WorldWideScience

Sample records for goslings

  1. Effects of gull predation and weather on survival of emperor goose goslings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.; Manly, Bryan F.J.; Dau, Christian P.

    2001-01-01

    Numbers of emperor geese (Chen canagica) have remained depressed since the mid-1980s. Despite increases in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), a primary predator of goslings, little information existed to assess whether recent patterns of gosling survival have been a major factor affecting population dynamics. We used observations of known families of emperor geese to estimate rates of gosling survival during 1993-96 on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Survival of goslings to 30 days of age varied among years from 0.332 during 1994 to 0.708 during 1995. Survival was lowest during 1993-94, which corresponded with the years of highest frequency of disturbance of goose broods by glaucous gulls. Rainfall during early brood rearing was much higher in 1994 than other years, and this corresponded to low survival among goslings ≤5 days of age. Numbers of juveniles in families during fall staging were negatively related to rainfall during early brood rearing (n = 23 yr). Although there are no data to assess whether gosling survival in emperor geese has declined from some previous level, current survival rates of emperor goose goslings are as high as or higher than those observed in other goose species that are rapidly increasing. A proposed reduction of glaucous gull numbers by managers may not be the most effective means for increasing population growth in emperor geese.

  2. Intercolony variation in growth of black brant goslings on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, T.F.; Flint, Paul L.; Sedinger, J.S.; Nicolai, C.A.; Schamber, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent declines in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are likely the result of low recruitment. In geese, recruitment is strongly affected by habitat conditions experienced by broods because gosling growth rates are indicative of forage conditions during brood rearing and strongly influence future survival and productivity. In 2006–2008, we studied gosling growth at 3 of the 4 major colonies on the Yukon‐Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Estimates of age‐adjusted gosling mass at the 2 southern colonies (approx. 30% of the world population of breeding black brant) was low (gosling mass at 30.5 days ranged 346.7 ± 42.5 g to 627.1 ± 15.9 g) in comparison to a third colony (gosling mass at 30.5 days ranged 640.0 ± 8.3 g to 821.6 ± 13.6 g) and to most previous estimates of age‐adjusted mass of brant goslings. Thus, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that poor gosling growth is negatively influencing the brant population. There are 2 non‐mutually exclusive explanations for the apparent growth rates we observed. First, the population decline may have been caused by density‐independent factors and habitat capacity has declined along with the population as a consequence of the unique foraging feedback between brant and their grazing habitats. Alternatively, a reduction in habitat capacity, as a result of changes to the grazing system, may have negatively influenced gosling growth, which is contributing to the overall long‐term population decline. We found support for both explanations. For colonies over habitat capacity we recommend management to enhance foraging habitat, whereas for colonies below habitat capacity we recommend management to increase nesting productivity.

  3. The endogenous development and pathogenicity of Eimeria anseris (Kotlan, 1932) in domestic goslings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongqin; Liu, Dandan; Xu, Jinjun; Wu, Lili; Dai, Yabin; Liu, Mei; Tao, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-one, 25-day-old, artificially reared, coccidia-free goslings (Anser cygnoides var. domestica) were inoculated orally with 0.5 × 10 4 , 1 × 10 4 , or 100 × 10 4 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria anseris and sacrificed at intervals from 24 to 216 h post-inoculation (HPI). Nine uninfected goslings served as negative controls. Parts of the visceral organs from goslings, including the intestines, kidneys, and liver, were fixed, sectioned, and observed microscopically. The results revealed that two generations of meronts occurred in the life cycle of E. anseris. The first generation of meronts developed at 24-96 HPI and the second generation at 90-128 HPI. Each meront contained 4-10 merozoites. Development of gamonts began at 128 HPI and mature oocysts appeared at 168 HPI. Developmental stages presented mainly in the epithelial cells of crypts and lamina propria in the posterior parts of the jejunum and ileum. Parasites localized mostly in the cytoplasm and occasionally in the nuclei of host cells. Histological lesions were pronounced in the jejunum and ileum. Desquamation and necrosis of the epithelium of intestine and crypts, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and hemorrhage and mucosal edema were associated with aggregates of endogenous stages. The infected goslings mainly showed severe diarrhea, depression, anorexia, and emaciation, suggesting that E. anseris is highly pathogenic in goslings.

  4. The Urban Superintendency and the Depression: The Case of Thomas Warrington Gosling, Akron, Ohio: 1928-34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Gregory L.; Dye, Charles M.

    The case study of an Ohio school superintendent's experiences during the depression illustrates how political, social, and economic events can affect an educational system. Dr. Thomas Warrington Gosling was named superintendent of Akron schools in 1928, following resignation of the previous superintendent as a consequence of turmoil on the Board…

  5. Comment on geomagnetic activity associated with earth passage of interplanetary shock disturbances and coronal mass ejections by J.T. Gosling, D.J. McComas, J.L. Phillips, and S.J. Bame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Gosling et al. have presented a very nice set of statistical data on solar wind driver gases (CMEs), interplanetary shocks, solar wind velocities, magnetic field magnitudes and B z values, and geomagnetic activity (Kp). The statistics are quite nice and similar to our own. The authors have no questions or comments concerning these. The authors note that Gosling et al. have one conclusion that is substantially different than prior work, however. In the last sentence of their abstract, they state, open-quotes The initial speed of a CME close to the Sun appears to be the most crucial factor in determining if an earthward directed event will be effective in exciting a large geomagnetic disturbance.close quotes This is an unusual claim and goes quite contrary to prior perceptions of the interplanetary cause of magnetic storms, big and small. If this point is indeed correct it will be a big revelation to magnetospheric researchers. However, in looking at their paper in detail, the authors feel the statistical data that they presented do not support this claim. In this comment the authors will try to help clarify this issue and attempt to bring the Gosling et al. statistics and prior results into accord. 28 refs

  6. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant genotype VII Newcastle disease virus expressing VP3 protein of Goose parvovirus as a bivalent vaccine in goslings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhong; Cong, Yanlong; Yin, Renfu; Feng, Na; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Xiao, Yueqiang; Wang, Wenxiu; Liu, Xiufan; Hu, Shunlin; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing; Wang, Chunfeng; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-05-04

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Goose parvovirus (GPV) are considered to be two of the most important and widespread viruses infecting geese. In this study, we generated a recombinant rmNA-VP3, expressing GPV VP3 using a modified goose-origin NDV NA-1 by changing the multi-basic cleavage site motif RRQKR↓F of the F protein to the dibasic motif GRQGR↓L as that of the avirulent strain LaSota as a vaccine vector. Expression of the VP3 protein in rmNA-VP3 infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot assay. The genetic stability was examined by serially passaging 10 times in 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs. Goslings were inoculated with rmNA-VP3 showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong GPV and NDV neutralizing antibodies response. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant NDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against Goose parvovirus and Newcastle disease virus infection in birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Teaching and Learning Projects as 'Heterotopias' | Gosling | Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to explore some persistent issues which impact on externally funded teaching and learning projects. The discussion considers these issues using the lens of „heterotopias‟, a concept introduced by Michel Foucault. Utilising insights from Foucault's suggestive comments about „heterotopias‟, the paper ...

  8. Adoption as a gosling strategy to obtain better parental care? Experimental evidence for gosling choice and age-dependency of adoption in greylag geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmbach, E; van der Aa, P; Komdeur, J

    2005-01-01

    Adoptions of unrelated young by successful breeders are a form of alloparental care which has been observed in many species of geese. Depending on costs and benefits to the parents, adoptions might represent an inter-generational conflict ora mutually beneficial strategy. Although most studies of

  9. [Review of: J. Hilton, A. Gosling Alma parens originalis? The receptions of classical literature and thought in Africa, Europe, the United States, and Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weyenberg, A.

    2009-01-01

    This collection of articles derives in part from the papers presented at the 26th biennial conference of the Classical Association of South Africa held at Durban and Pietermaritzburg in 2005. John Hilton explains in the introduction that the conference's theme, 'The Classical Tradition / Classical

  10. Indices of stress and immune function in Arctic barnacle goslings (Branta leucopsis) were impacted by social isolation but not a contaminated grazing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Margje E.; Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; van den Brink, Nico W.; Braun, Anna; Matson, Kevin D.; Komdeur, Jan; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.

    2017-01-01

    In many areas around the Arctic remains and spoil heaps of old mines can be found, which have been abandoned after their heydays. Runoff from tailings of these abandoned mines can directly contaminate the local environment with elevated concentrations of trace metals. Few studies have investigated

  11. Indices of stress and immune function in Arctic barnacle goslings (Branta leucopsis) were impacted by social isolation but not a contaminated grazing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Margje E.; Scheiber, Isabella B.R.; Brink, van den Nico W.; Braun, Anna; Matson, Kevin D.; Komdeur, Jan; Loonen, Maarten J.J.E.

    2017-01-01

    In many areas around the Arctic remains and spoil heaps of old mines can be found, which have been abandoned after their heydays. Runoff from tailings of these abandoned mines can directly contaminate the local environment with elevated concentrations of trace metals. Few studies have

  12. Leucocytozoonosis in Canada Geese at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Barrow, J.H.; Tarshis, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    A history is given of the Seney National Wildlife Refuge and the losses of goslings of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) recorded since inception of the refuge in 1935. Since 1960, when more reliable data became available, losses have been extensive every 4 years. Gosling deaths are attributed to the infection with Leucocytozoon simondi. The blackfly (Simulium innocens) is considered to be the prime vector in the transmission of this blood parasite to goslings.

  13. Attenuation of the goose parvovirus strain B. Laboratory and field trials of the attenuated mutant for vaccination against Derzsy's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; Derzsy, D; Meszaros, J

    1978-07-01

    Serial transfer of the goose parvovirus strain B, causal agent of Derzsy's gosling disease, in cultured goose-embryo fibroblast (GEF) resulted in a mutant (designated as Bav) apathogenic for both goose embryos and susceptible goslings. Goose embryos inoculated with the 38th or higher passages of strain B survived the infection, although the virus replicated in their organs. Susceptible goslings survived challenge with the Bav strain without showing symptoms, and developed normally. Only 4.2% of gosling progeny of parents vaccinated twice with strain Bav died after challenge with the virulent strain B goose parvovirus compared with 95% of gosling progeny of unvaccinated parents. Progeny of vaccinated and unvaccinated geese were placed on a farm on which Derzsy's disease was present. During the first month of life mortality was 7.7% in the progeny of vaccinated geese compared with 59.8% in the progeny of the unvaccinated geese. At 8 weeks of age the mean weight of the vaccinated goslings was 20% greater than for the unvaccinated goslings. These results indicate that the attenuated apathogenic Bav mutant is suitable for the immunisation of layers to protect their progeny by passive immunisation against Derzsy's disease.

  14. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  15. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney W. Brook

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how climate change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first-year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  16. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Rodney W.; Leafloor, James O.; Douglas, David C.; Abraham, Kenneth F.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  17. The Navy and the Infosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Attacks Mr. Keith Rhodes ( GAO ), Computer Security Issues & Year 2000 Issues CT-2 (June 30, 1998) Building the Cyber Place: Internet Bandwidth...Gosling (VP/Fellow, Sun Microsystems Chief Scientist, Java Software), JAVA, Building a Connected World Dr. James Waldo ( Jini Architect, Sun

  18. Effects of predation risk on site selection of barnacle geese during brood-rearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, J; Loonen, MJJE; Mehlum, F; Black, JM; Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Barnacle geese Branta leucopsis breed on small islands in the Kongsfjorden area, Spitsbergen. Shortly after hatching, families approach feeding sites at the mainland coast in the close surroundings of the village Ny-Alesund. The goslings are subject to predation by arctic foxes Alopex lagopus

  19. Barnacle geese Branta leucopsis on Nordenskioldkysten, western Spitsbergen - in thirty years from colonisation to saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RH; Black, JM; Loonen, MJJE; Prop, J; Mehlum, F; Black, JM; Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Goose surveys on Nordenskioldkysten, a 40-km stretch centred at 78 degrees N on the western shoreline of Spitsbergen, were undertaken during 13 seasons in the period 1975-97. The surveys show that peak numbers of adults and goslings during the moult period July-August have flattened out since 1986.

  20. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  1. Canary in the coal mine: Historical oxygen decline in the Gulf of St. Lawrence due to large scale climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, M.; Galbraith, E. D.; Palter, J. B.; Gilbert, D.; Bianchi, D.; Dunne, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    The regional signature of anthropogenic climate change on the atmosphere and upper ocean is often difficult to discern from observational timeseries, dominated as they are by decadal climate variability. Here we argue that a long-term decline of dissolved oxygen concentrations observed in the Gulf of S. Lawrence (GoSL) is consistent with anthropogenic climate change. Oxygen concentrations in the GoSL have declined markedly since 1930 due primarily to an increase of oxygen-poor North Atlantic Central Waters relative to Labrador Current Waters (Gilbert et al. 2005). We compare these observations to a climate warming simulation using a very high-resolution global coupled ocean-atmospheric climate model. The numerical model (CM2.6), developed by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, is strongly eddying and includes a biogeochemical module with dissolved oxygen. The warming scenario shows that oxygen in the GoSL decreases and it is associated to changes in western boundary currents and wind patterns in the North Atlantic. We speculate that the large-scale changes behind the simulated decrease in GoSL oxygen have also been at play in the real world over the past century, although they are difficult to resolve in noisy atmospheric data.

  2. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 avr. 2014 ... football :20, tennis :cinq ,basketball :trois, ,handball :deux, , non précisé :15) ;un traumatisme indirect .... Lansdaal JR, Goslings JC, Reichart M, Govaert GA, et al. Les résultats de 163 ruptures de tendon d'Achilles traités la chirurgie mini invasive et post traitement fonctionnel. Injury. 2007 ; 38(7) : 839-844.

  3. An Analysis of the Deployment of the 235th Aviation Company (Attack Helicopter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    HELICOPTER) July 1977 Project Officer James R. Hefner, CPT, TC Contributors Henry B. Wolfe N. E. Frye, LTC, TC Graydon T. Gosling...barrier material and secure barrier cover with PPP-T-60 tape. i. Install pitot cover. If cover is not available, wrap pitot tube with MIL-B

  4. Constraints on productivity of wild Nene or Hawaiian geese Branta sandvicensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    I investigated constraints on the productivity of wild Nene on Hawaii and Maui during 1978-81. These populations were composed largely of captive-reared birds. Recruitment of young was low. Of 140 breeding attempts, 36% resulted in successful nests and 7% produced fledglings. Annual productivity was limited because: 1) relatively few available pairs attempted to breed (58% on Hawaii; 46% on Maui), 2) average rate of nest success was low (44%), and 3) gosling survival was low nesting suggests that many females could not accumulate sufficient body reserves for egg-laying and incubation due to poor foraging conditions or poorly developed foraging skills. Nest failure was high due to predation on eggs and incubating females by the introduced mongoose. Gosling mortality was high because of poor foraging conditions near many nests, forcing broods to travel over rugged, volcanic terrain to distant rearing areas. In addition, some goslings were killed by predators. Nene populations would benefit most from improved foraging opportunities for adult females and goslings and from reduced predator populations.

  5. The morphological development of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of the migratory barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishop, CM; Butler, PJ; ElHaj, AJ; Egginton, S; Loonen, MJJE

    The masses of the locomotor and cardiac muscles of wild barnacle goose goslings, from a migratory population, were examined systematically during development and their values compared to those of pre-migratory geese. Pre-flight development was typified by approximately linear increases of body, leg,

  6. Variation in growth of young and adult size in barnacle geese Branta leucopsis : Evidence for density dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, MJJE; Oosterbeek, K; Drent, RH

    1997-01-01

    A colony of Svalbard Barnacle Geese Branta leucopsis was studied near Ny Alesund, Spitsbergen. Breeding started in 1980 and the colony size followed a sigmoidal curve with little increase in numbers in the period 1992-1995. Over the period 1991-1995 gosling growth declined, mortality during growth

  7. With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility: An Examination of the Behaviors of Leaders in Student Services Administrative Officers Positions within Southern California Based Institutions of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jalin A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the Big Five Personality Traits and the leaders self-efficacy as measured by the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) as developed by Gosling, Rentfrow, and Swann, 2003 and the Leadership Self-Efficacy Measure as developed by Chan and Drasgow (2001) for Student…

  8. Variation in foraging behavior and body mass in broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica): Evidence for interspecific density dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Laing, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    Broods of geese spend time feeding according to availability and quality of food plants, subject to inherent foraging and digestive constraints. We studied behavioral patterns of broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, and examined how feeding and alert behavior varied in relation to habitat and goose density. During 1994–1996, time spent feeding by Emperor Goose goslings and adult females was positively related to multispecies goose densities near observation blinds, and not to just Emperor Goose density. Similarly, body mass of Emperor Goose goslings was more strongly related (negatively) to multispecies goose densities than intraspecific densities. A grazing experiment in 1995 indicated that most above ground primary production by Carex subspathacea, a preferred food plant, was consumed by grazing geese. Those results demonstrate that interspecific competition for food occurred, with greatest support for goslings whose behavioral repertoire is limited primarily to feeding, digesting, and resting. Although the more abundant Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) differed from Emperor Geese in their preferred use of habitats during brooding rearing (Schmutz 2001), the two species occurred in equal abundance in habitats preferred by Emperor Goose broods. Thus, Cackling Canada Geese were a numerically significant competitor with Emperor Geese. Comparing these results to an earlier study, time spent feeding by goslings, adult females, and adult males were greater during 1993–1996 than during 1985–1986. During the interval between those studies, densities of Cackling Canada Geese increased two to three times whereas Emperor Goose numbers remained approximately stable, which implies that interspecific competition affected foraging behavior over a long time period. These density-dependent changes in foraging behavior and body mass indicate that interspecific competition affects nutrient acquisition and gosling

  9. Adaptive COIN in Sri Lanka: What Contributed to the Demise of the LTTE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    significant socio -ethnic division in Sri Lankan society is between the numerical majority, the Sinhalese, and the numerical minority, the Sri Lankan...37 K. M. De Silva, Universal Franchise , 1931–1981: The Sri Lankan Experience (Colombo: Dept. of Information, Ministry of State...ethnic conflict due to socio -demographic electoral dynamics and constitutional constraints.118 This did not occur within the GoSL during the CFA period

  10. Decadal declines in avian herbivore reproduction: density-dependent nutrition and phenological mismatch in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan V; Alisauskas, Ray T; Douglas, David C; Kellett, Dana K

    2017-07-01

    A full understanding of population dynamics depends not only on estimation of mechanistic contributions of recruitment and survival, but also knowledge about the ecological processes that drive each of these vital rates. The process of recruitment in particular may be protracted over several years, and can depend on numerous ecological complexities until sexually mature adulthood is attained. We addressed long-term declines (23 breeding seasons, 1992-2014) in the per capita production of young by both Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nesting at Karrak Lake in Canada's central Arctic. During this period, there was a contemporaneous increase from 0.4 to 1.1 million adults nesting at this colony. We evaluated whether (1) density-dependent nutritional deficiencies of pre-breeding females or (2) phenological mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality, inferred from NDVI on the brood-rearing areas, may have been behind decadal declines in the per capita production of goslings. We found that, in years when pre-breeding females arrived to the nesting grounds with diminished nutrient reserves, the proportional composition of young during brood-rearing was reduced for both species. Furthermore, increased mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality contributed additively to further declines in gosling production, in addition to declines caused by delayed nesting with associated subsequent negative effects on clutch size and nest success. The degree of mismatch increased over the course of our study because of advanced vegetation phenology without a corresponding advance in Goose nesting phenology. Vegetation phenology was significantly earlier in years with warm surface air temperatures measured in spring (i.e., 25 May-30 June). We suggest that both increased phenological mismatch and reduced nutritional condition of arriving females were behind declines in population-level recruitment, leading

  11. Decadal declines in avian herbivore reproduction: density-dependent nutrition and phenological mismatch in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan V.; Alisaukas, Ray T.; Douglas, David C.; Kellett, Dana K.

    2017-01-01

    A full understanding of population dynamics depends not only on estimation of mechanistic contributions of recruitment and survival, but also knowledge about the ecological processes that drive each of these vital rates. The process of recruitment in particular may be protracted over several years, and can depend on numerous ecological complexities until sexually mature adulthood is attained. We addressed long-term declines (23 breeding seasons, 1992–2014) in the per capita production of young by both Ross's Geese (Chen rossii) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nesting at Karrak Lake in Canada's central Arctic. During this period, there was a contemporaneous increase from 0.4 to 1.1 million adults nesting at this colony. We evaluated whether (1) density-dependent nutritional deficiencies of pre-breeding females or (2) phenological mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality, inferred from NDVI on the brood-rearing areas, may have been behind decadal declines in the per capita production of goslings. We found that, in years when pre-breeding females arrived to the nesting grounds with diminished nutrient reserves, the proportional composition of young during brood-rearing was reduced for both species. Furthermore, increased mismatch between peak gosling hatch and peak forage quality contributed additively to further declines in gosling production, in addition to declines caused by delayed nesting with associated subsequent negative effects on clutch size and nest success. The degree of mismatch increased over the course of our study because of advanced vegetation phenology without a corresponding advance in Goose nesting phenology. Vegetation phenology was significantly earlier in years with warm surface air temperatures measured in spring (i.e., 25 May–30 June). We suggest that both increased phenological mismatch and reduced nutritional condition of arriving females were behind declines in population-level recruitment

  12. Browse Author Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All. G. Gachago, Daniela · Garraway, James · Gosling, David · Groven, Karen Synne 1 - 4 of 4 Items. ISSN: 2310-7103. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  13. Leucocytozoon simondi in Emperor Geese from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmen, T.K.; Franson, J.C.; Creekmore, L.H.; Schmutz, J.A.; Fowler, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    We surveyed Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) in western Alaska for avian hematozoa. Blood smears were collected from 134 adults and goslings in late July 1996, on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. One of 134 (0.7%) Emperor Geese harbored Leucocytozoon simondi, representing a new host record for this parasite. No other hematozoa were detected. This is one of few reports of avian blood parasites from the arctic tundra.

  14. Personality assessment and feline–keepers relationship in lions (Panthera leo)

    OpenAIRE

    Quintavalle Pastorino, Giovanni; Soares, Nuno; Mazzola, Silvia Michela; Preziosi, Richard; Albertini, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    Animal personality is a growing research area due to the increasing evidence of the impact that it has on welfare, health and management of animals in captivity (Freeman and Gosling, 2010). Testing and improving existent methodologies, as well as develop new ones, to outline animal personality is an important step towards welfare, health and longevity of captive animals (Phillips, 2007; Whitham and Wielebnowski, 2013). Lions (Panthera leo) were chosen for this study because the species is und...

  15. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  16. China Report, Agriculture, No. 255, 1981 Agricultural Yearbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-28

    Prevention and Control of Forest Insect Pests 161 Animal Husbandry Industry 162 The Rise of China’s Beef Cattle Industry 162 Quickening Development...and Research on Sichuan’s Peng [2766] Ducks Enterprise 477 Research on Gosling Plague 477 Medicinal Techniques for Livestock Castration 478 Forestry...inventory rate percent 62.1 62.3 2. Beef cattle sold or 10,000 slaughtered for per- head 332.2 296.8 35.4 11.9 sonal use during year 3. Mutton sheep

  17. Uso del Inventario de los Cinco Grandes en una muestra colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Salgado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the use of the Big Five Inventory in its Spanish version relying on a convenience sample of 323 Colombian university students. We replicated the structure of the Big Five with a congruence factor above .90. Considering the average age of our sample, we realized our analysis applying the ipsatization procedure as suggested by Soto, John, Gosling, and Potter to control for the effect of acquiescence. Our analysis confirmed sex differences similar to those reported.

  18. Investigation into the possibility of vertical transmission of avian bornavirus in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Nagy, Eva; Ojkic, Davor; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of in ovo infection with avian bornavirus (ABV) in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 53 eggs were opportunistically collected at various stages of embryonic development from 16 free-ranging goose nests at a large urban zoo site where ABV infection is known to be present in this species. ABV RNA was detected in the yolk of one of three unembryonated eggs using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. ABV RNA was not identified in the brains from 23 newly hatched goslings or 19 embryos, nor from three early whole embryos. Antibodies against ABV were not detected in the plasma of any of the hatched goslings using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Possible reasons for the failure to detect ABV RNA in hatchlings or embryos include low sample size, eggs deriving from parents not actively infected with ABV, the testing of only brain tissue, and failure of the virus to replicate in Canada goose embryos. In conclusion, this preliminary investigation demonstrating the presence of ABV RNA in the yolk of a Canada goose egg provides the first evidence for the potential for vertical transmission of ABV in waterfowl.

  19. The effect of age, genotype and sex on carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes of geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Uhlířová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to compare carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes in two different genotypes of geese according to age and sex. Methods The experiment was carried out on 160 birds of two genotypes of geese: the Czech Goose (CG breed and a Eskildsen Schwer (ES hybrid. One-d-old goslings were divided into four groups according to genotype and sex. Two dates for slaughtering (at 8 and 16 wk of age of goslings were undertaken. Results The slaughter weight, cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were affected by all the studied factors, and significant interactions between age, genotype and sex were detected in the slaughter weight (p<0.001 and cold carcass weight (p = 0.004. The pH was not affected by any of studied factors, whereas in terms of meat colour parameters there were observed significant effects of age on L* and b* value and a significant effect of sex on a* value. The meat fat content was higher (p = 0.002 in ES. Higher score for overall acceptance of goose meat was recorded for ES at both ages compared to CG. Conclusion ES had higher dressing percentage and better sensory attributes, whereas CG exceled in the favourable nutritional value of the meat.

  20. Mortality patterns in endangered Hawaiian geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species.

  1. Prevalence, transmission, and genetic diversity of blood parasites infecting tundra-nesting geese in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John A.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Tom F.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Terenzi, John; Ely, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 842 blood samples collected from five species of tundra-nesting geese in Alaska was screened for haemosporidian parasites using molecular techniques. Parasites of the generaLeucocytozoon Danilewsky, 1890, Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890, and Plasmodium Marchiafava and Celli, 1885 were detected in 169 (20%), 3 (parasites and assess variation relative to species, age, sex, geographic area, year, and decade. Species, age, and decade were identified as important in explaining differences in prevalence of Leucocytozoonparasites. Leucocytozoon parasites were detected in goslings sampled along the Arctic Coastal Plain using both historic and contemporary samples, which provided support for transmission in the North American Arctic. In contrast, lack of detection of Haemoproteus and Plasmodiumparasites in goslings (n = 238) provided evidence to suggest that the transmission of parasites of these genera may not occur among waterfowl using tundra habitats in Alaska, or alternatively, may only occur at low levels. Five haemosporidian genetic lineages shared among different species of geese sampled from two geographic areas were indicative of interspecies parasite transmission and supported broad parasite or vector distributions. However, identicalLeucocytozoon and Haemoproteus lineages on public databases were limited to waterfowl hosts suggesting constraints in the range of parasite hosts.

  2. Florida creativity index scores, conservatism, and openness in 268 U.S. regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2011-02-01

    This study assessed whether Florida's Creativity Index (2002) scores for 268 U.S. regions were related to levels of conservatism and openness in the states in which the regions were situated. State conservatism was measured as the percentage voting for Bush in 2000. State openness z scores were taken from a survey of 619,397 residents (Rentfrow, Gosling, & Potter, 2008). Creativity scores correlated negatively with conservatism (r = -.22) and positively with openness (r = .23). Regression showed that the two predictors accounted jointly (7%) and separately for significant variance in the Creativity Index. The findings contribute evidence for the construct validity of Florida's composite Creativity Index and some, albeit moderate to weak, support of the Rentfrow, et al. conclusion that state-aggregated openness reflects the unconventionality, tolerance, and creativity of a state.

  3. White paper: Music Interventions in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Line; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Chances are that you have listened to music for several hours during the past week. A recent Danish survey found that 76 % of adults between 12 and 70 years listened to music for more than one hour daily (Engagement, 2010). Indeed, music is consistently rated to be among the top ten pleasures...... that people value the most in life (Rentfrow and Gosling, 2003), but music can do more than just lift your spirit. Throughout the past decade, solid biomedical and psychological evidence is beginning to emerge, demonstrating the beneficial effects of music for a variety of somatic and psychiatric disorders......, and for improving general well-being in healthy individuals. In this white paper, we describe the brain mechanisms through which music exerts these effects, and review the evidence concerning music applications for a range of somatic and psychiatric disorders and for improving well-being in healthy individuals. We...

  4. The state of the Java universe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Speaker Bio: James Gosling received a B.Sc. in computer science from the University of Calgary, Canada in 1977. He received a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1983. The title of his thesis was The Algebraic Manipulation of Constraints. He has built satellite data acquisition systems, a multiprocessor version of UNIX®, several compilers, mail systems, and window managers. He has also built a WYSIWYG text editor, a constraint-based drawing editor, and a text editor called Emacs, for UNIX systems. At Sun his early activity was as lead engineer of the NeWS window system. He did the original design of the Java programming language and implemented its original compiler and virtual machine. He has recently been a contributor to the Real-Time Specification for Java.

  5. The birth and development of the DNA theory of inheritance: sixty years since the discovery of the structure of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portin, Petter

    2014-04-01

    The development of the DNA theory of inheritance culminated in the publication of the molecular structure of DNA 60 years ago. This paper describes this development, beginning with the discovery of DNA as a chemical substance by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, followed by its basic chemical analysis and demonstration of its participation in the structure of chromosomes. Subsequently it was discovered by Oswald Avery in 1944 that DNA was the genetic material, and then Erwin Chargaff showed that the proportions of the bases included in the structure of DNA followed a certain law. These findings, in association with the biophysical studies of Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin with Raymond Gosling, led James Watson and Francis Crick to the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA in 1953. The paper ends with a short description of the development of the DNA theory of inheritance after the discovery of the double helix.

  6. Transport coefficient computation based on input/output reduced order models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Joshua L.

    The guiding purpose of this thesis is to address the optimal material design problem when the material description is a molecular dynamics model. The end goal is to obtain a simplified and fast model that captures the property of interest such that it can be used in controller design and optimization. The approach is to examine model reduction analysis and methods to capture a specific property of interest, in this case viscosity, or more generally complex modulus or complex viscosity. This property and other transport coefficients are defined by a input/output relationship and this motivates model reduction techniques that are tailored to preserve input/output behavior. In particular Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) based methods are investigated. First simulation methods are identified that are amenable to systems theory analysis. For viscosity, these models are of the Gosling and Lees-Edwards type. They are high order nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) that employ Periodic Boundary Conditions. Properties can be calculated from the state trajectories of these ODEs. In this research local linear approximations are rigorously derived and special attention is given to potentials that are evaluated with Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC). For the Gosling description LTI models are developed from state trajectories but are found to have limited success in capturing the system property, even though it is shown that full order LTI models can be well approximated by reduced order LTI models. For the Lees-Edwards SLLOD type model nonlinear ODEs will be approximated by a Linear Time Varying (LTV) model about some nominal trajectory and both balanced truncation and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) will be used to assess the plausibility of reduced order models to this system description. An immediate application of the derived LTV models is Quasilinearization or Waveform Relaxation. Quasilinearization is a Newton's method applied to the ODE operator

  7. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems: I. Growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarica, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigated the effect of incubation type and production system on geese growth traits. 2. A total of 216 geese were either naturally (114) or artificially (102) hatched and reared in intensive or free-range production systems (4 replicates each) until 18 weeks of age. 3. Weights of naturally hatched goslings (NHG) were significantly higher than artificially hatched goslings (AHG) at 2 weeks (644 vs. 536 g); however, weights of AHG were significantly higher than NHG at both 6 weeks (3245 vs. 3010 g) and 18 weeks (5212 vs. 4353 g). 4. AHG had better feed conversion ratios (FCRs) than NHG (6.21 vs. 6.46 at 18 weeks). Feed consumption of naturally hatched geese was found higher in first 4 weeks when compared to artificially hatched geese and artificially hatched geese consumed more feed than naturally hatched geese after 8 weeks. 5. Production system had insignificant effects on feed consumption, FCRs, viability and mutilation rates. 6. Slipped wings were more frequent in NHG than AHG (8.32% vs. 1.68% at 6 weeks; 23.84% vs. 5.12% between 7 and 18 weeks) and in free-range production when compared to intensive production (17.88% vs. 11.08% over the course of the production period). 7. The study results indicate that both artificially and NHG can be reared in free-range production systems without any loss in performance and in deference to animal welfare.

  8. Expression, purification, characterization and subcellular localization of the goose parvovirus rep1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng; Peng, Gaojing; Liu, Guangqing

    2013-07-01

    The goose parvovirus (GPV) Rep1 protein is both essential for viral replication and a potential target for GPV diagnosis, but its protein characterization and intracellular localization is not clear. We constructed a recombinant plasmid, pET28a/GPV-Rep1, and expressed the Rep1 gene in BL21 (DE3) Escherichia coli. A protein approximately 75 kDa in size was obtained from lysates of E. coli cells expressing the recombinant plasmid. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that after induction with 0.6 mM isopropyl β-D-thiogalactosidase (IPTG) at 30°C for 5 h, the Rep1 protein was highly overexpressed. Two methods used to purify proteins, a salinity-gradient elution and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, were performed. The amount of Rep1 protein obtained by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography was 41.23 mg, while 119.9 mg of Rep1 protein was obtained by a salinity-gradient elution from a 1 L E. coli BL21 (DE3) culture. An immunogenicity analysis showed that the protein could significantly elicit a specific antibody response in immunized goslings compared to control groups. Antibody titers peaked to 1:5120 (optical density (OD) 450 = 3.9) on day 28 after immunization but had mean titers of 1:10,240 (OD450 = 4.2) in gosling groups immunized with a commercially available GPV-attenuated vaccine strain. Experiments examining subcellular localization showed that the Rep1 protein appeared to associate predominantly with the nuclear membrane, especially during later times of infection. This work provides a basis for biochemical and structural studies on the GPV Rep1 protein.

  9. Epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of goose parvovirus infection in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Désirée S; Feinstein, Ricardo; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás; Palya, Vilmos

    2007-06-01

    An outbreak of goose parvovirus (GPV) infection on a Swedish goose farm in the spring of 2004 increased the mortality rates from 2% in the early unaffected hatches to 90% and 99% respectively in the two hatches following virus introduction and 40% in goslings hatched later in the same breeding season. In this paper we describe the clinical observations, diagnostic procedures, and epidemiologic investigation carried out to elucidate the source of the infection. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology, virus isolation, and sequence analysis of a 493-bp-long fragment of the VP1 gene. Phylogenetically the causative virus was closely related to pathogenic GPV strains isolated in 2003 and 2004 from Poland and the United Kingdom, respectively. The Swedish isolate exhibited less homology with pathogenic strains from Hungary and Asia and with attenuated vaccine strains. The epidemiologic investigation showed that the virus was first introduced to a contract farm (farm A) and then was transferred with newly hatched goslings to the farm that had submitted the birds for necropsy (index farm). The exact time and source of the virus introduction to farm A could not be determined with absolute certainty. Possible sources of the infection included backyard goose eggs that had been delivered to farm A for subcontract incubation and hatching, wild geese that frequented the flock of breeding geese on pasture on farm A, and a clutch of Canada goose eggs (Branta canadensis) that had been produced by wild geese and was hatched in the same machine as the eggs produced by farm A.

  10. Juvenile greylag geese (Anser anser discriminate between individual siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella B R Scheiber

    Full Text Available Social species that maintain individualised relationships with certain others despite continuous changes in age, reproductive status and dominance rank between group members ought to be capable of individual recognition. Tests of "true" individual recognition, where an individual recognises unique features of another, are rare, however. Often kinship and/or familiarity suffice to explain dyadic interactions. The complex relationships within a greylag goose flock suggest that they should be able to recognise individuals irrespective of familiarity or kinship. We tested whether six-week-old hand-raised greylags can discriminate between two of their siblings. We developed a new experimental protocol, in which geese were trained to associate social siblings with geometrical symbols. Subsequently, focals were presented with two geometrical symbols in the presence of a sibling associated with one of the symbols. Significant choice of the geometrical symbol associated with the target present indicated that focals were able to distinguish between individual targets. Greylag goslings successfully learned this association-discrimination task, regardless of genetic relatedness or sex of the sibling targets. Social relationships within a goose flock thus may indeed be based on recognition of unique features of individual conspecifics.

  11. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon‐Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid‐June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  12. Immunogenicity of virus-like particles containing modified goose parvovirus VP2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng; Zhu, Yingqi; Wang, Binbin; Meng, Chunchun; Liu, Guangqing

    2012-10-01

    The major capsid protein VP2 of goose parvovirus (GPV) expressed using a baculovirus expression system (BES) assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs). To optimize VP2 gene expression in Sf9 cells, we converted wild-type VP2 (VP2) codons into codons that are more common in insect genes. This change greatly increased VP2 protein production in Sf9 cells. The protein generated from the codon-optimized VP2 (optVP2) was detected by immunoblotting and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the formation of VLPs. These findings indicate that optVP2 yielded stable and high-quality VLPs. Immunogenicity assays revealed that the VLPs are highly immunogenic, elicit a high level of neutralizing antibodies and provide protection against lethal challenge. The antibody levels appeared to be directly related to the number of GP-Ag-positive hepatocytes. The variation trends for GP-Ag-positive hepatocytes were similar in the vaccine groups. In comparison with the control group, the optVP2 VLPs groups exhibited obviously better responses. These data indicate that the VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Thus, GPV optVP2 appears to be a good candidate for the vaccination of goslings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on goose parvovirus non-structural protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Fei; Ma, Bo; Wang, Jun-Wei

    2016-10-15

    Goose parvovirus (GPV) infection can cause a highly contagious and lethal disease in goslings and muscovy ducklings which is widespread in all major goose (Anser anser) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss. Humoral immune responses play a major role in GPV immune protection during GPV infection. However, it is still unknown for the localization and immunological characteristics of B-cell epitopes on GPV non-structural protein (NSP). Therefore, in this study, the epitopes on the NSP of GPV were identified by means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot. The results showed that the antigenic epitopes on the GPV NSP were predominantly localized in the C-terminal (aa 485-627), and especially, the fragment NS (498-532) was strongly positive. These results may facilitate future investigations on the function of NSP of GPV and the development of immunoassays for the diagnosis of GPV infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Sequencing and generation of an infectious clone of the pathogenic goose parvovirus strain LH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Duan, Jinkun; Zhu, Liqian; Jiang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the complete genome of the virulent strain LH of goose parvovirus (GPV) was sequenced and cloned into the pBluescript II (SK) plasmid vector. Sequence alignments of the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of GPV strains revealed a common 14-nt-pair deletion in the stem of the palindromic structure in the LH strain and three other strains isolated after 1982 when compared to three GPV strains isolated earlier than that time. Transfection of 11-day-old embryonated goose eggs with the plasmid pLH, which contains the entire genome of strain LH, resulted in successful rescue of the infectious virus. Death of embryos after transfection via the chorioallantoic membrane infiltration route occurred earlier than when transfection was done via the allantoic cavity inoculation route. The rescued virus exhibited virulence similar to that of its parental virus, as evaluated by the mortality rate in goslings. Generation of the pathogenic infectious clone provides us with a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of GPV in the future.

  15. Knowing versus liking: Separating normative knowledge from social desirability in first impressions of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine H; Biesanz, Jeremy C

    2015-12-01

    There are strong differences between individuals in the tendency to view the personality of others as similar to the average person. That is, some people tend to form more normatively accurate impressions than do others. However, the process behind the formation of normatively accurate first impressions is not yet fully understood. Given that the average individual's personality is highly socially desirable (Borkenau & Zaltauskas, 2009; Wood, Gosling & Potter, 2007), individuals may achieve high normative accuracy by viewing others as similar to the average person or by viewing them in an overly socially desirable manner. The average self-reported personality profile and social desirability, despite being strongly correlated, independently and strongly predict first impressions. Further, some individuals have a more accurate understanding of the average individual's personality than do others. Perceivers with more accurate knowledge about the average individual's personality rated the personality of specific others more normatively accurately (more similar to the average person), suggesting that individual differences in normative judgments include a component of accurate knowledge regarding the average personality. In contrast, perceivers who explicitly evaluated others more positively formed more socially desirable impressions, but not more normatively accurate impressions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound assessment of intracranial hemodynamics in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikanovic, M.; Balen, I.; Jandric, M.; Hozo, I.; Kokic, S.; Titlic, M.; Kadojic, D.

    2005-01-01

    Diabetics have a 3-fold risk for cardiovascular diseases compared with non-diabetics. This study was designed to evaluate cerebral hemodynamic changes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). TCD is a highly sensitive and specific method of quick bedside assessment of cerebrovascular circular circulation hemodynamics. In a prospective study, we compared a group of 100 patients with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (aged 48 to 67 years) and an age-and sex-matched control group of 100 healthy subjects without diabetes mellitus. We measured flow velocities (Vm) and the Gosling pulsatility index (PI) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA).The rate of TCD abnormalities was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in healthy control subjects (55% vs. 11%, P - 5 years, respectively. This study suggests that TCD is a useful marker for the detection of diabetic cerebrovascular changes. The duration and type of diabetes were found to have an impact on the development of pathologic cerebrovascular changes. (author)

  17. Genetic evaluation of reproductive potential in the Zatorska goose under a conservation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Magdalena; Andres, Krzysztof; Kapkowska, Ewa; Szwaczkowski, Tomasz

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and inbreeding effect on the fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability traits in the Zatorska goose covered by the animal genetic resources conservation program. The material for this study contains information about results of hatching of 18 863 eggs from 721 dams and 168 sires, laid between 1998-2015. Genetic parameters were estimated based on the threshold animal model by the use of Restricted Maximum Likelihood and Gibbs sampling. The percentage of fertilized eggs ranged yearly between 37-80%. The percentage of embryo mortality was very low, ranging between 4.63-23.73%. The percentage of the hatched goslings from the total number of analyzed eggs was on average 33.18%, and 53.72% from fertilized eggs. On average based on both methods, the heritability estimates of the fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability reached 0.36, 0.07, 0.24 for males and 0.44, 0.11, 0.32 for females. The genetic trend had increasing tendency for fertility and hatchability and was stable for embryo mortality for both sexes. The obtained result shows that the Zatorska goose can be still maintained in the reserves of the local gene pool according to current rules and use in the local market as a breed with good reproductive potential. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Heliophysics: Evolving Solar Activity and the Climates of Space and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2012-01-01

    Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun-like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  19. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L Y; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Xu, L; Zhang, J; Xing, H

    2017-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density on the growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese. In total, 336 healthy, 28-day-old, male Yangzhou goslings were randomly allotted to 30 plastic wire-floor pens according to 5 stocking densities (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 birds/m2). The results showed that with the stocking density increased from 2 birds/m2 to 6 birds/m2, the body weights of geese at 42 d (P density was increased to 6 birds/m2. Serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.013) and triiodothyronine (P density increased. The serum thyroxine concentration of geese from the 6 birds/m2 group was lower than that of geese from the other groups (P density will adversely influence thyroid function and the developments of the body weight, body size, feathers, and small intestine. Under our experimental conditions, we recommend that the stocking density of geese should be kept to 5 or fewer birds/m2 to avoid the negative effects of high stocking density on geese. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of virulent and attenuated strains of duck plague virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Huang, Li; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Luo, Sisi

    2017-11-01

    Sequence analysis of duck plague virus (DPV) revealed that there was a 528bp (B fragment) deletion within the UL2 gene of DPV attenuated vaccine strain in comparison with field virulent strains. The finding of gene deletion provides a potential differentiation test between DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain based on their UL2 gene sizes. Thus we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting to the DPV UL2 gene for simultaneous detection of DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain, 827bp for virulent strain and 299bp for attenuated strain. This newly developed PCR for DPV was highly sensitive and specific. It detected as low as 100fg of DNA on both DPV virulent and attenuated strains, no same size bands were amplified from other duck viruses including duck paramyxovirus, duck tembusu virus, duck circovirus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, duck hepatitis virus type I, avian influenza virus and gosling plague virus. Therefore, this PCR assay can be used for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of DPV virulent and attenuated strains affecting ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Blood parasites in North American waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1968-01-01

    One thing seems to stand out in the overall knowledge we have of the blood parasites of waterfowl, as previously noted by Herman and Wehr, (1954): the greatest potential of losses is in the younger age groups, usually those birds 5-10 weeks old. In Leucocytozoon infections, death occurs as early as the first or second week of the bird's life. As a conclusion to this presentation, I wish to emphasize that there are many gaps in our knowledge of these parasites and that the answers are to be obtained by further studies in the young birds. Data obtained from studies of birds shot by hunters or from specimens taken during fall or winter banding operations can be expected to be far less rewarding and significanf than studies of goslings and ducklings. We need much more knowledge of these parasites and their vectors and other relationships before we can develop management procedures to combat or contain them. It will require many more studies in depth to achieve this goal, but the facts are there waiting to be uncovered. These parasites will have to be regulated along with breeding habitat, hunter take, and other factors that all add up to maintenance and management of waterfowl.

  2. North American Brant: Effects of changes in habitat and climate on population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David H.; Reed, Austin; Sedinger, James S.; Black, Jeffrey M.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Castelli, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the importance of key habitats used by four nesting populations of nearctic brant (Branta bernicla) and discuss the potential relationship between changes in these habitats and population dynamics of brant. Nearctic brant, in contrast to most geese, rely on marine habitats and native intertidal plants during the non-breeding season, particularly the seagrass, Zostera, and the macroalgae, Ulva. Atlantic and Eastern High Arctic brant have experienced the greatest degradation of their winter habitats (northeastern United States and Ireland, respectively) and have also shown the most plasticity in feeding behavior. Black and Western High Arctic brant of the Pacific Flyway are the most dependent on Zostera, and are undergoing a shift in winter distribution that is likely related to climate change and its associated effects on Zostera dynamics. Variation in breeding propensity of Black Brant associated with winter location and climate strongly suggests that food abundance on the wintering grounds directly affects reproductive performance in these geese. In summer, salt marshes, especially those containing Carex and Puccinellia, are key habitats for raising young, while lake shorelines with fine freshwater grasses and sedges are important for molting birds. Availability and abundance of salt marshes has a direct effect on growth and recruitment of goslings and ultimately, plays an important role in regulating size of local brant populations. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The Rocky Mountain population of the western Canada goose: its distribution, habitats, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, William B.; Bizeau, Elwood G.

    1980-01-01

    The western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) was divided into a Rocky Mountain population (RMP) and a Pacific population (PP) on the basis of band recovery patterns examined in this study and recovery data from other investigators. Habitat information obtained from nine cooperating wildlife agencies within the RMP's range provided a base line for evaluating future changes in nesting, molting, and wintering areas. The habitat inventory indicated that none of the seasonal habitats were currently limiting the size of the RMP. The RMP's range is divided into 15 reference areas and these are briefly described. Past studies of Canada geese in the Intermountain Region are reviewed. Topics covered in the discussion of breeding biology are nesting chronology, spring population composition, breeding age, clutch size, nesting success. artificial nesting structures, and gosling survival. Much of the mortality of Canada geese occurs before the birds are fledged. Man-made nesting structures reduce losses during incubation. but research is needed on the relations between brooding sites and gosling survival. Some western Canada geese, mainly prebreeders and unsuccessful nesters, make molt migrations to and from molting areas during and after the brood-rearing season. More than half of these molt-migrants are yearlings too young to nest; there are indications that even some successful nesters leave nesting areas to molt before the fledging of their offspring. Geese 2 years old or older may serve as guides to traditional molting areas for the first-time migrants (i.e., yearlings). Lack of disturbance appears to influence selection of specific molting areas within the nesting range of moffitti, whereas movements of molters out of the Intermountain Region may be related to the evolution of this subspecies. Apparently. molters of both the PP and RMP that leave the Region go to the Northwest Territories of Canada. Although the taxonomic status of moffitti as related to the

  4. Global assessment of river flood protection benefits and corresponding residual risks under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Yamazaki, Dai; Koirala, Sujan; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Kanae, Shinjiro; Dadson, Simon J.; Hall, Jim W.

    2016-04-01

    Global warming increases the water-holding capacity of the atmosphere and this could lead to more intense rainfalls and possibly increasing natural hazards in the form of flooding in some regions. This implies that traditional practice of using historical hydrological records alone is somewhat limited for supporting long-term water infrastructure planning. This has motivated recent global scale studies to evaluate river flood risks (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014, Sadoff et al., 2015) and adaptations benefits (e.g., Jongman et al., 2015). To support decision-making in river flood risk reduction, this study takes a further step to examine the benefits and corresponding residual risks for a range of flood protection levels. To do that, we channelled runoff information of a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and each CMIP5 model (historic and future periods) into a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011). We incorporated the latest global river width data (Yamazaki et al., 2014) into CaMa-Flood and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the flood protection benefits. We quantify the corresponding residual risks using a mathematical approach that is consistent with the modelling structure of CaMa-Flood. Globally and regionally, we find that the benefits of flood protection level peak somewhere between 20 and 500 years; residual risks diminish

  5. Canada geese of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: family relationships, behavior and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geese described are non-migratory, free-flying Todd's Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior). The genealogy of 261 of these geese was traced by archival research and three years of field observations. Nest locations and densities, preferences for various types of artificial nest structures, clutch sizes, hatching success, brood survival to flight stage, and food habits were recorded. Resul ts indicate geese may:,pair as yearlings, but these bonds may be broken and re-formed before breeding. Pair bonding generally resulted in geese of similar ages remaining together until the death of one partner, although re-pairing, polygamy, and pairing between broodmates also occurred. The dominance hierarchy of related birds strongly influenced the position of 'outsiders' pairing with indigenous females. Dominant status passed not only from male to male, but, upon the death of the dominant male, in at least one instance, the surviving female retained dominant status. Gang broods were composed of progeny of the rearing pair, plus goslings relinquished by female offspring or siblings of the rearing pair. Among indentifiable geese, gang broods were reared by the dominant pair on each impoundment. Geese retained their family integrity both in flight and during the post-molt dispersion. Female and males paired with local females, nested in their natal areas. No significant relationship (P family. Collars, legbands, and telemetry were initially used to distinguish conspecifics. It was subsequently discovered that individual geese could be recognized by cheek-patch patterns, unusual plumage, or mannerisms. It is suggested that cheek-patch similarities in related Canada geese might be used to trace gene flow within flocks, and may be used for individual recognition by other Canada geese.

  6. Rough-legged buzzards, Arctic foxes and red foxes in a tundra ecosystem without rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pokrovsky

    Full Text Available Small rodents with multi-annual population cycles strongly influence the dynamics of food webs, and in particular predator-prey interactions, across most of the tundra biome. Rodents are however absent from some arctic islands, and studies on performance of arctic predators under such circumstances may be very instructive since rodent cycles have been predicted to collapse in a warming Arctic. Here we document for the first time how three normally rodent-dependent predator species-rough-legged buzzard, arctic fox and red fox - perform in a low-arctic ecosystem with no rodents. During six years (in 2006-2008 and 2011-2013 we studied diet and breeding performance of these predators in the rodent-free Kolguev Island in Arctic Russia. The rough-legged buzzards, previously known to be a small rodent specialist, have only during the last two decades become established on Kolguev Island. The buzzards successfully breed on the island at stable low density, but with high productivity based on goslings and willow ptarmigan as their main prey - altogether representing a novel ecological situation for this species. Breeding density of arctic fox varied from year to year, but with stable productivity based on mainly geese as prey. The density dynamic of the arctic fox appeared to be correlated with the date of spring arrival of the geese. Red foxes breed regularly on the island but in very low numbers that appear to have been unchanged over a long period - a situation that resemble what has been recently documented from Arctic America. Our study suggests that the three predators found breeding on Kolguev Island possess capacities for shifting to changing circumstances in low-arctic ecosystem as long as other small - medium sized terrestrial herbivores are present in good numbers.

  7. Cerebrovascular pulsatility in patients with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alberto R; Cabral, Digna; Lee, David J; Sacco, Ralph L; Rundek, Tatjana

    2013-05-01

    The aim of our study is to determine the association between the pulsatility index (PI), a surrogate of cerebral small vessel disease and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We conducted a transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) study of 19 consecutive patients free of stroke and cardiovascular disease, referred for the evaluation of SDB. TCD was performed by a certified technologist. Subsequent polysomnography was performed according to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. We evaluated the association between the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), the oxygen nadir, the blood flow velocities, and the Gosling PI, for the middle cerebral artery. We performed Spearman's rank correlation and nonparametric regression to evaluate the relationship between AHI, oxygen levels, and the PI. Median age was 48 years (range 37-83), with 52 % male sex (n = 10), and median BMI of 29.9 (range 25-40.4). The median AHI was 16.4 (0.2-69). The median PI was 0.97 (0.72-1.89) cm/s. The PI correlated with the AHI (rho = 0.44; p = 0.004) and with age (rho = 0.57; p = 0.001). Nonparametric regression adjusting for age showed a positive association between the AHI and the PI (standardized estimate = 0.88; p = 0.002). There was no relation between the oxygen nadir and the PI. We observed increased PI in patients with SDB during wakefulness. The PI could potentially be an estimate of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with SDB and hence allow evaluating cerebral hemodynamics during wakefulness with a clinically relevant device.

  8. Conducting spoken word recognition research online: Validation and a new timing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Joseph; Strand, Julia F

    2016-06-01

    Models of spoken word recognition typically make predictions that are then tested in the laboratory against the word recognition scores of human subjects (e.g., Luce & Pisoni Ear and Hearing, 19, 1-36, 1998). Unfortunately, laboratory collection of large sets of word recognition data can be costly and time-consuming. Due to the numerous advantages of online research in speed, cost, and participant diversity, some labs have begun to explore the use of online platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) to source participation and collect data (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3-5, 2011). Many classic findings in cognitive psychology have been successfully replicated online, including the Stroop effect, task-switching costs, and Simon and flanker interference (Crump, McDonnell, & Gureckis PLoS ONE, 8, e57410, 2013). However, tasks requiring auditory stimulus delivery have not typically made use of AMT. In the present study, we evaluated the use of AMT for collecting spoken word identification and auditory lexical decision data. Although online users were faster and less accurate than participants in the lab, the results revealed strong correlations between the online and laboratory measures for both word identification accuracy and lexical decision speed. In addition, the scores obtained in the lab and online were equivalently correlated with factors that have been well established to predict word recognition, including word frequency and phonological neighborhood density. We also present and analyze a method for precise auditory reaction timing that is novel to behavioral research. Taken together, these findings suggest that AMT can be a viable alternative to the traditional laboratory setting as a source of participation for some spoken word recognition research.

  9. Geographic, temporal, and age-specific variation in diets of Glaucous Gulls in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Hobson, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    We collected boluses and food remains of adult Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) at or near nests and chicks, and digestive tracts from adults at three sites on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska that differed in proximity to marine and terrestrial foods. We observed both geographic and temporal variation in diet; gulls consumed proportionately more terrestrial prey after peak hatch in late June, and gulls near the coast consumed proportionately more marine prey than gulls at two inland areas. Goslings occurred in > 60% of all samples from these inland areas. We compared these data to those from a previous study in western Alaska and found no marked differences. Evidence for similar patterns of geographic and temporal variation in diet was found using measurements of stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes in gull and prey tissues. Stable isotope analysis further revealed that adult gulls consumed proportionately more marine prey (saffron cod, Eleginus gracilis) than they fed to their young. Using isotopic models, we estimated that 7-22% and 10-23% of the diet of adult and juvenile Glaucous Gulls, respectively, was comprised of terrestrial species. In addition to significant age-related variation, dietary estimates varied among geographic areas and between pre- and post-hatch periods. Overall, our isotopic estimates of the contribution of terrestrial prey to the diet of Glaucous Gulls was less than what may be inferred from conventional methods of diet analysis. Our study emphasizes the benefit of combining stable-isotope and conventional analyses to infer temporal and geographic changes in diet of wild birds and other organisms.

  10. The Advanced Composition Explorer Shock Database and Application to Particle Acceleration Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of particle acceleration via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) has been studied in depth by Gosling et al. (1981), van Nes et al. (1984), Mason (2000), Desai et al. (2003), Zank et al. (2006), among many others. Recently, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) using the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) shock database at 1 AU explored two questions: does the upstream distribution alone have enough particles to account for the accelerated downstream distribution and can the slope of the downstream accelerated spectrum be explained using DSA? As was shown in this research, diffusive shock acceleration can account for a large population of the shocks. However, Parker and Zank (2012, 2014) and Parker et al. (2014) used a subset of the larger ACE database. Recently, work has successfully been completed that allows for the entire ACE database to be considered in a larger statistical analysis. We explain DSA as it applies to single and multiple shocks and the shock criteria used in this statistical analysis. We calculate the expected injection energy via diffusive shock acceleration given upstream parameters defined from the ACE Solar Wind Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) data to construct the theoretical upstream distribution. We show the comparison of shock strength derived from diffusive shock acceleration theory to observations in the 50 keV to 5 MeV range from an instrument on ACE. Parameters such as shock velocity, shock obliquity, particle number, and time between shocks are considered. This study is further divided into single and multiple shock categories, with an additional emphasis on forward-forward multiple shock pairs. Finally with regard to forward-forward shock pairs, results comparing injection energies of the first shock, second shock, and second shock with previous energetic population will be given.

  11. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  12. Evaluation of the immune response in Shitou geese (Anser anser domesticus) following immunization with GPV-VP1 DNA-based and live attenuated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shu-xuan; Cai, Ming-sheng; Cui, Wei; Huang, Jin-lu; Li, Mei-li

    2014-01-01

    Goose parvovirus (GPV) is a highly contagious and deadly disease for goslings and Muscovy ducklings. To compare the differences in immune response of geese immunized with GPV-VP1 DNA-based and live attenuated vaccines. Shitou geese were immunized once with either 20 μg pcDNA-GPV-VP1 DNA gene vaccine by gene gun bombardment via intramuscular injection, or 300 μg by i.m. injection, or 300 μL live attenuated vaccine by i.m. injection, whereas 300 μg pcDNA3.1 (+) i.m. or 300 μL saline i.m. were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Each group comprised 28 animals. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 2-210 days after immunization and the proliferation of T lymphocytes, the number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and the level of IgG assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance with group multiple comparisons via Tukey's test. The pcDNA-GPV-VP1 DNA and attenuated vaccine induced cellular and humoral responses, and there were no differences between the 20 and 300 μg group in the responses of proliferation of T lymphocyte and the CD8(+) T-cell. However, as to CD4(+) T-cell response and humoral immunity, the 20 μg group performed better than the 300 μg group, which induced better cellular and humoral immunity than live attenuated vaccine. This study showed that it is possible to induce both cellular and humoral response using DNA-based vaccines and that the pcDNA-GPV-VP1 DNA gene vaccine induced better cellular and humoral immunity than live attenuated vaccine.

  13. Development and evaluation of a competitive ELISA using a monoclonal antibody for antibody detection after goose parvovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) and vaccine immunization in goose sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ju, Huanyu; Li, Yanwei; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Bo; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Junwei

    2014-12-01

    An assay protocol based on a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-based C-ELISA) for detecting antibodies against goose parvovirus (GPV) and its virus-like particles (VLPs) is described. The assay was developed using baculovirus-expressed recombinant VP2 virus-like particles (rVP2-VLPs) as antigens and a monoclonal antibody against GPV as the competitive antibody. Of the four anti-GPV MAbs that were screened, MAb 1G3 was selected as it was blocked by the GPV positive serum. Based on the distribution of percent inhibition (PI) of the known negative sera (n=225), a cut-off value was set at 36% inhibition. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity of the assay was 93.3% and the specificity was 95.8%, as compared with the gold standard (virus neutralization assay). The rVP2-VLPs did not react with anti-sera to other goose pathogens, indicating that it is specific for the recognization of goose parvovirus antibodies. The assay was then validated with serum samples from goslings vaccinated with several VLPs (rVP1-VLPs, rVP2-VLPs, rVP3-VLPs, and rCGV-VLPs) and other vaccines (inactivated and attenuated). The C-ELISA described in this study is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test and should have wide applications for the sero-diagnosis and immunologic surveillance of GPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Personality assessment and feline–keepers relationship in lions (Panthera leo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal personality is a growing research area due to the increasing evidence of the impact that it has on welfare, health and management of animals in captivity (Freeman and Gosling, 2010. Testing and improving existent methodologies, as well as develop new ones, to outline animal personality is an important step towards welfare, health and longevity of captive animals (Phillips, 2007; Whitham and Wielebnowski, 2013. Lions (Panthera leo were chosen for this study because the species is understudied compared to other felidae species in personality matters and because it displays a vast, diverse and well known behaviour repertoire (Schaller, 1973. Behavioural observations were conducted on the seven African lions housed in ZSL Whipsnade zoo. Keeper-animal interactions were recorded and a personality questionnaire was given to the keepers in order to rate 28 personality traits (Chadwick, 2014. Sociogram, composite sociality index (CSI and spread of participation index (SPI were also used to assess personality traits (Stanton 2015. Data gathered in this pilot study was successfully used to produce ID like personality traits profiles for all animals, to delineate personality traits, outline the unique characteristics of each subject. A sociogram consent to access and validate the dyad solitary/social and a SPI to understand each animal enclosure usage and relate it to the trait triad affiliate/fearful/aggressive towards humans. We believe this approach is promising and could be applied to investigate keeper-animal interactions also in other species. The limitation of this study is the sample size of the animal considered; in future research we hope to test other animals in order to validate the methodologies.

  15. A longitudinal study of employment and skill acquisition among individuals with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Dawn L; Collins, Michael D; Dodder, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation, especially the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, generated the closure of institutions for people with disabilities and inclusion into community residences and employment. It has been well documented that individuals with developmental disabilities often experience difficulties with employment including both obtaining and maintaining jobs, and many researchers have looked for ways to make employment more successful [McConkey, R. & Mezza F. (2001). Employment aspirations of people with learning disabilities attending day centers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5(4), 309-318; Stevens, G. (2002). Employers' perceptions and practice in the employability of disabled people: a survey of companies in south east UK. Disability and Society, 17(7), 779-796; Capella, M., Roessler, R., & Hemmeria, K. (2002). Work-related skills awareness in high-school students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 33(2), 17-23; Ingraham, K., Rahimi, M., Tsang, H., Chan, F., & Oulvey, E. (2001). Work support groups in state vocational rehabilitation agency settings: a case study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills, 5(1), 6-21; Gosling, V. & Cotterill, L. (2000). An employment project as a route to social inclusion for people with learning difficulties? Disability and Society, 15(7), 1001-1018; Neitupski, J. & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (2000). A systematic process for carving supported employment positions for people with severe disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 12(2), 103-119]. While research has accumulated that has examined predictors of successful employment, this research assessed longitudinal outcomes of employment. Data were obtained from an existing data set of all known persons receiving services from the Developmental Disabilities Division of the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (N=2760). Results indicated that as people moved to employment, scores on adaptive skills increased, that as people moved

  16. Quantitative analysis of waterfowl parvoviruses in geese and Muscovy ducks by real-time polymerase chain reaction: correlation between age, clinical symptoms and DNA copy number of waterfowl parvoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniakowski Grzegorz

    2012-03-01

    between age, clinical symptoms during parvoviral infection and the DNA copy number of these pathogens. The method allowed for a sensitive detection of GPV and MDPV even in 1-week old infected goslings or 2-week old ducklings before observation of any disease symptoms. Conclusions The developed method was found to be a valuable tool for the unification of laboratory procedures and both parvoviruses parallel detection and quantification. The conducted analysis revealed significant correlation between the age of the infected birds, the observed clinical symptoms and DNA copy number of GPV and MDPV in the examined organs. The obtained data may aid in better understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of Derzsy's disease and 3-w disease as well as estimation of the infection's severity and stage of the disease.

  17. Are the patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire used in distal radial fractures truly valid and reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, R. G.; Bhandari, M.; Goslings, J. C.; Poolman, R. W.; Scholtes, V. A. B.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire are patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used for clinical and research purposes. Methodological high-quality clinimetric studies that determine the measurement properties of these PROMs when used in patients with a distal radial fracture are lacking. This study aimed to validate the PRWE and DASH in Dutch patients with a displaced distal radial fracture (DRF). Methods The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for test-retest reliability, between PROMs completed twice with a two-week interval at six to eight months after DRF. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach’s α for the dimensions found in the factor analysis. The measurement error was expressed by the smallest detectable change (SDC). A semi-structured interview was conducted between eight and 12 weeks after DRF to assess the content validity. Results A total of 119 patients (mean age 58 years (sd 15)), 74% female, completed PROMs at a mean time of six months (sd 1) post-fracture. One overall meaningful dimension was found for the PRWE and the DASH. Internal consistency was excellent for both PROMs (Cronbach’s α 0.96 (PRWE) and 0.97 (DASH)). Test-retest reliability was good for the PRWE (ICC 0.87) and excellent for the DASH (ICC 0.91). The SDC was 20 for the PRWE and 14 for the DASH. No floor or ceiling effects were found. The content validity was good for both questionnaires. Conclusion The PRWE and DASH are valid and reliable PROMs in assessing function and disability in Dutch patients with a displaced DRF. However, due to the high SDC, the PRWE and DASH are less useful for individual patients with a distal radial fracture in clinical practice. Cite this article: Y. V. Kleinlugtenbelt, R. G. Krol, M. Bhandari, J. C. Goslings, R. W. Poolman, V. A. B. Scholtes. Are the patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and

  18. Book reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2005-01-01

    öder-Butterfill Andrew MacIntyre, The power of institutions; Political architecture and governance (Henk Schulte Nordholt Carol Ireson-Doolittle and Geraldine Moreno-Black, The Lao; Gender, power, and livelihood (Guido Sprenger David L. Gosling (with a foreword by Ninian Smart, Religion and ecology in India and Southeast Asia (Bryan S. Turner William C. Clarke, Remembering Papua New Guinea; An eccentric ethnography (Donald Tuzin Review essay Gerben Nooteboom: Competition, collateral damage, or ‘just accidents’? Three explanations of ethnic violence in Indonesia: - Jacques Bertrand, Nationalism and ethnic conflict in Indonesia - Cristina Eghenter, Bernard Sellato, and G. Simon Devung (eds, Social science research and conservation management in the interior of Borneo; Unravelling past and present interactions of people and forests - Nancy Lee Peluso and Michael Watts (eds, Violent environments - Günther Schlee (ed., Imagined differences; Hatred and the construction of identity

  19. Heliophysics 3 Volume Paperback Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2013-03-01

    -like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  20. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    -like stars Carolus J. Schrijver; 3. Formation and early evolution of stars and proto-planetary disks Lee W. Hartmann; 4. Planetary habitability on astronomical time scales Donald E. Brownlee; 5. Solar internal flows and dynamo action Mark S. Miesch; 6. Modeling solar and stellar dynamos Paul Charbonneau; 7. Planetary fields and dynamos Ulrich R. Christensen; 8. The structure and evolution of the 3D solar wind John T. Gosling; 9. The heliosphere and cosmic rays J. Randy Jokipii; 10. Solar spectral irradiance: measurements and models Judith L. Lean and Thomas N. Woods; 11. Astrophysical influences on planetary climate systems Juerg Beer; 12. Evaluating the drivers of Earth's climate system Thomas J. Crowley; 13. Ionospheres of the terrestrial planets Stanley C. Solomon; 14. Long-term evolution of the geospace climate Jan J. Sojka; 15. Waves and transport processes in atmospheres and oceans Richard L. Walterscheid; 16. Solar variability, climate, and atmospheric photochemistry Guy P. Brasseur, Daniel Marsch and Hauke Schmidt; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index.

  1. Effects of mycorrhiza inoculation and different irrigation levels on yield, yield components and essential oil contents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fertilizers are the key components which provide plant nutrients' needs in recent years (Omid Jangir & Sing, 1996; Kapoor et al., 2007. In many cases, using chemical fertilizers has different negative environmental effects such as soil, water and air pollution, which increase environmental hazardous and production costs (Jangir & Sing, 1996; Kapoor et al., 2007. Biological activities are markedly enhanced by microbial interactions in the rhizosphere of plants (Kapoor et al., 2007. Many investigators have successfully used mycorrhiza to increase the availability of immobilized phosphate and thus minimize the use of mineral fertilizers. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF can better enable a plant to withstand environmental stresses such as drought and salinity. AMF interacts with pathogens and other rhizosphere inhabitants which affect plant health and nutrition. More importantly, mycorrhizal fungi are capable of dissolving weakly soluble soil minerals, especially phosphate, by releasing acids or increasing CO2 partial pressure (Gupta et al., 2002; Gosling et al., 2006; Kapoor et al., 2007. Therefore, they have the ability to enhance host plant uptake of relatively immobile nutrients particularly P, S and Zn. Limited water supply is also another major environmental constraint in the productivity of crop and medicinal plants. Moisture deficiency induces various physiological and metabolic responses such as stomatal closure, decline in growth rate and photosynthesis (Flexas and Medrano, 2002. The results of Baher et al. (2002 showed that greater soil water stress decreased plant height and total fresh and dry weight of Satureja hortensis. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of mycorrhiza inoculation and different irrigation levels on the growth, quantitative and qualitative yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L., a field experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized