the latter method, the mating competitiveness values of males irradiated with 7 and 12 kR were less than unity, but not significant. At 30 kR, the mating competitiveness reduced significantly. It can be said that the harmful effect of irradiation on the mating competitiveness of the melon flies was negligible with a dose of 7 kR, which was used in the eradication project of melon fly from Kume Island. (author)

  15. Methyl jasmonate down-regulates endogenous cytokinin levels in cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) seedlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ananieva, H.; Malbeck, Jiří; Kamínek, Miroslav; Staden, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2004), s. 496-503 ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : methyl jasmonate * senescence * cytokinin Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 2.017, year: 2004

  16. Screening of Furanone in Cucurbita melo and Evaluation of its Bioactive Potential Using In Silico Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nidhi; Sudandiradoss, C; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2016-12-01

    The work presented here attempts to screen for the presence of 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone in fruits and also any bioactive potential present in the fruit extracts. Curcurbita melo was selected for the study, and the fruit was crushed, filtered and extracted with ethyl acetate as the solvent. The resulting extract was subjected to disk diffusion test using Kirby Bauer method for checking its antimicrobial potential. Melon extract showed promising results against different clinical pathogens, 19-mm zone being the largest against Klebsiella pneumoniae and 17 mm against Shigella dysenteriae. GC-MS data of the melon extract confirmed the existence of furanone derivative in the extract. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity, in silico studies were performed using AutoDock 4.0 software, and topoisomerase was used as the target protein molecule for the isolated compound and 3-methyl-2-(2-oxopropyl)furan as the ligand. Further, the results were interpreted using PyMol and Ligplot plus softwares. The results confirmed the presence of molecular interactions between the protein molecule and the ligand. It can be envisaged that these interactions are responsible for the inhibitory effects of the extract .

  17. Health hazards and heavy metals accumulation by summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Tarek M

    2016-07-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the heavy metal concentration accumulated by summer squash cultivated in contaminated soil and their health hazards for public consumers at south Cairo Province, Egypt. Soil and plants were sampled from contaminated and reference farms, using 1 m(2) quadrats, for biomass estimation and nutrient analysis. The daily intake of metals (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) were estimated. Significant differences in soil variables (except As) between contaminated and reference sites were recognized. Summer squash showed remarkable reduction in fresh and dry biomass, fruit production, and photosynthetic pigments under pollution stress. The inorganic and organic nutrients in the aboveground and belowground parts showed significant reduction in contaminated site. In addition, higher concentrations of heavy metals were accumulated in the edible parts and roots more than shoots. The bioaccumulation factor of summer squash for investigated metals was greater than 1, while the translocation factor did not exceed unity in both contaminated and reference sites. The DIM for all investigated metals in the reference site and in the contaminated site (except Fe and Mn) did not exceed 1 in both adults and children. However, HRI of Ni and Mn in the reference site and Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn in the contaminated one exceeded unity indicating great potential to pose health risk to the consumers. The author recommends that people living in the contaminated area should not eat large quantities of summer squash, so as to avoid excess accumulation of heavy metals in their bodies.

  18. Comparative performance of sugarcane bagasse and black polyethylene as mulch for squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana processed 11.6 million mt of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.36 million mt of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million mt of bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sucrose, water, and other impurities (filter mud) from the millable sugarcane. Typically...

  19. Hormonal and epigenetic regulation during embryogenic tissue habituation in Cucurbita pepo L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leljak-Levanić, D.; Mrvková, Michaela; Turečková, Veronika; Pěnčík, Aleš; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav; Mihaljević, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2016), s. 77-89 ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ABA * CKs * DNA methylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  20. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampuse Solvita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease at higher amounts. Sensory evaluation (appearance; surface, crust; porosity; texture, crumb; taste, and flavour of wheat bread with pumpkin revealed very high consumer acceptance except sample with 50% pomace addition. Total carotene content and colour b* value in wheat bread increased by adding pumpkin by-products. It is recommended to add 5% and 10% of pumpkin powder and no more than 30% of pumpkin pomace (calculated per 100 kg of flour to dough for production of wheat bread with pumpkin by-product additions.

  1. New analogues of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI III) with simplified structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolka, K; Kupryszewski, G; Rózycki, J; Ragnarsson, U; Zbyryt, T; Otlewski, J

    1992-10-01

    Seven new analogues of trypsin inhibitor CMTI III were obtained by solid-phase peptide synthesis. Three analogues contained only two, instead of three, disulfide bridges, whereas the molecules of the next four analogues were shortened at the N- and/or C-terminus. The elimination of one disulfide bridge in CMTI III induces a decrease in the association equilibrium constants by 6-7 orders of magnitude, whereas the removal of one, two or three amino-acid residues at the N- and/or C-terminus does not significantly affect the activity.

