WorldWideScience

Sample records for good electrical conductivity

  1. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  2. Electrical conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowotny, J.; Rekas, M.; Sorrell, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    Defect disorder model for undoped and Sr-doped LaMnO 3 was derived from non-stoichiometry data reported in literature. This model is checked against the electrical conductivity data. The regimes corresponding to oxygen deficit and oxygen excess will be discussed. A good agreement between the random defect model and experimental data of the electrical conductivity was revealed. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  3. Electric conductivity of TlInTe2 monocrystal in strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarbaliev, M.M.; Godzhaev, Eh.M.; Gadzhiev, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Electric condUctivity of the TlInTe 2 single crystal in strong electric fields has been studied in the range of 77-300 K. The electron part of the TlInTe 2 dielectric constant has been found to be 4. The dependence of the activation energy of current carriers on the electric field strength is constructed and the value of the activation energy of current carriers in the absence of an electric field is determined by the extrapolation method. The results of the experiments are in good agreement with the Frenkel-Pool theory, and this affords grounds for asserting that the obtained dependences of electric conductivity on temperature and the electric field strength are defined by variation in the current carrier concentration due to action of the thermal-electron ionization mechanism

  4. The electrical conductivity of CuCrZr alloy after SPD processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipińska, M; Bazarnik, P; Lewandowska, M

    2014-01-01

    CuCrZr alloys exhibit very good relation between mechanical properties and electrical conductivity. However, for its use in some advanced applications improvement of mechanical strength while preserving high electrical conducting is required. Therefore, in this work a CuCrZr alloy was subjected to a series of thermo-mechanical treatments, including solution annealing and water quenching, SPD processing (using hydrostatic extrusion and ECAP) as well as aging in order to improve mechanical strength. The influence of these processing procedures on microstructure features and mechanical properties was determined by TEM observation and microhardness measurements, respectively. Electrical conductivity of the samples was measured by four-points method. The results have shown that it is possible to improve mechanical strength while preserving good electrical conductivity by a proper combination of SPD processing and heat treatment

  5. Electrically conductive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  6. Electrical conductivity of metal powders under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, J. M.; Cuevas, F. G.; Cintas, J.; Urban, P.

    2011-12-01

    A model for calculating the electrical conductivity of a compressed powder mass consisting of oxide-coated metal particles has been derived. A theoretical tool previously developed by the authors, the so-called `equivalent simple cubic system', was used in the model deduction. This tool is based on relating the actual powder system to an equivalent one consisting of deforming spheres packed in a simple cubic lattice, which is much easier to examine. The proposed model relates the effective electrical conductivity of the powder mass under compression to its level of porosity. Other physically measurable parameters in the model are the conductivities of the metal and oxide constituting the powder particles, their radii, the mean thickness of the oxide layer and the tap porosity of the powder. Two additional parameters controlling the effect of the descaling of the particle oxide layer were empirically introduced. The proposed model was experimentally verified by measurements of the electrical conductivity of aluminium, bronze, iron, nickel and titanium powders under pressure. The consistency between theoretical predictions and experimental results was reasonably good in all cases.

  7. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  8. A percolation approach to study the high electric field effect on electrical conductivity of insulating polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benallou, Amina; Hadri, Baghdad; Martinez-Vega, Juan; El Islam Boukortt, Nour

    2018-04-01

    The effect of percolation threshold on the behaviour of electrical conductivity at high electric field of insulating polymers has been briefly investigated in literature. Sometimes the dead ends links are not taken into account in the study of the electric field effect on the electrical properties. In this work, we present a theoretical framework and Monte Carlo simulation of the behaviour of the electric conductivity at high electric field based on the percolation theory using the traps energies levels which are distributed according to distribution law (uniform, Gaussian, and power-law). When a solid insulating material is subjected to a high electric field, and during trapping mechanism the dead ends of traps affect with decreasing the electric conductivity according to the traps energies levels, the correlation length of the clusters, the length of the dead ends, and the concentration of the accessible positions for the electrons. A reasonably good agreement is obtained between simulation results and the theoretical framework.

  9. Measurement of total dissolved solids using electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Vinod K.; Jat, J.R.; Reddy, G.B.; Balaji Rao, Y.; Phani Babu, C.; Kalyanakrishnan, G.

    2017-01-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) is an important parameter for the disposal of effluents generated during processing of different raw materials like Magnesium Di-uranate (MDU), Heat Treated Uranium Peroxide (HTUP), Sodium Di-uranate (SDU) in Uranium Extraction plant and Washed and Dried Frit (WDF) in Zirconium Extraction Plant. The present paper describes the use of electrical conductivity for determination of TDS. As electrical conductivity is matrix dependent property, matrix matched standards were prepared for determination of TDS in ammonium nitrate solution (AN) and mixture of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate (AN/AS) and results were found to be in good agreement when compared with evaporation method. (author)

  10. Electrically conductive carbon fibre-reinforced composite for aircraft lightning strike protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, Andrzej; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Turczyn, Roman; Sul, Przemysław; Bilewicz, Marcin

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft elements, especially elements of exterior fuselage, are subjected to damage caused by lightning strikes. Due to the fact that these elements are manufactured from polymeric composites in modern aircraft, and thus, they cannot conduct electrical charges, the lightning strikes cause burnouts in composite structures. Therefore, the effective lightning strike protection for such structures is highly desired. The solution presented in this paper is based on application of organic conductive fillers in the form of intrinsically conducting polymers and carbon fabric in order to ensure electrical conductivity of whole composite and simultaneously retain superior mechanical properties. The presented studies cover synthesis and manufacturing of the electrically conductive composite as well as its characterization with respect to mechanical and electrical properties. The performed studies indicate that the proposed material can be potentially considered as a constructional material for aircraft industry, which characterizes by good operational properties and low cost of manufacturing with respect to current lightning strike protection materials solutions.

  11. Is electricity a public good?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens; Kiesling, Lynne; Giberson, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Wholesale electricity markets are increasingly driven by the rules of competition while recent outages in different regions of the world suggest that security of supply is a public good. The objective of this paper is to show that security of supply and more generally, electricity supply has both public and private characteristics. Whilst the public good characteristic explains why some producers may prefer to free ride on others' investments to maintain reliability, the private good aspect of reliability shows that agents may have a variety of preferences for reliability. Then by relying on the concept of Pareto-relevant externality, the paper explores the private aspect of reliability for the prospect of creating and selling reliability as a differentiated product complementary to bulk power markets. Finally, policy recommendations are derived that aim to enhance information content in the network. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 101

  12. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  13. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  14. Facile synthesis of degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baolin; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2011-07-11

    Degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels (DECPHs) have been synthesized by functionalizing polysaccharide with conductive aniline oligomers. DECPHs based on chitosan (CS), aniline tetramer (AT), and glutaraldehyde were obtained by a facile one-pot reaction by using the amine group of CS and AT under mild conditions, which avoids the multistep reactions and tedious purification involved in the synthesis of degradable conductive hydrogels in our previous work. Interestingly, these one-pot hydrogels possess good film-forming properties, electrical conductivity, and a pH-sensitive swelling behavior. The chemical structure and morphology before and after swelling of the hydrogels were verified by FT-IR, NMR, and SEM. The conductivity of the hydrogels was tuned by adjusting the content of AT. The swelling ratio of the hydrogels was altered by the content of tetraaniline and cross-linker. The hydrogels underwent slow degradation in a buffer solution. The hydrogels obtained by this facile approach provide new possibilities in biomedical applications, for example, biodegradable conductive hydrogels, films, and scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery.

  15. Calibration-free electrical conductivity measurements for highly conductive slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Christopher J.; Gao, Huang; Pal, Uday B.; Van den Avyle, James A.; Melgaard, David K.

    2000-01-01

    This research involves the measurement of the electrical conductivity (K) for the ESR (electroslag remelting) slag (60 wt.% CaF 2 - 20 wt.% CaO - 20 wt.% Al 2 O 3 ) used in the decontamination of radioactive stainless steel. The electrical conductivity is measured with an improved high-accuracy-height-differential technique that requires no calibration. This method consists of making continuous AC impedance measurements over several successive depth increments of the coaxial cylindrical electrodes in the ESR slag. The electrical conductivity is then calculated from the slope of the plot of inverse impedance versus the depth of the electrodes in the slag. The improvements on the existing technique include an increased electrochemical cell geometry and the capability of measuring high precision depth increments and the associated impedances. These improvements allow this technique to be used for measuring the electrical conductivity of highly conductive slags such as the ESR slag. The volatilization rate and the volatile species of the ESR slag measured through thermogravimetric (TG) and mass spectroscopy analysis, respectively, reveal that the ESR slag composition essentially remains the same throughout the electrical conductivity experiments

  16. Electrically conductive composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  17. From waste to intelligence: the good use of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    While presenting and commenting many data tables and graphs, this study gives an overview of electricity production and of its good use (production, transport, production and distribution management, uses, sector-based consumption, consumption prospective studies in France for the past 15 years, good use criteria, electricity CO 2 content assessments and objectives). It comments the challenges and sector-based perspectives of an electricity good use by 2020 (in the industry, transport, agriculture, housing and tertiary, and building sectors) and emphasizes, for each sector, some recent assessments or policy choices (national plans adopted within the frame of the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement'). The next part describes and comments how electricity is treated within the energy efficiency European policies with different directives. The last part describes some examples of good practices and comments the various challenges to be met by 2020

  18. Synthesis and electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline tetragonal FeS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Shu-Lin; Wang Hui-Xian; Dong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    A convenient method for synthesis of tetragonal FeS using iron powder as iron source, is reported. Nanocrystalline tetragonal FeS samples were successfully synthesized by reacting metallic iron powder with sodium sulfide in acetate buffer solution. The obtained sample is single-phase tetragonal FeS with lattice parameters a = 0.3767 nm and c = 0.5037 nm, as revealed by X-ray diffraction. The sample consists of flat nanosheets with lateral dimensions from 20 nm up to 200 nm and average thickness of about 20 nm. We found that tetragonal FeS is a fairly good conductor from the electrical resistivity measurement on a pellet of the nanosheets. The temperature dependence of conductivity of the pellet was well fitted using an empirical equation wherein the effect of different grain boundaries was taken into consideration. This study provides a convenient, economic way to synthesize tetragonal FeS in a large scale and reports the first electrical conductivity data for tetragonal FeS down to liquid helium temperature. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Device for the measurement of electrically conductive bulk goods led through a pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyssen, H.; Breuer, G.

    1978-01-01

    The measuring section employed to detect the passage of spherical, graphite coated, electrically conducting fuel and/or blanket elements consists of a metal tube as the first electrode and another electrode, which is insulated from the first one, between which a spark gap is triggered by a sphere passing between them. The circuitry of the two electrodes includes a DC generator and a high ohmic resistor. The indication signals are generated by amplitude modulation by the interaction of the high ohmic resistor, the spark gap and a stray capacitance connected in parallel with the spark gap. The signals can be fed to the data processing system. (RW) [de

  20. Annual report on compliance with the codes of good conduct and independence of electricity grid and natural gas network operators. November 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    In France, system operators belong to groups that also conduct business in the energy sector, in fields governed by competition rules. They could therefore be tempted to use their privileged position to their group's benefit, which would disadvantage end consumers. Non-discriminatory access to electricity and gas transmission and distribution networks is at the core of the market opening to competition approach implemented by the European Union since the end of the 1990's. EU and national enactments in force highlight two tools to ensure nondiscrimination: compliance programmes and independence of system operators with regard to their parent companies. Firstly, compliance programs contain measures taken to ensure that discrimination is completely excluded and that their application is subject to appropriate monitoring. Secondly, system operator independence plays a part in preventing discrimination against competitors with other business activities (generation, supply, etc.) within the same group. In application of these enactments, every electricity or natural gas transmission or distribution system operator serving more than 100,000 customers provided CRE, the Energy Regulatory Commission, with their annual reports on the application of their compliance programs. This document is CRE's November 2005 report about compliance programmes and independence of electricity and natural gas system operators. It has been prepared using the codes of good conduct and the annual reports supplied by network operators. CRE also launched a public consultation of the market players in October 2005 and listened to what the network operators had to say. Moreover, it carried out a certain number of checks on operators' practices

  1. Electrically Conductive TPU Nanofibrous Composite with High Stretchability for Flexible Strain Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lu; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; He, Xiao-Xiao; Nie, Guang-Di; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Guo, Wen-Zhe; Long, Yun-Ze

    2018-03-01

    Highly stretchable and electrically conductive thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofibrous composite based on electrospinning for flexible strain sensor and stretchable conductor has been fabricated via in situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) on TPU nanofibrous membrane. The PANI/TPU membrane-based sensor could detect a strain from 0 to 160% with fast response and excellent stability. Meanwhile, the TPU composite has good stability and durability. Besides, the composite could be adapted to various non-flat working environments and could maintain opportune conductivity at different operating temperatures. This work provides an easy operating and low-cost method to fabricate highly stretchable and electrically conductive nanofibrous membrane, which could be applied to detect quick and tiny human actions.

  2. A Simple Demonstration of the High-Temperature Electrical Conductivity of Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We usually think of glass as a good electrical insulator; this, however, is not always the case. There are several ways to show that glass becomes conducting at high temperatures, but the following approach, devised by Brown University demonstration manager Gerald Zani, may be one of the simplest to perform.

  3. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  4. Electricity as a traded good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sunderasan

    2013-01-01

    Electric power has traditionally been classified as a non-traded good, produced and consumed within the country of origin. More recently, electricity has been traded across national borders and in certain cases, viz., Bhutan, has been the dominant export; in other situations, it is used to repay debts owed to neighboring countries. This paper investigates the role of electricity as the primary export, analyzes its valuation, and then goes on to evaluate the impact on the terms of trade. We conclude that in the medium-term, the electric power exporting economy would be better off developing its manufacturing sector to diversify its exposure and to protect its trade interests. The case of Bhutanese hydro-electricity exports to India is studied and the change in trade advantage with every increase in power tariff is ascertained. It is found that a 1.26% annual increase in (non-food) consumer prices is correlated with a 1% increase in electricity export tariff. While the causality from electric power tariff to Indian manufactures prices is not established statistically, a change in manufactures prices feeding back into consumer prices in Bhutan is statistically significant. Suggestions are offered for Bhutan to reduce dependence on Indian imports and to diversify its export market exposure. - Highlights: • Electricity as principal export of small economy. • Bilateral trade with large economy. • Tourism as major income generator for small economy. • Partial equilibrium model involving key variables. • Small economy would need to diversify. • Important subject for inter-temporal and inter-regional trade of power

  5. Silver Flakes and Silver Dendrites for Hybrid Electrically Conductive Adhesives with Enhanced Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongru; Li, Zhuo; Tian, Xun; Yan, Shaocun; Li, Zhe; Guo, Xuhong; Ma, Yanqing; Ma, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Silver dendrites were prepared by a facile replacement reaction between silver nitrate and zinc microparticles of 20 μm in size. The influence of reactant molar ratio, reaction solution volume, silver nitrate concentration, and reaction time on the morphology of dendrites was investigated systematically. It was found that uniform tree-like silver structures are synthesized under the optimal conditions. Their structure can be described as a trunk, symmetrical branches, and leaves, which length scales of 5-10, 1-2 μm, and 100-300 nm, respectively. All features were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and x-ray powder diffraction. A hybrid fillers system using silver flakes and dendrites as electrically conductive adhesives (ECAs) exhibited excellent overall performance. This good conductivity can be attributed mainly to the synergy between the silver microflakes (5-20 μm sized irregular sheet structures) and dendrites, allowing more conductive pathways to be formed between the fillers. In order to further optimize the overall electrical conductivity, various mixtures of silver microflakes and silver dendrites were tested in ECAs, with results indicating that the highest conductivity was shown when the amounts of silver microflakes, silver dendrites and the polymer matrix were 69.4 wt.% (20.82 vol.%), 0.6 wt.% (0.18 vol.%), and 30.0 wt.% (79.00 vol.%), respectively. The corresponding mass ratio of silver flakes to silver dendrites was 347:3. The resistivity of ECAs reached as low as 1.7 × 10-4 Ω cm.

  6. Electrical conductivity of conductive carbon blacks: influence of surface chemistry and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantea, Dana; Darmstadt, Hans; Kaliaguine, Serge; Roy, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Conductive carbon blacks from different manufacturers were studied in order to obtain some insight into the relation between their electrical conductivity and their surface properties. The surface chemistry was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), whereas the topology of the carbon black surface was investigated using low-pressure nitrogen adsorption. All these techniques yield information on the graphitic character of the surface. In general, the electrical conductivity of the conductive blacks increases with the graphitic character of the surface. For low surface area conductive blacks, the electrical conductivity correlates well with the surface chemistry. In the case of the XPS and SIMS data, this correlation is also valid when other types of carbon blacks such as thermal and furnace blacks are included, confirming the determining influence of the carbon black surface chemistry on the electrical conductivity

  7. Thermo-structural analysis and electrical conductivity behavior of epoxy/metals composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumedienne, N.; Faska, Y.; Maaroufi, A.; Pinto, G.; Vicente, L.; Benavente, R.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports on the elaboration and characterization of epoxy resin filled with metallic particles powder (aluminum, tin and zinc) composites. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures, density measurements and x-ray diffraction analysis (DRX) showed a homogeneous phase of obtained composites. The differential scanning calorimetry revealed a good adherence at matrix-filler interfaces, confirming the SEM observations. The measured glass transition temperatures depend on composites fillers' nature. Afterwards, the electrical conductivity of composites versus their fillers' contents has been investigated. The obtained results depict a nonlinear behavior, indicating an insulator to conductor phase transition at a conduction threshold; with high contrast of ten decades. Hence, the elaborated materials give a possibility to obtain dielectric or electrically conducting phases, which can to be interesting in the choice of desired applications. Finally, the obtained results have been successfully simulated on the basis of different percolation models approach combined with structural characterization inferences.

  8. Electrically conductive, immobilized bioanodes for microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguli, R; Dunn, B

    2012-01-01

    The power densities of microbial fuel cells with yeast cells as the anode catalyst were significantly increased by immobilizing the yeast in electrically conductive alginate electrodes. The peak power densities measured as a function of the electrical conductivity of the immobilized electrodes show that although power increases with rising electrical conductivity, it tends to saturate beyond a certain point. Changing the pH of the anode compartment at that point seems to further increase the power density, suggesting that proton transport limitations and not electrical conductivity will limit the power density from electrically conductive immobilized anodes. (paper)

  9. Experimental Determination and Thermodynamic Modeling of Electrical Conductivity of SRS Waste Tank Supernate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-01

    SRS High Level Waste Tank Farm personnel rely on conductivity probes for detection of incipient overflow conditions in waste tanks. Minimal information is available concerning the sensitivity that must be achieved such that that liquid detection is assured. Overly sensitive electronics results in numerous nuisance alarms for these safety-related instruments. In order to determine the minimum sensitivity required of the probe, Tank Farm Engineering personnel need adequate conductivity data to improve the existing designs. Little or no measurements of liquid waste conductivity exist; however, the liquid phase of the waste consists of inorganic electrolytes for which the conductivity may be calculated. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Tank Farm Facility Engineering requested SRNL to determine the conductivity of the supernate resident in SRS waste Tank 40 experimentally as well as computationally. In addition, SRNL was requested to develop a correlation, if possible, that would be generally applicable to liquid waste resident in SRS waste tanks. A waste sample from Tank 40 was analyzed for composition and electrical conductivity as shown in Table 4-6, Table 4-7, and Table 4-9. The conductivity for undiluted Tank 40 sample was 0.087 S/cm. The accuracy of OLI Analyzer™ was determined using available literature data. Overall, 95% of computed estimates of electrical conductivity are within ±15% of literature values for component concentrations from 0 to 15 M and temperatures from 0 to 125 °C. Though the computational results are generally in good agreement with the measured data, a small portion of literature data deviates as much as ±76%. A simplified model was created that can be used readily to estimate electrical conductivity of waste solution in computer spreadsheets. The variability of this simplified approach deviates up to 140% from measured values. Generally, this model can be applied to estimate the conductivity within a factor of two. The comparison of the

  10. Mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-4% SiC nanocomposites for thermo-electric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mula, Suhrit; Sahani, Pankajini; Pratihar, S.K.; Mal, Siddhartha; Koch, Carl C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ball-milled Cu-Cr and Cu-Cr-SiC nanopowders successfully consolidated by microwave sintering. → Addition of nanosize SiC in Cu-Cr leads to enhanced sintered density, wear and hardness. → A good combination of wear resistance, hardness and electrical conductivity resulted in Cu 94 Cr 6 -4% SiC. → Microwave suscepting SiC particles played a pivotal role in good densification retaining matrix grains 99 Cr 1 , Cu 94 Cr 6 , Cu 99 Cr 1 -4 wt.% SiC and Cu 94 Cr 6 -4 wt.% SiC (average particle size ∼30 nm). The 50 h ball-milled samples were uniaxially pressed, and then pellets were sintered at 800 deg. C, 900 deg. C and 1000 deg. C for a constant soaking period of 30 min by microwave sintering technique. Microstructural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Sintered compacts resulted a highly densified compacts (∼95% relative density) while retaining ultra-fine grains (100-200 nm) in the matrix. The mechanical properties, namely, hardness and wear resistance, and electrical conductivity of the sintered specimens were also evaluated. The best combination of mechanical properties (e.g. hardness ∼2.4 GPa) and electrical conductivity (60.3% of IACS) were obtained for Cu 94 Cr 6 -4 wt.% SiC sintered at 900 deg. C. This is possibly due to presence of ultra-fine grains in the bulk samples, good densification and proper bonding between particles. The results were analyzed in the light of interactions of microwaves between metallic matrix and microwave susceptive SiC particulates.

  11. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography for measuring electrical conductivity during electroporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranjc, M; Miklavčič, D; Bajd, F; Serša, I

    2014-01-01

    The electroporation effect on tissue can be assessed by measurement of electrical properties of the tissue undergoing electroporation. The most prominent techniques for measuring electrical properties of electroporated tissues have been voltage–current measurement of applied pulses and electrical impedance tomography (EIT). However, the electrical conductivity of tissue assessed by means of voltage–current measurement was lacking in information on tissue heterogeneity, while EIT requires numerous additional electrodes and produces results with low spatial resolution and high noise. Magnetic resonance EIT (MREIT) is similar to EIT, as it is also used for reconstruction of conductivity images, though voltage and current measurements are not limited to the boundaries in MREIT, hence it yields conductivity images with better spatial resolution. The aim of this study was to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of the MREIT technique for assessment of conductivity images of tissues undergoing electroporation. Two objects were investigated: agar phantoms and ex vivo liver tissue. As expected, no significant change of electrical conductivity was detected in agar phantoms exposed to pulses of all used amplitudes, while a considerable increase of conductivity was measured in liver tissue exposed to pulses of different amplitudes. (paper)

  12. Electrical conductivity of silicon carbide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, R.; Greeff, J. de; Vinche, C.; Frias Rebelo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical conductivity was measured on two SiC/SiC composite materials in the temperature range from room temperature up to 1000degC in order to estimate the magnitude of MHD effects in liquid metal blankets if SiC/SiC composites are used as structural materials. For both types of material, the electrical conductivity increased continuously with temperature. The conductivity values ranged from 350 (Ωm) -1 at room temperature to 550 (Ωm) -1 at 1000degC, indicating that the materials tested cannot be treated as an electrical insulator in a MHD analysis for liquid metal blanket studies. (author)

  13. Nonideal ultrathin mantle cloak for electrically large conducting cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Zhang, Hao Chi; Xu, He-Xiu; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-09-01

    Based on the concept of the scattering cancellation technique, we propose a nonideal ultrathin mantle cloak that can efficiently suppress the total scattering cross sections of an electrically large conducting cylinder (over one free-space wavelength). The cloaking mechanism is investigated in depth based on the Mie scattering theory and is simultaneously interpreted from the perspective of far-field bistatic scattering and near-field distributions. We remark that, unlike the perfect transformation-optics-based cloak, this nonideal cloaking technique is mainly designed to minimize simultaneously several scattering multipoles of a relatively large geometry around considerably broad bandwidth. Numerical simulations and experimental results show that the antiscattering ability of the metasurface gives rise to excellent total scattering reduction of the electrically large cylinder and remarkable electric-field restoration around the cloak. The outstanding cloaking performance together with the good features of and ultralow profile, flexibility, and easy fabrication predict promising applications in the microwave frequencies.

  14. Conductance fluctuations and distribution in disordered chains in presence of an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senouci, K.

    1995-07-01

    A simple Kronig-Penney model for 1D mesoscopic systems with disordered δ-peak and finite width potentials under an electric field is used to study the conductance fluctuations and distributions in different phase states. The electric field allows us to obtain the insulating, transition and metallic regimes. In the superlocalized electron states found previously near the Brillouin zone edges of the corresponding periodic system the conductance fluctuations are smaller than those of the insulating regime corresponding to the vanishing field, but the conductance probability distribution has a similar behaviour. Extensive results are compared to the previous works on higher dimensions and quasi-1D mesoscopic systems in each regime and found to be in good agreement. Further discussions are also included. (author). 33 refs, 11 figs

  15. Matrix diffusion studies by electrical conductivity methods. Comparison between laboratory and in-situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Y.; Neretnieks, I.

    1998-01-01

    Traditional laboratory diffusion experiments in rock material are time consuming, and quite small samples are generally used. Electrical conductivity measurements, on the other hand, provide a fast means for examining transport properties in rock and allow measurements on larger samples as well. Laboratory measurements using electrical conductivity give results that compare well to those from traditional diffusion experiments. The measurement of the electrical resistivity in the rock surrounding a borehole is a standard method for the detection of water conducting fractures. If these data could be correlated to matrix diffusion properties, in-situ diffusion data from large areas could be obtained. This would be valuable because it would make it possible to obtain data very early in future investigations of potentially suitable sites for a repository. This study compares laboratory electrical conductivity measurements with in-situ resistivity measurements from a borehole at Aespoe. The laboratory samples consist mainly of Aespoe diorite and fine-grained granite and the rock surrounding the borehole of Aespoe diorite, Smaaland granite and fine-grained granite. The comparison shows good agreement between laboratory measurements and in-situ data

  16. Method of forming an electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Ashtead, GB

    2011-11-22

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  17. Electric Conductivity and Dielectric-Breakdown Behavior for Polyurethane Magnetic Elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shuhei; Tsujiei, Yuri; Kawai, Mika; Mitsumata, Tetsu

    2017-02-23

    The electric-voltage dependence of the electric conductivity for cross-linked and un-cross-linked magnetic elastomers was measured at various magnetic fields, and the effect of cross-linking on the electric conductivity and the dielectric-breakdown behavior was investigated. The electric conductivity for un-cross-linked elastomers at low voltages was independent of magnetic fields and the volume fraction of magnetic particles, indicating the electric conduction in the polyurethane matrix. At high voltages, the electric conductivity increased with the magnetic field, showing the electric conduction via chains of magnetic particles. On the other hand, the electric conductivity at low voltages for cross-linked elastomers with volume fractions below 0.06 was independent of the magnetic field, suggesting the electric conduction in the polyurethane matrix. At volume fractions above 0.14, the electric conductivity increased with the magnetic field, suggesting the electric conduction via chains of magnetic particles. At high voltages, the electric conductivity for cross-linked elastomers with a volume fraction of 0.02 was independent of the magnetic field, indicating the electric conduction through the polyurethane matrix. At volume fractions above 0.06, the electric conductivity suddenly increased at a critical voltage, exhibiting the dielectric breakdown at the bound layer of magnetic particles and/or the discontinuous part between chains.

  18. Redox transitions in strontium vanadates: Electrical conductivity and dimensional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías, J.; Yaremchenko, A.A.; Frade, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrical conductivity and thermal expansion of strontium vanadates are measured. • Conductivity of SrVO 3−δ is 10 6 –10 8 times higher compared to Sr 2 V 2 O 7 and Sr 3 V 2 O 8 . • Sr 2 V 2 O 7 transforms on reduction to SrVO 3−δ via (5Sr 3 V 2 O 8 + SrV 6 O 11 ) intermediate. • This process is kinetically stagnated due to good redox stability of Sr 3 V 2 O 8 . • Large volume changes on Sr 2 V 2 O 7 ↔ SrVO 3 transformation are confirmed by dilatometry. - Abstract: The reversibility of redox-induced phase transformations and accompanying electrical conductivity and dimensional changes in perovskite-type SrVO 3−δ , a parent material for a family of potential solid oxide fuel cell anode materials, were evaluated employing X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, dilatometry and electrical measurements. At 873–1273 K, the electrical conductivity of SrVO 3−δ is metallic-like and 6–8 orders of magnitude higher compared to semiconducting V 5+ -based strontium pyrovanadate Sr 2 V 2 O 7 and strontium orthovanadate Sr 3 V 2 O 8 existing under oxidizing conditions. SrVO 3−δ is easily oxidized to a pyrovanadate phase at atmospheric oxygen pressure. Inverse reduction in 10%H 2 –90%N 2 atmosphere occurs in two steps through (5Sr 3 V 2 O 8 + SrV 6 O 11 ) intermediate. As Sr 3 V 2 O 8 is relatively stable even under reducing conditions, the perovskite phase and its high level of electrical conductivity cannot be recovered completely in a reasonable time span at temperatures ⩽1273 K. Dilatometric studies confirmed that SrVO 3 ↔ Sr 2 V 2 O 7 redox transformation is accompanied with significant dimensional changes. Their extent depends on the degree of phase conversion and, apparently, on microstructural features

  19. 3D electrical conductivity tomography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueid Ahmed, A.; Revil, A.; Byrdina, S.; Coperey, A.; Gailler, L.; Grobbe, N.; Viveiros, F.; Silva, C.; Jougnot, D.; Ghorbani, A.; Hogg, C.; Kiyan, D.; Rath, V.; Heap, M. J.; Grandis, H.; Humaida, H.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical conductivity tomography is a well-established galvanometric method for imaging the subsurface electrical conductivity distribution. We characterize the conductivity distribution of a set of volcanic structures that are different in terms of activity and morphology. For that purpose, we developed a large-scale inversion code named ECT-3D aimed at handling complex topographical effects like those encountered in volcanic areas. In addition, ECT-3D offers the possibility of using as input data the two components of the electrical field recorded at independent stations. Without prior information, a Gauss-Newton method with roughness constraints is used to solve the inverse problem. The roughening operator used to impose constraints is computed on unstructured tetrahedral elements to map complex geometries. We first benchmark ECT-3D on two synthetic tests. A first test using the topography of Mt. St Helens volcano (Washington, USA) demonstrates that we can successfully reconstruct the electrical conductivity field of an edifice marked by a strong topography and strong variations in the resistivity distribution. A second case study is used to demonstrate the versatility of the code in using the two components of the electrical field recorded on independent stations along the ground surface. Then, we apply our code to real data sets recorded at (i) a thermally active area of Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming, USA), (ii) a monogenetic dome on Furnas volcano (the Azores, Portugal), and (iii) the upper portion of the caldera of Kīlauea (Hawai'i, USA). The tomographies reveal some of the major structures of these volcanoes as well as identifying alteration associated with high surface conductivities. We also review the petrophysics underlying the interpretation of the electrical conductivity of fresh and altered volcanic rocks and molten rocks to show that electrical conductivity tomography cannot be used as a stand-alone technique due to the non-uniqueness in

  20. Heat and electrical conductivity of thermotropic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, N.S.; Majidov, H.; Saburov, B.S.; Safarov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    A results of thermal conduction and electrical conduction of chemo tropic liquid crystals are brought in this article. An installation dependence formula of thermal conduction investigating things from the electrical conduction and temperatures is constructed

  1. Renewable electricity as a differentiated good? The case of the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jihyo; Park, Jooyoung; Kim, Jinsoo; Heo, Eunnyeong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the willingness for Korean consumers to pay a premium for renewable electricity under a differentiated good framework by applying the contingent valuation method. Korean consumers have been required to pay for their use of renewable electricity as of 2012. First, we find that Korean consumers recognise renewable electricity as a differentiated good from traditional electricity generated from fossil fuels or nuclear energy. The mean willingness to pay to use renewable electricity is USD 1.26 per month. Second, we confirm the existence of perfect substitution relationships among variant renewable technologies, which suggests that Korean consumers do not perceive them as differentiated goods. One reason for this perception is that Korean consumers are more inclined to favour economic feasibility over sustainability or the availability of the resource stock when choosing between renewable technology types. In sum, we can say that Korean consumers recognise renewable electricity as a differentiated good but that they do not differentiate between variant renewable technologies. Thus, the imposition of the cost of renewable electricity on consumers in the form of increased electricity charges would be acceptable to consumers as long as any price rise properly reflects their preferences. - Highlights: ► We examine renewable electricity in Korea using contingent valuation. ► Korean consumers recognise renewable electricity to be a differentiated good. ► They do not perceive types of renewable technologies as differentiated goods. ► A cost-minimising portfolio is assumed to be preferred by Korean consumers

  2. Electrical conductivity study on polythiophenes films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, I.; Cadene, M.

    1994-10-01

    The electrical conduction mechanism of two classes of polythiophenes: polythiophene (PT) and poly(3-methylthiophene) (PMT) films containing various levels of doping counter-ions was investigated. The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity obeys the Mott equation based on variable range hopping. The dimension of the variable range hopping is correlated with the structure of the conducting polymer. It seems for these polymers that carrier transport via mobile conjugational defects does not play a detectable role. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  3. Electrical conductivity modeling in fractal non-saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W.; Cai, J.; Hu, X.; Han, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The variety of electrical conductivity in non-saturated conditions is important to study electric conduction in natural sedimentary rocks. The electrical conductivity in completely saturated porous media is a porosity-function representing the complex connected behavior of single conducting phases (pore fluid). For partially saturated conditions, the electrical conductivity becomes even more complicated since the connectedness of pore. Archie's second law is an empirical electrical conductivity-porosity and -saturation model that has been used to predict the formation factor of non-saturated porous rock. However, the physical interpretation of its parameters, e.g., the cementation exponent m and the saturation exponent n, remains questionable. On basis of our previous work, we combine the pore-solid fractal (PSF) model to build an electrical conductivity model in non-saturated porous media. Our theoretical porosity- and saturation-dependent models contain endmember properties, such as fluid electrical conductivities, pore fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension (representing the complex degree of electrical flowing path). We find the presented model with non-saturation-dependent electrical conductivity datasets indicate excellent match between theory and experiments. This means the value of pore fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension change from medium to medium and depends not only on geometrical properties of pore structure but also characteristics of electrical current flowing in the non-saturated porous media.

  4. Effects of non-uniformities on electrical conduction in weakly ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, M.; Murakami, Y.; Nitta, T.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of non-uniformities on the flow of electric current in weakly ionized plasmas is investigated by taking into account the ion slip as well as the Hall current. An Ohm's law for a non-uniform plasma is derived, from which the formula previously obtained by Numano, i.e. an extension of Rosa's equation, is obtainable as a special case. Making use of this new Ohm's law, the effective electrical conductivity and the effective Hall parameter are determined for isotropically turbulent plasmas. It is found that when the ion-slip effect is absent they are in good agreement with the results obtained previously. (author)

  5. Electrically conductive carbon nanofiber/paraffin wax composites for electric thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kun; Han Baoguo; Yu Xun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/paraffin wax composite is found to be a promising electric thermal storage material. ► The thermal storage capacity of CNF/paraffin wax composite is five times of traditional electric thermal storage material. ► CNF is shown to be an effective conductive filler for the composite. - Abstract: The research of electric thermal storage (ETS) has attracted a lot of attention recently, which converts off-peak electrical energy into thermal energy and release it later at peak hours. In this study, new electric thermal storage composites are developed by employing paraffin wax as thermal storage media and carbon nanofiber (CNF) as conductive fillers. Electric heating and thermal energy release performances of the CNF/paraffin wax composites are experimentally investigated. Experimental results show that, when the composites are heated to about 70 °C, the developed electrically conductive CNF/paraffin wax composites present a thermal storage capacity of about 280 kJ/kg, which is five times of that of traditional thermal storage medium such as ceramic bricks (54 kJ/kg). The CNF/paraffin wax composites can also effectively store the thermal energy and release the thermal energy in later hours.

  6. Thermal and electrical conductivities of Cd-Zn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, B; Ari, M; Guenduez, M; Meydaneri, F; Bozoklu, M; Durmus, S

    2006-01-01

    The composition and temperature dependences of the thermal and electrical conductivities of three different Cd-Zn alloys have been investigated in the temperature range of 300-650 K. Thermal conductivities of the Cd-Zn alloys have been determined by using the radial heat flow method. It has been found that the thermal conductivity decreases slightly with increasing temperature and the data of thermal conductivity are shifting together to the higher values with increasing Cd composition. In addition, the electrical measurements were determined by using a standard DC four-point probe technique. The resistivity increases linearly and the electrical conductivity decreases exponentially with increasing temperature. The resistivity and electrical conductivity are independent of composition of Cd and Zn. Also, the temperature coefficient of Cd-Zn alloys has been determined, which is independent of composition of Cd and Zn. Finally, Lorenz number has been calculated using the thermal and electrical conductivity values at 373 and 533 K. The results satisfy the Wiedemann-Franz (WF) relation at T 373 K), the WF relation could not hold and the phonon component contribution of thermal conductivity dominates the thermal conduction

  7. Electronic energy gap of molecular hydrogen from electrical conductivity measurements at high shock pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellis, W. J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Mccandless, P. C.; Erskine, D. J.; Weir, S. T.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical conductivities were measured for liquid D2 and H2 shock compressed to pressures of 10-20 GPa (100-200 kbar), molar volumes near 8 cu cm/mol, and calculated temperatures of 2900-4600 K. The semiconducting energy gap derived from the conductivities is 12 eV, in good agreement with recent quasi-particle calculations and with oscillator frequencies measured in diamond-anvil cells.

  8. Structure, Raman, dielectric behavior and electrical conduction mechanism of strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, H.; Bejar, M.; Dhahri, E.; Graça, M. P. F.; Valente, M. A.; Khirouni, K.

    2018-05-01

    Strontium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction method. According to the XRD, it was single phase and has a cubic perovskite structure. The Raman spectroscopic investigation was carried out at room-temperature, and the second-order Raman modes were observed. By employing impedance spectroscopy, the dielectric relaxation and electrical properties were investigated over the temperature range of 500-700 K at various frequencies. The activation energies evaluated from dielectric and modulus studies are in good agreement and these values are attributed to the bulk relaxation. The impedance data were well fitted to an (R1//C1)-(R2//CPE1) equivalent electrical circuit. It could be concluded that the grain boundaries are more resistive and capacitive than the grains. The ac conductivity was found to follow the Jonscher's universal dynamic law ωS and the correlated barrier hopping model (CBH) has been proposed to describe the conduction mechanism.

  9. Improving electrical conductivity in polycarbonate nanocomposites using highly conductive PEDOT/PSS coated MWCNTs

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2013-07-10

    We describe a strategy to design highly electrically conductive polycarbonate nanocomposites by using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with a thin layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/ poly(styrenesulfonate), a conductive polymer. We found that this coating method improves the electrical properties of the nanocomposites in two ways. First, the coating becomes the main electrical conductive path. Second, the coating promotes the formation of a percolation network at a low filler concentration (0.3 wt %). To tailor the electrical properties of the conductive polymer coating, we used a polar solvent ethylene glycol, and we can tune the final properties of the nanocomposite by controlling the concentrations of the elementary constituents or the intrinsic properties of the conductive polymer coating. This very flexible technique allows for tailoring the properties of the final product. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Research of Electrical Conductivity Measurement System for Mine Bursting Water Based on Dual Frequency Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Mengran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a double frequency conductivity measurement method for measuring mine bursting water, to solve the capacitance effect of the conductivity sensor itself has the help. The core controller of the system is the single chip microcomputer ATMEGA128. This paper introduces the basic principle of the measurement of the existing problems and the dual frequency measurement method, and then introduces and analyzes the hardware. To test and analyze the collected data, the double frequency method is found to have good stability and accuracy in the measurement of the electrical conductivity of mine inrush water. It is proved that the method and the system design of the hardware circuit can accurately measure the electric conductivity of the mine inrush water source.

  11. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  12. Stay connected: Electrical conductivity of microbial aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Lesnik, Keaton Larson; Liu, Hong

    2017-11-01

    The discovery of direct extracellular electron transfer offers an alternative to the traditional understanding of diffusional electron exchange via small molecules. The establishment of electronic connections between electron donors and acceptors in microbial communities is critical to electron transfer via electrical currents. These connections are facilitated through conductivity associated with various microbial aggregates. However, examination of conductivity in microbial samples is still in its relative infancy and conceptual models in terms of conductive mechanisms are still being developed and debated. The present review summarizes the fundamental understanding of electrical conductivity in microbial aggregates (e.g. biofilms, granules, consortia, and multicellular filaments) highlighting recent findings and key discoveries. A greater understanding of electrical conductivity in microbial aggregates could facilitate the survey for additional microbial communities that rely on direct extracellular electron transfer for survival, inform rational design towards the aggregates-based production of bioenergy/bioproducts, and inspire the construction of new synthetic conductive polymers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.

    2018-01-16

    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  14. Double anisotropic electrically conductive flexible Janus-typed membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Ma, Qianli; Tian, Jiao; Xi, Xue; Li, Dan; Dong, Xiangting; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Xinlu; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2017-12-07

    Novel type III anisotropic conductive films (ACFs), namely flexible Janus-typed membranes, were proposed, designed and fabricated for the first time. Flexible Janus-typed membranes composed of ordered Janus nanobelts were constructed by electrospinning, which simultaneously possess fluorescence and double electrically conductive anisotropy. For the fabrication of the Janus-typed membrane, Janus nanobelts comprising a conductive side and an insulative-fluorescent side were primarily fabricated, and then the Janus nanobelts are arranged into parallel arrays using an aluminum rotary drum as the collector to obtain a single anisotropically conductive film. Subsequently, a secondary electrospinning process was applied to the as-prepared single anisotropically conductive films to acquire the final Janus-typed membrane. For this Janus-typed membrane, namely its left-to-right structure, anisotropic electrical conduction synchronously exists on both sides, and furthermore, the two electrically conductive directions are perpendicular. By modulating the amount of Eu(BA) 3 phen complex and conducting polyaniline (PANI), the characteristics and intensity of the fluorescence-electricity dual-function in the membrane can be tuned. The high integration of this peculiar Janus-typed membrane with simultaneous double electrically conductive anisotropy-fluorescent dual-functionality is successfully realized in this study. This design philosophy and preparative technique will provide support for the design and construction of new types of special nanostructures with multi-functionality.

  15. High electric field conduction in low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Priyanka; Yuan, Mengxue; Gao, Jun; Furman, Eugene; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Electrical conduction in silica-based glasses under a low electric field is dominated by high mobility ions such as sodium, and there is a transition from ionic transport to electronic transport as the electric field exceeds 108 V/m at low temperatures. Electrical conduction under a high electric field was investigated in thin low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass samples, showing nonlinear conduction with the current density scaling approximately with E1/2, where E is the electric field. In addition, thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) characterization was carried out on room-temperature electrically poled glass samples, and an anomalous discharging current flowing in the same direction as the charging current was observed. High electric field conduction and TSDC results led to the conclusion that Poole-Frenkel based electronic transport occurs in the mobile-cation-depleted region adjacent to the anode, and accounts for the observed anomalous current.

  16. Pressure and graphite effects on electrical conductivity in pyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Liu, T.; Shen, K.; Li, B.

    2017-12-01

    The geophysical observations including magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic deep sounding show the distribution of electrical conductivity in the Earth's interior. The laboratory-based conductivity measurements of minerals and rocks are usually used to interpret the geophysical observations. Pyroxene is the second most abundant components in the upper mantle, and the electrical conductivity of pyroxene is important to understanding the bulk electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivity of a mineral is affected by many factors, such as its chemical composition, temperature, pressure. Here we report the effects of pressure and graphite on the electrical conductivity of pyroxene and applied to interpretation of MT observation. The starting materials are natural of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxe crystals. A powder sample with grain size 10 um was packed in a Mo capsule and hot-pressed at high pressures and temperatures using a 1000-ton Walker-type uniaxial split-cylinder apparatus. A mixture of pyroxene and a few percent of diamond was annealed at high pressure and temperature. All the hot-pressed samples before and after electrical conductivity measurements, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-Transform Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. High pressure conductivity experiments were carried out in a Walker-type multi-anvil apparatus using a 14/8 assembly. We use a Solartron 1260 Impedance/Gain -phase analyzer with 1V applied voltage within a frequency range of 1M-0.1 Hz to collect data. Complex impedance data on were collected in several heating and cooling cycles The electrical conductivity of pyroxene was made at 4,7,10 GPa, and electrical conductivity of the graphite-bearing pyroxene was measured at 4GPa. The results show the electrical conductivity decrease with the increasing of pressure, which may correspond to the transform from orthopyroxene to clinopyroxene. The results can be used to explain a drop of the electrical conductivity in

  17. Enhanced electrical conductivity in graphene and boron nitride nanoribbons in large electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad

    2018-02-01

    Based on data of density function theory (DFT) as the input of tight binding model, the electrical conductivity (σ(T)) of graphene nanoribbos (GNRs) and Boron Nitride nanoribbos (BNNRs) under external electric fields with different wide are studied using the Green's function method. The BNNRs are wide band gap semiconductor and they are turned into metal depending on their electric field strength. The σ(T) shows increasing in low temperature region and after reaching the maximum value, it will decrease in high temperature region. In lower temperature ranges, the electrical conductivity of the GNRs is greater than that of the BNNRs. In a low temperature region, the σ(T) of GNRs increases linearly with temperature unlike the BNNRs. The electrical conductivity are strongly dependent on the electric field strength.

  18. Chapter A6. Section 6.3. Specific Electrical Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Dean B.; Davis, Jerri V.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2005-01-01

    Electrical conductance is a measure of the capacity of a substance to conduct an electrical current. The specific electrical conductance (conductivity) of water is a function of the types and quantities of dissolved substances it contains, normalized to a unit length and unit cross section at a specified temperature. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for measurement of conductivity in ground and surface waters.

  19. Noninvasive electrical conductivity measurement by MRI: a test of its validity and the electrical conductivity characteristics of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tha, Khin Khin; Katscher, Ulrich; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Stehning, Christian; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Fujima, Noriyuki; Kudo, Kohsuke; Kazumata, Ken; Yamamoto, Toru; Van Cauteren, Marc; Shirato, Hiroki

    2018-01-01

    This study noninvasively examined the electrical conductivity (σ) characteristics of diffuse gliomas using MRI and tested its validity. MRI including a 3D steady-state free precession (3D SSFP) sequence was performed on 30 glioma patients. The σ maps were reconstructed from the phase images of the 3D SSFP sequence. The σ histogram metrics were extracted and compared among the contrast-enhanced (CET) and noncontrast-enhanced tumour components (NCET) and normal brain parenchyma (NP). Difference in tumour σ histogram metrics among tumour grades and correlation of σ metrics with tumour grades were tested. Validity of σ measurement using this technique was tested by correlating the mean tumour σ values measured using MRI with those measured ex vivo using a dielectric probe. Several σ histogram metrics of CET and NCET of diffuse gliomas were significantly higher than NP (Bonferroni-corrected p ≤ .045). The maximum σ of NCET showed a moderate positive correlation with tumour grade (r = .571, Bonferroni-corrected p = .018). The mean tumour σ measured using MRI showed a moderate positive correlation with the σ measured ex vivo (r = .518, p = .040). Tissue σ can be evaluated using MRI, incorporation of which may better characterise diffuse gliomas. • This study tested the validity of noninvasive electrical conductivity measurements by MRI. • This study also evaluated the electrical conductivity characteristics of diffuse glioma. • Gliomas have higher electrical conductivity values than the normal brain parenchyma. • Noninvasive electrical conductivity measurement can be helpful for better characterisation of glioma.

  20. Conductance fluctuations and distribution at metal-insulator transition induced by electric field in disordered chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senouci, Khaled

    2000-08-01

    A simple Kronig-Penney model for 1D mesoscopic systems with δ peak potentials is used to study numerically the influence of a constant electric field on the conductance fluctuations and distribution at the transition. We found that the conductance probability distribution has a system-size independent form with large fluctuations in good agreement with the previous works in 2D and 3D systems. (author)

  1. Electrical conductivity of H2O-NaCl fluids to 10 kbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinmyo, R.; Keppler, H.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetotelluric studies often reveal zones of elevated electrical conductivity in the mantle wedge above subducting slabs, in the deep crust below fold belts, or below active volcanoes. Since both aqueous fluids and hydrous silivate melts may be highly conductive, they may both account for these observations. Distinguishing between these two posssibilities, however, is difficult. One reason for this problem is that while there are very good conductivity data for silicate melts, such data do not exist for aqueous fluids under the relevant conditions of pressure, temperature and solute concentration. Most crustal and mantle fluids likely contain some NaCl, which greatly enhances conductivity due to its partial dissociation into Na+ and Cl-. We therefore studied the electrical conductivity of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 m NaCl solutions in water to 10 kbar and 600 °C. The measurements were carried out in externally-heated diamond cells containing two gaskets separated by an insulating ring of diamond, following a method described by Ni et al. (2014). The two gaskets were used as electrodes and full impedance spectra were measured from 30 Hz to 10 MHz using a Solartron 1260 impedance analyzer. Electrical conductivity was generally found to increase with pressure temperature, and fluid density. The conductivity increase observed upon variation of NaCl concentration from 0.1m to 1m was smaller than from 0.01m to 0.1m, which reflects the reduced degree of dissociation at high NaCl concentration. In general, the data show that already a very small fraction of NaCl-bearing aqueous fluid is sufficient to enhance bulk conductivities to values that would be expected for a high degree of partial melting. Accordingly, aqueous fluids may be distinguished from hydrous melts by comparing magnetotelluric and seismic data. H2O-NaCl fluids may enhance electrical conductivities with little disturbance of vp or vp/vs ratios.

  2. Electrical conduction of a XLPE nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Jun; Sim, Jae-Yong; Lim, Kee-Joe; Nam, Jin-Ho; Park, Wan-Gi

    2014-07-01

    The resistivity, breakdown strength, and formation of space charges are very important factors for insulation design of HVDC cable. It is known that a nano-sized metal-oxide inorganic filler reduces the formation of space charges in the polymer nanocomposite. Electrical conduction of cross-linked polyethylene(XLPE) nanocomposite insulating material is investigated in this paper. The conduction currents of two kinds of XLPE nanocomposites and XLPE without nano-filler were measured at temperature of 303 ~ 363 K under the applied electric fields of 10 ~ 50 kV/mm. The current of the nanocomposite specimen is smaller than that of XLPE specimen without nano-filler. The conduction mechanism may be explained in terms of Schottky emission and multi-core model.

  3. Effective electrical and thermal conductivity of multifilament twisted superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechetkin, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    The effective electrical and thermal conductivity of composite wire with twisted superconducting filaments embedded into normal metal matrix is calculated using the extension of Bruggeman method. The resistive conductivity of superconducting filaments is described in terms of symmetric tensor, whereas the conductivity of a matrix is assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous. The dependence of the resistive electrical conductivity of superconducting filaments on temperature, magnetic field, and current density is implied to be parametric. The resulting effective conductivity tensor proved to be non-diagonal and symmetric. The non-diagonal transverse–longitudinal components of effective electrical conductivity tensor are responsible for the redistribution of current between filaments. In the limits of high and low electrical conductivity of filaments the transverse effective conductivity tends to that of obtained previously by Carr. The effective thermal conductivity of composite wires is non-diagonal and radius-dependent even for the isotropic and homogeneous thermal conductivities of matrix and filaments.

  4. Electrical actuation of electrically conducting and insulating droplets using ac and dc voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, N; Bahadur, V; Garimella, S V

    2008-01-01

    Electrical actuation of liquid droplets at the microscale offers promising applications in the fields of microfluidics and lab-on-chip devices. Much prior research has targeted the electrical actuation of electrically conducting liquid droplets using dc voltages (classical electrowetting). Electrical actuation of conducting droplets using ac voltages and the actuation of insulating droplets (using dc or ac voltages) has remained relatively unexplored. This paper utilizes an energy-minimization-based analytical framework to study the electrical actuation of a liquid droplet (electrically conducting or insulating) under ac actuation. It is shown that the electromechanical regimes of classical electrowetting, electrowetting under ac actuation and insulating droplet actuation can be extracted from the generic electromechanical actuation framework, depending on the electrical properties of the droplet, the underlying dielectric layer and the frequency of the actuation voltage. This paper also presents experiments which quantify the influence of the ac frequency and the electrical properties of the droplet on its velocity under electrical actuation. The velocities of droplets moving between two parallel plates under ac actuation are experimentally measured; these velocities are then related to the actuation force on the droplet which is predicted by the electromechanical model developed in this work. It is seen that the droplet velocities are strongly dependent on the frequency of the ac actuation voltage; the cut-off ac frequency, above which the droplet fails to actuate, is experimentally determined and related to the electrical conductivity of the liquid. This paper then analyzes and directly compares the various electromechanical regimes for the actuation of droplets in microfluidic applications

  5. Studies on electrical conductivity of poly phenylene vinylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, Asaad F.; Ahmad, Saddam M.

    2009-01-01

    Four Pp polymers have been synthesized through Wit ting reaction, 1 poly(p-phenylene vinylene), 2 = poly(p phenylene vinylene-co-m-phenylene vinylene), 3 = poly(p-phenylene vinylene-co-o-phenylene vinylene) and 4 poly(p-phenylene-1,5-hexadiene). Electrical conductivity measurements show that the conductivity of polymer 3 is higher than that of polymers 1 and 2. The dihedral angle measurements indicates that the irregularity of polymer chains is the main reason for this fact. The interruption of chain conjugation by aliphatic segments (polymer 4) will increase the conductivity by increasing the chain mobility.The electrical conductivity of the polymers is increased by doping with iodine and by raising the temperature. The effect of annealing with different temperatures on conductivity was studied; the results show that structural conformation of polymeric chain is the main factor affecting electrical conductivity. (author)

  6. Electrical conductivity of free-standing mesoporous silicon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khardani, M.; Bouaicha, M.; Dimassi, W.; Zribi, M.; Aouida, S.; Bessais, B.

    2006-01-01

    The effective electrical conductivity of free-standing p + -type porous silicon layers having porosities ranging from 30% to 80% was studied at both experimental and theoretical sides. An Effective Medium Approximation (EMA) model was used as a theoretical support. The porous silicon (PS) films were prepared by the electrochemical etching method for different values of the anodic current density. In order to model the PS electrical conductivity, the free-standing porous layer was assumed to be formed of three phases; vacuum, oxide and Si nanocrystallites. The analytical expression of the electrical conductivity of the Si nanocrystallites was established using the quantum confinement theory. This enables us to correlate the electrical conductivity of the mesoporous film to the value of the effective band gap energy estimated from the absorption coefficient. A perfect agreement between the theoretical and the experimental electrical conductivity values was obtained for all prospected PS porosities

  7. Numerical Modeling of Electrical Contact Conductance of Rough Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Murashov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century to the present time, efforts have been made to develop a model of the electrical contact conductance. The development of micro- and nanotechnologies make contact conductance problem more essential. To conduct borrowing from a welldeveloped thermal contact conductance models on the basis of thermal and electrical conductivity analogy is often not possible due to a number of fundamental differences. While some 3Dmodels of rough bodies deformation have been developed in one way or another, a 3D-model of the electrical conductance through rough bodies contact is still not. A spatial model of electrical contact of rough bodies is proposed, allows one to calculate the electrical contact conductance as a function of the contact pressure. Representative elements of the bodies are parallelepipeds with deterministic roughness on the contacting surfaces. First the non-linear elastic-plastic deformation of rough surface under external pressure is solved using the finite element software ANSYS. Then the solution of electrostatic problem goes on the same finite element mesh. Aluminum AD1 is used as the material of the contacting bodies with properties that account for cold work hardening of the surface. The numerical model is built within the continuum mechanics and nanoscale effects are not taken into account. The electrical contact conductance was calculated on the basis of the concept of electrical resistance of the model as the sum of the electrical resistances of the contacting bodies and the contact itself. It was assumed that there is no air in the gap between the bodies. The dependence of the electrical contact conductance on the contact pressure is calculated as well as voltage and current density distributions in the contact bodies. It is determined that the multi-asperity contact mode, adequate to real roughness, is achieved at pressures higher than 3MPa, while results within the single contact spot are

  8. Wet method for measuring starch gelatinization temperature using electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sanchez, E; Figueroa, J D C; Gaytan-Martínez, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for obtaining the gelatinization temperature of starches by using electrical conductivity. Native starches from corn, rice, potato, and wheat were prepared with different proportions of water and heated from room temperature to 90 degrees C, in a device especially designed for monitoring the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature. The results showed a linear trend of the electrical conductivity with the temperature until it reaches the onset gelatinization temperature. After that point, the electrical conductivity presented an increment or decrement depending on the water content in the sample and it was related to starch swelling and gelatinization phenomena. At the end gelatinization temperature, the conductivity becomes stable and linear, indicating that there are no more changes of phase. The starch gelatinization parameter, which was evaluated in the 4 types of starches using the electrical conductivity, was compared with those obtained by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset temperature at which the electrical conductivity increased or decreased was found to be similar to that obtained by DSC. Also, the final temperature at which the electrical conductivity returned to linearity matched the end gelatinization temperature of the DSC. Further, a wet method for measuring the onset, peak, and end gelatinization temperatures as a function of temperature using the electrical conductivity curves is presented for a starch-water suspension.

  9. Computational analysis of electrical conduction in hybrid nanomaterials with embedded non-penetrating conductive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jizhe; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a comprehensive multi-resolution two-dimensional (2D) resistor network model is proposed to analyze the electrical conductivity of hybrid nanomaterials made of insulating matrix with conductive particles such as CNT reinforced nanocomposites and thick film resistors. Unlike existing approaches, our model takes into account the impenetrability of the particles and their random placement within the matrix. Moreover, our model presents a detailed description of intra-particle conductivity via finite element analysis, which to the authors’ best knowledge has not been addressed before. The inter-particle conductivity is assumed to be primarily due to electron tunneling. The model is then used to predict the electrical conductivity of electrospun carbon nanofibers as a function of microstructural parameters such as turbostratic domain alignment and aspect ratio. To simulate the microstructure of single CNF, randomly positioned nucleation sites were seeded and grown as turbostratic particles with anisotropic growth rates. Particle growth was in steps and growth of each particle in each direction was stopped upon contact with other particles. The study points to the significant contribution of both intra-particle and inter-particle conductivity to the overall conductivity of hybrid composites. Influence of particle alignment and anisotropic growth rate ratio on electrical conductivity is also discussed. The results show that partial alignment in contrast to complete alignment can result in maximum electrical conductivity of whole CNF. High degrees of alignment can adversely affect conductivity by lowering the probability of the formation of a conductive path. The results demonstrate approaches to enhance electrical conductivity of hybrid materials through controlling their microstructure which is applicable not only to carbon nanofibers, but also many other types of hybrid composites such as thick film resistors.

  10. Multishot echo-planar MREIT for fast imaging of conductivity, current density, and electric field distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Munish; Vidya Shankar, Rohini; Ashok Kumar, Neeta; Kodibagkar, Vikram D; Sadleir, Rosalind

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) sequences typically use conventional spin or gradient echo-based acquisition methods for reconstruction of conductivity and current density maps. Use of MREIT in functional and electroporation studies requires higher temporal resolution and faster sequences. Here, single and multishot echo planar imaging (EPI) based MREIT sequences were evaluated to see whether high-quality MREIT phase data could be obtained for rapid reconstruction of current density, conductivity, and electric fields. A gel phantom with an insulating inclusion was used as a test object. Ghost artifact, geometric distortion, and MREIT correction algorithms were applied to the data. The EPI-MREIT-derived phase-projected current density and conductivity images were compared with simulations and spin-echo images as a function of EPI shot number. Good agreement among measures in simulated, spin echo, and EPI data was achieved. Current density errors were stable and below 9% as the shot number decreased from 64 to 2, but increased for single-shot images. Conductivity reconstruction relative contrast ratios were stable as the shot number decreased. The derived electric fields also agreed with the simulated data. The EPI methods can be combined successfully with MREIT reconstruction algorithms to achieve fast imaging of current density, conductivity, and electric field. Magn Reson Med 79:71-82, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity and Conduction Mechanism of Ge2Sb2Te5 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rui; Endo, Rie; Kuwahara, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Susa, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has drawn much attention due to its application in phase-change random-access memory and potential as a thermoelectric material. Electrical and thermal conductivity are important material properties in both applications. The aim of this work is to investigate the temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy and discuss the thermal conduction mechanism. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy were measured from room temperature to 823 K by four-terminal and hot-strip method, respectively. With increasing temperature, the electrical resistivity increased while the thermal conductivity first decreased up to about 600 K then increased. The electronic component of the thermal conductivity was calculated from the Wiedemann-Franz law using the resistivity results. At room temperature, Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has large electronic thermal conductivity and low lattice thermal conductivity. Bipolar diffusion contributes more to the thermal conductivity with increasing temperature. The special crystallographic structure of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy accounts for the thermal conduction mechanism.

  12. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity and Conduction Mechanism of Ge2Sb2Te5 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rui; Endo, Rie; Kuwahara, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Susa, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has drawn much attention due to its application in phase-change random-access memory and potential as a thermoelectric material. Electrical and thermal conductivity are important material properties in both applications. The aim of this work is to investigate the temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy and discuss the thermal conduction mechanism. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy were measured from room temperature to 823 K by four-terminal and hot-strip method, respectively. With increasing temperature, the electrical resistivity increased while the thermal conductivity first decreased up to about 600 K then increased. The electronic component of the thermal conductivity was calculated from the Wiedemann-Franz law using the resistivity results. At room temperature, Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has large electronic thermal conductivity and low lattice thermal conductivity. Bipolar diffusion contributes more to the thermal conductivity with increasing temperature. The special crystallographic structure of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy accounts for the thermal conduction mechanism.

  13. Method of making composition suitable for use as inert electrode having good electrical conductivity and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S.P.; Rapp, R.A.

    1986-04-22

    An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metals or metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. 8 figs.

  14. Electrically Conductive and Protective Coating for Planar SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2017-12-04

    Ferritic stainless steels are preferred interconnect materials for intermediate temperature SOFCs because of their resistance to oxidation, high formability and low cost. However, their protective oxide layer produces Cr-containing volatile species at SOFC operating temperatures and conditions, which can cause cathode poisoning. Electrically conducting spinel coatings have been developed to prevent cathode poisoning and to maintain an electrically conductive pathway through SOFC stacks. However, this coating is not compatible with the formation of stable, hermetic seals between the interconnect frame component and the ceramic cell. Thus, a new aluminizing process has been developed by PNNL to enable durable sealing, prevent Cr evaporation, and maintain electrical insulation between stack repeat units. Hence, two different types of coating need to have stable operation of SOFC stacks. This paper will focus on the electrically conductive coating process. Moreover, an advanced coating process, compatible with a non-electrically conductive coating will be

  15. Minor-alloyed Cu-Ni-Si alloys with high hardness and electric conductivity designed by a cluster formula approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Ni-Si alloys are widely used due to their good electrical conductivities in combination with high strength and hardness. In the present work, minor-alloying with M = (Cr, Fe, Mo, Zr was conducted for the objective of further improving their hardness while maintaining their conductivity level. A cluster-plus-glue-atom model was introduced to design the compositions of M-alloyed Cu-Ni-Si alloys, in which an ideal composition formula [(Ni,Si,M-Cu12]Cu3 (molar proportion was proposed. To guarantee the complete precipitation of solute elements in fine δ-Ni2Si precipitates, the atomic ratio of (Ni,M/Si was set as 2/1. Thus the designed alloy series of Cu93.75(Ni/Zr3.75Si2.08(Cr/Fe/Mo0.42 (at% were arc-melted into ingots under argon atmosphere, and solid-solutioned at 950 °C for 1 h plus water quenching and then aged at 450 °C for different hours. The experimental results showed that these designed alloys exhibit high hardness (HV > 1.7 GPa and good electrical conductivities (≥ 35% IACS. Specifically, the quinary Cu93.75Ni3.54Si2.08(Cr/Fe0.42Zr0.21 alloys (Cu-3.32Ni-0.93Si-0.37(Cr/Fe−0.30Zr wt% possess both a high hardness with HV = 2.5–2.7 GPa, comparable to the high-strength KLFA85 alloy (Cu-3.2Ni-0.7Si-1.1Zn wt%, HV = 2.548 GPa, and a good electrical conductivity (35–36% IACS.

  16. Influence of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG in CMC-NH4BR Based Polymer Electrolytes: Conductivity and Electrical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Khalidah Zainuddin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried with new type and promising polymer electrolytes system by development of carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC doped NH4Br and plasticized with polyethylene glycol (PEG. The sample was successfullyprepared via solution casting with no separation phase and good mechanical properties. The electrical conductivity andthermal conductivity of CMC-NH4Br-PEG based PEs system have been measured by the electrical impedancespectroscopy method in the temperature range of 303–373 K. The highest ionic conductivity gained is 2.48 x 10-3 Scm-1at ambient temperature for sample contain with 8 wt. % PEG. It can be concluded that the plasticized is accountable forthe conductance and assist to enhancing the ionic conductivity of the CMC-NH4Br-PEG electrolyte system. The addition of PEG to the CMC-based electrolyte can enhance towards the cation mobility which is turn increases ionic conductivity. The conductivity-temperature of plasticized BdPEs system was found obeys the Arrhenius relation where the ionic conductivity increases with temperature and activation energy for the ions hopping of the highest conducting PEs system only required small value to migrate. The electrical studies show a non-Debye behaviour of BdPEs based on the analyzed data using complex permittivity, ε* and complex electrical modulus, M* of the sample at different temperature.

  17. A non-conventional technique for evaluating welded joints based on the electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.G.; Sorger, G., E-mail: telmo.santos@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: lgs18243@campus.fct.unl.pt [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal); Vilaca, P., E-mail: pedro.vilaca@aalto.fi [Aalto Univ., Dept. of Engineering Design and Production, School of Engineering, Aalto (Finland); Miranda, R., E-mail: rmiranda@fct.unl.pt [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Caparica (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Recent studies showed that electrical conductivity is a valuable technique to identify the different zones of solid-state welded joints with a good correlation with the microstructure and hardness. This is a relevant result since this technique is fast and, in some cases, non destructive, The concept was applied to other welding processes such as the ones involving fusion to a wide range of materials, For this, a comprehensive study was performed using friction stir welding, tungsten inert gas (TlG) and gas metal arc (MAG) welding processes in either bead on plate or butt joints in: carbon steel, magnesium and titanium, Eddy current nondestructive testing (NDT) was used to measure the electrical conductivity at different depths in transverse sections of the processed materials. The profiles were compared to the hardness profiles in the same sections. As a result, a correlation was observed in most materials welded by solid state and by fusion processes. The variation of the electrical conductivity closely follows that measured in the hardness. Another interesting conclusion is that, even for fusion welding of carbon steels, the technique has potential to complement the hardness measurements and microstructural observations, allowing the identification of the distinct zones of welds in materials commonly used in industry. (author)

  18. Bentonite electrical conductivity: a model based on series–parallel transport

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ana T.

    2010-01-30

    Bentonite has significant applications nowadays, among them as landfill liners, in concrete industry as a repairing material, and as drilling mud in oil well construction. The application of an electric field to such perimeters is under wide discussion, and subject of many studies. However, to understand the behaviour of such an expansive and plastic material under the influence of an electric field, the perception of its electrical properties is essential. This work serves to compare existing data of such electrical behaviour with new laboratorial results. Electrical conductivity is a pertinent parameter since it indicates how much a material is prone to conduct electricity. In the current study, total conductivity of a compacted porous medium was established to be dependent upon density of the bentonite plug. Therefore, surface conductivity was addressed and a series-parallel transport model used to quantify/predict the total conductivity of the system. © The Author(s) 2010.

  19. Making Complex Electrically Conductive Patterns on Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew; Fink, Patrick W.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Lin, Greg Y.; Scully, Robert C.; Trevino, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A method for automated fabrication of flexible, electrically conductive patterns on cloth substrates has been demonstrated. Products developed using this method, or related prior methods, are instances of a technology known as 'e-textiles,' in which electrically conductive patterns ar formed in, and on, textiles. For many applications, including high-speed digital circuits, antennas, and radio frequency (RF) circuits, an e-textile method should be capable of providing high surface conductivity, tight tolerances for control of characteristic impedances, and geometrically complex conductive patterns. Unlike prior methods, the present method satisfies all three of these criteria. Typical patterns can include such circuit structures as RF transmission lines, antennas, filters, and other conductive patterns equivalent to those of conventional printed circuits. The present method overcomes the limitations of the prior methods for forming the equivalent of printed circuits on cloth. A typical fabrication process according to the present method involves selecting the appropriate conductive and non-conductive fabric layers to build the e-textile circuit. The present method uses commercially available woven conductive cloth with established surface conductivity specifications. Dielectric constant, loss tangent, and thickness are some of the parameters to be considered for the non-conductive fabric layers. The circuit design of the conductive woven fabric is secured onto a non-conductive fabric layer using sewing, embroidery, and/or adhesive means. The portion of the conductive fabric that is not part of the circuit is next cut from the desired circuit using an automated machine such as a printed-circuit-board milling machine or a laser cutting machine. Fiducials can be used to align the circuit and the cutting machine. Multilayer circuits can be built starting with the inner layer and using conductive thread to make electrical connections between layers.

  20. Change in the electrical conductivity of SnO2 crystal from n-type to p-type conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villamagua, Luis; Stashans, Arvids; Lee, Po-Ming; Liu, Yen-Shuo; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Carini, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Switch from n-type to p-type conductivity in SnO 2 has been studied. • Computational DFT + U method where used. • X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy where used. • Al- and N-codoped SnO 2 compound shows stable p-type conductivity. • Low resistivity (3.657 × 10 −1 Ω cm) has been obtained. • High carrier concentration (4.858 × 10 19 cm −3 ) has been obtained. - Abstract: The long-sought fully transparent technology will not come true if the n region of the p–n junction does not get as well developed as its p counterpart. Both experimental and theoretical efforts have to be used to study and discover phenomena occurring at the microscopic level in SnO 2 systems. In the present paper, using the DFT + U approach as a main tool and the Vienna ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) we reproduce both intrinsic n-type as well as p-type conductivity in concordance to results observed in real samples of SnO 2 material. Initially, an oxygen vacancy (1.56 mol% concentration) combined with a tin-interstitial (1.56 mol% concentration) scheme was used to achieve the n-type electrical conductivity. Later, to attain the p-type conductivity, crystal already possessing n-type conductivity, was codoped with nitrogen (1.56 mol% concentration) and aluminium (12.48 mol% concentration) impurities. Detailed explanation of structural changes endured by the geometry of the crystal as well as the changes in its electrical properties has been obtained. Our experimental data to a very good extent matches with the results found in the DFT + U modelling

  1. The Electrical Conductivity of Stretched Polyaniline and Polypyrrole Coated Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nouri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The nylon and nylon/lycra yarns were coated with electrically conductive polymers such as polyaniline and polypyrrole, via chemical polymerization process. Electrical conductivity of the coated yarns was measured at variousstrain levels using two-point probe technique and their strain sensitivities were studied. The results showed that, electrical conductivity of the coated yarns decreased with an increase in strain level. A sharp decrease in the electrical conductivity of the nylon/lycra coated yarn with the strain level was recorded whereas, a small drop in the electrical conductivity of the nylon coated yarn was observed. Linear relationships were found between the electrical conductivity and length for the nylon and nylon/lycra coated yarns. The polyaniline coated yarns showed higher strain sensitivity compared to polypyrrole coated yarns. Repeatability of the strain sensitivity of the coated yarns was examined and the coated nylon/lycra yarn showed better repeatability compared to that of coated nylon yarn. The coated yarns were proposed as a flexible strain sensor in the field of intelligent materials.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of stearic acid/polyaniline composite with electrical conductivity as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Ji, Hui; Shi, Huan; Zhang, Ting; Xia, TianDong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stearic acid/polyaniline composite PCM with electrical conductivity was fabricated. • Stearic acid acted as thermal energy storage media and doping acid. • Latent heats of SA/PANI are as high as the same type composites. • Improved electrical conductivity of capsules is 0.7042 S cm −1 . - Abstract: This paper presents the experimental investigation on the thermal properties and electrical conductivity of the new microencapsulated phase change material by entrapping of stearic acid (SA) into PANI (polyaniline) shell through self-assembly method. Experimental results reveal that PANI nuclei grew on the surface of SA, and then copied its original morphological structure and finally exhibited peony flower-like morphology. The two components have good compatibility and have no chemical reaction both in the process of fabrication and subsequent use, while hydrogen bondings between the imino groups and carboxyl groups exist. The maximum mass fraction of stearic acid loaded in SA/PANI is determined as high as 62.1 wt% without seepage of melted SA from capsules. Due to the secondary doping with carboxyl group, the composite phase change material embedded with SA exhibits improved electrical conductivity from 0.3968 S cm −1 to 0.7042 S cm −1 when compared to PANI. The phase change temperatures and latent heats of SA/PANI are measured to be 55.6 °C and 113.02 J/g for melting and, 50.8 °C and 112.58 J/g for freezing, respectively. TG analysis test revealed that the prepared SA/PANI composite PCM has high thermal durability in working temperature range. Moreover, the results of DSC, FT-IR, TG, conductivity investigation and thermal cycling test are all show that the thermal reliability and electrical conductivity of the SA/APNI have imperceptible changes. In total, the additional electrical conductivity, high heat storage potential and good thermal reliability and stability facilitated SA/PANI to be considered as a viable candidate for thermal

  3. STUDY ON THE INTERRELATION BETWEEN AURICULAR GOOD CONDUCTION POINT STIMULATION AND THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡智慧; 陈巩荪

    2001-01-01

    Although, the essence of otopoints remains unknown at the moment, many medical workers have termed them temporarily as "auricular specific stimulating points". They give an explanation that when the internal organs or the body trunk is out of order, tender points, changes of the cutaneous electrical resistance, appearance, colour, etc. may occur at some sites of the auri-cle. The medical workers can use these reactions as a reference for making a diagnosis and stimulate these sites to prevent and treat diseases. These reaction points are also the otopoint. Therefore, the otopoint is also called as tenderpoint, or good conduction point, reaction point, stimulating point or treatment point.

  4. Correlation of electrical conductivity and photoluminescence in nanoporous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouaicha, M.; Khardani, M.; Bessais, B.

    2006-01-01

    The effective electrical conductivity of p type porous silicon is determined both theoretically and experimentally for different porosities ranging from 30% to 80%. In this work, Effective Medium Approximation (EMA) model was used as a theoretical support. The porous silicon samples were prepared by the electrochemical etching method for different values of the anodic current. The porous material is assumed to be formed of three phases; vacuum, oxide and Si nanocrystallites. The analytical expression of the electrical conductivity of the Si nanocrystallites was established using the quantum confinement theory. This enables us to correlate the electrical conductivity of a PS layer, to the peak energy of its photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. A perfect agreement between the theoretical and the experimental electrical conductivity values was obtained for all prospected PS porosities. The results are discussed as regard to other works

  5. Ambient effects on the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roch, Aljoscha; Greifzu, Moritz; Roch Talens, Esther

    2015-01-01

    We show that the electrical conductivity of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) networks is affected by oxygen and air humidity under ambient conditions by more than a magnitude. Later, we intentionally modified the electrical conductivity by functionalization with iodine and investigated...

  6. Nanostructure design for drastic reduction of thermal conductivity while preserving high electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    The design and fabrication of nanostructured materials to control both thermal and electrical properties are demonstrated for high-performance thermoelectric conversion. We have focused on silicon (Si) because it is an environmentally friendly and ubiquitous element. High bulk thermal conductivity of Si limits its potential as a thermoelectric material. The thermal conductivity of Si has been reduced by introducing grains, or wires, yet a further reduction is required while retaining a high electrical conductivity. We have designed two different nanostructures for this purpose. One structure is connected Si nanodots (NDs) with the same crystal orientation. The phonons scattering at the interfaces of these NDs occurred and it depended on the ND size. As a result of phonon scattering, the thermal conductivity of this nanostructured material was below/close to the amorphous limit. The other structure is Si films containing epitaxially grown Ge NDs. The Si layer imparted high electrical conductivity, while the Ge NDs served as phonon scattering bodies reducing thermal conductivity drastically. This work gives a methodology for the independent control of electron and phonon transport using nanostructured materials. This can bring the realization of thermoelectric Si-based materials that are compatible with large scale integrated circuit processing technologies.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of electrical conducting nanoporous carbon structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mir, L.; Kraiem, S.; Bengagi, M.; Elaloui, E.; Ouederni, A.; Alaya, S.

    2007-01-01

    Nanoporous organic xerogel compounds were prepared by sol-gel method from pyrogallol-formaldehyde (PF) mixtures in water using perchloric acid as catalyst. The preparation conditions of electrical conducting carbon (ECC) structures were explored by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The effect of this preparation parameters on the structural and electrical properties of the obtained ECCs were studied, respectively, by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nitrogen adsorption isotherms, IR spectroscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. The analysis of the obtained results revealed that, the polymeric insulating phase was transformed progressively with pyrolysis temperature into carbon conducting phase; this means the formation of long continuous conducting path for charge carriers when the carbon microparticles inside the structure agglomerated with thermal treatment and the samples exhibited tangible percolation behaviour where the percolation threshold can be determined by pyrolysis temperature. The temperature-dependent conductivity and the I(V) characteristics of the obtained ECC structures show a non-ohmic behaviour. The results obtained from TGA and differential thermal analyser (DTA) thermograms, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs, IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that, the obtained ECC structures consist of amorphous and nanoporous electrical conducting carbon materials

  8. Electrical conductivity measurement on DKDP Crystals with different deuterated degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Baoan; Yin, Xin; Xu, Mingxia; Ji, Shaohua; Zhu, Lili; Zhang, Lisong; Sun, Xun; Xu, Xinguang; Zhao, Minglei; Zhang, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Ten DKDP single crystals with deuterated degrees ranging from 0 to 90 % were grown by a rapid growth method. The electrical conductivities of these crystals were measured along a and c directions at room temperature. The electrical conductivity increases with the increase for deuterium content. Also, the electrical conductivities of certain crystals were measured at various temperatures ranging from 20 to 130 C. The values of activation energy decrease as the increase of deuterium content. The present study indicates that the deuterium tunneling frequency is smaller than that of hydrogen, which may be the reason why the variation of electrical conductivity happens after the substitution of hydrogen for deuterium in KDP crystal. (orig.)

  9. Electrical and optical performance of transparent conducting oxide films deposited by electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xianghui; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Liu, Jun-Peng

    2011-09-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films have the remarkable combination of high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. There is always a strong motivation to produce TCO films with good performance at low cost. Electrostatic Spray Assisted Vapor Deposition (ESAVD), as a variant of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), is a non-vacuum and low-cost deposition method. Several types of TCO films have been deposited using ESAVD process, including indium tin oxide (ITO), antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO), and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO). This paper reports the electrical and optical properties of TCO films produced by ESAVD methods, as well as the effects of post treatment by plasma hydrogenation on these TCO films. The possible mechanisms involved during plasma hydrogenation of TCO films are also discussed. Reduction and etching effect during plasma hydrogenation are the most important factors which determine the optical and electrical performance of TCO films.

  10. Transport properties of olivine grain boundaries from electrical conductivity experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, Anne; Kohlstedt, David L.; Hansen, Lars N.; Mackwell, Stephen; Tasaka, Miki; Heidelbach, Florian; Leinenweber, Kurt

    2018-05-01

    Grain boundary processes contribute significantly to electronic and ionic transports in materials within Earth's interior. We report a novel experimental study of grain boundary conductivity in highly strained olivine aggregates that demonstrates the importance of misorientation angle between adjacent grains on aggregate transport properties. We performed electrical conductivity measurements of melt-free polycrystalline olivine (Fo90) samples that had been previously deformed at 1200 °C and 0.3 GPa to shear strains up to γ = 7.3. The electrical conductivity and anisotropy were measured at 2.8 GPa over the temperature range 700-1400 °C. We observed that (1) the electrical conductivity of samples with a small grain size (3-6 µm) and strong crystallographic preferred orientation produced by dynamic recrystallization during large-strain shear deformation is a factor of 10 or more larger than that measured on coarse-grained samples, (2) the sample deformed to the highest strain is the most conductive even though it does not have the smallest grain size, and (3) conductivity is up to a factor of 4 larger in the direction of shear than normal to the shear plane. Based on these results combined with electrical conductivity data for coarse-grained, polycrystalline olivine and for single crystals, we propose that the electrical conductivity of our fine-grained samples is dominated by grain boundary paths. In addition, the electrical anisotropy results from preferential alignment of higher-conductivity grain boundaries associated with the development of a strong crystallographic preferred orientation of the grains.

  11. Mechanisms of electrical conductivity in olivine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.; Duba, A.G.; Shankland, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the electrical conductivity and the thermoelectric effect in single crystals indicate that the charge conduction mechanism in pure magnesium forsterite is electrons. The concentration of electrons can be varied by controlling the number of oxygen vacancies through manipulation of the oxygen pressure. For iron bearing olivine, the conduction mechanism is by electron holes localized on an iron ion. Since iron strongly affects the creep process as well, oxidation of iron is probably accompanied by the production of magnesium vacancies. 15 references

  12. Electrical conductivity of cobalt–titanium substituted SrCaM hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraky, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    A series of polycrystalline M-type hexagonal ferrites with the composition Sr 0.5 Ca 0.5 Co x Ti x Fe 12−2x O 19 (where x=0.0–0.8) were prepared by the conventional ceramic technique. The electrical conductivity has been measured from 300 to 590 K. The dc conductivity, σ dc , exhibited a semiconductor behavior. The negative sign of thermoelectric power coefficient S reveals that all samples are n-type semiconductors. Both σ dc and mobility, μ d , increases with the substitution of Co 2+ and Ti 4+ ions, reach maximum at x=0.4 and start decreasing at x>0.4. Many conduction mechanisms were discussed to explain the electric conduction in the system. It was found that the hopping conduction is the predominant conduction mechanism. For samples with compositional parameter x=0.0 and 0.8, the band conduction mechanism shares in electric conduction beside the hopping process. - Highlights: ► SrCaCoTiM hexaferrites have been prepared by conventional ceramic technique. ► The electrical conductivity exhibited a semiconductor behavior. There is an increase in conductivity up to x=0.4 for Co and Ti substitution. ► The hopping conduction is the predominant conduction mechanism.

  13. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  14. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suchet, J P

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon

  15. Magnetohydraulic flow through a packed bed of electrically conducting spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The flow of an electrically conducting fluid through a packed bed of electrically conducting spheres in the presence of a strong magnetic field constitutes a very complex flow situation due to the constant turning of the fluid in and out of magnetic field lines. The interaction of the orthogonal components of the velocity and magnetic field will induce electric fields that are orthogonal to both and the electric fields in turn can cause currents that interact with the magnetic field to generate forces against the direction of flow. The strengths of these generated forces depend primarily upon the closure paths taken by the induced currents which, in turn, depend upon the relative ratio of the electrical resistance of the solid spheres to that of the fluid. Both experimental and analytical analyses of the slow flow of a eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium (NaK) through packed cylinders containing stainless steel spheres in the presence of a strong transverse magnetic field were completed. A theory of magnetohydraulic flow is developed by analogy with the development of hydraulic radius theories of flow through porous media. An exact regional analysis is successfully applied to an infinite bed of electrically conducting spheres with a conducting or non-conducting constraining wall on one side. The equations derived are solved for many different combinations of flowrate, magnetic field strength, porosity, and electrical resistance ratio

  16. Electrical conductivity of the thermal dusty plasma under the conditions of a hybrid plasma environment simulation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukhovitskii, Dmitry I.; Petrov, Oleg F.; Hyde, Truell W.; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, Rene; Dropmann, Michael; Matthews, Lorin S.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the inductively heated plasma generator (IPG) facility in application to the generation of the thermal dusty plasma formed by the positively charged dust particles and the electrons emitted by them. We develop a theoretical model for the calculation of plasma electrical conductivity under typical conditions of the IPG. We show that the electrical conductivity of dusty plasma is defined by collisions with the neutral gas molecules and by the electron number density. The latter is calculated in the approximations of an ideal and strongly coupled particle system and in the regime of weak and strong screening of the particle charge. The maximum attainable electron number density and corresponding maximum plasma electrical conductivity prove to be independent of the particle emissivity. Analysis of available experiments is performed, in particular, of our recent experiment with plasma formed by the combustion products of a propane-air mixture and the CeO2 particles injected into it. A good correlation between the theory and experimental data points to the adequacy of our approach. Our main conclusion is that a level of the electrical conductivity due to the thermal ionization of the dust particles is sufficiently high to compete with that of the potassium-doped plasmas.

  17. Single flexible nanofiber to achieve simultaneous photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Shujuan; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Lv, Nan; Wang, Jinxian; Yu, Wensheng; Liu, Guixia

    2015-02-01

    In order to develop new-type multifunctional composite nanofibers, Eu(BA)3 phen/PANI/PVP bifunctional composite nanofibers with simultaneous photoluminescence and electrical conductivity have been successfully fabricated via electrospinning technology. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is used as a matrix to construct composite nanofibers containing different amounts of Eu(BA)3 phen and polyaniline (PANI). X-Ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), fluorescence spectroscopy and a Hall effect measurement system are used to characterize the morphology and properties of the composite nanofibers. The results indicate that the bifunctional composite nanofibers simultaneously possess excellent photoluminescence and electrical conductivity. Fluorescence emission peaks of Eu(3+) ions are observed in the Eu(BA)3 phen/PANI/PVP photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctional composite nanofibers. The electrical conductivity reaches up to the order of 10(-3)  S/cm. The luminescent intensity and electrical conductivity of the composite nanofibers can be tuned by adjusting the amounts of Eu(BA)3 phen and PANI. The obtained photoluminescence-electrical conductivity bifunctional composite nanofibers are expected to possess many potential applications in areas such as microwave absorption, molecular electronics, biomedicine and future nanomechanics. More importantly, the design concept and construction technique are of universal significance to fabricate other bifunctional one-dimensional naonomaterials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Method of imaging the electrical conductivity distribution of a subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy C.

    2017-09-26

    A method of imaging electrical conductivity distribution of a subsurface containing metallic structures with known locations and dimensions is disclosed. Current is injected into the subsurface to measure electrical potentials using multiple sets of electrodes, thus generating electrical resistivity tomography measurements. A numeric code is applied to simulate the measured potentials in the presence of the metallic structures. An inversion code is applied that utilizes the electrical resistivity tomography measurements and the simulated measured potentials to image the subsurface electrical conductivity distribution and remove effects of the subsurface metallic structures with known locations and dimensions.

  19. Maximum on the electrical conductivity polytherm of molten TeCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M.

    2017-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten TeCl 4 was measured up to 761 K, i.e. 106 degrees above the normal boiling point of the salt. For the first time it was found that TeCl 4 electrical conductivity polytherm has a maximum. It was recorded at 705 K (Κ max =0.245 Sm/cm), whereupon the conductivity decreases as the temperature rises. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  20. Sensing the water content of honey from temperature-dependent electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wenchuan; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Xinhua; Zhuang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    In order to predict the water content in honey, electrical conductivity was measured on blossom honey types milk-vetch, jujube and yellow-locust with the water content of 18–37% between 5 and 40 °C. The regression models of electrical conductivity were developed as functions of water content and temperature. The results showed that increases in either water content or temperature resulted in an increase in the electrical conductivity of honey with greater changes at higher water content and/or higher temperature. The linear terms of water content and temperature, a quadratic term of water content, and the interaction effect of water content and temperature had significant influence on the electrical conductivity of honey (p < 0.0001). Regardless of blossom honey type, the linear coefficient of the determination of measured and calculated electrical conductivities was 0.998 and the range error ratio was larger than 100. These results suggest that the electrical conductivity of honey might be used to develop a detector for rapidly predicting the water content in blossom honey

  1. Electrochemical properties for high surface area and improved electrical conductivity of platinum-embedded porous carbon nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Geon-Hyoung; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Hong, Woong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Four different types of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) for electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), porous and non-porous CNFs with and without Pt metal nanoparticles, are synthesized by an electrospinning method and their performance in electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) is characterized. In particular, the Pt-embedded porous CNFs (PCNFs) exhibit a high specific surface area of 670 m2 g-1, a large mesopore volume of 55.7%, and a low electrical resistance of 1.7 × 103. The synergistic effects of the high specific surface area with a large mesopore volume, and superior electrical conductivity result in an excellent specific capacitance of 130.2 F g-1, a good high-rate performance, superior cycling durability, and high energy density of 16.9-15.4 W h kg-1 for the performance of EDLCs.

  2. An electrical method for the measurement of the thermal and electrical conductivity of reduced graphene oxide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Timo; Burg, Brian R; Schirmer, Niklas C; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2009-10-07

    This paper introduces an electrical four-point measurement method enabling thermal and electrical conductivity measurements of nanoscale materials. The method was applied to determine the thermal and electrical conductivity of reduced graphene oxide flakes. The dielectrophoretically deposited samples exhibited thermal conductivities in the range of 0.14-2.87 W m(-1) K(-1) and electrical conductivities in the range of 6.2 x 10(2)-6.2 x 10(3) Omega(-1) m(-1). The measured properties of each flake were found to be dependent on the duration of the thermal reduction and are in this sense controllable.

  3. Electrical conductivity of hydrogen shocked to megabar pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, S.T.; Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.

    1993-08-01

    The properties of ultra-high pressure hydrogen have been the subject of much experimental and theoretical study. Of particular interest is the pressure-induced insulator-to-metal transition of hydrogen which, according to recent theoretical calculations, is predicted to occur by band-overlap in the pressure range of 1.5-3.0 Mbars on the zero temperature isotherm. Extremely high pressures are required for metallization since the low-pressure band gap is about 15 eV. Recent static-pressure diamond anvil cell experiments have searched for evidence of an insulator-to-metal transition, but no conclusive evidence for such a transition has yet been supplied. Providing conclusive evidence for hydrogen metallization is difficult because no technique has yet been developed for performing static high-pressure electrical conductivity experiments at megabar pressures. The authors report here on electrical conductivity experiments performed on H 2 and D 2 multi-shocked to megabar pressures. Electrical conductivities of dense fluid hydrogen at these pressures and temperatures reached are needed for calculations of the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn, the magnetic fields being generated by convective dynamos of hot, dense, semiconducting fluid hydrogen. Also, since electrical conduction at the pressure-temperature conditions being studied is due to the thermal excitation of charge carriers across the electronic band gap, these experiments yield valuable information on the width of the band gap at high densities

  4. Change in the electrical conductivity of SnO{sub 2} crystal from n-type to p-type conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villamagua, Luis, E-mail: luis.villamagua@tyndall.ie [Grupo de Fisicoquímica de Materiales, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador); Dipartimento di Ingegneria per l’Ambiente e il Territorio e Ingegneria Chimica, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Stashans, Arvids [Grupo de Fisicoquímica de Materiales, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Apartado 11-01-608, Loja (Ecuador); Lee, Po-Ming; Liu, Yen-Shuo; Liu, Cheng-Yi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhong-Li, Taiwan (China); Carini, Manuela [Dipartimento di Ingegneria per l’Ambiente e il Territorio e Ingegneria Chimica, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Switch from n-type to p-type conductivity in SnO{sub 2} has been studied. • Computational DFT + U method where used. • X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy where used. • Al- and N-codoped SnO{sub 2} compound shows stable p-type conductivity. • Low resistivity (3.657 × 10{sup −1} Ω cm) has been obtained. • High carrier concentration (4.858 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) has been obtained. - Abstract: The long-sought fully transparent technology will not come true if the n region of the p–n junction does not get as well developed as its p counterpart. Both experimental and theoretical efforts have to be used to study and discover phenomena occurring at the microscopic level in SnO{sub 2} systems. In the present paper, using the DFT + U approach as a main tool and the Vienna ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) we reproduce both intrinsic n-type as well as p-type conductivity in concordance to results observed in real samples of SnO{sub 2} material. Initially, an oxygen vacancy (1.56 mol% concentration) combined with a tin-interstitial (1.56 mol% concentration) scheme was used to achieve the n-type electrical conductivity. Later, to attain the p-type conductivity, crystal already possessing n-type conductivity, was codoped with nitrogen (1.56 mol% concentration) and aluminium (12.48 mol% concentration) impurities. Detailed explanation of structural changes endured by the geometry of the crystal as well as the changes in its electrical properties has been obtained. Our experimental data to a very good extent matches with the results found in the DFT + U modelling.

  5. Electrically conductive biodegradable polymer composite for nerve regeneration: electricity-stimulated neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ze; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Wang, Zhaoxu; Roberge, Christophe; Shi, Guixin; Roche, Phillippe; Li, Jiangming; Dao, Lê H

    2007-01-01

    Normal and electrically stimulated PC12 cell cultures and the implantation of nerve guidance channels were performed to evaluate newly developed electrically conductive biodegradable polymer composites. Polypyrrole (PPy) doped by butane sulfonic acid showed a significantly higher number of viable cells compared with PPy doped by polystyrenesulfonate after a 6-day culture. The PC12 cells were left to proliferate for 6 days, and the PPy-coated membranes, showing less initial cell adherence, recorded the same proliferation rate as did the noncoated membranes. Direct current electricity at various intensities was applied to the PC12 cell-cultured conductive membranes. After 7 days, the greatest number of neurites appeared on the membranes with a current intensity approximating 1.7-8.4 microA/cm. Nerve guidance channels made of conductive biodegradable composite were implanted into rats to replace 8 mm of sciatic nerve. The implants were harvested after 2 months and analyzed with immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. The regenerated nerve tissue displayed myelinated axons and Schwann cells that were similar to those in the native nerve. Electrical stimulation applied through the electrically conductive biodegradable polymers therefore enhanced neurite outgrowth in a current-dependent fashion. The conductive polymers also supported sciatic nerve regeneration in rats.

  6. Electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiji; Toyoda, Masahiko; Inoue, Masahiko; Abe, Tetsuya; Murakami, Yoshio

    1996-01-01

    The development of electrical insulation and conduction coating methods that can be applied to large components of fusion experimental devices has been investigated. A thermal spraying method is used to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components because of its applicability for large surfaces. The insulation material chosen was Al 2 O 3 , while Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr and WC-NiCr were chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel substrates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the substrate, thermal shock resistance, electrical resistance, dielectric breakdown voltage, and thermal conductivity. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed adequate frictional properties. The spraying method was tested on a 100- x 1000-mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces of experimental fusion devices. 9 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  7. A nonconjugated radical polymer glass with high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yongho; Agarkar, Varad; Sung, Seung Hyun; Savoie, Brett M.; Boudouris, Bryan W.

    2018-03-01

    Solid-state conducting polymers usually have highly conjugated macromolecular backbones and require intentional doping in order to achieve high electrical conductivities. Conversely, single-component, charge-neutral macromolecules could be synthetically simpler and have improved processibility and ambient stability. We show that poly(4-glycidyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), a nonconjugated radical polymer with a subambient glass transition temperature, underwent rapid solid-state charge transfer reactions and had an electrical conductivity of up to 28 siemens per meter over channel lengths up to 0.6 micrometers. The charge transport through the radical polymer film was enabled with thermal annealing at 80°C, which allowed for the formation of a percolating network of open-shell sites in electronic communication with one another. The electrical conductivity was not enhanced by intentional doping, and thin films of this material showed high optical transparency.

  8. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy for Electro-Mechanical Characterization of Conductive Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When we use a conductive fabric as a pressure sensor, it is necessary to quantitatively understand its electromechanical property related with the applied pressure. We investigated electromechanical properties of three different conductive fabrics using the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. We found that their electrical impedance spectra depend not only on the electrical properties of the conductive yarns, but also on their weaving structures. When we apply a mechanical tension or compression, there occur structural deformations in the conductive fabrics altering their apparent electrical impedance spectra. For a stretchable conductive fabric, the impedance magnitude increased or decreased under tension or compression, respectively. For an almost non-stretchable conductive fabric, both tension and compression resulted in decreased impedance values since the applied tension failed to elongate the fabric. To measure both tension and compression separately, it is desirable to use a stretchable conductive fabric. For any conductive fabric chosen as a pressure-sensing material, its resistivity under no loading conditions must be carefully chosen since it determines a measurable range of the impedance values subject to different amounts of loadings. We suggest the EIS method to characterize the electromechanical property of a conductive fabric in designing a thin and flexible fabric pressure sensor.

  9. Interpretation of electrokinetic measurements with porous films: role of electric conductance and streaming current within porous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshchuk, Andriy; Luxbacher, Thomas

    2010-07-06

    It is shown that in tangential electrokinetic measurements with porous films the porous structure makes contribution not only to the cell electric conductance (as demonstrated previously) but also to the observed streaming current. Both of these contributions give rise to dependences of streaming-potential and streaming-current coefficients on the channel height. However, due to the combined contribution of two phenomena, the dependence of streaming-potential coefficient on the channel height may be rather complicated and not allow for simple extrapolation. At the same time, the dependences of streaming-current coefficient and cell electric conductance on the channel height turn out linear and can be easily extrapolated to zero channel heights. This enables one to determine separately the contributions of external surface of porous film and of its porous structure to the streaming current and of the channel and porous structure to the cell electric conductance. This procedure is illustrated by the measurements of tangential electrokinetic phenomena and electric conductance with Millipore mixed-cellulose membrane filters of various average pore sizes (from 0.025 to 5 mum) in the so-called adjustable-gap cell of SurPASS electrokinetic instrument (Anton Paar GmbH). The design of this cell allows for easy and quasi-continuous variation of channel height as well as accurate determination of cell electric conductance, streaming-current coefficient, and channel height (from the cell hydraulic permeability). The quality of linear fits of experimental data has been found to be very good, and thus, the extrapolation procedures were quite reliable and accurate. Zeta-potentials could be determined of both external film and internal pore surfaces. It is demonstrated that the porous structures make considerable contributions to both streaming-current coefficient and cell electric conductance especially in the case of filters with larger pores. It is also found that, rather

  10. Modelling electrical conductivity of groundwater using and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutmez, B.; Hatipoglu, Z.; Kaymak, U.

    2006-01-01

    Electrical conductivity is an important indicator for water quality assessment. Since the composition of mineral salts affects the electrical conductivity of groundwater, it is important to understand the relationships between mineral salt composition and electrical conductivity. In this present

  11. Modelling electrical conductivity of groundwater using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Tutmez (Bulent); Z. Hatipoglu (Z.); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractElectrical conductivity is an important indicator for water quality assessment. Since the composition of mineral salts affects the electrical conductivity of groundwater, it is important to understand the relationships between mineral salt composition and electrical conductivity. In this

  12. Behaviour of the Egyptian beach economic minerals during their electrical separation in relation to their electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazback, A.E.; Soliman, F.A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The most important and strategic minerals in the Egyptian beach sands are monazite, zircon, rutile and ilmenite. Due to their importance, several flowsheets were designed for their separation economically. Electrostatic separation plays an important role in most of these flowsheets depending on the main differences between them concerning their electrical conductivity. This paper describes the design of a cell for the measurement of the electrical conductivities of these minerals. It also establishes a quantitative relationship between the electrical conductivity and the behaviour of these minerals during their electrical separation. A computer program was written to facilitate the calculation of the slope of the discharge curve from which the electrical conductivity or the reciprocal resistivity. Relaxation time and the data correlation coefficient for the tested minerals are obtained. For all the tests performed, the correlation coefficient value was found to be better than 99%. In general the electrical conductivity was shown to be a function of both temperature and grain size. It was found also that the presence of iron staining on the surface of monazite grains and inclusions in the zircon grains alters noticeably the bulk conductivity of the tested minerals

  13. Stability and electrical conductivity of water-base Al2O3 nanofluids for different applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Zawrah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Al2O3–H2O nanofluids were synthesized using sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS dispersant agent by ultra-sonication method. Different amounts of SDBS i.e. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 wt.% were tested to stabilize the prepared nanofluids. The stability of nanofluids was verified using optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and Zeta potential. After selecting the suitable amount of dispersant, nanofluids with different volume fractions of Al2O3 were prepared. Zeta potential measurement of nanofluids with low alumina and intermediate fractions showed good dispersion of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water, but nanofluids with high mass fraction were easier to aggregate. The stabilized nanofluids were subjected for measuring of rheological behavior and electrical conductivity. The electrical conductivity was correlated to the thermal conductivity according to Wiedemann–Franz law. The results revealed that the nanofluid containing 1% SDBS was the most stable one and settling was observed for the fluid contained 0.75 vol.% of Al2O3 nanoparticles which gave higher viscosity. The rheological measurements indicated that the viscosity of nanofluids decreased firstly with increasing shear rate (shear thinning behavior. Addition of nanoparticles into the base liquid enhanced the electrical conductivity up to 0.2 vol.% of Al2O3 nano-particles after which it decreased.

  14. Universality of DC electrical conductivity from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Xian-Hui, E-mail: gexh@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444 (China); Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA92122 (United States); Sin, Sang-Jin, E-mail: sjsin@hangyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Shao-Feng, E-mail: sfwu@shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444 (China)

    2017-04-10

    We propose a universal formula of dc electrical conductivity in rotational- and translational-symmetries breaking systems via the holographic duality. This formula states that the ratio of the determinant of the dc electrical conductivities along any spatial directions to the black hole area density in zero-charge limit has a universal value. As explicit illustrations, we give several examples elucidating the validation of this formula: We construct an anisotropic black brane solution, which yields linear in temperature for the in-plane resistivity and insulating behavior for the out-of-plane resistivity; We also construct a spatially isotropic black brane solution that both the linear-T and quadratic-T contributions to the resistivity can be realized.

  15. Simplified Calculation of the Electrical Conductivity of Composites with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S. G.; Aniskevich, A.; Kulakov, V.

    2018-03-01

    The electrical conductivity of two groups of polymer nanocomposites filled with the same NC7000 carbon nanotubes (CNTs) beyond the percolation threshold is described with the help of simple formulas. Different manufacturing process of the nanocomposites led to different CNT network structures, and, as a consequence, their electrical conductivity, at the same CNT volume, differed by two orders of magnitude. The relation between the electrical conductivity and the volume content of CNTs of the first group of composites (with a higher electrical conductivity) is described assuming that the CNT network structure is close to a statistically homogeneous one. The formula for this case, derived on the basis of a self-consistent model, includes only two parameters: the effective longitudinal electrical conductivity of CNT and the percolation threshold (the critical value of CNT volume content). These parameters were determined from two experimental points of electrical conductivity as a function of the volume fraction of CNTs. The second group of nanocomposites had a pronounced agglomerative structure, which was confirmed by microscopy data. To describe the low electrical conductivity of this group of nanocomposites, a formula based on known models of micromechanics is proposed. Two parameters of this formula were determined from experimental data of the first group, but the other two — of the second group of nanocomposites. A comparison of calculation and experimental relations confirmed the practical expediency of using the approach described.

  16. New conducted electrical weapons: Electrical safety relative to relevant standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panescu, Dorin; Nerheim, Max; Kroll, Mark W; Brave, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    We have previously published about TASER ® conducted electrical weapons (CEW) compliance with international standards. CEWs deliver electrical pulses that can inhibit a person's neuromuscular control or temporarily incapacitate. An eXperimental Rotating-Field (XRF) waveform CEW and the X2 CEW are new 2-shot electrical weapon models designed to target a precise amount of delivered charge per pulse. They both can deploy 1 or 2 dart pairs, delivered by 2 separate cartridges. Additionally, the XRF controls delivery of incapacitating pulses over 4 field vectors, in a rotating sequence. As in our previous study, we were motivated by the need to understand the cardiac safety profile of these new CEWs. The goal of this paper is to analyze the nominal electrical outputs of TASER XRF and X2 CEWs in reference to provisions of all relevant international standards that specify safety requirements for electrical medical devices and electrical fences. Although these standards do not specifically mention CEWs, they are the closest electrical safety standards and hence give very relevant guidance. The outputs of several TASER XRF and X2 CEWs were measured under normal operating conditions. The measurements were compared against manufacturer specifications. CEWs electrical output parameters were reviewed against relevant safety requirements of UL 69, IEC 60335-2-76 Ed 2.1, IEC 60479-1, IEC 60479-2, AS/NZS 60479.1, AS/NZS 60479.2, IEC 60601-1 and BS EN 60601-1. Our study confirmed that the nominal electrical outputs of TASER XRF and X2 CEWs lie within safety bounds specified by relevant standards.

  17. The electric conductivity of some forms of sintered synthetic zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susic, M.; Petrovic, V.; Ristic, M.; Petranovic, N.

    1978-01-01

    Some forms of synthetic zeolites were sintered and their electric conductivity was measured. The conductivity was observed in correlation with the conductivity of non-sintered pressed samples. Also the change in microstructural constituents in the course of the process of sintering was observed with an optical microscope. It has been found that there is a considerable change in conductivity due to sintering as well as a change in the activation energy for conduction. Also the porosity is noticeably changed. A marked affect of the nature of counter ions on the electric conductivity is shown

  18. Electrical and Electrochemical Properties of Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Hai Le

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers (CPs have received much attention in both fundamental and practical studies because they have electrical and electrochemical properties similar to those of both traditional semiconductors and metals. CPs possess excellent characteristics such as mild synthesis and processing conditions, chemical and structural diversity, tunable conductivity, and structural flexibility. Advances in nanotechnology have allowed the fabrication of versatile CP nanomaterials with improved performance for various applications including electronics, optoelectronics, sensors, and energy devices. The aim of this review is to explore the conductivity mechanisms and electrical and electrochemical properties of CPs and to discuss the factors that significantly affect these properties. The size and morphology of the materials are also discussed as key parameters that affect their major properties. Finally, the latest trends in research on electrochemical capacitors and sensors are introduced through an in-depth discussion of the most remarkable studies reported since 2003.

  19. Electrical conductivity in polyacrylonitrile and perbunan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migahed, M.D.; Bakr, N.A.; Tawansi, A.

    1981-07-01

    The electrical conduction in Ag-PAN-Ag and Ag-NBR-Ag sandwich samples is studied measuring the dependence of current on the applied voltage and temperature. The conduction mechanism depends on the polymer type. A bulk polarization contribution is suggested in the conduction mechanism at high temperatures besides the Schottky emission in the case of PAN and simple carrier jump model in the case of NBR at room temperature. NBR(28) is proved to be more semiconducting than both NBR(38) and PAN. This is attributed to the lowering of the nitrile group content in NBR(28). (author)

  20. Electrical conductivity in random alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, A.; Thakur, P.K.; Yussouff, M.

    1984-12-01

    Based on the augmented space formalism introduced by one of us and the use of the Ward identity and the Bethe-Sapeter equation, a formalism has been developed for the calculation of electrical conductivity for random alloys. A simple application is made to a model case, and it is argued that the formalism enables us to carry out viable calculations on more realistic models of alloys. (author)

  1. Electrical conductivity in random alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, A.; Yussouff, M.

    1983-06-01

    Starting from the augmented space formalism by one of us, and the use of the Ward identity and Bethe Salpeter equation, a complete formalism for the calculation of the electrical conductivity in tight-binding models of random binary alloys has been developed. The formalism is practical in the sense that viable calculations may be carried out with its help for realistics models of alloy systems. (author)

  2. Impact of electrical conductivity on acid hydrolysis of guar gum under induced electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Zhang, Yao; Yang, Na; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2018-09-01

    This study aimed to improve induced electric field (IEF)-assisted hydrolysis of polysaccharide by controlling electrical conductivity. As the conductivity of reaction medium was increased, the energy efficiency of IEF was increased because of deceased impedance, as well as enhanced output voltage and temperature, thus the hydrolysis of guar gum (GG) was accelerated under IEF. Changes in weight-average molecular weight (Mw) suggested that IEF-assisted hydrolysis of GG could be described by the first-order kinetics 1/Mw ∝ kt, with the rate constant (k), varying directly with the medium conductivity. Although IEF-assisted hydrolysis largely disrupted the morphological structure of GG, it had no impact on the chemical structure. In comparison to native GG, the steady shear viscosity of hydrolyzed GG dramatically declined while the thermal stability slightly decreased. This study extended the knowledge of electrical conductivity upon IEF-assisted acid hydrolysis of GG and might contribute to a better utilization of IEF for polysaccharide modification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electric Conductivity of Phosphorus Nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing-Xiang, Zhang; Hui, Li; Xue-Qing, Zhang; Kim-Meow, Liew

    2009-01-01

    We present the structures and electrical transport properties of nanowires made from different strands of phosphorus chains encapsulated in carbon nanotubes. Optimized by density function theory, our results indicate that the conductance spectra reveal an oscillation dependence on the size of wires. It can be seen from the density of states and current-voltage curves that the structure of nanowires affects their properties greatly. Among them, the DNA-like double-helical phosphorus nanowire exhibits the distinct characteristic of an approximately linear I – V relationship and has a higher conductance than others. The transport properties of phosphorus nanowires are highly correlated with their microstructures. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  4. Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Measurements of CDA 510 Phosphor Bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, James E.; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many cryogenic systems use electrical cables containing phosphor bronze wire. While phosphor bronze's electrical and thermal conductivity values have been published, there is significant variation among different phosphor bronze formulations. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will use several phosphor bronze wire harnesses containing a specific formulation (CDA 510, annealed temper). The heat conducted into the JWST instrument stage is dominated by these harnesses, and approximately half of the harness conductance is due to the phosphor bronze wires. Since the JWST radiators are expected to just keep the instruments at their operating temperature with limited cooling margin, it is important to know the thermal conductivity of the actual alloy being used. We describe an experiment which measured the electrical and thermal conductivity of this material between 4 and 295 Kelvin.

  5. High strength and high electrical conductivity Cu–Cr system alloys manufactured by hot rolling–quenching process and thermomechanical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Chengdong; Zhang Wan; Kang Zhanyuan; Jia Yanlin; Wu Yifeng; Zhang Rui; Xu Genying; Wang Mingpu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► HR–Q and thermomechanical treatments are successfully developed to manufacture Cu–Cr system alloys. ► Ordered fcc structure Cr precipitates are considered to be precursors of equilibrium bcc Cr precipitates. ► The Cr precipitates are responsible for the improvement of properties. ► Additions of Zr, Mg and Si bring about significant improvement in properties of Cu–Cr alloy. ► Good properties are ascribed to grain boundary strengthening, strain hardening and precipitation hardening. - Abstract: Cu–Cr system alloy strips were manufactured by an online hot rolling–quenching (HR–Q) process and subsequent thermomechanical treatments. The microstructure and properties of the alloys were investigated by observations of optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and measurements of microhardness and electrical conductivity. The results show that the HR–Q process and thermomechanical treatments are successfully developed to manufacture Cu–Cr system alloy strips with good combinations of strength, conductivity and softening resistance. Ordered fcc structure Cr precipitates, which are decomposed from the thermomechanical treated alloys, are considered to be precursors to the formation of equilibrium bcc Cr precipitates and responsible for the improvement of properties during near peak aging. Small additions of Zr, Mg and Si effectively improve the hardness and softening resistance of Cu–Cr alloy, and slightly reduce the electrical conductivity. The achievement of high strength and high electrical conductivity in the alloys is ascribed to the interactions of grain boundary strengthening, strain hardening and precipitation hardening.

  6. Calibration of a modified temperature-light intensity logger for quantifying water electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, M. A.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Lafrenière, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    The Stream Temperature, Intermittency, and Conductivity (STIC) electrical conductivity (EC) logger as presented by Chapin et al. (2014) serves as an inexpensive (˜50 USD) means to assess relative EC in freshwater environments. This communication demonstrates the calibration of the STIC logger for quantifying EC, and provides examples from a month long field deployment in the High Arctic. Calibration models followed multiple nonlinear regression and produced calibration curves with high coefficient of determination values (R2 = 0.995 - 0.998; n = 5). Percent error of mean predicted specific conductance at 25°C (SpC) to known SpC ranged in magnitude from -0.6% to 13% (mean = -1.4%), and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) ranged from 2.1% to 13% (mean = 5.3%). Across all tested loggers we found good accuracy and precision, with both error metrics increasing with increasing SpC values. During 10, month-long field deployments, there were no logger failures and full data recovery was achieved. Point SpC measurements at the location of STIC loggers recorded via a more expensive commercial electrical conductivity logger followed similar trends to STIC SpC records, with 1:1.05 and 1:1.08 relationships between the STIC and commercial logger SpC values. These results demonstrate that STIC loggers calibrated to quantify EC are an economical means to increase the spatiotemporal resolution of water quality investigations.

  7. Electrical conduction along dislocations in plastically deformed GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, Y; Yokoyama, T; Oiwa, H; Edagawa, K [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Yonenaga, I, E-mail: yasushi@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Electrical conduction along dislocations in plastically deformed n-GaN single crystals has been investigated by scanning spread resistance microscopy (SSRM). In the SSRM images, many conductive spots have been observed, which correspond to electrical conduction along the dislocations introduced by deformation. Here, the introduced dislocations are b=(a/3)<1overline 210> edge dislocations parallel to the [0001] direction. The current values at the spots normalized to the background current value are larger than 100. Previous works have shown that grown-in edge dislocations in GaN are nonconductive. The high conductivity of the deformation-introduced edge dislocations in the present work suggests that the conductivity depends sensitively on the dislocation core structure.

  8. Electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability measurement of case hardened steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong

    2015-03-01

    For case carburized steels, electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability profiles are needed to develop model-based case depth characterization techniques for the purpose of nondestructive quality control. To obtain fast and accurate measurement of these material properties, four-point potential drop approaches are applied on circular-shaped discs cut from steel rings with different case depths. First, a direct current potential drop (DCPD) approach is applied to measure electrical conductivity. Subsequently, an alternating current potential drop (ACPD) approach is used to measure magnetic permeability. Practical issues in measurement design and implementation are discussed. Depth profiles of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability are reported.

  9. Music through the skin—simple demonstration of human electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Möllmann, K. P.

    2016-05-01

    The conduction of electricity is an important topic for any basic physics course. Issues of safety often results in teacher demonstration experiments in front of the class or in extremely simple though—for students—not really fascinating (not to say boring) hands on activities for everybody using 1.5 V batteries, cables and light bulbs etc. Here we briefly review some basic facts about conduction of electricity through the human body and report a simple, safe, and awe inspiring electrical conduction experiment which can be performed with little preparation by a teacher involving the whole class of say 20 students.

  10. Electrical Conductivity Distributions in Discrete Fluid-Filled Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S. C.; Ahmmed, B.; Knox, H. A.; Johnson, T.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    It is commonly asserted that hydraulic fracturing enhances permeability by generating new fractures in the reservoir. Furthermore, it is assumed that in the fractured system predominant flow occurs in these newly formed and pre-existing fractures. Among the phenomenology that remains enigmatic are fluid distributions inside fractures. Therefore, determining fluid distribution and their associated temporal and spatial evolution in fractures is critical for safe and efficient hydraulic fracturing. Previous studies have used both forward modeling and inversion of electrical data to show that a geologic system consisting of fluid filled fractures has a conductivity distribution, where fractures act as electrically conductive bodies when the fluids are more conductive than the host material. We will use electrical inversion for estimating electrical conductivity distribution within multiple fractures from synthetic and measured data. Specifically, we will use data and well geometries from an experiment performed at Blue Canyon Dome in Socorro, NM, which was used as a study site for subsurface technology, engineering, and research (SubTER) funded by DOE. This project used a central borehole for energetically stimulating the system and four monitoring boreholes, emplaced in the cardinal directions. The electrical data taken during this project used 16 temporary electrodes deployed in the stimulation borehole and 64 permanent electrodes in the monitoring wells (16 each). We present results derived using E4D from scenarios with two discrete fractures, thereby discovering the electric potential response of both spatially and temporarily variant fluid distribution and the resolution of fluid and fracture boundaries. These two fractures have dimensions of 3m × 0.01m × 7m and are separated by 1m. These results can be used to develop stimulation and flow tests at the meso-scale that will be important for model validation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi

  11. Electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Tsujimura, Seiji; Toyoda, Masahiko; Inoue, Masahiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Abe, Tetsuya; Murakami, Yoshio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan)

    1996-01-01

    The development of electrical insulation and conduction coating methods that can be applied to large components of fusion experimental devices has been investigated. A thermal spraying method is used to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components because of its applicability for large surfaces. The insulation material chosen was Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and WC-NiCr were chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel substrates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the substrate, thermal shock resistance, electrical resistance, dielectric breakdown voltage, and thermal conductivity. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed adequate frictional properties. The spraying method was tested on a 100- x 1000-mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces of experimental fusion devices. 9 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Studying the influence of pore water electrical conductivity on the formation factor, as estimated based on electrical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Vecernik, Petr; Havlova, Vaclava (Waste Disposal Dept., Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. (Czech Republic))

    2009-11-15

    factors and generic surface conductivities, and fairly good agreement was obtained. Part 1 suffered from methodology problems, which ultimately lead to poor reproducibility and accuracy. Here a single sample was in sequence saturated with the 0.001, 0.03, 0.5, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaCl electrolytes. The aim was to see if the apparent formation factor increasingly overestimates the formation factor with decreasing electrical conductivity of the pore water. Notwithstanding the experimental problems and errors, it was shown that this is clearly the case. For the electrolyte 0.001 M NaCl, and for this particular sample, the apparent formation factor overestimates the formation factor by at least one order of magnitude. The measured apparent formation factors were compared with modelled apparent formation factors, where input data were the sample's measured formation factor and surface conductivity, and fairly good agreement was obtained. The formation factors obtained by the TEM method were comparable with those obtained in the previous through diffusion experiments on the same samples. Especially for the Forsmark samples of part 2, the TEM results agreed with the through diffusion results, indicating that anion exclusion is not a major issue. From comparison of the TEM formation factors, obtained with anionic tracer iodide, and estimated formation factors based on the resistivity methods, it is indicated that anion exclusion should not reduce the effective diffusivity by more than a few factors

  13. Studying the influence of pore water electrical conductivity on the formation factor, as estimated based on electrical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Martin; Vecernik, Petr; Havlova, Vaclava

    2009-11-01

    factors and generic surface conductivities, and fairly good agreement was obtained. Part 1 suffered from methodology problems, which ultimately lead to poor reproducibility and accuracy. Here a single sample was in sequence saturated with the 0.001, 0.03, 0.5, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaCl electrolytes. The aim was to see if the apparent formation factor increasingly overestimates the formation factor with decreasing electrical conductivity of the pore water. Notwithstanding the experimental problems and errors, it was shown that this is clearly the case. For the electrolyte 0.001 M NaCl, and for this particular sample, the apparent formation factor overestimates the formation factor by at least one order of magnitude. The measured apparent formation factors were compared with modelled apparent formation factors, where input data were the sample's measured formation factor and surface conductivity, and fairly good agreement was obtained. The formation factors obtained by the TEM method were comparable with those obtained in the previous through diffusion experiments on the same samples. Especially for the Forsmark samples of part 2, the TEM results agreed with the through diffusion results, indicating that anion exclusion is not a major issue. From comparison of the TEM formation factors, obtained with anionic tracer iodide, and estimated formation factors based on the resistivity methods, it is indicated that anion exclusion should not reduce the effective diffusivity by more than a few factors

  14. Doping dependence of electrical and thermal conductivity of nanoscale polyaniline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Jiezhu; Wang Qing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Haque, M A [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-05-26

    We performed simultaneous characterization of electrical and thermal conductivity of 55 nm thick polyaniline (PANI) thin films doped with different levels of camphor sulfonic acids (CSAs). The effect of the doping level is more pronounced on electrical conductivity than on thermal conductivity of PANIs, thereby greatly affecting their ratio that determines the thermoelectric efficiency. At the 60% (the molar ratio of CSA to phenyl-N repeat unit of PANI) doping level, PANI exhibited the maximum electrical and thermal conductivity due to the formation of mostly delocalized structures. Whereas polarons are the charge carriers responsible for the electrical conduction, phonons are believed to play a dominant role in the heat conduction in nanoscale doped PANI thin films.

  15. The principles of good conduct in nuclear trade - questions and reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, J.L.; Derche, B.

    1992-01-01

    International nuclear exchanges are based on legal principles which are translated into obligations and practices on the part of the operators. This report deals first of all with the sources of these principles and then with their implementation, placing the emphasis upon standards which go beyond strict obligations. The first part looks at the various sources of the principles of good conduct: ethical rules, international documents, intervention by international organisations, national legislation. These principles relate to non-proliferation, safety, the environment, radiological protection, exchanges of technology and financing. On the basis of an enquiry, the second part of the report describes the application of the principles of good conduct to nuclear business. These principles provide both the customers and the suppliers with guarantees, encourage the use of the most highly developed techniques and, apart from a few shortcomings, form the basis for balanced contractual relationships. In conclusion, this report gives a summary of the rules of good conduct. (author)

  16. Exchange of transverse plasmons and electrical conductivity of neutron star cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shternin, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    We study the electrical conductivity in magnetized neutron star cores produced by collisions between charged particles. We take into account the ordinary exchange of longitudinal plasmons and the exchange of transverse plasmons in collisions between particles. The exchange of transverse plasmons is important for collisions between relativistic particles, but it has been disregarded previously when calculating the electrical conductivity. We show that taking this exchange into account changes the electrical conductivity, including its temperature dependence (thus, for example, the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity along the magnetic field in the low-temperature limit takes the form R parallel ∝ T 5/3 instead of the standard dependence R parallel ∝ T 2 for degenerate Fermi systems). We briefly describe the effect of possible neutron and proton superfluidity in neutron star cores on the electrical conductivity and discuss various scenarios for the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields

  17. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diantoro, Markus, E-mail: markus.diantoro.fmipa@um.ac.id; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin,; Sujito,; Hidayat, Arif [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang 5 Malang 65145 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C{sub 6}-C{sub 3}-C{sub 6} carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  18. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  19. Solvothermal synthesis and electrical conductivity model for the zinc oxide-insulated oil nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, L.P.; Wang, H.; Dong, M.; Ma, Z.C.; Wang, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    A new kind of nanofluid, ZnO-insulated oil nanofluid was prepared from ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solvothermal method. Electrical property measurement shows that the electrical conductivity increases by 973 times after adding 0.75% volumetric fraction of ZnO nanoparticles into the insulated oil. A linear dependence of the electrical conductivity on the volumetric fraction has been observed, while the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity reveals a nonlinear relationship. An electrical conductivity model is established for the nanofluid by considering both the Brownian motion and electrophoresis of the ZnO nanoparticles. -- Highlights: ► Stable ZnO-insulated oil nanofluid was successfully prepared. ► The electrical conductivity of the ZnO nanofluid is investigated. ► A new model is established to explain the electrical properties of the nanofluid.

  20. Maximum on the electrical conductivity polytherm of molten TeCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2017-09-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten TeCl{sub 4} was measured up to 761 K, i.e. 106 degrees above the normal boiling point of the salt. For the first time it was found that TeCl{sub 4} electrical conductivity polytherm has a maximum. It was recorded at 705 K (Κ{sub max}=0.245 Sm/cm), whereupon the conductivity decreases as the temperature rises. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  1. Assembly for electrical conductivity measurements in the piston cylinder device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Heather Christine [Dublin, CA; Roberts, Jeffrey James [Livermore, CA

    2012-06-05

    An assembly apparatus for measurement of electrical conductivity or other properties of a sample in a piston cylinder device wherein pressure and heat are applied to the sample by the piston cylinder device. The assembly apparatus includes a body, a first electrode in the body, the first electrode operatively connected to the sample, a first electrical conductor connected to the first electrode, a washer constructed of a hard conducting material, the washer surrounding the first electrical conductor in the body, a second electrode in the body, the second electrode operatively connected to the sample, and a second electrical conductor connected to the second electrode.

  2. Electrical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Yang, Jun; Liao, Hui; Chen, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has the potential to satisfy multifunctional applications. Designing such asphalt concrete needs to balance the electrical and mechanical performance of asphalt concrete. The objective of this study is to design electrically conductive asphalt concrete

  3. Numerical estimation of the effective electrical conductivity in carbon paper diffusion media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo; Shen, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anisotropic effective electrical conductivity of the GDL is estimated numerically. ► The electrical conductivity is a key component in understanding the structure of the GDL. ► Expressions for evaluating the electrical conductivity were proposed. ► The tortuosity factor was evaluated as 1.7 and 3.4 in the in- and through-plane directions, respectively. - Abstract: The transport of electrons through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells has a significant impact on the optimal design and operation of PEM fuel cells and is directly affected by the anisotropic nature of the carbon paper material. In this study, a three-dimensional reconstruction of the GDL is used to numerically estimate the directional dependent effective electrical conductivity of the layer for various porosity values. The distribution of the fibers in the through-plane direction results in high electrical resistivity; hence, decreasing the overall effective electrical conductivity in this direction. This finding is in agreement with measured experimental data. Further, using the numerical results of this study, two mathematical expressions were proposed for the calculation of the effective electrical conductivity of the carbon paper GDL. Finally, the tortuosity factor was evaluated as 1.7 and 3.4 in the in- and through-plane directions, respectively.

  4. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10(-3) S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10(-1) S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front.

  5. Adaptation of electrical conductivity test for Moringa oleifera seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza de Souza Medeiros

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to adapt and test the efficiency of electrical conductivity methodology test in quality evaluation of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds. For physiological characterization four seed sets were evaluated by tests of germination, seedlings emergency, speed of emergency index, emergency first count, seedlings length and dry mass and cold test. The electrical conductivity test was carried out at 25 °C for 4, 8, 12, 16 and 24 h of immersion in 75 or 125 mL of distilled water using 25 or 50 seeds. A completely randomized design was used. The best results were obtained when using 50 seeds immersed in 75 mL or 125 mL of distilled water for 4 h. The electrical conductivity test adapted to moringa seeds was efficient in ranking sets of different vigor levels. The test may be efficiently used for physiological quality evaluation of moringa seeds.

  6. Enhancement in electrical conductivity of Li 2 O

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of electrical conductivity of 30Li2O : (70 – ) B2O3 : V2O5 glass samples has been carried out. The results have been explained by dividing the temperature range into two regions. In region I, conductivity shows Arrhenius behaviour for all the samples. The conductivity increases with addition of V2O5.

  7. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT): conductivity and current density imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jin Keun; Kwon, Ohin; Woo, Eung Je

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest impedance imaging technique called Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) providing information on electrical conductivity and current density distributions inside an electrically conducting domain such as the human body. The motivation for this research is explained by discussing conductivity changes related with physiological and pathological events, electromagnetic source imaging and electromagnetic stimulations. We briefly summarize the related technique of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) that deals with cross-sectional image reconstructions of conductivity distributions from boundary measurements of current-voltage data. Noting that EIT suffers from the ill-posed nature of the corresponding inverse problem, we introduce MREIT as a new conductivity imaging modality providing images with better spatial resolution and accuracy. MREIT utilizes internal information on the induced magnetic field in addition to the boundary current-voltage measurements to produce three-dimensional images of conductivity and current density distributions. Mathematical theory, algorithms, and experimental methods of current MREIT research are described. With numerous potential applications in mind, future research directions in MREIT are proposed

  8. Efficient reduction of graphene oxide film by low temperature heat treatment and its effect on electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xuebing; Chen, Zheng [Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen (China). Key Lab. of Inorganic Membrane; Yu, Yun [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of Inorganic Coating Materials; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Wang, Yongqing; Zhou, Jianer [Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen (China). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2018-03-01

    Graphene-based conductive films have already attracted great attention due to their unique and outstanding physical properties. In this work, in order to develop a novel, effective method to produce these films with good electrical conductivity, a simple and green method is reported to rapidly and effectively reduce graphene oxide film using a low temperature heat treatment. The reduction of graphene oxide film is verified by XRD, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Compared with graphene oxide film, the obtained reduced graphene oxide film has better electrical conductivity and its sheet resistance decreases from 25.3 kΩ x sq{sup -1} to 3.3 kΩ x sq{sup -1} after the heat treatment from 160 to 230 C. The mechanism of thermal reduction of the graphene oxide film mainly results from the removal of the oxygen-containing functional groups and the structural changes. All these results indicate that the low temperature heat treatment is a suitable and effective method for the reduction of graphene oxide film.

  9. Nature of Dielectric Properties, Electric Modulus and AC Electrical Conductivity of Nanocrystalline ZnIn2Se4 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Attia, A. A.; Ali, H. A. M.; Salem, G. F.; Ismail, M. I.

    2018-02-01

    The structural characteristics of thermally deposited ZnIn2Se4 thin films were indexed utilizing x-ray diffraction as well as scanning electron microscopy techniques. Dielectric properties, electric modulus and AC electrical conductivity of ZnIn2Se4 thin films were examined in the frequency range from 42 Hz to 106 Hz. The capacitance, conductance and impedance were measured at different temperatures. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease with an increase in frequency. The maximum barrier height was determined from the analysis of the dielectric loss depending on the Giuntini model. The real part of the electric modulus revealed a constant maximum value at higher frequencies and the imaginary part of the electric modulus was characterized by the appearance of dielectric relaxation peaks. The AC electrical conductivity obeyed the Jonscher universal power law. Correlated barrier hopping model was the appropriate mechanism for AC conduction in ZnIn2Se4 thin films. Estimation of the density of states at the Fermi level and activation energy, for AC conduction, was carried out based on the temperature dependence of AC electrical conductivity.

  10. Improvement of Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Epoxy/boron Nitride/silver Nanoparticle Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungyong; Lim, Soonho [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of BN (boron nitride) on the thermal and the electrical conductivity of composites. In case of epoxy/BN composites, the thermal conductivity was increased as the BN contents were increased. Epoxy/AgNP (Ag nanoparticle) nanocomposites exhibited a slight change of thermal conductivity and showed a electrical percolation threshold at 20 vol% of Ag nanoparticles. At the fixed Ag nanoparticle content below the electrical percolation threshold, increasing the amount of BN enhanced the electrical conductivity as well as thermal conductivity for the epoxy/AgNP/BN composites.

  11. Experimental study of electric conductivity, density and viscosity of Wood's alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazandzhan, B.I.; Matveev, V.M.; Savich, T.B.; Umarov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Electric conductivity, density and kinematic viscosity of commercially pure Wood's alloy are obtained in a wide temperature range. Electric conductivity and density are investigated from the room temperature to 1000 K. Measurements of kinematic viscosity are carried out from 372 to 1000 K by means of torsional vibrations method using informatiom computer system permitting to automate data acquisition and processing and to increase the measurement accuracy. On the basis of analysis the character of electric conductivity and kinematic viscosity polyterms Wood's alloy liquidus and solidus temperatures are estimated

  12. Electrical conductivity enhancement by boron-doping in diamond using first principle calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mahtab; Ahmed, Ejaz; Hussain, Fayyaz; Rana, Anwar Manzoor; Raza, Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Boron doping in diamond plays a vital role in enhancing electrical conductivity of diamond by making it a semiconductor, a conductor or even a superconductor. To elucidate this fact, partial and total density of states has been determined as a function of B-content in diamond. Moreover, the orbital charge distributions, B-C bond lengths and their population have been studied for B-doping in pristine diamond thin films by applying density functional theory (DFT). These parameters have been found to be influenced by the addition of different percentages of boron atoms in diamond. The electronic density of states, B-C bond situations as well as variations in electrical conductivities of diamond films with different boron content and determination of some relationship between these parameters were the basic tasks of this study. Diamond with high boron concentration (∼5.88% B-atoms) showed maximum splitting of energy bands (caused by acceptor impurity states) at the Fermi level which resulted in the enhancement of electron/ion conductivities. Because B atoms either substitute carbon atoms and/or assemble at grain boundaries (interstitial sites) inducing impurity levels close to the top of the valence band. At very high B-concentration, impurity states combine to form an impurity band which accesses the top of the valence band yielding metal like conductivity. Moreover, bond length and charge distributions are found to decrease with increase in boron percentage in diamond. It is noted that charge distribution decreased from +1.89 to -1.90 eV whereas bond length reduced by 0.04 Å with increasing boron content in diamond films. These theoretical results support our earlier experimental findings on B-doped diamond polycrystalline films which depict that the addition of boron atoms to diamond films gives a sudden fall in resistivity even up to 105 Ω cm making it a good semiconductor for its applications in electrical devices.

  13. High temperature heat capacities and electrical conductivities of boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Tsuneo; Arita, Yuri; Naito, Keiji; Imai, Hisashi

    1991-01-01

    The heat capacities and the electrical conductivities of B x C(x=3, 4, 5) were measured by means of direct heating pulse calorimetry in the temperature range from 300 to 1500 K. The heat capacities of B x C increased with increasing x value. This increase in the heat capacity is probably related to the change of the lattice vibration mode originated from the reduction of the stiffness of the intericosahedral chain accompanied with a change from C-B-C to C-B-B chains. A linear relationship between the logarithm of σT (σ is the electrical conductivity and T is the absolute temperature) of B x C and the reciprocal temperature was observed, indicating the presence of small polaron hopping as the predominant conduction mechanism. The electrical conductivity of B x C also increased with increasing x value (from 4 to 5) due to an increase of the polaron hopping of holes between carbon atoms at geometrically nonequivalent sites, since these nonequivalent sites of carbon atoms were considered to increase in either B 11 C icosahedra or in icosahedral chains with increasing x. The electrical conductivity of B 3 C was higher than that of B 4 C, which is probably due to the precipitation of high-conducting carbon. The thermal conductivity and the thermodynamic quantities of B 4 C were also determined precisely from the heat capacity value. (orig.)

  14. Electrical conductivity of chromate conversion coating on electrodeposited zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencer, Michal

    2006-01-01

    For certain applications of galvanized steel protected with conversion coatings it is important that the surface is electrically conductive. This is especially important with mating surfaces for electromagnetic compatibility. This paper addresses electrical conductivity of chromate conversion coatings. A cross-matrix study using different zinc plating techniques by different labs showed that the main deciding factor is the type of zinc-plating bath used rather than the subsequent chromating process. Thus, chromated zinc plate electrodeposited from cyanide baths is non-conductive while that from alkaline (non-cyanide) and acid baths is conductive, even though the plate from all the bath types is conductive before conversion coating. The results correlate well with the microscopic structure of the surfaces as observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and could be further corroborated and rationalized using EDX and Auger spectroscopies

  15. Direct numerical simulation of MHD flow with electrically conducting wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, S.; Kunugi, T.; Naito, N.; Sagara, A.

    2006-01-01

    The 2D vortex problem and 3D turbulent channel flow are treated numerically to assess the effect of electrically conducting walls on turbulent MHD flow. As a first approximation, the twin vortex pair is considered as a model of a turbulent eddy near the wall. As the eddy approaches and collides with the wall, a high value electrical potential is induced inside the wall. The Lorentz force, associated with the potential distribution, reduces the velocity gradient in the near-wall region. When considering a fully developed turbulent channel flow, a high electrical conductivity wall was chosen to emphasize the effect of electromagnetic coupling between the wall and the flow. The analysis was performed using DNS. The results are compared with a non-MHD flow and MHD flow in the insulated channel. The mean velocity within the logarithmic region in the case of the electrically conducting wall is slightly higher than that in the non-conducting wall case. Thus, the drag is smaller compared to that in the non-conducting wall case due to a reduction of the Reynolds stress in the near wall region through the Lorentz force. This mechanism is explained via reduction of the production term in the Reynolds shear stress budget

  16. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meihui Wang.

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5} were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360{degree}C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  17. Measuring oxygen surface exchange kinetics on mixed-conducting composites by electrical conductivity relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Bobing; Wang, Yunlong; Zhu, Zhuoying; Xia, Changrong; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen release kinetics of mixed-conducting Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6 d–Sm0.2Ce0.8O2 d (SFM–SDC) dualphase composites has been investigated, at 750 C, as a function of the SDC phase volume fraction using electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) under reducing atmospheres, extending our previous work on

  18. Analysis of the electrical conduction in CdHgTe crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziuba, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical conduction versus magnetic field in p-like CdHgTe samples at 77 K is investigated by analysing the conductivity tensor components. The electrical conduction is mainly due to electrons in the conduction band and low-mobility carriers in an impurity band. In the investigated samples Cd/sub x/Hg/sub 1-x/Te with the composition x approximately 0.17 the concentration of electrons in the conduction band is higher than the intrinsic one and in samples with the composition close to HgTe the concentration of electrons in the conduction band is equal to or lower than the intrinsic one. The model of a half-filled impurity band situated close to the bottom of the conduction band is proposed to account for the concentration of electrons in the conduction band. (author)

  19. Analytical solution of electromagnetic radiation by a vertical electric dipole inside the earth and the effect of atmospheric electrical conductivity inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosayebidorcheh, Taha; Hosseinibalam, Fahimeh; Hassanzadeh, Smaeyl

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the effect of atmospheric electrical conductivity on the electromagnetic waves radiated by a vertical electric dipole located in the earth, near the surface of the earth, is investigated. As far as electrical conductivity is concerned, the atmosphere is divided into three areas, in which the electrical conductivity changes with altitude. The Maxwell equations in these areas are investigated as well. Using the differential transform method, the differential equation is solved in a way that atmospheric electrical conductivity is variable. Solving the problem in these areas indicates that electrical conductivity in the middle and lower areas of atmosphere may be ignored. However, in the upper areas of atmosphere, the magnitude of the magnetic field in the ionosphere at a frequency of 10 kHz at night is five times smaller when electrical conductivity is considered compared to when it is neglected.

  20. Enhancement of electrical conductivity of ion-implanted polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of ion-implanted films of Nylon 66, Polypropylene (PP), Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Teflon) and mainly Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was determined by DC measurements at voltages up to 4500 V and compared with the corresponding values of pristine films. Measurements were made at 21 0 C +/- 1 0 C and 65 +/- 2% RH. The electrical conductivity of PET films implanted with F + , Ar + , or As + ions at energies of 50 keV increases by seven orders of magnitude as the fluence increases from 1 x 10 18 to 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 . The conductivity of films implanted with As + was approximately one order greater than those implanted with Ar + , which in turn was approximately one-half order greater than those implanted with F + . The conductivity of the most conductive film ∼1 S/m) was almost 14 orders of magnitude greater than the pristine PET film. Except for the three PET samples implanted at fluences near 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 with F + , Ar + , and As + ions, all implanted films were ohmic up to an electric field strength of 600 kV/m. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the three PET films implanted near a fluence of 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 was measured over the range of 80 K < T < 300 K

  1. Software optimization for electrical conductivity imaging in polycrystalline diamond cutters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, G.; Ludwig, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Rd, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K. [US Synthetic, 1260 South 1600 West, Orem, UT 84058 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    We previously reported on an electrical conductivity imaging instrument developed for measurements on polycrystalline diamond cutters. These cylindrical cutters for oil and gas drilling feature a thick polycrystalline diamond layer on a tungsten carbide substrate. The instrument uses electrical impedance tomography to profile the conductivity in the diamond table. Conductivity images must be acquired quickly, on the order of 5 sec per cutter, to be useful in the manufacturing process. This paper reports on successful efforts to optimize the conductivity reconstruction routine, porting major portions of it to NVIDIA GPUs, including a custom CUDA kernel for Jacobian computation.

  2. Electrical Resistivity Survey For Conductive Soils At Gas Turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten (10) vertical electrical soundings (VES) using Schlumberger configuration were carried out to delineate subsurface conductive soils for the design of earthling grid for electrical materials installation at the Gas Turbine Station, Ajaokuta, SW Nigeria. Interpretation of the resistivity data revealed three major geoelectric ...

  3. Electrical properties of fast ion conducting silver based borate glasses: Application in solid battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Emad M.; Khairy, M.; Mousa, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •AgI dopant created more opened borate network structure. •Dielectric constant and loss values increased with AgI concentration. •AgI dopant enhanced both ion migration and orientation. •0.6 AgI–0.27 Ag 2 O–0.13 B 2 O 3 showed the highest DC-conductivity at room temperature. •It showed also good life time as a solid electrolyte in solid battery at room temperature. -- Abstract: The electrical properties of the ternary ionic conducting glass system xAgI–(1 – x)[0.67Ag 2 O–0.33B 2 O 3 ], where x = 0.4 , 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8, were studied for emphasizing the influence of silver iodide concentration on the transport properties in the based borate glasses. The glasses were prepared by melt quenching technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectra and differential thermal analysis (DTA). XRD confirmed a glassy nature for all investigated compositions. Electrical conductivity (σ), dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss (ε ″ ) and impedance spectra (Z′–Z′′) were studied for all samples at a frequency range of 0–10 6 Hz and over a temperature range of 303–413 K. Changes of conductivity and dielectric properties with composition, temperature and frequency were analyzed and discussed. A silver iodine battery using glassy electrolyte sample with the highest ionic conductivity (x = 0.6) was studied

  4. Influence of Pore-Fluid Pressure on Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity in Water-Saturated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, A.; Watanabe, T.

    2013-12-01

    Pore-fluid pressure in seismogenic zones can play a key role in the occurrence of earthquakes (e.g., Sibson, 2009). Its evaluation via geophysical observations can lead to a good understanding of seismic activities. The evaluation requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the pore-fluid pressure on geophysical observables like seismic velocity and electrical conductivity. We have studied the influence of pore-fluid pressure on elastic wave velocity and electrical conductivity in water-saturated rocks. Fine grained (100-500μm) biotite granite (Aji, Kagawa pref., Japan) was used as rock samples. The density is 2.658-2.668 g/cm3, and the porosity 0.68-0.87%. The sample is composed of 52.8% plagioclase, 36.0% Quartz, 3.0% K-feldspar, 8.2% biotite. SEM images show that a lot of grain boundaries are open. Few intracrystalline cracks were observed. Following the method proposed by David and Zimmerman (2012), the distribution function of crack aspect ratio was evaluated from the pressure dependence of compressional and shear wave velocities in a dry sample. Cylindrical sample has dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and saturated with 0.01 mol/l KCl aqueous solution. Compressional and shear wave velocities were measured with the pulse transmission technique (PZT transducers, f=2 MHz), and electrical conductivity the two-electrode method (Ag-AgCl electrodes, f=1 Hz-100 kHz). Simultaneous measurements of velocities and conductivity were made using a 200 MPa hydrostatic pressure vessel, in which confining and pore-fluid pressures can be separately controlled. The pore-fluid is electrically insulated from the metal work of the pressure vessel by using a newly designed plastic device (Watanabe and Higuchi, 2013). The confining pressure was progressively increased up to 25 MPa, while the pore-fluid pressure was kept at 0.1 MPa. It took five days or longer for the electrical conductivity to become stationary after increasing the confining pressure

  5. Fluctuation-enhanced electric conductivity in electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péraud, Jean-Philippe; Nonaka, Andrew J; Bell, John B; Donev, Aleksandar; Garcia, Alejandro L

    2017-10-10

    We analyze the effects of an externally applied electric field on thermal fluctuations for a binary electrolyte fluid. We show that the fluctuating Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations for charged multispecies diffusion coupled with the fluctuating fluid momentum equation result in enhanced charge transport via a mechanism distinct from the well-known enhancement of mass transport that accompanies giant fluctuations. Although the mass and charge transport occurs by advection by thermal velocity fluctuations, it can macroscopically be represented as electrodiffusion with renormalized electric conductivity and a nonzero cation-anion diffusion coefficient. Specifically, we predict a nonzero cation-anion Maxwell-Stefan coefficient proportional to the square root of the salt concentration, a prediction that agrees quantitatively with experimental measurements. The renormalized or effective macroscopic equations are different from the starting PNP equations, which contain no cross-diffusion terms, even for rather dilute binary electrolytes. At the same time, for infinitely dilute solutions the renormalized electric conductivity and renormalized diffusion coefficients are consistent and the classical PNP equations with renormalized coefficients are recovered, demonstrating the self-consistency of the fluctuating hydrodynamics equations. Our calculations show that the fluctuating hydrodynamics approach recovers the electrophoretic and relaxation corrections obtained by Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory, while elucidating the physical origins of these corrections and generalizing straightforwardly to more complex multispecies electrolytes. Finally, we show that strong applied electric fields result in anisotropically enhanced "giant" velocity fluctuations and reduced fluctuations of salt concentration.

  6. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid–solid phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions. PMID:21505445

  7. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid-solid phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions.

  8. Properties of grafted polymer metal complexes as ion exchangers and its electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arnaouty, M.B.; Abdel Ghaffar, A.M.; Eid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The polyelectrolyte has been prepared as a potential proton exchanger polymer by grafting of acrylic acid/acrylamide and acrylic acid/acrylonitrile comonomer onto low density polyethylene film via gamma radiation. The influence of grafting percent on the electrical conductivity was studied. The resulting polymers were then characterized by evaluating their physico-chemical properties such as ion exchange capacity, and electrical conductivity as a function of grafting yield. The grafted films at different compositions was characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the grafted film at grafting % (191) and monomer concentration ratio 50:50 for (LDPE-g-AAc/AAm) was found to be more than that for (LDPE-g-AAc/AN). The electrical conductivity was found to be greatly affected by the comonomer composition where it increased as the degree of grafting increased for all grafted films. After alkaline treatment with 3% KOH, the electrical conductivity of the grafted films found to be increased. The presence of potassium as counter ion maximized the electrical conductivity of the grafted films. The electrical conductivity of Cu-membrane complexes was higher than that of both Co and Ni complexes. The electrical conductivity increases by increasing both Cu ions content and temperature

  9. The electric conductivity of a pion gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, J.; Rapp, R.

    2017-01-01

    The determination of transport coefficients plays a central role in characterizing hot and dense nuclear matter. In the present work we calculate the electric conductivity of hot hadronic matter by extracting it from the ρ meson spectral function, as its zero-energy limit at vanishing momentum. Using hadronic many-body theory, we calculate the ρ meson self-energy in a pion gas. This requires the dressing of the pion propagators in the ρ self-energy with π - ρ loops, and the inclusion of vertex corrections to maintain gauge invariance. The resulting spectral function is used to calculate the electric conductivity of hot hadronic matter. In particular, we analyze the transport peak of the spectral function and extract its behavior with temperature and coupling strength. Our results suggest that, while obeying lower bounds proposed by conformal field theories in the strong-coupling limit, hot pion matter is a strongly-coupled medium. (paper)

  10. Ground electrical conductivity for medium wave activities over Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ground electrical properties remain a useful tool for most applications in engineering and communication, therefore, reliability and precision is highly required in their determination. Ground electrical conductivity as a function of signal frequency has been determined at Ilorin during the dry and the wet seasons. The study ...

  11. Electrically conductive ceramics and new joining technology for applications in HTR engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, Carmen; Lippmann, Wolfgang; Hurtado, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic constructional components are quite extensively required for operation of high-temperature nuclear reactors. Functional ceramics, in addition to constructional ceramics, are increasingly coming into the focus of research. Ceramic materials are predestined for use at high temperatures and in corrosive atmospheres. Modification of silicon carbide (SiC) by targeted doping, for instance, produces a suitable material for the production of heating conductors and thermoelectric generators. As a construction material, silicon carbide (SiC) is especially interesting due to its very good thermal, mechanical and radiological properties. SiC, furthermore, performs well when activated by neutron irradiation, with the induced activation subsiding after only a few hours (). This property vector makes it an ideal starting material for use in a wide range of functional elements in high-temperature power engineering, particularly in high-temperature nuclear reactor engineering (e.g. V/HTR) including thermochemical plants for hydrogen generation or Synfuel production. In principle, it is possible to produce all-ceramic assemblies consisting of a thermoelectric generator and a sensor that can provide reliable measurement signals under extreme conditions in the high-temperature range without external power supply. This paper explains the feasibility of laser-joining such modified non-oxide ceramics, how to make electrically conductive joints, and thus, how to design complex assemblies. The parameters required for an optimal laser process to join ceramic materials were determined in extensive preliminary experiments. These investigations focused on the specific electrical resistances and optical properties. Specifically developed brazing fillers were fine-tuned so that the joints of the ceramics improved in terms of their physical interactions, chemical reactions and ability to bond or key chemically and mechanically with the ceramic surfaces. Thereby, the electrical

  12. Electrically conductive ceramics and new joining technology for applications in HTR engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.hille@ilkdresden.de [Dresden University of Technology (TU Dresden), Institute of Power Engineering, Chair of Hydrogen Technology and Nuclear Power Engineering, George-Baehr-Str. 3b, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Lippmann, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.lippmann@tu-dresden.de [Dresden University of Technology (TU Dresden), Institute of Power Engineering, Chair of Hydrogen Technology and Nuclear Power Engineering, George-Baehr-Str. 3b, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Hurtado, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.hurtado@tu-dresden.de [Dresden University of Technology (TU Dresden), Institute of Power Engineering, Chair of Hydrogen Technology and Nuclear Power Engineering, George-Baehr-Str. 3b, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Ceramic constructional components are quite extensively required for operation of high-temperature nuclear reactors. Functional ceramics, in addition to constructional ceramics, are increasingly coming into the focus of research. Ceramic materials are predestined for use at high temperatures and in corrosive atmospheres. Modification of silicon carbide (SiC) by targeted doping, for instance, produces a suitable material for the production of heating conductors and thermoelectric generators. As a construction material, silicon carbide (SiC) is especially interesting due to its very good thermal, mechanical and radiological properties. SiC, furthermore, performs well when activated by neutron irradiation, with the induced activation subsiding after only a few hours (). This property vector makes it an ideal starting material for use in a wide range of functional elements in high-temperature power engineering, particularly in high-temperature nuclear reactor engineering (e.g. V/HTR) including thermochemical plants for hydrogen generation or Synfuel production. In principle, it is possible to produce all-ceramic assemblies consisting of a thermoelectric generator and a sensor that can provide reliable measurement signals under extreme conditions in the high-temperature range without external power supply. This paper explains the feasibility of laser-joining such modified non-oxide ceramics, how to make electrically conductive joints, and thus, how to design complex assemblies. The parameters required for an optimal laser process to join ceramic materials were determined in extensive preliminary experiments. These investigations focused on the specific electrical resistances and optical properties. Specifically developed brazing fillers were fine-tuned so that the joints of the ceramics improved in terms of their physical interactions, chemical reactions and ability to bond or key chemically and mechanically with the ceramic surfaces. Thereby, the electrical

  13. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meihui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na2S4 and Na2S5 were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360°C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  14. A New system for Measuring Electrical Conductivity of Water as a Function of Admittance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haval Yacoob

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new system for measuring water conductivity as a function of electrophysical property (admittance. The system is cheap and its manufacturing is easy. In addition, it dose not require any sort of electrolysis and calibration. The system consists of four electrodes made of silver (Ag 92.5 g to Cu 7.5 g fixed in a plastic tube filled by water which allows the use of two and four electrode setups. The admittance (reciprocal of impedance is measured for different water sources (distilled, rainfall, mineral, river and tap water using different frequencies between 50 Hz and 100 kHz. These measurements were taken twice, once with four electrodes and another with two electrodes of two modes (inner and outer electrodes. The results have shown good correlation between the measured admittance and the conductivity of all the water sources and the best correlation was found at low frequencies between 50 Hz and 20 kHz. The highest efficiency can be achieved by performing the four electrodes system which allows circumventing the effect of the electrode impedance. This result makes the system efficient compared to traditional conductivity meters which usually require high frequencies for good operation. doi:10.5617/jeb.203 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 86-92, 2011

  15. Electric conductivity of molten mixtures of ternary mutual KF-KCl-ZrF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darienko, S.E.; Raspopin, S.P.; Chervinskij, Yu.F.

    1988-01-01

    Using the relative capillary method at the frequency of 50 kHz the specific electric conductivity of molten mixtures of the KF-KCl-ZnF 4 system is measured. All the measurements were made in the atmosphere of purified argon. Temperature dependence of electric conductivity of the mixtures studied (800-1260 K) is described by the equations of exponential type with sufficient accuracy. Curves of identical specific electric conductivity of the three-component system are presented. With an increase in zirconium tetrachloride concentration in the mixtures electric conductivity of the melts decreases. On the basis of the measurement results of KF-ZrF 4 and KCl-ZrF 4 molten mixture specific electric conductivity and data on the melt density the values of molar electric conductivity at 1200 K are calculated

  16. ZnO Coatings with Controlled Pore Size, Crystallinity and Electrical Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman SCHMACK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide is a wide bandgap semiconductor with unique optical, electrical and catalytic properties. Many of its practical applications rely on the materials pore structure, crystallinity and electrical conductivity. We report a synthesis method for ZnO films with ordered mesopore structure and tuneable crystallinity and electrical conductivity. The synthesis relies on dip-coating of solutions containing micelles of an amphiphilic block copolymer and complexes of Zn2+ ions with aliphatic ligands. A subsequent calcination at 400°C removes the template and induces crystallization of the pore walls. The pore structure is controlled by the template polymer, whereas the aliphatic ligands control the crystallinity of the pore walls. Complexes with a higher thermal stability result in ZnO films with a higher content of residual carbon, smaller ZnO crystals and therefore lower electrical conductivity. The paper discusses the ability of different types of ligands to assist in the synthesis of mesoporous ZnO and relates the structure and thermal stability of the precursor complexes to the crystallinity and electrical conductivity of the zinc oxide.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.8634

  17. Hysteresis in the relation between moisture uptake and electrical conductivity in neat epoxy

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-05-11

    Monitoring changes in electrical conductivity is a simple way to assess the water uptake from environmental moisture in polymers. However, the relation between water uptake and changes in conductivity is not fully understood. We monitored changes in the electrical volume conductivity of an anhydride-cured epoxy polymer during moisture sorption-desorption experiments. Gravimetric analysis showed that the polymer exhibits a two-stage sorption behavior resulting from the competition between diffusive and reactive mechanisms. As expected, the macroscopic electrical conductivity increases with the diffusion of water. However, our most surprising observation was severe hysteresis in the relation between water uptake and electrical conductivity during the sorption and desorption experiments. This indicates that change in the electrical conductivity depends on both the water uptake and the competition between the diffusive and reactive mechanisms. We studied samples with various thicknesses to determine the relative effects of the diffusive and reactive mechanisms. This is an important observation as it means that general electrical monitoring techniques should be used cautiously when it comes to measuring the moisture content of polymer or polymer-based composite samples.

  18. Electrical conductivity tensor of an irradiated metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corciovei, A.; Dumitru, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method to calculate the electrical conductivity tensor of an irradiated metal is presented. The proposed method relies on the use of the Kubo formula, evaluated by a perturbation method. The one electron Hamiltonian is written as a sum of two terms: the Hamiltonian of the conduction electrons moving in a periodic lattice and the perturbation, namely, the scattering potential due to the irradiation defects of the ideal crystal. Then, the lowest order of the conductivity is determined by the lowest order of the Laplace transform of the current. An integral equation is written for this last quantity. (author)

  19. Electrical Conductivity of CUXS Thin Film Deposited by Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of CuxS have successfully been deposited on glass substrates using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were then investigated for their electrical properties. The results showed that the electrical conductivities of the CuxS films with different molarities (n) of thiourea (Tu), determined using ...

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Conductivity of Dielectric with Dispersed Metallic Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites are increasingly used for application in engineering as structural, thermal protection and functional materials, including dielectrics, because of a wide variety of properties. The relative dielectric constant and the dielectric loss tangent are basic functional characteristics of a composite used as a dielectric. The quantitative level of these characteristics is mainly affected by the properties of the composite matrix and inclusions as well as their shape and volume concentration. Metallic inclusions in a dielectric, which serves as a function of the composite matrix, expand electrical properties of the composite in particular increase its dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent and thereby greatly expand its application field. Dielectric losses are defined by the imaginary component of the complex value of the relative dielectric constant of the dielectric. At a relatively low vibration frequency of electromagnetic field affecting the dielectric, this value is proportional to the electrical conductivity of the dielectric and inversely proportional to the frequency. In order to predict the expected value of the electric conductivity of the dielectric with metallic inclusions, a mathematical model that properly describes the structure of the composite and the electrical interaction of the matrix and inclusions is required.In the paper, a mathematical model of the electrical interaction of the representative element of the composite structure and a homogeneous isotropic medium with electrical conductivity, which is desired characteristics of the composite, is constructed. Globular shape of the metallic inclusions as an average statistical form of dispersed inclusions with a comparable size in all directions is adopted. The inclusion is covered with a globular layer of electrical insulation to avoid percolation with increasing volume concentration of inclusions. Outer globular layer of representative structure of composite

  1. DC electrical conductivity of silicon carbide ceramics and composites for flow channel insert applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Y.; Kondo, S.; Snead, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    High purity chemically vapor-deposited silicon carbide (SiC) and 2D continuous SiC fiber, chemically vapor-infiltrated SiC matrix composites with pyrocarbon interphases were examined. Specifically, temperature dependent (RT to 800 deg. C) electrical conductivity and the influence of neutron irradiation were measured. The influence of neutron irradiation on electrical properties appeared very strong for the SiC of this study, typically resulting in orders lower ambient conductivity and steeper temperature dependency of this conductivity. For the 2D composites, through-thickness (normal to the fiber axis') electrical conductivity was dominated by bypass conduction via interphase network at relatively low temperatures, whereas conduction through SiC constituents dominated at higher temperatures. Through-thickness electrical conductivity of neutron-irradiated 2D SiC composites with thin PyC interphase, currently envisioned for flow channel insert application, will likely in the order of 10 S/m at the appropriate operating temperature. Mechanisms of electrical conduction in the composites and irradiation-induced modification of electrical conductivity of the composites and their constituents are discussed.

  2. Thermodynamic parameters of elasticity and electrical conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermodynamic parameters (change in free energy of elasticity, DGe; change in enthalpy of elasticity, DHe; and change in entropy of elasticity, DSe) and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber composites reinforced separately with some agricultural wastes have been determined. Results show that the reinforced ...

  3. Measuring electric conductivity in liquid metals by eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, S.P.; Ostrovskij, O.I.; Grigoryan, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Technique permitting to apply the method of vertiginous currents for investigation of electric conductivity of metal melts in the high temperature range is presented. Interferences affecting accuracy of measurements are specified and ways of their removing are pointed out. Scheme of measuring and design of the facility are described. Results of measuring electric resistance of liquid Fe, Co, Ni obtained for the first time by this method are presented. The data obtained agree with the results of measurements conducted by the method of the rotating magnetic field. Difference in absolute values of electric resistance in parallel experiments for each metal does not exceed 4%

  4. Microbial interspecies electron transfer via electric currents through conductive minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    In anaerobic biota, reducing equivalents (electrons) are transferred between different species of microbes [interspecies electron transfer (IET)], establishing the basis of cooperative behaviors and community functions. IET mechanisms described so far are based on diffusion of redox chemical species and/or direct contact in cell aggregates. Here, we show another possibility that IET also occurs via electric currents through natural conductive minerals. Our investigation revealed that electrically conductive magnetite nanoparticles facilitated IET from Geobacter sulfurreducens to Thiobacillus denitrificans, accomplishing acetate oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction. This two-species cooperative catabolism also occurred, albeit one order of magnitude slower, in the presence of Fe ions that worked as diffusive redox species. Semiconductive and insulating iron-oxide nanoparticles did not accelerate the cooperative catabolism. Our results suggest that microbes use conductive mineral particles as conduits of electrons, resulting in efficient IET and cooperative catabolism. Furthermore, such natural mineral conduits are considered to provide ecological advantages for users, because their investments in IET can be reduced. Given that conductive minerals are ubiquitously and abundantly present in nature, electric interactions between microbes and conductive minerals may contribute greatly to the coupling of biogeochemical reactions. PMID:22665802

  5. Effect of Microstructure on Electrical Conductivity of Nickel-Base Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Balasubramanian; Castagne, Sylvie; Annamalai, Swaminathan; Fan, Zheng; Chan, Wai Luen

    2017-08-01

    Eddy current spectroscopy is one of the promising non-destructive methods for residual stress evaluation along the depth of subsurface-treated nickel-base superalloys, but it is limited by its sensitivity to microstructure. This paper studies the influence of microstructure on the electrical conductivity of two nickel-base alloys, RR1000 and IN100. Different microstructures were attained using heat treatment cycles ranging from solution annealing to aging, with varying aging time and temperature. Eddy current conductivity was measured using conductivity probes of frequencies ranging between 1 and 5 MHz. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of the microstructure was performed using optical and scanning electron microscopes. For the heat treatment conditions between the solution annealing and the peak aging, the electrical conductivity of RR1000 increased by 6.5 pct, which is duly substantiated by the corresponding increase in hardness (12 pct) and the volume fraction of γ' precipitates (41 pct). A similar conductivity rise of 2.6 pct for IN100 is in agreement with the increased volume fraction of γ' precipitates (12.5 pct) despite an insignificant hardening between the heat treatment conditions. The observed results with RR1000 and IN100 highlight the sensitivity of electrical conductivity to the minor microstructure variations, especially the volume fraction of γ' precipitates, within the materials.

  6. Density, dynamic viscosity, and electrical conductivity of pyridinium-based hydrophobic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qing-Shan; Li, Pei-Pei; Welz-Biermann, Urs; Chen, Jian; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Targets of this research are hydrophobic series ionic liquids. • Density, dynamic viscosity and electrical conductivity were determined. • Influences of methylene to properties were discussed. • Influences of methyl group on pyridinium ring position to properties were discussed. • Relationship of ρ, η and σ were described systematically. -- Abstract: Air and water stable hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized: N-propyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C 3 3mpy][NTf 2 ], N-hexyl-3-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C 6 3mpy][NTf 2 ], and N-hexyl-4-methylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C 6 4mpy][NTf 2 ]. Density, dynamic viscosity, and electrical conductivity of ILs were determined at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of (278 to 353) K. The effects of methylene and methyl groups to density, dynamic viscosity, and electrical conductivity, respectively, were discussed. The thermal expansion coefficient, molecular volume, standard molar entropy, and lattice energy of the samples were estimated in terms of empirical and semi-empirical equations based on the density values. The temperature dependence on dynamic viscosity and electrical conductivity values of the ILs were discussed by Vogel–Fulcher–Tamman (VFT) and Arrhenius equations. The molar conductivities were calculated by density and electrical conductivity values

  7. Fabrication of highly conductive carbon nanotube fibers for electrical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fengmei; Li, Can; Wei, Jinquan; Xu, Ruiqiao; Zhang, Zelin; Cui, Xian; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have great potential for use as electrical wires because of their outstanding electrical and mechanical properties. Here, we fabricate lightweight CNT fibers with electrical conductivity as high as that of stainless steel from macroscopic CNT films by drawing them through diamond wire-drawing dies. The entangled CNT bundles are straightened by suffering tension, which improves the alignment of the fibers. The loose fibers are squeezed by the diamond wire-drawing dies, which reduces the intertube space and contact resistance. The CNT fibers prepared by drawing have an electrical conductivity as high as 1.6 × 10 6 s m −1 . The fibers are very stable when kept in the air and under cyclic tensile test. A prototype of CNT motor is demonstrated by replacing the copper wires with the CNT fibers. (paper)

  8. Electrical conductivities and chemical stabilities of mixed conducting pyrochlores for SOFC applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, P.; Poulsen, F.W.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2000-01-01

    Pyrochlores with praseodymium as the A-site cation and zirconium, tin, cerium and manganese cations on the B-site were prepared in air and their electrical conductivities were investigated as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. Pure Pr2Zr2O7+/-delta as well as samples modified...

  9. Computer modeling of the combined effects of perfusion, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity on tissue heating patterns in radiofrequency tumor ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muneeb; Liu, Zhengjun; Humphries, Stanley; Goldberg, S Nahum

    2008-11-01

    To use an established computer simulation model of radiofrequency (RF) ablation to characterize the combined effects of varying perfusion, and electrical and thermal conductivity on RF heating. Two-compartment computer simulation of RF heating using 2-D and 3-D finite element analysis (ETherm) was performed in three phases (n = 88 matrices, 144 data points each). In each phase, RF application was systematically modeled on a clinically relevant template of application parameters (i.e., varying tumor and surrounding tissue perfusion: 0-5 kg/m(3)-s) for internally cooled 3 cm single and 2.5 cm cluster electrodes for tumor diameters ranging from 2-5 cm, and RF application times (6-20 min). In the first phase, outer thermal conductivity was changed to reflect three common clinical scenarios: soft tissue, fat, and ascites (0.5, 0.23, and 0.7 W/m- degrees C, respectively). In the second phase, electrical conductivity was changed to reflect different tumor electrical conductivities (0.5 and 4.0 S/m, representing soft tissue and adjuvant saline injection, respectively) and background electrical conductivity representing soft tissue, lung, and kidney (0.5, 0.1, and 3.3 S/m, respectively). In the third phase, the best and worst combinations of electrical and thermal conductivity characteristics were modeled in combination. Tissue heating patterns and the time required to heat the entire tumor +/-a 5 mm margin to >50 degrees C were assessed. Increasing background tissue thermal conductivity increases the time required to achieve a 50 degrees C isotherm for all tumor sizes and electrode types, but enabled ablation of a given tumor size at higher tissue perfusions. An inner thermal conductivity equivalent to soft tissue (0.5 W/m- degrees C) surrounded by fat (0.23 W/m- degrees C) permitted the greatest degree of tumor heating in the shortest time, while soft tissue surrounded by ascites (0.7 W/m- degrees C) took longer to achieve the 50 degrees C isotherm, and complete ablation

  10. Improving electrical conductivity in polycarbonate nanocomposites using highly conductive PEDOT/PSS coated MWCNTs

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Lubineau, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    concentration (0.3 wt %). To tailor the electrical properties of the conductive polymer coating, we used a polar solvent ethylene glycol, and we can tune the final properties of the nanocomposite by controlling the concentrations of the elementary constituents

  11. Differential and directional effects of perfusion on electrical and thermal conductivities in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhajsky, Ronald J; Yi, Ming; Mahajan, Roop L

    2009-01-01

    Two different measurement probes--an electrical probe and a thermal conductivity probe--were designed, fabricated, calibrated, and used in experimental studies on a pig liver model that was designed to control perfusion rates. These probes were fabricated by photolithography and mounted in 1.5-mm diameter catheters. We measured the local impedance and thermal conductivity, respectively, of the artificially perfused liver at different flow rates and, by rotating the probes, in different directions. The results show that both the local electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity varied location to location, that thermal conductivity increased with decreased distance to large blood vessels, and that significant directional differences exist in both electrical and thermal conductivities. Measurements at different perfusion rates demonstrated that both the local electrical and local thermal conductivities increased linearly with the square root of perfusion rate. These correlations may be of great value to many energy-based biomedical applications.

  12. Magneto-acousto-electrical Measurement Based Electrical Conductivity Reconstruction for Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Gepu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Based on the interaction of ultrasonic excitation and magnetoelectrical induction, magneto-acousto-electrical (MAE) technology was demonstrated to have the capability of differentiating conductivity variations along the acoustic transmission. By applying the characteristics of the MAE voltage, a simplified algorithm of MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction was developed. With the analyses of acoustic vibration, ultrasound propagation, Hall effect, and magnetoelectrical induction, theoretical and experimental studies of MAE measurement and conductivity reconstruction were performed. The formula of MAE voltage was derived and simplified for the transducer with strong directivity. MAE voltage was simulated for a three-layer gel phantom and the conductivity distribution was reconstructed using the modified Wiener inverse filter and Hilbert transform, which was also verified by experimental measurements. The experimental results are basically consistent with the simulations, and demonstrate that the wave packets of MAE voltage are generated at tissue interfaces with the amplitudes and vibration polarities representing the values and directions of conductivity variations. With the proposed algorithm, the amplitude and polarity of conductivity gradient can be restored and the conductivity distribution can also be reconstructed accurately. The favorable results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate conductivity reconstruction with improved spatial resolution using MAE measurement for tissues with conductivity variations, especially suitable for nondispersive tissues with abrupt conductivity changes. This study demonstrates that the MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction algorithm can be applied as a new strategy for nondestructive real-time monitoring of conductivity variations in biomedical engineering.

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effective electrical conductivity of nitrogen-doped graphene nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrali, Mohammad, E-mail: mohamad.mehrali@siswa.um.edu.my [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Advanced Material Research Centre (Malaysia); Sadeghinezhad, Emad, E-mail: esn802001@yahoo.com [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Malaysia); Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi [Tongji University, Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center (China); Akhiani, Amir Reza; Tahan Latibari, Sara; Mehrali, Mehdi; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Advanced Material Research Centre (Malaysia)

    2015-06-15

    Electrical conductivity is an important property for technological applications of nanofluids that have not been widely investigated, and few studies have been concerned about the electrical conductivity. In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene (NDG) nanofluids were prepared using the two-step method in an aqueous solution of 0.025 wt% Triton X-100 as a surfactant at several concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 wt%). The electrical conductivity of the aqueous NDG nanofluids showed a linear dependence on the concentration and increased up to 1814.96 % for a loading of 0.06 wt% NDG nanosheet. From the experimental data, empirical models were developed to express the electrical conductivity as functions of temperature and concentration. It was observed that increasing the temperature has much greater effect on electrical conductivity enhancement than increasing the NDG nanosheet loading. Additionally, by considering the electrophoresis of the NDG nanosheets, a straightforward electrical conductivity model is established to modulate and understand the experimental results.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effective electrical conductivity of nitrogen-doped graphene nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi; Akhiani, Amir Reza; Tahan Latibari, Sara; Mehrali, Mehdi; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis

    2015-06-01

    Electrical conductivity is an important property for technological applications of nanofluids that have not been widely investigated, and few studies have been concerned about the electrical conductivity. In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene (NDG) nanofluids were prepared using the two-step method in an aqueous solution of 0.025 wt% Triton X-100 as a surfactant at several concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 wt%). The electrical conductivity of the aqueous NDG nanofluids showed a linear dependence on the concentration and increased up to 1814.96 % for a loading of 0.06 wt% NDG nanosheet. From the experimental data, empirical models were developed to express the electrical conductivity as functions of temperature and concentration. It was observed that increasing the temperature has much greater effect on electrical conductivity enhancement than increasing the NDG nanosheet loading. Additionally, by considering the electrophoresis of the NDG nanosheets, a straightforward electrical conductivity model is established to modulate and understand the experimental results.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effective electrical conductivity of nitrogen-doped graphene nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi; Akhiani, Amir Reza; Tahan Latibari, Sara; Mehrali, Mehdi; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Electrical conductivity is an important property for technological applications of nanofluids that have not been widely investigated, and few studies have been concerned about the electrical conductivity. In this study, nitrogen-doped graphene (NDG) nanofluids were prepared using the two-step method in an aqueous solution of 0.025 wt% Triton X-100 as a surfactant at several concentrations (0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 wt%). The electrical conductivity of the aqueous NDG nanofluids showed a linear dependence on the concentration and increased up to 1814.96 % for a loading of 0.06 wt% NDG nanosheet. From the experimental data, empirical models were developed to express the electrical conductivity as functions of temperature and concentration. It was observed that increasing the temperature has much greater effect on electrical conductivity enhancement than increasing the NDG nanosheet loading. Additionally, by considering the electrophoresis of the NDG nanosheets, a straightforward electrical conductivity model is established to modulate and understand the experimental results

  16. Thermal and electrical conductivities of high purity tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of three high purity tantalum samples have been measured as functions of temperature over a temperature range of 5K to 65K. Sample purities ranged up to a resistivity ratio of 1714. The highest purity sample had a residual resistivity of .76 x 10 -10 OMEGA-m. The intrinsic resistivity varied as T 3 . 9 from 10K to 31K. The thermal conductivity of the purest sample had a maximum of 840 W/mK at 9.8K. The intrinsic thermal resistivity varied as T 2 . 4 from 10K to 35K. At low temperatures electrons were scattered primarily by impurities and by phonons with both interband and intraband transitions observed. The electrical and thermal resistivity is departed from Matthiessen's rule at low temperatures

  17. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 was successfully measured. •Based on the measured value of PPLP, DC field analysis was performed. •The electric field distribution was altered according to the DC applying stages. •The maximum electric field was observed during polarity reversal situation. •DC field analysis is important to determine the optimum design of DC HTS devices. -- Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric field distribution of

  18. Enhanced thermoelectric efficiency via orthogonal electrical and thermal conductances in phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Ruixiang; Faghaninia, Alireza; Soklaski, Ryan; Yan, Jia-An; Lo, Cynthia; Yang, Li

    2014-11-12

    Thermoelectric devices that utilize the Seebeck effect convert heat flow into electrical energy and are highly desirable for the development of portable, solid state, passively powered electronic systems. The conversion efficiencies of such devices are quantified by the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT), which is proportional to the ratio of a device's electrical conductance to its thermal conductance. In this paper, a recently fabricated two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor called phosphorene (monolayer black phosphorus) is assessed for its thermoelectric capabilities. First-principles and model calculations reveal not only that phosphorene possesses a spatially anisotropic electrical conductance, but that its lattice thermal conductance exhibits a pronounced spatial-anisotropy as well. The prominent electrical and thermal conducting directions are orthogonal to one another, enhancing the ratio of these conductances. As a result, ZT may reach the criterion for commercial deployment along the armchair direction of phosphorene at T = 500 K and is close to 1 even at room temperature given moderate doping (∼2 × 10(16) m(-2) or 2 × 10(12) cm(-2)). Ultimately, phosphorene hopefully stands out as an environmentally sound thermoelectric material with unprecedented qualities. Intrinsically, it is a mechanically flexible material that converts heat energy with high efficiency at low temperatures (∼300 K), one whose performance does not require any sophisticated engineering techniques.

  19. Electrical conductivity measurement and thermogravimetric study of chromium-doped uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Tsuneo; Naito, Keiji

    1986-01-01

    The electrical conductivity and nonstoichiometric composition of (Usub(1-y)Crsub(y))Osub(2+x) (y=0.001 and 0.05) were measured in the range 1173 -17 2 ) -2 Pa by the four inserted wires method and thermogravimetry, respectively. The electrical conductivities of (Usub(1-y)Crsub(y))Osub(2+x) (y=0.01 and 0.05) were about one-order lower than that of UOsub(2+x), probably due to the presence of the chromium ion as an electron donor. The activation energies of (Usub(0.99)Crsub(0.01))Osub(2+x) and (Usub(0.95)Crsub(0.05))Osub(2+x) for the extrinsic conduction in the low oxygen partial pressure region were calculated to be 24.7+-1.3 and 25.9+-1.0 kJ.mol -1 , respectively from the Arrhenius plots of the electrical conductivities. These small values of the activation energy of (Usub(1-y)Crsub(y))Osub(2+x) may suggest the presence of the hopping mechanism for hole conduction, similarly to the case of UOsub(2+x). From the oxygen partial pressure dependences of both the electrical conductivity and the deviation x in (Usub(1-y)Crsub(y))Osub(2+x), the defect structure was discussed with the complex defect model consisting of oxygen vacancies and two kinds of interstitial oxygens. (orig.)

  20. Leaching of Conductive Species: Implications to Measurements of Electrical Resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spragg, R; Jones, S; Bu, Y; Lu, Y; Bentz, D; Snyder, K; Weiss, J

    2017-05-01

    Electrical tests have been used to characterize the microstructure of porous materials, the measured electrical response being determined by the contribution of the microstructure (porosity and tortuosity) and the electrical properties of the solution (conductivity of the pore solution) inside the pores of the material. This study has shown how differences in concentration between the pore solution (i.e., the solution in the pores) and the storage solution surrounding the test specimen leads to significant transport (leaching) of the conductive ionic species between the pore solution and the storage solution. Leaching influences the resistivity of the pore solution, thereby influencing electrical measurements on the bulk material from either a surface or uniaxial bulk resistance test. This paper has three main conclusions: 1.) Leaching of conductive species does occur with concentration gradients and that a diffusion based approach can be used to estimate the time scale associated with this change. 2.) Leaching of ions in the pore solution can influence resistivity measurements, and the ratio of surface to uniaxial resistivity can be used as a method to assess the presence of leaching and 3.) An estimation of the magnitude of leaching for standardized tests of cementitious materials.

  1. Enhanced electrical conductivity in Xe ion irradiated CNT based transparent conducting electrode on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbhi; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Satyavir; Garg, Priyanka; Asokan, K.; Sachdev, Kanupriya

    2018-02-01

    An investigation of MWCNT-based hybrid electrode films with improved electrical conductivity after Xe ion irradiation is reported. A multilayer hybrid structure of Ag-MWCNT layer embedded in between two ZnO layers was fabricated and evaluated, pre and post 100 keV Xe ion irradiation, for their performance as Transparent Conducting Electrode in terms of their optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction pattern exhibits highly c-axis oriented ZnO films with a small variation in lattice parameters with an increase in ion fluence. There is no significant change in the surface roughness of these films. Raman spectra were used to confirm the presence of CNT. The pristine multilayer films exhibit an average transmittance of ˜70% in the entire visible region and the transmittance increases with Xe ion fluence. A significant enhancement in electrical conductivity post-Xe ion irradiation viz from 1.14 × 10-7 Ω-1 cm-1 (pristine) to 7.04 × 103 Ω-1 cm-1 is seen which is due to the high connectivity in the top layer with Ag-CNT hybrid layer facilitating the smooth transfer of electrons.

  2. Solving hyperbolic heat conduction using electrical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheitaghy, A. M.; Talaee, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the electrical network simulation method is proposed to solve the hyperbolic and parabolic heat conduction problem considering Cattaneo-Vernoute (C.V) constitutive relation. Using this new proposed numerical model and the electrical circuit simulation program HSPICE, transient temperature and heat flux profiles at slab can be obtained easily and quickly. To verify the proposed method, the obtained numerical results for cases of one dimensional two-layer slab under periodic boundary temperature with perfect and imperfect thermal contact are compared with the published results. Comparisons show the proposed technique might be considered as a useful tool in the analysis of parabolic and hyperbolic thermal problems.

  3. Method and device for electromagnetic pumping by conduction of liquid metals having low electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The invention is related to a method for pumping of liquid metals having a low electrical conductivity. To lower the resistance of the conductive spire containing liquid metal to be pumped, a tape formed by a conductive metal such as copper or nickel is inserted in that spire. The tape is interrupted at the level of the air gap of the main magnetic circuit at least when the conductive spire passes through that air gap

  4. Soil permittivity response to bulk electrical conductivity for selected soil water sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulk electrical conductivity can dominate the low frequency dielectric loss spectrum in soils, masking changes in the real permittivity and causing errors in estimated water content. We examined the dependence of measured apparent permittivity (Ka) on bulk electrical conductivity in contrasting soil...

  5. Electrically conducting nanobiocomposites using carbon nanotubes and collagen waste fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiyazhagan, Ashokkumar; Thangavel, Saravanamoorthy; Hashim, Daniel P.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Palanisamy, Thanikaivelan

    2015-01-01

    Electrically conducting hybrid biocomposite films were prepared using a simple and cost-effective method by incorporating different types of carbon nanotubes (XCNTs) viz., few walled carbon nanotube (FWCNT) and boron doped carbon nanotube (BCNT) into biopolymers. Collagen extracted from animal skin wastes was blended with guar gum and XCNTs in varying proportions to form flexible and electrically conducting hybrid films. We found that the electrical conductivity of both types of hybrid films increases radically as the XCNT loading increases. BCNT incorporated hybrid films show better electrical conductivity (3.0 × 10 −1 S/cm) than their FWCNT loaded counter parts (4.8 × 10 −4 S/cm) at a dosage of 2 wt.%. On the other hand, mechanical and other physical properties such as transparency, flexibility and surface smoothness of the developed hybrid films were affected as a function of XCNT concentration. We also demonstrated that the developed hybrid films lit up a LED lamp when inserted between batteries and the brightness of the emitted light depended on the XCNT loading. These results suggest a new way to transform an industrial biowaste into innovative advanced materials for applications in fields related to biomedicine, biosensors and electronics. - Highlights: • Hybrid nanobiocomposite films prepared using collagen, guar gum and CNTs. • Examined the effect of CNT doping on the properties of hybrid biocomposite films. • Higher CNT loading improved the conductivity radically, especially for BCNT. • The ability of developed hybrid films to lit up a LED lamp was demonstrated. • The results suggest a new way to transform biowaste into advanced materials

  6. Electric field dependence of excess electrical conductivity below transition temperature in thin superconducting lead films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwini Kumar, P K; Duggal, V P [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1976-01-26

    Results of measurements of the electric field dependence of the excess electrical conductivity are reported in thin superconducting lead films below the transition temperature. It is observed that the normal state sheet resistance has some effect on the nonlinearity but the theory of Yamaji still fits well to the experimental data.

  7. Hopping transport and electrical conductivity in one-dimensional systems with off-diagonal disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Songshan; Xu Hui; Li Yanfeng; Song Zhaoquan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model to describe hopping transport and electrical conductivity of one-dimensional systems with off-diagonal disorder, in which electrons are transported via hopping between localized states. We find that off-diagonal disorder leads to delocalization and drastically enhances the electrical conductivity of systems. The model also quantitatively explains the temperature and electrical field dependence of the conductivity in one-dimensional systems with off-diagonal disorder. In addition, we also show the dependence of the conductivity on the strength of off-diagonal disorder

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance and electrical conductivity measurements of diffusion and disorder in LiBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, H.; Reininghaus, J.; Richtering, H.

    1980-01-01

    Electrical conductivity and nuclear magnetic relaxation rates were measured with pure and doped LiBr between 400 K and the melting point (824 K). Prevalent intrinsic disorder was observed down to 470 K. The degree of thermal disorder is 5 X 10 -7 at 470 K and 5 X 10 -3 at the melting point. From the relaxation rates of 7 Li, which are caused by Li-diffusion and nuclear dipole interaction, mean jump frequencies of the cations are derived. Conductivities calculated from these frequencies for a jump process via neighbouring cation vacancies are in perfect agreement with directly measured conductivities. From relaxation rates of 81 Br with MgBr 2 -doped crystals jump frequencies of vacancies were obtained which are again in good agreement with those derived from the conductivity data. From motional narrowing of the 81 Br absorption line the jump frequency of the anions is obtained, which is much smaller than for the cations. Since this motional narrowing is not influenced by any doping, it is concluded that anion transport mainly occurs via pairs of cation and anion vacancies. (Auth.)

  9. Predicting permeability and electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks from microgeometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, E.M.; Cook, N.G.W.

    1991-02-01

    The determination of hydrologic parameters that characterize fluid flow through rock masses on a large scale (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, capillary pressure, and relative permeability) is crucial to activities such as the planning and control of enhanced oil recovery operations, and the design of nuclear waste repositories. Hydraulic permeability and electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks are predicted from the microscopic geometry of the pore space. The cross-sectional areas and perimeters of the individual pores are estimated from two-dimensional scanning electron micrographs of rock sections. The hydraulic and electrical conductivities of the individual pores are determined from these geometrical parameters, using Darcy's law and Ohm's law. Account is taken of the fact that the cross-sections are randomly oriented with respect to the channel axes, and for possible variation of cross-sectional area along the length of the pores. The effective medium theory from solid-state physics is then used to determine an effective average conductance of each pore. Finally, the pores are assumed to be arranged on a cubic lattice, which allows the calculation of overall macroscopic values for the permeability and the electrical conductivity. Preliminary results using Berea, Boise, Massilon and Saint-Gilles sandstones show reasonably close agreement between the predicted and measured transport properties. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN2 has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN2 were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen was fully analyzed considering the steady state and the transient state of DC. Consequently, it was possible to determine the electric field distribution characteristics considering different DC applying stages including DC switching on, DC switching off and polarity reversal conditions.

  11. Damage detection and conductivity evolution in carbon nanofiber epoxy via electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, T N; Wang, K W; Gungor, S; Bakis, C E

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing electrically conductive nanocomposites for integrated self-sensing and health monitoring is a promising area of structural health monitoring (SHM) research wherein local changes in conductivity coincide with damage. In this research we conduct proof of concept investigations using electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for damage detection by identifying conductivity changes and by imaging conductivity evolution in a carbon nanofiber (CNF) filled epoxy composite. CNF/epoxy is examined because fibrous composites can be manufactured with a CNF/epoxy matrix thereby enabling the entire matrix to become self-sensing. We also study the mechanisms of conductivity evolution in CNF/epoxy through electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) testing. The results of these tests indicate that thermal expansion is responsible for conductivity evolution in a CNF/epoxy composite. (paper)

  12. Apparatus for simultaneously measuring electrical conductivity and oxygen fugacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netherton, R.; Duba, A.

    1978-01-31

    Electrical conductivity studies of silicates are useful in determining temperature vs depth in the earth. Realistic laboratory measurements of conduction mechanisms require that exact determinations of oxygen fugacity (fo{sub 2}) be made in the experimental environment. An apparatus is described that monitors system fo{sub 2} with a calcia-doped zirconia-oxygen cell while measuring electrical conductivity of iron-bearing silicates at high temperature (greater than 1000 K). The fo{sub 2} calculated thermodynamically from CO/CO{sub 2} mixing ratios agreed well with measurements made with the zirconia cell at 1473 K, except for fo{sub 2} greater than 10{sup -4} Pa, where, on a log{sub 10} scale, mixing-ratio errors were as large as +- 0.2. These errors are attributed to oxygen contamination in the CO{sub 2} and to mobile carbon deposits that formed in the apparatus.

  13. Electrical conductivity measurements in shock compressed liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, D.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.

    1985-06-01

    The electrical conductivity of shock compressed liquid nitrogen was measured in the pressure range 20 to 50 GPa using a two-stage light-gas gun. The conductivities covered a range 4 x 10 -2 to 1 x 10 2 ohm -1 cm -1 . The data are discussed in terms of a liquid semiconductor model below the onset of the dissociative phase transition at 30 GPa. 15 refs., 1 fig

  14. The Thermal Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Cobos, Doug R.; Campbell, Gaylon S.; Campbell, Colin S.; Cardell, Greg; Foote, Marc C.; Wood, Stephen E.; Mehta, Manish

    2009-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) is a component of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) payload on the Phoenix Lander. TECP will measure the temperature, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the regolith. It will also detect and quantify the population of mobile H2O molecules in the regolith, if any, throughout the polar summer, by measuring the electrical conductivity of the regolith, as well as the dielectric permittivity. In the vapor phase, TECP is capable of measuring the atmospheric H2O vapor abundance, as well as augment the wind velocity measurements from the meteorology instrumentation. TECP is mounted near the end of the 2.3 m Robotic Arm, and can be placed either in the regolith material or held aloft in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development and calibration of the TECP. In addition, substantial characterization of the instrument has been conducted to identify behavioral characteristics that might affect landed surface operations. The greatest potential issue identified in characterization tests is the extraordinary sensitivity of the TECP to placement. Small gaps alter the contact between the TECP and regolith, complicating data interpretation. Testing with the Phoenix Robotic Arm identified mitigation techniques that will be implemented during flight. A flight model of the instrument was also field tested in the Antarctic Dry Valleys during the 2007-2008 International Polar year. 2

  15. High-performance electrically conductive silver paste prepared by silver-containing precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianguo; Cao, Yu; Li, Xiangyou; Wang, Xiaoye; Zeng, Xiaoyan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Wuhan (China)

    2010-09-15

    A high-performance electrically conductive silver paste with no solid particles before drying and/or sintering is developed, in which silver-containing precursor is employed as conductive functional phase. Thermogravimetry analysis, volume electrical resistivity tests and sintering experiments show that the paste with about 14 wt.% silver pristine content is able to achieve the volume electrical resistivity of (2-3) x 10{sup -5} {omega} cm after it is sintered at 220 C. A micro-pen direct-writing process indicates that it is very suitable for the fabrication of high-resolution (25 {mu}m) and high-integration devices and apparatus. (orig.)

  16. Thermal stability and electrical conductivity in polyethers-molybdenum disulfide nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabal, N.; Aguirre, P.; Santa Ana, M.A.; Benavente, E.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    The intercalation of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), into molybdenum disulfide, like that of other electron pair donors, leads to mixed ionic-electronic conductors. At room temperature, intercalates show electrical and lithium-ion conductivities better than MoS 2 and bulk PEO composites, respectively. However, these products are known to be sensitive to temperature; indeed, in the range 80-100 deg. C an irreversible decrease of the electrical conductivity is observed. In order to investigate these features, the thermal behavior of a series of polyethers of different molecular weights (poly(ethylene glycol) (Mw 3400) and PEO with Mw in the range 10 4 -4x10 6 , pure and intercalated in MoS 2 , (Li x (MoS 2 )(polyether) y with x∼0.1 and y=1.1-1.5), was comparatively analyzed. Furthermore, the effect of thermal treatment of the sample on the electrical conductivity was studied for one of the intercalated products. Results indicate that irreversible changes, detected by both loss of weight and a significant conductivity lowering, are occurring in the range from about 100 deg. C to a temperature near to the decomposition point of the organic phase at about 350 deg. C

  17. Control of electrical conduction in DNA using hole doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Yeon; Taniguchi, Masateru; Yoo, K. H.; Otsuka, Youichi; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kawai, Tomoji

    2002-03-01

    Control of electrical conduction in DNA using hole doping H.Y.Lee1, M.Taniguchi1, K.H.Yoo2, Y.Otsuka1 H.Tanaka1 and T.Kawai1 1The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research(ISIR), Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. 2Department of Physics, Younsei University, Seoul, Korea Possible applications of DNA molecules in electronic devices and biosensors were suggested almost ten years ago A DNA structure containing a single type of base pair appears to be a good candidate for conduction along the \\x81E-electron clouds of the stacked bases. There have been lots of investigations on conduction mechanisms of the DNA molecules. However, it is not still clear whether the observed conductions of some DNA molecules come from motions of either ionic charges or other carriers. Although the basic mechanism for DNA-mediated charge transport should be understood for electronic applications, there have been divergent reports on its nature. And I will be present the research for the charge carrier conduction of DNA film under oxygen and iodine gas by using 10¡V100 nm gap. The doping studies using oxygen and iodine gas can provide a definite answer for the carrier conduction mechanism and also a possible method to control the carrier concentration in DNA molecules. Using oxygen and iodine adsorption experiments on the poly (dG)-poly (dC) DNA molecules, we will show that their conductance becomes increased easily by several orders of magnitudes due to the hole doping, which is a characteristic behavior of a p-type semiconductor. On the other hand, we will also show that the poly (dA) - poly (dT) DNA molecules behave as an n-type semiconductor. Our works indicate that the concentration and the type of carriers in the DNA molecules could be controlled using proper doping methods. We expect that this would be a major breakthrough in DNA-based nano-electronics, similar to the fact that the doped conductive has polyacetylene opened up a new field of electronics with exciting implications

  18. Study on Exploding Wire Compression for Evaluating Electrical Conductivity in Warm-Dense Diamond-Like-Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Kudo, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aso, Tsukasa; Harada, Nob.; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    To improve a coupling efficiency for the fast ignition scheme of the inertial confinement fusion, fast electron behaviors as a function of an electrical conductivity are required. To evaluate the electrical conductivity for low-Z materials as a diamond-like-carbon (DLC), we have proposed a concept to investigate the properties of warm dense matter (WDM) by using pulsed-power discharges. The concept of the evaluation of DLC for WDM is a shock compression driven by an exploding wire discharge with confined by a rigid capillary. The qualitatively evaluation of the electrical conductivity for the WDM DLC requires a small electrical conductivity of the exploding wire. To analyze the electrical conductivity of exploding wire, we have demonstrated an exploding wire discharge in water for gold. The results indicated that the electrical conductivity of WDM gold for 5000 K of temperature has an insulator regime. It means that the shock compression driven by the exploding wire discharge with confined by the rigid capillary is applied for the evaluation of electrical conductivity for WDM DLC. (paper)

  19. Development of electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Tsujimura, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Inoue, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Abe, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan); Murakami, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of electrical insulation and conduction methods that can be applied for large components have been investigated for future large fusion experimental devices. A thermal spraying method is employed to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been selected as an insulation material, while Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr and WC-NiCr have been chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel base plates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the base plate and electrical resistance. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed sufficient frictional properties. The applicability of the spraying method was examined on a 100mm x 1000mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces in fusion experimental devices. (orig.).

  20. Development of electrical insulation and conduction coating for fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Tsujimura, S.; Toyoda, M.; Inoue, M.; Abe, T.; Murakami, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Development of electrical insulation and conduction methods that can be applied for large components have been investigated for future large fusion experimental devices. A thermal spraying method is employed to coat the insulation or conduction materials on the structural components. Al 2 O 3 has been selected as an insulation material, while Cr 3 C 2 -NiCr and WC-NiCr have been chosen as conduction materials. These materials were coated on stainless steel base plates to examine the basic characteristics of the coated layers, such as their adhesive strength to the base plate and electrical resistance. It was found that they have sufficient electrical insulation and conduction properties, respectively. In addition, the sliding tests of the coated layers showed sufficient frictional properties. The applicability of the spraying method was examined on a 100mm x 1000mm surface and found to be applicable for large surfaces in fusion experimental devices. (orig.)

  1. Soil water sensor response to bulk electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water monitoring using electromagnetic (EM) sensors can facilitate observations of water content at high temporal and spatial resolutions. These sensors measure soil dielectric permittivity (Ka) which is largely a function of volumetric water content. However, bulk electrical conductivity BEC c...

  2. Challenges associated with nerve conduction block using kilohertz electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Yogi A.; Butera, Robert J.

    2018-06-01

    Neuromodulation therapies, which electrically stimulate parts of the nervous system, have traditionally attempted to activate neurons or axons to restore function or alleviate disease symptoms. In stark contrast to this approach is inhibiting neural activity to relieve disease symptoms and/or restore homeostasis. One potential approach is kilohertz electrical stimulation (KES) of peripheral nerves—which enables a rapid, reversible, and localized block of conduction. This review highlights the existing scientific and clinical utility of KES and discusses the technical and physiological challenges that must be addressed for successful translation of KES nerve conduction block therapies.

  3. Application of Electromagnetic Induction to Monitor Changes in Soil Electrical Conductivity Profiles in Arid Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, K.Z.

    2015-09-06

    In this research, multi-configuration electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements were conducted in a corn field to estimate variation in soil electrical conductivity profiles in the roots zone. Electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equation was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer). Joint inversion of multi-configuration EMI measurements were performed to estimate the vertical soil electrical conductivity profiles. The inversion minimizes the misfit between the measured and modeled soil apparent electrical conductivity by DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is based on Bayesain approach. Results indicate that soil electrical conductivity profiles have low values close to the corn plants, which indicates loss of soil moisture due to the root water uptake. These results offer valuable insights into future potential and emerging challenges in the development of joint analysis of multi-configuration EMI measurements to retrieve effective soil electrical conductivity profiles.

  4. High Resolution Global Electrical Conductivity Variations in the Earth's Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbert, A.; Sun, J.; Egbert, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical conductivity of the Earth's mantle is a valuable constraint on the water content and melting processes. In Kelbert et al. (2009), we obtained the first global inverse model of electrical conductivity in the mantle capable of providing constraints on the lateral variations in mantle water content. However, in doing so we had to compromise on the problem complexity by using the historically very primitive ionospheric and magnetospheric source assumptions. In particular, possible model contamination by the auroral current systems had greatly restricted our use of available data. We have now addressed this problem by inverting for the external sources along with the electrical conductivity variations. In this study, we still focus primarily on long period data that are dominated by quasi-zonal source fields. The improved understanding of the ionospheric sources allows us to invert the magnetic fields directly, without a correction for the source and/or the use of transfer functions. It allows us to extend the period range of available data to 1.2 days - 102 days, achieving better sensitivity to the upper mantle and transition zone structures. Finally, once the source effects in the data are accounted for, a much larger subset of observatories may be used in the electrical conductivity inversion. Here, we use full magnetic fields at 207 geomagnetic observatories, which include mid-latitude, equatorial and high latitude data. Observatory hourly means from the years 1958-2010 are employed. The improved quality and spatial distribution of the data set, as well as the high resolution modeling and inversion using degree and order 40 spherical harmonics mapped to a 2x2 degree lateral grid, all contribute to the much improved resolution of our models, representing a conceptual step forward in global electromagnetic sounding. We present a fully three-dimensional, global electrical conductivity model of the Earth's mantle as inferred from ground geomagnetic

  5. Relative contribution of ionospheric conductivity and electric field to the auroral electrojets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, Y.; Vickrey, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Data from continuous scans of the Chatanika radar beam along the magnetic meridian plane are used to the determine the latitudinal profile of height-integrated ionospheric conductivities and horizontal electric fields, from which the latitudinal distribution of ionospheric currents is deduced. The observations cover invariant latitudes between 62 0 and 68 0 , where the IMS Alaska meridian chain of magnetometers was also in operation. Although the conductivities and the electric fields are interrelated, the relative importance of the two in driving the eastward and westward auroral electrojet currents can be assessed. It is found that for moderate and large current densities (i.e., > or approx. =0.2 A/m), the northward electric field strength increases as the magnitude of the eastward electrojet in the evening sector increases. The height-integrated Hall conductivity stays generally at the level of 10 mhos even when the current density becomes as large as 1 A/m. However, when the eastward electrojet is small, substantial electric fields of 10-20 mV/m may still exist as if the magnetosphere has a persistent voltage source. There appear to be two distinct components to the westward electrojet. In the midnight and early morning sestors (>0300 MLT) intensity is characterized by a weak southward electric field and a high Hall conductivity, whereas its late morning portion (>0300 MLT) is dominated by a strong southward electric field

  6. The challenges of a good use of electricity: China, United States, India and the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Laponche, B.

    2011-01-01

    After a discussion of the peculiar characteristics of electricity as energy vector (electricity production, transport and distribution, usages, the issue of load curves and power), this report identifies and discusses criteria corresponding to a 'good use' of electricity. These criteria are related to several issues: greenhouse gas emissions, availability and costs of natural resources, safety, local and global environment, economical and social issues. These issues are addressed through the examination of electricity consumption in China and India, of its evolution in comparison with two other regions (United States and Europe). A third part discusses opportunities and perspectives of a good use of electricity in China and India, in the main socio-economic sectors, and their consequences for the environment, for the preservation of natural resources, and for the Indian and Chinese economy. These aspects are also addressed in comparison with the United States and Europe. Thus, the authors highlight the contrast between the electricity consumption curves for some sectors depending on strategic choices by the Chinese and Indian governments

  7. The electrical conductivity of a weakly non-ideal, dense plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosado, R.J.; Leclair, J.; Schram, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The electrical conductance of a non-ideal plasma was measured and compared with Spitzer's formula for ideal plasmas and a correction to this formula proposed by Rovinskii. The measured conductance proved to agree better with the Spitzer result

  8. Reinforced carbon nanotubes as electrically conducting and flexible films for space applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Nurit; Grossman, Eitan; Gouzman, Irina; Bolker, Asaf; Hanein, Yael

    2014-11-26

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown entangled carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets are characterized by high electrical conductivity and durability to bending and folding. However, since freestanding CNT sheets are mechanically weak, they cannot be used as stand-alone flexible films. In this work, polyimide (PI) infiltration into entangled cup-stacked CNT (CSCNT) sheets was studied to form electrically conducting, robust, and flexible films for space applications. The infiltration process preserved CNTs' advantageous properties (i.e., conductivity and flexibility), prevented CNT agglomeration, and enabled CNT patterning. In particular, the CNT-PI films exhibited ohmic electrical conductance in both the lateral and vertical directions, with a sheet resistivity as low as 122 Ω/□, similar to that of as-grown CNT sheets, with minimal effect of the insulating matrix. Moreover, this high conductivity was preserved under mechanical and thermal manipulations. These properties make the reported CNT-PI films excellent candidates for applications where flexibility, thermal stability, and electrical conductivity are required. Particularly, the developed CNT-PI films were found to be durable in space environment hazards such as high vacuum, thermal cycling, and ionizing radiation, and hence they are suggested as an alternative for the electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection layer in spacecraft thermal blankets.

  9. Electrical conductivity improvement of strontium titanate doped lead vanadate glasses by nanocrystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Desoky, M.M., E-mail: mmdesoky@gmail.co [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, El-Arish (Egypt); Zayed, H.S.S.; Ibrahim, F.A.; Ragab, H.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, El-Arish (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    The structural and electrical conductivity (sigma) of annealed SrTiO{sub 3}-PbO{sub 2}-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses were studied. The annealing of initially glass samples leads to formation of nanocrystalline grains embedded in the glassy matrix. XRD patterns of the glass-ceramic samples show that nanocrystals were embedded in the glassy matrix with an average grain size of 32 nm. The glass-ceramic nanocrystals obtained by annealing at temperatures close to the crystallization temperature T{sub c} exhibit enhancement of electrical conductivity up to four orders of magnitude than initially glasses. The enhancement of the electrical conductivity due to annealing was attributed to two interdependent factors: (i) an increase of concentration of V{sup 4+}-V{sup 5+} pairs; and (ii) formation of defective, well-conducting regions along the glass-crystallites interfaces. From the conductivity temperature relation, it was found that small polaron hopping model was applicable at temperature above theta{sub D}/2 (theta{sub D}, the Debye temperature). The electrical conduction at T >theta{sub D}/2 was due to non-adiabatic small polaron hopping (SPH) of electrons between vanadium ions. The parameters obtained from the fits of the experimental data to this model appear reasonable and are consistent with glass composition.

  10. Electrical conductivity improvement of strontium titanate doped lead vanadate glasses by nanocrystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Desoky, M.M.; Zayed, H.S.S.; Ibrahim, F.A.; Ragab, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The structural and electrical conductivity (σ) of annealed SrTiO 3 -PbO 2 -V 2 O 5 glasses were studied. The annealing of initially glass samples leads to formation of nanocrystalline grains embedded in the glassy matrix. XRD patterns of the glass-ceramic samples show that nanocrystals were embedded in the glassy matrix with an average grain size of 32 nm. The glass-ceramic nanocrystals obtained by annealing at temperatures close to the crystallization temperature T c exhibit enhancement of electrical conductivity up to four orders of magnitude than initially glasses. The enhancement of the electrical conductivity due to annealing was attributed to two interdependent factors: (i) an increase of concentration of V 4+ -V 5+ pairs; and (ii) formation of defective, well-conducting regions along the glass-crystallites interfaces. From the conductivity temperature relation, it was found that small polaron hopping model was applicable at temperature above θ D /2 (θ D , the Debye temperature). The electrical conduction at T >θ D /2 was due to non-adiabatic small polaron hopping (SPH) of electrons between vanadium ions. The parameters obtained from the fits of the experimental data to this model appear reasonable and are consistent with glass composition.

  11. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon [Hanyang University, 408-2, 4th Engineering Bldg, Sa 3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, Gyungnam 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr [Hanyang University, 408-2, 4th Engineering Bldg, Sa 3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} was successfully measured. •Based on the measured value of PPLP, DC field analysis was performed. •The electric field distribution was altered according to the DC applying stages. •The maximum electric field was observed during polarity reversal situation. •DC field analysis is important to determine the optimum design of DC HTS devices. -- Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric

  12. Shear-induced changes of electrical conductivity in suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, John; Meeten, Gerald [Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    The effect of shear on electrical conductivity (rheo-conduction) is studied to give information about particle behaviour in suspensions. Past work is reviewed, and expressions are derived for the rheo-conduction of a suspension of nonconducting spheroids in a conducting matrix for current flow, parallel and normal to the suspension flow direction. A simple apparatus to study rheo-conduction in pipe flow is described, and measurements of steady and time-dependent effects are reported for various suspensions of colloidal particles. Suspensions of anisometric rod- and platelike particles at low concentrations showed rheo-conductive changes of sign, magnitude and relaxation that were consistent with the particle shape, concentration and interactions. The rheo-conductive response decreased with increasing volume fraction for platelike kaolinite particles, attributed to orientational jamming. Spherical latex particles gave unexpected rheo-conductive changes consistent with shear disruption of a conductive network of particles. It is concluded that rheo-conduction measurements are a useful adjunct to conventional rheometry. (orig.)

  13. Infrared transparency and electrical conductivity of non-stoichiometric InxOy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Shay; Berger, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to achieve both high infrared transparency and electrical conductivity, In x O y films having different oxygen atomic fractions, ranging from 0.27 to 0.6 were prepared. From AC electrical measurements it was determined that conductivity of In x O y films, having oxygen atomic fraction near 0.6, is governed by the hopping conduction mechanism via energy states located in the band gap. Conductivity of In x O y films having non-stoichiometric compositions was found to be governed by the free band conduction mechanism. The conduction activation energy was decreased from about 0.47 eV to about 0.02 eV as the deviation of the oxygen atomic fraction from the stoichiometric value of 0.6 was increased. The dielectric function of the films was determined by applying the Drude-Lorentz model to ellipsometric measurements in the infrared and visible wavelengths. In the visible range, the major source for optical transmission loss is interband absorption, which was modeled by the Lorentz model. In the infrared range, optical absorption was measured and attributed to the presence of free charge carriers according to the Drude model. Fitting the model to the optical measurements required a correction factor, which was correlated with the films polarizability. In order to determine the optimal tradeoff between optical transparency in the infrared and electrical conductivity, which were found to be affected mainly by the oxygen concentration in the films, a figure of merit parameter was established. It was found that by introducing non-stoichiometry in the form of oxygen deficiency, the electrical conductivity was improved by as much as two orders of magnitude while the infrared transparency was decreased by no more than 30% with respect to stoichiometric In 2 O 3 films.

  14. Silver nanosheet-coated copper nanowire/epoxy resin nanocomposites with enhanced electrical conductivity and wear resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ningning; Ma, Jingyi; Zhang, Yujuan; Yang, Guangbin; Zhang, Shengmao, E-mail: zsm@henu.edu.cn; Zhang, Pingyu [Henan University, Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials (China)

    2017-03-15

    Silver (Ag) nanosheet-coated Cu nanowires (denoted as Cu@AgNWs) were prepared with a facile transmetalation reaction method. The effect of reaction conditions on the morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs was investigated, and the thermal stability of Cu@AgNWs was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. In the meantime, the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs were used as the nanofillers of epoxy resin (EP), and their effect on the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of the EP-matrix composites was examined. Results indicate that the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs consist of CuNW core and Ag nanosheet shell. The Ag nanosheet shell can well inhibit the oxidation of the CuNW core, thereby providing the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs with good thermal stability even at an elevated temperature of 230 °C. The reaction temperature, Cu/Ag molar ratio, Cu dispersion concentration, and the dropping speed of silver ammonia reagent are suggested to be 40 °C, 5:1, 1% (mass fraction), and poured directly, respectively. Resultant Cu@AgNWs exhibit desired morphology and performance and can effectively increase the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of EP. This could make it feasible for the Cu@AgNW-EP composite to be applied as an electrostatic conductive material.

  15. A Route for Polymer Nanocomposites with Engineered Electrical Conductivity and Percolation Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence T. Drzal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposites with engineered electrical properties can be made by tuning the fabrication method, processing conditions and filler’s geometric and physical properties. This work focuses on investigating the effect of filler’s geometry (aspect ratio and shape, intrinsic electrical conductivity, alignment and dispersion within the polymer, and polymer crystallinity, on the percolation threshold and electrical conductivity of polypropylene based nanocomposites. The conductive reinforcements used are exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets, carbon black, vapor grown carbon fibers and polyacrylonitrile carbon fibers. The composites are made using melt mixing followed by injection molding. A coating method is also employed to improve the nanofiller’s dispersion within the polymer and compression molding is used to alter the nanofiller’s alignment.

  16. Modeling electrical conductivities of nanocomposites with aligned carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, W S; Meguid, S A; Zhu, Z H; Meguid, M J

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an improved three-dimensional (3D) percolation model to investigate the effect of the alignment of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites. In this model, both intrinsic and contact resistances are considered, and a new method of resistor network recognition that employs periodically connective paths is developed. This method leads to a reduction in the size effect of the representative cuboid in our Monte Carlo simulations. With this new technique, we were able to effectively analyze the effects of the CNT alignment upon the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites. Our model predicted that the peak value of the conductivity occurs for partially aligned rather than perfectly aligned CNTs. It has also identified the value of the peak and the corresponding alignment for different volume fractions of CNTs. Our model works well for both multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs) and single-wall CNTs (SWCNTs), and the numerical results show a quantitative agreement with existing experimental observations.

  17. Electrical properties of conducting loads produced from polyaniline deposited in natural fibers and nanoclays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenhoski, Dirlaine; Saade, Wesley; Pinto, Camila P.; Becker, Daniela; Dalmolin, Carla; Pachekoski, Wagner M.

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers are known for their excellent magnetic and electrical properties, but they still are an expensive and limited choice to their use as a conducting load for composite materials. An alternative to optimize the electrical conductivity of polymeric composites is the deposition of a conducting polymer on materials already used as loads, as the deposition on natural fibers or the encapsulation of polymeric chains in the voids of host structures. In this work, bananastem fiber and montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT) were used as host structures for polyaniline synthesis in order to produce conducting loads. Samples were characterized by FT-IR and X-Rays Diffraction in order to confirm the formation of polyanilina / bananastem fibers or polyanilina / nanoclays loads. Influence on the electrical properties of the composites were evaluated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), showing the maintenance of the electric conductivity of polyaniline and its potential use as a load for the formation of conducting composites. (author)

  18. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution. All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity. An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to auroral arcs as a result of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, as discussed by Aikio et al. (2004 In

  19. Safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used by law enforcement officers against criminal suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William P; Hauda, William E; Heck, Joseph J; Graham, Derrel D; Martin, Brian P; Winslow, James E

    2009-04-01

    Conducted electrical weapons such as the Taser are commonly used by law enforcement agencies. The safety of these weapons has been the subject of scrutiny and controversy; previous controlled studies in animals and healthy humans may not accurately reflect the risks of conducted electrical weapons used in actual conditions. We seek to determine the safety and injury profile of conducted electrical weapons used against criminal suspects in a field setting. This prospective, multicenter, observational trial tracked a consecutive case series of all conducted electrical weapon uses against criminal suspects at 6 US law enforcement agencies. Mandatory review of each conducted electrical weapon use incorporated physician review of police and medical records. Injuries were classified as mild, moderate, or severe according to a priori definitions. The primary outcome was a composite of moderate and severe injuries, termed significant injuries. Conducted electrical weapons were used against 1,201 subjects during 36 months. One thousand one hundred twenty-five subjects (94%) were men; the median age was 30 years (range 13 to 80 years). Mild or no injuries were observed after conducted electrical weapon use in 1,198 subjects (99.75%; 95% confidence interval 99.3% to 99.9%). Of mild injuries, 83% were superficial puncture wounds from conducted electrical weapon probes. Significant injuries occurred in 3 subjects (0.25%; 95% confidence interval 0.07% to 0.7%), including 2 intracranial injuries from falls and 1 case of rhabdomyolysis. Two subjects died in police custody; medical examiners did not find conducted electrical weapon use to be causal or contributory in either case. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first large, independent, multicenter study of conducted electrical weapon injury epidemiology and suggest that more than 99% of subjects do not experience significant injuries after conducted electrical weapon use.

  20. Study on a Haptic Sensor Using MCF (Magnetic Compound Fluid) Electric Conductive Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    To provide a new composite material having a high degree of sensitivity regarding both electrical conduction and temperature for the field of robotics or sensing, we have developed magnetic rubber that contains a network-like magnetic cluster. We compared the temperature response of MCF rubber with others rubbers made under various experimental conditions, allowing us to find an optimum condition for making MCF rubber. The temperature response was obtained by an experimental equation. We also compared the electric conductivity of MCF rubber with that of ordinary electric conductive rubber and found that its electric sensitivity was lower at a small deformation, but increased at larger deformations. Therefore, MCF rubber has proven itself effective as a switching sensor when a small deformation is applied.

  1. D.C. electrical conductivity measurements on ADP single crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Impurity added ADP crystals; density; electrical conductivity measurements. 1. Introduction ... determined by the intrinsic defects caused by thermal fluctuations in the ... beaker (corning glass vessel) and allowed to equilibrate at the desired ...

  2. Effect of neutron flux on the frequency dependencies of electrical conductivity of silicon nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseynov, E.; Garibli, A., E-mail: elchin.huse@yahoo.com [National Nuclear Research Center, Department of Nanotechnology and Radiation Material Science, 1073, Inshaatchilar pr. 4, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2016-11-01

    It has been reviewed the frequency dependencies of electrical conductivity of nanoparticles affected by neutron flux at different times and initial state, at various constant temperatures such as 100, 200, 300 and 400 K. Measurements have been carried out at each temperature at the different 97 values of frequency in the 1 Hz - 1 MHz range. From interdependence between real and imaginary parts of electrical conductivity it has been determined the type of conductivity. Moreover, in the work it is given the mechanism of electrical conductivity according to the obtained results. (Author)

  3. Mantle electrical conductivity profile of Niger delta region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mantle electrical conductivity-depth profile of the Niger delta region in Nigeria has been determined using solar quiet day ionospheric current (Sq).The magnetometer data obtained in 2010 from geomagnetic stations installed in Lagos by magnetic dataset (MAGDAS) in 2008 and data from magnetometers installed in ...

  4. Optical transparency and electrical conductivity of nonstoichiometric ultrathin InxOy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Shay; Berger, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of thickness and composition on the electrical conductivity and optical transparency, mainly in the infrared, of ultrathin In x O y films was studied. In x O y films 35-470 A thick with oxygen atomic fractions of ∼0.3 and ∼0.5 were prepared via dc magnetron sputtering. All films were polycrystalline, consisting of only the cubic bixbiyte phase of In 2 O 3 . The average grain size of the films increased from 30 to 95 nm as the film thickness increased. The weak dependence of the electrical conductivity on the frequency and the low activation energies for conduction, a few hundredths of an eV, provided an indication that free band conduction was the primary electrical conduction mechanism in the case of all ultrathin In x O y films. It was found that introducing a high degree of nonstoichiometry in the form of oxygen deficiency did not help improve the electrical conductivity, since not all vacancies contributed two free electrons for conduction and due to impurity scattering. The optical nature of these films, studied mainly by ellipsometry, was found to be dependent on the film's composition and thickness. In the infrared, the dielectric function of all In x O y films was consistent with the Drude model, inferring that the transparency loss in this region was a result of free charge carriers. In the visible however, In x O y films under 170 A, which had an oxygen atomic fraction of ∼0.5, were modeled by extending the Drude model to the shorter wavelengths. Films over 170 A, with the same composition, were modeled using the Cauchy dispersion model, meaning that no absorption was measured. These results indicate that, optically, under specific compositions, ultrathin In x O y films undergo a transition from metalliclike behavior to dielectric behavior with increasing film thickness. Using a figure of merit approach, it was determined that a nonstoichiometric 230 A thick In x O y film, with an oxygen atomic fraction of ∼0.3, had the best combination

  5. Anelastic spherical dynamos with radially variable electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, W.; Jones, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations of the dynamo process operating inside gas giant planets has been performed. We use an anelastic, fully nonlinear, three-dimensional, benchmarked MHD code to evolve the flow, entropy and magnetic field. Our models take into account the varying electrical conductivity, high in the ionised metallic hydrogen region, low in the molecular outer region. Our suite of electrical conductivity profiles ranges from Jupiter-like, where the outer hydrodynamic region is quite thin, to Saturn-like, where there is a thick non-conducting shell. The rapid rotation leads to the formation of two distinct dynamical regimes which are separated by a magnetic tangent cylinder - mTC. Outside the mTC there are strong zonal flows, where Reynolds stress balances turbulent viscosity, but inside the mTC Lorentz force reduces the zonal flow. The dynamic interaction between both regions induces meridional circulation. We find a rich diversity of magnetic field morphologies. There are Jupiter-like steady dipolar fields, and a belt of quadrupolar dominated dynamos spanning the range of models between Jupiter-like and Saturn-like conductivity profiles. This diversity may be linked to the appearance of reversed sign helicity in the metallic regions of our dynamos. With Saturn-like conductivity profiles we find models with dipolar magnetic fields, whose axisymmetric components resemble those of Saturn, and which oscillate on a very long time-scale. However, the non-axisymmetric field components of our models are at least ten times larger than those of Saturn, possibly due to the absence of any stably stratified layer.

  6. Thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlgren, E.O.; Poulsen, F.W.

    1996-01-01

    Thermoelectric power and electrical conductivity of pure and 5, 10 and 20% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite are determined as function of temperature in air and of P-O2 at 1000 degrees C. At high temperatures the thermoelectric power is negative. Both thermoelectric power and conductivity...

  7. Electrical conductivity measurements on gel grown KDP crystals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Impurity added KDP crystals; gel method; electrical conductivity; activation energy. 1. Introduction. Potassium dihydrogen ... phate [(NH4)2SO4] along with double distilled water and ethyl alcohol were used. KDP was added with .... in the vicinity of electrodes or chemical changes in layers close to electrodes (Bunget and ...

  8. Electrical conductivity of uranium-antimony oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golunski, S.E.; Nevell, T.G.; Hucknall, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The relative ionic and electronic contributions to the electrical conductivity of a uranium-antimony oxide catalyst and of USbO 5 have been determined from measurements of a.c. and d.c. conductance. Under inert atmospheres (390 to 775 K) conduction in the catalyst (predominantly USb 3 O 10 together with small proportions of Sb 2 O 4 and USbO 5 ) is associated with both electronic and effectively charged atomic point defects. Only electronic conduction occurs in USbO 5 . Under oxygen (10 to 70 kPa, 493 to 682 K) both materials are n-type semiconductors at higher temperatures, but at lower temperatures semiconducting behaviour varies with the pressure of oxygen. Heating USbO 5 in oxygen induces an ionic contribution to conductivity. Ionic conduction in the catalyst is eliminated by heating in hydrogen or propene at 470 K but is restored by heating in oxygen. It is suggested that both charged oxygen vacancies and interstitial oxide ions are involved in interactions of gaseous components with uranium-antimony oxides. With alkenes, interstitial oxide ions give rise to the products of selective partial oxidation. (author)

  9. Electrical conductivity of uranium-antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golunski, S.E.; Nevell, T.G. (Portsmouth Polytechnic (UK)); Hucknall, D.J. (Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1985-05-01

    The relative ionic and electronic contributions to the electrical conductivity of a uranium-antimony oxide catalyst and of USbO/sub 5/ have been determined from measurements of a.c. and d.c. conductance. Under inert atmospheres (390 to 775 K) conduction in the catalyst (predominantly USb/sub 3/O/sub 10/ together with small proportions of Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and USbO/sub 5/) is associated with both electronic and effectively charged atomic point defects. Only electronic conduction occurs in USbO/sub 5/. Under oxygen (10 to 70 kPa, 493 to 682 K) both materials are n-type semiconductors at higher temperatures, but at lower temperatures semiconducting behaviour varies with the pressure of oxygen. Heating USbO/sub 5/ in oxygen induces an ionic contribution to conductivity. Ionic conduction in the catalyst is eliminated by heating in hydrogen or propene at 470 K but is restored by heating in oxygen. It is suggested that both charged oxygen vacancies and interstitial oxide ions are involved in interactions of gaseous components with uranium-antimony oxides. With alkenes, interstitial oxide ions give rise to the products of selective partial oxidation.

  10. Effect of sodium adsorption ratio and electric conductivity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infiltration measurements using a double-ring infiltrometer were conducted on a sandy-loam soil located in Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed for an undisturbed soil. The effect of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electric conductivity (EC) of the applied water on infiltration rate was examined. The infiltration ...

  11. Evaluation of Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Polymeric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This work being gingered by the big menace being posed on our environment by polymeric waste and it's rechanneling involved the studying of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the polymers PP, PE, PS and nylon66 doped with charcoal and graphite. Five grams of each polymer was mixed with ...

  12. Polypyrrole-chitosan conductive biomaterial synchronizes cardiomyocyte contraction and improves myocardial electrical impulse propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhi; Ni, Nathan C; Wu, Jun; Du, Guo-Qing; He, Sheng; Yau, Terrence M; Weisel, Richard D; Sung, Hsing-Wen; Li, Ren-Ke

    2018-01-01

    Background: The post-myocardial infarction (MI) scar interrupts electrical impulse propagation and delays regional contraction, which contributes to ventricular dysfunction. We investigated the potential of an injectable conductive biomaterial to restore scar tissue conductivity and re-establish synchronous ventricular contraction. Methods: A conductive biomaterial was generated by conjugating conductive polypyrrole (PPY) onto chitosan (CHI) backbones. Trypan blue staining of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (CMs) cultured on biomaterials was used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the conductive biomaterials. Ca 2+ imaging was used to visualize beating CMs. A cryoablation injury rat model was used to investigate the ability of PPY:CHI to improve cardiac electrical propagation in the injured heart in vivo . Electromyography was used to evaluate conductivity of scar tissue ex vivo . Results: Cell survival and morphology were similar between cells cultured on biomaterials-coated and uncoated-control dishes. PPY:CHI established synchronous contraction of two distinct clusters of spontaneously-beating CMs. Intramyocardial PPY:CHI injection into the cryoablation-induced injured region improved electrical impulse propagation across the scarred tissue and decreased the QRS interval, whereas saline- or CHI-injected hearts continued to have delayed propagation patterns and significantly reduced conduction velocity compared to healthy controls. Ex vivo evaluation found that scar tissue from PPY:CHI-treated rat hearts had higher signal amplitude compared to those from saline- or CHI-treated rat heart tissue. Conclusions: The PPY:CHI biomaterial is electrically conductive, biocompatible and injectable. It improved synchronous contraction between physically separated beating CM clusters in vitro . Intra-myocardial injection of PPY:CHI following cardiac injury improved electrical impulse propagation of scar tissue in vivo .

  13. Electrical conductivity of short carbon fibers and carbon black-reinforced chloroprene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshniat, A. R.; MirAli, M.; Hemmati, M.; Afshar Taromi, F.; Katbab, A.

    2002-01-01

    Elastomers and plastics are intrinsically insulating materials, but by addition of some conductive particles such as conductive carbon black, carbon fibers and metals, they can change to conductive form. Conductivity of these composites are due to formation of the lattices of conductive filler particles in polymer chains. In this report, conductivity of chloroprene rubber filled with carbon black and carbon fibers as a function of temperature and pressure are studied. Electrical conductivity of chloroprene in a function of temperature and pressure are studied. Electrical conductivity of chloroprene in the presence of carbon black with proper mixing conditions increases to the conductivity level of semiconductors and even in the presence of carbon fibers it increases to the level of a conductor material. Meanwhile, the sensitivity of this compound to heat and pressure rises. Thus these composites have found various applications in the manufacture of heat and pressure sensitive sensors

  14. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution.

    All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity.

    An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to

  15. Electrical properties and conduction mechanisms of Ru-based thick-film (cermet) resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, G.E.; Seager, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the electrical conduction mechanisms in thick-film (cermet) resistor. The resistors were made from one custom and three commercially formulated inks with sheet resistivities ranging from 10 2 to 10 6 Ω/D 7 Alembertian in decade increments. Their microstructure and composition have been examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, x-ray diffraction, and various chemical analyses. This portion of our study shows that the resistors are heterogeneous mixtures of metallic metal oxide particles (approx.4 x 10 -5 cm in diameter) and a lead silicate glass. The metal oxide particles are ruthenium containing pyrochlores, and are joined to form a continuous three-dimensional network of chain segments. The principal experimental work reported here is an extensive study of the electrical transport properties of the resistors. The temperature dependence of conductance has been measured from 1.2 to 400 K, and two features common to all resistors are found. There is a pronounced decrease in conductance at low temperatures and a shallow maximum at several hundred Kelvin. Within the same range of temperatures the reversible conductance as a function of electric field from 0 to 28 kV/cm has been studied. The resistors are non-Ohmic at all temperatures, but particularly at cryogenic temperatures for low fields. At higher fields the conductance shows a linear variation with electric field. The thick-film resistors are found to have a small dielectric constant and a (nearly) frequency-independent conductance from dc to 50 MHz. The magnetoresistance to 100 kG, the Hall mobility, and the Seebeck coefficient of most of the resistors have been measured and discovered to be quite small. Many of the electrical transport properties have also been determined for the metal oxide particles which were extracted from the fired resistors

  16. Nanoionics phenomenon in proton-conducting oxide: Effect of dispersion of nanosize platinum particles on electrical conduction properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshige Matsumoto et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature proton conductors are oxides in which low-valence cations are doped as electron acceptors; the incorporation of water molecules into the oxides results in the formation of protonic defects that act as charge carriers. Since the protons thus formed are in equilibrium with other electronic defects, electrons and holes, the oxides possibly have different proton-conduction properties at and near boundaries when they are in contact with another phase. In this paper, we present our recent experimental observation of a marked change in the electrical properties of a proton conductor upon the dispersal of fine platinum particles in the oxide. First, the material shows extremely low electrical conductivity in comparison with the original proton-conducting perovskite. Second, there was a threshold amount of platinum at which such a drop in conductivity occurred. A percolation model is employed to explain these experimental results; the fine platinum particles dispersed in the proton-conducting oxide wears highly resistive skin that is formed due to shifts in defect equilibriums, which prevents ionic/electronic conduction. The experiments suggest that the ion-conducting properties of oxides can be varied by introducing interfaces at a certain density; nanoionics is a key to yielding enhanced and/or controlled ionic conduction in solids.

  17. Superposition approach for description of electrical conductivity in sheared MWNT/polycarbonate melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saphiannikova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical description of electrical properties of polymer melts, filled with attractively interacting conductive particles, represents a great challenge. Such filler particles tend to build a network-like structure which is very fragile and can be easily broken in a shear flow with shear rates of about 1 s–1. In this study, measured shear-induced changes in electrical conductivity of polymer composites are described using a superposition approach, in which the filler particles are separated into a highly conductive percolating and low conductive non-percolating phases. The latter is represented by separated well-dispersed filler particles. It is assumed that these phases determine the effective electrical properties of composites through a type of mixing rule involving the phase volume fractions. The conductivity of the percolating phase is described with the help of classical percolation theory, while the conductivity of non-percolating phase is given by the matrix conductivity enhanced by the presence of separate filler particles. The percolation theory is coupled with a kinetic equation for a scalar structural parameter which describes the current state of filler network under particular flow conditions. The superposition approach is applied to transient shear experiments carried out on polycarbonate composites filled with multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  18. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  19. Testing the equation of state and electrical conductivity of copper by the electrical wire explosion in air: Experiment and magnetohydrodynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barysevich, A. E.; Cherkas, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    We perform experiments on testing the equations of state and electrical conductivity of copper in three different regimes of copper wire electrical explosion, when the inserted energy (i) is slightly exceeded, (ii) is approximately equal, and (iii) is substantially exceeded the energy needed for the wire complete evaporation. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation is performed. The results predicted by the two different equations of state are compared with the experiment. Empirical expression for the copper electrical conductivity is presented. Parameters in this expression is fit on every of two equations of state. Map of copper conductivity is plotted.

  20. The variation of electrical conductivity with temperature for Cu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZnS) alloy with temperature has been investigated. The electrical conductivity of the samples increases with temperature and obeys the Arrhenius relation, δ= δ° exp (-Eg/2kT) which is characteristic of semiconductors. The energy gaps ...

  1. Electrically and Thermally Conductive Carbon Fibre Fabric Reinforced Polymer Composites Based on Nanocarbons and an In-situ Polymerizable Cyclic Oligoester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Un; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Lee, Hun Su; Khil, Myung-Seob; Kim, Seong Yun

    2018-05-16

    There is growing interest in carbon fibre fabric reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites based on a thermoplastic matrix, which is easy to rapidly produce, repair or recycle. To expand the applications of thermoplastic CFRP composites, we propose a process for fabricating conductive CFRP composites with improved electrical and thermal conductivities using an in-situ polymerizable and thermoplastic cyclic butylene terephthalate oligomer matrix, which can induce good impregnation of carbon fibres and a high dispersion of nanocarbon fillers. Under optimal processing conditions, the surface resistivity below the order of 10 +10 Ω/sq, which can enable electrostatic powder painting application for automotive outer panels, can be induced with a low nanofiller content of 1 wt%. Furthermore, CFRP composites containing 20 wt% graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were found to exhibit an excellent thermal conductivity of 13.7 W/m·K. Incorporating multi-walled carbon nanotubes into CFRP composites is more advantageous for improving electrical conductivity, whereas incorporating GNPs is more beneficial for enhancing thermal conductivity. It is possible to fabricate the developed thermoplastic CFRP composites within 2 min. The proposed composites have sufficient potential for use in automotive outer panels, engine blocks and other mechanical components that require conductive characteristics.

  2. Analysis of in-situ electrical conductivity data from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Shikama, T.

    1997-01-01

    The current vs. applied voltage data generated from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment have been analyzed to determine the electrical conductivity of the 15 aluminum oxide specimens and the MgO-insulated electrical cables as a function of irradiation dose. With the exception of the 0.05%Cr-doped sapphire (ruby) specimen, the electrical conductivity of the alumina specimens remained at the expected radiation induced conductivity (RIC) level of -6 S/m during full-power reactor irradiation (10-16 kGy/s) at 450-500 degrees C up to a maximum dose of ∼3 dpa. The ruby specimen showed a rapid initial increase in conductivity to ∼2 x 10 -4 S/m after ∼0.1 dpa, followed by a gradual decrease to -6 S/m after 2 dpa. Nonohmic electrical behavior was observed in all of the specimens, and was attributed to preferential attraction of ionized electrons in the capsule gas to the unshielded low-side bare electrical leads emanating from the subcapsules. The electrical conductivity was determined from the slope of the specimen current vs. voltage curve at negative voltages, where the gas ionization effect was minimized. Dielectric breakdown tests performed on unirradiated mineral-insulated coaxial cables identical to those used in the high voltage coaxial cables during the 3-month irradiation is attributable to thermal dielectric breakdown in the glass seals at the end of the cables, as opposed to a radiation-induced electrical degradation (RIED) effect

  3. Electrical conductivity of sandstone, limestone, and granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duba, A.; Piwinskii, A.J.; Santor, M.; Weed, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of cylindrical cores of Westerly granite, Indiana limestone and Nugget, St Peter and Kayenta sandstones was measured at about 25/sup 0/C in vacuo, in air, and after saturation in distilled water, tap water, and 0.1 M NaCl solution. The three-electrode technique with a guard ring and the two-electrode technique without a guard ring were used. Core aspect ratio over the range of 2.00 to 0.25, as well as frequency over the range of 50 Hz to 10 kHz, influences the conductivity of all rocks, especially those measured in vacuo. Measurements from water-saturated samples using a guard ring are not appreciably different from those obtained without a guard ring. The conductivity of rocks saturated in 0.1 M NaCl solution changes least with a change in aspect ratio; for these rocks a linear relationship, known as Archie's Law, exists between log porosity and log conductivity. No simple correlation was found between those factors in rocks saturated with tap or distilled water. Thus, it appears Archie's Law is of questionable value for correlating laboratory data from rocks saturated with low-conductivity fluids.

  4. Electrical conduction in 7 nm wires constructed on λ-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, John; Dong Jianchun; Deng Zhaoxiang; Mao Chengde; Parviz, Babak A

    2006-01-01

    We examine the morphological and electrical characteristics of nanowires fabricated on DNA templates via palladium (Pd) reduction. λ-DNA molecules were stretched and aligned on a mica surface using a molecular combing technique, followed by an electroless deposition of palladium, resulting in formation of nanowires with nominal width of 7 nm. We investigated the size distribution of nanowires with atomic force microscopy and made electrical connections to the wires by metal evaporation through multiple shadow masks. Electrical characterization of the nanowires under various bias conditions, variable temperature, and with different contact metal work functions revealed a conduction mechanism resembling that of granular metals

  5. In situ electrical conductivity measurements of H{sub 2}O under static pressure up to 28 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bao, E-mail: liubao@nedu.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Physics, College of Science, Northeast Dianli University, Jilin 132012 (China); State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Gao, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Han, Yonghao [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma, Yanzhang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Gao, Chunxiao, E-mail: cc060109@qq.com [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-08-26

    Highlights: • We conduct in situ electrical conductivity measurements on water in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) under high pressure up to 28 GPa and study the electrical transport properties of water and ices. • In liquid state, the increasing rate of electrical conductivity with pressure is slower than that obtained in shock-waves measurements. • In solid phase, the relationship between electrical conductivity and pressure is discontinuous, which is corresponding to phase transformation from ice VIII to ice VII. • The difference in electrical conductivity of VI, VII, and VIII may associate with different orientational ordering in these ices. • The electrical conduction in these ices is dominated by already existing ions and Bjerrum defects, which play an important role in electrical transport properties of ices. - Abstract: The in situ electrical conductivity measurements on water in both solid state and liquid state were performed under pressure up to 28 GPa and temperature from 77 K to 300 K using a microcircuit fabricated on a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Water chemically ionization mainly contributes to electrical conduction in liquid state, which is in accord with the results obtained under dynamic pressure. Energy band theory of liquid water was used to understand effect of static pressure on electrical conduction of water. The electric conductivity of H{sub 2}O decreased discontinuously by four orders of magnitude at 0.7–0.96 GPa, indicating water frozen at this P–T condition. Correspondingly, the conduction of H{sub 2}O in solid state is determined by arrangement and bending of H-bond in ice VI and ice VII. Based on Jaccard theory, we have concluded that the charge carriers of ice are already existing ions and Bjerrum defects.

  6. Electric conductivity and bootstrap current in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Jianshan; Wang Maoquan

    1996-12-01

    A modified Ohm's law for the electric conductivity calculation is presented, where the modified ohmic current can be compensated by the bootstrap current. A comparison of TEXT tokamak experiment with the theories shows that the modified Ohm's law is a more close approximation to the tokamak experiments than the classical and neoclassical theories and can not lead to the absurd result of Z eff <1, and the extended neoclassical theory would be not necessary. (3 figs.)

  7. A generative modeling approach to connectivity-Electrical conduction in vascular networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav

    2016-01-01

    The physiology of biological structures is inherently dynamic and emerges from the interaction and assembly of large collections of small entities. The extent of coupled entities complicates modeling and increases computational load. Here, microvascular networks are used to present a novel...... to synchronize vessel tone across the vast distances within a network. We hypothesize that electrical conduction capacity is delimited by the size of vascular structures and connectivity of the network. Generation and simulation of series of dynamical models of electrical spread within vascular networks...... of different size and composition showed that (1) Conduction is enhanced in models harboring long and thin endothelial cells that couple preferentially along the longitudinal axis. (2) Conduction across a branch point depends on endothelial connectivity between branches. (3) Low connectivity sub...

  8. Measurement of temperature, electric conductivity and density of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevova, I.; Nefedov, A.; Oberman, F.; Urinson, A.

    1982-01-01

    Three instruments are briefly described developed by the High Temperatures Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the measurement of plasma temperature, electric conductivity and density. The temperature measuring instrument uses as a standard a light source whose temperature may significantly differ from plasma temperature because three light fluxes are compared, namely the flux emitted by the plasma, the flux emitted directly by the standard source, and the flux emitted by the standard source after passage through the plasma. The results of measurement are computer processed. Electric conductivity is measured using a coil placed in a probe which is automatically extended for a time of maximally 0.3 seconds into the plasma stream. The equipment for measuring plasma density consists of a special single-channel monochromator, a temperature gauge, a plasma pressure gauge, and of a computer for processing the results of measurement. (Ha)

  9. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2015-07-21

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  10. Mechanically stiff, electrically conductive composites of polymers and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kucheyev, Sergei O.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Hamza, Alex V.

    2017-10-17

    Using SWNT-CA as scaffolds to fabricate stiff, highly conductive polymer (PDMS) composites. The SWNT-CA is immersing in a polymer resin to produce a SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin. The SWNT-CA infiltrated with a polymer resin is cured to produce the stiff and electrically conductive composite of carbon nanotube aerogel and polymer.

  11. Analysis of in-situ electrical conductivity data from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shikama, T. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The current vs. applied voltage data generated from the HFIR TRIST-ER1 experiment have been analyzed to determine the electrical conductivity of the 15 aluminum oxide specimens and the MgO-insulated electrical cables as a function of irradiation dose. With the exception of the 0.05%Cr-doped sapphire (ruby) specimen, the electrical conductivity of the alumina specimens remained at the expected radiation induced conductivity (RIC) level of <10{sup -6} S/m during full-power reactor irradiation (10-16 kGy/s) at 450-500{degrees}C up to a maximum dose of {approximately}3 dpa. The ruby specimen showed a rapid initial increase in conductivity to {approximately}2 x 10{sup -4} S/m after {approximately}0.1 dpa, followed by a gradual decrease to <1 x 10{sup -6} S/m after 2 dpa. Nonohmic electrical behavior was observed in all of the specimens, and was attributed to preferential attraction of ionized electrons in the capsule gas to the unshielded low-side bare electrical leads emanating from the subcapsules. The electrical conductivity was determined from the slope of the specimen current vs. voltage curve at negative voltages, where the gas ionization effect was minimized. Dielectric breakdown tests performed on unirradiated mineral-insulated coaxial cables identical to those used in the high voltage coaxial cables during the 3-month irradiation is attributable to thermal dielectric breakdown in the glass seals at the end of the cables, as opposed to a radiation-induced electrical degradation (RIED) effect.

  12. The challenges of achieving good electrical and mechanical properties when making structural supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocanel, C.; Browder, C.; Simpson, C.; Colburn, R.

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents results associated with the electro-mechanical characterization of a composite material with power storage capability, identified throughout the paper as a structural supercapacitor. The structural supercapacitor uses electrodes made of carbon fiber weave, a separator made of Celgard 3501, and a solid PEG-based polymer blend electrolyte. To be a viable structural supercapacitor, the material has to have good mechanical and power storage/electrical properties. The literature in this area is inconsistent on which electrical properties are evaluated, and how those properties are assessed. In general, measurements of capacitance or specific capacitance (i.e. capacitance per unit area or per unit volume) are made, without considering other properties such as leakage resistance and equivalent series resistance of the supercapacitor. This paper highlights the significance of these additional electrical properties, discusses the fluctuation of capacitance over time, and proposes methods to improve the stability of the material's electric properties over time.

  13. Lightweight magnesium nanocomposites: electrical conductivity of liquid magnesium doped by CoPd nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymovych, Andriy; Slabon, Adam; Plevachuk, Yuriy; Sklyarchuk, Vasyl; Sokoliuk, Bohdan

    2018-04-01

    The effect of monodisperse bimetallic CoPd NP admixtures on the electrical conductivity of liquid magnesium was studied. Temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of liquid Mg98(CoPd)2, Mg96(CoPd)4, and Mg92(CoPd)8 alloys was measured in a wide temperature range above the melting point by a four-point method. It was shown that the addition of even small amount of CoPd nanoparticles to liquid Mg has a significant effect on the electrical properties of the melts obtained.

  14. Effect of temperature on electrical conductance of inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle ink during continuous wave laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Geon; Kim, Dong Keun; Moon, Yoon-Jae; Moon, Seung-Jae

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of temperature on the specific electrical conductance of inkjet-printed ink during continuous wave laser sintering, the temperature of the sintered ink was estimated. The ink, which contained 34 wt.% silver nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm, was inkjet-printed onto a liquid crystal display glass substrate. The printed ink was irradiated with a 532 nm continuous wave laser for 60 s with various laser intensities. During laser irradiation, the in-situ electrical conductance of the sintered ink was measured to estimate the transient thermal conductivity of the ink. The electrical conductance and thermal conductivity of the ink was coupled to obtain the transient temperature by applying the Wiedemann–Franz law to a two-dimensional transient heat conduction equation. The electrical conductance of laser-sintered ink was highly dependent on the sintering temperature of the ink. - Highlights: • The in-situ electrical conductance was measured during the laser sintering process. • Wiedemann–Franz law coupled the electrical conductance with transient temperature. • The transient temperature of the laser-sintered Ag nanoparticle ink was estimated

  15. Electrical regulation of Schwann cells using conductive polypyrrole/chitosan polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghui; Hu, Xueyu; Lu, Lei; Ye, Zhengxu; Zhang, Quanyu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2010-04-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) can dramatically enhance neurite outgrowth through conductive polymers and accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration in animal models of nerve injury. Therefore, conductive tissue engineering graft in combination with ES is a potential treatment for neural injuries. Conductive tissue engineering graft can be obtained by seeding Schwann cells on conductive scaffold. However, when ES is applied through the conductive scaffold, the impact of ES on Schwann cells has never been investigated. In this study, a biodegradable conductive composite made of conductive polypyrrole (PPy, 2.5%) and biodegradable chitosan (97.5%) was prepared in order to electrically stimulate Schwann cells. The tolerance of Schwann cells to ES was examined by a cell apoptosis assay. The growth of the cells was characterized using DAPI staining and a MTT assay. mRNA and protein levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in Schwann cells were assayed by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the amount of NGF and BDNF secreted was determined by an ELISA assay. The results showed that the PPy/chitosan membranes supported cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation with or without ES. Interestingly, ES applied through the PPy/chitosan composite dramatically enhanced the expression and secretion of NGF and BDNF when compared with control cells without ES. These findings highlight for the first time the possibility of enhancing nerve regeneration in conductive scaffolds through ES-increased neurotrophin secretion.

  16. Electrically conductive gold nanoparticle-chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels for cardiac tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baei, Payam [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cardiovascular Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Sasan [Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 20, CH-4031 Basel (Switzerland); Department of Bioengineeringand IBB - Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Rajabi-Zeleti, Sareh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad [Cardiovascular Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Hossein, E-mail: Baharvand@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghdami, Nasser, E-mail: Nasser.Aghdami@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    Injectable hydrogels that resemble electromechanical properties of the myocardium are crucial for cardiac tissue engineering prospects. We have developed a facile approach that uses chitosan (CS) to generate a thermosensitive conductive hydrogel with a highly porous network of interconnected pores. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were evenly dispersed throughout the CS matrix in order to provide electrical cues. The gelation response and electrical conductivity of the hydrogel were controlled by different concentrations of GNPs. The CS-GNP hydrogels were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cultivated for up to 14 days in the absence of electrical stimulations. CS-GNP scaffolds supported viability, metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs along with the development of uniform cellular constructs. Immunohistochemistry for early and mature cardiac markers showed enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of MSCs within the CS-GNP compared to the CS matrix alone. The results of this study demonstrate that incorporation of nanoscale electro-conductive GNPs into CS hydrogels enhances the properties of myocardial constructs. These constructs could find utilization for regeneration of other electroactive tissues. - Highlights: • Thermosensitive electro-conductive hydrogels were prepared from CS and GNPs. • Gelation time and conductivity were tuned by varying concentration of GNPs. • CS-2GNP with gelation time of 25.7 min and conductivity of 0.13 S·m{sup −1} was selected for in vitro studies. • CS-2GNP supported active metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs. • Expression of cardiac markers increased about two-fold in CS-2GNP compared to CS.

  17. Electrically conductive gold nanoparticle-chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels for cardiac tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baei, Payam; Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Sasan; Rajabi-Zeleti, Sareh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Baharvand, Hossein; Aghdami, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels that resemble electromechanical properties of the myocardium are crucial for cardiac tissue engineering prospects. We have developed a facile approach that uses chitosan (CS) to generate a thermosensitive conductive hydrogel with a highly porous network of interconnected pores. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were evenly dispersed throughout the CS matrix in order to provide electrical cues. The gelation response and electrical conductivity of the hydrogel were controlled by different concentrations of GNPs. The CS-GNP hydrogels were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cultivated for up to 14 days in the absence of electrical stimulations. CS-GNP scaffolds supported viability, metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs along with the development of uniform cellular constructs. Immunohistochemistry for early and mature cardiac markers showed enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of MSCs within the CS-GNP compared to the CS matrix alone. The results of this study demonstrate that incorporation of nanoscale electro-conductive GNPs into CS hydrogels enhances the properties of myocardial constructs. These constructs could find utilization for regeneration of other electroactive tissues. - Highlights: • Thermosensitive electro-conductive hydrogels were prepared from CS and GNPs. • Gelation time and conductivity were tuned by varying concentration of GNPs. • CS-2GNP with gelation time of 25.7 min and conductivity of 0.13 S·m"−"1 was selected for in vitro studies. • CS-2GNP supported active metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs. • Expression of cardiac markers increased about two-fold in CS-2GNP compared to CS.

  18. New method for solving inductive electric fields in the non-uniformly conducting ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhamäki

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new calculation method for solving inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. The time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field, together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances serves as the input to this method. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition, no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called the Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS. This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfvén wave reflection from a uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  19. New method for solving inductive electric fields in the non-uniformly conducting ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhamäki, H.; Amm, O.; Viljanen, A.

    2006-10-01

    We present a new calculation method for solving inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. The time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field, together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances serves as the input to this method. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition, no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called the Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfvén wave reflection from a uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  20. Carbon nanotube-coated silicone as a flexible and electrically conductive biomedical material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Makoto; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Totsuka, Yasunori; Watari, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Artificial cell scaffolds that support cell adhesion, growth, and organization need to be fabricated for various purposes. Recently, there have been increasing reports of cell patterning using electrical fields. We fabricated scaffolds consisting of silicone sheets coated with single-walled (SW) or multi-walled (MW) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and evaluated their electrical properties and biocompatibility. We also performed cell alignment with dielectrophoresis using CNT-coated sheets as electrodes. Silicone coated with 10 μg/cm 2 SWCNTs exhibited the least sheet resistance (0.8 kΩ/sq); its conductivity was maintained even after 100 stretching cycles. CNT coating also improved cell adhesion and proliferation. When an electric field was applied to the cell suspension introduced on the CNT-coated scaffold, the cells became aligned in a pearl-chain pattern. These results indicate that CNT coating not only provides electro-conductivity but also promotes cell adhesion to the silicone scaffold; cells seeded on the scaffold can be organized using electricity. These findings demonstrate that CNT-coated silicone can be useful as a biocompatible scaffold. - Highlights: ► We fabricated a CNT-coated silicone which has conductivity and biocompatibility. ► The conductivity was maintained after 100 cycles of stretching. ► CNT coatings enabled C2C12 cells adhere to the silicone surface. ► Cells were aligned with dielectrophoresis between CNT-coated silicone surfaces.

  1. Graphite nanoplatelets and carbon nanotubes based polyethylene composites: Electrical conductivity and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haznedar, Galip; Cravanzola, Sara; Zanetti, Marco; Scarano, Domenica; Zecchina, Adriano; Cesano, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) and/or multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/low density polyethylene (LDPE) composites have been obtained either via melt-mixing or solvent assisted methods. Electrical properties of samples obtained through the above mentioned methods are compared and the conductance values as function of filler fraction are discussed. The corresponding percolation thresholds are evaluated. Conductivity maps images are acquired under low-potentials scanning electron microscopy (0.3 KV) and the relationship between the obtained conductivity images and electric properties is highlighted. The synergistic role of CNTs (1D) and GNPs (2D) in improving the conductive properties of the polymer composites has been shown. - Highlights: • Graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) and GNPs/MWCNT LDPE composites. • Low potential SEM conductivity maps. • Conducting paths between 1D and 2D C-structures (synergistic effect) are obtained. • Composites based on hybrid 1D/2D combinations show lower percolation thresholds

  2. Effect of the type of metal on the electrical conductivity and thermal properties of metal complexes: The relation between ionic radius of metal complexes and electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sh. M.; El-Ghamaz, N. A.; Diab, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    Co(II) complexes (1-4) and Ni(II) complexes (5-8) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and thermal analysis data. Thermal decomposition of all complexes was discussed using thermogravimetric analysis. The dielectric properties and alternating current conductivity were investigated in the frequency range 0.1-100 kHz and temperature range 300-660 K. The thermal activation energies of electrical conductivity (ΔE1 and ΔE2) values for complexes were calculated and discussed. The values of ΔE1 and ΔE2 for complexes (1-8) were found to decrease with increasing the frequency. Ac electrical conductivity (σac) values increases with increasing temperatures and the values of σac for Co(II) complexes are greater than Ni(II) complexes. Co(II) complexes showed a higher conductivity than other Ni(II) complexes due to the higher crystallinity as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  3. Effective electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube-polymer composites: a simplified model and its validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung-Hwan; Yin, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    A simplified model is presented to predict the effective electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube(CNT)-polymer composite with different material proportions, which is validated by the experiments of multi-walled CNT/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. CNTs are well dispersed in a PDMS matrix, and the mixture is then cured and cast into thin films for electrical characterization. The CNTs are assumed to be statistically uniformly distributed in the PDMS matrix with the three-dimensional (3D) waviness. As the proportion of CNTs increases to a certain level, namely the percolation threshold, the discrete CNTs start to connect with each other, forming a 3D network which exhibits a significant increase of effective electrical conductivity. The eight-chain model has been used to predict the effective electrical conductivity of the composite, in which the contact resistance between CNTs has been considered through the Simmons’ equation. The eight-chain network features can be significantly changed with the modification to mixing process, CNT length and diameter, and CNT clustering and curling. A Gaussian statistics-based formulation is used to calculate the effective length of a single CNT well dispersed in the matrix. The modeling results of effective electrical conductivity agree with the experiments very well, which are highly dependent on a contact resistance between CNTs and the waviness of the CNTs. The effect of inner-nanotube distance and diameter of CNTs on the effective electrical conductivity of the CNT/PDMS composite is also discussed. (paper)

  4. Multinationality and corporate ethics: codes of conduct in the sporting-goods industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tulder, R.J.M.; Kolk, A.

    2001-01-01

    The international operations of firms have substantial impact on the formulation and implementation of business ethical principles such as codes of conduct. The international sporting goods industry has been a pioneer in setting up codes and thus provides much relevant experience. Different sourcing

  5. Effects of Environmental Factors and Metallic Electrodes on AC Electrical Conduction Through DNA Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, S; Obaid, A; Al-Marzouki, F M

    2017-12-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the best candidate materials for various device applications such as in electrodes for rechargeable batteries, biosensors, molecular electronics, medical- and biomedical-applications etc. Hence, it is worthwhile to examine the mechanism of charge transport in the DNA molecule, however, still a question without a clear answer is DNA a molecular conducting material (wire), semiconductor, or insulator? The answer, after the published data, is still ambiguous without any confirmed and clear scientific answer. DNA is found to be always surrounded with different electric charges, ions, and dipoles. These surrounding charges and electric barrier(s) due to metallic electrodes (as environmental factors (EFs)) play a substantial role when measuring the electrical conductivity through λ-double helix (DNA) molecule suspended between metallic electrodes. We found that strong frequency dependence of AC-complex conductivity comes from the electrical conduction of EFs. This leads to superimposing serious incorrect experimental data to measured ones. At 1 MHz, we carried out a first control experiment on electrical conductivity with and without the presence of DNA molecule. If there are possible electrical conduction due to stray ions and contribution of substrate, we will detected them. This control experiment revealed that there is an important role played by the environmental-charges around DNA molecule and any experiment should consider this role. We have succeeded to measure both electrical conductivity due to EFs (σ ENV ) and electrical conductivity due to DNA molecule (σ DNA ) independently by carrying the measurements at different DNA-lengths and subtracting the data. We carried out measurements as a function of frequency (f) and temperature (T) in the ranges 0.1 Hz molecule from all EFs effects that surround the molecule, but also to present accurate values of σ DNA and the dielectric constant of the molecule ε' DNA as a

  6. Electric conductivity of salt melts containing KCL, KF and K2TaF7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agulyanskij, A.I.; Stangrit, P.T.; Konstantinov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Given are electric conductivity measurement results depending on the temperature and composition of the molten KF-K 2 TaF 7 , KCl-K 2 TaF 7 systems and also melts close in their composition to industrial electrolytes, KCl-KF (in mass ratio of 2:1) with addition of K 2 TaF 7 up to 25 mass%. Presented are electric conductivity molecular isotherms of the KF-K 2 TaF 7 , KCl-K 2 TaF 7 systems at 800 deg C and specific electric conductivity dependence of KCl-KF-K 2 TaF 7 melts on K 2 TaF 7 composition at 800 deg C and 900 deg C. Proceeding from the shape of molecular and specific electric conductivity isotherms a conclusion is made about existence of the following tantalum-containing ions: TaF 7 2- , TaF 6 - and TaF 6 Cl 2- in the investigated melts

  7. What we can learn from measurements of air electric conductivity in 222Rn-rich atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seran, E.; Godefroy, M.; Pili, E.; Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.

    2017-02-01

    Electric conductivity of air is an important characteristic of the electric properties of an atmosphere. Testing instruments to measure electric conductivity ranging from 10-13 to 10-9 S m-1 in natural conditions found in the Earth atmosphere is not an easy task. One possibility is to use stratospheric balloon flights; another (and a simpler one) is to look for terrestrial environments with significant radioactive decay. In this paper we present measurements carried out with different types of conductivity sensors in two 222Rn-rich environments, i.e., in the Roselend underground tunnel (French Alps) and in the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety BACCARA (BAnC de CAllibrage du RAdon) chamber. The concept of the conductivity sensor is based on the classical time relaxation method. New elements in our design include isolation of the sensor sensitive part (electrode) from the external electric field and sensor miniaturization. This greatly extends the application domain of the sensor and permits to measure air electric conductivity when the external electric field is high and varies from few tens of V m-1 to up to few tens of kV m-1. This is suitable to propose the instrument for a planetary mission. Two-fold objectives were attained as the outcome of these tests and their analysis. First was directly related to the performances of the conductivity sensors and the efficiency of the conductivity sensor design to shield the external electric field. Second objective aimed at understanding the decay mechanisms of 222Rn and its progeny in atmosphere and the impact of the enclosed space on the efficiency of gas ionization.

  8. Anisotropic modelling of the electrical conductivity of fractured bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flykt, M.J.; Sihvola, A.H.; Eloranta, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    The electromagnetic characterization of fractured bedrock is of importance when studying the final disposal of nuclear waste. The different types of discontinuities at all scales in rocks can be viewed as an inhomogeneity. In some cases there are reasons to assume the influence of the discontinuities on electrical conductivity is anisotropic in character. The effort has been made to use electromagnetic mixing rules in the definition of an equivalent homogeneous anisotropic conductivity tensor for such fractured rock mass. (author) (16 refs., 6 figs.)

  9. Fluorine follows water: Effect on electrical conductivity of silicate minerals by experimental constraints from phlogopite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Haotian; Yang, Xiaozhi

    2017-11-01

    Fluorine and hydroxyl groups are minor constituents of silicate minerals, and share a lot of similarities concerning their physical and chemical properties. Hydroxyl groups significantly enhance the electrical conductivity of many silicate minerals, and it is expected that fluorine would have a comparable effect. This, however, has never been documented quantitatively. Here we present experimental approaches on this issue, by investigating the electrical conductivity of phlogopite with a wide range of fluorine content (but with broadly similar contents for other major elements). Electrical conductivities of gem-quality single crystal phlogopites, with samples prepared along the same orientation (normal to the (0 0 1) plane), were determined at 1 GPa and 200-650 °C using an end-loaded piston cylinder apparatus and a Solartron-1260 Impedance/Gain Phase Analyzer over the frequency range of 106 to 0.1 Hz. The complex spectra usually show an arc in the high frequency range and a short tail in the low frequency range, which are caused by lattice conduction and electrode effects, respectively. The electrical conductivity increases with increasing fluorine content, and the main charge carriers are fluorine. The activation enthalpies are ∼180 to 200 kJ/mol, nearly independent of fluorine content. The conductivity is linearly proportional to the content of fluorine, with an exponent factor of ∼1. The results demonstrate that conduction by fluorine leads to very high electrical conductivity at high temperatures. The influence of fluorine on electrical conductivity may be compared to that of hydrogen in nominally anhydrous minerals. This, along with the close association of fluorine and hydroxyl groups in silicate minerals and their similar crystal-chemical behaviors, suggests a more general role of fluorine in enhancing the electrical conductivity of many silicate minerals. Fluorine-rich assemblages, e.g., phlogopite and amphibole, could be locally enriched in the upper

  10. Simultaneous determination of nitric acid and uranium concentrations in aqueous solution from measurements of electrical conductivity, density, and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants handle aqueous solutions of nitric acid and uranium in large quantities. Automatic control of process operations requires reliable measurements of these solutes concentration, but this is difficult to directly measure. Physical properties such as solution density and electrical conductivity vary with solute concentration and temperature. Conductivity, density and temperature can be measured accurately with relatively simple and inexpensive devices. These properties can be used to determine solute concentrations will good correlations. This paper provides the appropriate correlations for solutions containing 2 to 6 Molar (M) nitric acid and 0 to 300 g/L uranium metal at temperatures from 25--90 degrees C. The equations are most accurate below 5 M nitric acid, due to a broad maximum in the conductivity curve at 6 M. 12 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  11. From public good to private exploitation : electricity deregulation, privatization and continental integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin Cohen, M.

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the initiative of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on energy taking place through negotiations on the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which coincide with the U.S. drive for integrated continental energy policy. These negotiations will affect the nature of the electricity industry in Canada. It was noted that if the U.S. proposal for energy in GATS succeeds, it would support complete electricity deregulation, privatization of power generation, and full-scale continental pricing. This report includes several chapters. The chapter on electricity deregulation deals with changes in the electricity industry and the U.S. drive for energy. The GATS chapter describes the main features of GATS and what it covers, including general obligations, disciplines and negotiations. The chapter on the electricity industry in Canada describes major features, major electrical utilities, exports and the state of deregulation in Canada's 10 provinces. The chapter on GATS implications for electrical utilities focused on deregulation and market power, the implications for developing nations and general environmental issues. It was cautioned that if a Canadian agreement were to include electricity as a covered industry, it could erode the security of supply, drive prices up and have negative consequences for energy conservation. 137 refs., 8 tabs

  12. Electrical conductivity imaging in the western Pacific subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Hisashi; Baba, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2010-05-01

    Oceanic plate subduction is an important process for the dynamics and evolution of the Earth's interior, as it is regarded as a typical downward flow of the mantle convection that transports materials from the near surface to the deep mantle. Recent seismological study showed evidence suggesting the transportation of a certain amount of water by subduction of old oceanic plate such as the Pacific plate down to 150-200 km depth into the back arc mantle. However it is not well clarified how deep into the mantle the water can be transported. The electromagnetic induction method to image electrical conductivity distribution is a possible tool to answer this question as it is known to be sensitive to the presence of water. Here we show recent result of observational study from the western Pacific subduction zone to examine the electrical conductivity distribution in the upper mantle and in the mantle transition zone (MTZ), which will provide implications how water distributes in the mantle. We take two kinds of approach for imaging the mantle conductivity, (a) semi-global and (b) regional induction approaches. Result may be summarized as follows: (a) Long (5-30 years) time series records from 8 submarine cables and 13 geomagnetic observatories in the north Pacific region were analyzed and long period magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic deep sounding (GDS) responses were estimated in the period range from 1.7 to 35 days. These frequency dependent response functions were inverted to 3-dimensional conductivity distribution in the depth range between 350 and 850 km. Three major features are suggested in the MTZ depth such as, (1) a high conductivity anomaly beneath the Philippine Sea, (2) a high conductivity anomaly beneath the Hawaiian Islands, and (3) a low conductivity anomaly beneath and in the vicinity of northern Japan. (b) A three-year long deployment of ocean bottom electro-magnetometers (OBEM's) was conducted in the Philippine Sea and west Pacific Ocean from 2005

  13. INVESTIGATION OF HEAT CONDUCTION AND SPECIFIC ELECTRIC IMPEDANCE OF POROUS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Golubtsova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article there was investigated the influence of porosity and temperature change on heat condition and electrical resistance of porous iron (PZh4M nickel and steel 14X17H2. There are received the adequate equations of regression, establishing connection between heat conduction and electrical resistance of the investigated materials with their porosity and temperature.

  14. Feasibility of Imaging Tissue Electrical Conductivity by Switching Field Gradients with MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Eric; Liu, Chunlei

    2015-12-01

    Tissue conductivity is a biophysical marker of tissue structure and physiology. Present methods of measuring tissue conductivity are limited. Electrical impedance tomography, and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography rely on passing external current through the object being imaged, which prevents its use in most human imaging. Recently, the RF field used for MR excitation has been used to non-invasively measure tissue conductivity. This technique is promising, but conductivity at higher frequencies is less sensitive to tissue structure. Measuring tissue conductivity non-invasively at low frequencies remains elusive. It has been proposed that eddy currents generated during the rise and decay of gradient pulses could act as a current source to map low-frequency conductivity. This work centers on a gradient echo pulse sequence that uses large gradients prior to excitation to create eddy currents. The electric and magnetic fields during a gradient pulse are simulated by a finite-difference time-domain simulation. The sequence is also tested with a phantom and an animal MRI scanner equipped with gradients of high gradient strengths and slew rate. The simulation demonstrates that eddy currents in materials with conductivity similar to biological tissue decay with a half-life on the order of nanoseconds and any eddy currents generated prior to excitation decay completely before influencing the RF signal. Gradient-induced eddy currents can influence phase accumulation after excitation but the effect is too small to image. The animal scanner images show no measurable phase accumulation. Measuring low-frequency conductivity by gradient-induced eddy currents is presently unfeasible.

  15. Characterization of electrical conductivity of carbon fiber reinforced plastic using surface potential distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikunaga, Kazuya; Terasaki, Nao

    2018-04-01

    A new method of evaluating electrical conductivity in a structural material such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) using surface potential is proposed. After the CFRP was charged by corona discharge, the surface potential distribution was measured by scanning a vibrating linear array sensor along the object surface with a high spatial resolution over a short duration. A correlation between the weave pattern of the CFRP and the surface potential distribution was observed. This result indicates that it is possible to evaluate the electrical conductivity of a material comprising conducting and insulating regions.

  16. Effect of process parameters on microstructure and electrical conductivity during FSW of Al-6101 and Pure Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nidhi; Khan, Zahid A.; Siddiquee, Arshad Noor; Shihab, Suha K.; Atif Wahid, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is predominantly used material as a conducting element in electrical and electronic components due to its high conductivity. Aluminum (Al) being lighter in weight and more conductive on weight basis than that of Cu is able to replace or partially replace Cu to make lighter and cost effective electrical components. Conventional methods of joining Al to Cu, such as, fusion welding process have many shortcomings. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process which overcomes the shortcoming of the fusion welding. FSW parameters affect the mechanical and electrical properties of the joint. This study aims to evaluate the effect of different process parameters such as shoulder diameter, pin offset, welding and rotational speed on the microstructure and electrical conductivity of the dissimilar Al-Cu joint. FSW is performed using cylindrical pin profile, and four process parameters. Each parameter at different levels is varied according to Taguchi’s L18 standard orthogonal array. It is found that the electrical conductivity of the FSWed joints are equal to that of aluminum at all the welded sections. FSW is found to be an effective technique to join Al to Cu without compromising with the electrical properties. However, the electrical conductivity gets influenced by the process parameters in the stir zone. The optimal combination of the FSW parameters for maximum electrical conductivity is determined. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique applied on stir zone suggests that the rotational speed and tool pin offset are the significant parameters to influence the electrical conductivity.

  17. Influence of Electrical Conductivity, Days in Milk and Parity on Milk Production and Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Ionel Neamț

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess milk production and chemical composition during the first 100 days of lactation, under the influence of electrical conductivity, parity and days in milk. Study was conducted at Research and Development Station for Bovine Arad, on 66 Romanian Spotted cows (20 primiparous, 46 multiparous. Significantly higher values (p≤0.017 of electrical conductivity were recorded for primiparous (10.15±0.09 mS/cm compared with multiparous (8.79±0.15 mS/cm. During the first 30 DIM electrical conductivity was higher (9.7±0.12 mS/cm than for 31 to 60 DIM (9.04±0.12 mS/cm; p≤0.001 and for 61 to 100 DIM (8.17±0.11 mS/cm, p≤0.001. Multifactorial regression model applied highlights significant influence of month of calving (p≤0.001 and DIM (p≤0.034 on the electrical conductivity, while parity had no influence (p>0.36. Medium and negative correlations were calculated between electrical conductivity and some chemical components (fat R=-0.15, protein R=-0.13, while to milk production correlation was positive (R=0.12. No significant correlations were obtained according to lactose content (R=-0.013. Dynamics of milk production and chemical composition have been significantly influenced by month of calving (p≤0.001, DIM (p≤0.001 and parity (p≤0.002. This study found no significant influence of milk electrical conductivity on milk production or chemical composition (p>0.59.

  18. State of hydration and electrical conductance of ichthyotic skin

    OpenAIRE

    A B Gupta; Manisha Bhattacharya; B Haldar

    1990-01-01

    Dry skin of twelve subjects suffering from ichthyosis vulgaris and the efficacy of a moisturiser-Cotaryl were quantitatively assessed by measuring the skin surface hydration and high frequency (3.5 MHz) electrical conductance of skin. The state of hydration and conductance of ichthyotic skin were 86.9 + 24.6 and 11.0 + 5.7 micro-mho respectively, being much less-compared to 132. 0 + 5.3 and 72.5 + 54.0 micro-mho ofnormal subjects. The moisturiser increased the state of hydration and also the ...

  19. Heterogeneous in situ polymerization of polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers on cotton textiles: Improved electrical conductivity, electrical switching, and tuning properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Nadeeka D; Wijesena, Ruchira N; Rathnayake, Samantha; de Silva, Rohini M; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2018-04-15

    Electrically conductive cotton fabric was fabricated by in situ one pot oxidative polymerization of aniline. Using a simple heterogeneous polymerization method, polyaniline (PANI) nano fibers with an average fiber diameter of 40-75 nm were grafted in situ onto cotton fabric. The electrical conductivity of the PANI nanofiber grafted fabric was improved 10 fold compared to fabric grafted with PANI nanoclusters having an average cluster size of 145-315 nm. The surface morphology of the cotton fibers was characterized using SEM and AFM. Electrical conductivity of PANI nanofibers on the cotton textile was further improved from 76 kΏ/cm to 1 kΏ/cm by increasing the HCl concentration from 1 M to 3 M in the polymerization medium. PANI grafted cotton fabrics were analyzed using FTIR, and the data showed the presence of polyaniline functional groups on the treated fabric. Further evidence was present for the chemical interaction of PANI with cellulose. Dopant level and morphology dependent electron transition behavior of PANI nanostructures grafted on cotton fabric was further characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of the PANI nano fiber grafted cotton fabric can be tuned by immersing the fabric in pH 2 and pH 6 solutions for multiple cycles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Influence of calcium and lithium on the densification and electrical conductivity of gadolinia-doped ceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfirio, Tatiane Cristina

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the use of calcium and lithium as sintering aid to gadolinia-doped ceria was systematically investigated. The main purpose was to verify the influence of these additives on the densification and electrical conductivity of sintered ceramics. Powder compositions containing up to 1.5 mol% (metal basis) of calcium or lithium were prepared by both solid state reaction and oxalate coprecipitation methods. The main characterization techniques were thermal analyses, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity by impedance spectroscopy. Both additives promoted densification of gadolinia-doped ceria. The densification increases with increasing the additive content. Different effects on microstructure and electrical conductivity result from the method of preparation, e.g., solid state reaction or coprecipitation. Calcium addition greatly enhances the grain growth compared to lithium addition. The electrical conductivity of specimens containing a second additive is lower than that of pure gadolinia-doped ceria. Both additives influence the intergranular conductivity and favor the exudation of gadolinium out of the solid solution. (author)

  1. Electrical conductivity of solutions of copper(II) nitrate crystalohydrate in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul K.; Mamitova, A. D.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan K.

    2016-06-01

    Conductometry is used to investigate the electric conductivity of Cu(NO3)2 ṡ 3H2O solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide in the 0.01-2.82 M range of concentrations and at temperatures of 288-318 K. The limiting molar conductivity of the electrolyte and the mobility of Cu2+ and NO 3 - ions, the effective coefficients of diffusion of copper(II) ions and nitrate ions, and the degree and constant of electrolytic dissociation are calculated for different temperatures from the experimental results. It is established that solutions containing 0.1-0.6 M copper nitrate trihydrate in DMSO having low viscosity and high electrical conductivity can be used in electrochemical deposition.

  2. Electrical conductivity and ion diffusion in porcine meniscus: effects of strain, anisotropy, and tissue region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Kelsey L; McMahan, Jeffrey B; Jackson, Alicia R

    2016-09-06

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain, anisotropy, and tissue region on electrical conductivity and ion diffusivity in meniscus fibrocartilage. A one-dimensional, 4-wire conductivity experiment was employed to measure the electrical conductivity in porcine meniscus tissues from two tissue regions (horn and central), for two tissue orientations (axial and circumferential), and for three levels of compressive strain (0%, 10%, and 20%). Conductivity values were then used to estimate the relative ion diffusivity in meniscus. The water volume fraction of tissue specimens was determined using a buoyancy method. A total of 135 meniscus samples were measured; electrical conductivity values ranged from 2.47mS/cm to 4.84mS/cm, while relative ion diffusivity was in the range of 0.235 to 0.409. Results show that electrical conductivity and ion diffusion are significantly anisotropic (pmeniscus fibrocartilage, which is essential in developing new strategies to treat and/or prevent tissue degeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation on magnetoacoustic signal generation with magnetic induction and its application to electrical conductivity reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qingyu; He Bin

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical study on the magnetoacoustic signal generation with magnetic induction and its applications to electrical conductivity reconstruction is conducted. An object with a concentric cylindrical geometry is located in a static magnetic field and a pulsed magnetic field. Driven by Lorentz force generated by the static magnetic field, the magnetically induced eddy current produces acoustic vibration and the propagated sound wave is received by a transducer around the object to reconstruct the corresponding electrical conductivity distribution of the object. A theory on the magnetoacoustic waveform generation for a circular symmetric model is provided as a forward problem. The explicit formulae and quantitative algorithm for the electrical conductivity reconstruction are then presented as an inverse problem. Computer simulations were conducted to test the proposed theory and assess the performance of the inverse algorithms for a multi-layer cylindrical model. The present simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed theory and suggest the feasibility of reconstructing electrical conductivity distribution based on the proposed theory on the magnetoacoustic signal generation with magnetic induction

  4. Impurity effects on electrical conductivity of doped bilayer graphene in the presence of a bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, E; Rezania, H; Arghavaninia, B; Yarmohammadi, M

    2016-01-01

    We address the electrical conductivity of bilayer graphene as a function of temperature, impurity concentration, and scattering strength in the presence of a finite bias voltage at finite doping, beginning with a description of the tight-binding model using the linear response theory and Green’s function approach. Our results show a linear behavior at high doping for the case of high bias voltage. The effects of electron doping on the electrical conductivity have been studied via changing the electronic chemical potential. We also discuss and analyze how the bias voltage affects the temperature behavior of the electrical conductivity. Finally, we study the behavior of the electrical conductivity as a function of the impurity concentration and scattering strength for different bias voltages and chemical potentials respectively. The electrical conductivity is found to be monotonically decreasing with impurity scattering strength due to the increased scattering among electrons at higher impurity scattering strength. (paper)

  5. Electrical conductivity of quasi-two-dimensional foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazhgur, Pavel; Honorez, Clément; Drenckhan, Wiebke; Langevin, Dominique; Salonen, Anniina

    2015-04-01

    Quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) foams consist of monolayers of bubbles squeezed between two narrowly spaced plates. These simplified foams have served successfully in the past to shed light on numerous issues in foam physics. Here we consider the electrical conductivity of such model foams. We compare experiments to a model which we propose, and which successfully relates the structural and the conductive properties of the foam over the full range of the investigated liquid content. We show in particular that in the case of quasi-2D foams the liquid in the nodes needs to be taken into account even at low liquid content. We think that these results may provide different approaches for the characterization of foam properties and for the in situ characterization of the liquid content of foams in confining geometries, such as microfluidics.

  6. Thermally Stable and Electrically Conductive, Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Silicon Infiltrated Composite Structures for High-Temperature Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qi Ming; Deng, Lei Min; Li, Da Wei; Zhou, Yun Shen; Golgir, Hossein Rabiee; Keramatnejad, Kamran; Fan, Li Sha; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-Francois; Lu, Yong Feng

    2017-10-25

    Traditional ceramic-based, high-temperature electrode materials (e.g., lanthanum chromate) are severely limited due to their conditional electrical conductivity and poor stability under harsh circumstances. Advanced composite structures based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) and high-temperature ceramics are expected to address this grand challenge, in which ceramic serves as a shielding layer protecting the VACNTs from the oxidation and erosive environment, while the VACNTs work as a conductor. However, it is still a great challenge to fabricate VACNT/ceramic composite structures due to the limited diffusion of ceramics inside the VACNT arrays. In this work, we report on the controllable fabrication of infiltrated (and noninfiltrated) VACNT/silicon composite structures via thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [and laser-assisted CVD]. In laser-assisted CVD, low-crystalline silicon (Si) was quickly deposited at the VACNT subsurfaces/surfaces followed by the formation of high-crystalline Si layers, thus resulting in noninfiltrated composite structures. Unlike laser-assisted CVD, thermal CVD activated the precursors inside and outside the VACNTs simultaneously, which realized uniform infiltrated VACNT/Si composite structures. The growth mechanisms for infiltrated and noninfiltrated VACNT/ceramic composites, which we attributed to the different temperature distributions and gas diffusion mechanism in VACNTs, were investigated. More importantly, the as-farbicated composite structures exhibited excellent multifunctional properties, such as excellent antioxidative ability (up to 1100 °C), high thermal stability (up to 1400 °C), good high velocity hot gas erosion resistance, and good electrical conductivity (∼8.95 Sm -1 at 823 K). The work presented here brings a simple, new approach to the fabrication of advanced composite structures for hot electrode applications.

  7. Dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of contaminated fine-grained soils and barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, A.; Fang, H.Y.; Inyang, H.I.

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of contaminated fine-grained soils and tracking of contaminant migration within barriers have been challenging because current methods and/or procedures are labor and time-intensive, and destructive. To demonstrate the effective use of both dielectric constant and electrical conductivity in the characterization of contaminated fine-grained soils, pore fluids were prepared at different ionic strengths, and were used as permeates for kaolinite, bentonite and a local soil. Then, both dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of the soils were measured by means of a capacitor over a wide range of frequencies and moisture content. It was observed that although each soil has its unique dielectric constant and electrical conductivity at a given moisture content, increases in ionic strength cause a decrease in the dielectric constant of the system at very high frequencies (MHZ), whereas the dielectric constant increases at low frequencies (kHz). Electrical conductivity of a soil-water system is independent of frequency. However, it is a function of ionic strength of the pore fluid. It is clearly demonstrated that dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of soils are functions of both moisture content and ionic strength, and can be used to characterize the spatial and temporal levels of contamination. This method/procedure can be used in estimating the level of contamination as well as the direction of contaminant movement in the subsurface without the use of extensive laboratory testing. Based on obtained results, it was concluded that the proposed method/procedure is promising because it is non-destructive and provides a quick means of assessing the spatial distribution of contaminants in fine-grained soils and barriers

  8. Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 8. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2012. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2012 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2012

  9. Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. 2010 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 6. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2010. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2010 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2010

  10. Electrical conductivity and pH of groundwater: important exploratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical conductivity and pH of groundwater: important exploratory tools in groundwater surveys. ... Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... An analysis of the spatial variation of these parameters indicates that the EC and pH values of groundwater allow us to make deductions not only on the changes in the ...

  11. Influence of electrical conductivity on microorganisms and rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt treatments included NaCI amendments to adjust the soil solution electrical conductivities (EC) to 40, 120 and 200 dSm-1. Treated soils were incubated at 28OC. Oil degradation was estimated from the gravimetric determinations of remaining oil. The results showed that amending the ultisol with crude oil stimulated the ...

  12. Evaluation of electrical and thermal conductivity of polymeric wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work being gingered by the big menace being posed on our environment by polymeric waste and it's rechanneling involved the studying of the electrical and thermal conductivities of the polymers PP, PE, PS and nylon66 doped with charcoal and graphite. Five grams of each polymer was mixed with varying ...

  13. Electrical conductivity of activated carbon-metal oxide nanocomposites under compression: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Bogeat, A; Alexandre-Franco, M; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2014-12-07

    From a granular commercial activated carbon (AC) and six metal oxide (Al2O3, Fe2O3, SnO2, TiO2, WO3 and ZnO) precursors, two series of AC-metal oxide nanocomposites were prepared by wet impregnation, oven-drying at 120 °C, and subsequent heat treatment at 200 or 850 °C in an inert atmosphere. Here, the electrical conductivity of the resulting products was studied under moderate compression. The influence of the applied pressure, sample volume, mechanical work, and density of the hybrid materials was thoroughly investigated. The DC electrical conductivity of the compressed samples was measured at room temperature by the four-probe method. Compaction assays suggest that the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are largely determined by the carbon matrix. Both the decrease in volume and the increase in density were relatively small and only significant at pressures lower than 100 kPa for AC and most nanocomposites. In contrast, the bulk electrical conductivity of the hybrid materials was strongly influenced by the intrinsic conductivity, mean crystallite size, content and chemical nature of the supported phases, which ultimately depend on the metal oxide precursor and heat treatment temperature. The supported nanoparticles may be considered to act as electrical switches either hindering or favouring the effective electron transport between the AC cores of neighbouring composite particles in contact under compression. Conductivity values as a rule were lower for the nanocomposites than for the raw AC, all of them falling in the range of semiconductor materials. With the increase in heat treatment temperature, the trend is toward the improvement of conductivity due to the increase in the crystallite size and, in some cases, to the formation of metals in the elemental state and even metal carbides. The patterns of variation of the electrical conductivity with pressure and mechanical work were slightly similar, thus suggesting the predominance of the pressure

  14. The bedrock electrical conductivity structure of Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, David

    2013-08-01

    An airborne geophysical survey of the whole of Northern Ireland has provided over 4.8 M estimates of the bedrock conductivity over the wide range of geological formations present. This study investigates how such data can be used to provide additional knowledge in relation to existing digital geological map information. A by-product of the analysis is a simplification of the spatially aggregated information obtained in such surveys. The methodology used is a GIS-based attribution of the conductivity estimates using a lithological classification of the bedrock formations. A 1:250k geological classification of the data is performed leading to a 56 unit lithological and geostatistical analysis of the conductivity information. The central moments (medians) of the classified data are used to provide a new digital bedrock conductivity map of Northern Ireland with values ranging from 0.32 to 41.36 mS m-1. This baseline map of conductivities displays a strong correspondence with an existing 4 quadrant, chrono-geological description of Northern Ireland. Once defined, the baseline conductivity map allows departures from the norm to be assessed across each specific lithological unit. Bulk electrical conductivity is controlled by a number of petrophysical parameters and it is their variation that is assessed by the procedures employed. The igneous rocks are found to display the largest variability in conductivity values and many of the statistical distributions are multi-modal. A sequence of low-value modes in these data are associated with intrusives within volcanic complexes. These and much older Neoproterzoic rocks appear to represent very low porosity formations that may be the product of rapid cooling during emplacement. By way of contrast, extensive flood basalts (the Antrim lavas) record a well-defined and much higher median value (12.24 mS m-1) although they display complex spatial behaviour in detail. Sedimentary rocks appear to follow the broad behaviours anticipated

  15. Electrical conductivity of zirconia and yttrium-doped zirconia from Indonesian local zircon as prospective material for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apriany, Karima; Permadani, Ita; Rahmawati, Fitria; Syarif, Dani G.; Soepriyanto, Syoni

    2016-01-01

    In this research, zirconium dioxide, ZrO 2 , was synthesized from high-grade zircon sand that was founded from Bangka Island, Sumatra, Indonesia. The zircon sand is a side product of Tin mining plant industry. The synthesis was conducted by caustic fusion method with considering definite stoichiometric mole at every reaction step. Yttrium has been doped into the prepared zirconia by solid state reaction. The prepared materials were then being analyzed by X-ray diffraction equipped with Le Bail refinement to study its crystal structure and cell parameters. Electrical conductivity was studied through impedance measurement at a frequency range of 20 Hz- 5 MHz. Morphological analysis was conducted through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) for elemental analysis. The results show that the prepared yttrium stabilized zirconia, YSZ, was crystallized in the cubic structure with a space group of P42/NMC. The sintered zirconia and yttrium stabilized zirconia at 8 mol% of yttrium ions (8YSZ) show dense surface morphology with a grain size less than 10 pm. Elemental analysis on the sintered zirconia and 8YSZ show that sintering at 1500°C could eliminate the impurities, and the purity became 81.30%. Impedance analysis shows that ZrO 2 provide grain and grain boundary conductivity meanwhile 8YSZ only provide grain mechanism. The yttrium doping enhanced the conductivity up to 1.5 orders. The ionic conductivity of the prepared 8YSZ is categorized as a good material with conductivity reach 7.01 x10 -3 at 700 °C. The ionic conductivities are still lower than commercial 8YSZ at various temperature. It indicates that purity of raw material might significantly contribute to the electrical conductivity. (paper)

  16. The effect of ZnS thin film's electrical conductivity on electromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of electrical conductivity on an electromagnetic wave propagating through ZnS thin film is analyzed using electromagnetic wave equation with relevant boundary condition. The solution of this equation enabled us to obtain a parameter known as the skin depth that relates to the conductivity of the thin film. This was ...

  17. Water-dispersible small monodisperse electrically conducting antimony doped tin oxide nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peters, K.; Zeller, P.; Štefanić, G.; Skoromets, Volodymyr; Němec, Hynek; Kužel, Petr; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2015), 1090-1099 ISSN 0897-4756 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101218 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : conducting nanoparticles * electrical conductivity * charge transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 9.407, year: 2015

  18. Ionic conductivity, structural deformation, and programmable anisotropy of DNA origami in electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Yu; Hemmig, Elisa A; Kong, Jinglin; Yoo, Jejoong; Hernández-Ainsa, Silvia; Keyser, Ulrich F; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2015-02-24

    The DNA origami technique can enable functionalization of inorganic structures for single-molecule electric current recordings. Experiments have shown that several layers of DNA molecules, a DNA origami plate, placed on top of a solid-state nanopore is permeable to ions. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of the ionic conductivity of DNA origami plates by means of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and nanocapillary electric current recordings. Using the MD method, we characterize the ionic conductivity of several origami constructs, revealing the local distribution of ions, the distribution of the electrostatic potential and contribution of different molecular species to the current. The simulations determine the dependence of the ionic conductivity on the applied voltage, the number of DNA layers, the nucleotide content and the lattice type of the plates. We demonstrate that increasing the concentration of Mg(2+) ions makes the origami plates more compact, reducing their conductivity. The conductance of a DNA origami plate on top of a solid-state nanopore is determined by the two competing effects: bending of the DNA origami plate that reduces the current and separation of the DNA origami layers that increases the current. The latter is produced by the electro-osmotic flow and is reversible at the time scale of a hundred nanoseconds. The conductance of a DNA origami object is found to depend on its orientation, reaching maximum when the electric field aligns with the direction of the DNA helices. Our work demonstrates feasibility of programming the electrical properties of a self-assembled nanoscale object using DNA.

  19. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Dependence of radiation electric conductivity on intensity of external electric field in polymeric dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichkar, V P; Tyutnev, A P; Vaisberg, S E [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Fiziko-Khimicheskij Inst., Moscow (USSR)

    1975-10-01

    The radiational conductivity (Gsub(p)) at different electric field potentials (E) for a number of low- and high-density polymers was investigated. In a number of cases temperature variations were introduced. Measurements were carried out also under conditions of a single impulse of high-power radiation dose. A relationship was obtained between Gsub(p) and E.

  1. Ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene) before and after X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaafar, M.

    2001-01-01

    Study on the ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene), before and after X-ray irradiation within the temperature range 300-360 K are reported. The measurements have been performed in a wide range of frequencies (from 0 to 10 5 Hz) and under the effect of different X-ray irradiation doses (from 0 to 15 Gy). Cole-Cole diagrams have been used to show the frequency dependence of the complex impedance at different temperatures. The results exhibit semicircles which are consistent with existing equivalent circuit model. Analysis of the results reveal semiconducting features based mainly on a hopping mechanism. The study shows a pronounced effect of X-ray irradiation on the electrical conductivity at zero frequency σ DC . At the early stage of irradiation, σ DC increased as a result of free radical formation. As the irradiation progressed, it decreased as a result of crosslinking, then it increased again due to irradiation induced degradation, which motivates the generation of mobile free radicals. The study shows that this polymer is one among other polymers which its electrical conductivity is modified by irradiation

  2. Ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene) before and after X-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, M.

    2001-05-01

    Study on the ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene), before and after X-ray irradiation within the temperature range 300-360 K are reported. The measurements have been performed in a wide range of frequencies (from 0 to 10 5 Hz) and under the effect of different X-ray irradiation doses (from 0 to 15 Gy). Cole-Cole diagrams have been used to show the frequency dependence of the complex impedance at different temperatures. The results exhibit semicircles which are consistent with existing equivalent circuit model. Analysis of the results reveal semiconducting features based mainly on a hopping mechanism. The study shows a pronounced effect of X-ray irradiation on the electrical conductivity at zero frequency σDC. At the early stage of irradiation, σDC increased as a result of free radical formation. As the irradiation progressed, it decreased as a result of crosslinking, then it increased again due to irradiation induced degradation, which motivates the generation of mobile free radicals. The study shows that this polymer is one among other polymers which its electrical conductivity is modified by irradiation.

  3. Edge magnetism impact on electrical conductance and thermoelectric properties of graphenelike nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompiewski, Stefan; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2017-10-01

    Edge states in narrow quasi-two-dimensional nanostructures determine, to a large extent, their electric, thermoelectric, and magnetic properties. Nonmagnetic edge states may quite often lead to topological-insulator-type behavior. However, another scenario develops when the zigzag edges are magnetic and the time reversal symmetry is broken. In this work we report on the electronic band structure modifications, electrical conductance, and thermoelectric properties of narrow zigzag nanoribbons with spontaneously magnetized edges. Theoretical studies based on the Kane-Mele-Hubbard tight-binding model show that for silicene, germanene, and stanene both the Seebeck coefficient and the thermoelectric power factor are strongly enhanced for energies close to the charge neutrality point. A perpendicular gate voltage lifts the spin degeneracy of energy bands in the ground state with antiparallel magnetized zigzag edges and makes the electrical conductance significantly spin polarized. Simultaneously the gate voltage worsens the thermoelectric performance. Estimated room-temperature figures of merit for the aforementioned nanoribbons can exceed a value of 3 if phonon thermal conductances are adequately reduced.

  4. Effect of the morphology in the electrical conductivity of poly (phenylene sulfide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunardi, G.J.; Bretas, R.E.S.

    1988-01-01

    Poly (phenylene sulfide), PPS, is a polymer that can become electrically conducally condutive after treated with strong oxidizing agents, such as AsF 5 AlCl 3 and SO 3 . A study of the influence of morphology on the PPS electrical conductivity was carried out, in which specimens (films) made by different processing conditions were employed. Specimens were characterized by Polarized Light Microscopy, Electron Scanning Microscopy and wide angle X-Ray Diffraction. doping of PPS with a solution of AlCl 3 in CH 2 Cl 2 (saturated) reveals that conductivity drops when crystallinity roses. Doping of PPS specimens with a gaseous mixture of AlCl 3 and dry HCl yields a conductivity value independent of the initial crystallinity. (author) [pt

  5. Enhanced electrical conductivity and hardness of silver-nickel composites by silver-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongmok; Sim, Jeonghyun; Baik, Seunghyun; Kim, Wonyoung; Moon, Chuldong; Cho, Wookdong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated electrical conductivity and Vickers hardness of Ag- and Ni-based composites prepared by powder metallurgy involving spark plasma sintering. The starting composition was Ag:Ni = 61:39 vol%, which provided an electrical conductivity of 3.30 × 10"5 S cm"−"1 and a hardness of 1.27 GPa. The addition of bare multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs, 1.45 vol%) increased hardness (1.31 GPa) but decreased electrical conductivity (2.99 × 10"5 S cm"−"1) and carrier mobility (11 cm"2 V"−"1 s"−"1) due to the formation of Ni_3C in the interface between the MWNTs and Ni during spark plasma sintering. The formation of Ni_3C was prevented by coating the surface of the nanotubes with Ag (nAgMWNTs), concomitantly increasing electrical conductivity (3.43 × 10"5 S cm"−"1) and hardness (1.37 GPa) of the sintered specimen (Ag:Ni:nAgMWNTs = 59.55:39:1.45 vol%). The electrical contact switching time (133 357) was also increased by 30%, demonstrating excellent feasibility as electrical contact materials for electric power industries. (paper)

  6. Possible Time-Dependent Effect of Ions and Hydrophilic Surfaces on the Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, Nada; Jerman, Igor; Krasovec, Rok; Bukovec, Peter; Zupancic, Marija

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of mechanical and electrical treatment on the electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions. Solutions were treated mechanically by iteration of two steps: 1:100 dilution and vigorous shaking. These two processes were repeated until extremely dilute solutions were obtained. For electrical treatment the solutions were exposed to strong electrical impulses. Effects of mechanical (as well as electrical) treatment could not be demonstrated using electrical conductivity measurements. However, significantly higher conductivity than those of the freshly prepared chemically analogous solutions was found in all aged solutions except for those samples stored frozen. The results surprisingly resemble a previously observed weak gel-like behavior in water stored in closed flasks. We suggest that ions and contact with hydrophilic glass surfaces could be the determinative conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon. PMID:22605965

  7. Effect of chemical composition on the electrical conductivity of gneiss at high temperatures and pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of gneiss samples with different chemical compositions (WA = Na2O + K2O + CaO  =  7.12, 7.27 and 7.64 % weight percent was measured using a complex impedance spectroscopic technique at 623–1073 K and 1.5 GPa and a frequency range of 10−1 to 106 Hz. Simultaneously, a pressure effect on the electrical conductivity was also determined for the WA = 7.12 % gneiss. The results indicated that the gneiss conductivities markedly increase with total alkali and calcium ion content. The sample conductivity and temperature conform to an Arrhenius relationship within a certain temperature range. The influence of pressure on gneiss conductivity is weaker than temperature, although conductivity still increases with pressure. According to various ranges of activation enthalpy (0.35–0.52 and 0.76–0.87 eV at 1.5 GPa, two main conduction mechanisms are suggested that dominate the electrical conductivity of gneiss: impurity conduction in the lower-temperature region and ionic conduction (charge carriers are K+, Na+ and Ca2+ in the higher-temperature region. The electrical conductivity of gneiss with various chemical compositions cannot be used to interpret the high conductivity anomalies in the Dabie–Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt. However, the conductivity–depth profiles for gneiss may provide an important constraint on the interpretation of field magnetotelluric conductivity results in the regional metamorphic belt.

  8. Electric field variations measured continuously in free air over a conductive thin zone in the tilted Lias-epsilon black shales near Osnabrück, Northwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurk, M.; Bosch, F. P.; Tougiannidis, N.

    2013-04-01

    order to infer the geometrical properties and the origin of the conductivity anomaly in the survey area. The presented study demonstrates the feasibility of electric field measurements in free air to detect and study near surface conductivity anomalies. Variations in Ez correlate well with the conductivity distribution obtained from resistivity methods. Compared to the self-potential technique, continuously free air measurements of the electric field are more rapid and of better lateral resolution combined with the unique ability to analyze vertical components of the electric field which are of particular importance to detect lateral conductivity contrasts. Mapping Ez in free air is a good tool to precisely map lateral changes of the electric field distribution in areas where SP generation fails. MPP offers interesting application in other geophysical techniques e.g. in time domain electromagnetics, DC and IP. With this method we were able to reveal a ca. 150 m broad zone of enhanced electric field strength.

  9. Electrical conductivity of molten SnCl2 at temperature as high as 1314 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten SnCl 2 was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=763 K), from 551 K to temperature as high as 1314 K, that is, 391 above the boiling point of the salt. The specific electrical conductance was found to reach its maximum at 1143 K, after that it decreases with the temperature rising.

  10. Oxygen exchange and diffusion coefficients of strontium-doped lanthanum ferrites by electrical conductivity relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Lankhorst, M.H.R.; Lankhorst, M.H.R.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Electrical conductivity relaxation experiments were performed on thin specimens of La1–xSrxFeO3–delta (x = 0.1, 0.4) at oxygen partial pressures pO2 = 10–5 – 1 bar in the temperature range 923 to 1223 K. The transient response of the electrical conductivity after a sudden change of the ambient

  11. Influence of prehistory of polymer samples on radiation electric conductivity induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksanina, O S; Sichkar' , V P; Vajsberg, S Eh [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Fiziko-Khimicheskij Inst., Moscow (USSR)

    1984-05-01

    Radiation electric conductivity of PS films prepared from solutions in various solvents at various initial concentrations and temperatures and various power of absorbed dose (..gamma..-radiation of /sup 60/Co) has been measured. The results are compared with the change of density of films and existing theoretical concepts of the role of microvoids and free volume in electrical conductivity of a polymer.

  12. Influence of prehistory of polymer samples on radiation electric conductivity induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanina, O.S.; Sichkar', V.P.; Vajsberg, S.Eh.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation electric conductivity of PS films prepared from solutions in various solvents at various initial concentrations and temperatures and various power of absorbed dose (γ-radiation of 60 Co) has been measured. The results are compared with the change of density of films and existing theoretical concepts of the role of microvoids and free volume in electrical conductivity of a polymer

  13. Synthesis and characterization of conductive, biodegradable, elastomeric polyurethanes for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cancan; Yepez, Gerardo; Wei, Zi; Liu, Fuqiang; Bugarin, Alejandro; Hong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Biodegradable conductive polymers are currently of significant interest in tissue repair and regeneration, drug delivery, and bioelectronics. However, biodegradable materials exhibiting both conductive and elastic properties have rarely been reported to date. To that end, an electrically conductive polyurethane (CPU) was synthesized from polycaprolactone diol, hexadiisocyanate, and aniline trimer and subsequently doped with (1S)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (CSA). All CPU films showed good elasticity within a 30% strain range. The electrical conductivity of the CPU films, as enhanced with increasing amounts of CSA, ranged from 2.7 ± 0.9 × 10(-10) to 4.4 ± 0.6 × 10(-7) S/cm in a dry state and 4.2 ± 0.5 × 10(-8) to 7.3 ± 1.5 × 10(-5) S/cm in a wet state. The redox peaks of a CPU1.5 film (molar ratio CSA:aniline trimer = 1.5:1) in the cyclic voltammogram confirmed the desired good electroactivity. The doped CPU film exhibited good electrical stability (87% of initial conductivity after 150 hours charge) as measured in a cell culture medium. The degradation rates of CPU films increased with increasing CSA content in both phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) and lipase/PBS solutions. After 7 days of enzymatic degradation, the conductivity of all CSA-doped CPU films had decreased to that of the undoped CPU film. Mouse 3T3 fibroblasts proliferated and spread on all CPU films. This developed biodegradable CPU with good elasticity, electrical stability, and biocompatibility may find potential applications in tissue engineering, smart drug release, and electronics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2305-2314, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Explaining electric conductivity using the particle-in-a-box model: quantum superposition is the key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanesan, Umaseh; Tsang, Kin; Izmaylov, Artur F.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the textbooks explaining electric conductivity in the context of quantum mechanics provide either incomplete or semi-classical explanations that are not connected with the elementary concepts of quantum mechanics. We illustrate the conduction phenomena using the simplest model system in quantum dynamics, a particle in a box (PIB). To induce the particle dynamics, a linear potential tilting the bottom of the box is introduced, which is equivalent to imposing a constant electric field for a charged particle. Although the PIB model represents a closed system that cannot have a flow of electrons through the system, we consider the oscillatory dynamics of the particle probability density as the analogue of the electric current. Relating the amplitude and other parameters of the particle oscillatory dynamics with the gap between the ground and excited states of the PIB model allows us to demonstrate one of the most basic dependencies of electric conductivity on the valence-conduction band gap of the material.

  15. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, David W.; Tsouris, Constantinos; Feng, James Q.

    1998-01-01

    A method for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway.

  16. Wireless Sensing System Using Open-circuit, Electrically-conductive Spiral-trace Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A wireless sensing system includes a sensor made from an electrical conductor shaped to form an open-circuit, electrically-conductive spiral trace having inductance and capacitance. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the sensor resonates to generate a harmonic response having a frequency, amplitude and bandwidth. A magnetic field response recorder wirelessly transmits the time-varying magnetic field to the sensor and wirelessly detects the sensor's response frequency, amplitude and bandwidth.

  17. Structure, temperature and frequency dependent electrical conductivity of oxidized and reduced electrochemically exfoliated graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoń, Adrian; Włodarczyk, Patryk; Łukowiec, Dariusz

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the influence of reduction by hydrogen in statu nascendi and modification by hydrogen peroxide on the structure and electrical conductivity of electrochemically exfoliated graphite. It was confirmed that the electrochemical exfoliation can be used to produce oxidized nanographite with an average number of 25 graphene layers. The modified electrochemical exfoliated graphite and reduced electrochemical exfoliated graphite were characterized by high thermal stability, what was associated with removing of labile oxygen-containing groups. The presence of oxygen-containing groups was confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Influence of chemical modification by hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide on the electrical conductivity was determined in wide frequency (0.1 Hz-10 kHz) and temperature range (-50 °C-100 °C). Material modified by hydrogen peroxide (0.29 mS/cm at 0 °C) had the lowest electrical conductivity. This can be associated with oxidation of unstable functional groups and was also confirmed by analysis of Raman spectra. The removal of oxygen-containing functional groups by hydrogen in statu nascendi resulted in a 1000-fold increase in the electrical conductivity compared to the electrochemical exfoliated graphite.

  18. Electrical conductivity measurement of excised human metastatic liver tumours before and after thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerich, Dieter; Schutt, David J; Wright, Andrew W; Webster, John G; Mahvi, David M

    2009-05-01

    We measured the ex vivo electrical conductivity of eight human metastatic liver tumours and six normal liver tissue samples from six patients using the four electrode method over the frequency range 10 Hz to 1 MHz. In addition, in a single patient we measured the electrical conductivity before and after the thermal ablation of normal and tumour tissue. The average conductivity of tumour tissue was significantly higher than normal tissue over the entire frequency range (from 4.11 versus 0.75 mS cm(-1) at 10 Hz, to 5.33 versus 2.88 mS cm(-1) at 1 MHz). We found no significant correlation between tumour size and measured electrical conductivity. While before ablation tumour tissue had considerably higher conductivity than normal tissue, the two had similar conductivity throughout the frequency range after ablation. Tumour tissue conductivity changed by +25% and -7% at 10 Hz and 1 MHz after ablation (0.23-0.29 at 10 Hz, and 0.43-0.40 at 1 MHz), while normal tissue conductivity increased by +270% and +10% at 10 Hz and 1 MHz (0.09-0.32 at 10 Hz and 0.37-0.41 at 1 MHz). These data can potentially be used to differentiate tumour from normal tissue diagnostically.

  19. Evaluation of Soft Tissue Sarcoma Tumors Electrical Conductivity Anisotropy Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Numerical Modeling on Electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazikhanlou-sani K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is many ways to assessing the electrical conductivity anisotropy of a tumor. Applying the values of tissue electrical conductivity anisotropy is crucial in numerical modeling of the electric and thermal field distribution in electroporation treatments. This study aims to calculate the tissues electrical conductivity anisotropy in patients with sarcoma tumors using diffusion tensor imaging technique. Materials and Method: A total of 3 subjects were involved in this study. All of patients had clinically apparent sarcoma tumors at the extremities. The T1, T2 and DTI images were performed using a 3-Tesla multi-coil, multi-channel MRI system. The fractional anisotropy (FA maps were performed using the FSL (FMRI software library software regarding the DTI images. The 3D matrix of the FA maps of each area (tumor, normal soft tissue and bone/s was reconstructed and the anisotropy matrix was calculated regarding to the FA values. Result: The mean FA values in direction of main axis in sarcoma tumors were ranged between 0.475–0.690. With assumption of isotropy of the electrical conductivity, the FA value of electrical conductivity at each X, Y and Z coordinate axes would be equal to 0.577. The gathered results showed that there is a mean error band of 20% in electrical conductivity, if the electrical conductivity anisotropy not concluded at the calculations. The comparison of FA values showed that there is a significant statistical difference between the mean FA value of tumor and normal soft tissues (P<0.05. Conclusion: DTI is a feasible technique for the assessment of electrical conductivity anisotropy of tissues. It is crucial to quantify the electrical conductivity anisotropy data of tissues for numerical modeling of electroporation treatments.

  20. A deterministic model for the growth of non-conducting electrical tree structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, S J

    2003-01-01

    Electrical treeing is of interest to the electrical generation, transmission and distribution industries as it is one of the causes of insulation failure in electrical machines, switchgear and transformer bushings. In this paper a deterministic electrical tree growth model is described. The model is based on electrostatics and local electron avalanches to model partial discharge activity within the growing tree structure. Damage to the resin surrounding the tree structure is dependent on the local electrostatic energy dissipation by partial discharges within the tree structure and weighted by the magnitudes of the local electric fields in the resin surrounding the tree structure. The model is successful in simulating the formation of branched structures without the need of a random variable, a requirement of previous stochastic models. Instability in the spatial development of partial discharges within the tree structure takes the role of the stochastic element as used in previous models to produce branched tree structures. The simulated electrical trees conform to the experimentally observed behaviour; tree length versus time and electrical tree growth rate as a function of applied voltage for non-conducting electrical trees. The phase synchronous partial discharge activity and the spatial distribution of emitted light from the tree structure are also in agreement with experimental data for non-conducting trees as grown in a flexible epoxy resin and in polyethylene. The fact that similar tree growth behaviour is found using pure amorphous (epoxy resin) and semicrystalline (polyethylene) materials demonstrate that neither annealed or quenched noise, representing material inhomogeneity, is required for the formation of irregular branched structures (electrical trees). Instead, as shown in this paper, branched growth can occur due to the instability of individual discharges within the tree structure

  1. Relationships between seismic wave-Speed, density, and electrical conductivity beneath Australia from seismology, mineralogy, and laboratory-based conductivity profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, A.; Koch, S.; Shankland, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present maps of the three-dimensional density (ρ), electrical conductivity (σ), and shear-wave speed (VS) structure of the mantle beneath Australia and surrounding ocean in the depth range of 100–800 km. These maps derived from stochastic inversion of seismic surface-wave dispersion data...... shear-wave speeds, low densities, and high conductivities. This trend appears to continue to depths well below 300 km. The slow-fast shear-wave speed distribution found here is also observed in independent seismic tomographic models of the Australian region, whereas the coupled slow-fast shear......-wave speed, low-high density, and high-low electrical conductivity distribution has not been observed previously. Toward the bottom of the upper mantle at 400 km depth marking the olivine ⃗ wadsleyite transformation (the “410–km” seismic discontinuity), the correlation between VS, ρ, and σ weakens...

  2. An experimental evaluation of electrical skin conductivity changes in postmortem interval and its assessment for time of death estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantürk, İsmail; Karabiber, Fethullah; Çelik, Safa; Şahin, M Feyzi; Yağmur, Fatih; Kara, Sadık

    2016-02-01

    In forensic medicine, estimation of the time of death (ToD) is one of the most important and challenging medico-legal problems. Despite the partial accomplishments in ToD estimations to date, the error margin of ToD estimation is still too large. In this study, electrical conductivity changes were experimentally investigated in the postmortem interval in human cases. Electrical conductivity measurements give some promising clues about the postmortem interval. A living human has a natural electrical conductivity; in the postmortem interval, intracellular fluids gradually leak out of cells. These leaked fluids combine with extra-cellular fluids in tissues and since both fluids are electrolytic, intracellular fluids help increase conductivity. Thus, the level of electrical conductivity is expected to increase with increased time after death. In this study, electrical conductivity tests were applied for six hours. The electrical conductivity of the cases exponentially increased during the tested time period, indicating a positive relationship between electrical conductivity and the postmortem interval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrical conductivity of molten CdCl2 at temperatures as high as 1474 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M.

    2016-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten CdCl 2 was measured across a wide temperature range (ΔT=628 K), from 846 K to as high as 1474 K, i.e. 241 above the normal boiling point of the salt. In previous studies, a maximum temperature of 1201 K was reached, this being 273 lower than in the present work. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  4. Micromechanics model for predicting anisotropic electrical conductivity of carbon fiber composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Faisal; Haider, Md. Mushfique; Yasmeen, Farzana

    2016-07-01

    Heterogeneous materials, such as composites consist of clearly distinguishable constituents (or phases) that show different electrical properties. Multifunctional composites have anisotropic electrical properties that can be tailored for a particular application. The effective anisotropic electrical conductivity of composites is strongly affected by many parameters including volume fractions, distributions, and orientations of constituents. Given the electrical properties of the constituents, one important goal of micromechanics of materials consists of predicting electrical response of the heterogeneous material on the basis of the geometries and properties of the individual phases, a task known as homogenization. The benefit of homogenization is that the behavior of a heterogeneous material can be determined without resorting or testing it. Furthermore, continuum micromechanics can predict the full multi-axial properties and responses of inhomogeneous materials, which are anisotropic in nature. Effective electrical conductivity estimation is performed by using classical micromechanics techniques (composite cylinder assemblage method) that investigates the effect of the fiber/matrix electrical properties and their volume fractions on the micro scale composite response. The composite cylinder assemblage method (CCM) is an analytical theory that is based on the assumption that composites are in a state of periodic structure. The CCM was developed to extend capabilities variable fiber shape/array availability with same volume fraction, interphase analysis, etc. The CCM is a continuum-based micromechanics model that provides closed form expressions for upper level length scales such as macro-scale composite responses in terms of the properties, shapes, orientations and constituent distributions at lower length levels such as the micro-scale.

  5. Evaluation of electrical conductivity of the fertiliser solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three fertiliser solutions (20:20:20, 15:5:25 and 12:30:10 NPK) with electrical conductivity (EC) of 1, 1.5 or 2 mS cm-1 on growth and flowering of Cymbidium 'Sleeping Nymph' were investigated over three years. One-year-old tissue-cultured propagules of 'Sleeping Nymph' were planted singly in plastic pots in ...

  6. Electrical conductivity of polyaniline/zeolite composites and synergetic interaction with CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densakulprasert, Nataporn; Wannatong, Ladawan; Chotpattananont, Datchanee; Hiamtup, Piyanoot; Sirivat, Anuvat; Schwank, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    The effects of zeolite content, pore size and ion exchange capacity on electrical conductivity response to carbon monoxide (CO) of polyaniline/zeolite composites were investigated. Zeolite Y, 13X, and synthesized AlMCM41, all having the common cation Cu 2+ , were dry mixed with synthesized maleic acid (MA) doped polyaniline and compressed to form polyaniline (PANI)/zeolite pellet composites. The Y, 13X and AlMCM41 zeolite have the nominal pore sizes of 7, 10, 36 A, and the Cu 2+ exchange capacities of 0.161, 0.087, and 0.044 mol/g, respectively. With an addition of 13X zeolite to pristine polyaniline, the electrical conductivity sensitivity to CO/N 2 gas increases with zeolite content. For the effect of zeolite type, the highest electrical conductivity sensitivity is obtained with the 13X zeolite, followed by the Y zeolite, and the AlMCM41 zeolite, respectively. Poor sensitivity of zeolite AlMCM41 is probably due to its very large pore size and its lowest Cu 2+ exchange capacity. Y zeolite and 13X zeolite have comparable pore sizes but the latter has a greater pore free volume and a more favorable location distribution of the Cu 2+ ions within the pore. The temporal response time increases with the amount of zeolite in the composites but it is inversely related to the amount of ion exchange capacity

  7. Effects of γ-rays on electrical conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol-polypyrrole composite polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hamzah Harun; Elias Saion; Noorhana Yahya; Anuar Kassim; Ekramul Mahmud; Muhammad Yousuf Hussain; Iskandar Shahrim Mustafa; Azian Othman; Norazimah Mohd Yusof; Mohd Ahmad Ali Omer

    2007-01-01

    The composite polymer films of polyvinyl alcohol/polypyrrole/chloral hydrate (PVA-PPy-CH) had been prepared. Effects of γ-rays on the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films had been investigated by using Inductance Resistance meter (LCR) meter at a frequency ranging from 20 Hz to 1 MHz. With the incorporation of choloral hydrate in the polymer sample, the conductivity increased indicates that it is capable to be used as dopant for polymerizing conjugated polymer. The electrical conductivity obtained increased as the dose increased, which is in the order of 10 -5 Scm -1 indicates that γ-ray is capable to enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films. The parameter of s is in the range of 0.31 ≤ S ≤ 0.49 and obeyed simple power law dispersion ω S . The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal the formation of polypyrrole globules in polyvinyl alcohol matrix which increased as the irradiation dose was increased. (Author)

  8. On the flow dependency of the electrical conductivity of blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoetink, AE; Faes, TJC; Visser, KR; Heethaar, RM

    Experiments presented in the literature show that the electrical conductivity of flowing blood depends on flow velocity. The aim of this study is to extend the Maxwell-Fricke theory, developed for a dilute suspension of ellipsoidal particles in an electrolyte, to explain this flow dependency of the

  9. On the electrical conductivity for the mixed-valence model with d-f correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgiel, W.; Matlak, M.

    1984-08-01

    The static electrical conductivity of mixed-valence systems is calculated in the model of Matlak and Nolting [Solid State Commun., 47, 11 (1983); Z. Phys., B55, 103 (1984)]. The method takes into account the atomic properties more exactly than those connected with bands, and hence emphasizes the ionic aspect of the problem in some way; indeed, the calculations overestimate the atomic properties. Some results are presented in a graph. It is found that the electrical conductivity depends strongly on temperature and the electron-hole attraction constant

  10. Sol-gel preparation of Ag-silica nanocomposite with high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Jiang, Yuwei; Xiao, Huisi; Jiang, Bofan; Zhang, Hao; Peng, Mingying; Dong, Guoping; Yu, Xiang; Yang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Sol-gel derived noble-metal-silica nanocomposites are very useful in many applications. Due to relatively low price, higher conductivity, and higher chemical stability of silver (Ag) compared with copper (Cu), Ag-silica has gained much more research interest. However, it remains a significant challenge to realize high loading of Ag content in sol-gel Ag-silica composite with high structural controllability and nanoparticles' dispersity. Different from previous works by using multifunctional silicon alkoxide to anchor metal ions, here we report the synthesis of Ag-silica nanocomposite with high loading of Ag nanoparticles by employing acetonitrile bi-functionally as solvent and metal ions stabilizer. The electrical conductivity of the Ag-silica nanocomposite reached higher than 6800 S/cm. In addition, the Ag-silica nanocomposite could simultaneously possess high electrical conductivity and positive conductivity-temperature coefficient by properly controlling the loading content of Ag. Such behavior is potentially advantageous for high-temperature devices (like phosphoric acid fuel cells) and inhibiting the thermal-induced increase of devices' internal resistance. The strategy proposed here is also compatible with block-copolymer directed self-assembly of mesoporous material, spin-coating of film and electrospinning of nanofiber, making it more charming in various practical applications.

  11. Morphology and Electrical Conductivity of Carbon Nanocoatings Prepared from Pyrolysed Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Molenda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conductive carbon nanocoatings (conductive carbon layers—CCL were formed on α-Al2O3 model support using three different polymer precursors and deposition methods. This was done in an effort to improve electrical conductivity of the material through creating the appropriate morphology of the carbon layers. The best electrical properties were obtained with use of a precursor that consisted of poly-N-vinylformamide modified with pyromellitic acid (PMA. We demonstrate that these properties originate from a specific morphology of this layer that showed nanopores (3-4 nm capable of assuring easy pathways for ion transport in real electrode materials. The proposed, water mediated, method of carbon coating of powdered supports combines coating from solution and solid phase and is easy to scale up process. The optimal polymer carbon precursor composition was used to prepare conductive carbon nanocoatings on LiFePO4 cathode material. Charge-discharge tests clearly show that C/LiFePO4 composites obtained using poly-N-vinylformamide modified with pyromellitic acid exhibit higher rechargeable capacity and longer working time in a battery cell than standard carbon/lithium iron phosphate composites.

  12. The capability of graphene on improving the electrical conductivity and anti-corrosion properties of Polyurethane coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yao; Bohm, Siva; Song, Mo

    2017-12-01

    Graphite and graphene particles were used to reinforce the electrical conductivity and anti-corrosion properties of polyurethane (PU) coatings. The effect of graphite and graphene were compared. Hybrid filler using carbon nanotube was adopted as well and the performance in electrical conductivity was much superior to single filler system. At the same filler loading, the electrical conductivity of hybrid filler system was significantly higher than single filler system (0.77 S/m at 5 wt% while single filler system was not conductive). The conductive mechanism was revealed. In terms of anti-corrosion properties, the coatings with low filler loading had better anti-corrosion properties. The resistance values obtained from EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) and four point probe method were compared and discussed.

  13. Thermal conductivity of unsaturated clay-rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jougnot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The parameters used to describe the electrical conductivity of a porous material can be used to describe also its thermal conductivity. A new relationship is developed to connect the thermal conductivity of an unsaturated porous material to the thermal conductivity of the different phases of the composite, and two electrical parameters called the first and second Archie's exponents. A good agreement is obtained between the new model and thermal conductivity measurements performed using packs of glass beads and core samples of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rocks at different saturations of the water phase. We showed that the three model parameters optimised to fit the new model against experimental data (namely the thermal conductivity of the solid phase and the two Archie's exponents are consistent with independent estimates. We also observed that the anisotropy of the effective thermal conductivity of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rock was mainly due to the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity of the solid phase.

  14. Electrical conductivity and shear viscosity of quark gluon plasma in a quasiparticle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.K.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions (HIC) have reported the formation of a strongly coupled quark gluon plasma (sQGP). To study the properties of this sQGP is the main focus nowadays. Among these the shear viscosity (η) and electrical conductivity (σ el ) could reflect the transport properties of the medium. By studying the shear viscosity or more specifically shear viscosity to entropy density ratio (η/s), one can understand the nature of interactions among the constituents of the produced medium, it gives a measure of the fluidity. Electrical conductivity represents the linear response of the system to an applied external electric field. The basic question one could ask is that whether the matter created at heavy ion collision experiment is an electrical conductor or an insulator. Recent lattice QCD as well as phenomenological studies have shown that these transport quantities show some kind of minimum in its variation with respect to temperature near the temperature corresponding to the transition from hadronic phase to quark-gluon phase

  15. Electric field studies: TLE-induced waveforms and ground conductivity impact on electric field propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Thomas; Garcia, Geraldine; Blanc, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    propagation of the electromagnetic waves generated by lightning has also been studied in the frequency range 1 kHz-1MHz at distances lower than 1000 km from the lightning source. A propagation model has been developed to determine the ground waves which propagate in a homogenous medium using the analytical expression given by Maclean and Wu [1993]. This approach takes into account the electric finite conductivity and the fact that the Earth is spherical, which allow us to deal with over-the-horizon propagation. We installed in 2008 four stations which were more or less aligned - the maximum distance between two stations was about 870 km. Two stations were located close to the Mediterranean Sea and the two others inside the continent, at the centre of France. This station distribution and the observation period (from August to December) allowed statistical and physical studies, such as the influence of the electric conductivity on wave propagation. Comparison of electric field spectra, measured after propagation only over sea and only over ground, showed clearly the effects of ground conductivity on propagation. Comparison between observations and modelling has been used to evaluate the ground conductivity. In the future we will implement the sky-wave inside our model and validate it with the database.

  16. Compressive stress-electrical conductivity characteristics of multiwall carbon nanotube networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodian, P.; Říha, Pavel; Lengálová, A.; Sáha, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2011), s. 3186-3190 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : carbon nanotube network * compression * electrical conductivity * stress sensor Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2011

  17. Electrical conduction at domain walls in multiferroic BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Jan; Martin, Lane; He, Qing; Zhan, Qian; Chu, Ying-Hao; Rother, Axel; Hawkridge, Michael; Maksymovych, Peter; Yu, Pu; Gajek, Martin; Balke, Nina; Kalinin, Sergei; Gemming, Sybille; Wang, Feng; Catalán, Gustau; Scott, James; Spaldin, Nicola; Orenstein, Joseph; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2009-03-01

    We report the observation of room temperature electronic conductivity at ferroelectric domain walls in BiFeO3. The origin and nature of the observed conductivity is probed using a combination of conductive atomic force microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and first-principles density functional computations. We show that a structurally driven change in both the electrostatic potential and local electronic structure (i.e., a decrease in band gap) at the domain wall leads to the observed electrical conductivity. We estimate the conductivity in the wall to be several orders of magnitude higher than for the bulk material. Additionally we demonstrate the potential for device applications of such conducting nanoscale features.

  18. Hysteresis in the relation between moisture uptake and electrical conductivity in neat epoxy

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles; Sulaimani, Anwar Ali; El Yagoubi, Jalal; Mulle, Matthieu; Verdu, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring changes in electrical conductivity is a simple way to assess the water uptake from environmental moisture in polymers. However, the relation between water uptake and changes in conductivity is not fully understood. We monitored changes

  19. Electrical conductivity and modulus formulation in zinc modified bismuth boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankhar, Sunil; Kundu, R. S.; Dult, Meenakshi; Murugavel, S.; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2016-09-01

    The ac conductivity of zinc modified tellurium based quaternary glasses having composition 60 TeO2-10 B2O3-(30 - x) Bi2O3-x ZnO; x = 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 has been investigated in the frequency range 10-1-105 Hz and in temperature range 483-593 K. Frequency and temperature dependent ac conductivity found to obey Jonscher power law modified by Almond-West. DC conductivity, crossover frequency and frequency exponent have been estimated from the fitting of the experimental data of conductivity with Jonscher power law modified by Almond-West. The ac conductivity and its frequency exponent have been analyzed by various theoretical models. In presently studied glasses ac conduction takes place via tunneling of overlapping large polaron tunneling. Activation energy is found to be increased with increase in zinc content and dc conduction takes place via variable range hopping proposed by Mott with some modification suggested by Punia et al. The value of the stretched exponent ( β) obtained by fitting of M^' ' }} reveals the presence of non-Debye type relaxation. Scaling spectra of ac conductivity and electric modulus collapse into a single master curve for all compositions and temperatures, reveals the presence of composition and temperature independent conduction and relaxation process in these glasses. Activation energy of conduction ( W) and electric modulus ( E R ) are nearly equal, indicating that polaron have to overcome the same energy barrier during conduction as well as relaxation processes.

  20. Evaluation of Cow Milk Electrical Conductivity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gavan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of subclinical mastitis diagnosis using an electrical conductivity (EC meter was evaluated in the dairy farm of Agricultural Research and Development Station ( ARDS Simnic Craiova. The results were compared with those obtained by using the California Mastitis Test (CMT and the Somatic Cell Count (SCC.The milk quarter samples ( 1176 from Holstein Friesian cows were analyzed between September and December 2015. The EC evaluation with  the EC meter  ,showed a high proportion of results differing from SCC and CMT results. The CMT still shows to be the most accessible and efficient test in comparison to the EC meter tested.

  1. Electrical and thermal conductivity of low temperature CVD graphene: the effect of disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlassiouk, Ivan; Datskos, Panos; Smirnov, Sergei; Ivanov, Ilia; Hensley, Dale; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Fulvio, Pasquale F; Dai Sheng; Meyer, Harry; Chi Miaofang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of graphene produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) under different conditions with the main emphasis on correlating the thermal and electrical properties with the degree of disorder. Graphene grown by CVD on Cu and Ni catalysts demonstrates the increasing extent of disorder at low deposition temperatures as revealed by the Raman peak ratio, I G /I D . We relate this ratio to the characteristic domain size, L a , and investigate the electrical and thermal conductivity of graphene as a function of L a . The electrical resistivity, ρ, measured on graphene samples transferred onto SiO 2 /Si substrates shows linear correlation with L a -1 . The thermal conductivity, K, measured on the same graphene samples suspended on silicon pillars, on the other hand, appears to have a much weaker dependence on L a , close to K ∼ L a 1/3 . It results in an apparent ρ ∼ K 3 correlation between them. Despite the progressively increasing structural disorder in graphene grown at lower temperatures, it shows remarkably high thermal conductivity (10 2 -10 3 W K -1 m -1 ) and low electrical (10 3 -3 x 10 5 Ω) resistivities suitable for various applications.

  2. Influence of Electric Fields and Conductivity on Pollen Tube Growth assessed via Electrical Lab-on-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Carlos; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Geitmann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Pollen tubes are polarly growing plant cells that are able to rapidly respond to a combination of chemical, mechanical, and electrical cues. This behavioural feature allows them to invade the flower pistil and deliver the sperm cells in highly targeted manner to receptive ovules in order to accomplish fertilization. How signals are perceived and processed in the pollen tube is still poorly understood. Evidence for electrical guidance in particular is vague and highly contradictory. To generate reproducible experimental conditions for the investigation of the effect of electric fields on pollen tube growth we developed an Electrical Lab-on-Chip (ELoC). Pollen from the species Camellia displayed differential sensitivity to electric fields depending on whether the entire cell or only its growing tip was exposed. The response to DC fields was dramatically higher than that to AC fields of the same strength. However, AC fields were found to restore and even promote pollen growth. Surprisingly, the pollen tube response correlated with the conductivity of the growth medium under different AC frequencies—consistent with the notion that the effect of the field on pollen tube growth may be mediated via its effect on the motion of ions. PMID:26804186

  3. Visualization of conduit-matrix conductivity differences in a karst aquifer using time-lapse electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Steven B.; Karaoulis, Marios; Fiebig, Florian; Maxwell, Reed M.; Revil, André; Martin, Jonathan B.; Graham, Wendy D.

    2012-12-01

    In the karstic upper Floridan aquifer, surface water flows into conduits of the groundwater system and may exchange with water in the aquifer matrix. This exchange has been hypothesized to occur based on differences in discharge at the Santa Fe River Sink-Rise system, north central Florida, but has yet to be visualized using any geophysical techniques. Using electrical resistivity tomography, we conducted a time-lapse study at two locations with mapped conduits connecting the Santa Fe River Sink to the Santa Fe River Rise to study changes of electrical conductivity during times of varying discharge over a six-week period. Our results show conductivity differences between matrix, conduit changes in resistivity occurring through time at the locations of mapped karst conduits, and changes in electrical conductivity during rainfall infiltration. These observations provide insight into time scales and matrix conduit conductivity differences, illustrating how surface water flow recharged to conduits may flow in a groundwater system in a karst aquifer.

  4. Methods of Using a Magnetic Field Response Sensor Within Closed, Electrically Conductive Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors are a class of sensors that are powered via oscillating magnetic fields, and when electrically active, respond with their own magnetic fields with attributes dependent upon the magnitude of the physical quantity being measured. A magnetic field response recorder powers and interrogates the magnetic sensors [see Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement- Acquisition System, NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 30, No, 6 (June 2006, page 28)]. Electrically conductive containers have low transmissivity for radio frequency (RF) energy and thus present problems for magnetic field response sensors. It is necessary in some applications to have a magnetic field response sensor s capacitor placed in these containers. Proximity to conductive surfaces alters the inductance and capacitance of the sensors. As the sensor gets closer to a conductive surface, the electric field and magnetic field energy of the sensor is reduced due to eddy currents being induced in the conductive surface. Therefore, the capacitors and inductors cannot be affixed to a conductive surface or embedded in a conductive material. It is necessary to have a fixed separation away from the conductive material. The minimum distance for separation is determined by the desired sensor response signal to noise ratio. Although the inductance is less than what it would be if it were not in proximity to the conductive surface, the inductance is fixed. As long as the inductance is fixed, all variations of the magnetic field response are due to capacitance changes. Numerous variations of inductor mounting can be utilized, such as providing a housing that provides separation from the conductive material as well as protection from impact damage. The sensor can be on the same flexible substrate with a narrow throat portion of the sensor between the inductor and the capacitor, Figure 1. The throat is of sufficient length to allow the capacitor to be appropriately placed within the container and the inductor

  5. External electric field driving the ultra-low thermal conductivity of silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangzhao; Qin, Zhenzhen; Yue, Sheng-Ying; Yan, Qing-Bo; Hu, Ming

    2017-06-01

    The manipulation of thermal transport is in increasing demand as heat transfer plays a critical role in a wide range of practical applications, such as efficient heat dissipation in nanoelectronics and heat conduction hindering in solid-state thermoelectrics. It is well established that the thermal transport in semiconductors and insulators (phonons) can be effectively modulated by structure engineering or materials processing. However, almost all the existing approaches involve altering the original atomic structure of materials, which would be hindered due to either irreversible structure change or limited tunability of thermal conductivity. Motivated by the inherent relationship between phonon behavior and interatomic electrostatic interaction, we comprehensively investigate the effect of external electric field, a widely used gating technique in modern electronics, on the lattice thermal conductivity (κ). Taking two-dimensional silicon (silicene) as a model, we demonstrate that by applying an electric field (E z = 0.5 V Å -1 ) the κ of silicene can be reduced to a record low value of 0.091 W m -1 K -1 , which is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that without an electric field (19.21 W m -1 K -1 ) and is even comparable to that of the best thermal insulation materials. Fundamental insights are gained from observing the electronic structures. With an electric field applied, due to the screened potential resulting from the redistributed charge density, the interactions between silicon atoms are renormalized, leading to phonon renormalization and the modulation of phonon anharmonicity through electron-phonon coupling. Our study paves the way for robustly tuning phonon transport in materials without altering the atomic structure, and would have significant impact on emerging applications, such as thermal management, nanoelectronics and thermoelectrics.

  6. Couette flow of a hydro-magnetic electrically conducting fluid with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical solution of the problem of Couette flow of a hydromagnetic electrically conducting fluid has been obtained where the temperature of the fluid is assumed to vary exponentially. Results obtained for the flow velocity, temperature, skin friction and rate of heat transfer indicate that the temperature is higher when the ...

  7. Year long variability of ground electrical conductivity in the sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ground electrical conductivity was measured continuously on a soil type in Nigeria for one year using the Model R-50 Soil Test Resistivity Meter Equipment. The Wenner arrangement of electrodes, which is one of the probe methods of ground resistivity measurement, was employed for the measurement. About 67% of all ...

  8. Electrical conductivity of Ni–YSZ composites: Variants and redox cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, Mikko; Kaiser, Andreas; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2012-01-01

    -term conductivity changes due to microstructural changes in both the standard and modified cermets with different Ni doping were compared by re-oxidation at 600°C and subsequent thermal excursions up to 1000°C by normalising the conductivity to a constant temperature. Modified cermets show reduced conductivity loss......Short-term changes in the electrical conductivity of different Ni–YSZ composites (cermets) were measured by an in-situ 4-point DC technique. The isothermal reduction was carried out in dry, humidified or wet hydrogen at temperatures from 600 to 850°C. The cermets reduced at 600°C showed a stable...... conductivity of about 1100S/cm, which increased to an enhanced ~2000S/cm upon re-oxidation and subsequent re-reduction cycling at the same temperature. At 850°C, a rapid initial conductivity loss was observed; upon re-reduction after the re-oxidation both the conductivity and its loss rate were largely...

  9. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Silver Ion Conducting Nanocomposite Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shujahadeen B.; Rasheed, Mariwan A.; Abidin, Zul H. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Optical and electrical properties of nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes based on chitosan have been investigated. Incorporation of alumina nanoparticles into the chitosan:silver triflate (AgTf) system broadened the surface plasmon resonance peaks of the silver nanoparticles and shifted the absorption edge to lower photon energy. A clear decrease of the optical bandgap in nanocomposite samples containing alumina nanoparticles was observed. The variation of the direct-current (DC) conductivity and dielectric constant followed the same trend with alumina concentration. The DC conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude, which can be attributed to hindrance of silver ion reduction. Transmission electron microscopy was used to interpret the space-charge and blocking effects of alumina nanoparticles on the DC conductivity and dielectric constant. The ion conduction mechanism was interpreted based on the dependences of the electrical and dielectric parameters. The dependence of the DC conductivity on the dielectric constant is explained empirically. Relaxation processes associated with conductivity and viscoelasticity were distinguished based on the incomplete semicircular arcs in plots of the real and imaginary parts of the electric modulus.

  10. Measurement of DC electrical conductivity of alumina during spallation-neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnum, E.H.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Kennedy, J.C. III; Sommer, W.F.; Dammeyer, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    An irradiation experiment was carried out during the summer of 1992 at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF). In situ measurements of electrical conductivity in alumina, sapphire and mineral-insulated electrical cables were made at 640 degrees C, 590 degrees C and 400 degrees C. Both DC and AC (100 Hz to 1 MHz) measurements were made to fluence of approximately 3 x 10 23 n/m 2 . Optical absorption from 200 nm to 800 nm was measured in pure silica - and OH-doped silica-core optical fibers during the irradiation. A large number of passive samples were included in the irradiation, some at the furnace temperatures and some at ambient temperature. This report describes preliminary analysis of the DC conductivity measurements. The AC measurements are analyzed in the companion report. All samples are being recovered for post-irradiation examination as this report is being written in May, 1993. Final analysis of the conductivity data awaits the results of measured fluence from activation foils and will be published at ICFRM-6

  11. Comparison of electrical conductivity calculation methods for natural waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2012-01-01

    The capability of eleven methods to calculate the electrical conductivity of a wide range of natural waters from their chemical composition was investigated. A brief summary of each method is presented including equations to calculate the conductivities of individual ions, the ions incorporated, and the method's limitations. The ability of each method to reliably predict the conductivity depends on the ions included, effective accounting of ion pairing, and the accuracy of the equation used to estimate the ionic conductivities. The performances of the methods were evaluated by calculating the conductivity of 33 environmentally important electrolyte solutions, 41 U.S. Geological Survey standard reference water samples, and 1593 natural water samples. The natural waters tested include acid mine waters, geothermal waters, seawater, dilute mountain waters, and river water impacted by municipal waste water. The three most recent conductivity methods predict the conductivity of natural waters better than other methods. Two of the recent methods can be used to reliably calculate the conductivity for samples with pH values greater than about 3 and temperatures between 0 and 40°C. One method is applicable to a variety of natural water types with a range of pH from 1 to 10, temperature from 0 to 95°C, and ionic strength up to 1 m.

  12. Enhanced electrical conductivity of poly(methyl methacrylate) filled with graphene and in situ synthesized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Fragouli, Despina

    2018-06-01

    The improvement of the electrical conductivity of polymers by incorporating graphene has been intensively studied in recent years. To further boost the electrical conductivity, blending third-party additives into the polymer/graphene systems has been demonstrated as a viable strategy. Herein, we propose a simple route to increase the electrical conductivity of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene nanoplatelet (GnP) composites, by the in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles directly into the solid film. In particular, PMMA, GnPs and a gold precursor are solution blended to form the composite films. The subsequent heat-induced formation of gold nanoparticles directly in the solid state film, cause the significant decrease of the percolation threshold of GnPs loading, from 3% to 1% by weight in the composite. This is attributed to the preferential formation of the gold nanoparticles onto the GnPs, with synergistic effects beneficial for the improvement of the electrical conductivity. The formation procedure of the gold nanoparticles, and their arrangement into the composite matrix are studied. We demonstrate that following this straightforward process it is possible to form nanocomposites able to conduct efficiently electric current even at low graphene loadings preserving at the same time the mechanical properties of the polymer matrix.

  13. Pyroelectric properties and electrical conductivity in samarium doped BiFeO 3 ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang

    2012-06-01

    Samarium (Sm 3+) doped BiFeO 3 (BFO) ceramics were prepared by a modified solid-state-reaction method which adopted a rapid heating as well as cooling during the sintering process. The pyroelectric coefficient increased from 93 to 137 μC/m 2 K as the Sm 3+ doping level increased from 1 mol% to 8 mol%. Temperature dependence of the pyroelectric coefficient showed an abrupt decrease above 80 °C in all samples, which was associated with the increase of electrical conductivity with temperature. This electrical conduction was attributed to oxygen vacancy existing in the samples. An activation energy of ∼0.7 eV for the conduction process was found to be irrespective of the Sm 3+ doping level. On the other hand, the magnetic Néel temperature (T N) decreased with increasing Sm 3+ doping level. On the basis of our results, the effects of Sm doping level on the pyroelectric and electrical properties of the BFO were revealed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Out-of-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relations verified by the electrical and thermoelectrical AC-conductances in a quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crepieux, Adeline [Aix Marseille Univ., Universite de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, Marseille (France)

    2017-09-15

    The electrical and heat currents flowing through a quantum dot are calculated in the presence of a time-modulated gate voltage with the help of the out-of-equilibrium Green function technique. From the first harmonics of the currents, we extract the electrical and thermoelectrical trans-admittances and ac-conductances. Next, by a careful comparison of the ac-conductances with the finite-frequency electrical and mixed electrical-heat noises, we establish the fluctuation-dissipation relations linking these quantities, which are thus generalized out-of-equilibrium for a quantum system. It is shown that the electrical ac-conductance associated to the displacement current is directly linked to the electrical noise summed over reservoirs, whereas the relation between the thermoelectrical ac-conductance and the mixed noise contains an additional term proportional to the energy step that the electrons must overcome when traveling through the junction. A numerical study reveals however that a fluctuation-dissipation relation involving a single reservoir applies for both electrical and thermoelectrical ac-conductances when the frequency dominates over the other characteristic energies. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Concept for a MEMS-type vacuum sensor based on electrical conductivity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Giebel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the micro-structured vacuum sensor presented in this article is the measurement of the electrical conductivity of thinned gases in order to develop a small, economical and quite a simple type of vacuum sensor. There are already some approaches for small vacuum sensors. Most of them are based on conservative measurement principles similar to those used in macroscopic vacuum gauges. Ionization gauges use additional sources of energy, like hot cathodes, ultraviolet radiation or high voltage for example, for ionizing gas molecules and thereby increasing the number of charge carriers for measuring low pressures. In contrast, the concept discussed here cannot be found in macroscopic sensor systems because it depends on the microscopic dimension of a gas volume defined by two electrodes. Here we present the concept and the production of a micro-structured vacuum sensor chip, followed by the electrical characterization. Reference measurements with electrodes at a distance of about 1 mm showed currents in the size of picoampere and a conductivity depending on ambient pressure. In comparison with these preliminary measurements, fundamental differences regarding pressure dependence of the conductivity are monitored in the electrical characterization of the micro-structured sensor chip. Finally the future perspectives of this sensor concept are discussed.

  16. Electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1314 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2015-07-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=763 K), from 551 K to temperature as high as 1314 K, that is, 391 above the boiling point of the salt. The specific electrical conductance was found to reach its maximum at 1143 K, after that it decreases with the temperature rising.

  17. High electrical conductivity in out of plane direction of electrodeposited Bi2Te3 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Muñoz Rojo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The out of plane electrical conductivity of highly anisotropic Bi2Te3 films grown via electro-deposition process was determined using four probe current-voltage measurements performed on 4.6 - 7.2 μm thickness Bi2Te3 mesa structures with 80 - 120 μm diameters sandwiched between metallic film electrodes. A three-dimensional finite element model was used to predict the electric field distribution in the measured structures and take into account the non-uniform distribution of the current in the electrodes in the vicinity of the probes. The finite-element modeling shows that significant errors could arise in the measured film electrical conductivity if simpler one-dimensional models are employed. A high electrical conductivity of (3.2 ± 0.4 ⋅ 105 S/m is reported along the out of plane direction for Bi2Te3 films highly oriented in the [1 1 0] direction.

  18. Electrical and optical properties of Zn–In–Sn–O transparent conducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, Paz; Antony, Aldrin; Rojas, Fredy; Bertomeu, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the widely used transparent conductive oxides (TCO) for application as transparent electrode in thin film silicon solar cells or thin film transistors owing to its low resistivity and high transparency. Nevertheless, indium is a scarce and expensive element and ITO films require high deposition temperature to achieve good electrical and optical properties. On the other hand, although not competing as ITO, doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a promising and cheaper alternative. Therefore, our strategy has been to deposit ITO and ZnO multicomponent thin films at room temperature by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering in order to achieve TCOs with reduced indium content. Thin films of the quaternary system Zn–In–Sn–O (ZITO) with improved electrical and optical properties have been achieved. The samples were deposited by applying different RF powers to ZnO target while keeping a constant RF power to ITO target. This led to ZITO films with zinc content ratio varying between 0 and 67%. The optical, electrical and morphological properties have been thoroughly studied. The film composition was analysed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The films with 17% zinc content ratio showed the lowest resistivity (6.6 × 10 −4 Ω cm) and the highest transmittance (above 80% in the visible range). Though X-ray Diffraction studies showed amorphous nature for the films, using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy we found that the microstructure of the films consisted of nanometric crystals embedded in a compact amorphous matrix. The effect of post deposition annealing on the films in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres were studied. The changes were found to strongly depend on the zinc content ratio in the films.

  19. The Relation between the Electric Conductance of Nanostructure Bridge and Friedel Sum Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Y; Shima, N; Makoshi, K

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the electric conductance through nanostructure bridges in terms of phase-shifts, which satisfy the Friedel sum rule. The phase-shifts are given by solving the eigenvalue equation obtained by extending the method applied to a single impurity problem in a metal. The local charge neutrality condition is introduced through the Friedel sum rule. It is analytically shown that the electric conductance can increase as the two electrodes separate with the condition in which the phase-shifts satisfy the Friedel sum rule. The increment of the distance between two electrodes is obtained by gradually separating interatomic distance.

  20. Electrical conductivity of metal (hydr)oxide–activated carbon composites under compression. A comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso-Bogeat, A., E-mail: adrianbogeat@unex.es [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Alexandre-Franco, M.; Fernández-González, C. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Sánchez-González, J. [Department of Mechanical, Energetic and Materials Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain); Gómez-Serrano, V. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, E-06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    From a granular commercial activated carbon (AC) and six metal (hydr)oxide precursors, including Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, SnCl{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, a broadly varied series of metal (hydr)oxide–AC composites were prepared by wet impregnation and subsequent oven-drying at 120 °C. Here, the electrical conductivity of the resulting products was studied under moderate compression. The influence of the applied pressure, sample volume, mechanical work, and density of the hybrid materials was thoroughly investigated. The dc electrical conductivity of the compressed samples was measured at room temperature by the four-probe method. Compaction assays show that the mechanical properties of the composites are largely determined by the carbon matrix. Both the decrease in volume and the increase in density under compression were very small and only significant at pressures lower than 100 kPa for AC and most composites. By contrast, the bulk electrical conductivity of the hybrid materials was strongly influenced by the nature, content and intrinsic conductivity of the supported metal phases, which act as insulating thin layers thereby hindering the effective electron transport between AC cores of neighbouring sample particles in contact under compression. Conductivity values for the composites were lower than for the raw AC, all of them falling in the range of typical semiconductor materials. The patterns of variation of the electrical conductivity with pressure and mechanical work were slightly similar, thus suggesting the predominance of the pressure effects rather than the volume ones. - Highlights: • Pressure-dependent conductivity is studied for metal (hydr)oxide–AC composites. • Mechanical properties of the composites are essentially determined by AC. • Supported metal (hydr)oxides determine the bulk conductivity of the composites. • Metal (hydr)oxides act as insulating thin layers hindering the

  1. Studies on phase evolution and electrical conductivity of barium doped gadolinium aluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Amit; Sharma, B.P.; Gopalan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Barium doped GdAlO 3 compositions were prepared from citrate gel derived powders. ► The solid solubility of barium in GdAlO 3 was less than 4 mol%. ► The un-dissolved barium precipitated in the form of BaAl 2 O 4 phase. ► The conductivity of Ba-doped GdAlO 3 increased with increasing amounts of Ba. ► In Gd 1−x Ba x AlO 3−δ system, specimen with x = 0.02 exhibited maximum conductivity. - Abstract: The phase evolution and electrical conductivity of barium doped GdAlO 3 samples have been investigated. The Ba- doped compositions of GdAlO 3 were prepared through citrate gel process. Analysis of the phases was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of the calcined powders was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of Gd 1−x Ba x AlO 3−δ (x = 0–0.04) was measured using ac impedance spectroscopy as a function of temperature ranging from 300 to 1000 °C under air. The solid solubility of barium in GdAlO 3 was found to be less than 4 mol%. The undissolved barium precipitated in the form of BaAl 2 O 4 phase. The barium doped GdAlO 3 powders obtained after calcination at 1000 °C was found to be porous agglomerate composed of nanocrystalline grains. The total electrical conductivity of Ba-doped GdAlO 3 increased with increasing amounts of barium up to 2 mol% doping.

  2. Electric conductivity for laboratory and field monitoring of induced partial saturation (IPS) in sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemiroodsari, Hadi

    Liquefaction is loss of shear strength in fully saturated loose sands caused by build-up of excess pore water pressure, during moderate to large earthquakes, leading to catastrophic failures of structures. Currently used liquefaction mitigation measures are often costly and cannot be applied at sites with existing structures. An innovative, practical, and cost effective liquefaction mitigation technique titled "Induced Partial Saturation" (IPS) was developed by researchers at Northeastern University. The IPS technique is based on injection of sodium percarbonate solution into fully saturated liquefaction susceptible sand. Sodium percarbonate dissolves in water and breaks down into sodium and carbonate ions and hydrogen peroxide which generates oxygen gas bubbles. Oxygen gas bubbles become trapped in sand pores and therefore decrease the degree of saturation of the sand, increase the compressibility of the soil, thus reduce its potential for liquefaction. The implementation of IPS required the development and validation of a monitoring and evaluation technique that would help ensure that the sands are indeed partially saturated. This dissertation focuses on this aspect of the IPS research. The monitoring system developed was based on using electric conductivity fundamentals and probes to detect the transport of chemical solution, calculate degree of saturation of sand, and determine the final zone of partial saturation created by IPS. To understand the fundamentals of electric conductivity, laboratory bench-top tests were conducted using electric conductivity probes and small specimens of Ottawa sand. Bench-top tests were used to study rate of generation of gas bubbles due to reaction of sodium percarbonate solution in sand, and to confirm a theory based on which degree of saturation were calculated. In addition to bench-top tests, electric conductivity probes were used in a relatively large sand specimen prepared in a specially manufactured glass tank. IPS was

  3. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Te: Density, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Su, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.

    2004-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of liquid Te, namely, density, electrical conductivity, and viscosity, were determined using the pycnometric and transient torque methods from the melting point of Te (723 K) to approximately 1150 K. A maximum was observed in the density of liquid Te as the temperature was increased. The electrical conductivity of liquid Te increased to a constant value of 2.89 x 10(exp 5 OMEGA-1m-1) as the temperature was raised above 1000 K. The viscosity decreased rapidly upon heating the liquid to elevated temperatures. The anomalous behaviors of the measured properties are explained as caused by the structural transitions in the liquid and discussed in terms of Eyring's and Bachiskii's predicted behaviors for homogeneous liquids. The Properties were also measured as a function of time after the liquid was coded from approximately 1173 or 1123 to 823 K. No relaxation phenomena were observed in the properties after the temperature of liquid Te was decreased to 823 K, in contrast to the relaxation behavior observed for some of the Te compounds.

  4. Electrical conductivity of a fully ionized plasma in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, B.; Vaclavik, J.; Schneider, H.

    1975-01-01

    In this experimental work the authors have investigated the electrical conductivity of a homogeneous fully ionized plasma in a homogeneous magnetic field. In particular, the conductivity perpendicular to the magnetic field was studied by means of the magnetoacoustic resonance for different values of the parameter ωsub(c)/γsub(ei) where ωsub(c) is the electron cyclotron frequency and γsub(ei) is the collision frequency between electrons and ions. (Auth.)

  5. Electrical conductivity studies of anatase TiO2 with dominant highly reactive {0 0 1} facets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomoni, K.; Sofianou, M.V.; Georgakopoulos, T.; Boukos, N.; Trapalis, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anatase TiO 2 with reactive {0 0 1} facets were synthesized by a solvothermal method. ► The structure and the electrical conductivity were studied. ► Different conduction mechanisms act at different temperature regions. ► Environment and calcination influence significantly the conductivity. - Abstract: Nanostructured powders of titanium dioxide anatase nanoplates with dominant highly reactive {0 0 1} facets were fabricated using a solvothermal method. Two kinds of samples, as prepared and calcinated at 600 °C, were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrical conductivity in vacuum and in air. The dependence of the conductivity versus the inverse of temperature in the temperature range 150–440 K indicated the contribution of at least two conduction mechanisms in vacuum. The electron transport was controlled by partially depleted of charge carriers grains and adiabatic small polaron conduction in the high temperature regime and by Mott variable-range hopping (VRH) at lower temperatures. The environment was found from the experimental results to influence significantly the electrical conductivity values and its temperature dependence. A decrease with temperature in air is observed in the ranges 290–370 and 285–330 K for the as prepared and the calcinated sample respectively. Potential barriers caused by partial depletion of carriers at grain boundaries control the electrical conductivity behavior in air at high temperatures and VRH in the lower temperature regime.

  6. Effect of Samarium Oxide on the Electrical Conductivity of Plasma-Sprayed SOFC Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, S. N.; Samadi, H.; Nemati, A.

    2016-10-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are rapidly becoming recognized as a new alternative to traditional energy conversion systems because of their high energy efficiency. From an ecological perspective, this environmentally friendly technology, which produces clean energy, is likely to be implemented more frequently in the future. However, the current SOFC technology still cannot meet the demands of commercial applications due to temperature constraints and high cost. To develop a marketable SOFC, suppliers have tended to reduce the operating temperatures by a few hundred degrees. The overall trend for SOFC materials is to reduce their service temperature of electrolyte. Meanwhile, it is important that the other components perform at the same temperature. Currently, the anodes of SOFCs are being studied in depth. Research has indicated that anodes based on a perovskite structure are a more promising candidate in SOFCs than the traditional system because they possess more favorable electrical properties. Among the perovskite-type oxides, SrTiO3 is one of the most promising compositions, with studies demonstrating that SrTiO3 exhibits particularly favorable electrical properties in contrast with other perovskite-type oxides. The main purpose of this article is to describe our study of the effect of rare-earth dopants with a perovskite structure on the electrical behavior of anodes in SOFCs. Sm2O3-doped SrTiO3 synthesized by a solid-state reaction was coated on substrate by atmospheric plasma spray. To compare the effect of the dopant on the electrical conductivity of strontium titanate, different concentrations of Sm2O3 were used. The samples were then investigated by x-ray diffraction, four-point probe at various temperatures (to determine the electrical conductivity), and a scanning electron microscope. The study showed that at room temperature, nondoped samples have a higher electrical resistance than doped samples. As the temperature was increased, the electrical

  7. Interdiffusion and Spinodal Decomposition in Electrically Conducting Polymer Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Takala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of phase morphology in electrically conducting polymer composites has become essential for the efficiency of the various functional applications, in which the continuity of the electroactive paths in multicomponent systems is essential. For instance in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, where the light-induced electron transfer through photon absorption creating excitons (electron-hole pairs, the control of diffusion of the spatially localized excitons and their dissociation at the interface and the effective collection of holes and electrons, all depend on the surface area, domain sizes, and connectivity in these organic semiconductor blends. We have used a model semiconductor polymer blend with defined miscibility to investigate the phase separation kinetics and the formation of connected pathways. Temperature jump experiments were applied from a miscible region of semiconducting poly(alkylthiophene (PAT blends with ethylenevinylacetate-elastomers (EVA and the kinetics at the early stages of phase separation were evaluated in order to establish bicontinuous phase morphology via spinodal decomposition. The diffusion in the blend was followed by two methods: first during a miscible phase separating into two phases: from the measurement of the spinodal decomposition. Secondly the diffusion was measured by monitoring the interdiffusion of PAT film into the EVA film at elected temperatures and eventually compared the temperature dependent diffusion characteristics. With this first quantitative evaluation of the spinodal decomposition as well as the interdiffusion in conducting polymer blends, we show that a systematic control of the phase separation kinetics in a polymer blend with one of the components being electrically conducting polymer can be used to optimize the morphology.

  8. Oxygen partial pressure dependence of electrical conductivity in γ'-Bi2MoO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, C.M.C.; Aragon, R.

    2008-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of γ'-Bi 2 MoO 6 was surveyed between 450 and 750 deg. C as a function of oxygen partial pressure, in the range 0.01-1 atm. A -1/6 power law dependence, consistent with a Frenkel defect model of doubly ionized oxygen vacancies and interstitials, is evidence for an n-type semiconductive component, with an optical band gap of 2.9 eV. The absence of this dependence is used to map the onset of dominant ionic conduction. - Graphical abstract: Temporal dependence of electrical conductivity at 500 deg. C for γ'-Bi 2 MoO 6 at controlled partial pressures of oxygen

  9. Formation of electrically conducting, transparent films using silver nanoparticles connected by carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sunna; Noh, Sun Young; Kim, Heesuk; Park, Min; Lee, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    To achieve both optical transparency and electrical conductivity simultaneously, we fabricated a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/silver fiber-based transparent conductive film using silver fibers produced by the electrospinning method. Electrospun silver fibers provided a segregated structure with the silver nanoparticles within the fibrous microstructures as a framework. Additional deposition of SWNT/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layers resulted in a remarkable decrease in the surface resistance from very high value (> 3000 kΩ/sq) for the films of electrospun silver fibers, without affecting the optical transmittance at 550 nm. The surface resistance of the SWNT/silver film after the deposition of three layers decreased to 17 Ω/sq with 80% transmittance. Successive depositions of SWNT/PEDOT:PSS layers reduced the surface resistance to 2 Ω/sq without severe loss in optical transmittance (ca. 65%). The transparent conductive films exhibited a performance comparable to that of commercial indium tin oxide films. The individual silver nanoparticles within the electrospun fibers on the substrate were interconnected with SWNTs, which resulted in the efficient activation of a conductive network by bridging the gaps among separate silver nanoparticles. Such a construction of microscopically conductive networks with the minimum use of electrically conductive nanomaterials produced superior electrical conductivity, while maintaining the optical transparency. - Highlights: • Silver fibrous structures were produced by electrospinning method. • SWNTs/PEDOT:PSS was deposited on silver fibrous structures. • These films exhibited a low sheet resistance (∼ 17 Ω/sq) at ∼ 80% optical transparency. • Successive depositions of SWNT/PEDOT:PSS layers reduced the surface resistance to 2 Ω/sq

  10. Effect of γ-irradiation on the electrical conductivity of some soda lime silicate glass containing blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elalaily, N.A.; Khalil, Magda M.I.; Ahmed, L.S.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of electric field strength on conduction in soda lime silicate glass doped with blast furnace slag with different concentration was studied and the value of jump distance was calculated. The structure and the mixed anion effect in the conductivity have been examined by measuring the electrical conductivity of glass samples at temperature ranging between 20 and 250 deg. C. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of the examined glasses are divided into three ranges depending on the temperature range. The first is from room temperature to about 49.5 deg. C, the second is at a temperature range of 60.3-104 deg. C where the glass shows a decrease in its conductivity with the increase in temperature. This was followed by another increase in the electrical conductivity with the increase in temperature. The results also showed that the glass becomes more insulating as the slag content increased. The effect of irradiation was also studied by exposing glass samples to two different irradiation doses. It can be noticed that irradiation causes an increase in the electrical conductivity, especially at high temperature. The results were discussed and correlated according to the molecular structure of the prepared glass

  11. An Effective Design of Electrically Conducting Thin-Film Composite (TFC) Membranes for Bio and Organic Fouling Control in Forward Osmosis (FO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Qiu, Guanglei; Zhou, Zhengzhong; Li, Jingguo; Amy, Gary Lee; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2016-10-04

    The organic foulants and bacteria in secondary wastewater treatment can seriously impair the membrane performance in a water treatment plant. The embedded electrode approach using an externally applied potential to repel organic foulants and inhibit bacterial adhesion can effectively reduce the frequency of membrane replacement. Electrode embedment in membranes is often carried out by dispensing a conductor (e.g., carbon nanotubes, or CNTs) in the membrane substrate, which gives rise to two problems: the leaching-out of the conductor and a percolation-limited membrane conductivity that results in an added energy cost. This study presents a facile method for the embedment of a continuous electrode in thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membranes. Specifically, a conducting porous carbon paper is used as the understructure for the formation of a membrane substrate by the classical phase inversion process. The carbon paper and the membrane substrate polymer form an interpenetrating structure with good stability and low electrical resistance (only about 1Ω/□). The membrane-electrode assembly was deployed as the cathode of an electrochemical cell, and showed good resistance to organic and microbial fouling with the imposition of a 2.0 V DC voltage. The carbon paper-based FO TFC membranes also possess good mechanical stability for practical use.

  12. Music through the Skin--Simple Demonstration of Human Electrical Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.; Möllmann, K. P.

    2016-01-01

    The conduction of electricity is an important topic for any basic physics course. Issues of safety often results in teacher demonstration experiments in front of the class or in extremely simple though--for students--not really fascinating (not to say boring) hands on activities for everybody using 1.5 V batteries, cables and light bulbs etc. Here…

  13. The effect of functionalization on structure and electrical conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Cher Hon; Cervini, Raoul; Clarke, Stephen R.; Markovic, Milena Ginic; Matisons, Janis G.; Hawkins, Stephen C.; Huynh, Chi P.; Simon, George P.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are of interest in many areas of nanotechnology and used in a number of novel applications. However effective dispersion remains a problem and one solution is to functionalize the nanotubes. Any functionalization that is undertaken must preferably not influence other key properties such as strength and electrical conductivity. In this work, multi-walled CNTs are functionalized for comparison, using a range of oxidative techniques, including thermal treatment, acid reflux, and dry UV-ozonolysis. The effects of these treatments on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and their electrical properties were characterized using a range of surface and compositional techniques. The electrical conductivity of MWCNTs was found to increase with functionalization in all cases, and dry UV-ozonolysis was shown to be the treatment technique which best increased conductivity, whilst at the same time maintaining the structural integrity of the nanotubes, even though the level of modification was less than by the other treatment methods.

  14. Novel electrical conductivity properties in Ca-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, S. Y.; Liu, W. F.; Xi, X. J.; Zhang, H.; Guo, F.; Xu, X. L.; Li, M.; Liu, L.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.; Yang, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The charge defective structure in Bi 1−x Ca x FeO 3 (CBFO, x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3) nanoparticles (NPs) ranging from 140 to 25 nm as well as their relations to band gap and leakage current behavior are investigated. It is demonstrated that Ca doping effectively narrows the band gap from ∼2.16 to ∼2.02 eV, due to the appearance and accumulation of oxygen vacancy. Subsequently, enhanced electrical conductivity was obtained in these CBFO NPs, which leads to the appearance of a distinct threshold switching behavior in Ca-doped BFO NPs with higher conductivity at room temperature. Possible mechanisms for Ca doping effects on the electric conduction were discussed upon the interplay of NPs’ size effect and mobile charged defects on the basis of reduced particle size and the increased density of oxygen vacancy analyzed through X-ray photoelectron spectrum

  15. Effect of pH on the electrical properties and conducting mechanism of SnO_2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periathai, R.Sudha; Abarna, S.; Hirankumar, G.; Jeyakumaran, N.; Prithivikumaran, N.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted more interests because of their size-dependent optical and electrical properties.SnO_2 is an oxygen-deficient n-type semiconductor with a wide band gap of 3.6 eV (300 K). It has many remarkable applications as sensors, catalysts, transparent conducting electrodes, anode material for rechargeable Li- ion batteries and optoelectronic devices. In the present work, the role of pH in determining the electrical and dielectric properties of SnO_2 nanoparticles has been studied as a function of temperature ranging from Room temperature (RT) to 114 °C in the frequency range of 7 MHz to 50 mHz using impedance spectroscopic technique. The non linear behavior observed in the thermal dependence of the conductance of SnO_2 nanoparticles is explained by means of the surface property of SnO_2 nanoparticles where proton hopping mechanism is dealt with. Jonscher's power law has been fitted for the conductance spectra and the frequency exponent (“s” value) gives an insight about the ac conducting mechanism. The temperature dependence of electrical relaxation phenomenon in the material has been observed. The complex electric modulus analysis indicates the possibility of hopping conduction mechanism in the system with non-exponential type of conductivity relaxation.

  16. Groundwater redox conditions and conductivity in a contaminant plume from geoelectrical investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naudet

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate mapping of the electrical conductivity and of the redox potential of the groundwater is important in delineating the shape of a contaminant plume. A map of redox potential in an aquifer is indicative of biodegradation of organic matter and of concentrations of redox-active components; a map of electrical conductivity provides information on the mineralisation of the groundwater. Both maps can be used to optimise the position of pumping wells for remediation. The self-potential method (SP and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT have been applied to the contaminant plume associated with the Entressen landfill in south-east France. The self-potential depends on groundwater flow (electrokinetic contribution and redox conditions ('electro-redox' contribution. Using the variation of the piezometric head in the aquifer, the electrokinetic contribution is removed from the SP signals. A good linear correlation (R2=0.85 is obtained between the residual SP data and the redox potential values measured in monitoring wells. This relationship is used to draw a redox potential map of the overall contaminated site. The electrical conductivity of the subsoil is obtained from 3D-ERT analysis. A good linear correlation (R2=0.91 is observed between the electrical conductivity of the aquifer determined from the 3D-ERT image and the conductivity of the groundwater measured in boreholes. This indicates that the formation factor is nearly homogeneous in the shallow aquifer at the scale of the ERT. From this correlation, a map of the pore water conductivity of the aquifer is obtained. Keywords: self-potential, redox potential, electrical resistivity tomography, fluid conductivity, contaminant plume

  17. Effects of transverse electric field and heterogeneity of a poorly electrically conducting fluid saturated nanoporous zeolites acquiring smart material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudraiah, N.; Ranganna, G.; Shilpa, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explain a Mathematical Model involving Darcy linear drag, Forchheimer quadratic drag, horizontal density gradient and the variation of electrical conductivity due to organic substances dissolved in a heterogeneous Boussinesq poorly conducting couple stress fluid flow (PCPCSFF) through Nano Porous Zeolites regarded as densely packed porous media. Initially, the flow is at rest and set in motion due to initial piecewise horizontal concentration gradient. Analytical solutions, for electric potential using the Maxwell field equations and for velocity and density using nonlinear Darcy – Forchheimer equation in the presence of couple stress and electric force are obtained using the method of time series evolution. The analytical solutions for streamlines and density are computed for different values of time, t, for a particular value of electric number W 1 and couple stress parameter β and the results are depicted graphically in figures 1 and 2. From these figures we found that the streamlines are closer in the region of x 0 and the density profiles are concentrated in the lower region and develop curvature in the presence of electric field and couple stress parameter. The physical reason for the nature of streamlines and density profiles are given in the last section and some important conclusions are drawn. (author)

  18. 2008 report on the Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 4. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2008. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2008 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2008

  19. Processing and electrical conductivity of lanthanum gallate core-shell heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes, Eduarda

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical properties of a lanthanum gallate solid electrolyte were modified by selectively doping the grain boundaries with Fe. This was achieved by sandwiching a La0.95Sr0.05Ga0.90Mg0.10O3-δ (LSGM dense pellet between LaFeO3 samples. Annealing at 1550°C in air for several hours promoted Fe diffusion into LSGM via the grain boundaries. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analyses showed that iron was located at the grain boundary while the grain bulk preserved the LSGM composition. Impedance spectra obtained at low temperature consist of the two usual bulk and grain boundary contributions. A significant increase in total conductivity was observed for the iron-doped samples, the effect being greater for the grain boundary contribution. The total conductivity measured for the iron-containing material revealed a slight decrease with decreasing oxygen partial pressure, suggesting the onset of p-type electronic conduction. Estimates of the p-type electronic conductivity (σp were obtained by fitting the low temperature impedance spectra to a simple equivalent circuit including one parallel electronic branch. The value for σp in air at 300°C is 3.1×10-6 S/cm and the activation energy is 75.1 kJ/mol between 300 and 400°C.

    Las propiedades elécticas de un electrolito sólido de galato de lantano se han modificado mediante un dopado eléctrico de Fe en borde de grano. Esto se consiguió preparando una estructura de sandwich con una plantilla densa de La0.95Sr0.05Ga0.90Mg0.10O3-δ (LSGM entre las muestras de LaFeO3. Un tratamiento de varias horas a 1550ºC en aire favoreció la difusión de Fe a lo largo de los bordes de grano. Los análisis mediante microscopia electrónica de barrido y espectroscopía de energía dispersada muestran que el hierro se localiza en borde de grano mientras que se preserva la composición de LSGM en el interior de grano. En las muestras dopadas con hierro se observa un aumento de

  20. Electrically and Thermally Conducting Nanocomposites for Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Santos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites made up of polymer matrices and carbon nanotubes are a class of advanced materials with great application potential in electronics packaging. Nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes as fillers have been designed with the aim of exploiting the high thermal, electrical and mechanical properties characteristic of carbon nanotubes. Heat dissipation in electronic devices requires interface materials with high thermal conductivity. Here, current developments and challenges in the application of nanotubes as fillers in polymer matrices are explored. The blending together of nanotubes and polymers result in what are known as nanocomposites. Among the most pressing current issues related to nanocomposite fabrication are (i dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the polymer host, (ii carbon nanotube-polymer interaction and the nature of the interface, and (iii alignment of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix. These issues are believed to be directly related to the electrical and thermal performance of nanocomposites. The recent progress in the fabrication of nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes as fillers and their potential application in electronics packaging as thermal interface materials is also reported.

  1. Effect of fast-neutron irradiation on the electrical conductivity of NaKSO4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.M.; El-Wahidy, E.F.; Gado, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, the study of the physical properties of NaKSO 4 has drawn the attention of many investigators. Measurements on the electrical, thermal and elastic properties of NaKSO 4 in the temperature range 300 to 500 K show a structural phase transition at 453 K. Electrical conductivity measurements [4] on pure and doped compounds of NaKSO 4 reveal high ionic conductivity values in the high-temperature range. Order-disorder transitions and solid state kinetics in the same compound were also studied. (author)

  2. Inversion of soil electrical conductivity data to estimate layered soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    CBulk apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) sensors respond to multiple soil properties, including clay content, water content, and salt content (i.e., salinity). They provide a single sensor value for an entire soil profile down to a sensor-dependent measurement depth, weighted by a nonlinear...

  3. Electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} at temperatures as high as 1474 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} was measured across a wide temperature range (ΔT=628 K), from 846 K to as high as 1474 K, i.e. 241 above the normal boiling point of the salt. In previous studies, a maximum temperature of 1201 K was reached, this being 273 lower than in the present work. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  4. Dynamical electrical conductivity of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Luxmi; Singh, Navinder

    2017-06-28

    For graphene (a Dirac material) it has been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed that DC resistivity is proportional to T 4 when the temperature is much less than Bloch-Grüneisen temperature ([Formula: see text]) and T-linear in the opposite case ([Formula: see text]). Going beyond this case, we investigate the dynamical electrical conductivity in graphene using the powerful method of the memory function formalism. In the zero frequency regime, we obtain the above mentioned behavior which was previously obtained using the Bloch-Boltzmann kinetic equation. In the finite frequency regime, we obtain several new results: (1) the generalized Drude scattering rate, in the zero temperature limit, shows [Formula: see text] behavior at low frequencies ([Formula: see text]) and saturates at higher frequencies. We also observed the Holstein mechanism, however, with different power laws from that in the case of metals; (2) at higher frequencies, [Formula: see text], and higher temperatures [Formula: see text], we observed that the generalized Drude scattering rate is linear in temperature. In addition, several other results are also obtained. With the experimental advancement of this field, these results should be experimentally tested.

  5. Density and electrical conductivity of NaCl-CoCl2 and NaCl-NiCl2 molten mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red'kin, A.A.; Salyulev, A.B.; Smirnov, M.V.; Khokhlov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The density and electrical conductivity of cobalt and nickel dichlorides and their solutions in molten sodium chloride have been measured. The density was measured by a dilatometric method, and the electrical conductivity by an AC technique. The molar volume and equivalent conductance were calculated. (orig.)

  6. The Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Woven Pristine and Intercalated Graphite Fiber-Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Vandenburg, Yvonne Yoder; Berkebile, Steven; Stueben, Heather; Balagadde, Frederick

    2002-01-01

    A series of woven fabric laminar composite plates and narrow strips were fabricated from a variety of pitch-based pristine and bromine intercalated graphite fibers in an attempt to determine the influence of the weave on the electrical and thermal conduction. It was found generally that these materials can be treated as if they are homogeneous plates. The rule of mixtures describes the resistivity of the composite fairly well if it is realized that only the component of the fibers normal to the equipotential surface will conduct current. When the composite is narrow with respect to the fiber weave, however, there is a marked angular dependence of the resistance which was well modeled by assuming that the current follows only along the fibers (and not across them in a transverse direction), and that the contact resistance among the fibers in the composite is negligible. The thermal conductivity of composites made from less conductive fibers more closely followed the rule of mixtures than that of the high conductivity fibers, though this is thought to be an artifact of the measurement technique. Electrical and thermal anisotropy could be induced in a particular region of the structure by weaving together high and low conductivity fibers in different directions, though this must be done throughout all of the layers of the structure as interlaminar conduction precludes having only the top layer carry the anisotropy. The anisotropy in the thermal conductivity is considerably less than either that predicted by the rule of mixtures or the electrical resistivity.

  7. An improved electrical-conductance sensor for void-fraction measurement in a horizontal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Min Seok; Jemg, Dong Wook; Kim, Sin; Lee, Bo An; Won, Woo Youn; Lee, Yeon Gun

    2015-01-01

    The electrical-impedance method has been widely used for void-fraction measurement in two-phase flow due to its many favorable features. In the impedance method, the response characteristics of the electrical signal heavily depend upon flow pattern, as well as phasic volume. Thus, information on the flow pattern should be given for reliable void-fraction measurement. This study proposes an improved electrical-conductance sensor composed of a three-electrode set of adjacent and opposite electrodes. In the proposed sensor, conductance readings are directly converted into the flow pattern through a specified criterion and are consecutively used to estimate the corresponding void fraction. Since the flow pattern and the void fraction are evaluated by reading conductance measurements, complexity of data processing can be significantly reduced and real-time information provided. Before actual applications, several numerical calculations are performed to optimize electrode and insulator sizes, and optimal design is verified by static experiments. Finally, the proposed sensor is applied for air-water two-phase flow in a horizontal loop with a 40-mm inner diameter and a 5-m length, and its measurement results are compared with those of a wire-mesh sensor

  8. Electric modulation of conduction in multiferroic Ca-doped BiFeO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.-H.; Seidel, J.; Kim, S. Y.; Rossen, P. B.; Yu, P.; Gajek, M.; Chu, Y. H.; Martin, L. W.; Holcomb, M. B.; He, Q.; Maksymovych, P.; Balke, N.; Kalinin, S. V.; Baddorf, A. P.; Basu, S. R.; Scullin, M. L.; Ramesh, R.

    2009-06-01

    Many interesting materials phenomena such as the emergence of high-Tc superconductivity in the cuprates and colossal magnetoresistance in the manganites arise out of a doping-driven competition between energetically similar ground states. Doped multiferroics present a tantalizing evolution of this generic concept of phase competition. Here, we present the observation of an electronic conductor-insulator transition by control of band-filling in the model antiferromagnetic ferroelectric BiFeO3 through Ca doping. Application of electric field enables us to control and manipulate this electronic transition to the extent that a p-n junction can be created, erased and inverted in this material. A `dome-like' feature in the doping dependence of the ferroelectric transition is observed around a Ca concentration of ~1/8, where a new pseudo-tetragonal phase appears and the electric modulation of conduction is optimized. Possible mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed on the basis of the interplay of ionic and electronic conduction. This observation opens the door to merging magnetoelectrics and magnetoelectronics at room temperature by combining electronic conduction with electric and magnetic degrees of freedom already present in the multiferroic BiFeO3.

  9. Electrical conductivity and piezoresistive response of 3D printed thermoplastic polyurethane/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Cameron J.; Petrossian, Gayaneh; Ameli, Amir; Mo, Changki; Pötschke, Petra

    2018-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging field experiencing rapid growth. This paper presents a feasibility study of using fused-deposition modeling (FDM) techniques with smart materials to fabricate objects with sensing and actuating capabilities. The fabrication of objects with sensing typically requires the integration and assembly of multiple components. Incorporating sensing elements into a single FDM process has the potential to significantly simplify manufacturing. The integration of multiple materials, especially smart materials and those with multi-functional properties, into the FDM process is challenging and still requires further development. Previous works by the authors have demonstrated a good printability of thermoplastic polyurethane/multiwall carbon nanotubes (TPU/MWCNT) while maintaining conductivity and piezoresistive response. This research explores the effects of layer height, nozzle temperature, and bed temperature on the electrical conductivity and piezoresistive response of printed TPU/MWCNT nanocomposites. An impedance analyzer was used to determine the conductivity of printed samples under different printing conditions from 5Hz-13MHz. The samples were then tested under compression loads to measure the piezoresistive response. Results show the conductivity and piezoresistive response are only slightly affected by the print parameters and they can be largely considered independent of the print conditions within the examined ranges of print parameters. This behavior simplifies the printing process design for TPU/MWCNT complex structures. This work demonstrates the possibility of manufacturing embedded and multidirectional flexible strain sensors using an inexpensive and versatile method, with potential applications in soft robotics, flexible electronics, and health monitoring.

  10. Electrical Conductivity of Metals: A New Look at this Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva P. R.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Various parameters tied to the electrical conductivity of typical metals are estimated and are expressed in terms of universal constants. It happen s that they are close to those found in metallic copper at room temperature. The fact that the realization of the model occurs at room temperature is explained by using th e Landauer’s erasure principle. The averaged collision time of the electron of conduction is also thought as a particle lifetime. Finally an analogy is established between the motion of the electron of conduction and the cosmological constant problem, where a spherical surface of radius equal to the electron mean free path has been thought as a surf ace horizon for the charge carriers.

  11. Imaging in electrically conductive porous media without frequency encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann-Horn, J A; Walbrecker, J O

    2012-07-01

    Understanding multi-phase fluid flow and transport processes under various pressure, temperature, and salinity conditions is a key feature in many remote monitoring applications, such as long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) or nuclear waste in geological formations. We propose a low-field NMR tomographic method to non-invasively image the water-content distribution in electrically conductive formations in relatively large-scale experiments (∼1 m(3) sample volumes). Operating in the weak magnetic field of Earth entails low Larmor frequencies at which electromagnetic fields can penetrate electrically conductive material. The low signal strengths associated with NMR in Earth's field are enhanced by pre-polarization before signal recording. To localize the origin of the NMR signal in the sample region we do not employ magnetic field gradients, as is done in conventional NMR imaging, because they can be difficult to control in the large sample volumes that we are concerned with, and may be biased by magnetic materials in the sample. Instead, we utilize the spatially dependent inhomogeneity of fields generated by surface coils that are installed around the sample volume. This relatively simple setup makes the instrument inexpensive and mobile (it can be potentially installed in remote locations outside of a laboratory), while allowing spatial resolution of the order of 10 cm. We demonstrate the general feasibility of our approach in a simulated CO(2) injection experiment, where we locate and quantify the drop in water content following gas injection into a water-saturated cylindrical sample of 0.45 m radius and 0.9 m height. Our setup comprises four surface coils and an array consisting of three volume coils surrounding the sample. The proposed tomographic NMR methodology provides a more direct estimate of fluid content and properties than can be achieved with acoustic or electromagnetic methods alone. Therefore, we expect that our proposed method is relevant

  12. Thermopower, electrical and Hall conductivity of undoped and doped iron disilicide single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, A; Behr, G; Griessmann, H; Teichert, S; Lange, H

    1997-07-01

    The electrical transport properties of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} single crystals have been investigated in dependence on the purity of the source material and on doping with 3d transition metals. The transport properties included are electrical conductivity, Hall conductivity and thermopower mainly in the temperature range from 4K to 300K. The single crystals have been prepared by chemical transport reaction in a closed system with iodine as transport agent. In undoped single crystals prepared with 5N Fe both electrical conductivity and thermopower depend on the composition within the homogeneity range of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} which is explained by different intrinsic defects at the Si-rich and Fe-rich phase boundaries. In both undoped and doped single crystals impurity band conduction is observed at low temperatures but above 100K extrinsic behavior determined by shallow impurity states. The thermopower shows between 100K and 200K a significant phonon drag contribution which depends on intrinsic defects and additional doping. The Hall resistivity is considered mainly with respect to an anomalous contribution found in p-type and n-type single crystals and thin films. In addition doped single crystals show at temperatures below about 130K an hysteresis of the Hall voltage. These results make former mobility data uncertain. Comparison will be made between the transport properties of single crystals and polycrystalline material.

  13. Electrical conductivity of the screening residuals of coke production in context of ferrochromium production in a submerged arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousu, Arto; Mattila, Olli [Lab. of Process Metallurgy, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Coke is used as a reducing agent in the production of ferrochromium in a submerged arc furnace (SAF). Its good electrical conductivity compared to other input materials makes it a dominant current conductivity substance in the burden. The resistance of the coke has to be high enough to ensure the proper functionality of the furnace. Used cokes for submerged arc furnace production are relatively small in size compared to e.g. blast furnace (BF) cokes. A common practice is to use screening residual coke, which is too small for the BF, in SAF. The goal of this study was to show differences in the electrical properties of screening residual cokes compared to coke formed in different parts of the coke battery, in dependence of particle size. The resistances of different cokes were measured and XRD measurements were performed to define the crystallographic structure of the selected cokes. The results indicate that small coke particles have higher overall resistance, which is due to their internal properties. This small weakly carbonized coke is formed in the middle of the coking battery and is subject to changes in varying coking practices. Continuous quality control of screening residual coke is needed to use it in the SAF. (orig.)

  14. Electric conductivity of alkali metal vapors in the region of critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likal'ter, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A behaviour of alkali metal conductivity in the vicinity of a critical point has been analyzed on the base of deVeloped representations on a vapor state. A phenomenological conductivity theory has been developed, which is in a good agreement with experimental data obtained

  15. Pyroelectric properties and electrical conductivity in samarium doped BiFeO 3 ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Yingbang; Liu, Wenchao; Mak, C. L.

    2012-01-01

    . This electrical conduction was attributed to oxygen vacancy existing in the samples. An activation energy of ∼0.7 eV for the conduction process was found to be irrespective of the Sm 3+ doping level. On the other hand, the magnetic Néel temperature (T N) decreased

  16. Increased electrical conductivity of peptides through annealing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Daniel Namgung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible biologically occurring polymer is suggested as a component of human implantable devices since conventional inorganic materials are apt to trigger inflammation and toxicity problem within human body. Peptides consisting of aromatic amino acid, tyrosine, are chosen, and enhancement on electrical conductivity is studied. Annealing process gives rise to the decrease on resistivity of the peptide films and the growth of the carrier concentration is a plausible reason for such a decrease on resistivity. The annealed peptides are further applied to an active layer of field effect transistor, in which low on/off current ratio (∼10 is obtained.

  17. The electrical conductivity of an interacting electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, D.Y.

    1977-01-01

    A manybody theory by the propagator method developed by Montroll and Ward for the equilibrium statistical mechanics, is reformulated to describe the electrical conductivity for an electron gas system containing impurity. The theory includes electron-impurity interaction to the infinite order and electron-electron interaction to the first order exchange effect. The propagator used by Montroll and Ward is separated into two propagators, each of which satisfies either Bloch or Schroedinger equation, to utilize the perturbation method. Correct counting of graphs are presented. Change in the relaxation time due to the electron-electron interaction is explicity shown and compared with recent works [pt

  18. Temporal and vertical variations radon and its progeny related to atmospheric electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruthvi Rani, K.S.; Chandrashekara, M.S.; Paramesh, L.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric radon, its progeny, electrical conductivity and meteorological parameters such as wind, temperature, humidity, pressure and rainfall were continuously monitored during 2012 to 2014 at one location in Mysuru city. The annual mean atmospheric radon concentration at the study location was found to be 16.4 Bqm -3 . The diurnal cycle of radon and its progeny show a peak in the early morning hours followed by a drastic decrease after sunrise and rising to a second peak in the afternoon. It was found that the stability of the atmosphere and ambient temperature played a major role in the diurnal variations. Higher concentrations of radon and its progeny were observed in winter and lower values in summer. This may due to the variations in origin of air mass and meteorological parameters. Wind direction analyses reveal that in sectors with air which has spent a longer period over the granitic region and low wind speeds will lead to higher concentrations of radon. Atmospheric electrical conductivity near the ground is mainly due to the ionization from radon and its progeny. The diurnal variations of conductivity and ionization rate due to radon and its individual progeny were of similar trend. In addition its significant dependence on meteorological parameters is confirmed. The vertical variations of atmospheric electrical conductivity were studied at different heights up to 250 m from the ground level. Higher values were observed close to the ground surface, there was a rapid reduction up to about 10 m and beyond that the conductivity gradually decreases. The diurnal conductivity cycle is studied at 10 m and 100 m showed the expected similar trend at both the heights but early morning maxima were considerably different, this confirms the accumulation of radon gas close to the ground surface during night time leading to increase of conductivity values. (author)

  19. Spin-Hall conductivity and electric polarization in metallic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui

    2013-02-21

    We predict theoretically that when a normal metallic thin film (without bulk spin-orbit coupling, such as Cu or Al) is sandwiched by two insulators, two prominent effects arise due to the interfacial spin-orbit coupling: a giant spin-Hall conductivity due to the surface scattering and a transverse electric polarization due to the spin-dependent phase shift in the spinor wave functions.

  20. Spin-Hall conductivity and electric polarization in metallic thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui; Xiao, Jiang; Manchon, Aurelien; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2013-01-01

    We predict theoretically that when a normal metallic thin film (without bulk spin-orbit coupling, such as Cu or Al) is sandwiched by two insulators, two prominent effects arise due to the interfacial spin-orbit coupling: a giant spin-Hall conductivity due to the surface scattering and a transverse electric polarization due to the spin-dependent phase shift in the spinor wave functions.

  1. Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators. Summary report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 7. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2011. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2011 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2011. These elements were supplemented and clarified by many exchanges with the operators, in particular during the committee hearings that took place in spring 2012 with each network operator. This report is structured around four cross-cutting themes, supplemented by individual analyses of each operator's situation. The cross-cutting issues address communication and user's awareness of the network operators, the new compliance officer function, TSO certification and, finally, the results of the 'mystery shopper' telephone survey carried out by the CRE. The individual situations analysed were those of the eight DSOs serving over 100,000 customers (ERDF, ES, URM, SRD and Geredis-Deux-Sevres for electricity, GrDF, Regaz-Bordeaux and Reseau GDS for natural gas) and the three TSOs (RTE for electricity and GRTgaz and TIGF for natural gas)

  2. Model of electrical conductivity of skeletal muscle based on tissue structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, F.L.H.; Cruts, H.E.P.; Alberts, B.A.; Boon, K.L.; Wallinga, W.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments carried out in our laboratory with the four-electrode method showed that the electrical conductivity of skeletal muscle tissue depends on the frequency of the injected current and the distance between the current electrodes. A model is proposed in order to study these effects. The

  3. Carbon black reinforced C8 ether linked bismaleimide toughened electrically conducting epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandhakini, M.; Chandramohan, A.; Jayanthi, K.; Alagar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlight: • The toughness of the epoxy is improved with C8e-BMI. • Conduction through ohmic contact chain takes the leading mechanism for electrical conduction instead of tunneling with 5 wt% CB. • The phase segregation between epoxy/C8 e-BMI improves the toughness of the nanocomposite. • Both toughening and flexibilization effect is responsible for improvement in impact strength. • The largest challenge of appropriate balance between the electrical conductivity and mechanical behavior is attained in a cost effective manner. - Abstract: The present work deals with the toughening of brittle epoxy matrix with C8 ether linked bismaleimide (C8 e-BMI) and then study the reinforcing effect of carbon black (CB) in enhancing the conducting properties of insulating epoxy matrix. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman analysis indicate the formation of strong covalent bonds between CB and C8 e-BMI/epoxy matrix. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analysis indicate the event of phase separation in 5 wt% CB loaded epoxy C8 e-BMI nanocomposites. The impact strength increased up to 5 wt% of CB loading with particle pull and crack deflection to be driving mechanism for enhancing the toughness of the nanocomposite and beyond 5 wt% the impact strength started to decrease due to aggregation of CB. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) also indicates the toughness of the nanocomposites was improved with 5 wt% of CB loading due to the phase segregation between epoxy and C8 e-BMI in the presence of CB. The electrical conductivity was also increased with 5 wt% of CB due to classical conduction by ohmic chain contact

  4. Electrical transport across nanometric SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 barriers in conducting/insulator/conducting junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, H.; Sirena, M.; González Sutter, J.; Troiani, H. E.; del Corro, P. G.; Granell, P.; Golmar, F.; Haberkorn, N.

    2018-01-01

    We report the electrical transport properties of conducting/insulator/conducting heterostructures by studying current-voltage IV curves at room temperature. The measurements were obtained on tunnel junctions with different areas (900, 400 and 100 μm2) using a conducting atomic force microscope. Trilayers with GdBa2Cu3O7 (GBCO) as the bottom electrode, SrTiO3 or BaTiO3 (thicknesses between 1.6 and 4 nm) as the insulator barrier, and GBCO or Nb as the top electrode were grown by DC sputtering on (100) SrTiO3 substrates For SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 barriers, asymmetric IV curves at positive and negative polarization can be obtained using electrodes with different work function. In addition, hysteretic IV curves are obtained for BaTiO3 barriers, which can be ascribed to a combined effect of the FE reversal switching polarization and an oxygen vacancy migration. For GBCO/BaTiO3/GBCO heterostructures, the IV curves correspond to that expected for asymmetric interfaces, which indicates that the disorder affects differently the properties at the bottom and top interfaces. Our results show the role of the interface disorder on the electrical transport of conducting/insulator/conduction heterostructures, which is relevant for different applications, going from resistive switching memories (at room temperature) to Josephson junctions (at low temperatures).

  5. Local electric stimulation causes conducted calcium response in rat interlobular arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsson, Max; Gustafsson, Finn; Andreasen, Ditte

    2002-01-01

    microscope. Local electrical pulse stimulation (200 ms, 100 V) was administered by means of an NaCl-filled microelectrode (0.7-1 M(Omega)) juxtaposed to one end of the vessel. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured with an image system at a site approximately 500 microm from......The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conducted Ca(2+) response to local electrical stimulation in isolated rat interlobular arteries. Interlobular arteries were isolated from young Sprague-Dawley rats, loaded with fura 2, and attached to pipettes in a chamber on an inverted...

  6. Effects of contact resistance on electrical conductivity measurements of SiC-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, G.E.; Thomsen, E.C.; Henager, C.H., E-mail: chuck.henager@pnnl.gov

    2013-11-15

    A combination 2/4-probe method was used to measure electrical resistances across a pure, monolithic CVD-SiC disc sample with contact resistance at the SiC/metallic electrode interfaces. By comparison of the almost simultaneous 2/4-probe measurements, the specific contact resistance (R{sub c}) and its temperature dependence were determined for two types (sputtered gold and porous nickel) electrodes from room temperature (RT) to ∼973 K. The R{sub c}-values behaved similarly for each type of metallic electrode: R{sub c} > ∼1000 Ω cm{sup 2} at RT, decreasing continuously to ∼1–10 Ω cm{sup 2} at 973 K. The temperature dependence of the inverse R{sub c} indicated thermally activated electrical conduction across the SiC/metallic interface with an apparent activation energy of ∼0.3 eV. For the flow channel insert application in a fusion reactor blanket, contact resistance potentially could reduce the transverse electrical conductivity by about 50%.

  7. Cell percolation model for electrical conduction of granular superconducting composites. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, G.; Bankuti, J.

    1990-01-01

    The percolation of the electrical conductivity of the uniform cells is studied in an in-situ elongated granular superconducting composite on the basis of the uniform cell model improved previously. The critical temperatures are determined in the macroscopic superconducting state of the two- and the three-dimensional composites. (author)

  8. Density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of protic alkanolammonium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkert, André; Ang, Keng L; Marsh, Kenneth N; Pang, Shusheng

    2011-03-21

    Ionic liquids are molten salts with melting temperatures below the boiling point of water, and their qualification for applications in potential industrial processes does depend on their fundamental physical properties such as density, viscosity and electrical conductivity. This study aims to investigate the structure-property relationship of 15 ILs that are primarily composed of alkanolammonium cations and organic acid anions. The influence of both the nature and number of alkanol substituents on the cation and the nature of the anion on the densities, viscosities and electrical conductivities at ambient and elevated temperatures are discussed. Walden rule plots are used to estimate the ionic nature of these ionic liquids, and comparison with other studies reveals that most of the investigated ionic liquids show Walden rule values similar to many non-protic ionic liquids containing imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, tetraalkylammonium, or tetraalkylphosphonium cations. Comparison of literature data reveals major disagreements in the reported properties for the investigated ionic liquids. A detailed analysis of the reported experimental procedures suggests that inappropriate drying methods can account for some of the discrepancies. Furthermore, an example for the improved presentation of experimental data in scientific literature is presented.

  9. Spin- and valley-dependent electrical conductivity of ferromagnetic group-IV 2D sheets in the topological insulator phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos; Habibiyan, Hamidreza

    2018-03-01

    In this work, based on the Kubo-Greenwood formalism and the k . p Hamiltonian model, the impact of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on electronic band structure and electrical conductivity of spin-up and spin-down subbands in counterparts of graphene, including silicene, stanene, and germanene nanosheets has been studied. When Rashba coupling is considered, the effective mass of Dirac fermions decreases significantly and no significant change is caused by this coupling for the subband gaps. All these nanosheets are found to be in topological insulator quantum phase at low staggered on-site potentials due to the applied perpendicular external electric field. We point out that the electrical conductivity of germanene increases gradually with Rashab coupling, while silicene and stanene have some fluctuations due to their smaller Fermi velocity. Furthermore, some critical temperatures with the same electrical conductivity values for jumping to the higher energy levels are observed at various Rashba coupling strengths. For all structures, a broad peak appears at low temperatures in electrical conductivity curves corresponding to the large entropy of systems when the thermal energy reaches to the difference between the energy states. Finally, we have reported that silicene has the larger has the larger electrical conductivity than two others.

  10. Electrical Properties of Conductive Cotton Yarn Coated with Eosin Y Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Arul, Narayanasamy Sabari; Han, Jeong In

    2016-06-01

    This study reports the fabrication and investigation of the electrical properties of two types of conductive cotton yarns coated with eosin Y or eosin B functionalized reduced graphene (RGO) and bare graphene oxide (GO) using dip-coating method. The surface morphology of the conductive cotton yarn coated with reduced graphene oxide was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Due to the strong electrostatic attractive forces, the negatively charged surface such as the eosin Y functionalized reduced graphene oxide or bare GO can be easily coated to the positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) treated cotton yarn. The maximum current for the conductive cotton yarn coated with eosin Y functionalized RGO and bare GO with 20 cycles repetition of (5D + R) process was found to be 793.8 μA and 3482.8 μA. Our results showed that the electrical conductivity of bare GO coated conductive cotton yarn increased by approximately four orders of magnitude with the increase in the dipping cycle of (5D+R) process.

  11. Directly calculated electrical conductivity of hot dense hydrogen from molecular dynamics simulation beyond Kubo-Greenwood formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Kang, Dongdong; Zhao, Zengxiu; Dai, Jiayu

    2018-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of hot dense hydrogen is directly calculated by molecular dynamics simulation with a reduced electron force field method, in which the electrons are represented as Gaussian wave packets with fixed sizes. Here, the temperature is higher than electron Fermi temperature ( T > 300 eV , ρ = 40 g / cc ). The present method can avoid the Coulomb catastrophe and give the limit of electrical conductivity based on the Coulomb interaction. We investigate the effect of ion-electron coupled movements, which is lost in the static method such as density functional theory based Kubo-Greenwood framework. It is found that the ionic dynamics, which contributes to the dynamical electrical microfield and electron-ion collisions, will reduce the conductivity significantly compared with the fixed ion configuration calculations.

  12. High voltage-derived enhancement of electric conduction in nanogap devices for detection of prostate-specific antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Ju; Chi, Young Shik; Choi, Insung S.; Yun, Wan Soo

    2010-07-01

    We report a simple method of enhancing electric conductance in nanogap devices without any additional treatments, such as silver-enhancing process. The low electric conductance after selective immobilization of biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles in the gap region was greatly enhanced by repeated I-V scans at relatively high voltage ranges of -5 to 5 V, which was attributed to the formation of a new conduction pathway across the gap. The higher conduction state of the nanogap device showed a very stable I-V curve, which was used as an excellent measure of the existence of prostate-specific antigen.

  13. Massively parallel electrical conductivity imaging of the subsurface: Applications to hydrocarbon exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Gregory A.; Commer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geophysical imaging is now receiving considerable attention for electrical conductivity mapping of potential offshore oil and gas reservoirs. The imaging technology employs controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) and magnetotelluric (MT) fields and treats geological media exhibiting transverse anisotropy. Moreover when combined with established seismic methods, direct imaging of reservoir fluids is possible. Because of the size of the 3D conductivity imaging problem, strategies are required exploiting computational parallelism and optimal meshing. The algorithm thus developed has been shown to scale to tens of thousands of processors. In one imaging experiment, 32,768 tasks/processors on the IBM Watson Research Blue Gene/L supercomputer were successfully utilized. Over a 24 hour period we were able to image a large scale field data set that previously required over four months of processing time on distributed clusters based on Intel or AMD processors utilizing 1024 tasks on an InfiniBand fabric. Electrical conductivity imaging using massively parallel computational resources produces results that cannot be obtained otherwise and are consistent with timeframes required for practical exploration problems.

  14. Massively parallel electrical conductivity imaging of the subsurface: Applications to hydrocarbon exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Gregory A; Commer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geophysical imaging is now receiving considerable attention for electrical conductivity mapping of potential offshore oil and gas reservoirs. The imaging technology employs controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) and magnetotelluric (MT) fields and treats geological media exhibiting transverse anisotropy. Moreover when combined with established seismic methods, direct imaging of reservoir fluids is possible. Because of the size of the 3D conductivity imaging problem, strategies are required exploiting computational parallelism and optimal meshing. The algorithm thus developed has been shown to scale to tens of thousands of processors. In one imaging experiment, 32,768 tasks/processors on the IBM Watson Research Blue Gene/L supercomputer were successfully utilized. Over a 24 hour period we were able to image a large scale field data set that previously required over four months of processing time on distributed clusters based on Intel or AMD processors utilizing 1024 tasks on an InfiniBand fabric. Electrical conductivity imaging using massively parallel computational resources produces results that cannot be obtained otherwise and are consistent with timeframes required for practical exploration problems.

  15. Comparing spatial series of soil bulk electrical conductivity as obtained by Time Domain Reflectometry and Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ali; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Allessandro; Garre, Sarah; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Conventional ground survey of soil root zone salinity by direct soil sampling are time consuming, costly and destructive. Alternatively, soil salinity can be evaluated by measuring the bulk electrical conductivity, σb, in the field. This approach is faster and cheaper, and allows a more intensive surveying. Measurements of σb can be made either in situ or with remote devices. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors allow simultaneous measurements of water content, θ, and σb. They may be calibrated for estimating the electrical conductivity of the soil solution (σw). However, they have a relatively small observation window and thus they are thought to only provide local-scale measurements. The spatial range of the sensors is limited to tens of centimeters and extension of the information to a large area can be problematic. Also, information on the vertical distribution of the σb soil profile may only be obtained by installing sensors at different depths. In this sense, the TDR may be considered as an invasive technique. Compared to the TDR, other geophysical methods based for example on the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) techniques represent an alternative in respect to those traditional for soil salinity characterization. In order to deduce the actual distribution of the bulk electrical conductivity, σb, in the soil profile, one needs to invert the signal coming from ERT sensors. The latter, in turn, depends on the specific depth distribution of the σb, as well as on the electrical configuration of the sensor used. With these premises, the main aim of this study is to estimate the vertical σb distribution starting from resistivity data series measured using the ERT method under different salinity conditions and using TDR data as ground-truth data for calibration and validation of the ERT sensor. This way, limited measured TDR data may be used for translating extensive ERT apparent electrical conductivity, σa, measurements to estimate depth

  16. Vertex corrections to the mean-field electrical conductivity in disordered electron systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Vladislav; Janiš, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 17 (2013), "175502-1"-"175502-10" ISSN 0953-8984 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : disordered electron systems * electrical conductivity * vertex corrections Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.223, year: 2013

  17. Electrical anisotropy properties of ZnO nanorods analyzed by conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yunfeng; Yu Naisen; Liu Dongping; He Yangyang; Liu Yuanda; Liang Hongwei; Du Guotong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electrical properties of one individual lying ZnO nanorod were performed by C-AFM measurement. ► Inhomogeneous spatial current distribution was detected. ► Current was detected along the side facets while no current was detected in the top plane for ZnO nanorod. ► The side facets were more conductive than the top facets of ZnO nanorods. - Abstract: In this study, we have prepared ZnO nanorods on cracked GaN substrates using aqueous solution method. Unique electrical characterization of one individual lying ZnO nanorod is analyzed by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). Effect of anisotropy properties on the conductivity of a single nanorod has been investigated. The current maps of ZnO nanorods have been simultaneously recorded with the topography which is gained by AFM-contact mode. The C-AFM measurement present local current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the side facets of one individual lying nanorod, however, no current is detected on the top facets of ZnO nanorods. Measurement results indicate that the side facets are more electrically active than the top facets of ZnO nanorods due to lower Schottky barrier height of the side facets.

  18. Towards Practical Application of Paper based Printed Circuits: Capillarity Effectively Enhances Conductivity of the Thermoplastic Electrically Conductive Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoyi; Chiang, Sum Wai; Lin, Wei; Yang, Cheng; Li, Zhuo; Liu, Jingping; Cui, Xiaoya; Kang, Feiyu; Wong, Ching Ping

    2014-09-01

    Direct printing nanoparticle-based conductive inks onto paper substrates has encountered difficulties e.g. the nanoparticles are prone to penetrate into the pores of the paper and become partially segmented, and the necessary low-temperature-sintering process is harmful to the dimension-stability of paper. Here we prototyped the paper-based circuit substrate in combination with printed thermoplastic electrically conductive adhesives (ECA), which takes the advantage of the capillarity of paper and thus both the conductivity and mechanical robustness of the printed circuitsweredrastically improved without sintering process. For instance, the electrical resistivity of the ECA specimen on a pulp paper (6 × 10-5Ω.cm, with 50 wt% loading of Ag) was only 14% of that on PET film than that on PET film. This improvement has been found directly related to the sizing degree of paper, in agreement with the effective medium approximation simulation results in this work. The thermoplastic nature also enables excellent mechanical strength of the printed ECA to resist repeated folding. Considering the generality of the process and the wide acceptance of ECA technique in the modern electronic packages, this method may find vast applications in e.g. circuit boards, capacitive touch pads, and radio frequency identification antennas, which have been prototyped in the manuscript.

  19. Fabrication of Extrinsically Conductive Silicone Rubbers with High Elasticity and Analysis of Their Mechanical and Electrical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Saleem

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Conductive plastics are attracting more and more interest in electronics due to their light weight and inability to rust, which are common problems associated with metals. The field of conducting plastics is not new. Much work has been done to impart electrical conductivity to mechanically strong polymers such as polypropylene, polycarbonate and epoxies, etc. However there is a need to fabricate more flexible and elastic conductive polymers such as conducting silicone rubbers for use in various applications. In this work silicone rubbers reinforced with conductive fillers have been fabricated for use as sensors in textiles to detect the resistance change produced by stretching or relaxing. The variations of electrical resistance have been investigated by stretching and releasing the strands of conductive rubbers as a function of time. Two types of silicone rubbers—addition cured and condensation cured—were compounded with different electrically conductive fillers, among which carbon fibers have shown the best results. The carbon fibers improved the electrical conductance of the rubbers, even in very low weight percentages. The increasing concentration of fillers decreases the elasticity of the rubber. In order to keep the original properties of silicones, the filler concentration was kept as low as possible to produce a significantly detectable signal. The fabricated compounds were analyzed for their mechanical properties by stress strain curves. Such materials find their applications in electronics, antistatic applications, sports and the automotive industry where they can be used as deformation sensors.

  20. Probing the bulk ionic conductivity by thin film hetero-epitaxial engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Pergolesi, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    Highly textured thin films with small grain boundary regions can be used as model systems to directly measure the bulk conductivity of oxygen ion conducting oxides. Ionic conducting thin films and epitaxial heterostructures are also widely used to probe the effect of strain on the oxygen ion migration in oxide materials. For the purpose of these investigations a good lattice matching between the film and the substrate is required to promote the ordered film growth. Moreover, the substrate should be a good electrical insulator at high temperature to allow a reliable electrical characterization of the deposited film. Here we report the fabrication of an epitaxial heterostructure made with a double buffer layer of BaZrO3 and SrTiO3 grown on MgO substrates that fulfills both requirements. Based on such template platform, highly ordered (001) epitaxially oriented thin films of 15% Sm-doped CeO2 and 8 mol% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 are grown. Bulk conductivities as well as activation energies are measured for both materials, confirming the success of the approach. The reported insulating template platform promises potential application also for the electrical characterization of other novel electrolyte materials that still need a thorough understanding of their ionic conductivity.

  1. Dynamical electrical conductivity of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Luxmi; Singh, Navinder

    2017-06-01

    For graphene (a Dirac material) it has been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed that DC resistivity is proportional to T 4 when the temperature is much less than Bloch-Grüneisen temperature ({{ \\Theta }\\text{BG}} ) and T-linear in the opposite case (T\\gg {{ \\Theta }\\text{BG}} ). Going beyond this case, we investigate the dynamical electrical conductivity in graphene using the powerful method of the memory function formalism. In the zero frequency regime, we obtain the above mentioned behavior which was previously obtained using the Bloch-Boltzmann kinetic equation. In the finite frequency regime, we obtain several new results: (1) the generalized Drude scattering rate, in the zero temperature limit, shows {ω4} behavior at low frequencies (ω \\ll {{k}\\text{B}}{{ \\Theta }\\text{BG}}/\\hbar ) and saturates at higher frequencies. We also observed the Holstein mechanism, however, with different power laws from that in the case of metals; (2) at higher frequencies, ω \\gg {{k}\\text{B}}{{ \\Theta }\\text{BG}}/\\hbar , and higher temperatures T\\gg {{ \\Theta }\\text{BG}} , we observed that the generalized Drude scattering rate is linear in temperature. In addition, several other results are also obtained. With the experimental advancement of this field, these results should be experimentally tested.

  2. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When an electric field is applied, this electron can be lifted to this higher energy ... By such a virtual process two electrons .... using superconducting coils has come to be a reality. ... nance imaging techniques used in medical diagnostics. Com ...

  3. Novel electrical transport properties in conducting polymers such as polythiophene and Poly(3-Methylthiophene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Shigeo; Masubuchi, Shin-ichi; Matsuyama, Tomochika; Matsushita, Rokuji.

    1994-01-01

    Electric transport properties in most of the conducting organic polymers have provided a riddle that prevents a thorough physical understanding of the conduction mechanism. Major difficulties for approaching the most substantial aspect in the electrical transport properties underlie in complicated higher order structure inherent to polymeric materials consisting of crystalline regions entangled with disordered amorphous regions. In order to clearly understand the origin of the metallic nature of conducting polymers, we have to extract the proper transport properties characteristics of the ordered crystalline regions. We have made a series of experimental studies of the transport properties in conductive polythiophene and poly(3-methylthiophene) obtained with the electrochemical polymerization. For polythiophene, we have investigated both the as-grown samples and the ones that contain controlled amount of dopant species exchanged after the neutralization aiming to see the effect of dopant concentration on the transport properties. (author)

  4. Effect of pH on the electrical properties and conducting mechanism of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periathai, R.Sudha [Department of Physics, Standard Fireworks Rajaratnam College for Women, Sivakasi 626123 (India); Abarna, S.; Hirankumar, G. [Centre for Scientific and Applied Research, PSN College of Engineering and Technology, Tirunelveli 627152 (India); Jeyakumaran, N. [Department of Physics, V.H.N. Senthikumara Nadar College, Virudhunagar 626001 (India); Prithivikumaran, N., E-mail: janavi_p@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, V.H.N. Senthikumara Nadar College, Virudhunagar 626001 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Semiconductor nanoparticles have attracted more interests because of their size-dependent optical and electrical properties.SnO{sub 2} is an oxygen-deficient n-type semiconductor with a wide band gap of 3.6 eV (300 K). It has many remarkable applications as sensors, catalysts, transparent conducting electrodes, anode material for rechargeable Li- ion batteries and optoelectronic devices. In the present work, the role of pH in determining the electrical and dielectric properties of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles has been studied as a function of temperature ranging from Room temperature (RT) to 114 °C in the frequency range of 7 MHz to 50 mHz using impedance spectroscopic technique. The non linear behavior observed in the thermal dependence of the conductance of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles is explained by means of the surface property of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles where proton hopping mechanism is dealt with. Jonscher's power law has been fitted for the conductance spectra and the frequency exponent (“s” value) gives an insight about the ac conducting mechanism. The temperature dependence of electrical relaxation phenomenon in the material has been observed. The complex electric modulus analysis indicates the possibility of hopping conduction mechanism in the system with non-exponential type of conductivity relaxation.

  5. Acidosis slows electrical conduction through the atrio-ventricular node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Ashley M; Burton, Francis L; Walker, Nicola L; Craig, Margaret A; Cheng, Hongwei; Hancox, Jules C; Orchard, Clive H; Smith, Godfrey L

    2014-01-01

    Acidosis affects the mechanical and electrical activity of mammalian hearts but comparatively little is known about its effects on the function of the atrio-ventricular node (AVN). In this study, the electrical activity of the epicardial surface of the left ventricle of isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts was examined using optical methods. Perfusion with hypercapnic Tyrode's solution (20% CO2, pH 6.7) increased the time of earliest activation (Tact) from 100.5 ± 7.9 to 166.1 ± 7.2 ms (n = 8) at a pacing cycle length (PCL) of 300 ms (37°C). Tact increased at shorter PCL, and the hypercapnic solution prolonged Tact further: at 150 ms PCL, Tact was prolonged from 131.0 ± 5.2 to 174.9 ± 16.3 ms. 2:1 AVN block was common at shorter cycle lengths. Atrial and ventricular conduction times were not significantly affected by the hypercapnic solution suggesting that the increased delay originated in the AVN. Isolated right atrial preparations were superfused with Tyrode's solutions at pH 7.4 (control), 6.8 and 6.3. Low pH prolonged the atrial-Hisian (AH) interval, the AVN effective and functional refractory periods and Wenckebach cycle length significantly. Complete AVN block occurred in 6 out of 9 preparations. Optical imaging of conduction at the AV junction revealed increased conduction delay in the region of the AVN, with less marked effects in atrial and ventricular tissue. Thus acidosis can dramatically prolong the AVN delay, and in combination with short cycle lengths, this can cause partial or complete AVN block and is therefore implicated in the development of brady-arrhythmias in conditions of local or systemic acidosis.

  6. Acidosis slows electrical conduction through the atrio-ventricular node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Muir Nisbet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidosis affects the mechanical and electrical activity of mammalian hearts but comparatively little is known about its effects on the function of the atrio-ventricular node (AVN. In this study, the electrical activity of the epicardial surface of the left ventricle of isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts was examined using optical methods. Perfusion with hypercapnic Tyrode’s solution (20% CO2, pH 6.7 increased the time of earliest activation (Tact from 100.5+7.9 to 166.1+7.2ms (n=8 at a pacing cycle length (PCL of 300ms (37oC. Tact increased at shorter PCL, and the hypercapnic solution prolonged Tact further: at 150ms PCL, Tact was prolonged from 131.0+5.2 to 174.9+16.3ms. 2:1 AVN block was common at shorter cycle lengths. Atrial and ventricular conduction times were not significantly affected by the hypercapnic solution suggesting that the increased delay originated in the AVN. Isolated right atrial preparations were superfused with Tyrode’s solutions at pH 7.4 (control, 6.8 and 6.3. Low pH prolonged the atrial-Hisian (AH interval, the effective and functional refractory periods and Wenckebach cycle length significantly. Complete AVN block occurred in 6 out of 9 preparations. Optical imaging of conduction at the AV junction revealed increased conduction delay in the region of the AVN, with less marked effects in atrial and ventricular tissue. Thus acidosis can dramatically prolong the AVN delay, and in combination with short cycle lengths, this can cause partial or complete AVN block and is therefore implicated in the development of brady-arrhythmias in conditions of local or systemic acidosis.

  7. Using Rouse-Fowler model to describe radiation-induced electrical conductivity of nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyuryagina, N. S.; Yalovets, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    Using the Rouse-Fowler (RF) model this work studies the radiation-induced electrical conductivity of a polymer nanocomposite material with spherical nanoparticles against the intensity and exposure time of gamma-ray, concentration and size of nanoparticles. The research has found the energy distribution of localized statesinduced by nanoparticles. The studies were conducted on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with CdS nanoparticles.

  8. Annual report on the Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 2. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2006. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2006 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2006

  9. Annual report on the Monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators - 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Electricity and natural gas transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO) are regulated operators that provide public service functions for the benefit of the network users and the consumers they serve. Accordingly, European and French law requires that they be under independent and nondiscriminatory obligations. In particular, they must develop a good practices program which includes a range of measures to prevent the risk of discriminatory practices in network access. Pursuant to Article L.134-15 of the Energy Code, the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) is publishing this year its 3. annual report on the monitoring of good practices programs and independence for electricity and natural gas system operators for the year 2007. This report is based on analysis of the 'reports on the implementation of good practices programs' submitted to the CRE by the operators in late 2007 and audits carried out by the CRE services in these companies in 2007

  10. Modeling of conductive particle motion in viscous medium affected by an electric field considering particle-electrode interactions and microdischarge phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Ghiyam; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmaeil; Pérez, Alberto T.

    2016-10-01

    Up and down motion of a spherical conductive particle in dielectric viscous fluid driven by a DC electric field between two parallel electrodes was investigated. A nonlinear differential equation, governing the particle dynamics, was derived, based on Newton's second law of mechanics, and solved numerically. All the pertaining dimensionless groups were extracted. In contrast to similar previous works, hydrodynamic interaction between the particle and the electrodes, as well as image electric forces, has been taken into account. Furthermore, the influence of the microdischarge produced between the electrodes and the approaching particle on the particle dynamics has been included in the model. The model results were compared with experimental data available in the literature, as well as with some additional experimental data obtained through the present study showing very good agreement. The results indicate that the wall hydrodynamic effect and the dielectric liquid ionic conductivity are very dominant factors determining the particle trajectory. A lower bound is derived for the charge transferred to the particle while rebounding from an electrode. It is found that the time and length scales of the post-microdischarge motion of the particle can be as small as microsecond and micrometer, respectively. The model is able to predict the so called settling/dwelling time phenomenon for the first time.

  11. Correlation of Electrical and Swelling Properties with Nano Free Volume Structure of Conductive Silicone Rubber Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Salam, M.H.; El-Gamal, S.; Abd El-Maqsoud, D.M.; Mohsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on finding a correlation between the positron annihilation parameters in silicone rubber based on Poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) composites loaded with different conductive fillers and their swelling and electrical properties. Four types of conductive fillers have been used in this study: carbon black, graphite, copper, and nickel powders. The maximum degree of swelling Q m %, the penetration rate, P, as well as the diffusion coefficient, D, decrease with increasing the filler content due to the reduction of the size of free volume, as observed through a decrease of the probability of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) formation I 3 and the o-Ps lifetime Τ 3 , representing the size of free volume measured by the positron annihilation lifetime technique (PAL). The electrical conductivity ln (Σ) is positively correlated with the probability of free annihilation of positrons at interfaces I 2 , thus suggesting an increase in the electron density with the filler content. The activation energy of conduction, E a , is found to decrease with the increase in the loading of conductive filler and the particle size of the filler. A correlation between the free-volume V f , and the d.c. electrical conductivity ln (Σ) is found to be in accordance with Miyamoto and Shibayma model of ion conduction.

  12. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Controllable Electrical Conductivity and Water Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lijun; Guan, Jipeng; Li, Zhixiang; Zhao, Jingxin; Ye, Cuicui; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin

    2017-02-14

    A facile and versatile strategy for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces with controllable electrical conductivity and water adhesion is reported. "Vine-on-fence"-structured and cerebral cortex-like superhydrophobic surfaces are constructed by filtering a suspension of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), using polyoxymethylene nonwovens as the filter paper. The nonwovens with micro- and nanoporous two-tier structures act as the skeleton, introducing a microscale structure. The MWCNTs act as nanoscale structures, creating hierarchical surface roughness. The surface topography and the electrical conductivity of the superhydrophobic surfaces are controlled by varying the MWCNT loading. The vine-on-fence-structured surfaces exhibit "sticky" superhydrophobicity with high water adhesion. The cerebral cortex-like surfaces exhibit self-cleaning properties with low water adhesion. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surfaces are chemically resistant to acidic and alkaline environments of pH 2-12. They therefore have potential in applications such as droplet-based microreactors and thin-film microextraction. These findings aid our understanding of the role that surface topography plays in the design and fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with different water-adhesion properties.

  13. Thermal and Electrical Conductivities of a Three-Dimensional Ideal Anyon Gas with Fractional Exclusion Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Fang; Wen Wen; Chen Ji-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The thermal and electrical transport properties of an ideal anyon gas within fractional exclusion statistics are studied. By solving the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation-time approximation, the analytical expressions for the thermal and electrical conductivities of a three-dimensional ideal anyon gas are given. The low-temperature expressions for the two conductivities are obtained by using the Sommerfeld expansion. It is found that the Wiedemann—Franz law should be modified by the higher-order temperature terms, which depend on the statistical parameter g for a charged anyon gas. Neglecting the higher-order terms of temperature, the Wiedemann—Franz law is respected, which gives the Lorenz number. The Lorenz number is a function of the statistical parameter g. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. Novel electrical conductivity properties in Ca-doped BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Wang, S. Y., E-mail: shouyu.wang@yahoo.com [Tianjin Normal University, College of Physics and Materials Science (China); Liu, W. F., E-mail: wfliu@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science (China); Xi, X. J. [Tianjin Normal University, College of Physics and Materials Science (China); Zhang, H. [Tianjin University, Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science (China); Guo, F. [Tianjin Normal University, College of Physics and Materials Science (China); Xu, X. L. [Tianjin University, Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Faculty of Science (China); Li, M.; Liu, L.; Zhang, C.; Li, X.; Yang, J. B. [Tianjin Normal University, College of Physics and Materials Science (China)

    2015-05-15

    The charge defective structure in Bi{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (CBFO, x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3) nanoparticles (NPs) ranging from 140 to 25 nm as well as their relations to band gap and leakage current behavior are investigated. It is demonstrated that Ca doping effectively narrows the band gap from ∼2.16 to ∼2.02 eV, due to the appearance and accumulation of oxygen vacancy. Subsequently, enhanced electrical conductivity was obtained in these CBFO NPs, which leads to the appearance of a distinct threshold switching behavior in Ca-doped BFO NPs with higher conductivity at room temperature. Possible mechanisms for Ca doping effects on the electric conduction were discussed upon the interplay of NPs’ size effect and mobile charged defects on the basis of reduced particle size and the increased density of oxygen vacancy analyzed through X-ray photoelectron spectrum.

  15. Relationship between cotton yield and soil electrical conductivity, topography, and landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding spatial and temporal variability in crop yield is a prerequisite to implementing site-specific management of crop inputs. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa), soil brightness, and topography are easily obtained data that can explain yield variability. The objectives of this stu...

  16. Application of Electromagnetic Induction to Monitor Changes in Soil Electrical Conductivity Profiles in Arid Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, K.Z.; McCabe, Matthew; Moghadas, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, multi-configuration electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements were conducted in a corn field to estimate variation in soil electrical conductivity profiles in the roots zone. Electromagnetic forward model based on the full

  17. In vivo electrical conductivity imaging of a canine brain using a 3 T MREIT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Joong; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Byung Il; Woo, Eung Je; Lee, Soo Yeol; Seo, Jin Keun; Kwon, Ohin; Park, Chunjae; Kang, Byeong Teck; Park, Hee Myung

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) aims at producing high-resolution cross-sectional conductivity images of an electrically conducting object such as the human body. Following numerous phantom imaging experiments, the most recent study demonstrated successful conductivity image reconstructions of postmortem canine brains using a 3 T MREIT system with 40 mA imaging currents. Here, we report the results of in vivo animal imaging experiments using 5 mA imaging currents. To investigate any change of electrical conductivity due to brain ischemia, canine brains having a regional ischemic model were scanned along with separate scans of canine brains having no disease model. Reconstructed multi-slice conductivity images of in vivo canine brains with a pixel size of 1.4 mm showed a clear contrast between white and gray matter and also between normal and ischemic regions. We found that the conductivity value of an ischemic region decreased by about 10–14%. In a postmortem brain, conductivity values of white and gray matter decreased by about 4–8% compared to those in a live brain. Accumulating more experience of in vivo animal imaging experiments, we plan to move to human experiments. One of the important goals of our future work is the reduction of the imaging current to a level that a human subject can tolerate. The ability to acquire high-resolution conductivity images will find numerous clinical applications not supported by other medical imaging modalities. Potential applications in biology, chemistry and material science are also expected

  18. Development of Tailorable Electrically Conductive Thermal Control Material Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, M. S.; Harada, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The optical characteristics of surfaces on spacecraft are fundamental parameters in controlling its temperature. Passive thermal control coatings with designed solar absorptance and infrared emittance properties have been developed and have been in use for some time. In this total space environment, the coating must be stable and maintain its desired optical properties as well as mechanical properties for the course of the mission lifetime. The mission lifetimes are increasing and in our quest to save weight, newer substrates are being integrated which limit electrical grounding schemes. All of this has added to already existing concerns about spacecraft charging and related spacecraft failures or operational failures. The concern is even greater for thermal control surfaces that are very large. One way of alleviating such concerns is to design new thermal control material systems (TCMS) that can help to mitigate charging via providing charge leakage paths. The objective of this program was to develop two types of passive electrically conductive TCMS. The first was a highly absorbing/emitting black surface and the second was a low (alpha(sub s)/epsilon(sub N)) type white surface. The surface resistance goals for the black absorber was 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) Omega/square, and for the white surfaces it was 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 10) Omega/square. Several material system concepts were suggested and evaluated for space environment stability and electrical performance characterization. Our efforts in designing and evaluating these material systems have resulted in several developments. New concepts, pigments and binders have been developed to provide new engineering quality TCMS. Some of these have already found application on space hardware, some are waiting to be recognized by thermal designers, and some require further detailed studies to become state-of-the-art for future space hardware and space structures. Our studies on baseline state-of-the-art materials and

  19. The electrical conductivity and longitudinal magnetoresistance of metallic nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga, Luis, E-mail: luismoragajaramillo@gmail.com [Universidad Central de Chile, Toesca 1783, Santiago 8370178 (Chile); Henriquez, Ricardo, E-mail: rahc.78@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Bravo, Sergio, E-mail: bravo.castillo.sergio@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Solis, Basilio, E-mail: bsolis1984@gmail.com [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Proceeding from exact solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation, we present formulas for the electrical conductivity and longitudinal magnetoresistance of single-crystalline cylindrical nanotubes. The effects of surface scattering are taken into account by introducing different specularity parameters at the inner and outer surfaces. For small values of the inner diameter, these formulas reduce to the respective expressions for cylindrical nanowires. It is found that the existing measurements of the resistivity of nanotubes (Venkata Kamalakar and Raychaudhuri, New J. Phys. 14, 043032 (2012)) can be accurately described by this formalism.

  20. External electric field driven modification of the anomalous and spin Hall conductivities in Fe thin films on MgO(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradipto, Abdul-Muizz; Akiyama, Toru; Ito, Tomonori; Nakamura, Kohji

    2018-01-01

    The effects of applying external electric fields to the anomalous and spin Hall conductivities in Fe thin-film models with different layer thicknesses on MgO(001) are investigated by using first-principles calculations. We observe that, for the considered systems, the application of positive electric field associated with the accumulation of negative charges on the Fe side generally decreases (increases) the anomalous (spin) Hall conductivities. The mapping of the Hall conductivities within the two-dimensional Brillouin zone shows that the electric-field-induced modifications are related to the modification of the band structures of the atoms at the interface with the MgO substrate. In particular, the external electric field affects the Hall conductivities via the modifications of the dx z,dy z orbitals, in which the application of positive electric field pushes the minority-spin states of the dx z,dy z bands closer to the Fermi level. Better agreement with the anomalous Hall conductivity for bulk Fe and a more realistic scenario for the electric field modification of Hall conductivities are obtained by using the thicker layers of Fe on MgO (Fe3/MgO and Fe5/MgO).

  1. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B. Appa; Kumar, E. Ramesh; Kumari, K. Rajani; Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-01-01

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag 2 O−[(1−x)B 2 O 3 −xTeO 2 ] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO 2 as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10 −2 S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries

  2. Experimental evaluation of electrical conductivity imaging of anisotropic brain tissues using a combination of diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Jeong, Woo Chul; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong, E-mail: bmekim@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ejwoo@khu.ac.kr; Woo, Eung Je, E-mail: bmekim@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: ejwoo@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); Kyung, Eun Jung [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Bum [Department of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh In [Department of Mathematics, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Anisotropy of biological tissues is a low-frequency phenomenon that is associated with the function and structure of cell membranes. Imaging of anisotropic conductivity has potential for the analysis of interactions between electromagnetic fields and biological systems, such as the prediction of current pathways in electrical stimulation therapy. To improve application to the clinical environment, precise approaches are required to understand the exact responses inside the human body subjected to the stimulated currents. In this study, we experimentally evaluate the anisotropic conductivity tensor distribution of canine brain tissues, using a recently developed diffusion tensor-magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography method. At low frequency, electrical conductivity of the biological tissues can be expressed as a product of the mobility and concentration of ions in the extracellular space. From diffusion tensor images of the brain, we can obtain directional information on diffusive movements of water molecules, which correspond to the mobility of ions. The position dependent scale factor, which provides information on ion concentration, was successfully calculated from the magnetic flux density, to obtain the equivalent conductivity tensor. By combining the information from both techniques, we can finally reconstruct the anisotropic conductivity tensor images of brain tissues. The reconstructed conductivity images better demonstrate the enhanced signal intensity in strongly anisotropic brain regions, compared with those resulting from previous methods using a global scale factor.

  3. Electrical conductivity of molten carbonate and carbonate-chloride systems coexisting with aluminium oxide powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V. [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural State Economic Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bovet, Andrey L.; Zakiryanova, Irina D. [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2018-04-01

    The electrical properties of composite electrolytes (suspensions) composed of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and molten carbonate eutectic (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} or molten carbonate-chloride mixture 0.72(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut}-0.28NaCl have been investigated by AC impedance method. This system shows a dependence of the electrical conductivity upon the temperature and the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The specific electrical conductivity of the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} system can be adequately described by the Maxwell equation for two-phase heterogeneous materials. The regression equation for the dependence of the specific conductivity of the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} composite on the aluminium oxide concentration and temperature was obtained.

  4. Electrical Conduction Mechanism and Dielectric Properties of Spherical Shaped Fe₃O₄ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Co-Precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoń, Adrian; Łukowiec, Dariusz; Kremzer, Marek; Mikuła, Jarosław; Włodarczyk, Patryk

    2018-05-05

    On the basis of dielectric measurements performed in a wide temperature range (173⁻373 K), a comprehensive analysis of the dielectric and electrical properties of magnetite nanoparticles electrical conduction mechanism of compressed spherical shaped Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles was proposed. The electrical conductivity of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles was related to two different mechanisms (correlated barrier hopping and non-overlapping small polaron tunneling mechanisms); the transition between them was smooth. Additionally, role of grains and grain boundaries with charge carrier mobility and with observed hopping mechanism was described in detail. It has been confirmed that conductivity dispersion (as a function of frequencies) is closely related to both the long-range mobility (conduction mechanism associated with grain boundaries) and to the short-range mobility (conduction mechanism associated with grains). Calculated electron mobility increases with temperature, which is related to the decreasing value of hopping energy for the tunneling of small polarons. The opposite scenario was observed for the value of electron hopping energy.

  5. Spatial variability of soil electrical conductivity under the mole rats (Spalax microphthalmus digging activity at the different scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhukov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The soil mounds emerged owing to the mole rats’ digging activity have been shown to be characterised by less electrical conductivity than surrounded soil. This effect is due to the changes of the mounds bulk’s density and moisture. The effect of the mole rats’ digging activity on the soil electrical conductivity has been found not to be restricted by the geometrical border of the mounds. The mounds are surrounded by 1–1.5 m halo of increased soil electrical conductivity. The halo size is increased with the aging of the mound and with the compacting of their aggregation.

  6. Highest recorded electrical conductivity and microstructure in polypropylene-carbon nanotubes composites and the effect of carbon nanofibers addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrera, C. A.; Pérez-González, J.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Romero-Partida, N.; Flores-Vela, A.; Cabañas-Moreno, J. G.

    2018-04-01

    In the last decade, numerous investigations have been devoted to the preparation of polypropylene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PP/MWCNT) nanocomposites having enhanced properties, and in particular, high electrical conductivities (> 1 S cm-1). The present work establishes that the highest electrical conductivity in PP/MWCNT nanocomposites is limited by the amount of nanofiller content which can be incorporated in the polymer matrix, namely, about 20 wt%. This concentration of MWCNT in PP leads to a maximum electrical conductivity slightly lower than 8 S cm-1, but only by assuring an adequate combination of dispersion and spatial distribution of the carbon nanotubes. The realization of such an optimal microstructure depends on the characteristics of the production process of the PP/MWCNT nanocomposites; in our experiments, involving composite fabrication by melt mixing and hot pressing, a second re-processing cycle is shown to increase the electrical conductivity values by up to two orders of magnitude, depending on the MWCNT content of the nanocomposite. A modest increase of the highest electrical conductivity obtained in nanocomposites with 21.5 wt% MWCNT content has been produced by the combined use of carbon nanofibers (CNF) and MWCNT, so that the total nanofiller content was increased to 30 wt% in the nanocomposite with PP—15 wt% MWCNT—15 wt%CNF.

  7. Modification of microstructure and electrical conductivity of plasma-sprayed YSZ deposit through post-densification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Xianjin; Li Chengxin; Li Changjiu; Yang Guanjun

    2006-01-01

    4.5 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating was deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) as an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) applications. The post treatment was employed using zirconium and yttrium nitrate solution infiltration to densify the coating microstructure for improvement of gas permeability. The deposition of YSZ through nitrate in voids of the coating was examined. Microstructure of the as-sprayed and densified coatings was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of infiltrating treatment on coating microstructure and electrical conductivity was examined. The electrical conductivity of APS-sprayed YSZ coating at the direction perpendicular to coating surface was much lower than that of bulk materials. Post-densification treatment improved the electrical conductivity of YSZ coating by about 25% compared with as-sprayed coating. It was found that the deposition of YSZ resulting from decomposition of nitrate in the lamellar interface gaps was different from that in vertical cracks in lamella owing to the orthogonal feature of those two types of gaps. The nanopores were formed in the deposited YSZ in nonbonded interface gaps while large pores were residued in vertical cracks in splats. The microstructural examination suggests that nanopores in the deposited YSZ in nonbonded interfaces in the coating were isolated from each other, which led to the significant reduction of gas permeability after densification. Moreover, the nanocontacts between lamellae resulted in high contact resistance and limit improvement of electrical conductivity of the coating after densification

  8. Effect of proton-conduction in electrolyte on electric efficiency of multi-stage solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yoshio; Tachikawa, Yuya; Somekawa, Takaaki; Hatae, Toru; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical devices that enable the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies under high operating temperatures. The concept of multi-stage electrochemical oxidation using SOFCs has been proposed and studied over the past several decades for further improving the electrical efficiency. However, the improvement is limited by fuel dilution downstream of the fuel flow. Therefore, evolved technologies are required to achieve considerably higher electrical efficiencies. Here we present an innovative concept for a critically-high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of up to 85% based on the lower heating value (LHV), in which a high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation is combined with a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. Switching a solid electrolyte material from a conventional oxide-ion conducting material to a proton-conducting material under the high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation mechanism has proven to be highly advantageous for the electrical efficiency. The DC efficiency of 85% (LHV) corresponds to a net AC efficiency of approximately 76% (LHV), where the net AC efficiency refers to the transmission-end AC efficiency. This evolved concept will yield a considerably higher efficiency with a much smaller generation capacity than the state-of-the-art several tens-of-MW-class most advanced combined cycle (MACC).

  9. Electrical conductivity in tokamaks and extended neoclassical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S.E.; Zanza, V.

    1992-01-01

    The electrical conductivity measurements reported from various tokamaks (D-III, PLT, TEXT, ASDEX, JT-60, TEXTOR, JET, TFTR) and compared with the usual neoclassical theory are here also compared with the extended neoclassical theory where the electron-electron collision rate is anomalous while the electron-ion collision rate remains Coulombian. It is found that, out of the 14 experiments considered, three are consistent with both the neoclassical and the extended neoclassical theories, four are consistent only with the extended neoclassical theory, and four are consistent with the neoclassical theory and also, within the experimental errors, not inconsistent with the extended neoclassical theory; the remaining three experiments appear to be incompatible with both theories. It is concluded that the extended neoclassical theory is in better agreement with conductivity experiments than the conventional neoclassical theory and, indeed, the extended theory is a serious candidate for explaining tokamak behaviour, since it accommodates naturally an anomalous electron thermal transport, which the conventional neoclassical theory is unable to do. (author). 31 refs, 1 fig

  10. Enhanced adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on conductive PANI-PCL fiber scaffold by electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yumei; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Chuying; Qiu, Fangping; Sun, Bolun; Ji, He; Qiu, Ju; Wang, Ce

    2017-01-01

    Recently, electrically conductive biomaterial scaffolds have shown great potential in tissue regeneration. Herein, we reported an electrically conductive polyaniline (PANI) coated poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun micron-fiber scaffold for the enhanced attachment and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under electrical stimulation conditions. After the O 2 plasma treatment toward PCL electrospun fiber, PANI could be polymerized onto their surfaces successfully. The obtained PANI-PCL fibers were characterized by SEM observations, FT-IR spectra, XPS analysis, and water contact angle measurement. The mechanical tests indicated that the fibers could satisfy the practical vascular scaffold requirements. The conductivity of the PANI-PCL fibers was 6.71 × 10 −3 S/cm which could provide a conductive in-vitro platform to study the effect of electrical stimulation on HUVECs proliferation. When PANI-coated PCL fibers were compared with PCL fibers, HUVECs exhibited highly enhanced adhesion and viability, especially under electrical stimulation (ES) of 200, 300, and 400 mV/cm. Proliferation of HUVECs on PANI-PCL fibers was strongly dependent on electrical stimulation intensity. The results showed new insights into conductive scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Electrospun PCL fibers were subjected to an O 2 plasma treatment to improve the hydrophilicity. • PANI was coated onto the surface of PCL fibers successfully after the plasma treatment. • HUVECs could attach, spread, and survive better on PANI-PCL fibers than on pure PCL fibers. • Electrical stimulation benefited proliferation of HUVECs on conductive PANI-PCL scaffold.

  11. Enhanced adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on conductive PANI-PCL fiber scaffold by electrical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yumei [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Traditional Chinese Medicine Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117 (China); Li, Xiang; Zhao, Rui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Chuying [Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Traditional Chinese Medicine Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117 (China); Qiu, Fangping, E-mail: qfp2004@126.com [Chemistry and Biology Science College, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun, Bolun; Ji, He; Qiu, Ju [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Ce, E-mail: cwang@jlu.edu.cn [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Recently, electrically conductive biomaterial scaffolds have shown great potential in tissue regeneration. Herein, we reported an electrically conductive polyaniline (PANI) coated poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun micron-fiber scaffold for the enhanced attachment and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under electrical stimulation conditions. After the O{sub 2} plasma treatment toward PCL electrospun fiber, PANI could be polymerized onto their surfaces successfully. The obtained PANI-PCL fibers were characterized by SEM observations, FT-IR spectra, XPS analysis, and water contact angle measurement. The mechanical tests indicated that the fibers could satisfy the practical vascular scaffold requirements. The conductivity of the PANI-PCL fibers was 6.71 × 10{sup −3} S/cm which could provide a conductive in-vitro platform to study the effect of electrical stimulation on HUVECs proliferation. When PANI-coated PCL fibers were compared with PCL fibers, HUVECs exhibited highly enhanced adhesion and viability, especially under electrical stimulation (ES) of 200, 300, and 400 mV/cm. Proliferation of HUVECs on PANI-PCL fibers was strongly dependent on electrical stimulation intensity. The results showed new insights into conductive scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Electrospun PCL fibers were subjected to an O{sub 2} plasma treatment to improve the hydrophilicity. • PANI was coated onto the surface of PCL fibers successfully after the plasma treatment. • HUVECs could attach, spread, and survive better on PANI-PCL fibers than on pure PCL fibers. • Electrical stimulation benefited proliferation of HUVECs on conductive PANI-PCL scaffold.

  12. Effect of fast-neutron irradiation on the electrical conductivity of NaKSO/sub 4/ crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E.; El-Khatib, A.M.; El-Wahidy, E.F.; Gado, H.E.

    1987-05-01

    In recent years, the study of the physical properties of NaKSO/sub 4/ has drawn the attention of many investigators. Measurements on the electrical, thermal and elastic properties of NaKSO/sub 4/ in the temperature range 300 to 500 K show a structural phase transition at 453 K. Electrical conductivity measurements (4) on pure and doped compounds of NaKSO/sub 4/ reveal high ionic conductivity values in the high-temperature range. Order-disorder transitions and solid state kinetics in the same compound were also studied.

  13. Forsmark site investigation. Monitoring of brook water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Per-Olof (Artesia Grundvattenkonsult (Sweden)); Juston, John (Juston Konsult (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    This document reports the monitoring of water levels, electrical conductivities, temperatures and discharges at four brook discharge gauging stations, and the monitoring of water electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden in the Forsmark area. The report presents data from 1 January through 31 December 2010 and is a continuation of reporting from Johansson and Juston (2007, 2009, 2011), which covered the periods from 1 April 2004 through 31 March 2007, 1 April 2007 through 31 December 2008, and 1 January through 31 December 2009, respectively. Long-throated flumes equipped with automatically recording devices were used for the discharge measurements. Every c. 14 days the water depths at the upstream edge of the flumes were measured manually by a ruler as a check. Electrical conductivity and temperature were automatically recorded and these parameters were also measured manually every c. 14 days with the site investigation field devices. SKB's Hydro Monitoring System (HMS) was used to collect and store all data. From HMS quality assured data were transferred to SKB's primary database Sicada. Measurements of levels, electrical conductivities and temperatures were made every 10 minutes (every 30 minutes for electrical conductivity at the outlet of Lake Bolundsfjaerden). For the calculation of discharge, quality assured water level data from the flumes were used. The calculation procedure included consolidation of the time series to hourly averages, screening of data for removal of short-term spikes, noise and other data that were judged erroneous. After the calculations were performed, the results were delivered to Sicada. The amplitudes of water level variations during this reporting period were 0.41-0.55 m and the mean electrical conductivities varied between 23 and 39 mS/m at the four discharge stations. However, due to mal-function of measuring devices for electrical conductivity, data were missing for relatively long time periods. Due

  14. Laser surface modification of electrically conductive fabrics: Material performance improvement and design effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunakova, Veronika; Hrubosova, Zuzana; Tunak, Maros; Kasparova, Marie; Mullerova, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Development of lightweight flexible materials for electromagnetic interference shielding has obtained increased attention in recent years particularly for clothing, textiles in-house use and technical applications especially in areas of aircraft, aerospace, automobiles and flexible electronics such as portable electronics and wearable devices. There are many references in the literature concerning development and investigation of electromagnetic shielding lightweight flexible materials especially textile based with different electrically conductive additives. However, only little attention is paid to designing and enhancing the properties of these special fabrics by textile finishing processes. Laser technology applied as a physical treatment method is becoming very popular and can be used in different applications to make improvement and even overcome drawbacks of some of the traditional processes. The main purpose of this study is firstly to analyze the possibilities of transferring design onto the surface of electrically conductive fabrics by laser beam and secondly to study of effect of surface modification degree on performance of conductive fabric including electromagnetic shielding ability and mechanical properties. Woven fabric made of yarns containing 10% of extremely thin stainless steel fiber was used as a conductive substrate.

  15. Electrical conduction through surface superstructures measured by microscopic four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Shiraki, I.; Tanabe, F.

    2003-01-01

    For in-situ measurements of the local electrical conductivity of well-defined crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum, we have developed two kinds of microscopic four-point probe methods. One involves a "four-tip STM prober," in which four independently driven tips of a scanning tunneling microscope...... (STM) are used for measurements of four-point probe conductivity. The probe spacing can be changed from 500 nm to 1 mm. The other method involves monolithic micro-four-point probes, fabricated on silicon chips, whose probe spacing is fixed around several mum. These probes are installed in scanning...

  16. Mussel-Inspired Anisotropic Nanocellulose and Silver Nanoparticle Composite with Improved Mechanical Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Linh Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials for wearable devices, tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications require both antibacterial activity to prevent bacterial infection and biofilm formation, and electrical conductivity to electric signals inside and outside of the human body. Recently, cellulose nanofibers have been utilized for various applications but cellulose itself has neither antibacterial activity nor conductivity. Here, an antibacterial and electrically conductive composite was formed by generating catechol mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the surface of cellulose nanofibers. The chemically immobilized catechol moiety on the nanofibrous cellulose network reduced Ag+ to form AgNPs on the cellulose nanofiber. The AgNPs cellulose composite showed excellent antibacterial efficacy against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the catechol conjugation and the addition of AgNP induced anisotropic self-alignment of the cellulose nanofibers which enhances electrical and mechanical properties of the composite. Therefore, the composite containing AgNPs and anisotropic aligned the cellulose nanofiber may be useful for biomedical applications.

  17. High temperature conductance mapping for correlation of electrical properties with micron-sized chemical and microstructural features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karin Vels; Norrman, Kion; Jacobsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    High temperature AC conductance mapping is a scanning probe technique for resolving local electrical properties in microscopic areas. It is especially suited for detecting poorly conducting phases and for ionically conducting materials such as those used in solid oxide electrochemical cells...

  18. Polyaniline-CuO hybrid nanocomposite with enhanced electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vânia S.; da Frota, Hidembergue O.; Sanches, Edgar A.

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid nanocomposite based on a polymer matrix constituted of Polyaniline Emeraldine-salt form (PANI-ES) reinforced by copper oxide II (CuO) particles was obtained by in situ polymerization. Structural, morphological and electrical properties of the pure materials and nanocomposite form were investigated. The presence of CuO particles in the nanocomposite material affected the natural alignment of the polymer chains. XRD technique allowed the visualization of the polymer amorphization in the nanocomposite form, suggesting an interaction between both phases. The FTIR spectra confirmed this molecular interaction due to the blue shift of the characteristic absorption peaks of PANI-ES in the nanocomposite form. SEM images revealed that the polymer nanofiber morphology was no longer observed in the nanocomposite. The CuO spherical particles are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix. The density functional theory plus the Coulomb interaction method revealed a charge transfer from PANI to CuO slab. Moreover, the density of states (DOS) has revealed that the nanocomposite behaves as a metal. In agreement, the electrical conductivity showed an increase of 60% in the nanocomposite material.

  19. Electrical conductivity of high-purity germanium crystals at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Kooi, Kyler; Wang, Guojian; Mei, Hao; Li, Yangyang; Mei, Dongming

    2018-05-01

    The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity of single-crystal and polycrystalline high-purity germanium (HPGe) samples has been investigated in the temperature range from 7 to 100 K. The conductivity versus inverse of temperature curves for three single-crystal samples consist of two distinct temperature ranges: a high-temperature range where the conductivity increases to a maximum with decreasing temperature, and a low-temperature range where the conductivity continues decreasing slowly with decreasing temperature. In contrast, the conductivity versus inverse of temperature curves for three polycrystalline samples, in addition to a high- and a low-temperature range where a similar conductive behavior is shown, have a medium-temperature range where the conductivity decreases dramatically with decreasing temperature. The turning point temperature ({Tm}) which corresponds to the maximum values of the conductivity on the conductivity versus inverse of temperature curves are higher for the polycrystalline samples than for the single-crystal samples. Additionally, the net carrier concentrations of all samples have been calculated based on measured conductivity in the whole measurement temperature range. The calculated results show that the ionized carrier concentration increases with increasing temperature due to thermal excitation, but it reaches saturation around 40 K for the single-crystal samples and 70 K for the polycrystalline samples. All these differences between the single-crystal samples and the polycrystalline samples could be attributed to trapping and scattering effects of the grain boundaries on the charge carriers. The relevant physical models have been proposed to explain these differences in the conductive behaviors between two kinds of samples.

  20. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  1. Apparent soil electrical conductivity in two different soil types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilker Nunes Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mapping the apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa has become important for the characterization of the soil variability in precision agriculture systems. Could the ECa be used to locate the soil sampling points for mapping the chemical and physical soil attributes? The objective of this work was to examine the relations between ECa and soil attributes in two fields presenting different soil textures. In each field, 50 sampling points were chosen using a path that presented a high variability of ECa obtained from a preliminary ECa map. At each sampling point, the ECa was measured in soil depths of 0-20, 0-40 and 0-60 cm. In addition, at each point, soil samples were collected for the determination of physical and chemical attributes in the laboratory. The ECa data obtained for different soil depths was very similar. A large number of significant correlations between ECa and the soil attributes were found. In the sandy clay loam texture field there was no correlation between ECa and organic matter or between ECa and soil clay and sand content. However, a significant positive correlation was shown for the remaining phosphorus. In the sandy loam texture field the ECa had a significant positive correlation with clay content and a significant negative correlation with sand content. The results suggest that the mapping of apparent soil electrical conductivity does not replace traditional soil sampling, however, it can be used as information to delimit regions in a field that have similar soil attributes.

  2. Pressure effect on the electrical conductivity and superconductivity of beta-(BDA-TTP)2I3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun-Ichi; Fujimoto, Kazuya; Akutsu, Hiroki; Nakatsuji, Shin'ichi; Miyazaki, Akira; Aimatsu, Masashi; Kudo, Satoshi; Enoki, Toshiaki; Kikuchi, Koichi

    2006-03-28

    The pressure-induced electrical conductivity properties of beta-(BDA-TTP)2I3 have been investigated; the salt exhibits a dramatic change in the conductivity behaviour above ca. 10 kbar and undergoes a superconducting transition with an onset near 10 K.

  3. Effect of heat treatments on the tensile and electrical properties of high-strength, high-conductivity copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of CuCrZr produced by two different vendors have been measured following different heat treatments. Room temperature electrical resistivity measurements were also performed in order to estimate the thermal conductivity of these specimens. The thermomechanical conditions studied included solution quenched, solution quenched and aged (ITER reference heat treatment), simulated slow HIP thermal cycle ({approximately}1{degrees}C/min cooling from solutionizing temperature) and simulated fast HIP thermal cycle ({approximately}100{degrees}C/min cooling from solutionizing temperature). Specimens from the last two heat treatments were tested in both the solution-cooled condition and after subsequent precipitate aging at 475{degrees}C for 2 h. Both of the simulated HIP thermal cycles caused a pronounced decreases in the strength and electrical conductivity of CuCrZr. The tensile and electrical properties were unchanged by subsequent aging in the slow HIP thermal cycles caused a pronounced decrease in the strength and electrical conductivity of CuCrZr. The tensile and electrical properties were unchanged by subsequent aging in the slow HIP thermal cycle specimens, whereas the strength and conductivity following aging in the fast HIP thermal cycle improved to {approximately}65% of the solution quenched and aged CuCrZr values. Limited tensile and electrical resistivity measurements were also made on two new heats of Hycon 3HP CuNiBe. High strength but poor uniform and total elongations were observed at 500{degrees}C on one of these new heats of CuNiBe, similar to that observed in other heats.

  4. Effect of heat treatments on the tensile and electrical properties of high-strength, high-conductivity copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of CuCrZr produced by two different vendors have been measured following different heat treatments. Room temperature electrical resistivity measurements were also performed in order to estimate the thermal conductivity of these specimens. The thermomechanical conditions studied included solution quenched, solution quenched and aged (ITER reference heat treatment), simulated slow HIP thermal cycle (∼1 degrees C/min cooling from solutionizing temperature) and simulated fast HIP thermal cycle (∼100 degrees C/min cooling from solutionizing temperature). Specimens from the last two heat treatments were tested in both the solution-cooled condition and after subsequent precipitate aging at 475 degrees C for 2 h. Both of the simulated HIP thermal cycles caused a pronounced decreases in the strength and electrical conductivity of CuCrZr. The tensile and electrical properties were unchanged by subsequent aging in the slow HIP thermal cycles caused a pronounced decrease in the strength and electrical conductivity of CuCrZr. The tensile and electrical properties were unchanged by subsequent aging in the slow HIP thermal cycle specimens, whereas the strength and conductivity following aging in the fast HIP thermal cycle improved to ∼65% of the solution quenched and aged CuCrZr values. Limited tensile and electrical resistivity measurements were also made on two new heats of Hycon 3HP CuNiBe. High strength but poor uniform and total elongations were observed at 500 degrees C on one of these new heats of CuNiBe, similar to that observed in other heats

  5. Electrical conductivity measurements from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Taylor, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    . Here we present electrical conductivity records for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) and Greenland Ice-core Project (GRIP) ice cores, drilled 28 km apart to enable direct comparison of the results. The upper parts of both records are consistent with previous evidence from other Greenland cores...

  6. Density and electrical conductivity of NaCl-CoCl{sub 2} and NaCl-NiCl{sub 2} molten mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Red` kin, A A [Institute of High Temp. Electrochem., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Salyulev, A B [Institute of High Temp. Electrochem., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Smirnov, M V [Institute of High Temp. Electrochem., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Khokhlov, V A [Institute of High Temp. Electrochem., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-01

    The density and electrical conductivity of cobalt and nickel dichlorides and their solutions in molten sodium chloride have been measured. The density was measured by a dilatometric method, and the electrical conductivity by an AC technique. The molar volume and equivalent conductance were calculated. (orig.)

  7. Effect of silica concentration on electrical conductivity of epoxy resin-carbon black-silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Blackburn, Richard S.; Dehghani-Sanij, Abbas A.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical properties of nanocomposites are determined by the conductive paths of carbon black and influenced by a 'network' of silica. With increasing content of silica, carbon black (CB) particles are optimally dispersed, contributing to the generation of a conductive network between CB particles via direct particle contact and a tunneling effect; maximum conductivity for the epoxy resin-CB-silica nanocomposite described herein occurs at a ratio of 0.6:1.0 (SiO 2 :CB). As a non-conductive component, excessive silica will prevent electron flow, giving rise to low conductivity

  8. High temperature conductance mapping for correlation of electrical properties with micron-sized chemical and microstructural features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Karin Vels, E-mail: karv@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Norrman, Kion [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Torben [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet Building 207, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-11-15

    High temperature AC conductance mapping is a scanning probe technique for resolving local electrical properties in microscopic areas. It is especially suited for detecting poorly conducting phases and for ionically conducting materials such as those used in solid oxide electrochemical cells. Secondary silicate phases formed at the edge of lanthanum strontium manganite microelectrodes are used as an example for correlation of chemical, microstructural and electrical properties with a spatial resolution of 1–2 µm to demonstrate the technique. The measurements are performed in situ in a controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope at 650 °C in air. - Highlights: • A high temperature SPM technique for conductance measurements was developed. • Two examples from microelectrodes were used for demonstration. • Conductance mapping at 650 °C revealed poorly conducting secondary phases. • The secondary phases could be correlated with microstructure and chemistry.

  9. Computational modelling of internally cooled wet (ICW) electrodes for radiofrequency ablation: impact of rehydration, thermal convection and electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Macarena; Bon, Jose; Berjano, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    (1) To analyse rehydration, thermal convection and increased electrical conductivity as the three phenomena which distinguish the performance of internally cooled electrodes (IC) and internally cooled wet (ICW) electrodes during radiofrequency ablation (RFA), (2) Implement a RFA computer model with an ICW which includes these phenomena and (3) Assess their relative influence on the thermal and electrical tissue response and on the coagulation zone size. A 12-min RFA in liver was modelled using an ICW electrode (17 G, 3 cm tip) by an impedance-control pulsing protocol with a constant current of 1.5 A. A model of an IC electrode was used to compare the ICW electrode performance and the computational results with the experimental results. Rehydration and increased electrical conductivity were responsible for an increase in coagulation zone size and a delay (or absence) in the occurrence of abrupt increases in electrical impedance (roll-off). While the increased electrical conductivity had a remarkable effect on enlarging the coagulation zone (an increase of 0.74 cm for differences in electrical conductivity of 0.31 S/m), rehydration considerably affected the delay in roll-off, which, in fact, was absent with a sufficiently high rehydration level. In contrast, thermal convection had an insignificant effect for the flow rates considered (0.05 and 1 mL/min). Computer results suggest that rehydration and increased electrical conductivity were mainly responsible for the absence of roll-off and increased size of the coagulation zone, respectively, and in combination allow the thermal and electrical performance of ICW electrodes to be modelled during RFA.

  10. Electrically continuous graphene from single crystal copper verified by terahertz conductance spectroscopy and micro four-point probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jessen, Bjarke Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    The electrical performance of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to insulating surfaces may be compromised by extended defects, including for instance grain boundaries, cracks, wrinkles, and tears. In this study, we experimentally investigate and compare the nano......- and microscale electrical continuity of single layer graphene grown on centimeter-sized single crystal copper with that of previously studied graphene films, grown on commercially available copper foil, after transfer to SiO2 surfaces. The electrical continuity of the graphene films is analyzed using two...... for measurement of the complex conductance response in the frequency range 1-15 terahertz, covering the entire intraband conductance spectrum, and reveals that the conductance response for the graphene grown on single crystalline copper intimately follows the Drude model for a barrier-free conductor. In contrast...