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Sample records for gordonia jacobaea mv-26

  1. Gordonia humi sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, P; Young, Chiu-Chung; Chu, Jiunn-Nan; Frischmann, A; Busse, H-J; Arun, A B; Shen, Fo-Ting; Rekha, P D

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming actinobacterium (CC-12301(T)) was isolated from soil attached to a spawn used in the laboratory to grow the edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain CC-12301(T) was shown to belong to the genus Gordonia and was most closely related to the type strains of Gordonia hydrophobica (97.6 % similarity), Gordonia terrae (97.5 %), Gordonia amarae (97.5 %) and Gordonia malaquae (97.4 %). The quinone system was determined to consist predominantly of menaquinone MK-9(H(2)), minor amounts of MK-8(H(2)) and MK-7(H(2)). The polar lipid profile consisted of the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, moderate amounts of two phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylinositol and minor amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified glycolipids, two phosphoglycolipids and a phospholipid. Mycolic acids were present. These chemotaxonomic traits and the major fatty acids, which were C(16 : 1) cis9, C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1) and tuberculostearic acid (10-methyl C(18 : 0)), supported the affiliation of strain CC-12301(T) to the genus Gordonia. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed clear phenotypic differentiation of strain CC-12301(T) from the most closely related Gordonia species. Strain CC-12301(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Gordonia humi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain CC-12301(T) (=DSM 45298(T) =CCM 7727(T)).

  2. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Senecio jacobaea affect fungal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the growth-reducing effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Senecio jacobaea on nine plant-associated fungi (five strains of Fusarium oxysporum, two of F. sambucinum, and two of Trichoderma sp). Fungal growth was monitored on water agar media containing different concentrations

  3. Genome Sequence of Gordonia Phage BetterKatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Emily N.; Forrest, Kaitlyn M.; McHale, Lilliana; Wertz, Anthony T.; Zhuang, Zenas; Kasturiarachi, Naomi S.; Pressimone, Catherine A.; Schiebel, Johnathon G.; Furbee, Emily C.; Grubb, Sarah R.; Warner, Marcie H.; Montgomery, Matthew T.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2016-01-01

    BetterKatz is a bacteriophage isolated from a soil sample collected in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania using the host Gordonia terrae 3612. BetterKatz’s genome is 50,636 bp long and contains 75 predicted protein-coding genes, 35 of which have been assigned putative functions. BetterKatz is not closely related to other sequenced Gordonia phages. PMID:27516497

  4. Natural hybridization between Senecio jacobaea and Senecio aquaticus : ecological outcomes and evolutionary consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirk, Heather Erin

    2009-01-01

    Plant hybridization has been shown to have important ecological and evolutionary consequences in a number of genera, including Senecio. Here, I investigate the possible consequences of natural hybridization between Senecio jacobaea and S. aquaticus. It is shown that many factors are involved in

  5. Soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type affect pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Secondary metabolites like pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) play a crucial part in plant defense. We studied the effects of soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type on pyrrolizidine alkaloids in roots and shoots of Jacobaea vulgaris. We used clones of two genotypes from a dune area (Meijendel),

  6. The isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B. Th.

    1982-01-01

    An intensive hydrological and geophysical survey of fresh water occurance in the Gordonia area, promoted a parallel study of the isotope hydrology and hydrochemistry of both the fresh and saline ground waters of the area. Measurements of 14 C, 3 H, 13 C and 18 O as well of major element hydrochemistry were conducted on numerous samples. Radiocarbon concentrations range from 6 pmc to 111 pmc. Significant tritium is only observed in cases where 14 C concentrations are significantly higher than 90 pmc

  7. Genome Sequences of Gordonia Phages BaxterFox, Kita, Nymphadora, and Yeezy

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Welkin H.; Bandla, Sharanya; Colbert, Alexandra K.; Eichinger, Fiona G.; Gamburg, Michelle B.; Horiates, Stavroula G.; Jamison, Jerrica M.; Julian, Dana R.; Moore, Whitney A.; Murthy, Pranav; Powell, Meghan C.; Smith, Sydney V.; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A.; Thompson, Paige K.

    2016-01-01

    Gordonia phages BaxterFox, Kita, Nymphadora, and Yeezy are newly characterized phages of Gordonia terrae, isolated from soil samples in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. These phages have genome lengths between 50,346 and 53,717?bp, and encode on average 84 predicted proteins. All have G+C content of 66.6%.

  8. Genome Sequences of Gordonia Phages BaxterFox, Kita, Nymphadora, and Yeezy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Welkin H; Bandla, Sharanya; Colbert, Alexandra K; Eichinger, Fiona G; Gamburg, Michelle B; Horiates, Stavroula G; Jamison, Jerrica M; Julian, Dana R; Moore, Whitney A; Murthy, Pranav; Powell, Meghan C; Smith, Sydney V; Mezghani, Nadia; Milliken, Katherine A; Thompson, Paige K; Toner, Chelsea L; Ulbrich, Megan C; Furbee, Emily C; Grubb, Sarah R; Warner, Marcie H; Montgomery, Matthew T; Garlena, Rebecca A; Russell, Daniel A; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Hatfull, Graham F

    2016-08-11

    Gordonia phages BaxterFox, Kita, Nymphadora, and Yeezy are newly characterized phages of Gordonia terrae, isolated from soil samples in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. These phages have genome lengths between 50,346 and 53,717 bp, and encode on average 84 predicted proteins. All have G+C content of 66.6%. Copyright © 2016 Pope et al.

  9. Uranium occurrences in the Gordonia and Kuruman districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.

    1978-11-01

    This report highlights uranium occurrences discovered by the author in the Kuruman and Gordonia Districts. These discoveries are the result of follow-up work of the regional geological, hydrological and hydrochemical studies of the area, undertaken by the Geology Division of the Atomic Energy Board since 1974. A surficial uranium deposit was discovered on the farm Rus en Vrede in the Kuruman District, at the junction of a palaeo-river with the Kuruman River. Uranium occurs in carbonaceous diatomaceous earth, with surface samples assaying up to 308 ppm U 3 O 8 . As uranium is also present in calcrete 18 km south of this deposit, there is a distinct possibility that significant surficial deposits may occur under the Kalahari sand cover in this area. In the Gordonia District an interesting discovery was made on the farm Tsongnapan where four boreholes, drilled for water, intersected radioactive bands in the Dwyka Tillite Formation. These rocks, which outcrop in the northeast corner of the Tsongnapan, also proved to be radioactive. Some 35 km to the east of this occurrence, borehole logging indicated the existence of an anomalous zone near the base of the Dwyka. In some of these boreholes uranium anomalies were also found in the calcrete and gravel of the Kalahari Formation. It is evident, therefore, that the Gordonia District has the potential of becoming an economically important uranium province. A radiometric ground survey of one of the pans indicated that wind and water action is possibly responsible for the local dispersion and segregation of radioactive minerals [af

  10. Complete genome sequence of Gordonia bronchialis type strain (3410T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Jando, Marlen [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Feng [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

    2010-01-01

    Gordonia bronchialis Tsukamura 1971 is the type species of the genus. G. bronchialis is a human-pathogenic organism that has been isolated from a large variety of human tissues. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of the family Gordoniaceae. The 5,290,012 bp long genome with its 4,944 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  11. Isotope hydrology of ground waters of the Kalahari, Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental isotope observations were conducted on ground waters from approximately 50 boreholes covering a substantial part of Gordonia. The quality of these waters ranges from fresh to saline. The observed isotope ratios cover a wide range of values, indicating varied hydrological conditions. The most important conclusions arrived at by this study are: 1. no important regional movement of ground water occurs at present; 2. there is widespread evidence of diffuse rainfall recharge; and 3. an important part of ground-water salinity is derived from the unsaturated zone, during such recharge

  12. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic evidence for a Pleistocene disjunction between Campanula jacobaea (Cape Verde Islands) and C. balfourii (Socotra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Marisa; Roquet, Cristina; García-Fernández, Alfredo; Vargas, Pablo; Aldasoro, Juan José

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of processes that led to biogeographic disjunct patterns of plant lineages in Macaronesia, North Africa and Socotra remains poor. Here, we study a group of Campanula species distributed across these areas integrating morphological and reproductive traits with phylogenetic and phylogeographic data based on the obtention of sequences for 4 highly variable cpDNA regions and AFLP data. The phylogeny obtained shows a sister relationship between Campanula jacobaea (endemic to Cape Verde Islands) and C. balfourii (endemic to Socotra), thus revealing a striking disjunct pattern (8300 km). These species diverged around 1.0 Mya; AFLP and haplotype data suggest that no genetic interchange has occurred since then. Their closest taxon, C. hypocrateriformis, is endemic to SW Morocco. The archipelagos of Macaronesia and Socotra have probably acted as refugia for North-African species, leading to speciation through isolation. Although C. balfourii has a restricted distribution, its genetic variability suggests that its populations have suffered no bottlenecks. C. jacobaea is also genetically rich and its distribution across Cape Verde Islands seems to have been influenced by the NE-SW trade winds, which may also have favoured the admixture found among the populations of the three southern islands. Floral features of the morphologically hypervariable C. jacobaea were also measured to assess whether the taxon C. bravensis, described for some of the southeast populations of C. jacobaea, corresponds to a different evolutionary entity. We show that morphological variation in C. jacobaea does not correspond to any genetic or geographic group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gordonia caeni sp. nov., isolated from sludge of a sewage disposal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Park, Giho; Yang, Hyejin; Hwang, Supyong; Bae, Yoonjung; Jung, Yong-An; Kim, Myung Kyum; Lee, Myungjin

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, short-rod-shaped, non-motile strain (designated MJ32(T)) was isolated from a sludge sample of the Daejeon sewage disposal plant in South Korea. A polyphasic approach was applied to study the taxonomic position of strain MJ32(T). Strain MJ32(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Gordonia hirsuta DSM 44140(T) (98.1%) and Gordonia hydrophobica DSM 44015(T) (97.0%); levels of sequence similarity to the type strains of other recognized Gordonia species were less than 97.0%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ32(T) belonged to the clade formed by members of the genus Gordonia in the family Gordoniaceae. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain MJ32(T) was 69.2 mol%. Chemotaxonomically, strain MJ32(T) showed features typical of the genus Gordonia. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-9(H(2)), the mycolic acids present had C(56)-C(60) carbon atoms, and the major fatty acids were C(16:0) (34.6%), tuberculostearic acid (21.8%), C(16:1)ω7c (19.5%) and C(18:1)ω9c (12.7%). The peptidoglycan type was based on meso-2,6-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid with glycolated sugars. On the basis of phylogenetic inference, fatty acid profile and other phenotypic properties, strain MJ32(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Gordonia, for which the name Gordonia caeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MJ32(T) (=KCTC 19771(T)=JCM 16923(T)).

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, plant chemistry, and aboveground herbivory on Senecio jacobaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidinger, Stefan; Eschen, René; Gange, Alan C.; Finch, Paul; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect insect herbivores by changing plant growth and chemistry. However, many factors can influence the symbiotic relationship between plant and fungus, potentially obscuring experimental treatments and ecosystem impacts. In a field experiment, we assessed AMF colonization levels of individual ragwort ( Senecio jacobaea) plants growing in grassland plots that were originally sown with 15 or 4 plant species, or were unsown. We measured the concentrations of carbon, nitrogen and pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), and assessed the presence of aboveground insect herbivores on the sampled plants. Total AMF colonization and colonization by arbuscules was lower in plots sown with 15 species than in plots sown with 4 species and unsown plots. AMF colonization was positively related to the cover of oxeye daisy ( Leucanthemum vulgare) and a positive relationship between colonization by arbuscules and the occurrence of a specialist seed-feeding fly ( Pegohylemyia seneciella) was found. The occurrence of stem-boring, leaf-mining and sap-sucking insects was not affected by AMF colonization. Total PA concentrations were negatively related to colonization levels by vesicles, but did not differ among the sowing treatments. No single factor explained the observed differences in AMF colonization among the sowing treatments or insect herbivore occurrence on S. jacobaea. However, correlations across the treatments suggest that some of the variation was due to the abundance of one plant species, which is known to stimulate AMF colonization of neighbouring plants, while AMF colonization was related to the occurrence of a specialist insect herbivore. Our results thus illustrate that in natural systems, the ecosystem impact of AMF through their influence on the occurrence of specialist insects can be recognised, but they also highlight the confounding effect of neighbouring plant species identity. Hence, our results emphasise the importance of field

  15. Environmental isotope study of a groundwater supply project in the Kalahari of Gordonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.T.

    1984-01-01

    A feasibility study for a central fresh groundwater supply scheme in the Kalahari of the Gordonia district, South Africa, provided the opportunity to study fresh and saline water occurrences in detail with environmental isotopes. The isotopic and chemical signals show a clear contrast among groundwaters below a river bed, an extended fresh groundwater body and saline groundwaters in close proximity to the river. Carbon-14, tritium and stable-isotope data lead to a vertical rain recharge model rather than a regional flow mechanism for an understanding of the various water occurrences, their interrelationships and varied hydrochemistry. (author)

  16. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene by Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Handayani Kurniati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrene degradation and biosurfactant activity by a new strain identified as Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10 were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of glucose, sucrose, and crude oil. The biosurfactants production was detected by the decreased surface tension of the medium and emulsification activity.  Analysis of microbial growth parameters showed that AMP10 grew best at 50 µg mL-1 pyrene concentration, leading to 96 % degradation of pyrene within 7 days. The result of nested PCR analysis revealed that this isolate possessed the nahAc gene which encodes dioxygenase enzyme for initial degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH. Observation of both tensio-active and emulsifying activities indicated that biosurfactants which produced by AMP 10 when grown on glucose could lower the surface tension of medium from 71.3 mN/m to 24.7 mN/m and formed a stable emulsion in used lubricant oil with an emulsification index (E24 of 74%. According to the results, it is suggested that the bacterial isolates G. cholesterolivorans AMP10 are suitable candidates for bioremediation of PAH-contaminated environments.How to CiteKurniati, T. H.,  Rusmana, I. Suryani, A. & Mubarik, N. R. (2016. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Pyrene by Biosurfactant-Producing Bacteria Gordonia cholesterolivorans AMP 10. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 336-343. 

  17. Novel Acetone Metabolism in a Propane-Utilizing Bacterium, Gordonia sp. Strain TY-5▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Tetsuya; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Kato, Nobuo; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    In the propane-utilizing bacterium Gordonia sp. strain TY-5, propane was shown to be oxidized to 2-propanol and then further oxidized to acetone. In this study, the subsequent metabolism of acetone was studied. Acetone-induced proteins were found in extracts of cells induced by acetone, and a gene cluster designated acmAB was cloned on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of acetone-induced proteins. The acmA and acmB genes encode a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) and esterase, respectively. The BVMO encoded by acmA was purified from acetone-induced cells of Gordonia sp. strain TY-5 and characterized. The BVMO exhibited NADPH-dependent oxidation activity for linear ketones (C3 to C10) and cyclic ketones (C4 to C8). Escherichia coli expressing the acmA gene oxidized acetone to methyl acetate, and E. coli expressing the acmB gene hydrolyzed methyl acetate. Northern blot analyses revealed that polycistronic transcription of the acmAB gene cluster was induced by propane, 2-propanol, and acetone. These results indicate that the acmAB gene products play an important role in the metabolism of acetone derived from propane oxidation and clarify the propane metabolism pathway of strain TY-5 (propane → 2-propanol → acetone → methyl acetate → acetic acid + methanol). This paper provides the first evidence for BVMO-dependent acetone metabolism. PMID:17071761

  18. The synthesis of 3H-putrescine and subsequent biosynthesis of 3H-jacobine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Senecio jacobaea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.L.; Buhler, D.R.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the preparation of tritiated putrescine dihydrochloride ([2,3- 3 H]-1,4-diaminobutane dihydro-chloride) from succinonitrile (1,4-butanedinitrile) and 3 H 2 O, with a radiochemical yield of 16%. Tritiated jacobine and other pyrrolizidine alkaloids were then biosynthesized in Senecio jacobaea using 3 H-putrescine-2HCl as the precursor with a radiochemical yield of 0.9% into total pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Jacobine accounted for 36% of the total. This synthetic method provides a relatively inexpensive source for the preparation of these labelled compounds. (author)

  19. Production and characterization of surface-active compounds from Gordonia amicalis

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    Ani Beatriz Jackisch-Matsuura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were used to make crude preparations of surface-active compounds (SACs produced by Gordonia amicalis grown on the medium containing 1% diesel oil. Using a 2:1 (v/v solution of chloroform:methanol for extraction, Type I SACs were isolated and shown to produce oil in water (O/W emulsions. Type II SACs were isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and produced predominantly water in oil emulsions (W/O. The crude Type I and II preparations were able to produce a significant reduction in the surface tension of water; however, the crude Type II preparation had 10-25 fold higher emulsification activity than the Type I preparation. Both SAC preparations were analyzed by the TLC and each produced two distinct bands with Rf 0.44 and 0.62 and Rf 0.52 and 0.62, respectively. The partially purified SACs were characterized by the ESI(+-MS, FT-IR and NMR. In each one of these fractions, a mixture of 10 oligomers was found consisting of a series of compounds, with masses from 502 to 899, differing in molecular mass by a repeating unit of 44 Daltons. The mass spectra of these compounds did not appear to match other known biosurfactants and could represent a novel class of these compounds.

  20. Lysis to Kill: Evaluation of the Lytic Abilities, and Genomics of Nine Bacteriophages Infective for Gordonia spp. and Their Potential Use in Activated Sludge Foam Biocontrol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe A Dyson

    Full Text Available Nine bacteriophages (phages infective for members of the genus Gordonia were isolated from wastewater and other natural water environments using standard enrichment techniques. The majority were broad host range phages targeting more than one Gordonia species. When their genomes were sequenced, they all emerged as double stranded DNA Siphoviridae phages, ranging from 17,562 to 103,424 bp in size, and containing between 27 and 127 genes, many of which were detailed for the first time. Many of these phage genomes diverged from the expected modular genome architecture of other characterized Siphoviridae phages and contained unusual lysis gene arrangements. Whole genome sequencing also revealed that infection with lytic phages does not appear to prevent spontaneous prophage induction in Gordonia malaquae lysogen strain BEN700. TEM sample preparation techniques were developed to view both attachment and replication stages of phage infection.

  1. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Exotic Gordonia axillaris Fruit: Optimization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study reported that the fruit of Gordonia axillaris, an edible wild fruit, possessed strong antioxidant activity. In this study, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE method was established to extract antioxidants from the fruit of Gordonia axillaris. The influence of five parameters, including ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and microwave power, was investigated by single-factor experiments. Three factors, namely ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, were found to exert a major influence on extraction efficacy, and were further studied by response surface methodology to investigate their interactions. Ethanol concentration of 36.89%, solvent/material ratio of 29.56 mL/g, extraction time of 71.04 min, temperature of 40 °C, and microwave power of 400 W were found to be the optimal condition. The TEAC value was 198.16 ± 5.47 µmol Trolox/g DW under the optimal conditions, which was in conformity to the predicted value (200.28 µmol Trolox/g DW. In addition, the MAE method was compared with two conventional methods (Soxhlet extraction and maceration extraction. Results showed that the antioxidant capacity of the extract obtained by MAE method was stronger than that obtained by maceration (168.67 ± 3.88 µmol Trolox/g DW or Soxhlet extraction (114.09 ± 2.01 µmol Trolox/g DW. Finally, several phenolic compounds in the extract were identified and quantified by UPLC-MS/MS, which were rutin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, 2-hydrocinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid.

  2. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Exotic Gordonia axillaris Fruit: Optimization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Lin, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-09-06

    Our previous study reported that the fruit of Gordonia axillaris , an edible wild fruit, possessed strong antioxidant activity. In this study, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was established to extract antioxidants from the fruit of Gordonia axillaris . The influence of five parameters, including ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and microwave power, was investigated by single-factor experiments. Three factors, namely ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, extraction time, were found to exert a major influence on extraction efficacy, and were further studied by response surface methodology to investigate their interactions. Ethanol concentration of 36.89%, solvent/material ratio of 29.56 mL/g, extraction time of 71.04 min, temperature of 40 °C, and microwave power of 400 W were found to be the optimal condition. The TEAC value was 198.16 ± 5.47 µmol Trolox/g DW under the optimal conditions, which was in conformity to the predicted value (200.28 µmol Trolox/g DW). In addition, the MAE method was compared with two conventional methods (Soxhlet extraction and maceration extraction). Results showed that the antioxidant capacity of the extract obtained by MAE method was stronger than that obtained by maceration (168.67 ± 3.88 µmol Trolox/g DW) or Soxhlet extraction (114.09 ± 2.01 µmol Trolox/g DW). Finally, several phenolic compounds in the extract were identified and quantified by UPLC-MS/MS, which were rutin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, 2-hydrocinnamic acid, p -coumaric acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid.

  3. Possibilities and limitations of sup 1 H and sup 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the identification and the quantitative determination of some naturally occurring carcinogenic risk factors. [Senecio vulgaris; Senecio vernalis; Senecio jacobaea; Euphorbia ingens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, L.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a phytochemical screening method for some selected carcinogenic or tumor-promoting principles in higher plants. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids from some Senecio species (Compositae or Asteraceae), and the diterpene ester from Croton tiglium L. and Euphorbia ingens E. Mey (Euphorbiaceae) were chosen as representatives of both groups. The possibilities and limitations of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) for the analysis of mixtures of carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids were compared with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography with high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography was well as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Senecio vulgaris L., Senecio vernalis Waldst. and Kit. and Senecio jacobaea L. were investigated.

  4. Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Identification of Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Kocuria, Gordonia, Tsukamurella, and Listeria Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai-Fen; Du, Shin-Hei; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Sheng, Wang-Hui; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether the Bruker Biotyper matrix-associated laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system provides accurate species-level identifications of 147 isolates of aerobically growing Gram-positive rods (GPRs). The bacterial isolates included Nocardia (n = 74), Listeria (n = 39), Kocuria (n = 15), Rhodococcus (n = 10), Gordonia (n = 7), and Tsukamurella (n = 2) species, which had all been identified by conventional methods, molecular methods, or both. In total, 89.7% of Listeria monocytogenes, 80% of Rhodococcus species, 26.7% of Kocuria species, and 14.9% of Nocardia species (n = 11, all N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum) were correctly identified to the species level (score values, ≥2.0). A clustering analysis of spectra generated by the Bruker Biotyper identified six clusters of Nocardia species, i.e., cluster 1 (N. cyriacigeorgica), cluster 2 (N. brasiliensis), cluster 3 (N. farcinica), cluster 4 (N. puris), cluster 5 (N. asiatica), and cluster 6 (N. beijingensis), based on the six peaks generated by ClinProTools with the genetic algorithm, i.e., m/z 2,774.477 (cluster 1), m/z 5,389.792 (cluster 2), m/z 6,505.720 (cluster 3), m/z 5,428.795 (cluster 4), m/z 6,525.326 (cluster 5), and m/z 16,085.216 (cluster 6). Two clusters of L. monocytogenes spectra were also found according to the five peaks, i.e., m/z 5,594.85, m/z 6,184.39, and m/z 11,187.31, for cluster 1 (serotype 1/2a) and m/z 5,601.21 and m/z 11,199.33 for cluster 2 (serotypes 1/2b and 4b). The Bruker Biotyper system was unable to accurately identify Nocardia (except for N. nova and N. otitidiscaviarum), Tsukamurella, or Gordonia species. Continuous expansion of the MALDI-TOF MS databases to include more GPRs is necessary. PMID:24759706

  5. Gordonia polyisoprenivorans from groundwater contaminated with landfill leachate in a subtropical area: characterization of the isolate and exopolysaccharide production Gordonia polyisoprenivorans de águas subterrâneas contaminadas por chorume, em região subtropical: caracterização da linhagem e produção de exopolissacarídeos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fusconi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Gordonia sp. (strain Lc, from landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater was characterized by polyphasic taxonomy and studied for exopolysaccharide (EPS production. The cells were Gram-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and non-motile. The organism grew both aerobically and, in anoxic environment, in the presence of NaNO3. Rods occured singly, in pairs or in a typical coryneform V-shaped. The organism had morphological, physiological and chemical properties consistent with its assignment to the genus Gordonia and mycolic and fatty acid pattern that corresponded to those of G. polyisoprenivorans DSM 44302T. The comparison of the sequence of the first 500 bases of the 16S rDNA of strain Lc gave 100% similarity with the type strain of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans DSM 44302T. Experiments conducted in anaerobic conditions in liquid E medium with either glucose or sucrose as the main carbon source showed that sucrose did not support the growth of Lc strain and that on glucose the maximum specific growth rate was 0.17h-1, representing a generation time of approximately 4 hours. On glucose, a maximum of total EPS was produced during the exponential phase (126.17 ± 15.63 g l-1. The production of free EPS exceeded that of capsular and the free/capsular EPS ratio increased from 1.9 during the exponential phase to 7.8 during the stationary phase. At present, six strains of G. polyisoprenivorans have been isolated from various environments. Lc is the sixth strain of G. polyisoprenivorans described, the second strain detected in the landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater and the first that is being studied for EPS production.Uma linahgem de Gordonia sp. (linhagem Lc, proveniente de águas subterrâneas contaminadas por chorume, foi caracterizada por taxonomia polifásica e estudada quanto à produção de exopolissacarídeos (EPS. As células, bastonetes agregados, isolados ou aos pares em formato de V, típico de bact

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, plant chemistry, and aboveground herbivory on Senecio jacobaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidinger, S.; Eschen, R.; Gange, A.C.; Finch, P.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect insect herbivores by changing plant growth and chemistry. However, many factors can influence the symbiotic relationship between plant and fungus, potentially obscuring experimental treatments and ecosystem impacts. In a field experiment, we assessed AMF

  7. The Analysis of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Jacobaea vulgaris; a Comparison of Extraction and Detection Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Vrieling, K.; Veen, van der M.R.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction – Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) serve an important function in plant defence. Objective – To compare different extraction methods and detection techniques, namely gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

  8. Toxic pyrrolizidinalkaloids as undesired contaminants in food and feed: degradation of the PAs from Senecio jacobaea in silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Jiminez, J; Kuschak, M; Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H

    2013-07-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) can show a hazardous potential for men and animals. They can act as cancerogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and fetotoxic agents. One pathway of a human intoxication is its occurence as contaminants in food and feed. Here, the contamination of cereals already led to severe and fatal intoxication episodes. Besides this, milk is of special concern as it is the main food for children which show a very high susceptibility for a PA intoxication. Milk can contain PAs in case the milk producing animals have access to contaminated feed. In this context it is of special interest whether the PA content of contaminated silage remains stable during the ensiling procedure or show a more or less high level of decomposition. We could show that ensiling will not lead to PA-free silage.

  9. Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hülber, K.; Sonnleitner, M.; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, J.; Schönswetter, P.; Schneeweiss, G. M.; Winkler, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2015), s. 1224-1234 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gene flow * hybridization * polyploidy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.537, year: 2015

  10. Effects of diversity and identity of the neighbouring plant community on the abundance of arthropods on individual ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris) plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostenko, O.; Grootemaat, Saskia S.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of plant community can greatly affect the abundance and diversity of arthropods associated to that community, but can also influence the composition or abundance of arthropods on individual plants growing in that community. We sampled arthropods and recorded plant size of individual

  11. Parallel evolution in an invasive plant species : evolutionary changes in allocation to growth, defense, competitive ability and regrowth of invasive Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Tiantian

    2015-01-01

    Although the introduction of invasive plant species in a given area causes economic and ecological problems, it still provides an ideal opportunity for ecologists to study evolutionary changes. According to the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis and Shifting Defense Hypothesis,

  12. METABOLISM OF TOXIC PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS FROM TANSY RAGWORT, SENECIO JACOBAEA, IN BOVINE RUMINAL FLUID UNDER ANAEROBIC CONDITIONS. (R825689C006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Comparing arbuscular mycorrhizal communities of individual plants in a grassland biodiversity experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Gamper, H.A.; Hol, W.H.G.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Plants differ greatly in the soil organisms colonizing their roots. However, how soil organism assemblages of individual plant roots can be influenced by plant community properties remains poorly understood. We determined the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in Jacobaea vulgaris

  14. Effects of antibacterial agents on in vitro ovine ruminal biotransformation of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid jacobine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenheim, D E; Blythe, L L; Craig, A M

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, naturally occurring plant toxins, causes illness and death in a number of animal species. Senecio jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause significant economic losses due to livestock poisoning, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Some sheep are resistant to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, because ovine ruminal biotransformation detoxifies free pyrrolizidine alkaloids in digesta. Antibacterial agents modify ruminal fermentation. Pretreatment with antib...

  15. Are effects of common ragwort in the Ames test caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovee, Toine F H; Helsdingen, Richard J R; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; de Nijs, Monique W C M; Liu, Xiaojie; Vrieling, Klaas; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Mulder, Patrick P J

    2015-08-01

    It has previously been demonstrated by others that acetone extracts of Senecio jacobaea (syn. Jacobaea vulgaris, common or tansy ragwort) test positive in the Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test (Ames test). Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are thought to be responsible for these mutagenic effects. However, it was also observed that the major PA present in common ragwort, jacobine, produced a negative response (with and without the addition of rat liver S9) in Salmonella test strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537. To investigate which compounds in the plant extracts were responsible for the positive outcome, the present study investigated the contents and mutagenic effects of methanol and acetone extracts prepared from dried ground S. jacobaea and Senecio inaequidens (narrow-leafed ragwort). Subsequently, a fractionation approach was set up in combination with LC-MS/MS analysis of the fractions. It was shown that the positive Ames test outcomes of S. jacobaea extracts are unlikely to be caused by PAs, but rather by the flavonoid quercetin. This study also demonstrates the importance of identifying compounds responsible for positive test results in bioassays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantifying filamentous microorganisms in activated sludge before, during, and after an incident of foaming by oligonucleotide probe hybridizations and antibody staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerther, D B; de los Reyes, F L; de los Reyes, M F; Raskin, L

    2001-10-01

    Quantitative oligonucleotide probe hybridizations, immunostaining, and a simple foaming potential test were used to follow an incident of seasonal filamentous foaming at the Urbana-Champaign Sanitary District, Northeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. A positive correlation was observed between an increase in foaming potential and the appearance of foam on the surfaces of aeration basins and secondary clarifiers. In addition, during the occurrence of foaming, the mass and activity of Gordonia spp. increased as measured by fluorescence in situ hybridization, antibody staining, and quantitative membrane hybridization of RNA extracts. An increase in Gordonia spp. rRNA levels from 0.25 to 1.4% of total rRNA was observed using quantitative membrane hybridizations, whereas during the same period, the fraction of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids attributed to Gordonia spp. increased from 4% to more than 32% of the total mixed liquor volatile suspended solids. These results indicate that both the activity and biomass level of Gordonia spp. in activated sludge increased relative to the activity aid the biomass level of the complete microbial community during a seasonal occurrence of filamentous foaming. Thus, Gordonia spp. may represent a numerically dominant but metabolically limited fraction of the total biomass, and the role of Gordonia spp. in filamentous foaming may be linked more tightly to the physical presence of filamentous microorganisms than to the metabolic activity of the cells.

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U09232-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ent US 6538182. 94 1e-14 1 ( AJ704844 ) Heliotropium indicum mRNA for deoxyhypusi...1( AJ704850 |pid:none) Senecio jacobaea mRNA for homosper... 316 9e-85 AJ704843_1( AJ704843 |pid:none) Heliotropium...se; EC=2.5.1... 310 5e-83 AJ704844_1( AJ704844 |pid:none) Heliotropium indicum mRNA for deox... 310 7e-83 (Q

  18. Interspecific competition of early successional plant species in ex-arable fields as influenced by plant-soil feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Jingying; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Van der Putten, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback can affect plants that belong to the same (intraspecific feedback) or different species (interspecific feedback). However, little is known about how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks influence interspecific plant competition. Here, we used plants and soil from early-stage ex-arable fields to examine how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks affect the performance of 10 conditioning species and the focal species, Jacobaea vulgaris. Plants were grown alon...

  19. Locating and Activating Molecular 'Time Bombs': Induction of Mycolata Prophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe A Dyson

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence, functionality and ecological roles of temperate phages for members of the mycolic acid producing bacteria, the Mycolata. While many lytic phages infective for these organisms have been isolated, and assessed for their suitability for use as biological control agents of activated sludge foaming, no studies have investigated how temperate phages might be induced for this purpose. Bioinformatic analysis using the PHAge Search Tool (PHAST on Mycolata whole genome sequence data in GenBank for members of the genera Gordonia, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus, and Tsukamurella revealed 83% contained putative prophage DNA sequences. Subsequent prophage inductions using mitomycin C were conducted on 17 Mycolata strains. This led to the isolation and genome characterization of three novel Caudovirales temperate phages, namely GAL1, GMA1, and TPA4, induced from Gordonia alkanivorans, Gordonia malaquae, and Tsukamurella paurometabola, respectively. All possessed highly distinctive dsDNA genome sequences.

  20. Identification and characterization of epoxide hydrolase activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria for biocatalytic resolution of racemic styrene oxide and styrene oxide derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jung-Hee; Kwon, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Jun-Tae; Kim, Choong-Gon; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2013-04-01

    A novel epoxide hydrolase (EHase) from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria was identified and characterized. EHase activity was identified in four strains of PAH-degrading bacteria isolated from commercial gasoline and oil-contaminated sediment based on their growth on styrene oxide and its derivatives, such as 2,3- and 4-chlorostyrene oxides, as a sole carbon source. Gordonia sp. H37 exhibited high enantioselective hydrolysis activity for 4-chlorostyrene oxide with an enantiomeric ratio of 27. Gordonia sp. H37 preferentially hydrolyzed the (R)-enantiomer of styrene oxide derivatives resulting in the preparation of a (S)-enantiomer with enantiomeric excess greater than 99.9 %. The enantioselective EHase activity was identified and characterized in various PAH-degrading bacteria, and whole cell Gordonia sp. H37 was employed as a biocatalyst for preparing enantiopure (S)-styrene oxide derivatives.

  1. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bin Qi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(apyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  2. Mammal and bird road mortalities on the Upington to Twee Rivieren ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mammal hotspot was identified along the 91 km of road that traversed the Gordonia duneveld. Since the nine roadside traffic warning signs erected on the R360 road had no measurable impact on road mortalities, it is recommend that three rumble strip sections with accompanying signage be erected in the hotspot to ...

  3. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) technology for monitoring biological foaming in activated sludge: full scale plant verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Cha, D K; Kim, I; Son, A; Ahn, K H

    2008-02-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) technology was evaluated as a monitoring tool for quantification of Gordonia amarae in activated sludge systems. The fatty acid, 19:1 alcohol, which was identified as a unique fatty acid in G. amarae was not only confirmed to be present in foaming plant samples, but the quantity of the signature peak correlated closely with the degree of foaming. Foaming potential experiment provided a range of critical foaming levels that corresponded to G. amarae population. This range of critical Gordonia levels was correlated to the threshold signature FAME amount. Six full-scale wastewater treatment plants were selected based on a survey to participate in our full-scale study to evaluate the potential application of the FAME technique as the Gordonia monitoring tool. Greater amounts of signature FAME were extracted from the mixed liquor samples obtained from treatment plants experiencing Gordonia foaming problems. The amounts of signature FAME correlated well with the conventional filamentous counting technique. These results demonstrated that the relative abundance of the signature FAMEs can be used to quantitatively monitor the abundance of foam-causing microorganism in activated sludge.

  4. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the Mississippi and Alabama Coastal Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    sourwood Bignonia capreolata crossvine Panicum virgatum switchgrass Callicarpa americana American beautyberry Persea borbonia redbay Calystegia sepium...sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana), loblolly-bay (Gordonia lasianthus), redbay ( Persea borbonia), and swamp bay ( Persea palustris) make up a significant...com- munity model. The Society of American Foresters (Eyre 1980) recognizes a “Sweetbay- Swamp Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora)-Redbay” forest

  5. Fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids during processing of milk of cows treated with ragwort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Monique; Mulder, Patrick P J; Klijnstra, Mirjam D; Driehuis, Frank; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) during milk processing, milk of cows treated via rumen fistula with a mixture of 84% (w/w) ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris, syn. Senecio jacobaea) and 16% narrow-leaved ragwort (Senecio inaequidens) was processed using laboratory scale heating systems with industrial settings. Pasteurised and sterilised (UHT) milk were produced, as well as set-type yoghurt and cheese. Samples were analysed for 29 PAs using LC-MS/MS, of which 11 PAs were detected above LOQ in the samples (0.1 µg l -1 ). Alterations in the PA concentration and composition between the standardised milk and the corresponding end-product(s) were evaluated. The heat treatments applied for pasteurisation and UHT sterilisation to prepare semi-skimmed consumption milk did not affect the PA levels in the end-products. In yoghurt, after fermentation of standardised milk (6 h, pH 4.4), 73% of total PAs were recovered. The PA concentration, specifically dehydrojacoline, was decreased, although not quantifiable, during cheese production. A further decrease of 38% during 6 weeks of ripening was observed. The results show that the PA concentration of natural contaminated cow's milk is not affected by heat treatment applied for pasteurised and sterilised milk, but that microbial fermentation of the milk leads to a lowered PA concentration in yoghurt and cheese. This is probably due to microbiological degradation, since PAs are fairly stable under acidic conditions.

  6. [Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and seneciosis in farm animals. Part 1: occurrence, chemistry and toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, E

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids belong to a class of phytotoxins which are present in more than 6000 plant species. The disease seneciosis in farm animals represents the severe poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids from plants of the genus Senecio. This form of poisoning has been known since the end of the 19th century in Germany, the USA, Canada and New Zealand, and is mainly caused by Senecio jacobaea and related Senecio spp. in farm animals, including poultry. Animal poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is of worldwide importance. In Germany poisoning of horses and cattle by Senecio jacobaea, which was earlier named Schweinsberg disease, is of renewed relevance for veterinary medicine. The disease occurs almost entirely as a consequence of chronic poisoning and in general ends fatally. The ultimate cause is the formation of toxic metabolites of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the liver, and their covalent binding to nucleic acids and proteins leading to liver cirrhosis. Because many pyrrolizidine alkaloids possess mutagenic, and a few also carcinogenic properties, European and international authorities are concerned about possible residue levels in food of animal origin. The review addresses in its first part several aspects, being the occurrence, the chemistry, and the toxicology of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as well as animal intoxications by poisonous plants. In the second part (46) clinical characteristics of animal seneciosis, the therapeutic interventions, the significant species differences and a critical assessment of so-called nontoxic amounts of Senecio plants in animal fodder with reference to cumulative lethal toxin doses are presented.

  7. Geocongress 84: 20. Geological congress of the Geological Society of South Africa. Abstracts: Pt. 2. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Only one article in the publication is relevant to INIS: Environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry in ground water studies. A very short review is given on the ground water resources of the Kalahari in Gordonia. Ground water in mining exploration and the geophysics of ground water and the methods used in the geophysics are discussed. The dolomitic aquifers, especially in the southern and western Transvaal and ground water models are also reviewed

  8. Application of terpene-induced cell for enhancing biodegradation of TCE contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekawan Luepromchai

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichloroethylene (TCE, a chlorinated solvent, is a major water pollutant originating from spillage and inappropriate disposal of dry cleaning agents, degreasing solvents, and paint strippers. Due to its widespread contamination and potential health threat, remediation technology to clean-up TCE is necessary. Aerobic biodegradation of TCE is reported to occur via cometabolism, by which TCE degrading bacteria utilize other compounds such as toluene, phenol, and methane as growth substrate and enzyme inducer. Although toluene is reported to be the most effective inducer, it is regulated as a hazardous material and should not be applied to the environment. The objectives of this study were to identify an alternative enzyme inducer as well as to apply the induced bacteria for degradation of TCE in contaminated soil. We investigated the effect of terpenes, the main components in volatile essential oils of plants, on induction of TCE degradation in Rhodococcus gordoniae P3, a local Gram (+ bacterium. Selected terpenes including cumene, limonene, carvone and pinene at various concentrations were used in the study. Results from liquid culture showed that 25 mg l-1 cumeneinduced R. gordoniae P3 cells resulted in 75% degradation of 10 ppm TCE within 24 hrs. Soil microcosms were later employed to investigate the ability of cumene to enhance TCE biodegradation in the environment. There were two bioremediation treatments studied, including bioaugmentation, the inoculation of cumeneinduced R. gordoniae P3, and biostimulation, the addition of cumene to induce soil indigenous microorganisms to degrade TCE. Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were shown to accelerate TCE reduction significantly more than control treatment at the beginning of study. The results suggest that cumene-induced R. gordoniae P3 and cumene can achieve rapid TCE biodegradation.

  9. An Environmental Assessment of the Fee Acquisition of Dare County Range, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-15

    the understory are red bay ( Persea spp.), loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus), sweet bay (Magnolia virginica), red maple (Acer rubra), wax...South American rodents, are also reported to be in the area. [14] 3.2.2.2 Birds Table 3.2.2-A shows a list compiled by the Department of...34 and to "assure for all Americans ...aesthetically and culturally pleasing surroundings," and to "preserve important his- toric, cultural, and natural

  10. Enhancing biodegradation of wastewater by microbial consortia with fractional factorial design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yuancai [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong (China); Lin Chejen, E-mail: Jerry.Lin@lamar.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710-0024 (United States); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong (China); Jones, Gavin [Texas Research Institute for Environmental Studies, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341-2506 (United States); Fu Shiyu; Zhan Huaiyu [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong (China)

    2009-11-15

    Batch experiments were conducted on the degradation of synthetic and municipal wastewater by six different strains, i.e., Agrobacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas putida. By applying a fractional factorial design (FFD) of experiments, the influence of each strain and their interactions were quantified. An empirical model predicting the treatment efficiency was built based on the results of the FFD experiments with an R{sup 2} value of 99.39%. For single strain, Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia and P. putida (p = 0.008, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively) showed significant enhancement on organic removal in the synthetic wastewater. Positive interaction from Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia (p = 0.046) was found, indicating that syntrophic interaction existed, and their coexistence can improve total organic carbon (TOC) degradation. Verification experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of bioaugmentation by introducing three selected strains into an activated sludge reactor for treating municipal wastewater. The removal efficiency of TOC with the bioaugmentation was increased from 67-72% to 80-84% at an influent TOC concentration of 200 mg/L. The results derived from this study indicate that the FFD is a useful screening tool for optimizing the microbial community to enhance treatment efficiency.

  11. Enhancing biodegradation of wastewater by microbial consortia with fractional factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuancai; Lin Chejen; Jones, Gavin; Fu Shiyu; Zhan Huaiyu

    2009-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted on the degradation of synthetic and municipal wastewater by six different strains, i.e., Agrobacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas putida. By applying a fractional factorial design (FFD) of experiments, the influence of each strain and their interactions were quantified. An empirical model predicting the treatment efficiency was built based on the results of the FFD experiments with an R 2 value of 99.39%. For single strain, Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia and P. putida (p = 0.008, 0.009 and 0.023, respectively) showed significant enhancement on organic removal in the synthetic wastewater. Positive interaction from Enterobacter cloacae, Gordonia (p = 0.046) was found, indicating that syntrophic interaction existed, and their coexistence can improve total organic carbon (TOC) degradation. Verification experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of bioaugmentation by introducing three selected strains into an activated sludge reactor for treating municipal wastewater. The removal efficiency of TOC with the bioaugmentation was increased from 67-72% to 80-84% at an influent TOC concentration of 200 mg/L. The results derived from this study indicate that the FFD is a useful screening tool for optimizing the microbial community to enhance treatment efficiency.

  12. Mixed metazoan and bacterial infection of the gas bladder of the lined seahorse-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul A; Petty, Barbara D

    2013-03-01

    Five wild-caught Lined Seahorses Hippocampus erectus from an aquarium system presented with altered buoyancy and distended upper trunks. Radiography of one specimen revealed a reduced air volume in the gas bladder. Pneumocystocentesis revealed a brown exudate of numerous leukocytes, parasite ova, and Gram- and acid-fast-positive bacilli under wet mounts and stains. Necropsies revealed enlarged, friable kidneys and distended gas bladders containing copious purulent exudate, necrotic tissue, and adult digeneans Dictysarca virens. Bacterial isolates from exudate cultures grown on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as Gordonia sp. and Mycobacterium poriferae by high-performance liquid chromatography and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Histopathology demonstrated a histiocytic response in kidney and gas bladder exudate, inflammation of the gas bladder wall, and infection of the gas bladder lumen with parasite ova and acid-fast-positive and Gomori's methenamine silver-positive bacilli. Praziquantel is prescribed for digenean infections but dissolves incompletely in seawater and is toxic to this host. Eradication of intermediate host vectors is a management option. Treatment of Gordonia infection has not been addressed in nonhuman animals, and there is no known effective treatment for Mycobacterium spp. infection in fishes. This is the first case report of digenean infection of the gas bladder in a syngnathid, Gordonia sp. infection in a nonhuman animal, and M. poriferae infection in a fish.

  13. Pollination, biogeography and phylogeny of oceanic island bellflowers (Campanulaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens Mogens; Alarcón, M.; Ehlers, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    . These examples of vertebrate pollination evolved independently on each island or archipelago. We discuss if these pollination systems have an island or mainland origin and when they may have evolved, and finally, we attempt to reconstruct the pollinator-interaction history of each species.......We studied the pollination biology of nine island Campanulaceae species: Azorina vidalii, Musschia aurea, M. wollastonii, Canarina canariensis, Campanula jacobaea, Nesocodon mauritianus, and three species of Heterochaenia. In addition, we compared C. canariensis to its two African mainland...... relatives C. eminii and C. abyssinica. We asked to what extent related species converge in their floral biology and pollination in related habitats, i.e. oceanic islands. Study islands were the Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Réunion. Information about phylogenetic relationships...

  14. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sehlmeyer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  15. Changes in plant defense chemistry (pyrrolizidine alkaloids) revealed through high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Macel, Mirka; Schlerf, Martin; Moghaddam, Fatemeh Eghbali; Mulder, Patrick P. J.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2013-06-01

    Plant toxic biochemicals play an important role in defense against natural enemies and often are toxic to humans and livestock. Hyperspectral reflectance is an established method for primary chemical detection and could be further used to determine plant toxicity in the field. In order to make a first step for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detection (toxic defense compound against mammals and many insects) we studied how such spectral data can estimate plant defense chemistry under controlled conditions. In a greenhouse, we grew three related plant species that defend against generalist herbivores through pyrrolizidine alkaloids: Jacobaea vulgaris, Jacobaea erucifolia and Senecio inaequidens, and analyzed the relation between spectral measurements and chemical concentrations using multivariate statistics. Nutrient addition enhanced tertiary-amine pyrrolizidine alkaloids contents of J. vulgaris and J. erucifolia and decreased N-oxide contents in S. inaequidens and J. vulgaris. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids could be predicted with a moderate accuracy. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid forms tertiary-amines and epoxides were predicted with 63% and 56% of the variation explained, respectively. The most relevant spectral regions selected for prediction were associated with electron transitions and Csbnd H, Osbnd H, and Nsbnd H bonds in the 1530 and 2100 nm regions. Given the relatively low concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloids concentration (in the order of mg g-1) and resultant predictions, it is promising that pyrrolizidine alkaloids interact with incident light. Further studies should be considered to determine if such a non-destructive method may predict changes in PA concentration in relation to plant natural enemies. Spectroscopy may be used to study plant defenses in intact plant tissues, and may provide managers of toxic plants, food industry and multitrophic-interaction researchers with faster and larger monitoring possibilities.

  16. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics of Agave Sap (Agave salmiana after Its Inoculation with Microorganisms Isolated from Agave Sap Concentrate Selected to Enhance Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Figueroa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been correlated with the reduction of cancer cell growth and the apoptotic effect of agave sap concentrate. Empirical observations of this artisanal Mexican food have shown that fermentation occurs after agave sap is concentrated, but little is known about the microorganisms that survive after cooking, or their effects on saponins and other metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in metabolites found in agave (A. salmiana sap after its fermentation with microorganisms isolated from agave sap concentrate, and demonstrate its potential use to enhance anticancer activity. Microorganisms were isolated by dilution plating and identified by 16S rRNA analysis. Isolates were used to ferment agave sap, and their corresponding butanolic extracts were compared with those that enhanced the cytotoxic activity on colon (Caco-2 and liver (Hep-G2 cancer cells. Metabolite changes were investigated by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Among 69 isolated microorganisms, the actinomycetes Arthrobacter globiformis and Gordonia sp. were used to analyze the metabolites, along with bioactivity changes. From the 939 ions that were mainly responsible for variation among fermented samples at 48 h, 96 h, and 192 h, four were correlated to anticancer activity. It was shown that magueyoside B, a kammogenin glycoside, was found at higher intensities in the samples fermented with Gordonia sp. that reduced Hep-G2 viability better than controls. These findings showed that microorganisms from agave sap concentrate change agave sap metabolites such as saponins. Butanolic extracts obtained after agave sap fermentation with Arthrobacter globiformis or Gordonia sp. increased the cancer cell growth inhibitory effect on colon or liver cancer cells, respectively.

  17. Bioaugmentation for Aerobic Bioremediation of RDX Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-06

    concentrations of antibiotics : 1 μg/ml Amp, 2 μg/ml Gen, 15 μg/ml Strep, 2μg/ml Kan. Total cellular fatty acids were analyzed by MIDI Laboratories using the...are thought to have originated as a self-defense mechanism used by microorganisms that produce the antibiotics (Blast search result). This site is...affect immunocompromised patients (16,17,19). The complete genome sequence of Gordonia bronchialis type strain, an isolate associated with human

  18. Six New Record Species of Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Infesting Morus alba in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Rui; Song, Zao-Qin; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To determine the species of whiteflies occurring on mulberry, Morus alba L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in China, we collected samples in more than 87 sites in 16 provinces of China from 2008 to 2011. In total, 10 species, representing seven genera of the subfamily Aleyrodinae, were identified. Of these, six species are newly recorded on mulberry in China, namely, Aleuroclava ficicola Takahashi, Aleuroclava gordoniae (Takahashi), Aleurotrachelus camelliae (Kuwana), Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny), Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and Pealius machili Takahashi. Information on the taxonomy, distribution, and host plants of the whitefly species found on mulberry in China, along with a brief description and illustrations of each species are provided. PMID:25368095

  19. Phylogenetic diversity of actinobacteria associated with soft coral Alcyonium gracllimum and stony coral Tubastraea coccinea in the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shan; Sun, Wei; Tang, Cen; Jin, Liling; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

    2013-07-01

    Actinobacteria are widely distributed in the marine environment. To date, few studies have been performed to explore the coral-associated Actinobacteria, and little is known about the diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria. In this study, the actinobacterial diversity associated with one soft coral Alcyonium gracllimum and one stony coral Tubastraea coccinea collected from the East China Sea was investigated using both culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. A total of 19 actinobacterial genera were detected in these two corals, among which nine genera (Corynebacterium, Dietzia, Gordonia, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Streptomyces, and Candidatus Microthrix) were common, three genera (Cellulomonas, Dermatophilus, and Janibacter) were unique to the soft coral, and seven genera (Brevibacterium, Dermacoccus, Leucobacter, Micromonospora, Nocardioides, Rhodococcus, and Serinicoccus) were unique to the stony coral. This finding suggested that highly diverse Actinobacteria were associated with different types of corals. In particular, five actinobacterial genera (Cellulomonas, Dermacoccus, Gordonia, Serinicoccus, and Candidatus Microthrix) were recovered from corals for the first time, extending the known diversity of coral-associated Actinobacteria. This study shows that soft and stony corals host diverse Actinobacteria and can serve as a new source of marine actinomycetes.

  20. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aster spathulifolius (Asteraceae); genomic features and relationship with Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Su; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-11-10

    Aster spathulifolius, a member of the Asteraceae family, is distributed along the coast of Japan and Korea. This plant is used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of A. sphathulifolius consists of 149,473 bp that include a pair of inverted repeats of 24,751 bp separated by a large single copy region of 81,998 bp and a small single copy region of 17,973 bp. The chloroplast genome contains 78 coding genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. When compared to other cpDNA sequences of Asteraceae, A. spathulifolius showed the closest relationship with Jacobaea vulgaris, and its atpB gene was found to be a pseudogene, unlike J. vulgaris. Furthermore, evaluation of the gene compositions of J. vulgaris, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and A. spathulifolius revealed that 13.6-kb showed inversion from ndhF to rps15, unlike Lactuca of Asteraceae. Comparison of the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) substitution rates with J. vulgaris revealed that synonymous genes related to a small subunit of the ribosome showed the highest value (0.1558), while nonsynonymous rates of genes related to ATP synthase genes were highest (0.0118). These findings revealed that substitution has occurred at similar rates in most genes, and the substitution rates suggested that most genes is a purified selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Chemical Defence: Effects of Colonisation on Aboveground and Belowground Metabolomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Lynne A; Abdul-Sada, Ali; Vanbergen, Adam J; Hodge, Angela; Hartley, Sue E

    2018-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonisation of plant roots is one of the most ancient and widespread interactions in ecology, yet the systemic consequences for plant secondary chemistry remain unclear. We performed the first metabolomic investigation into the impact of AMF colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis on the chemical defences, spanning above- and below-ground tissues, in its host-plant ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). We used a non-targeted metabolomics approach to profile, and where possible identify, compounds induced by AMF colonisation in both roots and shoots. Metabolomics analyses revealed that 33 compounds were significantly increased in the root tissue of AMF colonised plants, including seven blumenols, plant-derived compounds known to be associated with AMF colonisation. One of these was a novel structure conjugated with a malonyl-sugar and uronic acid moiety, hitherto an unreported combination. Such structural modifications of blumenols could be significant for their previously reported functional roles associated with the establishment and maintenance of AM colonisation. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), key anti-herbivore defence compounds in ragwort, dominated the metabolomic profiles of root and shoot extracts. Analyses of the metabolomic profiles revealed an increase in four PAs in roots (but not shoots) of AMF colonised plants, with the potential to protect colonised plants from below-ground organisms.

  2. NMR metabolomics of thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) resistance in Senecio hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, Kirsten A; Choi, Young H; Abdel-Farid, Ibrahim B; Verpoorte, Robert; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2009-02-01

    Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has become a key insect pest of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Little is known about host plant resistance to thrips. In this study, we investigated thrips resistance in F (2) hybrids of Senecio jacobaea and Senecio aquaticus. We identified thrips-resistant hybrids applying three different bioassays. Subsequently, we compared the metabolomic profiles of these hybrids applying nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The new developments of NMR facilitate a wide range coverage of the metabolome. This makes NMR especially suitable if there is no a priori knowledge of the compounds related to herbivore resistance and allows a holistic approach analyzing different chemical compounds simultaneously. We show that the metabolomes of thrips-resistant and -susceptible hybrids differed considerably. Thrips-resistant hybrids contained higher amounts of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), jacobine, and jaconine, especially in younger leaves. Also, a flavanoid, kaempferol glucoside, accumulated in the resistant plants. Both PAs and kaempferol are known for their inhibitory effect on herbivores. In resistant and susceptible F (2) hybrids, young leaves showed less thrips damage than old leaves. Consistent with the optimal plant defense theory, young leaves contained increased levels of primary metabolites such as sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, but also accumulated jacaranone as a secondary plant defense compound. Our results prove NMR as a promising tool to identify different metabolites involved in herbivore resistance. It constitutes a significant advance in the study of plant-insect relationships, providing key information on the implementation of herbivore resistance breeding strategies in plants.

  3. Interactions between Plant Metabolites Affect Herbivores: A Study with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Chlorogenic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Vrieling, Klaas; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L.

    2017-01-01

    The high structural diversity of plant metabolites suggests that interactions among them should be common. We investigated the effects of single metabolites and combinations of plant metabolites on insect herbivores. In particular we studied the interacting effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PAs), and chlorogenic acid (CGA), on a generalist herbivore, Frankliniella occidentalis. We studied both the predominantly occurring PA N-oxides and the less frequent PA free bases. We found antagonistic effects between CGA and PA free bases on thrips mortality. In contrast PA N-oxides showed synergistic interactions with CGA. PA free bases caused a higher thrips mortality than PA N-oxides while the reverse was through for PAs in combination with CGA. Our results provide an explanation for the predominate storage of PA N-oxides in plants. We propose that antagonistic interactions represent a constraint on the accumulation of plant metabolites, as we found here for Jacobaea vulgaris. The results show that the bioactivity of a given metabolite is not merely dependent upon the amount and chemical structure of that metabolite, but also on the co-occurrence metabolites in, e.g., plant cells, tissues and organs. The significance of this study is beyond the concerns of the two specific groups tested here. The current study is one of the few studies so far that experimentally support the general conception that the interactions among plant metabolites are of great importance to plant-environment interactions. PMID:28611815

  4. Interspecific transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: An unconsidered source of contaminations of phytopharmaceuticals and plant derived commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Melanie; Wittke, Carina; Lederer, Ines; Klier, Bernhard; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk

    2016-12-15

    Many plant derived commodities contain traces of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). The main source of these contaminations seems to be the accidental co-harvest of PA-containing weeds. Yet, based on the insights of the newly described phenomenon of the horizontal transfer of natural products, it is very likely that the PA-contaminations may also be due to an uptake of the alkaloids from the soil, previously being leached out from rotting PA-plants. The transfer of PAs was investigated using various herbs, which had been mulched with dried plant material from Senecio jacobaea. All of the acceptor plants exhibited marked concentrations of PAs. The extent and the composition of the imported PAs was dependent on the acceptor plant species. These results demonstrate that PAs indeed are leached out from dried Senecio material into the soil and confirm their uptake by the roots of the acceptor plants and the translocation into the leaves. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Interactions between Plant Metabolites Affect Herbivores: A Study with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Chlorogenic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The high structural diversity of plant metabolites suggests that interactions among them should be common. We investigated the effects of single metabolites and combinations of plant metabolites on insect herbivores. In particular we studied the interacting effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PAs, and chlorogenic acid (CGA, on a generalist herbivore, Frankliniella occidentalis. We studied both the predominantly occurring PA N-oxides and the less frequent PA free bases. We found antagonistic effects between CGA and PA free bases on thrips mortality. In contrast PA N-oxides showed synergistic interactions with CGA. PA free bases caused a higher thrips mortality than PA N-oxides while the reverse was through for PAs in combination with CGA. Our results provide an explanation for the predominate storage of PA N-oxides in plants. We propose that antagonistic interactions represent a constraint on the accumulation of plant metabolites, as we found here for Jacobaea vulgaris. The results show that the bioactivity of a given metabolite is not merely dependent upon the amount and chemical structure of that metabolite, but also on the co-occurrence metabolites in, e.g., plant cells, tissues and organs. The significance of this study is beyond the concerns of the two specific groups tested here. The current study is one of the few studies so far that experimentally support the general conception that the interactions among plant metabolites are of great importance to plant-environment interactions.

  6. Influence of microbial composition on foam formation in a manure-based digester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; O-Thong, Sompong

    2012-01-01

    Foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in the biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process and results in adverse operational, economical and environmental impacts. The most dominant factors contributing to foaming are organic overloading, feedstock...... manure-based digester of Lemvig biogas plant that was facing foaming problem, comparing with three non-foaming digesters. The research was focused on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of Bacteria and Archaea population and on the identification of Gordonia sp. The reactor samples were analysed...... for foaming properties and microbial analysis. The dynamic population of Bacteria and Archaea were studied by PCR-DGGE method. The results obtained from this study showed that the composition of Bacteria in all reactors was not significantly different indicating that foaming was not caused by Bacteria...

  7. Comparative analysis of the microbial diversity in liquid and foaming layer in biogas reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campanaro, Stefano; Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Foaming incidents have been recorded in many biogas plants causing severe operational, economical and environmental problems (Kougias et al., 2014). However, the foaming phenomenon in biogas reactors fed with agro-industrial wastes has not been extensively investigated, especially with respect...... to the microbial composition of the digesters (Moeller et al., 2012). In the cited literature, it has been reported that specific microorganisms, which are mainly filamentous (e.g. Gordonia species, Microthrix parvicella), are attached to biogas bubbles and transferred to the air/liquid interface of sludge...... was to investigate the microbial diversity in the liquid versus the foaming layer in manure-based biogas reactors suffering by foaming incidents in order to elucidate potential role and contribution of the microorganisms in foam promotion. The experimental work was carried out in three thermophilic continuous...

  8. Co-metabolic formation of substituted phenylacetic acids by styrene-degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Oelschlägel

    2015-06-01

    The styrene-degrading strains Rhodococcus opacus 1CP, Pseudomonas fluorescens ST, and the novel isolates Sphingopyxis sp. Kp5.2 and Gordonia sp. CWB2 were investigated with respect to their applicability to co-metabolically produce substituted phenylacetic acids. Isolates were found to differ significantly in substrate tolerance and biotransformation yields. Especially, P. fluorescens ST was identified as a promising candidate for the production of several phenylacetic acids. The biotransformation of 4-chlorostyrene with cells of strain ST was shown to be stable over a period of more than 200 days and yielded about 38 mmolproduct gcelldryweight−1 after nearly 350 days. Moreover, 4-chloro-α-methylstyrene was predominantly converted to the (S-enantiomer of the acid with 40% enantiomeric excess.

  9. Insights on the Effects of Heat Pretreatment, pH, and Calcium Salts on Isolation of Rare Actinobacteria from Karstic Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bao-Zhu; Salam, Nimaichand; Han, Ming-Xian; Jiao, Jian-Yu; Cheng, Juan; Wei, Da-Qiao; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria is one of the most ubiquitously present bacterial lineages on Earth. In the present study, we try to explore the diversity of cultivable rare Actinobacteria in Sigangli Cave, Yunnan, China by utilizing a combination of different sample pretreatments and under different culture conditions. Pretreating the samples under different conditions of heat, setting the isolation condition at different pHs, and supplementation of media with different calcium salts were found to be effective for isolation of diverse rare Actinobacteria. During our study, a total of 204 isolates affiliated to 30 genera of phylum Actinobacteria were cultured. Besides the dominant Streptomyces, rare Actinobacteria of the genera Actinocorallia, Actinomadura, Agromyces, Alloactinosynnema, Amycolatopsis, Beutenbergia, Cellulosimicrobium, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Jiangella, Knoellia, Kocuria, Krasilnikoviella, Kribbella, Microbacterium, Micromonospora, Mumia, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Nocardioides, Nocardiopsis, Nonomuraea, Oerskovia, Pseudokineococcus, Pseudonocardia, Rhodococcus, Saccharothrix, Streptosporangium, and Tsukamurella were isolated from these cave samples. PMID:28848538

  10. Metabolic versatility of Gram-positive microbial isolates from contaminated river sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narancic, Tanja; Djokic, Lidija; Kenny, Shane T.; O’Connor, Kevin E.; Radulovic, Vanja; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Vasiljevic, Branka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thirty-four isolated Gram-positive bacteria could degrade wide range of aromatic pollutants. ► Nine isolates could grow in the presence of extremely high levels of heavy metals. ► Twelve isolates accumulated polyphosphate, 3 polyhydroxybutyrate, 4 exopolysaccharides. ► The incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance markers among isolates was low. - Abstract: Gram-positive bacteria from river sediments affected by the proximity of a petrochemical industrial site were isolated and characterized with respect to their ability to degrade a wide range of aromatic compounds. In this study we identified metabolically diverse Gram-positive bacteria capable of growth on wide range aromatic compounds in the presence of heavy metals and with the ability to accumulate biopolymers. Thirty-four isolates that were able to use 9 or more common aromatic pollutants, such as benzene, biphenyl, naphthalene etc. as a sole source of carbon and energy included members of Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Streptomyces, and Staphylococcus genus. Rhodococcus sp. TN105, Gordonia sp. TN103 and Arthrobacter sp. TN221 were identified as novel strains. Nine isolates were able to grow in the presence of one or more metals (mercury, cadmium, nickel) at high concentration (100 mM). Seven isolates could degrade 15 different aromatic compounds and could grow in the presence of one or more heavy metals. Two of these isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics including erythromycin and nalidixic acid. One third of isolates could accumulate at least one biopolymer. Twelve isolates (mainly Bacillus sp. and Arthrobacter sp.) accumulated polyphosphate, 3 Bacillus sp. accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate, while 4 isolates could accumulate exopolysaccharides.

  11. Quantification of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Jacobine in Crassocephalum crepidioides by Cation Exchange High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhon, Wilfried; Kammermeier, Lukas; Schramm, Sebastian; Towfique, Nayeem; Adebimpe Adedeji, N; Adesola Ajayi, S; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2018-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary plant metabolites with considerable hepatoxic, tumorigenic and genotoxic potential. For separation, reversed phase chromatography is commonly used because of its excellent compatibility with detection by mass spectrometry. However, reversed phase chromatography has a low selectivity for PAs. The objective of this work was to investigate the suitability of cation exchange chromatography for separation of PAs and to develop a rapid method for quantification of jacobine in Crassocephalum crepidioides that is suitable for analysis of huge sample numbers as required for mutant screening procedures. We demonstrate that cation exchange chromatography offers excellent selectivity for PAs allowing their separation from most other plant metabolites. Due to the high selectivity, plant extracts can be directly analysed after simple sample preparation. Detection with UV at 200 nm instead of mass spectrometry can be applied, which makes the method very simple and cost-effective. The recovery rate of the method exceeded 95%, the intra-day and inter-day standard deviations were below 7% and the limit of detection and quantification were 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively. The developed method is sufficiently sensitive for reproducible detection of jacobine in C. crepidioides. Simple sample preparation and rapid separation allows for quantification of jacobine in plant material in a high-throughput manner. Thus, the method is suitable for genetic screenings and may be applicable for other plant species, for instance Jacobaea maritima. In addition, our results show that C. crepidioides cannot be considered safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Hyperspectral reflectance of leaves and flowers of an outbreak species discriminates season and successional stage of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Schlerf, Martin; van der Putten, Wim H.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral reflectance can be used to assess large-scale performances of plants in the field based on plant nutrient balance as well as composition of defence compounds. However, plant chemical composition is known to vary with season - due to its phenology - and it may even depend on the succession stage of its habitat. Here we investigate (i) how spectral reflectance could be used to discriminate successional and phenological stages of Jacobaea vulgaris in both leaf and flower organs and (ii) if chemical content estimation by reflectance is flower or leaf dependent. We used J. vulgaris, which is a natural outbreak plant species on abandoned arable fields in north-western Europe and studied this species in a chronosequence representing successional development during time since abandonment. The chemical content and reflectance between 400 and 2500 nm wavelengths of flowers and leaves were measured throughout the season in fields of different successional ages. The data were analyzed with multivariate statistics for temporal discrimination and estimation of chemical contents in both leaf and flower organs. Two main effects were revealed by spectral reflectance measurements: (i) both flower and leaf spectra show successional and seasonal changes, but the pattern is complex and organ specific (ii) flower head pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are involved in plant defence against herbivores, can be detected through hyperspectral reflectance.We conclude that spectral reflectance of both leaves and flowers can provide information on plant performance during season and successional stages. As a result, remote sensing studies of plant performance in complex field situations will benefit from considering hyperspectral reflectance of different plant organs. This approach may enable more detailed studies on the link between spectral information and plant defence dynamics both aboveground and belowground.

  13. Quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in North American plants and honey by LC-MS: single laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Elizabeth M; Jones, A Maxwell P; Brown, Paula N

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of naturally occurring compounds produced by many flowering plants around the World. Their presence as contaminants in food systems has become a significant concern in recent years. For example, PAs are often found as contaminants in honey through pollen transfer. A validated method was developed for the quantification of four pyrrolizidine alkaloids and one pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide in plants and honey grown and produced in British Columbia. The method was optimised for extraction efficiency from the plant materials and then subjected to a single-laboratory validation to assess repeatability, accuracy, selectivity, LOD, LOQ and method linearity. The PA content in plants ranged from1.0 to 307.8 µg/g with repeatability precision between 3.8 and 20.8% RSD. HorRat values were within acceptable limits and ranged from 0.62 to 1.63 for plant material and 0.56-1.82 for honey samples. Method accuracy was determined through spike studies with recoveries ranging from 84.6 to 108.2% from the raw material negative control and from 82.1-106.0 % for the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in corn syrup. Based on the findings in this single-laboratory validation, this method is suitable for the quantitation of lycopsamine, senecionine, senecionine N-oxide, heliosupine and echimidine in common comfrey (Symphytum officinale), tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), blueweed (Echium vulgare) and hound's tongue (Cynoglossum officinale) and for PA quantitation in honey and found that PA contaminants were present at low levels in BC honey.

  14. Mycobacterium fortuitum and anaerobic breast abscess following nipple piercing: case presentation and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengualid, Victoria; Singh, Veera; Singh, Herpreet; Berger, Judith

    2008-05-01

    Body piercing has become increasingly prevalent. We describe a case of breast infection with combined mycobacteria and anaerobe following nipple piercing, and review the literature. A 17-year-old female developed a breast abscess 4 months after nipple piercing. Cultures grew Prevotalla melangenica and Mycobacterium fortuitum. She required drainage and antibiotic treatment. Three months into her treatment she stopped her medications, relapsed, and required drainage. Two months later, on antimycobacteria therapy, her wound is healing. Review of the infectious complications of nipple piercing yielded 12 cases, 5 of which had a foreign body. The pathogens isolated (coagulase negative staphylococcus, mycobacteria, streptococcus, anaerobe, and gordonia) are not the usual organisms to be isolated from a breast abscess. This could result from reporting bias or the presence of a foreign body, the nipple ring. The three cases of mycobacteria, in addition to ours, are reviewed. The average age is 22 years. Three to 9 months elapsed between piercing and infection. All cases required drainage. Antimycobacteria therapy was used in three of the four cases for 10 days to 6 months. With the increasing prevalence of body piercing, it is important to document and report infections. We describe a breast abscess following nipple piercing with combined anaerobic and a mycobacterial pathogens. This underscores the need for obtaining cultures including anaerobes and mycobacteria.

  15. Ex situ bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ta-Chen; Pan, Po-Tsen; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

    2010-04-15

    An innovative bioprocess method, Systematic Environmental Molecular Bioremediation Technology (SEMBT) that combines bioaugmentation and biostimulation with a molecular monitoring microarray biochip, was developed as an integrated bioremediation technology to treat S- and T-series biopiles by using the landfarming operation and reseeding process to enhance the bioremediation efficiency. After 28 days of the bioremediation process, diesel oil (TPH(C10-C28)) and fuel oil (TPH(C10-C40)) were degraded up to approximately 70% and 63% respectively in the S-series biopiles. When the bioaugmentation and biostimulation were applied in the beginning of bioremediation, the microbial concentration increased from approximately 10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g dry soil along with the TPH biodegradation. Analysis of microbial diversity in the contaminated soils by microarray biochips revealed that Acinetobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the predominant groups in indigenous consortia, while the augmented consortia were Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis in both series of biopiles during bioremediation. Microbial respiration as influenced by the microbial activity reflected directly the active microbial population and indirectly the biodegradation of TPH. Field experimental results showed that the residual TPH concentration in the complex biopile was reduced to less than 500 mg TPH/kg dry soil. The above results demonstrated that the SEMBT technology is a feasible alternative to bioremediate the oil-contaminated soil. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A rubber-degrading organism growing from a human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mohit; Prasad, Deepali; Khara, Harshit S; Alcid, David

    2010-01-01

    Patients with hematological malignancies are susceptible to unusual infections, because of the use of broad-spectrum anti-infective agents, invasive procedures, and other immunocompromising procedures and medications. Gordonia polyisoprenivorans, a ubiquitous environmental aerobic actinomycete belonging to the family of Gordoniaceae in the order Actinomycetales, is a very rare cause of bacteremia in these patients. We report the first case of pneumonia with associated bacteremia due to this organism, which was initially described in 1999 as a rubber-degrading bacterium following isolation from stagnant water inside a deteriorated automobile tire. We believe that hematologically immunocompromised patients on broad-spectrum antibiotics and with long-term central catheters select the possibility of infection with G. polyisoprenivorans. These infections can be prevented by handling catheters under aseptic conditions. We propose that blood cultures of persistently febrile neutropenic patients should be incubated for at least 4 weeks. Being a rare infection, there are no data available on treatment other than early removal of the foreign bodies. Copyright 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L; Paixão, S M

    2011-10-01

    The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch (chronic bioassays) and continuous cultures. The IC₅₀ values obtained showed the toxicity of all the compounds tested to both strains, specially the high toxicity of 2-HBP. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process. The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteria Present in Comadia redtenbacheri Larvae (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Flores, L; Llanderal-Cázares, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Aranda-Ocampo, S

    2015-09-01

    The external and internal culturable bacterial community present in the larvae of Comadia redtenbacheri Hammerschmidt, an edible insect, was studied. Characterization of the isolates determined the existence of 18 morphotypes and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the existence of Paenibacillus sp., Bacillus safensis, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus pseudomycoides, Corynebacterium variabile, Enterococcus sp., Gordonia sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Arthrobacter sp., Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cereus. Greater diversity of bacteria was found in those larvae obtained from vendors than in those directly taken from Agave plants in nature. Many of the larvae obtained from vendors presented signs of potential disease, and after the analysis, results showed a greater bacterial community compared with the larvae with a healthy appearance. This indicates that bacterial flora can vary in accordance with how the larvae are handled during extraction, collection, and transport. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Marine Actinobacteria as a source of compounds for phytopathogen control: An integrative metabolic-profiling / bioactivity and taxonomical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz A Betancur

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In this study, samples of sediment, invertebrate and algae were collected from the Providencia and Santa Catalina coral reef (Colombian Caribbean Sea with the aim of isolating Actinobateria-like strain able to produce antimicrobial and quorum quenching compounds against pathogens. Several approaches were used to select actinobacterial isolates, obtaining 203 strains from all samples. According to their 16S rRNA gene sequencing, a total of 24 strains was classified within Actinobacteria represented by three genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Gordonia. In order to assess their metabolic profiles, the actinobacterial strains were grown in liquid cultures, and LC-MS-based analyses from ethyl acetate fractions were performed. Based on taxonomical classification, screening information of activity against phytopathogenic strains and quorum quenching activity, as well as metabolic profiling, six out of the 24 isolates were selected for follow-up with chemical isolation and structure identification analyses of putative metabolites involved in antimicrobial activities.

  1. Diversity and Antimicrobial Activities of Actinobacteria Isolated from Tropical Mangrove Sediments in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Learn-Han Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Actinobacteria from Malaysia mangrove forest and screen them for production of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Eighty-seven isolates were isolated from soil samples collected at 4 different sites. This is the first report to describe the isolation of Streptomyces, Mycobacterium, Leifsonia, Microbacterium, Sinomonas, Nocardia, Terrabacter, Streptacidiphilus, Micromonospora, Gordonia, and Nocardioides from mangrove in east coast of Malaysia. Of 87 isolates, at least 5 isolates are considered as putative novel taxa. Nine Streptomyces sp. isolates were producing potent antimicrobial secondary metabolites, indicating that Streptomyces isolates are providing high quality metabolites for drug discovery purposes. The discovery of a novel species, Streptomyces pluripotens sp. nov. MUSC 135T that produced potent secondary metabolites inhibiting the growth of MRSA, had provided promising metabolites for drug discovery research. The biosynthetic potential of 87 isolates was investigated by the detection of polyketide synthetase (PKS and nonribosomal polyketide synthetase (NRPS genes, the hallmarks of secondary metabolites production. Results showed that many isolates were positive for PKS-I (19.5%, PKS-II (42.5%, and NRPS (5.7% genes, indicating that mangrove Actinobacteria have significant biosynthetic potential. Our results highlighted that mangrove environment represented a rich reservoir for isolation of Actinobacteria, which are potential sources for discovery of antimicrobial secondary metabolites.

  2. Biotechnological methods for chalcone reduction using whole cells of Lactobacillus, Rhodococcus and Rhodotorula strains as a way to produce new derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompor, Monika; Kałużny, Mateusz; Żarowska, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Microbial strains of the genera Dietzia, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Streptomyces, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Penicillium, Rhodotorula and Lactobacillus were screened for the ability to convert chalcones. Synthesis of chalcones was performed by the Claisen-Schmidt reaction. There were three groups of chalcones obtained as the products, which included the derivatives containing 4-substituted chalcone, 2'-hydroxychalcone and 4'-methoxychalcone. The B ring of the chalcones was substituted in the para position with different groups, such as halide, hydroxyl, nitro, methyl, ethyl and ethoxy one. The structure-activity relationship of the tested chalcones in biotransformation processes was studied. It has been proven that Gram-positive bacterial strains Rhodococcus and Lactobacillus catalyzed reduction of C=C bond in the chalcones to give respective dihydrochalcones. The strain Rhodotorula rubra AM 82 transformed chalcones into dihydrochalcones and respective secondary alcohols. These results suggest that the probiotic strain of Lactobacillus can be used for biotransformations of chalcones, which has not been described before. The structure of new metabolites 14a and 15b were established as 4-ethoxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone and 3-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(4'-O-methylphenyl)-2-propan-1-ol, respectively, which was confirmed by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR analysis.

  3. From oil spills to barley growth - oil-degrading soil bacteria and their promoting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Annett; Reinhard, Anne; Alimbetova, Anna; Omirbekova, Anel; Pasler, Lisa; Schumann, Peter; Kabisch, Johannes; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2016-11-01

    Heavy contamination of soils by crude oil is omnipresent in areas of oil recovery and exploitation. Bioremediation by indigenous plants in cooperation with hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms is an economically and ecologically feasible means to reclaim contaminated soils. To study the effects of indigenous soil bacteria capable of utilizing oil hydrocarbons on biomass production of plants growing in oil-contaminated soils eight bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soils in Kazakhstan and characterized for their abilities to degrade oil components. Four of them, identified as species of Gordonia and Rhodococcus turned out to be effective degraders. They produced a variety of organic acids from oil components, of which 59 were identified and 7 of them are hitherto unknown acidic oil metabolites. One of them, Rhodococcus erythropolis SBUG 2054, utilized more than 140 oil components. Inoculating barley seeds together with different combinations of these bacterial strains restored normal growth of the plants on contaminated soils, demonstrating the power of this approach for bioremediation. Furthermore, we suggest that the plant promoting effect of these bacteria is not only due to the elimination of toxic oil hydrocarbons but possibly also to the accumulation of a variety of organic acids which modulate the barley's rhizosphere environment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of 56 Wild Fruits from South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify wild fruits possessing high nutraceutical potential, the antioxidant activities of 56 wild fruits from South China were systematically evaluated. The fat-soluble components were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, and the water-soluble ones were extracted with a 50:3.7:46.3 (v/v methanol-acetic acid-water mixture. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Most of these wild fruits were analyzed for the first time for their antioxidant activities. Generally, these fruits had high antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents. A significant correlation between the FRAP value and the TEAC value suggested that antioxidant components in these wild fruits were capable of reducing oxidants and scavenging free radicals. A high correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be the main contributors to the measured antioxidant activity. The results showed that fruits of Eucalyptus robusta, Eurya nitida, Melastoma sanguineum, Melaleuca leucadendron, Lagerstroemia indica, Caryota mitis, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Gordonia axillaris possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents among those tested, and could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants and functional foods. The results obtained are very helpful for the full utilization of these wild fruits.

  5. The use of vascular plants as traditional boat raw material by Yachai tribe in Mappi Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOHANES YOSEPH RAHAWARIN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is executed aim to know the plant species and the way of exploiting permanent wood upon which traditional boat making by Yachai tribe in Mappi regency. The Method that used in this research is descriptive method with the structural semi interview technique and direct perception in field. Result of research indicate that the tribe Yachai exploit the plant species have permanent wood upon which traditional boat as much 26 species from 14 family. There are 8 wood species which is often used for the body of boat and also own the good quality according to Yachai tribe, that is Atam (Scihizomeria serrata Hochr, Batki (Adinandra forbesii Baker. F, Chomach (Gordonia papuana Kobuski, Rupke (Tristania sp., Bao (Dillenia papuana artelli, Top (Buchanania macrocarpa Laut, Mitbo (Cordia Dichtoma Forst., and Yunun (Camnosperma brevipetiolata Volkens. While to part of oar exploit 2 wood species that is Bach (Buchanania Arborescens.Bi and Tup (Litsea ampala Merr. Yachai Tribe recognized 3 boat model owning different size measure and function, that is Junun Ramchai, Junun Pochoi and Junun Toch.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of heterotrophic bacterial communities from the marine sponge Erylus discophorus (Astrophorida, Geodiidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Graça

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic bacteria associated with two specimens of the marine sponge Erylus discophorus were screened for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds against a panel of human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus wild type and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, fish pathogen (Aliivibrio fischeri and environmentally relevant bacteria (Vibrio harveyi. The sponges were collected in Berlengas Islands, Portugal. Of the 212 isolated heterotrophic bacteria belonging to Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, 31% produced antimicrobial metabolites. Bioactivity was found against both Gram positive and Gram negative and clinically and environmentally relevant target microorganisms. Bioactivity was found mainly against B. subtilis and some bioactivity against S. aureus MRSA, V. harveyi and A. fisheri. No antifungal activity was detected. The three most bioactive genera were Pseudovibrio (47.0%, Vibrio (22.7% and Bacillus (7.6%. Other less bioactive genera were Labrenzia, Acinetobacter, Microbulbifer, Pseudomonas, Gordonia, Microbacterium, Micrococcus and Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus and Staphylococcus. The search of polyketide I synthases (PKS-I and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs genes in 59 of the bioactive bacteria suggested the presence of PKS-I in 12 strains, NRPS in 3 strains and both genes in 3 strains. Our results show the potential of the bacterial community associated with Erylus discophorus sponges as producers of bioactive compounds.

  7. Screening for exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria from sub-tropical polluted groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUSCONI R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of exopolysaccharide (EPS -- producing bacterial strains was conducted in groundwater adjacent to an old controlled landfill in the City of São Carlos (São Paulo, Brazil. The strains were isolated in P and E media under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions at 25ºC. A total of 26 strains were isolated and based on the mucoid mode of the colonies, 6 were selected and their morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects were characterized. All strains presented pigmentation, ranging from yellow to orange and from pink to salmon, with a shiny glistening aspect in all tested media. Strains Lb, Lc and Lg, which excelled the others with regard to the mucoid mode of the colonies, were selected to be cultured in E medium with alternate sucrose and glucose as carbon sources in anaerobiosis at 25ºC to analyze the production of EPS. Strains Lc and Lg were classified as being of order Actinomycelates, suborder Corynebacterineae. Lg strain was identified as Gordonia polyisoprenivorans and Lc strain did not correspond to a known description and therefore a more detailed study is under preparation. Considering all ecological aspects and the metabolic potential associated with the microorganisms of the environment studied, as well as the capacity to produce pigment and EPS, and the presence of G. polyisoprenivorans, a rubber degrader bacterium, the potential of the groundwater analyzed is evident as a source of microorganisms to be utilized in studies related to environmental remediation.

  8. Diversity and antimicrobial activities of actinobacteria isolated from tropical mangrove sediments in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Learn-Han; Zainal, Nurullhudda; Azman, Adzzie-Shazleen; Eng, Shu-Kee; Goh, Bey-Hing; Yin, Wai-Fong; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify Actinobacteria from Malaysia mangrove forest and screen them for production of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Eighty-seven isolates were isolated from soil samples collected at 4 different sites. This is the first report to describe the isolation of Streptomyces, Mycobacterium, Leifsonia, Microbacterium, Sinomonas, Nocardia, Terrabacter, Streptacidiphilus, Micromonospora, Gordonia, and Nocardioides from mangrove in east coast of Malaysia. Of 87 isolates, at least 5 isolates are considered as putative novel taxa. Nine Streptomyces sp. isolates were producing potent antimicrobial secondary metabolites, indicating that Streptomyces isolates are providing high quality metabolites for drug discovery purposes. The discovery of a novel species, Streptomyces pluripotens sp. nov. MUSC 135(T) that produced potent secondary metabolites inhibiting the growth of MRSA, had provided promising metabolites for drug discovery research. The biosynthetic potential of 87 isolates was investigated by the detection of polyketide synthetase (PKS) and nonribosomal polyketide synthetase (NRPS) genes, the hallmarks of secondary metabolites production. Results showed that many isolates were positive for PKS-I (19.5%), PKS-II (42.5%), and NRPS (5.7%) genes, indicating that mangrove Actinobacteria have significant biosynthetic potential. Our results highlighted that mangrove environment represented a rich reservoir for isolation of Actinobacteria, which are potential sources for discovery of antimicrobial secondary metabolites.

  9. Marine Actinobacteria as a source of compounds for phytopathogen control: An integrative metabolic-profiling / bioactivity and taxonomical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, Luz A.; Naranjo-Gaybor, Sandra J.; Vinchira-Villarraga, Diana M.; Moreno-Sarmiento, Nubia C.; Maldonado, Luis A.; Suarez-Moreno, Zulma R.; Acosta-González, Alejandro; Padilla-Gonzalez, Gillermo F.; Puyana, Mónica; Castellanos, Leonardo; Ramos, Freddy A.

    2017-01-01

    Marine bacteria are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In this study, samples of sediment, invertebrate and algae were collected from the Providencia and Santa Catalina coral reef (Colombian Caribbean Sea) with the aim of isolating Actinobateria-like strain able to produce antimicrobial and quorum quenching compounds against pathogens. Several approaches were used to select actinobacterial isolates, obtaining 203 strains from all samples. According to their 16S rRNA gene sequencing, a total of 24 strains was classified within Actinobacteria represented by three genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Gordonia. In order to assess their metabolic profiles, the actinobacterial strains were grown in liquid cultures, and LC-MS-based analyses from ethyl acetate fractions were performed. Based on taxonomical classification, screening information of activity against phytopathogenic strains and quorum quenching activity, as well as metabolic profiling, six out of the 24 isolates were selected for follow-up with chemical isolation and structure identification analyses of putative metabolites involved in antimicrobial activities. PMID:28225766

  10. Identificación de bacterias productoras de Polihidroxialcanoatos (PHAs en suelos contaminados con desechos de fique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alexandra Sánchez Moreno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Identification of polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing bacteria in soils contaminated with fique wastes Resumen: Los Polihidroxialcanoatos (PHAs son biopolímeros con características similares a los plásticos sintéticos, pero rápidamente biodegradables dado su origen microbiano. En esta investigación se aislaron 248 colonias bacteriales de suelos contaminados con residuos del beneficio de fique en Guarne (Antioquia, evaluándose su capacidad como productoras de PHAs. Se realizaron tinciones con rojo y azul de Nilo y detección por PCR del gen PhaC. Las bacterias positivas a dichas pruebas, fueron identificadas utilizando análisis filogenético de secuencias de 16S del ADNr y pruebas bioquímicas. Finalmente, se evaluó, mediante cromatografía de gases con detector selectivo de masas GC-MS/SIM, la naturaleza química del biopolímero, a partir de la biomasa generada en un ensayo de fermentación en cultivo sumergido, con medio mínimo de sales suplementado con glucosa como fuente de carbono. Cuatro cepas de los morfotipos bacteriales encontrados, presentaron potencial para producir PHAs, de los cuales dos fueron identificados como miembros de la especie Bacillus megaterium, uno como B. mycoides y el otro como Gordonia sp. El gen PhaC se detectó en los dos aislamientos de B. megaterium. El análisis cromatográfico permitió detectar al Polihidroxibutirato (PHB como el principal componente de los PHAs presentes en B. megaterium, cuantificándose entre 63.8 mg/g y 95.3 mg/g de PHB en los ensayos de fermentación. Las bacterias aisladas tienen potencial en la producción de PHAs a partir de residuos agroindustriales, incluyendo el jugo de fique, lo que contribuiría a la reducción de su condición contaminante. Palabras clave: ADNr 16S; Bacillus; biopolímeros; Furcraea bedinghausii; PhaC. Abstract: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biodegradable biopolymers of bacterial origin with properties similar to conventional plastics. In

  11. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria isolated from petroleum contaminated sites in Tunisia: isolation, identification and characterization of the biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubi, Mouna; Jaouani, Atef; Guesmi, Amel; Ben Amor, Sonia; Jouini, Ahlem; Cherif, Hanen; Najjari, Afef; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Koubaa, Nedra; Cherif, Ameur

    2013-09-25

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources used by industry and in our daily life, whose production contributes highly to environmental pollution. To control such risk, bioremediation constitutes an environmentally friendly alternative technology that has been established and applied. It constitutes the primary mechanism for the elimination of hydrocarbons from contaminated sites by natural existing populations of microorganisms. In this work, a collection of 125 strains, adapted to grow on minimal medium supplemented with crude oil, was obtained from contaminated sediments and seawater from a refinery harbor of the Bizerte coast in the North of Tunisia. The diversity of the bacterial collection was analyzed by amplification of the internal transcribed spacers between the 16S and the 23S rRNA genes (ITS-PCR) and by 16S rRNA sequencing. A total of 36 distinct ITS haplotypes were detected on agarose matrix. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing performed on 50 isolates showed high level of identity with known sequences. Strains were affiliated to Ochrabactrum, Sphingobium, Acinetobacter, Gordonia, Microbacterium, Brevundimonas, Novosphingobium, Stenotrophomonas, Luteibacter, Rhodococcus, Agrobacterium, Achromobacter, Bacilllus, Kocuria and Pseudomonas genera. Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomons were found to be the most abundant species characterized by a marked microdiversity as shown through ITS typing. Culture-independent approach (DGGE) showed high diversity in the microbial community in all the studied samples with a clear correlation with the hydrocarbon pollution rate. Sequencing of the DGGE bands revealed a high proportion of Proteobacteria represented by the Alpha and Gamma subclasses. The predominant bacterial detected by both dependent and independent approaches were the Proteobacteria. The biotechnological potential of the isolates revealed a significant production of biosurfactants with important emulsification activities useful in bioremediation

  12. Histidine at Position 195 is Essential for Association of Heme-b in Lcp1VH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetermann, Sylvia; Vivod, Robin; Hiessl, Sebastian; Hogeback, Jens; Holtkamp, Michael; Karst, Uwe; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The latex clearing protein (Lcp) is the key enzyme of polyisoprene degradation in actinomycetes (Yikmis and Steinbüchel in Appl Environ Microbiol 78:4543-4551, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00001-12, 2012). In this study it was shown that Lcp from Gordonia polyisoprenivorans VH2 (Lcp1VH2) harbors a non-covalently bound heme b as cofactor, which was identified by pyridine hemochrome spectra and confirmed by LC/ESI-ToF-MS. It contains iron, most likely in the Fe3+ state. We focused on the characterization of the heme-cofactor, its accessibility with respect to the conformation of Lcp1VH2, and the identification of putative histidine residues involved in the coordination of heme. A change was detectable in UV/Vis-spectra of reduced Lcp1VH2 when imidazole was added, showing that Lcp1VH2 "as isolated" occurs in an open state, directly being accessible for external ligands. In addition, three highly conserved histidines (H195, H200 and H228), presumably acting as ligands coordinating the heme within the heme pocket, were replaced with alanines by site-directed mutagenesis. The effect of these changes on in vivo rubber-mineralization was investigated. The lcp- deletion mutant complemented with the H195A variant of lcp1 VH2 was unable to mineralize poly(cis-1,4-isoprene). In vitro analyses of purified, recombinant Lcp1VH2H195A confirmed the loss of enzyme activity, which could be ascribed to the loss of heme. Hence, H195 is essential for the association of heme-b in the central region of Lcp1VH2.

  13. A geological and hydrogeochemical investigation of the uranium potential of an area between the Orange and Kuruman Rivers, northwestern Cape Province. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.

    1980-04-01

    An extensive geological, hydrological and hydrochemical study was conducted to determine the uranium potential of an area which includes the greater part of the Gordonia District and part of the bordering Kuruman District. The area is situated between 21 and 22 degrees east, the Kuruman River in the north and the Orange River in the south. All berohole information germane to the area, such as Government and private drill records have been studied. As a result of this study maps of the area have been compiled, showing surface and pre-Karoo geology, the pre-Karoo and pre-Kalahari topography and the thickness of the Karoo and post-Karoo cover. Contour maps of water levels were compiled from which a regional east-west flow pattern was deduced, indicating a large groundwater basin which could be divided into four smaller basins. Hydrochemical studies substantiate the inferred flow pattern of the groundwater. Of prime importance in this investigation was the study of the distribution of uranium in the groundwater of the area and its association with the various lithologies encountered. Radiometric borehole logging of all accessible boreholes in the most promising areas delineated by this study confirmed the presence of uranium mineralisation in the depositional basins (in particular the Dwyka Tillite Formation) west of the granite-gneiss ridge. Uranium mineralisation in surficial deposits was also discovered as a result of the reassessment of radiometric airborne data obtained previously. It is concluded that potential economic uranium deposits may exist in the Dwyka Tillite Formation northwest of Upington and in the surficial diatomaceous earth deposits on the farm Rus-en-Vrede [af

  14. Simultaneously saccharification and fermentation approach as a tool for enhanced fossil fuels biodesulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Susana M; Arez, Bruno F; Roseiro, José C; Alves, Luís

    2016-11-01

    Biodesulfurization can be a complementary technology to the hydrodesulfurization, the commonly physical-chemical process used for sulfur removal from crude oil. The desulfurizing bacterium Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B as a fructophilic microorganism requires fructose as C-source. In this context, the main goal of this work was the optimization of a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) approach using the Zygosaccharomyces bailii strain Talf1 crude enzymes with invertase activity and sucrose as a cheaper fructose-rich commercial C-source (50% fructose) towards dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization by strain 1B. The determination of optimal conditions, for both sucrose hydrolysis and DBT desulfurization was carried out through two sequential experimental uniform designs according to the Doehlert distribution for two factors: pH (5.5-7.5) and temperature (28-38 °C), with the enzyme load of 1.16 U/g/L; and enzyme load (0-4 U/g/L) and temperature (28-38 °C), with pH at 7.5. Based on 2-hydroxybiphenyl production, the analysis of the response surfaces obtained pointed out for pH 7.5, 32 °C and 1.8 U/g/L as optimal conditions. Further optimized SSF of sucrose during the DBT desulfurization process permitted to attain a 4-fold enhanced biodesulfurization. This study opens a new focus of research through the exploitation of sustainable low cost sucrose-rich feedstocks towards a more economical viable bioprocess scale-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial cycling of isoprene, the most abundantly produced biological volatile organic compound on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGenity, Terry J; Crombie, Andrew T; Murrell, J Colin

    2018-04-01

    Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), the most abundantly produced biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) on Earth, is highly reactive and can have diverse and often detrimental atmospheric effects, which impact on climate and health. Most isoprene is produced by terrestrial plants, but (micro)algal production is important in aquatic environments, and the relative bacterial contribution remains unknown. Soils are a sink for isoprene, and bacteria that can use isoprene as a carbon and energy source have been cultivated and also identified using cultivation-independent methods from soils, leaves and coastal/marine environments. Bacteria belonging to the Actinobacteria are most frequently isolated and identified, and Proteobacteria have also been shown to degrade isoprene. In the freshwater-sediment isolate, Rhodococcus strain AD45, initial oxidation of isoprene to 1,2-epoxy-isoprene is catalyzed by a multicomponent isoprene monooxygenase encoded by the genes isoABCDEF. The resultant epoxide is converted to a glutathione conjugate by a glutathione S-transferase encoded by isoI, and further degraded by enzymes encoded by isoGHJ. Genome sequence analysis of actinobacterial isolates belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium and Gordonia has revealed that isoABCDEF and isoGHIJ are linked in an operon, either on a plasmid or the chromosome. In Rhodococcus strain AD45 both isoprene and epoxy-isoprene induce a high level of transcription of 22 contiguous genes, including isoABCDEF and isoGHIJ. Sequence analysis of the isoA gene, encoding the large subunit of the oxygenase component of isoprene monooxygenase, from isolates has facilitated the development of PCR primers that are proving valuable in investigating the ecology of uncultivated isoprene-degrading bacteria.

  16. Diversity, Novelty, and Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Actinobacteria From Mangrove Plants in Beilun Estuary National Nature Reserve of Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-ke Jiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic actinobacteria are one of the important pharmaceutical resources and well known for producing different types of bioactive substances. Nevertheless, detection of the novelty, diversity, and bioactivity on endophytic actinobacteria isolated from mangrove plants are scarce. In this study, five different mangrove plants, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Kandelia obovota, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Thespesia populnea, were collected from Beilun Estuary National Nature Reserve in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 101 endophytic actinobacteria strains were recovered by culture-based approaches. They distributed in 7 orders, 15 families, and 28 genera including Streptomyces, Curtobacterium, Mycobacterium, Micrococcus, Brevibacterium, Kocuria, Nocardioides, Kineococcus, Kytococcus, Marmoricola, Microbacterium, Micromonospora, Actinoplanes, Agrococcus, Amnibacterium, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Dermacoccus, Glutamicibacter, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Janibacter, Leucobacter, Nocardia, Nocardiopsis, Pseudokineococcus, Sanguibacter, and Verrucosispora. Among them, seven strains were potentially new species of genera Nocardioides, Streptomyces, Amnibacterium, Marmoricola, and Mycobacterium. Above all, strain 8BXZ-J1 has already been characterized as a new species of the genus Marmoricola. A total of 63 out of 101 strains were chosen to screen antibacterial activities by paper-disk diffusion method and inhibitors of ribosome and DNA biosynthesis by means of a double fluorescent protein reporter. A total of 31 strains exhibited positive results in at least one antibacterial assay. Notably, strain 8BXZ-J1 and three other potential novel species, 7BMP-1, 5BQP-J3, and 1BXZ-J1, all showed antibacterial bioactivity. In addition, 21 strains showed inhibitory activities against at least one “ESKAPE” resistant pathogens. We also found that Streptomyces strains 2BBP-J2 and 1BBP-1 produce bioactive compound with inhibitory

  17. Homology modeling and protein engineering of alkane monooxygenase in Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB121: in silico insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Chakresh Kumar; Gupta, Money; Prasad, Yamuna; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-07-01

    The degradation of hydrocarbons plays an important role in the eco-balancing of petroleum products, pesticides and other toxic products in the environment. The degradation of hydrocarbons by microbes such as Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Burkhulderia, Gordonia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. has been studied intensively in the literature. The present study focused on the in silico protein engineering of alkane monooxygenase (ladA)-a protein involved in the alkane degradation pathway. We demonstrated the improvement in substrate binding energy with engineered ladA in Burkholderia thailandensis MSMB121. We identified an ortholog of ladA monooxygenase found in B. thailandensis MSMB121, and showed it to be an enzyme involved in an alkane degradation pathway studied extensively in Geobacillus thermodenitrificans. Homology modeling of the three-dimensional structure of ladA was performed with a crystal structure (protein databank ID: 3B9N) as a template in MODELLER 9v11, and further validated using PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D and WHATIF tools. Specific amino acids were substituted in the region corresponding to amino acids 305-370 of ladA protein, resulting in an enhancement of binding energy in different alkane chain molecules as compared to wild protein structures in the docking experiments. The substrate binding energy with the protein was calculated using Vina (Implemented in VEGAZZ). Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamics of different alkane chain molecules inside the binding pockets of wild and mutated ladA. Here, we hypothesize an improvement in binding energies and accessibility of substrates towards engineered ladA enzyme, which could be further facilitated for wet laboratory-based experiments for validation of the alkane degradation pathway in this organism.

  18. Identification of three homologous latex-clearing protein (lcp) genes from the genome of Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthini, Jayaram; Ong, Su Yean; Sudesh, Kumar

    2017-09-10

    Rubber materials have greatly contributed to human civilization. However, being a polymeric material does not decompose easily, it has caused huge environmental problems. On the other hand, only few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, with studies pertaining them being intensively focusing on the mechanism involved in microbial rubber degradation. The Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, which was previously confirmed to possess rubber-degrading ability, was subjected to whole genome sequencing using the single molecule sequencing technology of the PacBio® RS II system. The genome was further analyzed and compared with previously reported rubber-degrading bacteria in order to identify the potential genes involved in rubber degradation. This led to the interesting discovery of three homologues of latex-clearing protein (Lcp) on the chromosome of this strain, which are probably responsible for rubber degrading activities. Genes encoding oxidoreductase α-subunit (oxiA) and oxidoreductase β-subunit (oxiB) were also found downstream of two lcp genes which are located adjacent to each other. In silico analysis reveals genes that have been identified to be involved in the microbial degradation of rubber in the Streptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7. This is the first whole genome sequence of a clear-zone-forming natural rubber- degrading Streptomyces sp., which harbours three Lcp homologous genes with the presence of oxiA and oxiB genes compared to the previously reported Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 (with two Lcp homologous genes) and Nocardia nova SH22a (with only one Lcp gene). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial communities associated with biofouling materials used in bench-scale hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, Dina; Kansour, Mayada; Radwan, Samir

    2015-03-01

    Biofouling material samples from the Arabian (Persian) Gulf, used as inocula in batch cultures, brought about crude oil and pure-hydrocarbon removal in a mineral medium. Without any added nitrogen fertilizers, the hydrocarbon-removal values were between about 10 and 50 %. Fertilization with NaNO3 alone or together with a mixture of the vitamins thiamine, pyridoxine, vitamin B12, biotin, riboflavin, and folic acid increased the hydrocarbon-removal values, to reach 90 %. Biofouling material samples harbored total bacteria in the magnitude of 10(7) cells g(-1), about 25 % of which were hydrocarbonoclastic. These numbers were enhanced by NaNO3 and vitamin amendment. The culture-independent analysis of the total bacterioflora revealed the predominance of the gammaproteobacterial genera Marinobacter, Acinetobacter, and Alcanivorax, the Flavobacteriia, Flavobacterium, Gaetbulibacter, and Owenweeksia, and the Alphaproteobacteria Tistrella, Zavarzinia, and others. Most of those bacteria are hydrocarbonoclastic. Culture-dependent analysis of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria revealed that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Dietzia maris, and Gordonia bronchialis predominated in the fouling materials. In addition, each material had several more-specific hydrocarbonoclastic species, whose frequencies were enhanced by NaNO3 and vitamin fertilization. The same samples of fouling materials were used in four successive crude-oil-removal cycles without any dramatic loss of their hydrocarbon-removal potential nor of their associated hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. In the fifth cycle, the oil-removal value was reduced by about 50 % in only one of the studied samples. This highlights how firmly biofouling materials were immobilizing the hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

  20. Bioremediation potential of a tropical soil contaminated with a mixture of crude oil and production water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Santos, Silvia Cristina Cunha Dos Santos; Casella, Renata da Costa; Vital, Ronalt Leite; Sebastin, Gina Vasquez; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-12-01

    A typical tropical soil from the northeast of Brazil, where an important terrestrial oil field is located, was accidentally contaminated with a mixture of oil and saline production water. To study the bioremediation potential in this area, molecular methods based on PCR-DGGE were used to determine the diversity of the bacterial communities in bulk and in contaminated soils. Bacterial fingerprints revealed that the bacterial communities were affected by the presence of the mixture of oil and production water, and different profiles were observed when the contaminated soils were compared with the control. Halotolerant strains capable of degrading crude oil were also isolated from enrichment cultures obtained from the contaminated soil samples. Twenty-two strains showing these features were characterized genetically by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and phenotypically by their colonial morphology and tolerance to high NaCl concentrations. Fifteen ARDRA groups were formed. Selected strains were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing, and Actinobacteria was identified as the main group found. Strains were also tested for their growth capability in the presence of different oil derivatives (hexane, dodecane, hexadecane, diesel, gasoline, toluene, naphthalene, o-xylene, and p-xylene) and different degradation profiles were observed. PCR products were obtained from 12 of the 15 ARDRA representatives when they were screened for the presence of the alkane hydroxylase gene (alkB). Members of the genera Rhodococcus and Gordonia were identified as predominant in the soil studied. These genera are usually implicated in oil degradation processes and, as such, the potential for bioremediation in this area can be considered as feasible.

  1. Histidine at Position 195 is Essential for Association of Heme- b in Lcp1VH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetermann, Sylvia; Vivod, Robin; Hiessl, Sebastian; Hogeback, Jens; Holtkamp, Michael; Karst, Uwe; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    The latex clearing protein (Lcp) is the key enzyme of polyisoprene degradation in actinomycetes (Yikmis and Steinbüchel in Appl Environ Microbiol 78:4543-4551, https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00001-12 , 2012). In this study it was shown that Lcp from Gordonia polyisoprenivorans VH2 (Lcp1VH2) harbors a non-covalently bound heme b as cofactor, which was identified by pyridine hemochrome spectra and confirmed by LC/ESI-ToF-MS. It contains iron, most likely in the Fe3+ state. We focused on the characterization of the heme-cofactor, its accessibility with respect to the conformation of Lcp1VH2, and the identification of putative histidine residues involved in the coordination of heme. A change was detectable in UV/Vis-spectra of reduced Lcp1VH2 when imidazole was added, showing that Lcp1VH2 "as isolated" occurs in an open state, directly being accessible for external ligands. In addition, three highly conserved histidines (H195, H200 and H228), presumably acting as ligands coordinating the heme within the heme pocket, were replaced with alanines by site-directed mutagenesis. The effect of these changes on in vivo rubber-mineralization was investigated. The lcp- deletion mutant complemented with the H195A variant of lcp1 VH2 was unable to mineralize poly( cis-1,4-isoprene). In vitro analyses of purified, recombinant Lcp1VH2H195A confirmed the loss of enzyme activity, which could be ascribed to the loss of heme. Hence, H195 is essential for the association of heme- b in the central region of Lcp1VH2.

  2. Rhizosphere effects of PAH-contaminated soil phytoremediation using a special plant named Fire Phoenix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Nan; Wei, Shuhe; Zhao, Lixing; An, Jing

    2014-03-01

    The rhizosphere effect of a special phytoremediating species known as Fire Phoenix on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated, including changes of the enzymatic activity and microbial communities in rhizosphere soil. The study showed that the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs by Fire Phoenix was up to 99.40% after a 150-day culture. The activity of dehydrogenase (DHO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly, especially after a 60-day culture, followed by a gradual reduction with an increase in the planting time. The activity of these enzymes was strongly correlated to the higher degradation performance of Fire Phoenix growing in PAH-contaminated soils, although it was also affected by the basic characteristics of the plant species itself, such as the excessive, fibrous root systems, strong disease resistance, drought resistance, heat resistance, and resistance to barren soil. The activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) decreased during the whole growing period in this study, and the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs in the rhizosphere soil after having planted Fire Phoenix plants had a significant (R(2)=0.947) negative correlation with the change in the activity of PPO. Using an analysis of the microbial communities, the results indicated that the structure of microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil could be changed by planting Fire Phoenix plants, namely, there was an increase in microbial diversity compared with the unplanted soil. In addition, the primary advantage of Fire Phoenix was to promote the growth of flora genus Gordonia sp. as the major bacteria that can effectively degrade PAHs. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity, Novelty, and Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Actinobacteria From Mangrove Plants in Beilun Estuary National Nature Reserve of Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-ke; Tuo, Li; Huang, Da-lin; Osterman, Ilya A.; Tyurin, Anton P.; Liu, Shao-wei; Lukyanov, Dmitry A.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Dontsova, Olga A.; Korshun, Vladimir A.; Li, Fei-na; Sun, Cheng-hang

    2018-01-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria are one of the important pharmaceutical resources and well known for producing different types of bioactive substances. Nevertheless, detection of the novelty, diversity, and bioactivity on endophytic actinobacteria isolated from mangrove plants are scarce. In this study, five different mangrove plants, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Kandelia obovota, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Thespesia populnea, were collected from Beilun Estuary National Nature Reserve in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 101 endophytic actinobacteria strains were recovered by culture-based approaches. They distributed in 7 orders, 15 families, and 28 genera including Streptomyces, Curtobacterium, Mycobacterium, Micrococcus, Brevibacterium, Kocuria, Nocardioides, Kineococcus, Kytococcus, Marmoricola, Microbacterium, Micromonospora, Actinoplanes, Agrococcus, Amnibacterium, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Dermacoccus, Glutamicibacter, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Janibacter, Leucobacter, Nocardia, Nocardiopsis, Pseudokineococcus, Sanguibacter, and Verrucosispora. Among them, seven strains were potentially new species of genera Nocardioides, Streptomyces, Amnibacterium, Marmoricola, and Mycobacterium. Above all, strain 8BXZ-J1 has already been characterized as a new species of the genus Marmoricola. A total of 63 out of 101 strains were chosen to screen antibacterial activities by paper-disk diffusion method and inhibitors of ribosome and DNA biosynthesis by means of a double fluorescent protein reporter. A total of 31 strains exhibited positive results in at least one antibacterial assay. Notably, strain 8BXZ-J1 and three other potential novel species, 7BMP-1, 5BQP-J3, and 1BXZ-J1, all showed antibacterial bioactivity. In addition, 21 strains showed inhibitory activities against at least one “ESKAPE” resistant pathogens. We also found that Streptomyces strains 2BBP-J2 and 1BBP-1 produce bioactive compound with inhibitory activity on protein

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, M; Wittig, M; Reinhard, A; von der Ohe, K; Blacquière, T; Raezke, K-P; Michel, R; Schreier, P; Beuerle, T

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a structurally diverse group of toxicologically relevant secondary plant metabolites. Currently, two analytical methods are used to determine PA content in honey. To achieve reasonably high sensitivity and selectivity, mass spectrometry detection is demanded. One method is an HPLC-ESI-MS-MS approach, the other a sum parameter method utilising HRGC-EI-MS operated in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). To date, no fully validated or standardised method exists to measure the PA content in honey. To establish an LC-MS method, several hundred standard pollen analysis results of raw honey were analysed. Possible PA plants were identified and typical commercially available marker PA-N-oxides (PANOs). Three distinct honey sets were analysed with both methods. Set A consisted of pure Echium honey (61-80% Echium pollen). Echium is an attractive bee plant. It is quite common in all temperate zones worldwide and is one of the major reasons for PA contamination in honey. Although only echimidine/echimidine-N-oxide were available as reference for the LC-MS target approach, the results for both analytical techniques matched very well (n = 8; PA content ranging from 311 to 520 µg kg(-1)). The second batch (B) consisted of a set of randomly picked raw honeys, mostly originating from Eupatorium spp. (0-15%), another common PA plant, usually characterised by the occurrence of lycopsamine-type PA. Again, the results showed good consistency in terms of PA-positive samples and quantification results (n = 8; ranging from 0 to 625 µg kg(-1) retronecine equivalents). The last set (C) was obtained by consciously placing beehives in areas with a high abundance of Jacobaea vulgaris (ragwort) from the Veluwe region (the Netherlands). J. vulgaris increasingly invades countrysides in Central Europe, especially areas with reduced farming or sites with natural restorations. Honey from two seasons (2007 and 2008) was sampled. While only trace amounts of

  5. Epoxyalkane:Coenzyme M Transferase Gene Diversity and Distribution in Groundwater Samples from Chlorinated-Ethene-Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xikun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epoxyalkane:coenzyme M transferase (EaCoMT) plays a critical role in the aerobic biodegradation and assimilation of alkenes, including ethene, propene, and the toxic chloroethene vinyl chloride (VC). To improve our understanding of the diversity and distribution of EaCoMT genes in the environment, novel EaCoMT-specific terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and nested-PCR methods were developed and applied to groundwater samples from six different contaminated sites. T-RFLP analysis revealed 192 different EaCoMT T-RFs. Using clone libraries, we retrieved 139 EaCoMT gene sequences from these samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that a majority of the sequences (78.4%) grouped with EaCoMT genes found in VC- and ethene-assimilating Mycobacterium strains and Nocardioides sp. strain JS614. The four most-abundant T-RFs were also matched with EaCoMT clone sequences related to Mycobacterium and Nocardioides strains. The remaining EaCoMT sequences clustered within two emergent EaCoMT gene subgroups represented by sequences found in propene-assimilating Gordonia rubripertincta strain B-276 and Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2. EaCoMT gene abundance was positively correlated with VC and ethene concentrations at the sites studied. IMPORTANCE The EaCoMT gene plays a critical role in assimilation of short-chain alkenes, such as ethene, VC, and propene. An improved understanding of EaCoMT gene diversity and distribution is significant to the field of bioremediation in several ways. The expansion of the EaCoMT gene database and identification of incorrectly annotated EaCoMT genes currently in the database will facilitate improved design of environmental molecular diagnostic tools and high-throughput sequencing approaches for future bioremediation studies. Our results further suggest that potentially significant aerobic VC degraders in the environment are not well represented in pure culture. Future research should aim to isolate and

  6. Jerusalem artichoke as low-cost fructose-rich feedstock for fossil fuels desulphurization by a fructophilic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T P; Paixão, S M; Roseiro, J C; Alves, L

    2015-03-01

    Through biodesulphurization (BDS) is possible to remove the sulphur present in fossil fuels to carry out the very strict legislation. However, this biological process is limited by the cost of the culture medium, and thus, it is important to explore cheaper alternative carbon sources, such as Jerusalem artichoke (JA). These carbon sources usually contain sulphates which interfere with the BDS process. The goal of this work was to remove the sulphates from Jerusalem artichoke juice (JAJ) through BaCl2 precipitation viewing the optimization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulphurization by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B. Using a statistical design (Doehlert distribution), the effect of BaCl2 concentration (0.125-0.625%) and pH (5-9) was studied on sulphate concentration in hydrolysed JAJ. A validated surface response derived from data indicated that zero sulphates can be achieved with 0.5-0.55% (w/v) BaCl2 at pH 7; however, parallel BDS assays showed that the highest desulphurization was obtained with the juice treated with 0.5% (w/v) BaCl2 at pH 8.73. Further assays demonstrated that enhanced DBT desulphurization was achieved using hydrolysed JAJ treated in these optimal conditions. A total conversion of 400 μmol l(-1) DBT into 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in <90 h was observed, attaining a 2-HBP maximum production rate of 28.2 μmol l(-1) h(-1) and a specific production rate of 5.06 μmol(-1) g(-1) (DCW) h(-1) . These results highlight the efficacy of the treatment applied to JAJ in making this agromaterial a promising low-cost renewable feedstock for improved BDS by the fructophilic strain 1B. This study is a fundamental step viewing BDS application at the industrial level as it accounts a cost-effective production of the biocatalysts, one of the main drawbacks for BDS scale-up. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Characterization of two diesel fuel degrading microbial consortia enriched from a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varese Giovanna C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bioremediation of soils impacted by diesel fuels is very often limited by the lack of indigenous microflora with the required broad substrate specificity. In such cases, the soil inoculation with cultures with the desired catabolic capabilities (bioaugmentation is an essential option. The use of consortia of microorganisms obtained from rich sources of microbes (e.g., sludges, composts, manure via enrichment (i.e., serial growth transfers on the polluting hydrocarbons would provide bioremediation enhancements more robust and reproducible than those achieved with specialized pure cultures or tailored combinations (co-cultures of them, together with none or minor risks of soil loading with unrelated or pathogenic allocthonous microorganisms. Results In this work, two microbial consortia, i.e., ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2, were enriched from ENZYVEBA (a complex commercial source of microorganisms on Diesel (G1 and HiQ Diesel (G2, respectively, and characterized in terms of microbial composition and hydrocarbon biodegradation capability and specificity. ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 exhibited a comparable and remarkable biodegradation capability and specificity towards n-C10 to n-C24 linear paraffins by removing about 90% of 1 g l-1 of diesel fuel applied after 10 days of aerobic shaken flask batch culture incubation at 30°C. Cultivation dependent and independent approaches evidenced that both consortia consist of bacteria belonging to the genera Chryseobacterium, Acinetobacter, Psudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes and Gordonia along with the fungus Trametes gibbosa. However, only the fungus was found to grow and remarkably biodegrade G1 and G2 hydrocarbons under the same conditions. The biodegradation activity and specificity and the microbial composition of ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 did not significantly change after cryopreservation and storage at -20°C for several months. Conclusions ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 are very similar highly enriched consortia

  8. Characterization of two diesel fuel degrading microbial consortia enriched from a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanaroli, Giulio; Di Toro, Sara; Todaro, Daniela; Varese, Giovanna C; Bertolotto, Antonio; Fava, Fabio

    2010-02-16

    The bioremediation of soils impacted by diesel fuels is very often limited by the lack of indigenous microflora with the required broad substrate specificity. In such cases, the soil inoculation with cultures with the desired catabolic capabilities (bioaugmentation) is an essential option. The use of consortia of microorganisms obtained from rich sources of microbes (e.g., sludges, composts, manure) via enrichment (i.e., serial growth transfers) on the polluting hydrocarbons would provide bioremediation enhancements more robust and reproducible than those achieved with specialized pure cultures or tailored combinations (co-cultures) of them, together with none or minor risks of soil loading with unrelated or pathogenic allocthonous microorganisms. In this work, two microbial consortia, i.e., ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2, were enriched from ENZYVEBA (a complex commercial source of microorganisms) on Diesel (G1) and HiQ Diesel (G2), respectively, and characterized in terms of microbial composition and hydrocarbon biodegradation capability and specificity. ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 exhibited a comparable and remarkable biodegradation capability and specificity towards n-C10 to n-C24 linear paraffins by removing about 90% of 1 g l-1 of diesel fuel applied after 10 days of aerobic shaken flask batch culture incubation at 30 degrees C. Cultivation dependent and independent approaches evidenced that both consortia consist of bacteria belonging to the genera Chryseobacterium, Acinetobacter, Psudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes and Gordonia along with the fungus Trametes gibbosa. However, only the fungus was found to grow and remarkably biodegrade G1 and G2 hydrocarbons under the same conditions. The biodegradation activity and specificity and the microbial composition of ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 did not significantly change after cryopreservation and storage at -20 degrees C for several months. ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 are very similar highly enriched consortia of bacteria and a fungus capable of

  9. Gasoline Biodesulfurization DE-FC07-97ID13570 FINAL REPORT; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pienkos, Philip T.

    2002-01-01

    Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despite this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes. 2001. Nature Biotech. 19

  10. Gasoline Biodesulfurization DE-FC07-97ID13570 FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienkos, Philip T.

    2002-01-15

    Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despite this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes. 2001. Nature Biotech. 19

  11. American black bears and bee yard depredation at Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.D.; Dobey, S.; Masters, D.V.; Scheick, B.K.; Pelton, M.R.; Sunquist, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    We studied American black bears (Ursus americanus), on the northwest periphery of Okefenokee Swamp in southeast Georgia, to assess landowner attitudes toward bears, estimate the extent of damage to commercial honey bee operations by bears, and evaluate methods to reduce bear depredations to apiaries. We collected 8,351 black bear radiolocations and identified 51 bee yards on our study area. Twenty-seven of 43 home ranges contained ≥1 bee yard, averaging 11.3 and 5.1 bee yards/home range of males (n = 7) and females (n = 20), respectively. From 1996 to 1998, we documented 7 instances of bears raiding bee yards within our study area and 6 instances in adjacent areas. All but 1 of the 13 raided yards were enclosed by electric fencing. In the 12 cases of damage to electrically fenced yards, however, the fences were not active because of depleted batteries. Based on compositional analysis, bear use of areas 800–1,400 m from bee yards was disproportionately greater than use 0–800 m from bee yards. Bears disproportionately used bay (red bay: Persea borbonia, loblolly bay: Gordonia lasianthus, and southern magnolia: Magnolia virginia), gum (water tupelo: Nyssa aquatic and black gum: N. sylvatica), and cypress (Taxodium spp.) and loblolly bay habitats, however, compared with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) or pine–oak (Quercus spp.), where bee yards usually were placed. The distribution of bear radiolocations likely reflected the use of those swamp and riparian areas, rather than avoidance of bee yards. Distances to streams from damaged bee yards (x̄ = 1,750 m) were less than from undamaged yards (x̄ = 4,442 m), and damaged bee yards were closer to unimproved roads (x̄ = 134 m) than were undamaged bee yards (x̄ = 802 m). Our analysis suggests that bee yard placement away from bear travel routes (such as streams and unimproved roads) can reduce bear depredation problems. Our results strongly indicate that working electric fences are effective deterrents to bear

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF METHODS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lyamin

    2017-01-01

    -ToF spectrometry, DNA hybridization were not determined to species. 17 (21.8% of microbial strains which have been identified using the method of DNA hybridization, identified by spectrometry, including slow-growing microorganisms, non-mycobacteria strains seven (9.0%: Gordonia rubriperticta, Nocardia forcinica, Tsukumurella spp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Accurate species identification NTMB is fundamental to determine the tactics of treatment of patients with mycobacteriosis. Due to this rather limited possibility of identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria, using a DNA-hybridization method is inadequate to date. The introduction of new techniques, such as MALDI-ToF spectrometry, can identify a greater number of species of nontuberculous mycobacteria, as well as other types of slow-growing microorganisms having similarities with mycobacteria on cultural and morphological properties, which significantly increases the diagnostic capabilities of laboratories.