  2. Variability and correlations between characteristics in pumpkin varieties (Cucurbita maxima Duch. ex Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Emina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability and correlations among morphological features of eight ornamental pumpkin varieties were studied under field conditions. The variability of plant height, fruit length, fruit width, fruith weight, fruit peel thickness, length and circumference of handle grip, leaf length, leaf width, seed length, seed width, seed thickness and number of fruits per plant in the examined material was high. The highest variability was related to the fruit properties. This variability represents a good source for future breeding programs. Correlations between the traits indicated a significant influence of leaf and seed characteristics on fruit properties. Multivariate statistical analysis provided differentiation of varieties on two phenotypically different groups.

  3. Analogues of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor III (CMTI-III) with elastase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózycki, J; Kupryszewski, G; Rolka, K; Ragnarsson, U; Zbyryt, T; Krokoszyńska, I; Wilusz, T

    1994-04-01

    Three new CMTI-III analogues containing the Val residue in the reactive site (position 5) were synthesized by the solid-phase method. The analogues displayed an elastase inhibitory activity. It is shown that the removal of the N-terminal Arg residue and the introduction of the Gly-Pro-Gln tripeptide in the region 23-25 decreases the antielastase activity by two orders of magnitude. The removal of the disulfide bridge in positions 16-28 and the substitution of Ala for Cys16 and Gly for Cys28 decreases the activity (measured as Ka with HLE) by five orders of magnitude as compared with [Val5]CMTI-III.

  4. Subcellular localization of H(+)-ATPase from pumpkin hypocotyls (Cucurbita maxima L.) by membrane fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, G F

    1984-03-01

    A new method of preparing sealed vesicles from membrane fractions of pumpkin hypocotyls in ethanolamine-containing buffers was used to investigate the subcellular localization of H(+)-ATPase measured as nigericin-stimulated ATPase. In a fluorescence-quench assay, the H(+) pump was directly demonstrated. The H(+) pump was substrate-specific for Mg·ATP and 0.1 mM diethylstilbestrol completely prevented the development of a Δ pH. The presence of unsupecific phosphatase hampered the detection of nigericin-stimulated ATPase. Unspecific phosphatases could be demonstrated by comparing the broad substrate specificity of the hydrolytic activities of the fractions with the clear preference for Mg·ATP as the substrate for the proton pump. Inhibitor studies showed that neither orthovanadate nor molybdate are absolutely specific for ATPase or acid phosphatase, respectively. Diethylstilbestrol seemed to be a specific inhibitor of ATPase activity in fractions containing nigericin-stimulated ATPase, but it stimulated acid phosphatase which tended to obscure its effect on ATPase activity. Nigericin-stimulated ATPase had its optimum at pH 6.0 and the nigericin effect was K(+)-dependent. The combination of valinomycin and carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone had a similar effect to nigericin, but singly these ionophores were much less stimulatory. After prolonged centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients, nigericin-stimulated ATPase correlated in dense fractions with plasma membrane markers but a part of it remained at the interphase. This lessdense part of the nigericin-stimulated ATPase could be derived from tonoplast vesicles because α-mannosidase, an enzyme of the vacuolar sap, remained in the upper part of the gradient. Nigericinstimulated ATPase did not correlate with the mitochondrial marker, cytochrome c oxidase, whereas azide inhibition of ATPase activity did.

  5. Localization of ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid oxidase, and glutathione in roots of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liso, Rosalia; De Tullio, Mario C; Ciraci, Samantha; Balestrini, Raffaella; La Rocca, Nicoletta; Bruno, Leonardo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Bonfante, Paola; Arrigoni, Oreste

    2004-12-01

    To understand the function of ascorbic acid (ASC) in root development, the distribution of ASC, ASC oxidase, and glutathione (GSH) were investigated in cells and tissues of the root apex of Cucubita maxima. ASC was regularly distributed in the cytosol of almost all root cells, with the exception of quiescent centre (QC) cells. ASC also occurred at the surface of the nuclear membrane and correspondingly in the nucleoli. No ASC could be observed in vacuoles. ASC oxidase was detected by immunolocalization mainly in cell walls and vacuoles. This enzyme was particularly abundant in the QC and in differentiating vascular tissues and was absent in lateral root primordia. Administration of the ASC precursor L-galactono-gamma-lactone markedly increased ASC content in all root cells, including the QC. Root treatment with the ASC oxidized product, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), also increased ASC content, but caused ASC accumulation only in peripheral tissues, where DHA was apparently reduced at the expense of GSH. The different pattern of distribution of ASC in different tissues and cell compartments reflects its possible role in cell metabolism and root morphogenesis.

  6. Random Estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    2010-01-01

    The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations.

  7. The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c from Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E. W.; Richardson, M.; Boulter, D.

    1971-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of pumpkin cytochrome c was determined on 2μmol of protein. Some evidence was found for the occurrence of two forms of cytochrome c, whose sequences differed in three positions. Pumpkin cytochrome c consists of 111 residues and is homologous with mitochondrial cytochromes c from other plants. Experimental details are given in a supplementary paper that has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50005 at the National Lending Library for Science and Technology, Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1971), 121, 7. PMID:5131733

  8. Influence of honey bee visits to flowers on the yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Lescay Batista1 y Rafael Orasma Pérez2

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was done from August through December 2012, on a Fluvisol in Río Cauto municipality, Granma. The objective was to evaluate the effect of honey bee visits on the yield of pumpkin cultivation. The variety INIVIT- C - 2000 was used, and was planted on two parcels of 1 ha each. One parcel was located five meters away from various beehives in “Angel Castillo” farm; the other one was located in the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “December 15th” without beehives. Both parcels were located within 7 km of each other. The data were processed with the student’s t-test for a level of significance pd”0.05. The results showed that in the treatment with bees, the yield significantly increased in 45% with respect to the treatment without bees.

  9. Penentuan Formula Biskuit Labu Kuning (Cucurbita moschata sebagai Pangan Diet Penderita Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMade Sugitha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine the formula pumpkin biscuits containing resistant starch andbeta-carotene are high but the impact of the increase in blood sugar levels low.The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with 5 treatmentscomparison formula pumpkin flour and wheat in the manufacture of biscuits. The comparison isas follows: (40 g : 460 g, (80 g : 420 g, (120 g : 380 g, (160 g : 340 g, and (200 g : 300 gwere repeated 4 times. Research conducted bioassay testing using SD rats. Observations wereresistant starch, beta carotene and increase blood sugar levels. The resulting data were analyzedby ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparison test.The results showed that the formula biscuits significant effect on levels of resistant starch, betacaroteneand increase blood sugar levels and preference for color, flavor, aroma, texture andoverall acceptance pumpkin biscuits. Formula biscuits with pumpkin comparison and wheat flour(120 g : 380 g is the best formula. The biscuit formula has the characteristics: resistant starchcontent of 11.79%, beta carotene 9714.21 mg / 100 g and can lower blood sugar increasing up to23.50 mg / dl post-consumption with the preference level of texture ranging from dislike to likeenough, as well as the color, flavor, aroma and overall acceptance between enough like to like.

  10. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  11. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Różyło; Dariusz Dziki; Anna Jakubczyk; Monika Karaś; Urszula Gawlik-Dziki; Krzysztof Różyło

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory chara...

  12. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG LABU KUNING (Cucurbita moschata) DAN TEPUNG TERIGU TERHADAP PEMBUATAN BISKUIT

    OpenAIRE

    IGFAR, AHMAD

    2012-01-01

    - Ahmad Igfar, G 61106051. Study of Chocolate Making with Sucrose Sugarand Sorbitol Sugar Content. Supervised by Muliyati M. Tahir and Jalil Genisa. ABSTRACT Pumpkin is the vegetable that has high vitamins A, B, and C, and can add color in the food. The aims of this research are to know the comparism between pumpkin flour and wheat flour in biscuit processing and to know the characteristic of the biscuit with chermistry analysi...

  13. Drying characteristics of pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata) slices in convective and freeze dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Gulsah; Dirim, Safiye Nur

    2017-06-01

    This study was intended to determine the drying and rehydration kinetics of convective and freeze dried pumpkin slices (0.5 × 3.5 × 0.5 cm). A pilot scale tray drier (at 80 ± 2 °C inlet temperature, 1 m s-1 air velocity) and freeze drier (13.33 kPa absolute pressure, condenser temperature of -48 ± 2 °C) were used for the drying experiments. Drying curves were fitted to six well-known thin layer drying models. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to evaluate the parameters of the selected models by using statistical software SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc., USA). For the convective and freeze drying processes of pumpkin slices, the highest R2 values, and the lowest RMSE as well as χ2 values were obtained from Page model. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) of the convective and freeze dried pumpkin slices were obtained from the Fick's diffusion model, and they were found to be 2.233 × 10-7 and 3.040 × 10-9 m2s-1, respectively. Specific moisture extraction rate, moisture extraction rate, and specific energy consumption values were almost twice in freeze drying process. Depending on the results, moisture contents and water activity values of pumpkin slices were in acceptable limits for safe storage of products. The rehydration behaviour of [at 18 ± 2 and 100 ± 2 °C for 1:25, 1:50, 1:75, 1:100, and 1:125 solid:liquid ratios (w:w)] dried pumpkin slices was determined by Peleg's model with the highest R2. The highest total soluble solid loss of pumpkin slices was observed for the rehydration experiment which performed at 1:25 solid: liquid ratio (w:w). Rehydration ratio of freeze dried slices was found 2-3 times higher than convective dried slices.

  14. Changes in carbohydrate content in zucchini fruit (Cucurbita pepo L.) under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Lluch, Carmen; Jamilena, Manuel; Garrido, Dolores

    2014-03-01

    The postharvest handling of zucchini fruit includes low-temperature storage, making cold stress unavoidable. We have investigated the changes of soluble carbohydrates under this stress and its relation with weight loss and chilling injury in zucchini fruit during postharvest storage at 4 °C and 20 °C for up to 14 days. Two varieties with different degrees of chilling tolerance were compared: Natura, the more tolerant variety, and Sinatra, the variety that suffered more severe chilling-injury symptoms and weight loss. In both varieties, total soluble carbohydrates, reducing soluble carbohydrates and polyols content was generally higher during storage at 4 °C than at 20 °C, thus these parameters are related to the physiological response of zucchini fruit to cold stress. However, the raffinose content increased in Natura and Sinatra fruits during storage at 4 °C and 20 °C, although at 20 °C the increase in raffinose was more remarkable than at 4 °C in both varieties, so that the role of raffinose could be more likely related to dehydration than to chilling susceptibility of zucchini fruit. Glucose, fructose, pinitol, and acid invertase activity registered opposite trends in both varieties against chilling, increasing in Natura and decreasing in Sinatra. The increase in acid invertase activity in Natura fruit during cold storage could contribute in part to the increase of these reducing sugars, whose metabolism could be involved in the adaptation to postharvest cold storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Caracterización molecular de introducciones colombianas de zapallo Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Restrepo S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización molecular mediante el polimorfismo en la longitud de fragmentos amplificados (AFLP de 121 introducciones de C. moschata, del Banco de Germoplasma del Programa de Investigación en Hortalizas de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira, provenientes de ocho departamentos de Colombia. Los datos AFLP se evaluaron utilizando análisis de correspondencia múltiple (ACM, distancia genética, análisis genético con el programa TFPGA y el método de agrupamiento UPGMA. La diversidad genética de estas introducciones fue alta y estuvo de acuerdo con la diversidad morfoagronómica estudiada previamente. Los valores Fst indicaron que existe estructura genética entre la mayoría de las introducciones. La mayoría de la variación genética entre las introducciones se atribuyó a variación entre individuos dentro de cada departamento.

  16. Structural diversity of pectins isolated from the Styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košťálová, Zuzana; Hromádková, Zdenka; Ebringerová, Anna

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the seeded fruit biomass of the Styrian oil-pumpkin in view of its pectin component, a series of acidic polysaccharides were isolated by a six-step sequential extraction using hot water, EDTA, dilute HCl (twice) and dilute and stronger NaOH solutions. Chemical, physicochemical and spectroscopy analyses revealed that the first four fractions comprised partially methyl-esterified and acetylated pectins with varying proportions of rhamnogalacturonan regions ramified with galactose- and arabinose-containing side chains and showed considerable polymolecularity. The alkali-extracted polysaccharides contained lower amounts of pectins with homogalacturonan and arabinose-rich rhamnogalacturonan regions next to hemicelluloses prevailing in the last polysaccharide. Using (1)H-(13)C HSQC and HMBC spectroscopy, the resonances of free and methylesterified galacturonic acid residues in the purified acid-extracted pectin were unambiguously established and various diads formed by both residues identified. The results might serve as a basis for searching technological conditions to produce pectin from the oil-pumpkin fruit biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of season and storage period on accumulation of individual carotenoids in pumpkin flesh (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswir, Irwandi; Shahidan, Norshazila; Othman, Rashidi; Has-Yun Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis; Octavianti, Fitri; bin Salleh, Mohammad Noor

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are antioxidants with pharmaceutical potential. The major carotenoids important to humans are α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. Some of the biological functions and actions of these individual carotenoids are quite similar to each other, whereas others are specific. Besides genotype and location, other environmental effects such as temperature, light, mineral uptake, and pH have been found affect carotenoid development in plant tissues and organs. Therefore, this research investigated the effects of the season and storage periods during postharvest handling on the accumulation of carotenoid in pumpkin. This study shows that long-term storage of pumpkins resulted in the accumulation of lutein and β-carotene with a slight decrease in zeaxanthin. The amounts of β-carotene ranged from 174.583±2.105 mg/100g to 692.871±22.019 mg/100g, lutein from 19.841±9.693 mg/100g to 59.481±1.645 mg/100g, and zeaxanthin from not detected to 2.709±0.118 mg/100g. The pumpkins were collected three times in a year; they differed in that zeaxanthin was present only in the first season, while the amounts of β-carotene and lutein were the highest in the second and third seasons, respectively. By identifying the key factors among the postharvest handling conditions that control specific carotenoid accumulations, a greater understanding of how to enhance the nutritional values of pumpkin and other crops will be gained. Postharvest storage conditions can markedly enhance and influence the levels of zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene in pumpkin. This study describes how the magnitudes of these effects depend on the storage period and season.

  18. Effect of phosphorylation on antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady godiva) polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ni, Yuanying; Hu, Xiaosong; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylated derivatives of pumpkin polysaccharide with different degree of substitution were synthesized using POCl3 and pyridine. Antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of unmodified polysaccharide and phosphorylated derivatives were investigated employing various in vitro systems. Results showed that high ratio of POCl3/pyridine could increase the degree of substitution and no remarkable degradation occurred in the phosphorylation process. Characteristic absorption of phosphorylation appeared both in the IR and (31)P NMR spectrum. The df values between 2.27 and 2.55 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the phosphorylated derivatives. All the phosphorylated polysaccharides exhibited higher antioxidant activities. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by the derivatives. In general, phosphorylation could improve the antioxidant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide both in vitro and in a cell system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed protein isolate and hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bučko Sandra Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed protein isolate (PSPI was enzymatically hydrolysed by pepsin to obtain pumpkin seed protein hydrolysate, PSPH. Investigation on solubility, interfacial and emulsifying properties of both PSPI and PSPH was conducted under different conditions of pH (3-8 and ionic strength (0-1 mol/dm3 NaCl. PSPI had the lowest solubility, i.e. isoelectric point (pI, at pH 5. PSPH had higher solubility than PSPI over whole range of pH and ionic strengths tested. Decrease in surface and interfacial tension evidenced that both PSPI and PSPH adsorb at air/protein solution and oil/protein solution interface. Emulsions (20 % oil in water stabilized by 1 g/100cm3 PSPI or PSPH solution were prepared at pH 3, 5 and 8 and ionic strength of 0 and 0.5 mol/dm3 NaCl. PSPH stabilized emulsions from coalescence at all pH and ionic strengths tested. PSPI was able to stabilize emulsions at pH 3 and 0 mol/dm3 NaCl, and at pH 8 regardless of ionic strength, while emulsions at pH 5 and both 0 and 0.5 mol/dm3 NaCl and at pH 3 when ionic strength was increased separated to oil and serum layer immediately after preparation. All emulsions were susceptible to creaming instability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  20. Sulfated modification and anticoagulant activity of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady Godiva) polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Ao, Le; Ma, Tao; Ni, Yuanying; Liao, Xiaojun; Hu, Xiaosong; Song, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Sulfated modification of pumpkin polysaccharide using CAS with pyridines as catalysts under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of sulfation on a laboratory scale. Anticoagulant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide and its sulfated derivatives were also investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Results showed that addition of high ratio of CAS/pyridine under constant conditions could increase the degree of substitution. Sulfate substitution was further confirmed by the FT-IR and 13 C NMR analysis. The d f values between 2.11-2.73 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the sulfated derivatives. The sulfated polysaccharides showed higher anticoagulant activities through activated partial thrombosis time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and anti-Xa activity assay, which revealed that better anticoagulant activities could be obtained when DS remained higher and M w maintained in a moderate range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ammonium-related metabolic changes affect somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljević, Snježana; Radić, Sandra; Bauer, Nataša; Garić, Rade; Mihaljević, Branka; Horvat, Gordana; Leljak-Levanić, Dunja; Jelaska, Sibila

    2011-11-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in pumpkin can be induced on auxin-containing medium and also on hormone-free medium containing 1mM ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as the sole source of nitrogen. Growth of NH(4)(+)-induced embryogenic tissue was slow and caused considerable acidification of the culture medium. Small spherical cells with dense cytoplasma formed proembryogenic cell clusters that could not develop into late stage embryos. Buffering of NH(4)(+) medium with 25mM 2-(N-morpholino)-ethane-sulfonic acid enhanced tissue proliferation, but no further differentiation was observed. Later stage embryos developed only after re-supply of nitrogen in form of nitrate or l-glutamine. Effects of nitrogen status and pH of culture media on ammonium assimilation were analyzed by following the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in relation to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Increased activity of GS and PAL in NH(4)(+) induced tissue coincided with significantly higher activity of stress-related enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and soluble peroxidase (POD), indicating oxidative stress response of embryogenic tissue to NH(4)(+) as the sole source of nitrogen. In addition, considerable increase was observed in callose accumulation and esterase activity, the early markers of somatic embryogenesis. Activity of stress-related enzymes decreased after the re-supply of nitrate (20mM) or Gln (10mM) in combination with NH(4)(+) (1mM), which subsequently triggered globular embryo development. Together, these results suggest that stress responses, as affected by nitrogen supply, contribute to the regulation of embryogenic competence in pumpkin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha.

  3. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp
as a Functional Food Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różyło, Renata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Jakubczyk, Anna; Karaś, Monika; Różyło, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20% (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat flour with up to 10% of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10% of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids) and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15% of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20% pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro . Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefits. Key words : pumpkin, bread, texture, antioxidants, bioaccessibility in vitro, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition.

  4. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Różyło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat fl our with up to 10 % of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10 % of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15 % of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20 % pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefi ts.

  5. Grafting of Romanian Melons and Watermelons for Culture from South Area of Romania

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    Dorin Sora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable grafting is useful in Romania; it is more difficult in watermelons and melons and it is continuously developing. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for seedling producing of scions (Romanian melons and watermelons and rootstocks (F1 hybrids of Lagenaria siceraria and Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata for obtaining of grafted plant seedlings. The experience was realized out on a collection consisting from two Romanian scions, melon (‘Fondant’ variety and watermelon (‘Dochiţa’ variety obtained at Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău and two rootstocks, bottle gourd - L. siceraria (‘Emphasis’ F1 and interspecific hybrid squash - C. maxima x C. moschata (‘Cobalt’ F1. The obtaining of scion and rootstock plants was made according to the ecological requirements of the species. The grafting was made by annexation (splice grafting. The plants had optimal diameters for splice grafting. Between scions (‘Fondant’ and ‘Dochiţa’ are no diference, statistical analysis could not be performed. Technological stages for producing grafted seedlings of Romanian melon and watermelon were established. The grafting was performed successfully for cucurbit symbiotes (scions and rootstocks. These technological stages for grafting by annexation of Romanian melons and watermelons are recommended for cultures in the south area of Romania.

  6. Constraints to the possible alternatives from Arizona agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    The problems plaguing Arizona agriculture are outlined including the primary factors of declining groundwater supplies and increasing costs of energy to pump irrigation water. Two alternatives are suggested. The first alternative is to reduce or stabilize energy costs, an event that the authors acknowledge as being rather unlikely. Pumping costs using various fuels during the period 1891 to 1978 are reviewed. The second alternative involves developing cultivation techniques for drought-resistant plants native to arid regions, plants which have economic potential. Most of these plants would require little irrigation under cultivation and could substitute for cash crops being cultivated under heavy irrigation in Arizona. Four of these plants native to arid regions in the United States are discussed in some detail. Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a known rubber producer. Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) produces a liquid wax similar to the oil of the sperm whale, an endangered species. The gopher plant (Euphorbia lathyrus) is a potential producer of petrochemical feedstock for use as an energy source. Finally the buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) is a possible source of food for both humans and livestock.

  7. EFECTOS HETERÓTICOS Y HABILIDAD COMBINATORIA PARA EL RENDIMIENTO POR PLANTA EN Cucurbita moschata DUCH. Ex Poir HETEROTIC EFFECTS AND COMBINING ABILITY FOR YIELD PER PLANT IN Cucurbita moschata DUCH. Ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mariano Espitia Camacho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivos estimar los efectos heteróticos y de habilidad combinatoria (HCG y específica (HCE, para el rendimiento/planta (RFP, en dos dialelos [uno entre cinco variedades (VAR y el otro entre cinco líneas endogámicas S1 (LS1, derivadas de éstas], mediante las metodologías propuestas por Gardner y Eberhart (GyE: 1966: Análisis II y Hallauer y Miranda (HyM:1981. Los genotipos se evaluaron en Candelaria (Valle del Cauca, Colombia, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cinco repeticiones. Las diferencias entre genotipos en el dialelo de LS1 por GyE, fueron explicadas por los efectos de variedades (v j: p jj’: p : p The purpose of this study was to estimate the heterotic effects, general combining ability (GCA, and specific (SCA for fruit yield per plant (RFP in two diallelic [one among five cross pollinated varieties (VAR and the other among five self-pollinated lines S1 (LS1, derived from these], according to the methodologies designed by Gardner y Eberhart (GyE: 1966: Analysis II and Hallauer and Miranda (HyM: 1981 using a complete randomized design with five replicates in Candelaria (Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The differences between genotypes observed in the diallelic of LS1 by GyE, were explained by the effects of varieties (v j: p (h jj’: p : p < 0,01 and specific heterosis (Sjj’: p < 0,05 explained the differences for h jj in the diallelic of LS1. According to the methodology of HyM, the additive (GCA: p < 0,01 and non additive genic action (SCA: p < 0,05 controlled the expression of RFP in the diallele of LS1 with greater importance of the GCA. In the diallele of VAR, only the GCA (p < 0,01 explained such control. The genotypes Bolo Verde (RFP = 17,8 kg/plant; v j = 3,34**; g i = 1,73* and Soler (PFP = 17 kg/plant; v j = 2,89*; g i = 175* are the recommended genotypes to exploit the additives effects and the hybrid LA34 x LSO (RFP = 26 kg/plant; Sjj’= 3,55** to exploit the additive and non additive effects through reciprocal recurrent selection.

  8. DEPRESIÓN EN VIGOR POR ENDOGAMIA Y HETEROSIS PARA EL RENDIMIENTO Y SUS COMPONENTES EN ZAPALLO Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir INBREEDING DEPRESSION AND HETEROSIS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS IN PUMPKIN Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mariano Espitia Camacho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objetivos estimar la depresión por endogamia (DE y cuatro tipos de heterosis: promedio general (HP, promedio de progenitores (HM, heterobeltiosis (HB y útil (HU, en dos dialélos [uno entre cinco variedades (V y el otro entre cinco líneas endogamicas S1 (LS1, derivadas de éstas], para el rendimiento por planta (PFP, número de frutos por planta (NFP y peso promedio de fruto (PPF. Los 30 genotipos se evaluaron en el municipio de Candelaria (Valle del Cauca, Colombia, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cinco repeticiones. Se presentaron diferencias significativas (p 40 % y HU (>60 % en PFP.With the goal of estimating inbreeding depression (DE and the four types of heterosis: general average (HP, mean (HM, heterobeltiosis (HB and standard (HU, in two diallelic [one among five cross pollinated varieties (VAR and the other among five self-pollinated lines S1(LS1, derived from these], for yield/plant (PFP, number of fruits/plant (NFP and weight/fruit (PPF. The 30 genotypes were evaluated using a complete randomized design with five replicates in Candelaria (Valle del Cauca, Colombia . Significant differences (p 40 % and HU (>60 % in PFP.

  9. Antioxidant enzymatic activities and gene expression associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of two cucurbit species ("Cucurbita maxima" and "Cucurbita moschata") and their interspecific inbred line "Maxchata".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-12-10

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant "C. moschata", thermolabile "C. maxima" and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line "Maxchata" genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. "C. moschata" exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2(-)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by "Maxchata". The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among "C. maxima" and "Maxchata", most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in "Maxchata", which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  10. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata”) and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration. PMID:24336062

  11. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata” and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Ara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C and severe (42 °C heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide (O2− and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  12. An ethnomedicinal survey of cucurbitaceae family plants used in the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rahmatullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Cucurbitaceae family comprising about 125 genera and 960 species is a family that is further characterized by commonly having five-angled stems and coiled tendrils and is also known as gourd family of flowering plants. Plant species belonging to this family have a worldwide distribution, but most species can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. A number of the plants belonging to this family have reported important pharmacological activities. Cucurbitaceae family plants are also in use in the folk medicinal system of Bangladesh-a traditional medicinal system, which mainly relies on medicinal plants for treatment of diverse ailments. Aims: Since folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health care in Bangladesh, the objective of this study was to conduct ethnomedicinal surveys among 75 folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes practicing among the mainstream Bengali-speaking population of randomly selected 75 villages in 64 districts of Bangladesh and 8 tribal practitioners (1 each from 8 major indigenous communities or tribes, namely, Bede, Chakma, Garo, Khasia, Marma, Murong, Santal, and Tripura of the country. Materials and Methods: Surveys were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: It was observed that the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners use a total of 19 Cucurbitaceae family species for treatment of ailments such as dysentery, diabetes, edema, skin disorders, leukoderma, hypertension, jaundice, typhoid, spleen disorders, respiratory problems, leprosy, rheumatoid arthritis, chicken pox, and cancer. The 19 species of Cucurbitaceae family plants in use were Benincasa hispida, Bryonopsis laciniosa, Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus lanatu, Coccinia grandis, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, Hodgsonia macrocarpa, Lagenaria vulgaris, Luffa acutangula, Luffa cylindrica, Momordica charantia, Momordica

  13. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, by mass release of sterile flies in Okinawa prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakinohana, H.; Kuba, H.; Kohama, T.; Kinjo, K.; Taniguchi, M.; Nakamori, H.; Tanahara, A.; Sokei, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In 1972, MAFF, Japan and the Okinawa Prefectural Government initiated an experimental eradication project of the melon fly from Kume Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Following the successful eradication on Kume Island in 1978, large scale SIT was started to eradicate the melon fly on the 3 groups of islands, Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan in 1984, 1986 and 1989, and eradication was achieved in 1987, 1990 and 1993, respectively. For the successful eradication on Miyako, Okinawa and Yaeyama groups of islands, about 6,340, 30,940 and 15,440 million sterile melon flies were released, respectively

  14. Global population genomics and comparisons of selective signatures from two invasions of melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population genetics is a powerful tool for invasion biology and pest management, from tracing invasion pathways to informing management decisions with inference of population demographics. Genomics greatly increases the resolution of population-scale analyses, yet outside of model species with exten...

  15. Involvement of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling in fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Garrido, Dolores; Picó, Belén; Jamilena, Manuel

    2013-09-22

    We have identified a kind of parthenocarpy in zucchini squash which is associated with an incomplete andromonoecy, i.e. a partial conversion of female into bisexual flowers. Given that andromonoecy in this and other cucurbit species is caused by a reduction of ethylene production in the female flower, the associated parthenocarpic development of the fruit suggested the involvement of ethylene in fruit set and early fruit development. We have compared the production of ethylene as well as the expression of 13 ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes in pollinated and unpollinated ovaries/fruits of two cultivars, one of which is parthenocarpic (Cavili), while the other is non-parthenocarpic (Tosca). In the latter, unpollinated ovaries show an induction of ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signal transduction pathway genes three days after anthesis, which is concomitant with the initiation of fruit abortion and senescence. Fruit set and early fruit development in pollinated flowers of both cultivars and unpollinated flowers of Cavili is coupled with low ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, which would also explain the partial andromonoecy in the parthenocarpic genotype. The reduction of ethylene production in the ovary cosegregates with parthenocarpy and partial andromonoecy in the selfing progeny of Cavili. Moreover, the induction of ethylene in anthesis (by ethephon treatments) reduced the percentage of bisexual parthenocarpic flowers in Cavili, while the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis or response (by AVG and STS treatments) induces not only andromonoecy but also the parthenocarpic development of the fruit in both cultivars. Results demonstrate that a reduction of ethylene production or signalling in the zucchini flower is able to induce fruit set and early fruit development, and therefore that ethylene is actively involved in fruit set and early fruit development. Auxin and TIBA treatments, inducing fruit set and early fruit development in this species, also inhibit ethylene production and the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes. A model is presented that discusses the crosstalk between ethylene and auxin in the control of fruit set and early fruit development in zucchini squash.

  16. Role of organic acids in enhancing the desorption and uptake of weathered p,p'-DDE by Cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Jason C.; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia; Lee, W.-Y.; Eitzer, Brian D.; Iannucci-Berger, William

    2003-01-01

    The addition of low molecular weight organic acids to soil may enhance phytoremediation of persistent organic pollutants. - Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of seven organic acids [succinic, tartaric, malic, malonic, oxalic, citric, ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA)] over a concentration range of two orders of magnitude (0.001-0.10 M) on the abiotic desorption of weathered p,p'-DDE and the extraction of polyvalent inorganic ions from soil. At 0.05 M all organic acids significantly increased contaminant desorption by 19-80%. Organic acids also increased the aqueous concentration of eight inorganic constituents extracted from soil, with at least a six-fold increase in the release of Al, Fe, Mn, and P at 0.001 M. Zucchini seedlings grown for 28 d in soil containing weathered p,p'-DDE (300 ng/g, dry weight) were periodically amended with distilled water, citric or oxalic acids (0.01 M). Plants receiving water removed 1.7% of the p,p'-DDE from the soil. Seedlings amended with citric or oxalic acids removed 2.1 and 1.9% of the contaminant, respectively, and contained up to 66% more contaminant in the shoot system than unamended vegetation. A second crop of untreated (distilled water) zucchini in the same soil removed more contaminant than the first crop (2.5%), although the addition of organic acids did not further enhance contaminant uptake. The data indicate that the addition of low molecular weight organic acids causes the partial dissolution of the soil structure through the chelation of inorganic structural ions, potentially enhancing bioavailability and having implications for the phytoremediation of persistent organic pollutants in soil

  17. Use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for predicting antioxidant compounds in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Díaz, María Teresa; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    The food industry and plant breeding programmes require fast, clean and low-cost screening techniques for nutritional compounds determination in food matrices. This is the first report on the study of the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the prediction of antioxidant compounds in summer squash tissues collected since 2009-2012. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression was used to correlate spectral information and the different antioxidant compounds in the samples. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (r(2)ev) obtained were for ascorbic acid (0.77 and 0.86), chlorophyll a (0.79 and 0.66), chlorophyll b (0.86 and 0.79) and total phenolic compounds (0.65 and 0.68) in exocarp and mesocarp tissues, respectively, supporting that NIRS is able to predict in a rapid way these components for screening purposes. Major wavelengths influencing the calibration equations showed that chromophores as well as fibre components of the fruits highly participated in developing the NIR equations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. DIFFERENTIAL BIOAVAILABILITY OF FIELD-WEATHERED P,P'-DDE TO PLANTS OF THE CUCURBITA AND CUCUMIS GENERA. (R829405)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress re