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Sample records for gonadal hormones

  1. Gonadal Hormones and Retinal Disorders: A Review

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    Raffaele Nuzzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AimGonadal hormones are essential for reproductive function, but can act on neural and other organ systems, and are probably the cause of the large majority of known sex differences in function and disease. The aim of this review is to provide evidence for this hypothesis in relation to eye disorders and to retinopathies in particular.MethodsEpidemiological studies and research articles were reviewed.ResultsAnalysis of the biological basis for a relationship between eye diseases and hormones showed that estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors are present throughout the eye and that these steroids are locally produced in ocular tissues. Sex hormones can have a neuroprotective action on the retina and modulate ocular blood flow. There are differences between the male and the female retina; moreover, sex hormones can influence the development (or not of certain disorders. For example, exposure to endogenous estrogens, depending on age at menarche and menopause and number of pregnancies, and exposure to exogenous estrogens, as in hormone replacement therapy and use of oral contraceptives, appear to protect against age-related macular degeneration (both drusenoid and neurovascular types, whereas exogenous testosterone therapy is a risk factor for central serous chorioretinopathy. Macular hole is more common among women than men, particularly in postmenopausal women probably owing to the sudden drop in estrogen production in later middle age. Progestin therapy appears to ameliorate the course of retinitis pigmentosa. Diabetic retinopathy, a complication of diabetes, may be more common among men than women.ConclusionWe observed a correlation between many retinopathies and sex, probably as a result of the protective effect some gonadal hormones may exert against the development of certain disorders. This may have ramifications for the use of hormone therapy in the treatment of eye disease and of retinal disorders in particular.

  2. Sex Differences in Binge Eating: Gonadal Hormone Effects Across Development.

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    Klump, Kelly L; Culbert, Kristen M; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-05-08

    Eating disorders are highly sexually differentiated disorders that exhibit a female predominance in risk. Most theories focus on psychosocial explanations to the exclusion of biological/genetic influences. The purpose of this descriptive review is to evaluate evidence from animal and human studies in support of gonadal hormone effects on sex differences in binge eating. Although research is in its nascent stages, findings suggest that increased prenatal testosterone exposure in males appears to protect against binge eating. Although pubertal testosterone may exert additional protective effects, the prenatal period is likely critical for the decreased risk observed in males. By contrast, studies indicate that, in females, it is the lack of prenatal testosterone coupled with the organizational effects of pubertal ovarian hormones that may lead to increased binge eating. Finally, twin data suggest that changes in genetic risk may underlie these hormone influences on sex differences across development.

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues inhibit leiomyoma extracellular matrix despite presence of gonadal hormones.

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    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Cox, Jeris; Patel, Amrita; Catherino, William H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of GnRH analogues (GnRH-a) leuprolide acetate (LA) and cetrorelix acetate on gonadal hormone-regulated expression of extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Laboratory study. University research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. The 3D cell cultures, protein analysis, Western blot, immunohistochemistry. Expression of extracellular matrix proteins, collagen 1, fibronectin, and versican in leiomyoma cells 3D cultures exposed to E2, P, LA, cetrorelix acetate, and combinations for 24- and 72-hour time points. The 3D leiomyoma cultures exposed to E2 for 24 hours demonstrated an increased expression of collagen-1 and fibronectin, which was maintained for up to 72 hours, a time point at which versican was up-regulated significantly. Although P up-regulated collagen-1 protein (1.29 ± 0.04) within 24 hours of exposure, significant increase in all extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins was observed when the gonadal hormones were used concomitantly. Significant decrease in the amount of ECM proteins was observed on use of GnRH-a, LA and cetrorelix, with 24-hour exposure. Both the compounds also significantly decreased ECM protein concentration despite the presence of E2 or both gonadal hormones. This study demonstrates that GnRH-a directly affect the gonadal hormone-regulated collagen-1, fibronectin, and versican production in their presence. These findings suggest that localized therapy with GnRH-a may inhibit leiomyoma growth even in the presence of endogenous gonadal hormone exposure, thereby providing a mechanism to eliminate the hypoestrogenic side effects associated with GnRH-a therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. INDUKSI HORMONAL MATURASI GONAD IKAN GABUS (Channa striata

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    Muhammad Hunaina Fariduddin Ath-thar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ikan gabus (Channa striata merupakan ikan lokal air tawar potensial untuk pengembangan budidaya di Indonesia. Sebagian besar produksi ikan gabus berasal dari tangkapan di alam yang menyebabkan menurunnya populasi ikan gabus. Domestikasi merupakan salah satu solusi dari masalah ini. Dewasa ini, ikan gabus telah dapat dipijahkan baik secara alami maupun buatan. Namun demikian produksi benih yang dihasilkan masih bergantung pada kondisi lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan dosis oodev yang optimal untuk pematangan gonad ikan gabus, pemijahan alami, dan analisis performa pertumbuhan keturunan pertama. Jumlah larva yang dihasilkan dari pemijahan alami ikan gabus pada lingkungan ex situ adalah 1.250-5.000 ekor per induk. Berdasarkan pertambahan diameter dan fase kematangan telur, induksi hormon dengan dosis 1,5 mL/kg menunjukkan hasil terbaik dibandingkan perlakuan lain (perlakuan dosis 0,5 dan 1 mL/kg. Benih ikan gabus hasil pemijahan alami di luar habitat menunjukkan populasi Bogor memberikan performa pertumbuhan mutlak bobot (1,7 ± 0,06 g; laju pertumbuhan spesifik (2,6% ± 0,10%; dan sintasan (86,43% ± 1,32% lebih baik dibandingkan benih ikan gabus populasi Palembang. Striped snakehead (Channa striata is a market potential of local fish in Indonesia. Up to now (to date, the majority of production comes from natural catches. This condition, if continues, can lead to the decline in natural stock. Domestication offers a promising solution to help solve this problem. So far, natural spawning for seed production has been done succcesfully. However, continuity of fish supply is still very much dependent on environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the optimal hormone dosage for inducing gonad maturation, natural spawning and to analyze growth performance of fry resulted from natural spawning. Striped snakehead broodstock from Palembang and Bogor were induced with three dosages of oodev (consisted of Pregnant Mare

  5. The influence of sex and gonadal hormones on sleep disorders

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    Orff HJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Henry J Orff, Charles J Meliska, L Fernando Martinez, Barbara L Parry Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, and sleep-related movement disorders are a significant public health issue, affecting approximately 40 million people in the US each year. Sleep disturbances are observed in both men and women, though prevalence rates often differ between the sexes. In general, research suggests that women more frequently report subjective complaints of insomnia, yet show better sleep than men when evaluated on objective measures of sleep. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea than women, though rates of obstructive sleep apnea increase after menopause and may be generally underdiagnosed in women. Although circadian rhythm disorders are equally prevalent in men and women, studies find that women typically have earlier bedtimes and exhibit altered temperature and melatonin rhythms relative to men. Lastly, movement disorders appear to be more prevalent in women than men, presumably due to higher rates of anemia and increased risks associated with pregnancy in women. Although gonadal hormones would be expected to play a significant role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances, no causal link between these factors has been clearly established. In large part, the impact of hormones on sleep disturbances is significantly confounded by factors such as psychiatric, physical, and lifestyle concerns, which may play an equal or greater role in the development and/or exacerbation of sleep disturbances than do hormonal factors. Current standard of care for persons with sleep disorders includes use of psychological, pharmacologic, and/or medical device supported interventions. Hormonal-based treatments are not typically recommended given the potential for long-term adverse health

  6. Impact of opioid therapy on gonadal hormones: focus on buprenorphine.

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    Varma, Anjali; Sapra, Mamta; Iranmanesh, Ali

    2018-02-17

    Objective The USA is in the midst of an opioid crisis. Understanding the impact of opioids and commonly used treatments for opioid dependence is essential for clinicians and researchers in order to educate and treat the nation's growing population with opioid use disorders. As a relatively new treatment for opioid dependence, buprenorphine is gaining popularity to the extent of becoming not only a preferred approach to the maintenance of opiate addiction, but also an option for chronic pain management. The purpose of this report is to review the available evidence on the endocrine effects of buprenorphine, particularly as it relates to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is controversial and not fully defined. Method We conducted a Pubmed search (2000-2017) for human studies in the English language for articles that were available as full length regarding buprenorphine, endocrinopathy, hypogonadism, bone density, opioids. Case reports were also reviewed, although prospective studies and randomized controlled trials received more weight. Results Opioid induced hypogonadism is well established. Most studies report that buprenorphine being a partial agonist/antagonist may not be impacting the pituitary trophic hormones as much. There are reports of sexual dysfunction in subjects maintained on buprenorphine, some without hormonal correlation. Thus with the understanding that pertinent clinical studies are limited in number, varied in methodology, mostly cross sectional, predominantly in men and small number of participants, more research in this area is warranted. Conclusion Based on a comprehensive review of the available literature, we conclude that despite its increasing popularity, buprenorphine has not been adequately studied in respect to its long-term effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. There is a great need for longitudinal systematic trials to define the potential buprenorphine-induced endocrine consequences.

  7. The organizing actions of adolescent gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development

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    Schulz, Kalynn M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by dramatic changes in cognition, risk-taking and social behavior. Although gonadal steroid hormones are well-known mediators of these behaviors in adulthood, the role gonadal steroid hormones play in shaping the adolescent brain and behavioral development has only come to light in recent years. Here we discuss the sex-specific impact of gonadal steroid hormones on the developing adolescent brain. Indeed, the effects of gonadal steroid hormones during adolescence on brain structure and behavioral outcomes differs markedly between the sexes. Research findings suggest that adolescence, like the perinatal period, is a sensitive period for the sex-specific effects of gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development. Furthermore, evidence from studies on male sexual behavior suggests that adolescence is part of a protracted postnatal sensitive period that begins perinatally and ends following adolescence. As such, the perinatal and peripubertal periods of brain and behavioral organization likely do not represent two discrete sensitive periods, but instead are the consequence of normative developmental timing of gonadal hormone secretions in males and females. PMID:27497718

  8. Breast Cancer Risk After Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma : Influence of Gonadal Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, Inge M; Opstal-van Winden, Annemieke W J; Aleman, Berthe M P; Janus, Cécile P M; van Eggermond, Anna M; De Bruin, Marie L; Hauptmann, Michael; Krol, Augustinus D G; Schaapveld, Michael; Broeks, Annegien; Kooijman, Karen R; Fase, Sandra; Lybeert, Marnix L; Zijlstra, Josée M; van der Maazen, Richard W M; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Diallo, Ibrahima; de Vathaire, Florent; Russell, Nicola S; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young women treated with chest radiation therapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience a strongly increased risk of breast cancer (BC). It is unknown whether endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect RT-associated BC risk. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study

  9. Pituitary-Gonadal Axis Hormone and Semen Analysis in Narcotic Dependency

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    Raheleh Assaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse is associated with numerous complications including hormonal disorders of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenic disorders. We have compared the hormone concentration of pituitary-gonadal axis and the semen analysis in opioid-dependent and non-opioid-dependent men.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, serum concentration of pituitary- gonadal axis hormones and semen analysis in 48 opioid-dependent men as eligible to participate in the study were compared with those in 12 non-dependent men.Results: Free testosterone concentration in all test groups was significantly less than that in control group. Furthermore, the concentration of Dihydrotestosterone (DHT and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS in all test groups except those addicted to heroin was less than in those in control group. Concentrations of LH, FSH, prolactin, SHBG, progesterone and estradiol, normal and abnormal sperm count in test groups were significantly different from control group. However, in all test groups, sperm motility rate was less than control group. No significant relationship was found between the concentration of sex hormones and the status of sperms motility. Conclusion: Chronic use of opioids will affect testosterone hormone and sperm, and it will cause hypogonadism and impairment of sperm motility.

  10. Gonadal hormones and heart rate as an emotional response

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    de Loos, Wolter Statius

    1988-01-01

    Animai experiments may give information on the physiology of hormones under stress conditions. The model for the investigation of acute emotional stress in animals that has been chosen permits the study of heart rate in freely moving laboratory rats as a sensitive psychophysiological parameter, This

  11. Sleep, Rhythms, and the Endocrine Brain: Influence of Sex and Gonadal Hormones

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    Mong, Jessica A.; Baker, Fiona C.; Mahoney, Megan M.; Paul, Ketema N.; Schwartz, Michael D.; Semba, Kazue; Silver, Rae

    2011-01-01

    While much is known about the mechanisms that underlie sleep and circadian rhythms, the investigation into sex differences and gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and biological rhythms is in its infancy. There is a growing recognition of sex disparities in sleep and rhythm disorders. Understanding how neuroendocrine mediators and sex differences influence sleep and biological rhythms is central to advancing our understanding of sleep-related disorders. While it is known that ovarian steroids affect circadian rhythms in rodents, the role of androgen is less understood. Surprising findings that androgens, acting via androgen receptors in the master “circadian clock” within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), modulate photic effects on activity in males points to novel mechanisms of circadian control. Work in aromatase deficient (ArKO) mice suggests that some sex differences in photic responsiveness are independent of gonadal hormone effects during development. In parallel, aspects of sex differences in sleep are also reported to be independent of gonadal steroids and may involve sex chromosome complement. This a summary of recent work illustrating how sex differences and gonadal hormones influence sleep and circadian rhythms that was presented at a mini-symposium at the 2011 annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. PMID:22072663

  12. Gonadal Steroid Hormones and the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

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    Handa, Robert J.; Weiser, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, pr...

  13. Radioimmunoassay of hormonal secretion of the gonadal axis in patients with puberty metrorrhagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balova, V.; Maleeva, A.; Khristov, L.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty two girls aged 10 to 16 years, admitted to the Institute of Obstetries and Genecology, are investigated. The concentration levels of gonadal axis hormones are determined, and the obtained results are compared with the hormonal concentrations in normal girls of comparable age. It is established that the luteinizing hormone level is considerably and statistically significantly increased (P> 0.001), exceeding as much as four times average the level of the follicle-stimulating hormone (LH:FSH = 4:1), whereas in normal conditions there is a 2:1 ratio. Presumably, in cases of puberty metrorrhagia the uterine bleedings are associated with enhanced and disturbed secretion of Gonadotropic hormones, occurring as a result of the altered immunoreactivity of the organism. (author)

  14. Sex differences in the activity of mice: modulation by postnatal gonadal hormones.

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    Broida, J; Svare, B

    1984-03-01

    A series of six experiments was performed to examine the influence of postnatal-gonadal-hormone exposure on home-cage activity in Rockland-Swiss albino mice. Intact females were more active than their male counterparts and gonadectomy in adulthood, while reducing levels of the behavior in both sexes, did not eliminate the gender difference. Males that were castrated on the day of birth were more active than animals castrated 5, 10, or 25 days later. Also, females treated with testosterone propionate on the day of birth were less active than oil-treated controls and females exposed to the steroid 10 days after birth. Thus, perinatal exposure to gonadal hormones suppresses adult levels of home-cage activity in mice.

  15. Sex, stress, and mood disorders: at the intersection of adrenal and gonadal hormones.

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    Fernández-Guasti, A; Fiedler, J L; Herrera, L; Handa, R J

    2012-07-01

    The risk for neuropsychiatric illnesses has a strong sex bias, and for major depressive disorder (MDD), females show a more than 2-fold greater risk compared to males. Such mood disorders are commonly associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Thus, sex differences in the incidence of MDD may be related with the levels of gonadal steroid hormone in adulthood or during early development as well as with the sex differences in HPA axis function. In rodents, organizational and activational effects of gonadal steroid hormones have been described for the regulation of HPA axis function and, if consistent with humans, this may underlie the increased risk of mood disorders in women. Other developmental factors, such as prenatal stress and prenatal overexposure to glucocorticoids can also impact behaviors and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adulthood and these effects are also reported to occur with sex differences. Similarly, in humans, the clinical benefits of antidepressants are associated with the normalization of the dysregulated HPA axis, and genetic polymorphisms have been found in some genes involved in controlling the stress response. This review examines some potential factors contributing to the sex difference in the risk of affective disorders with a focus on adrenal and gonadal hormones as potential modulators. Genetic and environmental factors that contribute to individual risk for affective disorders are also described. Ultimately, future treatment strategies for depression should consider all of these biological elements in their design. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The hippocampal formation: morphological changes induced by thyroid, gonadal and adrenal hormones.

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    Gould, E; Woolley, C S; McEwen, B S

    1991-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is of considerable interest due to its proposed role in a number of important functions, including learning and memory processes. Manipulations of thyroid, gonadal and adrenal hormones have been shown to influence hippocampal physiology as well as learning and memory. The cellular events which underlie these hormone-induced functional changes are largely unexplored. However, studies suggest that hormonal manipulations during development and in adulthood result in dramatic morphological changes within the hippocampal formation. Because neuronal physiology has been suggested to depend upon neuronal morphology, we have been determining the morphologic sensitivity of hippocampal neurons to thyroid and steroid hormones in an effort to elucidate possible structural mechanisms to account for differences in hippocampal function. In this review, hormone-induced structural changes in the developing and adult hippocampal formation are discussed, with particular emphasis on their functional relevance. Sex differences, as well as the developmental effects of thyroid hormone and glucocorticoids, are described. Moreover, the effects of ovarian steroids, thyroid hormone and glucocorticoids on neuronal morphology in the hippocampal formation of the adult rat are reviewed. These hormone-induced structural changes may account, at least in part, for previously reported hormone-induced changes in hippocampal function.

  17. Gonadal hormone status in highly trained sprinters and in untrained men.

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    Grandys, Marcin; Majerczak, Joanna; Zapart-Bukowska, Justyna; Kulpa, Jan; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2011-04-01

    It is a common view that strength and sprint trained athletes are characterized by high plasma/serum testosterone (T) concentration, which is believed to be partly responsible for their performance level. This opinion, however, has poor scientific background. The aim of this study was to give evidence-based information on this issue. We examined gonadal hormone status at rest after overnight fasting in high and top-class track and field sprinters (n = 16) and in untrained men (n = 15). It was shown that basal T, free testosterone (fT), bioavailable testosterone (bio-T), and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations were not significantly different (p > 0.05) in sprinters vs. untrained subjects. Further comparison of the results of the basal serum T concentration in 8 sprinters showed its significant changes during an annual training period. Significantly higher T concentration during a low-intensity training period (beginning of December) than during heavy sprint specific training period (end of March) was observed in these athletes (n = 8) (mean ± SD; 23.37 ± 5.28 vs. 20.99 ± 4.74 nmol · L(-1), respectively, p = 0.04). We have concluded that basal gonadal hormone concentration in high and top-class athletes (sprinters and jumpers) did not appear to be significantly different when compared with untrained subjects. Moreover, basal T concentration in sprinters can differ significantly during an annual training period. This fact should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of gonadal hormone status in athletes at varied training stages.

  18. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

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    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  19. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

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    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Osteoporosis and its association with non-gonadal hormones involved in hypertension, adiposity and hyperglycaemia.

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    Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a high-prevalence disease, particularly in developed countries, and results in high costs both to the individual and to society through associated fragility fractures. There is an urgent need for identification of novel drug targets and development of new anti-osteoporotic agents. Between 30 and 80% of osteoporotic fractures cannot be prevented despite current treatments achieving relative fracture risk reduction of up to 20%, 50%, and 70% for non-vertebral, hip and spine fractures, respectively. Traditionally, the decline in gonadal hormones has been studied as the sole hormonal determinant for the loss of bone mineral density in osteoporosis. However, recent studies have identified receptors for numerous non-gonadal hormones such as PTH, angiotensin II, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 on the osteoblast lineage cells that directly regulate bone turnover. These hormones are also involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome risk factors, particularly hypertension, type-II diabetes and obesity. By activating their respective receptors on osteoblastic lineage cells, these hormones appear to act through a common mechanism by down-regulating receptors for activation of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and up-regulating osteoprotegerin (OPG) with inverse responses for adiponectin. Receptors for amylin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and ghrelin and have also been identified on the osteoblast lineage cells although the roles of these receptors in bone turnover are controversial or poorly studied. Moreover, bone turnover may be independently regulated by modulation of osteoclast-osteoblast function and bone marrow adiposity. Leptin appears to be the only hormone that is a known regulator of both bone mineralisation and bone adiposity.

  1. Sex Differences in Anxiety Disorders: Interactions between Fear, Stress, and Gonadal Hormones

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    Maeng, Lisa Y.; Milad, Mohammed R.

    2015-01-01

    Women are more vulnerable to stress- and fear-based disorders, such as anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite the growing literature on this topic, the neural basis of these sex differences remains unclear, and the findings appear inconsistent. The neurobiological mechanisms of fear and stress in learning and memory processes have been extensively studied, and the crosstalk between these systems is beginning to explain the disproportionate incidence and differences in symptomatology and remission within these psychopathologies. In this review, we discuss the intersect between stress and fear mechanisms and their modulation by gonadal hormones and discuss the relevance of this information to sex differences in anxiety and fear-based disorders. Understanding these converging influences is imperative to the development of more effective, individualized treatments that take sex and hormones into account. PMID:25888456

  2. Brain Hypoactivation, Autonomic Nervous System Dysregulation, and Gonadal Hormones in Depression: A Preliminary Study

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    Holsen, Laura M.; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Spaeth, Sarah B.; Ogden, Lauren A.; Klibanski, Anne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Sloan, Richard P.; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    The comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the 10th leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Thus, understanding the co-occurrence of these disorders will have major public health significance. MDD is associated with an abnormal stress response, manifested in brain circuitry deficits, gonadal dysfunction, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation. Contribution of the relationships between these systems to the pathophysiology of MDD is not well understood. The objective of this preliminary study was to investigate, in parallel, relationships between HPG-axis functioning, stress response circuitry activation, and parasympathetic reactivity in healthy controls and women with MDD. Using fMRI with pulse oximetry [from which we calculated the high frequency (HF) component of R-R interval variability (HF-RRV), a measure of parasympathetic modulation] and hormone data, we studied eight women with recurrent MDD in remission and six controls during a stress response paradigm. We demonstrated that hypoactivations of hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and subgenual ACC were associated with lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation in MDD women. Estradiol and progesterone attenuated group differences in the effect of HF-RRV on hypoactivation in the amygdala, hippocampus, ACC, and OFC in MDD women. Findings have implications for understanding the relationship between mood, arousal, heart regulation, and gonadal hormones, and may provide insights into MDD and CVD risk comorbidity. PMID:22395084

  3. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana).

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    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J; Chandler, Jane N; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Female gonadal hormones and reproductive behaviors as key determinants of successful reproductive output of breeding whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan E; Converse, Sarah J.; Chandler, Jane N.; Shafer, Charles; Brown, Janine L; Keefer, Carol L; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive success of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) maintained ex situ is poor. As part of an effort to identify potential causes of poor reproductive success in a captive colony, we used non-invasive endocrine monitoring to assess gonadal and adrenal steroids of bird pairs with various reproductive outcomes and evaluated the relationships of hormones and behaviors to reproductive performance. Overall, reproductively successful (i.e., egg laying) females had significantly higher mean estrogen levels but lower mean progestogen concentrations than did unsuccessful females. Other hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, were not significantly different between successful and unsuccessful individuals. Observations of specific behaviors such as unison calling, marching, and the number of copulation attempts, along with overall time spent performing reproductive behaviors, were significantly higher in successful pairs. Our findings indicate that overall reproductive performance of whooping crane pairs is linked to female gonadal hormone excretion and reproductive behaviors, but not to altered adrenal hormone production.

  5. Evaluation of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Li, Juan; Yu, Yongguo; Yang, Peirong; Li, Huaiyuan; Shen, Yongnian; Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Shijian

    2018-03-28

    This study aimed to identify the predictive value of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in girls. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation tests were performed and evaluated in a total of 1750 girls with development of secondary sex characteristics. Correlation analyses were conducted between basal sex hormones and peak luteinizing hormone (LH) levels ≥5 IU/L during the GnRH stimulation test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for basal levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), LH/FSH, and estradiol (E2) before the GnRH stimulation test were plotted. The area under the curve (AUC) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were measured for each curve. The maximum AUC value was observed for basal LH levels (0.77, 95% CI: 0.74-0.79), followed by basal FSH levels (0.73, 95% CI: 0.70-0.75), the basal LH/FSH ratio (0.68, 95% CI: 0.65-0.71), and basal E2 levels (0.61, 95% CI: 0.59-0.64). The appropriate cutoff value of basal LH levels associated with a positive response of the GnRH stimulation test was 0.35 IU/L, with a sensitivity of 63.96% and specificity of 76.3% from the ROC curves when Youden's index showed the maximum value. When 100% of patients had peak LH levels ≥5 IU/L, basal LH values were >2.72 IU/L, but the specificity was only 5.45%. Increased basal LH levels are a significant predictor of a positive response during the GnRH stimulation test for assessing activation of the HPG axis in most girls with early pubertal signs.

  6. Pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones after prolonged residence at extreme altitude in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, M; Pal, K; Prasad, R; Malhotra, A S; Rao, K S; Sawhney, R C

    1997-06-01

    High altitude-induced alterations in pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones were studied in (i) eugonadal men from the armed forces who were resident at sea level (SL), (ii) SL residents staying at an altitude of 3542 m for periods ranging from 3 to 12 months (acclimatized lowlanders, ALL), (iii) ALL who stayed at 6300 m for 6 months, (iv) ALL who trekked from 3542 to 5080 m and stayed at an altitude of more than 6300 m in the glacier region for 6 months, and (v) high-altitude natives (HAN) resident at an altitude of 3300-3700 m. Circulating levels of LH, FSH, prolactin, cortisol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and progesterone in ALL at 3542 m and in HAN were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the SL control values. When the ALL living at 3542 m trekked to an extreme altitude of 5080 m, their testosterone levels showed a significant decrease (p 0.05) from the SL values. The LH levels after trekking to 5080 m were significantly higher (p 0.05) from the SL values. Plasma progesterone levels tended to increase on arrival at 5080 m but a significant increase (p < 0.001) was evident only after a 6-month stay at extreme altitude. These observations suggest that prolonged residence at lower as well as at extreme altitude does not appreciably alter blood levels of pituitary, gonadal or adrenal hormones except for plasma levels of progesterone. The exact mechanism and significance of this increase remains unknown, but may be important in increasing the sensitivity of the hypoxic ventilatory response and activation of haemoglobin synthesis.

  7. Effects of thyroidal, gonadal and adrenal hormones on tissue respiration of streaked frog, Rana limnocharis, at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, B B; Chakrabarty, P

    1990-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of thyroidal, gonadal and adrenal hormones were studied on the rate of liver and skeletal muscle respiration in both the sexes of R. limnocharis during active and inactive phases of the annual activity cycle. Triiodothyronine (L-T3) and thyroxine (L-T4) did not stimulate tissue (liver and muscle) respiration in any of the experiments irrespective of season, sex and temperature. Testosterone, estradiol and corticosterone stimulated O2 uptake significantly irrespective of season, sex and temperature. Adrenaline and nor-adrenaline also stimulated tissue respiration significantly during the winter month. Since the ambient temperature was low even during the active phase (max. temperature 21 degrees C), it seems that the frog might have developed tissue sensitivity for gonadal and adrenal hormones at low temperatures when thyroid hormones are calorigenically ineffective.

  8. Effects of female gonadal hormones and LPS on depressive-like behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence shows an association of depression with the immune system and emphasizes the importance of gender in the etiology of the disease and the response to inflammatory stimuli. We examined the influence of immune-challenged systems on depressive-like behavior in female rats in the context of gonadal hormones. We used a neuroinflammatory model of depression elicited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration on naive and ovariectomized (OVX female rats, and examined the effects of estradiol (E2 and/or progesterone (P4 replacement therapy on animal behavior, as assessed by the forced swimming test (FST. We found that LPS and OVX increase immobility in the FST, while LPS also decreased body weight in naive female rats. Further, even though P4 application alone showed beneficial effects on the behavioral profile (it reduced immobility and increased climbing, supplementation of both hormones (E2 and P4 together to OVX rats failed to do so. When OVX rats were exposed to LPS-induced immune challenge, neither hormone individually nor their combination had any effect on immobility, however, their joint supplementation increased climbing behavior. In conclusion, our study confirmed that both LPS and OVX induced depressive-like behavior in female rats. Furthermore, our results potentiate P4 supplementation in relieving the depressive-like symptomatology in OVX rats, most likely through fine-tuning of different neurotransmitter systems. In the context of an activated immune system, the application of E2 and/or P4 does not provide any advantageous effects on depressive-like behavior.

  9. Diffusion-weighted MRI of myelination in the rat brain following treatment with gonadal hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, D.; Roberts, T.; Barkovich, A.J.; Prayer, L.; Kucharczyk, J.; Moseley, M.; Arieff, A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of high-resolution diffusion-weighted MRI to show maturation of white-matter structures in the developing rat brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gonadal steroid hormones on the rate of this development. Starting from their second postnatal day, 16 rat-pups of either sex were repeatedly treated with subcutaneous implants containing 17-beta estradiol or delta-androstene 3,17 dione, respectively. Serial T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted MRI was performed weekly for 8 weeks using a 4.7 T unit. Maturation of anterior optic pathways and hemisphere commissures was assessed. Diffusion-weighted images were processed to produce ''anisotropy index maps'', previously shown to be sensitive to white-matter maturation. Compared with untreated rat-pups, estrogen-treated animals showed accelerated, and testosterone-treated animals delayed maturation on anisotropy index maps and histological sections. In all animals, maturational changes appeared earlie on anisotropy index maps than on other MRI sequences or on myelin-sensitive stained sections. Diffusion-weighted imaging, and the construction of spatial maps sensitive to diffusion anisotropy, seem to be the most sensitive approach for the detection of maturational white-matter changes, and thus may hold potential for early diagnosis of temporary delay or permanent disturbances of white-matter development. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Diffusion-weighted MRI of myelination in the rat brain following treatment with gonadal hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, D. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of Vienna (Austria); Roberts, T. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Barkovich, A.J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Prayer, L. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of Vienna (Austria); Kucharczyk, J. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Moseley, M. [Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States); Arieff, A. [Department of Medicine, Geriatrics Section, Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center and University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of high-resolution diffusion-weighted MRI to show maturation of white-matter structures in the developing rat brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gonadal steroid hormones on the rate of this development. Starting from their second postnatal day, 16 rat-pups of either sex were repeatedly treated with subcutaneous implants containing 17-beta estradiol or delta-androstene 3,17 dione, respectively. Serial T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted MRI was performed weekly for 8 weeks using a 4.7 T unit. Maturation of anterior optic pathways and hemisphere commissures was assessed. Diffusion-weighted images were processed to produce ``anisotropy index maps``, previously shown to be sensitive to white-matter maturation. Compared with untreated rat-pups, estrogen-treated animals showed accelerated, and testosterone-treated animals delayed maturation on anisotropy index maps and histological sections. In all animals, maturational changes appeared earlie on anisotropy index maps than on other MRI sequences or on myelin-sensitive stained sections. Diffusion-weighted imaging, and the construction of spatial maps sensitive to diffusion anisotropy, seem to be the most sensitive approach for the detection of maturational white-matter changes, and thus may hold potential for early diagnosis of temporary delay or permanent disturbances of white-matter development. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Sex and gonadal hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease: what is relevant to the human condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubal Dena B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biologic sex and gonadal hormones matter in human aging and diseases of aging such as Alzheimer’s – and the importance of studying their influences relates directly to human health. The goal of this article is to review the literature to date on sex and hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD with an exclusive focus on interpreting the relevance of findings to the human condition. To this end, we highlight advances in AD and in sex and hormone biology, discuss what these advances mean for merging the two fields, review the current mouse model literature, raise major unresolved questions, and offer a research framework that incorporates human reproductive aging for future studies aimed at translational discoveries in this important area. Unraveling human relevant pathways in sex and hormone-based biology may ultimately pave the way to novel and urgently needed treatments for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Predicting Treatment Response for Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Using Pre-treatment Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Dorn, Lorah D; Kolko, David J; Susman, Elizabeth J; Noll, Jennie G; Bukstein, Oscar G

    2012-12-01

    Variations in adrenal and gonadal hormone profiles have been linked to increased rates of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). These relationships suggest that certain hormone profiles may be related to how well children respond to psychological treatments for ODD and CD. The current study assessed whether pre-treatment profiles of adrenal and gonadal hormones predicted response to psychological treatment of ODD and CD. One hundred five children, 6 - 11 years old, participating in a randomized, clinical trial provided samples for cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione. Diagnostic interviews of ODD and CD were administered up to three years post-treatment to track treatment response. Group-based trajectory modeling identified two trajectories of treatment response: 1) a High-response trajectory where children demonstrated lower rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up, and 2) a Low-response trajectory where children demonstrated higher rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up. Hierarchical logistic regression predicting treatment response demonstrated that children with higher pre-treatment concentrations of testosterone were four times more likely to be in the Low-response trajectory. No other significant relationship existed between pre-treatment hormone profiles and treatment response. These results suggest that higher concentrations of testosterone are related to how well children diagnosed with ODD or CD respond to psychological treatment over the course of three years.

  13. Atorvastatin treatment does not affect gonadal and adrenal hormones in type 2 diabetes patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Stefano A; Carrozza, Cinzia; Lulli, Paola; Zuppi, Cecilia; CarloTonolo, Gian; Musumeci, Salvatore

    2003-01-01

    Atorvastatin, a second generation synthetic 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, reduces both intracellular cholesterol synthesis and serum cholesterol levels, and this could have a potential negative impact on gonadal and adrenal steroidogenesis. Hypercholesterolemia in type 2 diabetes, even when mild, must be treated in an aggressive way, due to the more strict therapeutic goals than in the non diabetic population. Since the wide use of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (statins) in type 2 diabetes, the main aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of "therapeutic" doses of atorvastatin on gonadal and adrenal hormones in 24 type 2 diabetic patients (16 males and 8 postmenopausal females), with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia (LDL-cholesterol = 150.1 +/- 32.0 and 189.9 +/- 32.9 mg/dl, respectively) studied before and after a 3 months treatment with atorvastatin (20 mg/day). In all patients, lipids and serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), androstendione and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured, with the addition, only in males, of testosterone and free testosterone index. After atorvastatin treatment a significant decrease in total and LDL cholesterol was observed (p < 0.05), while HDL-cholesterol did not significantly change ( p = N.S.), as no significant difference was found between steroid hormones measured before and after atorvastatin either in male and females. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in type 2 diabetic patients, the use of atorvastatin has no clinically important effects on either gonadal or adrenal steroid hormones.

  14. Sex hormone concentrations and gonad histology in brown trout (Salmo Trutta) exposed to 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B Bjerregaard, Lisette; Lindholst, Christian; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The impact of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and bisphenol A (BPA) on steroid hormone levels and gonad development in brown trout (Salmo trutta) was determined. Exposure took place from 0 to 63 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and gonad development was followed till 400 dpf. The onset...... began during the first weeks of embryonic development. Few consistent effects were found on the sex differentiation of the brown trout. Only one intersex fish (4.5%) was found among male fish at 400 dpf exposed to 500 ng E2/l. Females with male germ cells among the normally developing oocytes were...... observed in all groups (in up to 50% of the female fish, independently of exposure regime). The fact that exposure to 500 ng E2/l only caused subtle effects in a small number of individuals indicates that exposure during early life stages results in little to no induction of endocrine disruption in brown...

  15. Sex differences in associations between white matter microstructure and gonadal hormones in children and adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uban, K A; Herting, M M; Wozniak, J R; Sowell, E R

    2017-09-01

    Despite accumulating evidence from animal models demonstrating that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in life-long neuroendocrine dysregulation, very little is known on this topic among humans with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We expected that alterations in gonadal hormones might interfere with the typical development of white matter (WM) myelination, and in a sex-dependent manner, in human adolescents with FASD. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess: 1) whether or not sex moderates the impact of PAE on WM microstructure; and 2) how gonadal hormones relate to alterations in WM microstructure in children and adolescents affected by PAE. 61 youth (9 to 16 yrs.; 49% girls; 50% PAE) participated as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD). DTI scans and passive drool samples were obtained to examine neurodevelopmental associations with testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels in boys and girls, and estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) levels in girls. Tract-based spatial statistics were utilized to generate fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) for 9 a priori WM regions of interest (ROIs). As predicted, alterations in FA were observed in adolescents with PAE relative to controls, and these differences varied by sex. Girls with PAE exhibited lower FA (Inferior fronto-occipital and Uncinate fasciculi) while boys with PAE exhibited higher FA (Callosal body, Cingulum, Corticospinal tract, Optic radiation, Superior longitudinal fasciculus) relative to age-matched controls. When gonadal hormone levels were examined in relation to DTI measures, additional group differences in FA were revealed, demonstrating that neuroendocrine factors are associated with PAE-related brain alterations. These findings provide human evidence that PAE relates to sex-specific differences in WM microstructure, and underlying alterations in gonadal hormone

  16. Concentrations of pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones in serum of laying and broody white rock hens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrak, E; Harvey, S; Chadwick, A

    1981-05-01

    Diurnal variations in circulating concentrations of LH, GH, prolactin, corticosterone, oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone were followed in laying and broody White Rock domestic fowl. Throughout the 24 h study prolactin concentrations in serum were consistently (two- to fourfold) higher in broody than in laying birds, in which the prolactin level varied with the light:darkness or ovulatory cycles. Concentrations of GH in serum tended to be lower in broody birds but in both groups were very variable and showed no obvious relationship with either the lighting or ovulatory cycles. Broodiness was also characterized by low LH and gonadal steroid levels and by the absence of preovulatory peaks in the serum concentrations of these hormones. A diurnal rhythm in corticosterone was observed in both the laying and broody birds, with high levels during the period of darkness. Corticosterone concentrations were markedly higher in the broody birds than in laying birds during most of the 24 h study. No diurnal rhythm in the blood haematocrit level was observed in either group, although the level was generally lower in broody birds. This difference, however, was insufficient to account for the lower LH and gonadal steroid levels in the broody birds. The results suggest that prolactin is involved in the initiation or maintenance of broodiness in the fowl and the possibility of an antigonadal role for the hormone is discussed.

  17. Study of gonadal hormones in Egyptian female children with sickle cell anemia in correlation with iron overload: Single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Adel A; El-Farargy, Mohamed S; Elrefaey, Shaymaa; Abo El-enein, Amany M

    2016-03-01

    Sickle cell disease is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterized by abnormal hemoglobin production, hemolytic anemia, and intermittent occlusion of small blood vessels, leading to tissue ischemia, chronic organ damage, and organ dysfunction including endocrine organs. The aim of this work was to evaluate some gonadal hormones in female children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in correlation with iron overload. This study was conducted on 40 female children with SCA with a serum ferritin of > 1000ng/mL, who were attendants at the Hematology Unit, Pediatric Department, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt in the period from May 2012 to April 2014. Their ages ranged from 11 years to 15years and the mean age value was 12.63±1.36 years (Group I). Forty female children with SCA of matched age with no iron overload served as a control Group (Group II). For all patients in Groups I and II the following were performed/assessed: complete blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis, serum iron status, serum estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). There were significantly higher serum ferritin and serum iron levels and significantly lower total iron binding capacity, FSH, LH, and estrogen levels in Group I compared with Group II (mean serum ferritin was 2635.1±918.9 in Group I vs. 292.55±107.2 in Group II with a p value of .001; mean serum iron was 196.3±55.6 in Group I vs. 120±16.57 in Group II with a p value of .001 and mean serum total iron binding capacity was 247.3±28.6 in Group I vs. 327.8.7±21.96 in Group II with a p value of .001; mean FSH level was 1.36±0.22mIU/mL in Group I vs. 2.64±0.81mIU/mL in Group II with a p value of .021; mean LH level was 0.11±0.006mIU/mL in Group I vs. 1.78±1.12mIU/mL in Group II with a p value of .003; mean estrogen level was 21.45±10.23pg/mL in Group I vs. 42.36±15.44pg/mL in Group II with a p value of 0.001) with significant negative correlation between serum gonadal hormones and serum ferritin (r

  18. Developmental and contextual considerations for adrenal and gonadal hormone functioning during adolescence: Implications for adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Essex, Marilyn J; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-01

    Substantial research has implicated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes independently in adolescent mental health problems, though this literature remains largely inconclusive. Given the cross-talk between the HPA and HPG axes and their increased activation in adolescence, a dual-axis approach that examines both axes simultaneously is proposed to predict the emergence and persistence of adolescent mental health problems. After briefly orienting readers to HPA and HPG axis functioning, we review the literature examining associations between hormone levels and changes with behavior during adolescence. Then, we provide a review of the literature supporting examination of both axes simultaneously and present the limited research that has taken a dual-axis approach. We propose future directions including consideration of between-person and within-person approaches to address questions of correlated changes in HPA and HPG hormones. Potential moderators are considered to increase understanding of the nuanced hormone-behavior associations during key developmental transitions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Julie; Mendrek, Adrianna; Germain, Martine; Hot, Pascal; Lavoie, Marc E

    2014-01-01

    Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200), which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms. The N200 and P300 amplitudes were positively

  20. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eChampagne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200, which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms.

  1. Growth hormone deficiency in the transition period: body composition and gonad function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balercia, G; Giovannini, L; Paggi, F; Spaziani, M; Tahani, N; Boscaro, M; Lenzi, A; Radicioni, A

    2011-10-01

    Recombinant GH therapy is normally administered to GH-deficient children in order to achieve a satisfactory height - the main target during childhood and adolescence. However, the role of GH does not end once final height has been reached, but continues during the so-called transition period. In this phase of life, the body undergoes several changes, both physical and psychological, that culminate in adulthood. During this period, GH has a part in numerous metabolic functions. These include the lipid profile, where it increases HDL and reduces LDL, with the global effect of cardiovascular protection. It also has important effects on body composition (improved muscle strength and lean body mass and reduced body fat), the achievement of proper peak bone density, and gonad maturation. Retesting during the transition period, involving measurement of IGF-I plus a provocative test (insulin tolerance test or GHRH + arginine test), is thus necessary to establish any persistent GH deficiency requiring additional replacement therapy. The close cooperation of the medical professionals involved in the patient's transition from a pediatric to an adult endocrinologist is essential. The aim of this review is to point out the main aspects of GH treatment on body composition, metabolic and gonad functions in the transition period.

  2. Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y; Campi, Katharine L; Florez, Stefani A; Greenberg, Gian D; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A; Orr, Veronica N; Silva, Andrea L; Steinman, Michael Q

    2013-03-01

    There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioimmunological determination of follicle stimulating hormone in the serum of patients with various gonadal disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, P.

    1982-01-01

    A new kit for FSH determination in the serum was tested: the precision, sensitivity and specificity of this kit were adequate. With 185 men and 99 women with various hypophyseal and gonadal disorders the serum FSH was determined in radioimmunoassay as a supplement for diagnostic. Patients with hypophyseal tumors had to some extent pre-operatively increased and after hypophysectomy in general subnormal FSH values. Male patients with primary hypogonadism had without substitution therapy inclusively distinct to pronounced FSH level increases. With young patients with gynecomastia FSH values which lay primarily in the normal range were measured. Female patients with primary ovarial insufficiency often indicated very sharp increases in FSH levels. Female patients with Turner syndrome showed high FSH values at puberty age. In girls with hyposomia and hypogonadism high FSH levels refer accordingly to such a syndrome. (orig.) [de

  4. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  5. A non-invasive identification of hormone metabolites, gonadal event and reproductive status of captive female tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERI DWI PUTRANTO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Putranto HD (2011 A non-invasive identification of hormone metabolites, gonadal event and reproductive status of captive female tigers. Biodiversitas 12: 131-135. As a non-invasive method, fecal sample provides some advantage for animal and collector. The purpose of the present study were to monitor the reproductive status of female Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica by assessing changes in fecal during natural ovarian activity and pregnancy and to identify whether progesterone (P4 exists and what kinds of P4 metabolites excreted into the feces. Two female tigers were fed a diet consisting of meat. Drinking water was available ad libitum. Feces were collected ones to twice a week. The fecal contents of P4 and estradiol-17β (E2 were determined by EIA and P4 metabolites were separated by a modified HPLC. The EIA results shown that during its natural ovarian activitythe E2 contents showed cyclic changes at the average of 27.0 d interval, however, no distinct cycles were shown in fecal P4 contents of non-pregnant tiger. In contrary, the fecal P4 contents in pregnant tiger increased remarkably after copulation approximately 2- to 6-fold higher than the mean value. The HPLC results indicated that two peaks were primarily detected fraction 63- 64 min (identified metabolites and fraction 85 min (not identified metabolite in feces of pregnant tiger. However, P4 detected only small amount in feces. It is possible to assess non-invasively gonadal events such as luteal or follicular activity or ovulation of Siberian tigers by endocrine monitoring based on fecal P4 and E2 to understand reproductive status.

  6. Effect of alcohol and glucose infusion on pituitary-gonadal hormones in normal females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    after 8 h. Four of the women participated in a control experiment with infusion of an equal volume of glucose 5.5%. Venous blood samples were drawn 5 times during the 24-h follow up period. Serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones decreased in both ethanol and control experiments...... and the results did not differ significantly. The lowest hormone concentrations were observed 1-5 h after the start of infusion. Oestradiol, oestrone and oestrone-sulphate concentrations decreased 24-46% compared to basal values. 5 alpha-dihydro-testosterone levels decreased 23-31%, androstenedione...

  7. Radioimmunological determination of the level of luteinizing hormone in the serum in the case of various gonadal disturbances and other endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiebe, C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine radioimmunologically the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the serum in the case of various gonadal disturbances and other endocrine diseases with the aid of the double antibody method, and to compare the results within different diagnosis groups to each other and to compare these results with those found in the published literature. It was tested whether and with which accuracy the radioimmunological determination of LH in the serum can contribute to the diagnosis of pituitary gonad diseases and whether in the case of endocrine diseases the accompanying disturbances of the gonadotropin secretion which primarily do not affect the hypothalamo - hypophyso - gonadal circuit are demonstrable. The study results for the diagnosis groups primary and secondary hypogonadism of various genesis, gynacomastia, impotentia coeundi, primary and secondary ovarial insufficiency, hirsutism and adiposity were presented and discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. INDUKSI PEMATANGAN GONAD DAN PENINGKATAN TINGKAT PEMBUAHAN TELUR INDUK UDANG WINDU, Penaeus monodon MELALUI RANGSANGAN HORMONAL TANPA ABLASI MATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh rangsangan hormon gonadotropin (GTH dan antidopamin (AD terhadap performa induk betina alam sebagai pengganti ablasi. Dua perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah: 1 rangsangan hormon GTH dan AD pada betina udang windu alam tanpa ablasi; 2 kontrol berupa ablasi induk udang windu tanpa rangsangan hormon. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa pemijahan pertama terjadi setelah rangsangan ke-2 yaitu 4 ekor induk (23,5%. Pascainjeksi ke-3, jumlah induk yang memijah meningkat menjadi 92,7% atau sebanyak 11 ekor dari 12 ekor yang diinjeksi. Setelah empat kali rangsangan, dari 17 ekor yang diinjeksi ternyata 14 ekor dapat memijah (82% dan 3 ekor induk tidak memijah hingga akhir pengamatan. Kontrol menghasilkan 6 ekor induk memijah dari 10 ekor yang diablasi (60%. Fekunditas telur (fertil dan tidak fertil dari induk yang dirangsang GTH+AD adalah 219.313 butir/induk lebih tinggi dibandingkan induk yang diablasi yaitu 182.848 butir/induk. Tingkat pembuahan pada kontrol adalah 54%, lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan jumlah telur yang fertil dari induk yang dirangsang GTH+AD yaitu 76%. Meskipun tingkat pembuahan telur yang dihasilkan oleh induk pascainjeksi lebih tinggi, ternyata tingkat penetasan telurnya hanya 39%, lebih rendah dari induk yang diablasi yaitu 52%. Diameter telur dari induk yang mendapat rangsangan AD+GTH adalah 29,3 μm ± 0,8 (rerata ± SD lebih besar dari diameter telur induk yang diablasi (25,1 μm ± 0,3. Total asam amino karkas induk udang yang dirangsang GTH+AD adalah 61,4% relatif lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Berdasarkan jumlah induk yang matang gonad dan fekunditas telur yang dihasilkan, aplikasi AD+GTH secara injeksi cukup dilakukan 3x pada dosis 0,3 mL/100 g udang.

  9. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Karimi Jashni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, Luteinal hormone (LH, estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope. Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05. Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats.

  10. An investigation on body weights, blood glucose levels and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones in diabetic and metformin-treated diabetic female rats

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    Pouya Pournaghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disorder which affects whole body systems including reproductive system. Diabetes is also a contributing factor to infertility. Metformin is one of the most common drugs to control hyperglycemia. In this study, 36 adult Sprague-Dawley female rats (170-210 g were divided into 3 groups (control, diabetic and diabetic-treated by metformin. In second and third groups, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (45 mg kg-1, IP and the third group was treated by metformin hydrochloride (100 mg kg-1 day-1, PO for 8 weeks. Body weights were compared and blood glucose, gonadotropins and sexual hormones were measured. In diabetic group the blood glucose level significantly (P < 0.05 increased in comparison with that of control and metformin-treated diabetic rats. The results also revealed that, in the untreated diabetic rats, the mean body weights and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones were significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in comparison with the control. Although there were significant (P < 0.05 reduction in mean body weights in metformin-treated diabetic rats, reduction in pituitary-gonadal axis hormones was not as sharp as in untreated diabetic rats and only level of progesterone was significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in comparison with the control. The results of this investigation revealed that there was a clear relationship between experimental diabetes with body weight and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones, and treatment with metformin relatively restored diabetic complications.

  11. The effects of biological sex and gonadal hormones on learning strategy in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Wayne R; Grissom, Elin M; Barratt, Harriet E; Conrad, Taylor S; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-02-28

    When learning to navigate toward a goal in a spatial environment, rodents employ distinct learning strategies that are governed by specific regions of the brain. In the early stages of learning, adult male rats prefer a hippocampus-dependent place strategy over a striatum-dependent response strategy. Alternatively, female rats exhibit a preference for a place strategy only when circulating levels of estradiol are elevated. Notably, male rodents typically perform better than females on a variety of spatial learning tasks, which are mediated by the hippocampus. However, limited research has been done to determine if the previously reported male spatial advantage corresponds with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and, if the male preference for a place strategy is impacted by removal of testicular hormones. A dual-solution water T-maze task, which can be solved by adopting either a place or a response strategy, was employed to determine the effects of biological sex and hormonal status on learning strategy. In the first experiment, male rats made more correct arm choices than female rats during training and exhibited a bias for a place strategy on a probe trial. The results of the second experiment indicated that testicular hormones modulated arm choice accuracy during training, but not the preference for a place strategy. Together, these findings suggest that the previously reported male spatial advantage is associated with a greater reliance on a place strategy, and that only performance during the training phase of a dual-solution learning task is impacted by removal of testicular hormones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The body has a brake: micrin is a postulated new gonadal hormone curbing tissue overgrowth and restricting reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John E

    2014-12-01

    There is evidence for an unrecognised classical hormone secreted by the mammalian gonad. This postulated hormone--'micrin' (pronounced 'my-crin')--represents the body's brake against tissue overgrowth. When oestrogens are administered in high doses to female rats there is a considerable (non-artefactual) increase in the relative size and weight of organs such as the pituitary, adrenals, uterus and liver--suggesting an organotrophic (organ-building) role for endogenous oestrogens. This effect is exaggerated if the animals are first ovariectomized, indicating the removal of a negative ovarian factor, micrin. These organ enlargements can be reduced by pretreating the rats with large doses of antioestrogens such as clomiphene and tamoxifen. This antiestrogenic blockade of exogenous oestrogens is itself blunted by prior removal of the ovaries. It is proposed that antioestrogens (e.g. tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment) antagonize the organotrophic effects of oestrogens by competing for the oestrogen receptor peripherally and centrally and via an increase in the secretion of ovarian micrin. It is deduced that micrin is the testicular 'inhibin' proposed in the 1930s, not the molecule that now bears that name, which acts at the pituitary tier as a downregulator of follicle-stimulating hormone. The hallmark of micrin deficiency in the male rat is a pituitary hypertrophy that follows castration. This is reversible with a steroid-depleted aqueous bovine testicular extract, the micrin within which suppresses the hypothalamus, normalizing the pituitary. Micrin probably acts as a brake on peripheral tissues directly but also indirectly at the meta-level via the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, resetting a hypothalamic 'organostat' controlling organ and tissue masses, part of the 'organotrophic system' of internal size regulation. Besides endocrine (circulating) micrin from the gonads there is probably paracrine (locally acting) micrin produced in the brain. This is involved in a

  13. The effect of Ligula intestinalis on blood sex steroid hormones, gonadal tissue and some other biological parameters changes of Chalcalburnus mossulensis in Vahdat dam of Kordestan-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khanghah, Ali Parsa

    2010-01-01

    Chalcalburnus mossulensis from the cyprinidae family is one of the indigenous fish in Gheshlag Lake of Kordestan-Iran. Ligula intestinalis is one of the infective parasites of this fish. In this study, the effect of this parasite on some biological aspects of this fish like weight, length, PI, CF, GSR, blood sex steroid hormones and gonadal tissue, was investigated. During one year, by seasonal sampling, 144 fish sample from mentioned species were collected using trap net. By considering the ...

  14. Beyond the HPA-axis: The role of the gonadal steroid hormone receptors in modulating stress-related responses in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenchel, Daphna; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Vainer, Ella; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a major role in the response to stress, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis are closely linked with the ability to inhibit the other. Testosterone, a product of the HPG, has many beneficial effects beyond its functions as a sex hormone including anti-anxiety properties. In this study we examined the effect of stress exposure on gonadal hormones, and their efficacy in modulating anxiety-like response in an animal model of PTSD. Male rats were exposed to predator scent stress, followed by analysis of brain expression of androgen receptor (AR) receptor and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The behavioral effects of immediate treatment with testosterone, testosterone receptor antagonist (flutamide) or vehicle were evaluated using the elevated plus-maze, acoustic startle response and trauma-cue response. Levels of circulating corticosterone and testosterone were also measured after treatment. The behavioral effects of delayed testosterone treatment were explored in the same manner. We report that animals whose behavior was extremely disrupted (EBR) selectively displayed significant down-regulation of AR and ERα in the hippocampus. Immediate treatment with flutamide or delayed treatment with testosterone significantly increased prevalence rates of minimal behavioral response (MBR) and decreased prevalence of EBR with favorable behavioral results. Testosterone levels were higher in control un-exposed animals, while corticosterone was higher in control exposed animals. This study suggests that gonadal steroid hormones are involved in the neurobiological response to predator scent stress and thus warrant further study as a potential therapeutic avenue for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain and gonadal aromatase activity and steroid hormone levels in female and polymorphic males of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, David; Teles, Magda; Alpedrinha, João; Oliveira, Rui F

    2008-11-01

    In the peacock blenny Salaria pavo large males with well-developed secondary sexual characters establish nests and attract females while small "sneaker" males mimic female sexual displays in order to approach the nests of larger males and parasitically fertilize eggs. These alternative reproductive tactics are sequential, as sneakers irreversibly switch into nesting males. This transition involves major morphologic and behavioral changes and is likely to be mediated by hormones. This study focuses on the role of aromatase, an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens into estrogens, in the regulation of male sexual polymorphism in S. pavo. For this, sex steroid plasma levels and aromatase activity (AA) in gonads, whole brain and brain macroareas were determined in sneakers, transitional males (i.e. sneakers undergoing the transition into nesting males), nesting males and females collected in the field. AA was much higher in ovarian tissue than in testicular tissue and accordingly circulating estradiol levels were highest in females. This supports the view that elevated AA and estradiol levels are associated with the development of a functional ovary. Transitional males are in a non-reproductive phase and had underdeveloped testes when compared with sneakers and nesting males. Testicular AA was approximately 10 times higher in transitional males when compared with sneakers and nesting males, suggesting high AA has a suppressive effect on testicular development. Nesting males had significantly higher plasma levels of both testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone when compared with the other male morphs and previous studies demonstrated that these androgens suppress female-like displays in sneakers. In the brain, AA was highest in macroareas presumably containing hypothalamic nuclei traditionally associated with the regulation of reproductive behaviors. Overall, females presented the highest levels of brain AA. In male morphs AA increased from sneakers, to

  16. Effect of Valsartan on the hormones of Pituitary-gonadal axis Performance in mature female Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Valsartan , as a receptor antagonist of Ang II inhibits the secretion of gonadotropin hormones and accelerates their effect on blocking the follicular cells of the female sex ,causing the reduction of female hormones.

  17. Recovery of pituitary-gonadal function in male and female rats after prolonged administration of a potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (SB-75).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, L; Srkalovic, G; Szepeshazi, K; Schally, A V

    1991-08-01

    estradiol (p less than 0.01) levels than controls. The histology of the ovaries from the SB-75-treated group showed that the ratio of small to large maturing follicles increased significantly (p less than 0.01) and corpora lutea were absent. Two months after the cessation of treatment, a complete recovery in the organ weights and in hormonal levels was observed and no histological differences were found between the ovaries in treated and untreated rats. These collective results indicate that the suppression of gonadal function induced by the treatment with LH-RH antagonist SB-75 is completely reversible both in male and female animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  18. Pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid axis hormone concentrations before and during a hypoglycemic clamp after sleep deprivation in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Jauch-Chara

    Full Text Available Total sleep deprivation (TSD exerts strong modulatory effects on the secretory activity of endocrine systems that might be related to TSD-induced challenges of cerebral glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate whether TSD affects the course of male pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid axis related hormones during a subsequent 240-min hypoglycemic clamp. Ten healthy men were tested on 2 different conditions, TSD and 7-hour regular sleep. Circulating concentrations of total testosterone, prolactin (PRL, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free triiodothyronine (fT3, and free thyroxin (fT4 were measured during baseline and a subsequent hypoglycemic clamp taking place in the morning. Basal, i.e. at 07:00 am measured, concentrations of total testosterone (P = 0.05 and PRL (P<0.01 were lower while the values of TSH (P = 0.02, fT3 (P = 0.08, and fT4 (P = 0.04 were higher after TSD as compared to regular sleep. During the subsequent hypoglycemic clamp (all measurements from baseline to the end of the clamp analyzed total testosterone concentrations in the regular sleep (P<0.01 but not in the TSD condition (P = 0.61 decreased, while PRL levels increased (P = 0.05 irrespectively of the experimental condition (P = 0.31. TSH concentrations decreased during hypoglycemia (P<0.01, with this decrease being more pronounced after TSD (P = 0.04. However, at the end of the hypoglycemic clamp concentrations all of the above mentioned hormones did not differ between the two sleep conditions. Our data indicate a profound influence of TSD on male pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid axis hormones characterized by reduced basal testosterone and PRL levels and increased TSH levels. However, since concentrations of these hormones measured at the end of the 240-min hypoglycemic clamp were not affected by TSD it can be speculated that the influence of TSD on the two endocrine axes is rather short lived or does not interact in an additive

  19. Sexual dimorphic expression of DMRT1 and Sox9a during gonadal differentiation and hormone-induced sex reversal in the teleost fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kajiura-Kobayashi, Hiroko; Guan, Guijun; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    We examined the expression profiles of tDMRT1 and Sox9a during gonadal sex differentiation and hormone-induced sex reversal. tDMRT1 was detected in the gonial germ-cell-surrounding cells in XY fry specifically before the appearance of any signs of morphological sex differentiation, that is, sex differences in germ cell number and histogenesis, such as differentiation into intratesticular efferent duct or ovarian cavity. The signals became localized in the Sertoli and epithelial cells comprising the efferent duct during gonadal differentiation. After the induction of XY sex reversal with estrogen, tDMRT1 decreased and then disappeared completely. In contrast, tDMRT1 was expressed in the germ-cell-surrounding cells in XX sex reversal with androgen. On the other hand, Sox9a did not show sexual dimorphism before the appearance of sex differences in histogenesis and was not expressed in the efferent duct in the testis. These results suggest that tDMRT1 is a superior testicular differentiation marker in tilapia.

  20. The Effect of Ecstasy (MDMA on the Number of Ovary Follicles and Hormonal Axis of Pituitary-Gonadal in Immature Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Allaeian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The widespread use of the pills of ecstasy has opened the floodgates to social damage. Severe kidney and liver damage as well amnesia and imbalance are some of ecstasy pills complications. This study evaluated the effect of these pills on the ovary and hormonal axis of pituitary-gonadal axis in rats.   Materials & Methods: Thirty-five female immature Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups of 7 rats, comprising control, sham, experimental 1, experimental 2, and experimental 3 groups. The control group did not receive any solvent or medication; the sham group received physiologic serum (0.2 cc once daily for 14 days; and the experimental groups of 1, 2, and 3 received a solution (0.2 cc once daily containing 0.5, 1, and 2 mg of medication for 14 days via intraperitoneal injection. Hormone measurement was done with the ELISA method. Ovaries were excised to prepare tissue sections and to investigate the number of ovarian follicles. The number of follicles was calculated via the physical dissector technique.   Results: There was a statistically significant difference in body and ovary weight between the control group and the experimental group 3. Also, the number of primary and Graafian follicles decreased significantly. The results did not show a statistically significant difference between the three experimental groups and the control group in terms of FSH and LH hormones, but the rate of progesterone hormone had a meaningful increase.   Conclusion: Use of ecstasy pills exerted a destructive impact on the ovary and progesterone hormone.

  1. Skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain isoform content in relation to gonadal hormones and anabolic-catabolic balance in trained and untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, Marcin; Majerczak, Joanna; Karasinski, Janusz; Kulpa, Jan; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2012-12-01

    Gonadal hormones and anabolic-catabolic hormone balance have potent influence on skeletal muscle tissue, but little is known about their action with regard to myosin heavy chain (MHC) transformation in humans. We investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle MHC isoform content in the vastus lateralis muscle and basal testosterone (T) concentration in 3 groups of subjects: endurance trained (E), sprint/strength trained (S), and untrained (U) young men. We have also determined basal sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol (C) concentrations in untrained subjects to examine the relationship between MHC composition and the anabolic-catabolic hormone balance. Moreover, basal free testosterone (fT) and bioavailable testosterone (bio-T) concentrations were calculated for this subgroup. Despite significant differences in MHC isoform content (69.4 ± 2.39%, 61.4 ± 8.04%, and 37.5 ± 13.80% of MHC-2 for groups S, U, and E, respectively, Kruskal-Wallis: H = 18.58, p 0.5). We have also found that in the U group, type 2 MHC in the vastus lateralis muscle is positively correlated with basal fT:C ratio (r = 0.63, p = 0.01). It is concluded that the differences in the training history and training specificity can be distinguished with regard to the MHC composition but not with regard to the basal T concentration. Simultaneously, it has been shown that MHC isoform content in human vastus lateralis muscle may be related to basal anabolic-catabolic hormone balance, and this hypothesis needs further investigation.

  2. INDUCTION OF GONADAL MATURATION OF POND CULTURED MALE TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon WITH DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUE AGAINST EYE STALK ABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Very low naturally mating rate of pond-reared tiger shrimp broodstock is probably due to the slow maturation of the male stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salmon gonadotrophin releasing hormone analoque (sGnRHa in stimulating the gonadal maturation of male stock of pond-reared tiger shrimp. The treatments were three dosages of sGnRHa at 0.1 (OV-1, 0.2 (OV-2, and 0.3 (OV-3 mL/kg of shrimp weight and control was eye stalk ablation (AB. The sGnRHa was administered via injection three times with one week interval. Male stocks with average initial body weight of 82.1 g were randomly distributed into four of 10 m3 concrete tanks, 26 males for each tank. Variables observed were performances of spermatophores and profiles of amino acid and fatty acid of muscle of the male stocks. After induction, number of male maturing indicated by spermatophores releasing from terminal ampullas was higher in shrimp induced with OV-1 (80.8% compared to control which was only 46.1%. Furthermore, shrimp treated OV-2 had the highest spermatophore weight of 0.16 g compared to control (0.11 g and other two groups. Amino acid profiles improved as the dose of sGnRHa increased up to 0.2 mL/kg from 61.23% for ablated male becoming 71.27% for OV-2. Total fatty acid also tended to improve by increasing the dose of hormone injection, however, the ablated male had higher total fatty acid content than that of OV-1. The present finding demonstrated that the dose of sGnRHa to stimulate the gonadal maturation of pond-reared male tiger shrimp could be applied at range between 0.1-0.2 mL/kg of shrimp weight.

  3. Gonadal shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, J A; Stiteler, R D; Glasgow, G P; Mill, W B

    1975-10-01

    A secondary gonadal shield for use in the pelvic irradiation of males was designed and built using material and apparatus available with the Cerrobend blocking system. The gonadal dose was reduced to approximately 1.5 to 2.5% of the given dose.

  4. Honey and Vitamin E Restore the Plasma Level of Gonadal Hormones and Improve the Fertilization Capacity in Noise-Stressed Rats

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    Rajabzadeh Asghar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Noise as a natural teratogenic factor affects the body systems including the reproductive organ to reduce the fertility rate and fetus health. Honey and vitamin E as natural antioxidants protects the sperm released from the reproductive system. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of honey and vitamin E on fertilization capacity in noise-exposed rats by assessing plasma sexual hormones levels i.e., follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, and testosterone, altered in relation with noise stress. Materials and Methods: This study was targeted the 24 male rats that randomly were divided into four equal groups including one control group (unexposed to noise stress and three experimental groups pre-induced with noise stress for 50 days and then divided as: no treated, honey and vitamin E treated groups, respectively. Then, the blood samples of experimental and control groups were taken, and the serum level of the sexual hormones was analyzed. Finally, to investigate the fertility capacity of rats, the male rats of all groups were coupled with the female ones. Results: Our results showed that FSH and LH level in noise stressed male rats raised, and the testosterone secretion decreased compared to the control group. Moreover, noise stress injury could reduce weight and the survival rate of the fetus. However, the honey and vitamin E improved the testosterone concentration, declined the plasma FSH and LH level in noise - exposed rats and enhanced the fertility rate. Conclusion: These findings may also spell out a natural curative approach rather than pharmaceutical drugs to optimize of neuroendocrine gonadal axis and testicular integrity induced by pathogenesis stress, i.e., noise and enhance the male fertility capacity.

  5. Dual Actions of Mammalian and Piscine Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormones, RFamide-Related Peptides and LPXRFamide Peptides, in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Ubuka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that decreases gonadotropin synthesis and release by directly acting on the gonadotrope or by decreasing the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons. GnIH is also called RFamide-related peptide in mammals or LPXRFamide peptide in fishes due to its characteristic C-terminal structure. The primary receptor for GnIH is GPR147 that inhibits cAMP production in target cells. Although most of the studies in mammals, birds, and fish have shown the inhibitory action of GnIH in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG axis, several in vivo studies in mammals and many in vivo and in vitro studies in fish have shown its stimulatory action. In mouse, although the firing rate of the majority of GnRH neurons is decreased, a small population of GnRH neurons is stimulated by GnIH. In hamsters, GnIH inhibits luteinizing hormone (LH release in the breeding season when their endogenous LH level is high but stimulates LH release in non-breeding season when their LH level is basal. Besides different effects of GnIH on the HPG axis depending on the reproductive stages in fish, higher concentration or longer duration of GnIH administration can stimulate their HPG axis. These results suggest that GnIH action in the HPG axis is modulated by sex-steroid concentration, the action of neuroestrogen synthesized by the activity of aromatase stimulated by GnIH, estrogen membrane receptor, heteromerization and internalization of GnIH, GnRH, and estrogen membrane receptors. The inhibitory and stimulatory action of GnIH in the HPG axis may have a physiological role to maintain reproductive homeostasis according to developmental and reproductive stages.

  6. Semen quality in men with disseminated testicular cancer : relation with human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit and pituitary gonadal hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Daphne; de Jong, Igle J.; Arts, Eugene G. J. M.; Nuver, Janine; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Sluiter, Willem J.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Sleijfer, Dirk T.; Gietema, Jourik A.

    Objective: To compare the semen quality and hormonal status between patients with testicular cancer and normal versus increased serum levels of beta-hCG. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Academic research environment. Patient(s): All 203 patients with testicular cancer who required chemotherapy

  7. Radiation-associated breast cancer and gonadal hormone exposure: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Sklar, Charles A.; Barnea, Dana; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Neglia, Joseph P.; Turcotte, Lucie; Howell, Rebecca M.; Henderson, Tara O.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Robison, Leslie L.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between hormone exposure and breast cancer risk in women treated with chest radiotherapy for childhood cancer is uncertain. Participants included 1108 females from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who were diagnosed with childhood cancer 1970-1986, treated with chest

  8. D-aspartic acid supplementation combined with 28 days of heavy resistance training has no effect on body composition, muscle strength, and serum hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Darryn S; Leutholtz, Brian

    2013-10-01

    It was hypothesized that D-aspartic acid (D-ASP) supplementation would not increase endogenous testosterone levels or improve muscular performance associated with resistance training. Therefore, body composition, muscle strength, and serum hormone levels associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis were studied after 28 days of resistance training and D-ASP supplementation. Resistance-trained men resistance trained 4 times/wk for 28 days while orally ingesting either 3 g of placebo or 3 g of D-ASP. Data were analyzed with 2 × 2 analysis of variance (P aspartate oxidase (DDO) were determined. Body composition and muscle strength were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (P .05). Total and free testosterone, luteinizing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and estradiol were unchanged with resistance training and D-ASP supplementation (P > .05). For serum D-ASP and DDO, D-ASP resulted in a slight increase compared with baseline levels (P > .05). For the D-ASP group, the levels of serum DDO were significantly increased compared with placebo (P < .05). The gonadal hormones were unaffected by 28 days of D-ASP supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. Therefore, at the dose provided, D-ASP supplementation is ineffective in up-regulating the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis and has no anabolic or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential regulation of kiss1 expression by melatonin and gonadal hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansel, L; Bolborea, M; Bentsen, A H

    2010-01-01

    In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronized to seasons by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. Recently, we have demonstrated that Kiss1, a key activator of the reproductive function, is down-regulated in sexually inactive hamsters maintained in inhibitory short days (SDs). In rode......In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronized to seasons by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. Recently, we have demonstrated that Kiss1, a key activator of the reproductive function, is down-regulated in sexually inactive hamsters maintained in inhibitory short days (SDs......). In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Because both the duration of the nocturnal peak of melatonin and circulating sex steroid levels vary with photoperiod, the aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin and sex steroids...... differentially regulate Kiss1 expression in the ARC and the AVPV. Kiss1 expression was examined by in situ hybridization in both male and female hamsters kept in various experimental conditions, and we observed that 1) SD exposure markedly reduced Kiss1 expression in the ARC and AVPV of male and female hamsters...

  10. Heavy Resistance Training and Supplementation With the Alleged Testosterone Booster Nmda has No Effect on Body Composition, Muscle Performance, and Serum Hormones Associated With the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 28 days of heavy resistance training while ingesting the alleged testosterone-boosting supplement, NMDA, were determined on body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary- gonadal (HPG axis. Twenty resistance-trained males engaged in 28 days of resistance training 4 times/wk while orally ingesting daily either 1.78 g of placebo (PLAC or NMDA. Data were analyzed with separate 2 x 2 ANOVA (p 0.05 or supplementation (p > 0.05. In regard to total body mass and fat-free mass, however, each was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p 0.05. In both groups, lower-body muscle strength was significantly increased in response to resistance training (p 0.05. All serum hormones (total and free testosterone, LH, GnRH, estradiol, cortisol, prolactin were unaffected by resistance training (p > 0.05 or supplementation (p > 0.05. The gonadal hormones and cortisol and prolactin were unaffected by 28 days of NMDA supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. At the dose provided, NMDA had no effect on HPG axis activity or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle.

  11. Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by TAK-385 (relugolix), a novel, investigational, orally active, small molecule gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist: studies in human GnRH receptor knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Daisuke; Masaki, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Akira; Yoshimatsu, Mie; Akinaga, Yumiko; Asada, Mari; Sasada, Reiko; Takeyama, Michiyasu; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Kusaka, Masami

    2014-01-15

    TAK-385 (relugolix) is a novel, non-peptide, orally active gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, which builds on previous work with non-peptide GnRH antagonist TAK-013. TAK-385 possesses higher affinity and more potent antagonistic activity for human and monkey GnRH receptors compared with TAK-013. Both TAK-385 and TAK-013 have low affinity for the rat GnRH receptor, making them difficult to evaluate in rodent models. Here we report the human GnRH receptor knock-in mouse as a humanized model to investigate pharmacological properties of these compounds on gonadal function. Twice-daily oral administration of TAK-013 (10mg/kg) for 4 weeks decreased the weights of testes and ventral prostate in male knock-in mice but not in male wild-type mice, demonstrating the validity of this model to evaluate antagonists for the human GnRH receptor. The same dose of TAK-385 also reduced the prostate weight to castrate levels in male knock-in mice. In female knock-in mice, twice-daily oral administration of TAK-385 (100mg/kg) induced constant diestrous phases within the first week, decreased the uterus weight to ovariectomized levels and downregulated GnRH receptor mRNA in the pituitary after 4 weeks. Gonadal function of TAK-385-treated knock-in mice began to recover after 5 days and almost completely recovered within 14 days after drug withdrawal in both sexes. Our findings demonstrate that TAK-385 acts as an antagonist for human GnRH receptor in vivo and daily oral administration potently, continuously and reversibly suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. TAK-385 may provide useful therapeutic interventions in hormone-dependent diseases including endometriosis, uterine fibroids and prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of oestradiol-enriched diet and of feeding with porcine testicular tissue on macroscopic gonadal sex in European eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, D.; Boetius, I.; Larsen, L.O.

    1996-01-01

    days there were 44% with female-gonads, 40% with male+female-gonads and 16% with male-gonads. Oestradiol thus had a feminizing effect, not only on morphologically undifferentiated gonads but also on morphologically differentiated male-gonads. The presence of sex steroid hormones or their precursors...... and in control eels. Otherwise no correlation was found between growth rate and gonadal sex. (C) 1996 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  13. Interactive effects of naphthalene treatment and the onset of vitellogenesis on energy metabolism in liver and gonad, and plasma steroid hormones of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintos, Adrián; Gesto, Manuel; Alvarez, Rosa; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess in female fish the possible interaction between treatment with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) like naphthalene and the onset of vitellogenesis. In a first experiment, female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at stages 2-3 (previtellogenesis) or 4 (early vitellogenesis) were intraperitoneally injected (2 microl g(-1)) with vegetable oil alone (control) or containing naphthalene (50 mg kg(-1)) to be sampled 3 h later. A second experiment was similarly designed but using fish intraperitoneally implanted (10 microl g(-1)) with slow-release coconut oil implants alone (control) or containing 50 mg naphthalene kg(-1) body mass that were sampled 3 days after injection. On each sampling time, plasma levels of cortisol and 17beta-estradiol, and several metabolic parameters in plasma, liver and gonad were assessed. In controls, early vitellogenic fish compared with previtellogenic fish displayed changes that in some cases are confirmatory of previous studies whereas in other cases provide new information in plasma (increased amino acid levels), liver (decreased capacity for exporting glucose and reduced amino acid levels) and gonad (decreased amino acid levels). Naphthalene treatment produced in previtellogenic fish decreased 17beta-estradiol levels in plasma, increased plasma glucose or decreased liver gluconeogenic capacity whereas no major effects were noticed on parameters involved in lipid, amino acid and lactate metabolism. Differential effects of naphthalene treatment were noticed in early vitellogenic fish such as decreased 17beta-estradiol and glucose levels in plasma, increased hexokinase and glucokinase and lack of changes in fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase activities in liver, and a lower decrease of amino acid levels in gonad. Those alterations produced by naphthalene treatment resulted in a decreased capacity for covering the energy demand of vitellogenesis in liver and gonad that could contribute to a delay and

  14. [Methods of gonad protection against effects of chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, A

    1994-05-01

    Together with increasing therapeutic effectiveness neoplastic diseases, the interest in late consequences of adverse effects of chemotherapy is increasing. Such problems include disturbances of gonad function. Treatment of neoplastic diseases leads frequently to infertility and hormonal disturbances resulting from damages to the gonads. Many attempts have been undertaken at protection of the gonads against unfavourable action of drugs. They are based mainly on the "interruption" of the hypothalamo-hypophyseo-gonadal axis in order to make the gonads quiescent. Other direction includes the influence on the metabolism of oncological drugs aimed at inhibition of the development of gonadotoxic derivatives. Another method includes appropriate choice of cytostatics: antimetabolites exert weaker unfavourable action on the gonads than alkylating drugs. The problem of gonad protection remains open. Searching is necessary for drugs without gonadotoxic action and effective methods of protection.

  15. Possible role of vitamins A and/or α-tocopheryl acetate in modulating -radiation-induced disorders on the pituitary-gonadal-adrenal axis hormones and some related minerals in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Safi, H.M.; Hussien, A.H.; El-Sayed, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the role of vitamins A (15000 IU/kg body wt) and α -tocopheryl acetate (100 mg/kg body wt) on repairing the disorders induced by γ -radiation on the pituitary-gonadal adrenal axis hormones in female rats during the estrus phase of estrus cycle. The investigation included the determination of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) estradiol (E2) progesterone (P) aldosterone (Ald), Na + , K + and Ca 2+ , levels in serum. Animals were divided into 5 groups: control, whole body -irradiated (6 Gy), injected with vitamin A 2 h before irradiation, subjected to γ -radiation then injected with α-tocopheryl acetate 1 h later and injected with vitamin A pre-irradiation, then injected with α -tocopheryl acetate post-irradiation. Animals were treated at the pro-estrus stage then, serum samples were taken at the estrus stage. Results showed that irradiation induced significant decreases in serum levels of FSH, E2, aldosterone and potassium, whereas, it elevated significantly the serum levels of P4 and sodium but there was in serum calcium levels. Both vitamins A and / orα-tocopheryl acetate succeeded to confront γ -radiation disorders on the estimated hormones and related minerals. The combination of vitamins A and α -tocopheryl acetate was more effective than either one alone

  16. Hormonas del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis gonadal y síndrome climatérico Hormones of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal gonadal axis and climacteric syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daysi Navarro Despaigne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las manifestaciones clínicas del síndrome climatérico (SC se consideran expresión de los cambios neuroendocrinos consecutivos al cese de la función reproductiva, por tanto, sería de esperar que la intensidad del SC tenga relación con el hipoestrogenismo o los niveles de gonadotropinas. Con el objetivo de relacionar niveles de estradiol y gonadotropinas con la intensidad de los síntomas climatéricos, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal entre septiembre de 2005 y agosto de 2006 en un grupo constituido por 48 mujeres posmenopáusicas provenientes de la Clínica de Climaterio y Osteoporosis del INE, con edades entre 41 y 59 años, sanas y sin tratamiento hormonal de reemplazo. Para la evaluación del SC se utilizó la escala de Pérez Piñeiro, y se determinaron niveles plasmáticos de FSH y LH mediante ensayo inmunoradiométrico (IRMA y de estradiol por radioinmunoensayo (RIA. Se utilizaron la media, desviación estándar, y la mediana. Para el análisis de correlación se utilizó la prueba de rango de signo de Wilcoxon y el test de Mann-Whitney. La mediana de los niveles de FSH fueron de 77,0 UI/L y los de LH de 37,7 UI/L, los valores medios de estradiol fueron de 14,8 pmol/L. Respecto a la intensidad de los síntomas climatéricos, el grado ligero fue el más frecuente (50 %, seguido del moderado (33,3 % y finalmente el severo (16,7 %. No se encontró correlación entre los niveles de gonadotropinas ni estradiol con el grado de severidad de los síntomas climatéricos. En conclusión, no se demostró que el patrón hormonal del eje hipotálamo hipofiso ovárico posterior a la menopausia influyera en la intensidad de los síntomas climatéricos.The clinical manifestations of the climacteric syndrome (CS are considered as an expression of the endocrine changes following the cessation of the reproductive function, so there must be a relation between the intensity of the CS and hypoestrogenism or the gonadotropin levels. In order

  17. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  18. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  19. Gonadal doses from radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Morris, N.D.

    1980-06-01

    The method of calculation of gonadal doses arising from different radiotherapeutic procedures is described. The measurement of scatter factors to the gonads from superficial and deep therapy is detailed and the analytic fits to the experimental data, as a function of field position, field size and beam energy are given. The data used to calculate the gonadal doses from treatments using linear accelerators, teletherapy and sealed sources are described and the analytic fits to the data given

  20. Effects on circulating steroid hormones and gene expression along the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis in adult Japanese quail exposed to 17β-trenbolone across multiple generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula F.; Maddox, Catherine M.; Sprague, Dan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17β-trenbolone (17βTB) on adult Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed across three generations. The F0 generation was exposed after sexual maturity to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppm through feed. The F1 generation was exposed in ovo by maternal transfer and through feed at the same doses as their parents. The F2 generation was exposed in ovo only. Levels of plasma sex steroids, gonadal Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA and select brain neuroendocrine peptide mRNAs were measured. In males, testosterone levels did not differ in any generation from those in controls. Estradiol was significantly elevated in 17βTB treated F0 and F1 males. In F0 and F1 females, testosterone was suppressed by 17βTB, whereas estradiol was significantly higher at 40 ppm in F0 and at 10 ppm in F1 females. CYP19A1 expression in F1 males and females increased suggesting a compensatory response to the androgenic effects of 17βTB. Few significant effects were observed in the F2 birds indicating that in ovo exposure had limited effects on the monitored endpoints. Overall, our results confirmed endocrine disrupting effects of dietary 17βTB in Japanese quail but the response was dependent on sex, developmental stage at initiation of exposure, and dose.

  1. Influence of age, strain and season on circadian periodicity of pituitary, gonadal and adrenal hormones in the serum of male laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C C; Döhler, K D; Geerlings, H; von zur Mühlen, A

    1983-01-01

    The influence of age, strain and season on the circadian pattern of serum levels of LH, FSH, prolactin androgens and corticosterone was studied in five groups of male laboratory rats. Significant 24-hour periodicity was observed for serum levels of corticosterone in all five groups, for androgen levels in four, for prolactin levels in three, for LH levels in two and for FSH levels in one group of rats. There were significant influences of age, strain and season on the temporal patterns and/or on 24-hour mean serum hormone levels. The results indicate that some of the disagreements on existence or nonexistence of circadian rhythms and on rhythm patterns in serum hormone levels may be explained by the fact that animals of different ages or strains had been used or that experiments were performed at different times of the year.

  2. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Training on Hormonal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axisand Fertility in Type 2 Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parastesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in fertility indices. Interval training, on the other hand, through reducing the adverse effects of diabetes, exerts a positive impact on diabetic individuals.The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ten weeks of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on reproductive hormones and sperm parameters in Wistar rats with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 36 Wistar rats with mean weight of 200±48 were randomly assigned to healthy control, diabetic control and diabetic + high intensity interval training groups. The diabetic training group received ten weeks of HIIT training by treadmill following the induction of diabetes. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, left epididymis of the rats was examined for studying sperm parameters and blood serum samples were examined for evaluating reproductive hormones. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significant level of 0.05%. Results: Ten weeks of HIIT training reduces fasting blood glucose (p=0.001 and significantly increases serum testosterone (p=0.001, LH (p=0.042 and FSH (p=0.024 levels in the HIIT training group in comparison to the diabetic group. In addition, sperm parameters (sperm count, survival rate and motility presented significant improvements compared to the diabetic group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that HIIT training can improve sperm count, survival rate and motility, through increasing serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (reproductive hormones in rats with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  3. Effects of oestradiol-enriched diet and of feeding with porcine testicular tissue on macroscopic gonadal sex in European eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, D.; Boetius, I.; Larsen, L.O.

    1996-01-01

    days there were 44% with female-gonads, 40% with male+female-gonads and 16% with male-gonads. Oestradiol thus had a feminizing effect, not only on morphologically undifferentiated gonads but also on morphologically differentiated male-gonads. The presence of sex steroid hormones or their precursors...... and 78% of oestradiol-treated eels developed female-gonads. Minced porcine testicular tissue fed to 2-g eels for up to 371 days had effects similar to oestradiol-enriched food (68% with female-gonads), whereas feeding for only 91 days had no effect during the next 8 months. Oestradiol-enriched food...... in porcine testicular tissue may also exert a feminizing influence. In all experiments the hormone-fed groups showed a tendency (not significant) towards increased growth rate. In small eels early rapid growth and differentiation of female-gonads were clearly correlated, both in hormone treated...

  4. Curcumin and Quercetin Ameliorated Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin-Induced Reproductive System Impairment in Male Wistar Rats by Upregulating The Activity of Pituitary-Gonadal Hormones and Steroidogenic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Dietary antioxidants protect tissues and organs against insecticides/xenobiotic-induced damage. In the present study, we evaluated the results of exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin (Cyp and deltamethrin (Del and possible protective effects of curcumin and quercetin on reproductive system in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods In this controlled experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals. Group A served as control, group B was exposed to Cyp (2 mg/kg.bw, group C was exposed to Del (2 mg/kg.bw, group D was exposed to Cyp+Del (2 mg/kg.bw each, group E was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg.bw, group F was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw and group G was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin+curcumin for 45 days. Results Exposure to Cyp and Del caused decreases in reproductive organs weight, sperm count, sperm motility, level of sex hormones viz. testosterone (T, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, steroidogenic enzymes viz. 3β-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD and 17β-HSD, non-enzymatic antioxi- dant glutathione (GSH and enzymatic antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione reductase (GR activity and increases in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO. The exposure also adversely affected the histo-achitecture of testes. Single and combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin significantly ameliorated Cyp and Del-induced damage in reproductive system. Conclusion Curcumin and quercetin protected against Cyp and Del-induced reproductive system toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. The increases in activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD with concomitant increases in testosterone were mainly responsible for ameliorating effects of curcumin and quercetin. Curcumin showed slightly

  5. Gonad shielding in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The use of gonad shielding is an important radiation protection technique, intended to reduce unnecessary x-ray exposure of the gonads of patients from diagnostic x-ray procedures. The types of gonad shields in use are discussed as are the types of diagnostic examinations that should include gonad shielding. It was found that when properly used, most shields provided substantial gonad dose reductions

  6. Tata Laksana Kasus Perempuan dengan Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XY (Sindrom Swyer)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanadi Sumapradja; Mila Maidarti; Achmad K. Harzif; Budi Wiweko; Gita Pratama; Muharam Natadisastra; Andon Hestiantoro

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) adalah kelainan medis yang dikaitkan dengan ketidakcocokan antara kromosom, gonad dan fenotip. Sindrom Swyer adalah kelainan berupa disgenesis gonad 46,XY dan diikuti dengan tidak terjadinya pelepasan anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) dari gonad yang mengalami disgenesis sehingga mengakibatkan berkembangnya duktus muller menjadi uterus. Keadaan tersebut mengakibatkan pasien mengeluh amenorea primer dan organ seks sekunder tidak berkembang. Orientasi gender umumn...

  7. Gonad shielding in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The use of gonad shielding is an important radiation protection technique, intended to reduce unnecessary x-ray exposure of the gonads of patients from diagnostic x-ray procedures. This pamphlet will provide physicians and radiologic technologists with information which will aid their appropriate use of gonad shielding

  8. Gonad dose in cineurethrocystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardran, G.M.; Dixon-Brown, A.; Fursdon, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    The technical factors used for cineurethrocystography for the true lateral projection in females are given. The mid-line radiation dose has been measured with LiF TLD inserted into the vagina in 19 examinations. The average dose recorded was 148 mrad, the range being 50 to 306 mrad, the average number of cine frames exposed was 96. Data obtained using a Rando phantom indicated that the average ovary dose would be 30% greater than the mid-line dose since the near ovary receives a higher dose than the more distant one. The technique used for men is also given, the average gonad dose in six men being 123 mrad, range 56 to 243 mrad when simple lead foil gonad protection was used; the average number of cine frames was 107. The dose in one man without gonad protection was 1575 mrad for 112 cine frames. The results for both sexes compare favourably with those of others reported in the literature and with gonad doses recorded in typical IVP examinations. (author)

  9. [The role of gonadal peptides in clinical investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, N; Bouvattier, C; Linglart, A; Rodrigue, D; Teinturier, C

    2009-01-01

    Inhibins, activins, and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) are gonadal dimeric peptides produced in ovaries and testes by homologous cells, granulosa cells and Sertoli cells, respectively. The production of inhibins is driven by FSH, that of AMH may indirectly depends on FSH, while it is down regulated, at least in the male, by testosterone. In the past decade, measurements of serum inhibin and AMH have provided useful tools for clinical investigation in gonadal disorders: pseudohermaphroditism, androgen insensitivity, anorchidism, gonadal dysgenesis, disorders of pubertal developpement. Inhibins, activins, and AMH are also reliable markers of gonadal tumors. They are extensively used as indexes of fertility: in the male the production of inhibin B reflects the spermatogenetic activity, in women both inhibin B and AMH levels are correlated with the number of preantral and early antral follicles and reflect the ovarian reserve of follicles available for recruitment.

  10. Gonad shielding in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockstroh, G.

    1984-01-01

    The reduction of gonadal dose by shielding of the gonads was investigated for a Somatom 2 using an anthropomorphic phantom. For small distances from the slice examined the gonadal dose results from intracorporal secondary radiation and is only insignificantly reduced by shielding. For greater distances shielding is relatively more effective, the gonadal dose however is small because of the approximately exponential decay. Shielding of the gonads therefore does not seem adequate for the reduction of gonadal dose. From dose measurements in cylinder phantoms of several diameters it appears that no different results would be obtained for children and young adults. An effective reduction of gonadal dose is only possible with lead capsules for males. (author)

  11. Dysgerminoma in a case of 46, XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (swyer syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Anguang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simple 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis syndrome, also called Swyer syndrome, is known as pure gonadal dysgenesis. Individuals with the syndrome are characterized by 46, XY karyotype and phenotypically female with female genital appearance, normal Müllerian structures and absent testicular tissue. The condition usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea due to the gonads have no hormonal or reproductive potential. Herein, we report a case of dysgerminoma diagnosed in a dysgenetic gonad of a 21-year-old patient with Swyer syndrome.

  12. INHIBIN IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN GONADAL AND NON-GONADAL TUMORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEJONG, FH; GROOTENHUIS, AJ; STEENBERGEN, J; VANSLUIJS, FJ; FOEKENS, JA; TENKATE, FJW; OOSTERHUIS, JW; LAMBERTS, SWJ; KLIJN, JGM

    1990-01-01

    Inhibin immunoreactivity was estimated in a number of gonadal and non-gonadal tumors. Dog Sertoli cell tumors and human granulosa cell and Leydig cell tumors contained high concentrations of inhibin-like material. Levels, comparable with those in normal testes and ovaries were detected in human

  13. Sexual and gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Rathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual and gonadal dysfunction/infertility are quite common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Forty percent of male and 55% of female dialysis patients do not achieve orgasm. The pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction is multifactorial. It is usually a combination of psychological, physiological, and other comorbid factors. Erectile dysfunction in males is mainly due to arterial factors, venous leakage, psychological factors, neurogenic factors, endocrine factors, and drugs. Sexual dysfunction in females is mainly due to hormonal factors and manifests mainly as menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, lack of vaginal lubrication, and failure to conceive. Treatment of gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is multipronged and an exact understanding of underlying pathology is essential in proper management of these patients.

  14. Gonadal steroids and bone metabolism in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    Over the past decade, our increasing awareness of the clinical importance of osteoporosis in men has stimulated intense interest in trying to better understand male skeletal physiology and pathophysiology. The present review focuses on a major focus of research in this area, namely the attempt to define the influence and therapeutic potential of gonadal steroids in male bone metabolism. Building on previous work defining the relative roles of androgens and estrogens in the developing male skeleton and in maintaining normal bone turnover, recent studies have begun to define these issues from epidemiologic, physiologic and therapeutic perspectives. With access to data from large prospectively defined populations of men, investigators are confirming and challenging existing hypotheses and forwarding new concepts. Clinical trials have expanded beyond standard androgen replacement studies to explore more complex hormonal interventions. Physiologic investigation has continued to probe the mechanisms underlying the differential and independent roles of androgens and estrogens in male bone metabolism. Recent work has added significantly to our understanding of the role of gonadal steroids in male skeletal physiology. Nonetheless, further research is necessary to build on these initial human studies and to capitalize on rapidly emerging advances in our understanding of the basic biology of bone metabolism.

  15. On gonads and gadflies: the estrus angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Stephen G

    2017-06-01

    The first sex steroid to be crystallized was the vertebrate ovarian hormone, estrone - a less potent metabolite of 17β-estradiol, which in mammals stimulates the female urge to mate (estrus). The gadfly (Greek oistros ) lent its name to the process of estrus, as an insect that bites and torments in classical Greek mythology. With the purification and crystallization of a moult-inducing steroid (ecdysone) from insects, an interesting parallel emerged between mating and moulting in lower mammals and arthropods. Ecdysterone (potent ecdysone metabolite) has anabolic effects in mammalian muscle cells that can be blocked by selective estrogen receptor antagonists. Insects utilize ecdysteroids in similar ways that vertebrates use estrogens, including stimulation of oocyte growth and maturation. Ecdysteroids also modify precopulatory insect mating behaviour, further reinforcing the gonad-gadfly/mate-moult analogy. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Short Adolescents Born Small for Gestational Age : Gonadal and thyroid function, bone mineral density, quality of life and adult height: The effects of growth hormone and additional postponement of puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Lem (Annemieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1991, our research group and others have been investigating children with short stature who were born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during treatment with biosynthetic growth hormone (GH). In 2005, GH treatment was licensed for short SGA children in the

  17. Effect of Estradiol-17β Injection on Gonad Development of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Tarsim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods for hormonal control of shrimp reproduction are very limited, and only eyestalk ablation is used to induce ovarian development and spawning in shrimp farming. The occurrence of vertebrate-type steroid hormones in crustaceans have been reported, however, their physiological role are not sufficiently understood. The present study analyzed the effect of estradiol-17β injection on gonad development of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The estradiol-17β dose 0.10 μg/g body weight were used. The treatments consisted of control, single injection (day 0 and double injection (day 0 and 6. The females broodstock were cultured for 12 days. The result showed that estradiol-17β had positive effect on gonad development. The gonado somatic index (GSI and oocytes diameter in treatment larger than the control. Double injection had highest effect with ∆GSI and oocytes diameter was 0.453  and 23.97 µm, respectively. The only oocytes previtelogenesis was found in gonad. It indicated that estradiol-17β important to induce endogenous vitellogenesis. Gonad development probably affected by gonad inhibiting hormone in the eyestalk. It was inhibited oocyte maturation. The polypeptide sub unit was observed in vitellin of ovari by SDS-PAGE. The molecular weights of approximately 95, 98, 109 and two units higher than 118 kDa of protein marker. Keywords: Gonad, estradiol-17β, oocyte, Litopenaeus vannamei   ABSTRAK Teknologi reproduksi dalam pembenihan udang belum mengalami perkembangan yang signifikan.  Pada umumnya untuk mempercepat kematangan gonad induk udang digunakan teknik ablasi. Mekanisme dan peranan hormon pada proses reproduksi udang belum banyak diketahui. Keberadaan hormon steroid pada krustase telah dikemukaan oleh beberapa peneliti, tetapi peranannya belum banyak diketahui.  Pada penelitian ini dikaji pengaruh penyuntikan hormon estradiol-17β pada perkembangan gonad induk udang putih (Litopenaeus vannamei.  Penelitian ini

  18. Gonad protection in young orthopaedic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, N; Hill, J

    1992-05-30

    To determine whether gonad shields are correctly positioned on the pelvic radiographs of children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Retrospective study of radiographs taken of children treated by in situ pinning of slipped capital femoral epiphysis between 1 January 1983 and 31 December 1988. Three teaching hospitals in north west England. 32 patients with complete set of radiographs. An average of 10.8 anteroposterior pelvic radiographs plus 8.9 lateral hip radiographs had been performed per patient. Gonad shields had been completely omitted in 137 (40%) anteroposterior pelvic radiographs performed on the 32 patients at the time of completion of the study. In 100 (29%) the gonad shields were adequately protecting the gonads, but in 109 (31%) the gonad shields were not protecting the gonads due to incorrect positioning of the shield. The incorrect positioning of the gonad shields was more commonly found in girls than boys (64 vs 45; p less than 0.012), presumably because of the difficulty in determining gonadal position in relation to surface landmarks. Absence of gonad shields was also more commonly seen in girls (82 v 55; p less than 0.005), but this is not easily explained. Gonad shields are not protecting the gonads in a large percentage of anteroposterior pelvic radiographs (71%) because they have been omitted or inadequately placed. This avoidable excess radiation exposure to the gonads, combined with the inability to shield the gonads in lateral hip radiographs and the large number of radiographs performed, results in the gonads receiving a higher dose of radiation than may otherwise be the case, and may increase the potential for disease in the future offspring of these patients.

  19. HPG-axis hormones during puberty : A study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, Jiska S.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Schnack, Hugo G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff

    Objective: During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary

  20. Peripheral kisspeptin reverses short photoperiod-induced gonadal regression in Syrian hamsters by promoting GNRH release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansel, L; Bentsen, A H; Ancel, C

    2011-01-01

    In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronised by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. In short winter days (short day, SD), the Syrian hamster displays a complete gonadal atrophy together with a marked reduction in expression of kisspeptins (Kp), a family of potent hypothalamic stimu...

  1. Opposite influence of light and blindness on pituitary-gonadal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBellastella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some environmental factors may influence the pituitary-gonadal function. Among these, light plays an important role in animal and in humans. The effect of light on the endocrine system is mediated by the pineal gland, through the modulation of melatonin secretion. In fact, melatonin secretion is stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, thus its circadian rhythm peaks at night. Light plays a favourable action on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis likely inhibiting melatonin secretion, even if the exogenous melatonin administration does not seem to impair the hormonal secretions of this axis. The basal and rhythmic pituitary-gonadal hormone secretions is regulated by a central clock gene and some independent clock genes present in the peripheral tissues. Light is able to induce the expression of some of these genes, thus playing an important role in regulating the hormonal secretions of pituitary -gonadal axis and the sexual and reproductive function in animals and humans. The lack of light stimulus in blind subjects induces increased plasma melatonin concentrations with a free-running rhythm of secretion, which impairs the hormonal secretions of pituitary-gonadal axis, causing disorders of reproductive processes in both sexes.

  2. Somatostatin in the rat periventricular nucleus: sex differences and effect of gonadal steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van H.H.; Heijning, van de B.J.M.; Beek, van der E.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the rat, the sexual dimorphism in growth hormone release is driven by sex steroids, and is suggested to result mainly from differences in somatostatin (SOM) release patterns from the median eminence. We studied the effect of gonadal steroids on SOM peptide-containing cells in the periventricular

  3. A rare case report of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Arora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old person, reared as female presented with complaints of genital ambiguity and primary amenorrhoea along with lack of secondary sexual characters, but without short stature and Turner′s stigmata. She was taking steroids after being misdiagnosed as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Karyotype analysis revealed 46XY karyotype. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia (cortisol 9.08 μg/dl, adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] 82.5 pg/ml or elevated level of 17-OH-progesterone (0.16 ng/ml. Pooled luteinizing hormone (LH was 11.79 mIU/ml and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH was 66.37 mIU/ml. Serum estradiol level was 25 pg/ml (21-251. Basal and 72 h post beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG levels of androstenedione and testosterone levels were done (basal testosterone of 652 ng/dl and basal androstenedione of 1.17 ng/ml; 72 h post hCG testosterone of 896 ng/dl and androstenedione of 1.34 ng/ml. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI pelvis (with ultrasonogrphy [USG] correlation revealed uterus didelphys with obstructed right moiety and bilateral ovarian-like structures. Right sided gonads and adjacent tubal structures were visualized laparoscopically and removed. Left sided gonads were not visualized and Mullerian remnants were adhered to sigmoid colon. Histopathological examination revealed presence of testicular tissue showing atrophic seminiferous tubules with hyperplasia of Leydig cells. No ovarian tissue was seen. Based on these results a diagnosis of 46XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD was made, which is rare and is difficult to distinguish from 46XY ovotesticular disorder of sexual differentiation (OT-DSD. The patient was managed with a multidisciplinary approach and fertility issues discussed with the patient′s caregivers.

  4. Effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on IGF-related parameters and on the pituitary-gonadal axis in GH-deficient males. A double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Andersson, A M; Pedersen, S A

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that growth hormone (GH) may play a regulatory role in male reproductive function. To express full anabolic effect in immature boys testosterone apparently requires the presence of GH. In GH-deficient adults, GH replacement therapy exerts a variety of anabolic actions, some...... study in 13 young males with childhood-onset GH deficiency of which 6 had isolated GH deficiency. GH treatment significantly increased serum levels of total IGF-I from 98 (68) to 323 (126) microg/l, free IGF-I from 0.48 (0.47) to 2.24 (1.66) microg/l, IGFBP-3 from 1,874 (1,178) to 3,520 (778) microg...... in hypogonadal patients substituted with androgens, but GH had no effect on inhibin-B levels. In conclusion, GH replacement therapy in 13 GH-deficient young adult males resulted in significant increases in total and free IGF-I as well as in ALS levels in all patients, but had no significant effect on: (1...

  5. Gonadal dysfunction in morbidly obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Vivian; Censani, Marisa; Lerner, Shulamit; Conroy, Rushika; Oberfield, Sharon; McMahon, Donald; Zitsman, Jeffrey; Fennoy, Ilene

    2014-04-01

    To describe gonadal dysfunction and evaluate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MeS) among girls in a morbidly obese adolescent population. In a cross-sectional study of 174 girls, height, weight, waist circumference, Tanner stage, reproductive hormones, carbohydrate and lipid markers, drug use, and menstrual history were obtained at baseline. Exclusion criteria were menarcheal age PCOS or MeS classification. University medical center outpatient clinic. Ninety-eight girls ages 13-19.6 years, Tanner 5, average body mass index of 46.6 kg/m(2), menarche at 11.4 years, and average menarcheal age of 5 years. None. Polycystic ovary syndrome and MeS. Ninety-eight girls were divided into four groups: PCOS by National Institutes of Health criteria (PCOSN, n = 24), irregular menses only (n = 25), elevated T (≥55 ng/dL) only (n = 6), and obese controls (n = 43). Metabolic syndrome by modified Cook criteria affected 32 girls or 33% overall: 6 of 24 PCOSN, 7 of 25 irregular menses only, 4 of 6 elevated T only, and 15 of 43 obese controls. Polycystic ovary syndrome by National Institutes of Health criteria and its individual components were not associated with MeS after adjusting for body mass index. Unlike obese adults, PCOSN and its individual components were not associated with MeS in the untreated morbidly obese adolescent population. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  7. Tata Laksana Kasus Perempuan dengan Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XY (Sindrom Swyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanadi Sumapradja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development (DSD adalah kelainan medis yang dikaitkan dengan ketidakcocokan antara kromosom, gonad dan fenotip. Sindrom Swyer adalah kelainan berupa disgenesis gonad 46,XY dan diikuti dengan tidak terjadinya pelepasan anti-mullerian hormone (AMH dari gonad yang mengalami disgenesis sehingga mengakibatkan berkembangnya duktus muller menjadi uterus. Keadaan tersebut mengakibatkan pasien mengeluh amenorea primer dan organ seks sekunder tidak berkembang. Orientasi gender umumnya adalah sebagai perempuan, karena kurangnya paparan hormon androgen terhadap otak. Tatalaksana kasus Disorders of sex development (DSD sangat mementingkan pasien (patient-centered sehingga tatalaksana medikamentosa maupun pembedahan harus berdasarkan pemahaman pasien terhadap orientasi gendernya. Pada makalah ini dilaporkan kasus sindrom swyer pada seorang perempuan usia 29 tahun dengan keluhan amenorea primer. Hasil analisis kromosom 46,XY (20 metafase dengan hormon follicle stimulating hormone (FSH 31.5miu/ml, luteinizing hormone (LH 10.8miu/ml, estradiol (E2 <5pg/ml, testosteron total (T <0.0025ng/ml. Tatalaksana medikamentosa adalah memberikan terapi hormon estrogen untuk membantu proses feminisasi. Karena risiko tinggi terjadinya tumor pada kasus disgenesis gonad intra-abdomen dengan kromosom Y, maka direncanakan tindakan gonadektomi. Kata kunci: Tatalaksana, Sindrom Swyer, pure gonadal dysgenesis Case Management of Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis 46, XY (Sindrom Swyer Abstract Disorders of sex development (DSD are medical conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex varies from normal and may be incongruent with each other. Swyer syndrome is a condition caused by pure gonadal dysgenesis 46,XY, which followed by inadequate anti-mullerian (AMH production results in maintenance and further development of mullerian duct into uterus. Therefore, many patients who suffer from this condition initially come with chief complaint of primary

  8. Asp330 and Tyr331 in the C-terminal cysteine-rich region of the luteinizing hormone receptor are key residues in hormone-induced receptor activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.P. Bruysters (Martijn); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor plays an essential role in male and female gonadal function. Together with the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors, the LH receptor forms the family of glycoprotein hormone receptors. All glycoprotein

  9. Sperm Production Rate, Gonadal and Extragonadal Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five healthy West African Dwarf (WAD) rams, 1.5 to 2.5 years of age and weighing between 15 kg to 20 kg were used to determine daily sperm production, gonadal and exragonadal sperm reserves. Gonadal and extragonadal sperm reserves were estimated by the haemocytometric method, while the daily sperm production ...

  10. Gonad protection for the paediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyll, C.

    1988-01-01

    A brief article gives examples of hip radiographs of paediatric patients showing misplacement of shields for gonad protection. Shields cut out of lead-PVC sheeting or the fenestration method of shielding are proposed as more successful methods of gonad shielding. (UK)

  11. Gonadal dose in routine diagnostic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Koen, J.A.; Akkermans, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Gonadal doses caused by stray radiation produced during radiodiagnostic investigations were measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters in various hospitals in the Netherlands. Significantly different gonadal doses were measured depending upon the hospital where the investigations were carried out. The mean dose of an examination type in one country can only be determined with any accuracy if measurements in a large number of hospitals are performed

  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes: sex differences in regulation of stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Mario G; Handa, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Gonadal hormones play a key role in the establishment, activation, and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. By influencing the response and sensitivity to releasing factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, gonadal steroids help orchestrate the gain of the HPA axis to fine-tune the levels of stress hormones in the general circulation. From early life to adulthood, gonadal steroids can differentially affect the HPA axis, resulting in sex differences in the responsivity of this axis. The HPA axis influences many physiological functions making an organism's response to changes in the environment appropriate for its reproductive status. Although the acute HPA response to stressors is a beneficial response, constant activation of this circuitry by chronic or traumatic stressful episodes may lead to a dysregulation of the HPA axis and cause pathology. Compared to males, female mice and rats show a more robust HPA axis response, as a result of circulating estradiol levels which elevate stress hormone levels during non-threatening situations, and during and after stressors. Fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids in females across the estrous cycle are a major factor contributing to sex differences in the robustness of HPA activity in females compared to males. Moreover, gonadal steroids may also contribute to epigenetic and organizational influences on the HPA axis even before puberty. Correspondingly, crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and HPA axes could lead to abnormalities of stress responses. In humans, a dysregulated stress response is one of the most common symptoms seen across many neuropsychiatric disorders, and as a result, such interactions may exacerbate peripheral pathologies. In this review, we discuss the HPA and HPG axes and review how gonadal steroids interact with the HPA axis to regulate the stress circuitry during all stages in life.

  13. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axes: sex differences in regulation of stress responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Mario G.; Handa, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    Gonadal hormones play a key role in the establishment, activation, and regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. By influencing the response and sensitivity to releasing factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, gonadal steroids help orchestrate the gain of the HPA axis to fine-tune the levels of stress hormones in the general circulation. From early life to adulthood, gonadal steroids can differentially affect the HPA axis, resulting in sex differences in the responsivity of this axis. The HPA axis influences many physiological functions making an organism’s response to changes in the environment appropriate for its reproductive status. Although the acute HPA response to stressors is a beneficial response, constant activation of this circuitry by chronic or traumatic stressful episodes may lead to a dysregulation of the HPA axis and cause pathology. Compared to males, female mice and rats show a more robust HPA axis response, as a result of circulating estradiol levels which elevate stress hormone levels during non-threatening situations, and during and after stressors. Fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids in females across the estrous cycle are a major factor contributing to sex differences in the robustness of HPA activity in females compared to males. Moreover, gonadal steroids may also contribute to epigenetic and organizational influences on the HPA axis even before puberty. Correspondingly, crosstalk between the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) and HPA axes could lead to abnormalities of stress responses. In humans, a dysregulated stress response is one of the most common symptoms seen across many neuropsychiatric disorders, and as a result, such interactions may exacerbate peripheral pathologies. In this review, we discuss the HPA and HPG axes and review how gonadal steroids interact with the HPA axis to regulate the stress circuitry during all stages in life. PMID:28859530

  14. Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens : Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Groothuis, Ton G.; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Bartell, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress

  15. Kisspeptin stimulates growth hormone release by utilizing Neuropeptide Y pathways and is dependent on the presence of ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, new findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Central delivery of kisspep...

  16. Late effects on gonadal function of cyclophosphamide, total-body irradiation, and marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.E.; Buckner, C.D.; Leonard, J.M.; Sullivan, K.M.; Witherspoon, R.P.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Thomas, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    One hundred thirty-seven patients had gonadal function evaluated 1-11 years after marrow transplantation. All 15 women less than age 26 and three of nine older than age 26 who were treated with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide recovered normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Five have had five pregnancies resulting in three live births, one spontaneous abortion, and one elective abortion. Three of 38 women who were prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1200 rad total-body irradiation had normal gonadotropin levels and menstruation. Two had pregnancies resulting in one spontaneous and one elective abortion. Of 31 men prepared with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 30 had normal luteinizing hormone levels, 20 had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 10 of 15 had spermatogenesis. Four have fathered five normal children. Thirty-six of 41 men prepared with 120 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 920-1750 rad total-body irradiation had normal luteinizing hormone levels, ten had normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and 2 of 32 studied had spermatogenesis. One has fathered two normal children. It was concluded that cyclophosphamide does not prevent return of normal gonadal function in younger women and in most men. Total-body irradiation prevents return of normal gonadal function in the majority of patients

  17. The direct response of the gonads to cues of stress in a temperate songbird species is season-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette L. McGuire

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH system in the hypothalamus is often considered the final point in integration of environmental cues as they pertain to the reproductive axis. However, cues such as stress and food availability are detectable in the plasma (as glucocorticoid and metabolic fuel fluctuations. Vertebrate gonads express glucocorticoid receptor, therefore we hypothesized that the gonads can detect and respond directly to cues of stress. We provide evidence here that, in addition to regulation by the brain, the gonads of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris respond directly to fluctuations in corticosterone and metabolic fuels by modulating sex steroid secretion. Using a 4-h gonad culture, we show that physiologically-relevant concentrations of corticosterone and metabolic stress (via use of the glucose utilization inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose and the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor ethyl 2-mercaptoacetate (2DG/MA can directly decrease testosterone and estradiol secretion from luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH-stimulated testes and ovaries. This effect is regulated seasonally. Prior to the breeding season, testes and ovaries respond to corticosterone and 2DG/MA by significantly decreasing gonadal steroid release. Within the breeding season, the testes do not respond to these cues of stress, while the ovaries respond only to corticosterone. This seasonal difference in response may be due in part to the influence of these cues of stress on gonadal neuropeptide expression: corticosterone upregulates GnIH expression in the testes while metabolic stress upregulates GnIH in the ovaries. Thus the gonads can directly respond to fluctuations in corticosterone and metabolic fuels during a time of critical importance to the onset of breeding.

  18. gonads of Cheimerius nufar (Ehrenberg, 1820)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    macroscopic changes in the gonads of Cheimerius nuJar. In addition .... Cytoplasm stains darker. ..... period. All stages present; 50% of lobules with sperm; main duct full .... in five species of grey mullets (Teleostei, Mugilidae) from natural.

  19. Potential gonadal dose from leakage radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The author draws attention to the potential dangers of leakage radiation from mobile image intensifier units, and points out that during interventional urological procedures, radiation from below the urologist's knees may irradiate male gonads without being intercepted by protective aprons. Results are presented for a Shimatzu WHA mobile II, phantom doses being measured with an ionization chamber. Dose rates measured in the male gonad position were compared with rates at waist level behind a 0.35 mm lead equivalent shielding and dose rates at collar level outside the lead apron. Results are also presented of a study on the effect on gonad dose of a) adding 0.7 mm lead shielding to the tube housing and b) adding 0.7 mm lead and removing the spacer cone to reduce scatter. Results show that it is possible for gonad doses to be comparable with those assumed for the eyes, rather than the body. (Author)

  20. Gonadal sex chromosome complement in individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, J.A.; Sanger, W.G.; Seemayer, T. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Gonadal abnormalities are characteristically seen in patients with sex chromosomal aneuploidy. Morphologically these abnormalities can be variable and are hypothesized to be dependent on the sex chromosomal consititution of the gonad (independent of the chromosomal complement of other tissues, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes). In this study, the gonadal sex chromosome complement was evaluated for potential mosaicism and correlated with the histopathology from 5 patients with known sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders. FISH techniques using X and Y chromosome specific probes were performed on nuclei extracted from paraffin embedded tissue. Gonadal tissue obtained from case 1 (a true hemaphroditic newborn) consisted of ovotestes and epididymis (left side) and ovary with fallopian tube (right side). Cytogenetic and FISH studies performed on blood, ovotestes and ovary revealed an XX complement. Cytogenetic analysis of blood from case 2, a 4-year-old with suspected Turner syndrome revealed 45,X/46,X,del(Y)(q11.21). FISH analysis of the resected gonads (histologically = immature testes) confirmed an X/XY mosaic complement. Histologically, the gonadal tissue was testicular. Severe autolysis prohibited successful analysis in the 2 remaining cases. In summary, molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gonadal tissue from individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders did not reveal tissue-specific anomalies which could account for differences observed pathologically.

  1. Multiscale mathematical modeling of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    Although the fields of systems and integrative biology are in full expansion, few teams are involved worldwide into the study of reproductive function from the mathematical modeling viewpoint. This may be due to the fact that the reproductive function is not compulsory for individual organism survival, even if it is for species survival. Alternatively, the complexity of reproductive physiology may be discouraging. Indeed, the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis involves not only several organs and tissues but also intricate time (from the neuronal millisecond timescale to circannual rhythmicity) and space (from molecules to organs) scales. Yet, mathematical modeling, and especially multiscale modeling, can renew our approaches of the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes underlying the control of reproductive functions. In turn, the remarkable dynamic features exhibited by the HPG axis raise intriguing and challenging questions to modelers and applied mathematicians. In this article, we draw a panoramic review of some mathematical models designed in the framework of the female HPG, with a special focus on the gonadal and central control of follicular development. On the gonadal side, the modeling of follicular development calls to the generic formalism of structured cell populations, that allows one to make mechanistic links between the control of cell fate (proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis) and that of the follicle fate (ovulation or degeneration) or to investigate how the functional interactions between the oocyte and its surrounding cells shape the follicle morphogenesis. On the central, mainly hypothalamic side, models based on dynamical systems with multiple timescales allow one to represent within a single framework both the pulsatile and surge patterns of the neurohormone GnRH. Beyond their interest in basic research investigations, mathematical models can also be at the source of useful tools to study the encoding and decoding of

  2. Sex Reversal and Analyses of Possible Involvement of Sex Steroids in Scallop Gonadal Development in Newly Established Organ-Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Ayano; Nakajima, Tadaaki; Okumura, Tomomi; Fujii, Shiro; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Many molluscs perform sex reversal, and sex hormones may be involved in the process. In adult scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, gonadotropin releasing hormone and 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) are involved in male sexual maturation, however, little is known about the effects of E 2 and testosterone (T) on the gonadal differentiation in young scallops. In the present study, scallop gonadal development was analyzed to determine the sex reversal stage in Funka bay, and effects of E 2 and T were examined. In Funka bay, almost all scallops were male at month 12. Scallops equipped with ambiguous gonads were 61.1% at month 16 and disappeared at month 18. Therefore, sex reversal in Funka bay occurs at around month 16. For establishment of organ culture systems for bivalves, Manila clam gonads were cultured in 15% L-15 medium diluted with HBSS containing 10% KSR on agarose gel at 10°C, and the gonads survived for 14 days. Scallop gonads were also able to be cultured in 30% L15 medium diluted with ASW containing 10% KSR on agarose gel for seven days. At mature stage, Foxl2 and Tesk were predominantly expressed in ovary and testis, respectively. When scallop gonads at sex reversal stage were organ-cultured, sex steroid treatment decreased Tesk expression in the majority of scallop gonads at sex reversal stage. However, no obvious change in Foxl2 and Tesk expression was detected in mature gonads in response to either E 2 or T in culture, suggesting sex steroid treatment might affect gonadal development at sex reversal stage.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of Drosophila gonad formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Ratna; Kunwar, Prabhat S; Sano, Hiroko; Renault, Andrew D

    2014-08-15

    The formation of the Drosophila embryonic gonad, involving the fusion of clusters of somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) and their ensheathment of germ cells, provides a simple and genetically tractable model for the interplay between cells during organ formation. In a screen for mutants affecting gonad formation we identified a SGP cell autonomous role for Midline (Mid) and Longitudinals lacking (Lola). These transcriptional factors are required for multiple aspects of SGP behaviour including SGP cluster fusion, germ cell ensheathment and gonad compaction. The lola locus encodes more than 25 differentially spliced isoforms and we have identified an isoform specific requirement for lola in the gonad which is distinct from that in nervous system development. Mid and Lola work in parallel in gonad formation and surprisingly Mid overexpression in a lola background leads to additional SGPs at the expense of fat body cells. Our findings support the idea that although the transcription factors required by SGPs can ostensibly be assigned to those being required for either SGP specification or behaviour, they can also interact to impinge on both processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neural, not gonadal, origin of brain sex differences in a gynandromorphic finch

    OpenAIRE

    Agate, Robert J.; Grisham, William; Wade, Juli; Mann, Suzanne; Wingfield, John; Schanen, Carolyn; Palotie, Aarno; Arnold, Arthur P.

    2003-01-01

    In mammals and birds, sex differences in brain function and disease are thought to derive exclusively from sex differences in gonadal hormone secretions. For example, testosterone in male mammals acts during fetal and neonatal life to cause masculine neural development. However, male and female brain cells also differ in genetic sex; thus, sex chromosome genes acting within cells could contribute to sex differences in cell function. We analyzed the sexual phenotype of the brain of a rare gyna...

  5. Active immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone : an effective tool to block the fertility axis in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, Jouwert Anne

    2005-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in fertility and reproduction in mammals. It induces the release of luteinising hormone (LH) en follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary. These hormones are responsible for gonadal steroid production and indirectly for

  6. Brain nonapeptide and gonadal steroid responses to deprivation of heterosexual contact in the black molly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kulczykowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish may respond to different social situations with changes in both physiology and behaviour. A unique feature of fish is that social interactions between males and females strongly affect the sexual characteristics of individuals. Here we provide the first insight into the endocrine background of two phenomena that occur in mono-sex groups of the black molly (Poecilia sphenops: masculinization in females and same-sex sexual behaviour, manifested by gonopodial displays towards same-sex tank mates and copulation attempts in males. In socially controlled situations, brain neurohormones impact phenotypic sex determination and sexual behaviour. Among these hormones are the nonapeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT and isotocin (IT, counterparts of the well-known mammalian arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, respectively. To reveal potential hormone interactions, we measured the concentrations of bioactive AVT and IT in the brain, along with those of the sex steroids 17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in the gonads, of females, masculinized females, males displaying same-sex sexual behaviour and those who did not. These data were supplemented by morphological and histological analyses of the gonads. Correlations between brain nonapeptides and gonadal steroids strongly suggest a cross talk between hormonal systems. In the black molly, the masculinization process was associated with the production of brain AVT and gonadal steroids, whereas same-sex sexual behaviour involves both brain nonapeptides, but neither of the sex steroids. This study extends current knowledge of endocrine control of phenotypic sex and sexual behaviour in fish and for the first time links brain nonapeptides with the occurrence of male-male sexual behaviour in lower vertebrates.

  7. Regulating gonad inhibition and vitellogenin/vitellin induction in Penaeus monodon using mature GIH fusion protein and polyclonal antisera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vrinda, S.; Jasmin, C.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Jose, S.; Jose, B.; Philip, R; BrightSingh, I

    September 2016 Available online 15 September 2016 Keywords: Gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) Fusion/chimeric proteinaa r t i c l e i n f o b s t r a c tRegulating gonad inhibition and vitellogen Penaeus monodon using mature GIH fusion polyclonal antisera... restriction site overhangs to match with that of the expression vector; pET32a+. The forward primer (GIH-F- 5′-GAAT TCAACATCCTGGACAGCAAATGCAGGGGTGC-3′) contained EcoR I site (italics) and 29 nucleotide residues encoding the N terminal amino acid residues...

  8. Analysis of meiosis regulators in human gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2012-01-01

    The mitosis-meiosis switch is a key event in the differentiation of germ cells. In humans, meiosis is initiated in fetal ovaries, whereas in testes meiotic entry is inhibited until puberty. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression pattern of meiosis regulators in human gonads...... with their role in initiation and progression of meiosis. The putative meiosis inhibitors, CYP26B1 and NANOS2, were primarily expressed in Leydig cells and spermatocytes, respectively. In conclusion, the expression pattern of the investigated meiotic regulators is largely conserved in the human gonads compared...... with rodents, but with some minor differences, such as a stable expression of CYP26B1 in human fetal ovaries. The sexually dimorphic expression pattern of DMRT1 indicates a similar role in the mitosis-meiosis switch in human gonads as previously demonstrated in mice. The biological importance of the changes...

  9. Androgen insensitivity syndrome: gonadal androgen receptor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulam, C.B.; Graham, M.L.; Spelsberg, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether abnormalities of the androgen receptor previously observed in skin fibroblasts from patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome also occur in the gonads of affected individuals, androgen receptor activity in the gonads of a patient with testicular feminization syndrome was investigated. Using conditions for optimal recovery of androgen receptor from human testes established by previous studies, we detected the presence of a high-affinity (dissociation constant . 3.2 X 10(-10) mol/L), low-capacity (4.2 X 10(-12) mol/mg DNA), androgen-binding protein when tritium-labeled R1881 was incubated at 4 degrees C with nuclear extracts from the gonads of control patients or from a patient with testicular feminization syndrome but not when incubated at 37 degrees C. Thus this patient has an androgen receptor with a temperature lability similar to that of receptors from normal persons

  10. Abrupt rather than gradual hormonal changes induce postpartum blues-like behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, Bennard; Fokkema, Dirk S.; Molhoek, Margo; Tanke, Marit A. C.; Postema, Folkert; Korf, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Postpartum blues is thought to be related to hormonal events accompanying delivery. We investigated whether blues-like symptoms depend on the rate of the decline of hormones, by comparing the behavioral consequences of an abrupt versus a gradual decline of gonadal hormones in an animal model.

  11. Molecular mechanisms in disorders of gonadal development

    OpenAIRE

    Norling, Ameli

    2014-01-01

    “Hur många barn får jag när jag blir stor?” Controlling fertility, or rather infertility, is a common problem for couples nowadays where approximately 10% experience infertility. This thesis focuses on the rare conditions leading to infertility in which the gonads have either failed to develop properly, or prematurely lost their function. The overall aim of this thesis was to identify and study candidate genes in gonadal disorders of sex development (DSD) and primary o...

  12. Gonad doses in biliary tract examinations (cholecystography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, I [Staedtisches Klinikum Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentrum; Angerstein, W [Forschungsinstitut fuer Tuberkulose und Lungenkrankheiten, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Koenig, W; Menzel, B [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)

    1979-02-01

    622 single measurements of gonad doses were performed during cholecystography in patients of either sex (intravaginally in women). In oral cholecystography on an average 13 mR were revealed for men and 149 mR for women, resp. According to a minimum, medium, or maximum extent of examination, in intravenous cholecystography the data for men were 11, 17, and 24 mR, while the corresponding data for women were 93, 185, and 278 mR. Based on about 400,000 cholegraphic examinations per year in the GDR the contribution to the total gonad dose caused by radiological examinations is 6-8%.

  13. Gonad doses in biliary tract examinations (cholecystography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, I.; Koenig, W.; Menzel, B.

    1979-01-01

    622 single measurements of gonad doses were performed during cholecystography in patients of either sex (intravaginally in women). In oral cholecystography on an average 13 mR were revealed for men and 149 mR for women, resp. According to a minimum, medium, or maximum extent of examination, in intravenous cholecystography the data for men were 11, 17, and 24 mR, while the corresponding data for women were 93, 185, and 278 mR. Based on about 400,000 cholegraphic examinations per year in the GDR the contribution to the total gonad dose caused by radiological examinations is 6-8%. (author)

  14. Gonadal dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moilanen, A.; Kokko, M.L.; Pitkaenen, M.

    1983-01-01

    Different ways to minimize the gonadal dose in lumbar spine radiography have been studied. Two hundred and fifty lumbar spine radiographs were reviewed to assess the clinical need for lateral L5/S1 projection. Modern film/screen combinations and gonadal shielding of externally scattered radiation play a major role in the reduction of the genetic dose. The number of exposures should be minimized. Our results show that two projections, anteroposterior (AP) and lateral, appear to be sufficient in routine radiography of the lumbar spine. (orig.)

  15. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  16. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comasco, Erika; Frøkjær, Vibe; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2014-01-01

    The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuat......The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone...... fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. The present review summarizes the findings of thirty-five studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri......-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal variations on the brain....

  17. BRH Gonad Shielding Program: where it has led

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcarese, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Some topics discussed are: Bureau of Radiological Health guidelines; types of gonad shields; specific area shielding; gonad shielding guidelines; and publication of pamphlet on types of shields and circumstances under which they should be used

  18. Laser capture microdissection of gonads from juvenile zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen

    2009-01-01

    was adjusted and optimised to isolate juvenile zebrafish gonads. Results: The juvenile zebrafish gonad is not morphologically distinguishable when using dehydrated cryosections on membrane slides and a specific staining method is necessary to identify the gonads. The protocol setup in this study allows......Background: Investigating gonadal gene expression is important in attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation in the model species zebrafish. However, the small size of juvenile zebrafish and correspondingly their gonads complicates this type...... of investigation. Furthermore, the lack of a genetic sex marker in juvenile zebrafish prevents pooling gonads from several individuals. The aim of this study was to establish a method to isolate the gonads from individual juvenile zebrafish allowing future investigations of gonadal gene expression during sex...

  19. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haghighatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC

  20. An Unusual Presentation of 46,XY Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis: Spontaneous Breast Development and Menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatlı, Gönül; Alparslan, Caner; Can, P Şule; Akbay, Sinem; Kelekçi, Sefa; Atik, Tahir; Özyılmaz, Berk; Dündar, Bumin N

    2015-06-01

    46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome) is characterized by normal female genitalia at birth. It usually first becomes apparent in adolescence with delayed puberty and amenorrhea. Rarely, patients can present with spontaneous breast development and/or menstruation. A fifteen-year-old girl presented to our clinic with the complaint of primary amenorrhea. On physical examination, her external genitals were completely female. Breast development and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner stage V. Hormonal evaluation revealed a hypergonadotropic state despite a normal estrogen level. Chromosome analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. Pelvic ultrasonography showed small gonads and a normal sized uterus for age. SRY gene expression was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Direct sequencing on genomic DNA did not reveal a mutation in the SRY, SF1 and WT1 genes. After the diagnosis of Swyer syndrome was made, the patient started to have spontaneous menstrual cycles and therefore failed to attend her follow-up visits. After nine months, the patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy. Frozen examination of multiple biopsies from gonad tissues revealed gonadoblastoma. With this report, we emphasize the importance of performing karyotype analysis, which is diagnostic for Swyer syndrome, in all cases with primary or secondary amenorrhea even in the presence of normal breast development. We also suggest that normal pubertal development in patients with Swyer syndrome may be associated with the presence of a hormonally active tumor.

  1. Cytogenetic and autoradiographic investigations in gonadal dysgenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.; Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A.; Medical Academy, Poznan

    1977-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis in 23 patients with Turner's syndrome and in 33 women with pure gonadal dysgenesis consisted of sex chromatin determination and karyotype studies employing autoradiography in questionable cases. Here autoradiography is used as an indispensable complement to cytogenetic techniques. The labelling behaviour of aberrant chromosomes is described. After treatment of the autoradiographic films for more differentiation in results is employed

  2. Early gonad development in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... as a relatively larger proportion of proliferating "gonial" germ cells in the latter gonads was considered ... solution in 100 ml tank water) as described by Westerfield (1993). They were ... 90°C hot plate with toluidine blue and thereafter examined and ... morphological sex differentiation, sex differences could.

  3. In Silico analysis of perturbed steroidogenesis and gonad growth in fathead minnows (P. promelas) exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, David; Petersen, Lene H; Martinović, Dalma; Huggett, Duane B

    2015-06-01

    The multi-factorial nature of adverse reproductive effects mediated by endocrine disrupting compounds (or EDCs) makes understanding the mechanistic basis of reproductive dysfunction a highly pertinent area of research. As a consequence, a main motivator for continued research is to integrate 'multi-leveled' complexity (i.e., from genes to phenotype) using mathematical methods capable of encapsulating properties of physiological relevance. In this study, an in silico stoichiometric model of piscine steroidogenesis was augmented with a 'biomass' reaction associating the underlying stoichiometry of steroidogenesis with a reaction representative of gonad growth. The ability of the in silico model to predict perturbed steroidogenesis and subsequent effects on gonad growth was tested by exposing reproductively active male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to 88 ng/L of the synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). The in silico model was parameterized (or constrained) with experimentally quantified concentrations of selected steroid hormones (using mass spectrometry) and fold changes in gene expression (using RT-qPCR) for selected steroidogenic enzyme genes, in gonads of male and female fish. Once constrained, the optimization framework of flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to calculate an optimal flux through the biomass reaction (analogous to gonad growth) and associated steroidogenic flux distributions required to generate biomass. FBA successfully predicted effects of EE2 exposure on fathead minnow gonad growth (%gonadosomatic index or %GSI) and perturbed production of steroid hormones. Specifically, FBA accurately predicted no effects of exposure on male %GSI and a significant reduction for female %GSI. Furthermore, in silico simulations accurately identified disrupted reaction fluxes catalyzing productions of androgens (in male fish) and progestogens (in female fish), an observation which agreed with in vivo experimentation. The analyses

  4. The clinical evaluation of the radioimmunoassay of luteinizing hormone in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieszczyk, S.

    1975-01-01

    The studies comprised 177 persons: 39 healthy males, 20 women in the reproductive age, 35 postmenopausal women and 83 patients with different types of gonadal insufficiency (gonadal dysgenesis; premature ovarian failure, male hypogonadism, pituitary dwarfism). The luteinizing hormone was determined in acetone extracts of the urine by radioimmunnoassay using double antibody technique. The results of urinary LH assays allowed to differentiate the concentration of this hormone in healthy males from postmenopausal women. In a group of patients with primary ganadal deficiency urinary LH was elevated while there was a lack urinary LH in cases of secondary gonadal insufficiency. (author)

  5. Gonadal transcriptome alterations in response to dietary energy intake: sensing the reproductive environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Martin

    Full Text Available Reproductive capacity and nutritional input are tightly linked and animals' specific responses to alterations in their physical environment and food availability are crucial to ensuring sustainability of that species. We have assessed how alterations in dietary energy intake (both reductions and excess, as well as in food availability, via intermittent fasting (IF, affect the gonadal transcriptome of both male and female rats. Starting at four months of age, male and female rats were subjected to a 20% or 40% caloric restriction (CR dietary regime, every other day feeding (IF or a high fat-high glucose (HFG diet for six months. The transcriptional activity of the gonadal response to these variations in dietary energy intake was assessed at the individual gene level as well as at the parametric functional level. At the individual gene level, the females showed a higher degree of coherency in gonadal gene alterations to CR than the males. The gonadal transcriptional and hormonal response to IF was also significantly different between the male and female rats. The number of genes significantly regulated by IF in male animals was almost 5 times greater than in the females. These IF males also showed the highest testosterone to estrogen ratio in their plasma. Our data show that at the level of gonadal gene responses, the male rats on the IF regime adapt to their environment in a manner that is expected to increase the probability of eventual fertilization of females that the males predict are likely to be sub-fertile due to their perception of a food deficient environment.

  6. Imaging and embolization of hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by gonadal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongping; Wang Junjie; Lu Yang; You Kaizhi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate radiology and embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by gonadal artery. Methods: The medical records of 3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma supplied by gonadal artery from August 2002 to September 2008 were reviewed. The demography, gonadal artery location, modus operandi, imaging features of liver cancer and prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Anatomic variation of gonadal artery occurred with the gonadal artery arising from the upper abdominal aorta in 1 patient and from the middle suprarenal artery in 2 patients. The blood supply of the hepatocellular carcinoma derived from the gonadal artery in all 3 patients. No complications occurred in the 6-month follow-up after embolization. Conclusion: Hepatocellular carcinoma may be supplied by gonadal artery with anomalous origin. This anatomic variant can be readily demonstrated by imaging to guide embolization. (authors)

  7. Gonadal Shielding in Radiography: A Best Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauber, Terri L

    2016-11-01

    To investigate radiation dose to phantom testes with and without shielding. A male anthropomorphic pelvis phantom was imaged with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) placed in the right and left detector holes corresponding to the testes. Ten exposures were made of the pelvis with and without shielding. The exposed TLDs were packaged securely and mailed to the University of Wisconsin Calibration Laboratory for reading and analysis. A t test was calculated for the 2 exposure groups (no shield and shielded) and found to be significant, F = 8.306, P shield was used during pelvic imaging. Using a flat contact shield during imaging of the adult male pelvis significantly reduces radiation dose to the testes. Regardless of the contradictions in the literature on gonadal shielding, the routine practice of shielding adult male gonads during radiographic imaging of the pelvis is a best practice. © 2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  8. Angiographic investigation of the male gonadal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Boehm, K.; Horvath, L.; Molnar, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Retrograde angiography of the gonadal vein was carried out in 110 cases. Because of valve-insufficience the left vena spermatica interna filled spontaneously from the vena renalis in the majority (88%) of the cases. In the cases of well functioning valves superselective angiography was carried out. The examination is advised in cases of the following syndromes: varicokele, abdominal tumours, determination of the place of non-palpable testes, Klinefelter syndrome. (L.E.)

  9. Gonad protection in young orthopaedic patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, N.; Hill, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether gonad shields are correctly positioned on the pelvic radiographs of children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. DESIGN--Retrospective study of radiographs taken of children treated by in situ pinning of slipped capital femoral epiphysis between 1 January 1983 and 31 December 1988. SETTING--Three teaching hospitals in north west England. PATIENTS--32 patients with complete set of radiographs. RESULTS--An average of 10.8 anteroposterior pelvic radiographs pl...

  10. Gonadal transcriptome analysis of wild contaminated female European eels during artificial gonad maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillon, Lucie; Oses, Jennifer; Pierron, Fabien; Bureau du Colombier, Sarah; Caron, Antoine; Normandeau, Eric; Lambert, Patrick; Couture, Patrice; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Dufour, Sylvie; Bernatchez, Louis; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2015-11-01

    Since the early 1980s, the population of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) has dramatically declined. Nowadays, the European eel is listed on the red list of threatened species (IUCN Red List) and is considered as critically endangered of extinction. Pollution is one of the putative causes for the collapse of this species. Among their possible effects, contaminants gradually accumulated in eels during their somatic growth phase (yellow eel stage) would be remobilized during their reproductive migration leading to potential toxic events in gonads. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of organic and inorganic contaminants on the gonad development of wild female silver eels. Female silver eels from two sites with differing contamination levels were artificially matured. Transcriptomic analyses by means of a 1000 candidate gene cDNA microarray were performed on gonads after 11weeks of maturation to get insight into the mechanisms of toxicity of contaminants. The transcription levels of several genes, that were associated to the gonadosomatic index (GSI), were involved in mitotic cell division but also in gametogenesis. Genes associated to contaminants were mainly involved in the mechanisms of protection against oxidative stress, in DNA repair, in the purinergic signaling pathway and in steroidogenesis, suggesting an impairment of gonad development in eels from the polluted site. This was in agreement with the fact that eels from the reference site showed a higher gonad growth in comparison to contaminated fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. REDUCING GONAD IRRADIATION IN PEDIATRIC DIAGNOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Harry A.; Webber, Milo; O'Loughlin, Bernard J.

    1959-01-01

    The greatest danger of carcinogenesis and of genetic damage through diagnostic radiologic procedures is in children, whose smaller bodies are more vulnerable and who have a longer life span in which this damage can be realized. Film badges placed on the gonad area during radiologic studies indicated widely varying degrees of gonad irradiation from similar procedures. These results emphasize the importance of technique in protecting children from unnecessary exposure. Such exposure can be reduced by greater beam filtration, use of higher tube potentials, careful beam collimation and centering, closer coning and shielding of the gonads. A new film tested reduced exposure time by 50 per cent. Further reduction was obtained by high-speed screens. A most important measure is avoidance of unnecessary, repetitious and undiagnostic studies. Fluoroscopy should be avoided if possible. If not, the operator must dark-adapt his eyes, use the smallest possible current, the narrowest beam, and the shortest exposure time. Image intensification promotes these aims. Modern equipment, properly shielded, assures against unsuspected exposure. PMID:13618739

  12. Oestrogens are Not Related to Emotional Processing : a Study of Regional Brain Activity in Female-to-Male Transsexuals Under Gonadal Suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleman, Remi S; Staphorsius, A.S.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Veltman, Dick J; van Trotsenburg, M.A.A.; Hompes, Peter G A; Drent, M L; de Ronde, W P; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    Although the prevailing opinion is that emotional processes are influenced by sex hormones, the literature is still inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of gonadal suppression on brain activity during affective picture processing. Twenty-one female-to-male (FtM)

  13. Nutrient restriction induces failure of reproductive function and molecular changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in postpubertal gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhuo, Yong; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2014-07-01

    People on a diet to lose weight may be at risk of reproductive failure. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanism, changes of reproductive traits, hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined in postpubertal gilts at anestrus induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts having experienced two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86 kg/d) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1 kg/d) food regimens to expect anestrus. NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated fourth estrus. Blood samples were collected at 5 days' interval for consecutive three times for measurement of hormone concentrations at the 23th day of the fourth estrus cycle. Individual progesterone concentrations of NR gilts from three consecutive blood samples were below 1.0 ng/mL versus 2.0 ng/mL in CON gilts, which was considered anestrus. NR gilts had impaired development of reproductive tract characterized by absence of large follicles (diameter ≥ 6 mm), decreased number of corepus lutea and atrophy of uterus and ovary tissues. Circulating concentrations of IGF-I, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone and leptin were significantly lower in NR gilts than that in CON gilts. Nutrient restriction down-regulated gene expressions of kiss-1, G-protein coupled protein 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, leptin receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor I in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis of gilts. Collectively, nutrient restriction resulted in impairment of reproductive function and changes of hormone secretions and gene expressions in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, which shed light on the underlying mechanism by which nutrient restriction influenced reproductive function.

  14. A gonad-expressed opsin mediates light-induced spawning in the jellyfish Clytia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga Artigas, Gonzalo; Lapébie, Pascal; Leclère, Lucas; Takeda, Noriyo; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Jékely, Gáspár

    2018-01-01

    Across the animal kingdom, environmental light cues are widely involved in regulating gamete release, but the molecular and cellular bases of the photoresponsive mechanisms are poorly understood. In hydrozoan jellyfish, spawning is triggered by dark-light or light-dark transitions acting on the gonad, and is mediated by oocyte maturation-inducing neuropeptide hormones (MIHs) released from the ectoderm. We determined in Clytia hemisphaerica that blue-cyan light triggers spawning in isolated gonads. A candidate opsin (Opsin9) was found co-expressed with MIH within specialised ectodermal cells. Opsin9 knockout jellyfish generated by CRISPR/Cas9 failed to undergo oocyte maturation and spawning, a phenotype reversible by synthetic MIH. Gamete maturation and release in Clytia is thus regulated by gonadal photosensory-neurosecretory cells that secrete MIH in response to light via Opsin9. Similar cells in ancestral eumetazoans may have allowed tissue-level photo-regulation of diverse behaviours, a feature elaborated in cnidarians in parallel with expansion of the opsin gene family. PMID:29303477

  15. Irradiation of the gonads during roentgen examination of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostenetskij, M.I.; Sukhomlina, A.N.

    1981-01-01

    Age alterations in the formation of the gonadal dose that children obtain during X-ray investigations are studied. Antropometric investigations of children at the age from 1 to 17 years are carried out for this purpose. It is established that the beam gonad distance increases with the age. The conclusion is made that gonads should necessarily be shielded during X-ray intestinal investigations

  16. Plasticity and regeneration of gonads in the annelid Pristina leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Duygu Özpolat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonads are specialized gamete-producing structures that, despite their functional importance, are generated by diverse mechanisms across groups of animals and can be among the most plastic organs of the body. Annelids, the segmented worms, are a group in which gonads have been documented to be plastic and to be able to regenerate, but little is known about what factors influence gonad development or how these structures regenerate. In this study, we aimed to identify factors that influence the presence and size of gonads and to investigate gonad regeneration in the small asexually reproducing annelid, Pristina leidyi. Results We found that gonad presence and size in asexual adult P. leidyi are highly variable across individuals and identified several factors that influence these structures. An extrinsic factor, food availability, and two intrinsic factors, individual age and parental age, strongly influence the presence and size of gonads in P. leidyi. We also found that following head amputation in this species, gonads can develop by morphallactic regeneration in previously non-gonadal segments. We also identified a sexually mature individual from our laboratory culture that demonstrates that, although our laboratory strain reproduces only asexually, it retains the potential to become fully sexual. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that gonads in P. leidyi display high phenotypic plasticity and flexibility with respect to their presence, their size, and the segments in which they can form. Considering our findings along with relevant data from other species, we find that, as a group, clitellate annelids can form gonads in at least four different contexts: post-starvation refeeding, fission, morphallactic regeneration, and epimorphic regeneration. This group is thus particularly useful for investigating the mechanisms involved in gonad formation and the evolution of post-embryonic phenotypic plasticity.

  17. Transcription of key genes regulating gonadal steroidogenesis in control and ketoconazole- or vinclozolin-exposed fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Blake, Lindsey S.; Brodin, Jeffrey; Greene, Katie J.; Knoebl, Iris; Miracle, Ann L.; Martinovic, Dalma; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated changes in the expression of steroidogenesis-related genes in male fathead minnows exposed to ketoconazole (KTC) or vinclozolin (VZ) for 21 days. The aim was to evaluate links between molecular changes and higher level outcomes after exposure to endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action. To aid our analysis and interpretation of EAC-related effects, we first examined variation in the relative abundance of steroidogenesis-related gene transcripts in the gonads of male and female fathead minnows as a function of age, gonad development, and spawning status, independent of EAC exposure. Gonadal expression of several genes varied with age and/or gonadal somatic index in either males or females. However, with the exception of aromatase, steroidogenesis-related gene expression did not vary with spawning status. Following the baseline experiments, expression of the selected genes in male fathead minnows exposed to KTC or VZ was evaluated in the context of effects observed at higher levels of organization. Exposure to KTC elicited changes in gene transcription that were consistent with an apparent compensatory response to the chemical's anticipated direct inhibition of steroidogenic enzyme activity. Exposure to VZ, an antiandrogen expected to indirectly impact steroidogenesis, increased pituitary expression of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit as well as testis expression of 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and luteinizing hormone receptor transcripts. Results of this study contribute to ongoing research aimed at understanding responses of the teleost hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to different types of EACs and how changes in molecular endpoints translate into apical outcomes reflective of either adverse effect or compensation.

  18. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  19. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Summer L.; Zhu, Xiaowei [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A. [University of Pennsylvania, Environmental Health and Radiation Safety, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Xiao, Rui [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ali, Sayed [Temple University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2018-02-15

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation. (orig.)

  20. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Summer L.; Zhu, Xiaowei; Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A.; Xiao, Rui; Ali, Sayed

    2018-01-01

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation. (orig.)

  1. MOSFET Dosimetry for Evaluation of Gonad Shielding during Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwi Young; Choi, Yun Seok; Park, So Yeon; Park, Yang Kyun; Ye, Sung Joon

    2011-01-01

    In order to confirm feasibility of MOSFET modality in use of in vivo dosimetry, evaluation of gonad shielding in order to minimize gonadal dose of patients undergoing radiotherapy by using MOSFET modality was performed. Gonadal dose of patients undergoing radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the department of radiation oncology of Seoul National University Hospital since 2009 was measured. 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams emitted from Varian 21EX LINAC were used for radiotherapy. In order to minimize exposed dose caused by the scattered ray not only from collimator of LINAC but also from treatment region inside radiation field, we used box.shaped lead shielding material. The shielding material was made of the lead block and consists of 7.5 cm x 9.5 cm x 5.5 cm sized case and 9 cm x 9.5 cm x 1 cm sized cover. Dosimetry for evaluation of gonad shielding was done with MOSFET modality. By protecting with gonad shielding material, average gonadal dose of patients was decreased by 23.07% compared with reference dose outside of the shielding material. Average delivered gonadal dose inside the shielding material was 0.01 Gy. By the result of MOSFET dosimetry, we verified that gonadal dose was decreased by using gonad shielding material. In compare with TLD dosimetry, we could measure the exposed dose easily and precisely with MOSFET modality

  2. MOSFET Dosimetry for Evaluation of Gonad Shielding during Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwi Young; Choi, Yun Seok; Park, So Yeon; Park, Yang Kyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    In order to confirm feasibility of MOSFET modality in use of in vivo dosimetry, evaluation of gonad shielding in order to minimize gonadal dose of patients undergoing radiotherapy by using MOSFET modality was performed. Gonadal dose of patients undergoing radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the department of radiation oncology of Seoul National University Hospital since 2009 was measured. 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams emitted from Varian 21EX LINAC were used for radiotherapy. In order to minimize exposed dose caused by the scattered ray not only from collimator of LINAC but also from treatment region inside radiation field, we used box.shaped lead shielding material. The shielding material was made of the lead block and consists of 7.5 cm x 9.5 cm x 5.5 cm sized case and 9 cm x 9.5 cm x 1 cm sized cover. Dosimetry for evaluation of gonad shielding was done with MOSFET modality. By protecting with gonad shielding material, average gonadal dose of patients was decreased by 23.07% compared with reference dose outside of the shielding material. Average delivered gonadal dose inside the shielding material was 0.01 Gy. By the result of MOSFET dosimetry, we verified that gonadal dose was decreased by using gonad shielding material. In compare with TLD dosimetry, we could measure the exposed dose easily and precisely with MOSFET modality.

  3. Female gonadal shielding with automatic exposure control increases radiation risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Summer L; Magill, Dennise; Felice, Marc A; Xiao, Rui; Ali, Sayed; Zhu, Xiaowei

    2018-02-01

    Gonadal shielding remains common, but current estimates of gonadal radiation risk are lower than estimated risks to colon and stomach. A female gonadal shield may attenuate active automatic exposure control (AEC) sensors, resulting in increased dose to colon and stomach as well as to ovaries outside the shielded area. We assess changes in dose-area product (DAP) and absorbed organ dose when female gonadal shielding is used with AEC for pelvis radiography. We imaged adult and 5-year-old equivalent dosimetry phantoms using pelvis radiograph technique with AEC in the presence and absence of a female gonadal shield. We recorded DAP and mAs and measured organ absorbed dose at six internal sites using film dosimetry. Female gonadal shielding with AEC increased DAP 63% for the 5-year-old phantom and 147% for the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose at unshielded locations of colon, stomach and ovaries increased 21-51% in the 5-year-old phantom and 17-100% in the adult phantom. Absorbed organ dose sampled under the shield decreased 67% in the 5-year-old phantom and 16% in the adult phantom. Female gonadal shielding combined with AEC during pelvic radiography increases absorbed dose to organs with greater radiation sensitivity and to unshielded ovaries. Difficulty in proper use of gonadal shields has been well described, and use of female gonadal shielding may be inadvisable given the risks of increasing radiation.

  4. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  5. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  6. Effects of Microcystis on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal-Liver Axis in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazhang; Meng, Shunlong; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Xiangyang

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were used to assess the endocrine disruption potential of Microcytis aeruginosa. Male Nile tilapia were exposed to lyophilized M. aeruginosa or purified microcystin-LR (8.3 μg/L) for 28 days. The levels of serum hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) and transcripts of selected genes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis were analyzed. The results showed that serum hormones were significantly up-regulated, and transcripts of 13 genes (GHRH, PACAP, GH, GHR1, GHR2, IGF1, IGF2, CYP19a, CYP19b, 3β-HSD1, 20β-HSD, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD8) were significantly altered after Microcytis exposure. These results indicate that fish reproduction can be altered in a Microcystis bloom-contaminated aquatic environment.

  7. Oxandrolone in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Leonie Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a disorder in females that is caused by the complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome. The main characteristics are gonadal dysgenesis and short stature, with adult patients being on average 20 cm shorter than healthy women. Growth hormone (GH) therapy

  8. Calculation the Received dose by gonads arising from some common diagnostic radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zarghani

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: One of the ways for patient and gonadal dose reduction is to use appropriate shields for radiosensitive organs such as gonads. Hence its recommended to use appropriate shields for gonads because of their high radiosensitivity.

  9. Cell adhesion molecules expression pattern indicates that somatic cells arbitrate gonadal sex of differentiating bipotential fetal mouse gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piprek, Rafal P; Kolasa, Michal; Podkowa, Dagmara; Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2017-10-01

    Unlike other organ anlagens, the primordial gonad is sexually bipotential in all animals. In mouse, the bipotential gonad differentiates into testis or ovary depending on the genetic sex (XY or XX) of the fetus. During gonad development cells segregate, depending on genetic sex, into distinct compartments: testis cords and interstitium form in XY gonad, and germ cell cysts and stroma in XX gonad. However, our knowledge of mechanisms governing gonadal sex differentiation remains very vague. Because it is known that adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a key role in organogenesis, we suspected that diversified expression of CAMs should also play a crucial role in gonad development. Using microarray analysis we identified 129 CAMs and factors regulating cell adhesion during sexual differentiation of mouse gonad. To identify genes expressed differentially in three cell lines in XY and XX gonads: i) supporting (Sertoli or follicular cells), ii) interstitial or stromal cells, and iii) germ cells, we used transgenic mice expressing EGFP reporter gene and FACS cell sorting. Although a large number of CAMs expressed ubiquitously, expression of certain genes was cell line- and genetic sex-specific. The sets of CAMs differentially expressed in supporting versus interstitial/stromal cells may be responsible for segregation of these two cell lines during gonadal development. There was also a significant difference in CAMs expression pattern between XY supporting (Sertoli) and XX supporting (follicular) cells but not between XY and XX germ cells. This indicates that differential CAMs expression pattern in the somatic cells but not in the germ line arbitrates structural organization of gonadal anlagen into testis or ovary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Maturity Gonad Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra Under The Month Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penina Tua Rahantoknam, Santi

    2017-10-01

    Gonad maturity level of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is important to note for selection of parent ready spawn. Sea cucumbers are giving a reaction to the treatment of excitatory spawn mature individuals only. For the determination of the level of maturity of gonads of sea cucumbers, the necessary observation of the gonads are microscopic, macroscopic and gonad maturity gonado somatic indeks (GSI). GSI value is important to know the changes that occur in the gonads quantitatively, so that time can be presumed spawning (Effendie, 1997). Reproductive cycle can be determined by observing the evolution of GSI. The study of sea cucumbers Holothuria scabra gonad maturity conducted in Langgur, Southeast Maluku. Observations were made at every cycle of the moon is the full moon phase (BP) and new moon (BB) in the period January 29, 2017 until July 23, 2017. Observations H. scabra gonad maturity level is done with surgery, observation and calculation GSI gonad histology. GSI highest value obtained in May that full moon cycle at 90% of individuals that are in the spawning stage (phase 5), then 70% of the individuals that are in the spawning stage (phase 5) in March that the full moon cycle. The results obtained show that the peak spawning H. scabra period January 2017 to July 2017 occurred on the full moon cycle in May.

  11. Gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography : Disadvantages prevail over benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantzen, M.J.; Robben, S.; Postma, A.A.; Zoetelief, J.; Wildberger, J.E.; Kemerink, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To re-evaluate gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography in terms of attainable radiation risk reduction and associated loss of diagnostic information. Methods A study on patient dose and the quality of gonad shielding was performed retrospectively using 500 pelvic radiographs of

  12. Shielding of the patient's gonads during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, L M; Johanson, P H; Zinar, D M; Lenihan, M R; Herman, M W

    1990-12-01

    Levels of exposure to radiation were recorded at sixty sites in fifteen patients during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing. Radiation film dosimeters were placed at four gonadal sites on each subject. A standard male-gonad cup or a pelvic drape of 0.5-millimeter-thick lead-equivalent was put in place to shield the gonads. A second set of four dosimeters was placed external to the shield to approximate unprotected exposure. The total duration of the fluoroscopy averaged five minutes (range, thirty seconds to fourteen minutes). The total exposure to radiation external to the shield was 35 +/- 34 millirems at the male gonadal sites and 17 +/- 11 millirems at the female gonadal sites. With use of the gonadal shield, exposure to radiation was not measurable in thirteen of the fifteen patients. The differences between the exposures of the shielded and unshielded sites to radiation were statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The highest level of gonadal exposure was found with the treatment of proximal femoral fractures and with the use of statically locked nails. Regardless of the conditions, and for all types of fractures and locations, our results demonstrated that gonadal shielding is justified.

  13. Radiation exposure of the gonads in infant brain computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, L.; Rosenkranz, G.; Tellkamp, H.

    1988-01-01

    In 61 babies and infants the gonadal dose due to brain computerized tomography was determined over the symphysis by thermoluminescent dosimetry. The average radiation dose was 43 mGy corresponding with data reported. Shielding of the testes in infants is an additional burden and worth discussing because of the low absolute gonadal dose

  14. Shielding of the patient's gonads during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, L.M.; Johanson, P.H.; Zinar, D.M.; Lenihan, M.R.; Herman, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Levels of exposure to radiation were recorded at sixty sites in fifteen patients during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing. Radiation film dosimeters were placed at four gonadal sites on each subject. A standard male-gonad cup or a pelvic drape of 0.5-millimeter-thick lead-equivalent was put in place to shield the gonads. A second set of four dosimeters was placed external to the shield to approximate unprotected exposure. The total duration of the fluoroscopy averaged five minutes (range, thirty seconds to fourteen minutes). The total exposure to radiation external to the shield was 35 +/- 34 millirems at the male gonadal sites and 17 +/- 11 millirems at the female gonadal sites. With use of the gonadal shield, exposure to radiation was not measurable in thirteen of the fifteen patients. The differences between the exposures of the shielded and unshielded sites to radiation were statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The highest level of gonadal exposure was found with the treatment of proximal femoral fractures and with the use of statically locked nails. Regardless of the conditions, and for all types of fractures and locations, our results demonstrated that gonadal shielding is justified

  15. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Nancy K.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine’s sustained positive effects (hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877

  16. WNT4 signaling in female gonadal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Miriam; Maiorino, Raffaella; Schonauer, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    WNT4 signaling pathways represent an important step in the multi-faceted process of mammalian gonadal differentiation and the development of internal genitalia. WNT4 protein controls the cytoplasmatic stability of specific transcriptional coactivator beta catenin during both embriogenesis and adult homeostasis. The biological significance of WNT4 consists in determining the final female reproductive system, inhibiting Wolff ducts' differentiation, male steroidogenesis and vascular cell migration. An overview of WNT4 cellular mechanisms is given in order to understand its critical role in the genesis of various human diseases such as congenital malformations and gynecological disorders like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The final discussion focusses on several possible therapeutic uses of Wnt4 both during pregnancy in order to correct the genetic loss of function of the protein and during adulthood in order to normalize fertility in PCOS-affected females planning pregnancy.

  17. Effects of gonadal sex and incubation temperature on the ontogeny of gonadal steroid concentrations and secondary sex structures in leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, Turk; Sakata, Jon T; Crews, David

    2005-07-01

    Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Incubation temperature and gonadal sex jointly influence the display of sexual and agonistic behavior in adult leopard geckos. These differences in adult behavior are organized prior to sexual maturity, and it is plausible that post-natal hormones influence neural and behavioral differentiation. Here we assessed incubation temperature and sex effects on sex steroid levels in leopard geckos at 2, 10, and 25 weeks of age and monitored the development of male secondary sex structures. Males had significantly higher androgen concentrations at all time points, whereas females had significantly higher 17beta-estradiol (E2) concentrations only at 10 and 25 weeks. Within males, age but not incubation temperature affected steroid levels and morphological development. Male androgen levels increased modestly by 10 and dramatically by 25 weeks of age, whereas E2 levels remained unchanged over this period. Most males had signs of hemipenes at 10 weeks of age, and all males had hemipenes and open preanal pores by 25 weeks of age. In females, age and incubation temperature affected E2 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) but not T concentrations. Controlling for age, females from 34 degrees C have higher DHT and lower E2 levels than females from 30 degrees C. Further, E2 concentrations increased significantly from 2 to 10 weeks, after which E2 levels remained steady. Together, these results indicate that sexually dimorphic levels of steroids play a major role in the development of leopard gecko behavior and morphology. Furthermore, these data suggest that the organizational effects of incubation temperature on adult female phenotype could be, in part, mediated by incubation temperature effects on steroid hormone levels during juvenile development.

  18. The Petroselinum crispum L. hydroalcoholic extract effects on pituitary- gonad axis in adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bastampoor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Infertility is one of the major issues in medical science which various chemical and herbal medicines have been used for its treatment from ancient times. Due to the side effects of chemical drugs and with regard to the cause of infertility in men is a hormonal disorder, thus, the study aimed to investigate the effect of ethanol extracts of parsley leaves performed on serum levels of pituitary - gonadal hormones. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on fifty adult male rats. The animals were divided into 5 groups of 10 specimens, including controls, and three sets of empirical receiving doses 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg ethanol extract of parsley leaves respectively. Prescriptions were done as gavage for 28 days. At the end of the test, the hearts of the animal and the serum hormones levels of testosterone, FSH and LH were measured. The Data were analyzed with t-test and Duncan and significant differences of data was considered at p = 0.05. Results: The findings revealed that the leaf extract of parsley caused a significant increase in FSH and LH and testosterone significantly increased at minimum and medium doses and decreased significantly in maximum dose. Conclusion: Parsley leaf , having antioxidant compounds, led to the increasing of FSH and LH hormones at three doses and increasing testosterone at minimum and medium doses and decreasing at maximum dose.

  19. Seasonal expression of arginine vasotocin mRNA and its correlations to gonadal steroidogenic enzymes and sexually dimorphic coloration during sex reversal in the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Tomassini, José J; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zohar, Yonathan

    2017-06-01

    Arginine vasotocin is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus of teleost fish that has been shown to regulate gonad development and sexual behavior. To study the role of arginine vasotocin in the gonadal cycle of the hermaphrodite gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, we cloned the seabream arginine vasotocin (avt) complementary DNA (cDNA). We investigated the expression of brain avt throughout the gonad cycle using real-time quantitative PCR and compared its expression levels to the expression levels of two key gonadal steroidogenic enzymes, cyp19a1a and cyp11b2. In July, when the process of sex reversal is thought to begin, avt expression was elevated over the previous 2 months. Avt in the brain remained at or above the level of July until November then peaked again in December. There was no difference between males and females in the expression levels of brain avt throughout the year. However, only in ambisexual fish was the expression of the cyp19a1a gonadal aromatase correlated to the expression of avt in the brain. Cyp11b2 did not show any correlation to brain avt expression. We also found that females had more intense body coloration than males and that this intensity peaked prior to spawning. Avt expression and female coloration were positively correlated. The fact that brain avt expression was lowest during gonad quiescence, together with the observation of a correlation between brain avt with gonadal cyp19a1a and body coloration during that time suggests that avt may play a role during the process of sex reversal and spawning of the gilthead seabream.

  20. Broodstock management and hormonal manipulations of fish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Constantinos C; Fostier, Alexis; Zanuy, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    Control of reproductive function in captivity is essential for the sustainability of commercial aquaculture production, and in many fishes it can be achieved by manipulating photoperiod, water temperature or spawning substrate. The fish reproductive cycle is separated in the growth (gametogenesis) and maturation phase (oocyte maturation and spermiation), both controlled by the reproductive hormones of the brain, pituitary and gonad. Although the growth phase of reproductive development is concluded in captivity in most fishes-the major exemption being the freshwater eel (Anguilla spp.), oocyte maturation (OM) and ovulation in females, and spermiation in males may require exogenous hormonal therapies. In some fishes, these hormonal manipulations are used only as a management tool to enhance the efficiency of egg production and facilitate hatchery operations, but in others exogenous hormones are the only way to produce fertilized eggs reliably. Hormonal manipulations of reproductive function in cultured fishes have focused on the use of either exogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) preparations that act directly at the level of the gonad, or synthetic agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRHa) that act at the level of the pituitary to induce release of the endogenous LH stores, which, in turn act at the level of the gonad to induce steroidogenesis and the process of OM and spermiation. After hormonal induction of maturation, broodstock should spawn spontaneously in their rearing enclosures, however, the natural breeding behavior followed by spontaneous spawning may be lost in aquaculture conditions. Therefore, for many species it is also necessary to employ artificial gamete collection and fertilization. Finally, a common question in regards to hormonal therapies is their effect on gamete quality, compared to naturally maturing or spawning broodfish. The main factors that may have significant consequences on gamete quality-mainly on eggs-and should be considered

  1. Gonadal exposure during radiotherapy of the retriperitoneal lymphatic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmig, B.; Kober, B.; Fehrentz, D.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1980-01-01

    The most important factors leading to exposure of the gonads during irradiation of retroperitoneal lymph nodes are discussed. For radiotherapy on paraaortal lymph nodes, data given in the relevant literature and the authors own measures seveal a gonadal dose of 1% of the focal dose for men and 4% for women. The corresponding values in mantle field irradiation (paraaortal and iliac) are, without protective measures, 10%, resp. 50-75%. Finally, the consequences of a gonadal irradiation are dealt with: carcinogenesis, genetic risk and functional disorders. (orig.) [de

  2. Disruption of apoptosis pathways involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation by 17α-ethinylestradiol and fadrozole exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzio, Ana, E-mail: aluzio@utad.pt [Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Departamento de Biologia e Ambiente (DeBA), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Life Sciences and Environment School, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Matos, Manuela [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, BioISI– Biosystems & Integrative Sciences Institute, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Life Sciences and Environment School (ECVA), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Santos, Dércia [Life Sciences and Environment School, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António A.; Monteiro, Sandra M. [Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences, CITAB, Departamento de Biologia e Ambiente (DeBA), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); Life Sciences and Environment School, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, Vila Real, 5000-801 (Portugal); and others

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Apoptosis in females is avoided by anti-apoptotic pathways and in males is essential to the “juvenile ovary” failure. • BIRC5 is central to the regulation of zebrafish spermatogenesis. • EE2 did not change sex ratios, but Fadrozole induced masculinization with a significant increase in male proportion. • The few females identified after exposure to Fadrozole may have avoided sex reversal by increasing anti-apoptotic proteins. • EE2 increased the pro-apoptotic genes/proteins in males, promoting gonad differentiation. - Abstract: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) sex determination seems to involve genetic factors (GSD) but also environmental factors (ESD), such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are known to mimic endogenous hormones and disrupt gonad differentiation. Apoptosis has also been proposed to play a crucial role in zebrafish gonad differentiation. Nevertheless, the interactions between EDCs and apoptosis have received little attention. Thus, this study aimed to assess if and which apoptotic pathways are involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation and how EDCs may interfere with this process. With these purposes, zebrafish were exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}, 4 ng/L) and fadrozole (Fad, 50 μg/L) from 2 h to 35 days post-fertilization (dpf). Afterwards, a gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR and a stereological analysis, based on systematic sampling and protein immunohistochemistry, were performed. The death receptors (FAS; TRADD), anti-apoptotic (BCL-2; MDM2), pro-apoptotic (CASP-2 and −6) and cell proliferation (BIRC5/survivin; JUN) genes and proteins were evaluated. In general, apoptosis was inhibited in females through the involvement of anti-apoptotic pathways, while in males apoptosis seemed to be crucial to the failure of the “juvenile ovary” development and the induction of testes transformation. The JUN protein was shown to be necessary in juvenile ovaries, while the BIRC5 protein seemed to be involved

  3. Disruption of apoptosis pathways involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation by 17α-ethinylestradiol and fadrozole exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzio, Ana; Matos, Manuela; Santos, Dércia; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, António A.; Monteiro, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Apoptosis in females is avoided by anti-apoptotic pathways and in males is essential to the “juvenile ovary” failure. • BIRC5 is central to the regulation of zebrafish spermatogenesis. • EE2 did not change sex ratios, but Fadrozole induced masculinization with a significant increase in male proportion. • The few females identified after exposure to Fadrozole may have avoided sex reversal by increasing anti-apoptotic proteins. • EE2 increased the pro-apoptotic genes/proteins in males, promoting gonad differentiation. - Abstract: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) sex determination seems to involve genetic factors (GSD) but also environmental factors (ESD), such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are known to mimic endogenous hormones and disrupt gonad differentiation. Apoptosis has also been proposed to play a crucial role in zebrafish gonad differentiation. Nevertheless, the interactions between EDCs and apoptosis have received little attention. Thus, this study aimed to assess if and which apoptotic pathways are involved in zebrafish gonad differentiation and how EDCs may interfere with this process. With these purposes, zebrafish were exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE_2, 4 ng/L) and fadrozole (Fad, 50 μg/L) from 2 h to 35 days post-fertilization (dpf). Afterwards, a gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR and a stereological analysis, based on systematic sampling and protein immunohistochemistry, were performed. The death receptors (FAS; TRADD), anti-apoptotic (BCL-2; MDM2), pro-apoptotic (CASP-2 and −6) and cell proliferation (BIRC5/survivin; JUN) genes and proteins were evaluated. In general, apoptosis was inhibited in females through the involvement of anti-apoptotic pathways, while in males apoptosis seemed to be crucial to the failure of the “juvenile ovary” development and the induction of testes transformation. The JUN protein was shown to be necessary in juvenile ovaries, while the BIRC5 protein seemed to be involved in

  4. Profiles of mRNA expression of genes related to sex differentiation of the gonads in the chicken embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, I; Tsukada, A; Saito, N; Shimada, K

    2003-09-01

    Sex is determined genetically in birds. The homogametic sex is male (ZZ), whereas the heterogametic sex is female (ZW). According to the genetic sex, gonads develop into testes or ovary. In this study, we performed experiments to reveal mRNA expression patterns in the gonad between d 5.5 and 8.5 of incubation and examined a possible role of Dss-Ahc critical region on the X chromosome 1 (Dax1), Steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), P450aromatase (P450arom), Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), doublesex and mab3 related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1), Sry-related HMG box gene 9 (Sox9), Gata binding protein 4 (Gata4), and anti-müllerian hormone (Amh) in sex differentiation in chicken embryonic gonads using RNase protection assay. In embryonic chicken gonads, Dax1 mRNA was expressed in both sexes but was higher in females than in males at d 6.5 and 7.5 of incubation. The Sf1 mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it was expressed more in males at d 5.5 than in females but more in females than in males at d 7.5 and 8.5 of incubation. The P450arom mRNA was expressed only in female gonads from d 5.5 of incubation. The ER alpha mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it did not show a sex difference. On the other hand, the Dmrt1 mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it showed a male-specific expression pattern. The male-specific expression pattern was observed in Sox9 mRNA, but it was not expressed in female gonads. The Gata4 mRNA was expressed in both sexes, and sex differences were not revealed throughout the observational period. Amh mRNA was expressed in both sexes, but it had male-specific mRNA expression pattern at d 6.5 to 8.5 of incubation. These results indicate that Dax1, Sf1, and P450arom have possible roles in ovary formation, whereas Dmrt1, Sox9, and Amh are related to testis formation in differentiating chicken gonads at d 5.5 to 8.5 of incubation.

  5. Hormonal protection of spermatogenic stem cells during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroonenburgh, M.J.P.G. van.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis it is examined if by hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis the disadvantageous side-effects of radiation therapy on the gonads can be reduced. Therefore a rat model was investigated, where hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis during irradiation was achieved and stem cell survival was measured. Attention was focussed on the stem cell, because this cell is primarily responsible for the late effects of radiation on fertility. Flow cytometrical and histological techniques were used as parameters for measuring stem cell survival. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were measured to evaluate the hormonal suppression. (Auth.)

  6. Premature sternal fusion in gonadal dysgenesis with coarctation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, T.E.; Kushner, D.C.; Cleveland, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    In reviewing lateral chest roentgenograms in three infants with Turner's syndrome and aortic coarctation, and in infant with mixed gonadal dysgenesis and aortic coarctation, we have found obvious sternal fusion abnormalities which are reported here. (orig./MG)

  7. Members of opposite sex mutually regulate gonadal recrudescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    from males by wire mesh produced vitellogenic follicles. However, the total number and ... the role of socio-sexual factors on gonadal recrudescence in C. versicolor. ... Group VII – Castrated male (n = 5) with intact female. (n = 5). Group VIII ...

  8. Gonadal function in male and female patients with classic galactosemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio-Gozalbo, M. E.; Gubbels, C. S.; Bakker, J. A.; Menheere, P. P. C. A.; Wodzig, W. K. W. H.; Land, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic infertility is the most burdensome complication for females suffering from classic galactosemia. In contrast, male gonadal function seems less affected. The underlying mechanism is not understood and several pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. Timing of the

  9. The clinical testing of male gonad shields. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, W.W.; Burnett, B.M.

    1975-11-01

    Two types of male gonad shields, designed for use with support garments, were tested in a number of hospitals and clinics throughout the United States. The clinical evaluation consisted of: (1) measuring dose reduction with thermoluminescent dosimeters; and (2) determining acceptability of the shields for routine use in x-ray facilities, through the use of survey forms completed by patients, technologists, and facilities. The shields proved to provide a basis for a very satisfactory male gonad shield program

  10. The clinical testing of male gonad shields. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, W.W.; Burnett, B.M.

    1975-11-01

    Two types of male gonad shields, designed for use with support garments, were tested in a number of hospitals and clinics throughout the United States. The clinical evaluation consisted of: (1) measuring dose reduction with thermoluminescent dosimeters; and (2) determining acceptability of the shields for routine use in x-ray facilities, through the use of survey forms completed by patients, technologists, and facilities. The shields proved to provide a basis for a very satisfactory male gonad shield program. (GRA)

  11. Protection of gonads in radiography of the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correll, R.; Plischke, U.; Dresel, H.; Joos, M.

    1976-01-01

    The effectiveness of a new device for the protection of gonads has been tested by measuring doses on the water-phantom and on patients. The lead protector is applied below the light-source and protects the gonads in pelvic radiography. The reduction of dosage corresponds to the usual leadprotectors. It should be particularly useful in ortopedics, since it is simple and hygienic. (orig.) [de

  12. Laparoscopic Removal of Streak Gonads in Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelberger, Adrienne; Mathews, Shyama; Andikyan, Vaagn; Chuang, Linus

    To demonstrate the skills necessary for complete resection of bilateral streak gonads in Turner syndrome. Video case presentation with narration highlighting the key techniques used. The video was deemed exempt from formal review by our institutional review board. Turner syndrome is a form of gonadal dysgenesis that affects 1 in 2500 live births. Patients often have streak gonads and may present with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian failure. Patients with a mosaic karyotype that includes a Y chromosome are at increased risk for gonadoblastoma and subsequent transformation into malignancy. Gonadectomy is recommended for these patients, typically at adolescence. Streak gonads can be difficult to identify, and tissue margins are often in close proximity to critical retroperitoneal structures. Resection can be technically challenging and requires a thorough understanding of retroperitoneal anatomy and precise dissection techniques to ensure complete removal. Laparoscopic approach to bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy of streak gonads. Retroperitoneal dissection and ureterolysis are performed, with the aid of the Ethicon Harmonic Ace, to ensure complete gonadectomy. Careful and complete resection of gonadal tissue in the hands of a skilled laparoscopic surgeon is key for effective cancer risk reduction surgery in Turner syndrome mosaics. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaura, Chiyo; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we describes the evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology based on the measurement of organ and the effective doses with and without lead clothing to gonads. We devised in-phantom dosimetry system and measured organ and effective doses in x-ray radiography and CT examinations with the new dosimetry system. From the data of organ and the effective doses we assessed the effectiveness of radiological protection by the use of lead clothing to gonads. Although in chest radiography and chest CT examinations, the effectiveness of radiological protection was not found, in the case of hip joint radiography (AP), gonad doses decreased remarkably by using lead clothing. The effectiveness of radiological protection, i.e. the ratio of the decreased dose to the dose value without protection, in testis and ovary were found to be 91.4% and 68.0%, respectively. It was also found that gonad doses observed with and without gonad protection were extremely lower than those of threshold for sterility recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 (ICRP Publ. 60). (author)

  14. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Chiyo; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we describe the evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology based on the measurement of organ and the effective doses with and without lead clothing to gonads. We devised in-phantom dosimetry system and measured organ and effective doses in x-ray radiography and CT examinations with the new dosimetry system. From the data of organ and the effective doses we assessed the effectiveness of radiological protection by the use of lead clothing to gonads. Although in chest radiography and chest CT examinations, the effectiveness of radiological protection was not found, in the case of hip joint radiography (AP), gonad doses decreased remarkably by using lead clothing. The effectiveness of radiological protection, i.e. the ratio of the decreased dose to the dose value without protection, in testis and ovary were found to be 91.4% and 68.0%, respectively. It was also found that gonad doses observed with and without gonad protection were extremely lower than those of threshold for sterility recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 (ICRP Publ. 60).

  15. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  16. Gonad Shielding for Patients Undergoing Conventional Radiological Examinations: Is There Cause for Concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Gonad shielding is one of the fundamental methods by which to protect reproductive organs in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations. A lack of or inadequate shielding of the gonads may increase the exposure of these organs and result in malignancies future generations. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of gonad shielding in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations and the availability of gonad shields and gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments. Materials and Methods A retrospective, observational cross-sectional study on the application of gonad shielding, the availability of gonad shields and the existence of gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments was performed in five different hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran. Results The highest application of gonad shielding was 6.6% for the pediatric hospital. The prevalence of gonad shielding was less than 0.2%. In 64.3% of the radiography rooms, at least one flat-contact gonad shield of a large size was available. Only large-sized gonad shields were available. Curved-contact and shadow gonad shields did not exist. Gonad shielding protocols were not existence in any of the fourteen radiography rooms investigated. Conclusions Comprehensive protection programs with on-the-job training courses for staff members are strongly recommended, as well as, the provision of radiological shields and gonad shielding protocols in radiology departments to reduce the patient’s radiation dose during radiological examinations.

  17. Development and biological function of the female gonads and genitalia in IGF-I deficiency -- Laron syndrome as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2006-01-01

    Laron syndrome (LS) or primary GH insensitivity is a unique human model to study the effects of congenital IGF-I deficiency. Within our cohort of 63 patients with LS, 15 female patients were regularly followed since birth or infancy, throughout puberty. We observed that they were short at birth, with small genitalia and gonads -- during puberty, developed delayed puberty but eventually reached between 16 and 19 1/2 years full sexual development. Reproduction is unaffected at a young adult age. It is concluded that IGF-I in concert with the sex hormones has a modulatory but not essential function on female sexual development and maturation.

  18. Effect of weight reduction on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin, sex hormones and gonadotrophins in obese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Lange, Aksel; Holland-Fischer, P

    2010-01-01

    Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated. ....... The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of weight reduction in obese Caucasian children on insulin sensitivity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEAS and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.......Obesity in men is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hypoandrogenism, while obesity in women is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenism. In children, the effect of obesity and weight reduction on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is rarely investigated...

  19. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig

    2012-01-01

    The cardinal features of Turner syndrome (TS) are short stature, congenital abnormalities, infertility due to gonadal dysgenesis, with sex hormone insufficiency ensuing from premature ovarian failure, which is involved in lack of proper development of secondary sex characteristics and the frequent...... osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner...... syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects...

  20. Longitudinal reproductive hormone profiles in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Toppari, J; Haavisto, A M

    1998-01-01

    The gonads are usually considered quiescent organs in infancy and childhood. However, during the first few postnatal months of life, levels of gonadotropins and sex hormones are elevated in humans. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that environmental factors operating perinatally may...... influence male reproductive health in adulthood. The early postnatal activity of the Sertoli cell, a testicular cell type that is supposed to play a major role in sperm production in adulthood is largely unknown. Recently, the peptide hormone inhibin B was shown to be a marker of Sertoli cell function......, and testosterone. Thus, although levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone decreased into the range observed later in childhood by the age of 6-9 months, serum inhibin B levels remained elevated up to at least the age of 15 months. In girls, the hormonal pattern was generally more complex, with a high interindividual...

  1. Incubation temperature and gonadal sex affect growth and physiology in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, A; Crews, D

    1995-05-01

    Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), in which the temperature at which an egg incubates determines the sex of the individual, occurs in egg-laying reptiles of three separate orders. Previous studies have shown that the embryonic environment can have effects lasting beyond the period of sex determination. We investigated the relative roles of incubation temperature, exogenous estradiol, and gonadal sex (testis vs. ovary) in the differentiation of adult morphological and physiological traits of the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. The results indicate that incubation temperature, steroid hormones, and gonads interact in the development of morphological and physiological characters with incubation temperature resulting in the greatest differences in adult phenotype. Incubation temperature did not affect reproductive success directly, but may influence offspring survival in natural situations through effects on adult female body size. Postnatal hormones seem to be more influential in the formation of adult phenotypes than prenatal hormones. These results demonstrate that TSD species can be used to investigate the effects of the physical environment on development in individuals without a predetermined genetic sex and thus provide further insight into the roles of gonadal sex and the embryonic environment in sexual differentiation.

  2. Gonadal shielding to irradiation is effective in protecting testicular growth and function in long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation during childhood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, H; Yasuda, Y; Tomita, Y; Shinagawa, T; Shimizu, T; Morimoto, T; Hattori, K; Matsumoto, M; Inoue, H; Yabe, H; Yabe, M; Shinohara, O; Kato, S

    2007-04-01

    An increasing number of long-term surviving bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients have recovered from their primary disease but are at risk of developing failure of endocrine organs. We investigated 30 recipients who underwent allogeneic BMT during childhood or adolescence. Testicular growth and function were evaluated by serial measurement of testicular volume, basal luteinizing hormone (LH), basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels and by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) provocative test. Puberty started spontaneously in all patients. However, all except four patients had normal testosterone levels with elevated LH, indicating partial Leydig cell dysfunction. Standard deviation scores of testicular volume at last evaluation were statistically lower in those who had received irradiation without gonadal shield compared to those with (-2.04+/-0.45 vs -0.30+/-1.17, respectively, Pgonadal irradiation. Serial measurement of testicular volume showed a tendency of growth to stop at 10 ml in those without gonadal shield. Among the 30 patients, only one patient has fathered a child after reaching spontaneous puberty. These results suggest that gonadal shield is effective to protect testicular growth and function, although the attainment of fertility is difficult to achieve.

  3. Experimentally induced hyperthyroidism influences oxidant and antioxidant status and impairs male gonadal functions in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, M E; Hassan, W A; El-Kashlan, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present experiment was to study the effect of hyperthyroidism on male gonadal functions and oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers in testis of adult rats. Induction of hyperthyroidism by L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1) body weight) treatment once daily for 3 or 8 weeks caused a decrease in body weight gain as well as in absolute genital sex organs weight. The epididymal sperm counts and their motility were significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner following L-T4 treatment. Significant decline in serum levels of luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone along with significant increase in serum estradiol level was observed in hyperthyroid rats compared with euthyroid ones. Significant increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentration associated with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was also noticed following hyperthyroidism induction. Both reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity were increased in hyperthyroid rats compared with control rats. Marked histopathological alterations were observed in testicular section of hyperthyroid rats. These results provide evidence that hypermetabolic state induced by excess level of thyroid hormones may be a causative factor for the impairment of testicular physiology as a consequence of oxidative stress. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Gonadal function in males with autoimmune Addison's disease and autoantibodies to steroidogenic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Costa, M; Bonanni, G; Masiero, S; Faggian, D; Chen, S; Furmaniak, J; Rees Smith, B; Perniola, R; Radetti, G; Garelli, S; Chiarelli, S; Albergoni, M P; Plebani, M; Betterle, C

    2014-06-01

    Steroidogenic enzyme autoantibodies (SEAbs) are frequently present and are markers of autoimmune premature ovarian failure (POF) in females with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD). The prevalence and significance of SEAbs in males with AAD have not yet been defined. We studied the prevalence of SEAbs in a large cohort of males with AAD and assessed the relationship between SEAbs positivity and testicular function. A total of 154 males with AAD (mean age 34 years) were studied. SEAbs included autoantibodies to steroid-producing cells (StCA), detected by immunofluorescence, and steroid 17α-hydroxylase (17α-OHAbs) and side chain cleavage enzyme (SCCAbs) measured by immunoprecipitation assays. Gonadal function was evaluated by measuring follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB), anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin-B (I-B). Twenty-six males, 10 SEAbs((+)) and 16 SEAbs((-)), were followed-up for a mean period of 7·6 years to assess the behaviour of SEAbs and testicular function. SEAbs were found in 24·7% of males with AAD, with the highest frequency in patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1). The levels of reproductive hormones in 30 SEAbs((+)) males were in the normal range according to age and were not significantly different compared to 55 SEAbs((-)) males (P > 0·05). During follow-up, both SEAbs((+)) and SEAbs((-)) patients maintained normal testicular function. SEAbs were found with high frequency in males with AAD; however, they were not associated with testicular failure. This study suggests that the diagnostic value of SEAbs in males with AAD differs compared to females, and this may be related to the immunoprivileged status of the testis. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  5. GONAD REMATURATION ON Pangasionodon hypophthalmus FEMALE THROUGH INJECTION OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN AND HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Tahapari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The success of spawning is influenced by internal and external factors. One of the factors that affect the var iabi li ty of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus female reproductive is the change of seasons that cause disrupted continuity of the seed availability, especially in the dry season. In the present study, combination of PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin + HCG (hormone chorionic gonadotropin hormone injections was done to induce gonad development. The treatments in this study were without hormone injections as control (A, injection of PMSG 10 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg (B, and injection of PMSG 20 IU/kg HCG + 10 IU/kg (C. Injections were conducted at intervals of two weeks as many as six times. The results showed that gonad maturation generally occurs 2-4 weeks after estradiol-17 peak. PMSG + HCG hormone injections gave a significant effect on increasing the quantity and quality of eggs production. The fecundity in the A, B, C treatments, were 233,700±220,676; 300,305±24,581 and 488,433±142,228; respectively. Number of larvae produced from the A, B, C treatments, were 156,979±170,838; 229,997±18,081 and 362,713±101,850; respectively. Combination of PMSG 20 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg hormone injection gave the best result on fecundity and the number of larvae production.

  6. EMBARAZO EXITOSO EN PACIENTE CON DISGENESIA GONADAL PURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ortiz A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Objetivo: Reporte de un caso de embarazo exitoso en una paciente con disgenesia gonadal pura.
    Diseño de estudio: Informe de caso.
    Lugar: Centro de Fertilidad y Reproducción Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá (REPROTEC.
    Paciente: Una paciente con disgenesia gonadal 46,XY confi rmada.
    Intervención: Gonadectomía por laparoscopia, fertilización in vitro con donación de oocitos, transferencia de embriones en blastocisto (2 y parto por cesárMea.
    Resultado principal: Embarazo exitoso y nacido vivo.
    Conclusiones: Las pacientes con disgenesia gonadal pura 46,XY; tienen como opción de fertilidad, la donación de ovocitos y transferencia de embriones con adecuadas tasas de embarazos exitosos.

    Palabras clave: síndrome de Swyer, disgenesia gonadal pura, fertilización in vitro

    SUCCESSFUL PREGNANCY IN A PATIENT WITH PURE GONADAL DYSGENESIS

    Abstract

    Sexual differentiation is a complex process, that begins from conception with determination of genetic sex and from sixth week, gonadal differentiation; any alteration in any of the tracts can cause conditions where there is discordance between phenotype and genotype, that are called alterations in sexual development. Swyers syndrome and the syndrome of androgen insensitivity share the characteristics of a female phenotype with 46, XY karyotype.

    Key words: Swyer Syndrome, Pure Gonadal Dysgenesis, in vitro fertilization.

  7. Gonad protective effect of radiation protective apron in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Masatoshi; Kato, Hideyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Ochi, Shigehiro; Morita, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    Depending on the facility, a radiation protective apron (protector) is used to protect the gonad from radiation exposure in chest radiography. To determine the necessity of using a protector during chest radiography, we measured the effect of the protector on the gonad in this study. First, using a human body phantom, we measured the absorbed dose of the female gonad with and without the protector, using a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), and confirmed its protective effect. Using the protector, the absorbed dose was reduced to 28±2% and 39±4% for field sizes of 14 x 17 inch and 14 x 14 inch, respectively. Next, we used Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed, not only the validity of the actual measurement values, but also the fact that the influence of radiation on the absorbed dose of the gonad was mostly from scattered radiation from inside the body for the 14 x 17 inch field size, and also from the X-ray tube for the 14 x 14 inch field size. Although a certain protective effect is achieved by using the protector, the radiation dose to the gonad is only a few μGy even without a protector. Thus, the risk of a genetic effect would be as small as 10 -8 . Given that acceptable risk is below 10 -6 , we conclude the use of a radiation protective apron is not necessary for diagnostic chest radiography. (author)

  8. [Gonad protective effect of radiation protective apron in chest radiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masatoshi; Kato, Hideyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Ochi, Shigehiro; Morita, Fuminori

    2004-12-01

    Depending on the facility, a radiation protective apron (protector) is used to protect the gonad from radiation exposure in chest radiography. To determine the necessity of using a protector during chest radiography, we measured the effect of the protector on the gonad in this study. First, using a human body phantom, we measured the absorbed dose of the female gonad with and without the protector, using a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), and confirmed its protective effect. Using the protector, the absorbed dose was reduced to 28+/-2% and 39+/-4% for field sizes of 14 x 17 inch and 14 x 14 inch, respectively. Next, we used Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed, not only the validity of the actual measurement values, but also the fact that the influence of radiation on the absorbed dose of the gonad was mostly from scattered radiation from inside the body for the 14 x 17 inch field size, and also from the X-ray tube for the 14 x 14 inch field size. Although a certain protective effect is achieved by using the protector, the radiation dose to the gonad is only a few microGy even without a protector. Thus, the risk of a genetic effect would be as small as 10(-8). Given that acceptable risk is below 10(-6), we conclude the use of a radiation protective apron is not necessary for diagnostic chest radiography.

  9. Sex-biased miRNAs in gonad and their potential roles for testis development in yellow catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jing; Wu, Junjie; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Shuting; Ma, Wenge; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Weimin; Gui, Jian-Fang; Mei, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, YY super-male yellow catfish had been created by hormonal-induced sex reversal and sex-linked markers, which provides a promising research model for fish sex differentiation and gonad development, especially for testis development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been revealed to play crucial roles in the gene regulation and gonad development in vertebrates. In this study, three small RNA libraries constructed from gonad tissues of XX female, XY male and YY super-male yellow catfish were sequenced. The sequencing data generated a total of 384 conserved miRNAs and 113 potential novel miRNAs, among which 23, 30 and 14 miRNAs were specifically detected in XX ovary, XY testis, and YY testis, respectively. We observed relative lower expression of several miR-200 family members, including miR-141 and miR-429 in YY testis compared with XY testis. Histological analysis indicated a higher degree of testis maturity in YY super-males compared with XY males, as shown by larger spermatogenic cyst, more spermatids and fewer spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cyst. Moreover, five miR-200 family members were significantly up-regulated in testis when treated by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), high dose of which will impair testis development and cell proliferation. The down-regulation of miR-141 and 429 coincides with the progression of testis development in both yellow catfish and human. At last, the expression pattern of nine arbitrarily selected miRNAs detected by quantitative RT-PCR was consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Our study provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome analysis for gonad of yellow catfish with different sex genotypes, and identifies a number of sex-biased miRNAs, some of that are potentially involved in testis development and spermatogenesis.

  10. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  11. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  12. Alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in estrogen- and androgen-treated adult male leopard frog, Rana pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Jeremy T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadal steroids, in particular 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and 17 beta-estradiol (E2, have been shown to feed back on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis of the ranid frog. However, questions still remain on how DHT and E2 impact two of the less-studied components of the ranid HPG axis, the hypothalamus and the gonad, and if the feedback effects are consistently negative. Thus, the goal of the study was to examine the effects of DHT and E2 upon the HPG axis of the gonadally-intact, sexually mature male leopard frogs, Rana pipiens. Methods R. pipiens were implanted with silastic capsules containing either cholesterol (Ch, a control, DHT, or E2 for 10 or 30 days. At each time point, steroid-induced changes in hypothalamic GnRH and pituitary LH concentrations, circulating luteinizing hormone (LH, and testicular histology were examined. Results Frogs implanted with DHT or E2 for 10 days did not show significant alterations in the HPG axis. In contrast, frogs implanted with hormones for 30 days had significantly lower circulating LH (for both DHT and E2, decreased pituitary LH concentration (for E2 only, and disrupted spermatogenesis (for both DHT and E2. The disruption of spermatogenesis was qualitatively similar between DHT and E2, although the effects of E2 were consistently more potent. In both DHT and E2-treated animals, a marked loss of all pre-meiotic germ cells was observed, although the loss of secondary spermatogonia appeared to be the primary cause of disrupted spermatogenesis. Unexpectedly, the presence of post-meiotic germ cells was either unaffected or enhanced by DHT or E2 treatment. Conclusions Overall, these results showed that both DHT and E2 inhibited circulating LH and disrupted spermatogenesis progressively in a time-dependent manner, with the longer duration of treatment producing the more pronounced effects. Further, the feedback effects exerted by both steroid hormones upon the HPG axis were

  13. The use of gonad shielding in biomedical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.

    1991-01-01

    The need for specified rules for gonad shielding in X-ray diagnostics have been stressed by staff members in Norwegian hospitals and health institutions. Variable practice has also caused some distress among patients. In order to have a common recommendation for gonad shielding in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in Norway formulated a proposal for a ''Code of practice''. The recommendation was drafted by a working group with members from the five Nordic countries and was approved by the Nordic radiation protection authorities with a minor changes. The report is divided in two parts. The first part contains the recommeded Code of practice for gonad shielding in medical X-ray diagnostics. The second part contains data and background material. 23 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Gonad shielding in paediatric pelvic radiography: Effectiveness and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warlow, Thomas; Walker-Birch, Peter; Cosson, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of Gonad Shields (GS) has been advocated during pelvic radiography since the 1950's, particularly in children where the risks from radiation are higher. Previous literature reports that GS are often omitted and rarely used correctly. Objectives: Presentation of findings concerning use of GS in the context of previous data in the literature, and recommend any appropriate actions. Method: A retrospective analysis of images from an existing DICOM Digital Teaching Library (DTL) was conducted. Images of the pelvis from paediatric patients were reviewed and scored on whether a GS was present and (if present) whether the shield was considered to adequately protect the gonads. Results: 130 images were reviewed. 70 male and 60 female. The gonads were deemed to be protected by a shield in 22 images (17%), inadequately protected when a shield was used in 44 images (34%) with the remaining 64 images (49%) having no shield at all. A lack of adequate protection for the gonads was found, with females more likely to be inadequately protected than males (χ 2  = 19.009, df = 1, p < 0.001). These findings become more clinically significant when reports of ovaries lying outside of the pelvic basin (in paediatric patients) are considered. Conclusions: The current practice of gonad shielding is neither effective nor beneficial for female paediatric patients, incorrect shield placement can often require repeat exposures. This finding is commensurate with previous literature. Therefore, gonad shielding is no longer an appropriate optimization tool for female paediatric patients during conventional radiography of the pelvis, and should be abandoned

  15. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    Full Text Available Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  16. Effects of different dietary DHA:EPA ratios on gonadal steroidogenesis in the marine teleost, tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Houguo; Cao, Lin; Wei, Yuliang; Zhang, Yuanqin; Liang, Mengqing

    2017-08-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary DHA and EPA on gonadal steroidogenesis in mature females and males, with a feeding trial on tongue sole, a typical marine teleost with sexual dimorphism. Three experimental diets differing basically in DHA:EPA ratio, that is, 0·68 (diet D:E-0·68), 1·09 (D:E-1·09) and 2·05 (D:E-2·05), were randomly assigned to nine tanks of 3-year-old tongue sole (ten females and fifteen males in each tank). The feeding trail lasted for 90 d before and during the spawning season. Fish were reared in a flowing seawater system and fed to apparent satiation twice daily. Compared with diet D:E-0·68, diet D:E-1·09 significantly enhanced the oestradiol production in females, whereas diet D:E-2·05 significantly enhanced the testosterone production in males. In ovaries, diet D:E-1·09 induced highest mRNA expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 17α-hydroxylase (P450c17) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). In testes, diet 2·05 resulted in highest mRNA expression of FSHR, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450c17 and 3β-HSD. Fatty acid profiles in fish tissues reflected closely those of diets. Female fish had more gonadal EPA content but less DHA content than male fish, whereas there was a reverse observation in liver. In conclusion, the dietary DHA:EPA ratio, possibly combined with the dietary EPA:arachidonic acid ratio, differentially regulated sex steroid hormone synthesis in mature female and male tongue soles. Females seemed to require more EPA but less DHA for the gonadal steroidogenesis than males. The results are beneficial to sex-specific nutritive strategies in domestic teleost.

  17. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY) play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG) axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s) to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  18. Pod-1/Capsulin shows a sex- and stage-dependent expression pattern in the mouse gonad development and represses expression of Ad4BP/SF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, M; Kanno, Y; Chuma, S; Saito, T; Nakatsuji, N

    2001-04-01

    Mammalian sex-determination and differentiation are controlled by several genes, such as Sry, Sox-9, Dax-1 and Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), but their upstream and downstream genes are largely unknown. Ad4BP/SF-1, encoding a zinc finger transcription factor, plays important roles in gonadogenesis. Disruption of this gene caused disappearance of the urogenital system including the gonad. Ad4BP/SF-1, however, is also involved in the sex differentiation of the gonad at later stages, such as the regulation of steroid hormones and MIS. Pod-1/Capsulin, a member of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, is expressed in a pattern closely related but mostly complimentary to that of the Ad4BP/SF-1 expression in the developing gonad. In the co-transfection experiment using cultured cells, overexpression of Pod-1/Capsulin repressed expression of a reporter gene that carried the upstream regulatory region of the Ad4BP/SF-1 gene. Furthermore, forced expression of Pod-1/Capsulin repressed expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 in the Leydig cell-derived I-10 cells. These results suggest that Pod-1/Capsulin may play important roles in the development and sex differentiation of the mammalian gonad via transcriptional regulation of Ad4BP/SF-1.

  19. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanjing; Chen, Chuanyue; Chen, Liang; Wang, Li; Li, Jian; Chen, Yuanyuan; Jin, Jienan; Kawan, Atufa; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2016-03-01

    While microcystins (MCs) have been reported to exert reproductive toxicity on fish with a sex-dependent effect, the underlying mechanism has been rarely investigated. In the present study, zebrafish were exposed to 1, 5 and 20 μg/L MC-LR for 30 d. The gonad-somatic index declined in all treated males. 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased in serum from all treated females, while T, FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels changed in all treated males. Histomorphological observation showed that MC-LR exposure evidently retarded oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Transcriptional changes of 22 genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis exhibited sex-specific responses, and the relationship between gene transcriptions and gametogenesis was evaluated by principle component analysis (PCA). Major contributors to PC1 (gnrh2, gnrhr3, ar, lhr, hmgra, hmgrb and cyp19a) were positively correlated with the number of post-vitellogenic oocytes, while PC1 (gnrh2, lhβ, erβ, fshr, cyp11a and 17βhsd) were positively correlated with the number of spermatozoa. The protein levels of 17βHSD and CYP19a were affected in both females and males. In conclusion, this study first investigated the sex-dependent effects of microcystins on fish reproduction and revealed some important molecular biomarkers related to gametogenesis in zebrafish suffered from MC-LR.

  20. Gonadal status in male survivors following childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males......The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...

  1. Differential action of glycoprotein hormones: significance in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Arya, Swathy V; Rao, A J

    2014-02-01

    Growth of multicellular organisms depends on maintenance of proper balance between proliferation and differentiation. Any disturbance in this balance in animal cells can lead to cancer. Experimental evidence is provided to conclude with special reference to the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on Sertoli cells, and luteinizing hormone (LH) on Leydig cells that these hormones exert a differential action on their target cells, i.e., stimulate proliferation when the cells are in an undifferentiated state which is the situation with cancer cells and promote only functional parameters when the cell are fully differentiated. Hormones and growth factors play a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. There is a growing body of evidence that various tumors express some hormones at high levels as well as their cognate receptors indicating the possibility of a role in progression of cancer. Hormones such as LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone have been reported to stimulate cell proliferation and act as tumor promoter in a variety of hormone-dependent cancers including gonads, lung, thyroid, uterus, breast, prostate, etc. This review summarizes evidence to conclude that these hormones are produced by some cancer tissues to promote their own growth. Also an attempt is made to explain the significance of the differential action of hormones in progression of cancer with special reference to prostate cancer.

  2. Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigeneti...

  3. Expression of sex steroid hormone-related genes in the embryo of the leopard gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daisuke; Kanaho, Yoh-Ichiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2008-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones are known to play a central role in vertebrate sex determination and differentiation. However, the tissues in which they are produced or received during development, especially around the period of sex determination of the gonads, have rarely been investigated. In this study, we identified the cDNA sequence, including the full-length of the coding region of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), from the leopard gecko; a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. Embryonic expression analysis of two steroidogenic enzymes, P450scc and P450 aromatase (P450arom), and four sex steroid hormone receptors, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and beta, and progesterone receptor, was subsequently conducted. mRNA expression of both steroidogenic enzymes was observed in the brain and gonads prior to the temperature-sensitive period of sex determination. The mRNAs of the four sex steroid hormone receptors were also detected in the brain and gonads at all stages examined. These results suggest the existence of a gonad-independent sex steroid hormone signaling system in the developing leopard gecko brain.

  4. Mixed gonadal dysgenesis with Turner`s phenotype and mosaic karyotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarim, O.; Lieber, E. [Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)]|[Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A 14 8/12-year-old white female patient was evaluated for short stature and amenorrhea. The past and family history were unremarkable. The physical examination revealed a short girl (131.4 cm; height age: 9) with a weight of 39.5kg (weight age: 11-6/12). The blood pressure was in the normal range in all four extremities and the peripheral pulses were positive. She had stigmata of Turner`s syndrome including short neck and slight webbing, cubitus valgus, and shield chest. There was no heart murmur. The only pubertal sign was pubic hair of Tanner stage II. The chromosome study showed a mosaic pattern. A total of 67 cultured lymphocytes from peripheral blood were analyzed which revealed 13 cells with 45,XO; 14 with 46,XY,r(Y); 39 with 46,XY. The patient had a normal vagina and hypoplastic uterus by sonogram. The diagnosis of mixed gonadal dysgenesis was confirmed by exploratory laparotomy and bilateral gonadectomy. The histologic examination of the gonads showed a testicle on the left and a streak ovary on right. The karyotype of the testicular tissue revealed 45,XO in 32 out of 40 and 46,XY in the remaining 8 cells. Pre-operative hormonal evaluation showed elevated gonadotropin levels of FSH 73.5 and LH 12.5 mIU/ml, low estradiol level of 5 pg/ml, normal testosterone level of 18 and DHEA-S of 181 mcg/dl, and normal thyroid function test with T4 of 6 mcg/dl and TSH of 4.2 mIU/ml. Her bone age was 12 years. The patient was also found to have subnormal growth hormone (GH) secretion by overnight GH study (1.55 ng/ml), clonidine stimulation test (7.3ng/ml), and insulin stimulation test (9.2 ng/ml). She responded well to human synthetic GH treatment with a growth velocity of 11.5 cm in two years. Replacement of sex hormones will be initiated after the completion of growth.

  5. Induced maturation of eel Anguilla bicolor using different hormone combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Oman Sudrajat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Artificial reproduction of eel Anguilla bicolor is not yet well-established because of insufficient broodstock number. In this research, induction of Indonesian eel gonad maturation was performed by hormonal with a combination of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG antidopamin and recombinant growth hormone (rGH. This research consisted of five treatments namely: control (NaCl 0,9%, PMSG 20 IU/ kg, PMSG 20 IU/kg + antidopamin 10 ppm/kg, PMSG 20 IU/kg + antidopamin 10 ppm/kg + rGH 10 μg/kg dan PMSG 20 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg. Each treatment contained 10 fishes. Hormonal induction was conducted by intramuscular injections, as much as five times at intervals of seven days. Furthermore observations on gonadal development were performed after injection for 21 days. The results showed that the treatment generated pregnancy level of 100%, while control was 0%. The best treatment was PMSG 20 IU/kg + antidopamin 10 ppm/kg+ rGH 10 μg/kg, seen from a more mature phase of the gametes, spermatocytes in male and oocytes with perinukleolar phase in female fish. Eel at the body weight of 120.4 to 207.8 g and at the body length of 40.9 to 43.1 cm was male, at the body weight of 274.8 g and at the body length of 47 cm was in intersexual phase, and at the body weight of 323.4 g and at the body length of 53 cm was female. Keywords: Anguilla bicolor, antidopamin, hormones, PMSG, rGH, HCG  ABSTRAK Pemijahan ikan sidat secara buatan belum dapat dilakukan karena keterbatasan induk matang gonad. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian hormon terhadap percepatan proses perkembangan gonad ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor. Hormon yang digunakan adalah kombinasi dari pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, antidopamin dan recombinant growth hormone (rGH. Induksi hormonal untuk mempercepat perkembangan gonad ikan sidat dilakukan melalui lima perlakuan yaitu yaitu kontrol

  6. Gonad Shielding for Patients Undergoing Conventional Radiological Examinations: Is There Cause for Concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Karami; Zabihzadeh; Gholami

    2016-01-01

    Background Gonad shielding is one of the fundamental methods by which to protect reproductive organs in patients undergoing conventional radiological examinations. A lack of or inadequate shielding of the gonads may increase the exposure of these organs and result in malignancies future generations. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of gonad shielding in patients undergoing conventional radiological...

  7. Sublethal effects of carbaryl on embryonic and gonadal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbaryl is a broad-spectrum insecticide used to control insect pests. In aquatic environments, it can disrupt the endocrine system and adversely affect the reproductive function of aquatic animals. This study investigated sublethal impacts of carbaryl on embryos and gonads of zebrafish Danio rerio in order to assess the ...

  8. Gonadal dosage during hip dysplasia radiography in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A K; Reynolds, K M; Leith, I S; Burns, P A

    1977-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to estimate gonadal dosage during hip dysplasia radiography of labrador retriever dogs. The mean radiation dose to the unshielded testes was 100 millirad (mrad) and the estimated dose to the shielded testes was 9 mrad. It was considered unnecessary to shield the ovaries.

  9. Sex ratio, gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sex ratio, gonadosomatic index, stages of gonadal development and fecundity of the grunt, Pomadasys jubelini in the New Calabar-Bonny River were investigated. P. jubelini had a sex ratio of 1: 2.1 (male to female). Gonadosomatic index ranged from 0.33 to 7.29% with a mean of 2.89+0.08%. High gonadosomatic ...

  10. Gonad establishment during asexual reproduction in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özpolat, B Duygu; Bely, Alexandra E

    2015-09-01

    Animals that can reproduce by both asexual agametic reproduction and sexual reproduction must transmit or re-establish their germ line post-embryonically. Although such a dual reproductive mode has evolved repeatedly among animals, how asexually produced individuals establish their germ line remains poorly understood in most groups. We investigated germ line development in the annelid Pristina leidyi, a species that typically reproduces asexually by paratomic fission, intercalating a new tail and head in the middle of the body followed by splitting. We found that in fissioning individuals, gonads occur in anterior segments in the anterior-most individual as well as in new heads forming within fission zones. Homologs of the germ line/multipotency genes piwi, vasa, and nanos are expressed in the gonads, as well as in proliferative tissues including the posterior growth zone, fission zone, and regeneration blastema. In fissioning animals, certain cells on the ventral nerve cord express a homolog of piwi, are abundant near fission zones, and sometimes make contact with gonads. Such cells are typically undetectable near the blastema and posterior growth zone. Time-lapse imaging provides direct evidence that cells on the ventral nerve cord migrate preferentially towards fission zones. Our findings indicate that gonads form routinely in fissioning individuals, that a population of piwi-positive cells on the ventral nerve cord is associated with fission and gonads, and that cells resembling these piwi-positive cells migrate along the ventral nerve cord. We suggest that the piwi-positive ventral cells are germ cells that transmit the germ line across asexually produced individuals via migration along the ventral nerve cord. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gonadal status and reproductive function following treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood: The Stanford experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortin, T.T.; Shostak, C.A.; Donaldson, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    To ascertain the impact of therapy on gonadal function and reproductive outcome among children treated for Hodgkin's disease, we reviewed the experience at Stanford University Medical Center during the years 1965-1986. There were 240 children 15 years of age or younger, 92 girls and 148 boys; with median follow-up of 9 years, maximum follow-up was 26 years. Of this cohort, data on gonadal function were available on 20 boys, 5 of whom were considered prepubescent; they had no clinical evidence of sexual maturation and were less than 13 years of age. Evaluation of the boys included testicular biopsy, semen analyses and the ability to procreate. Serum gonadotropin hormone levels (FSH, LH) were studied in 11 boys who also had semen analyses. Sexual maturation was attained in all boys without the need for androgen replacement. Among the eight boys treated with radiation alone, four were able to father a child (3 following 40-45 Gy pelvic radiation dose, 1 without pelvic radiation) from 3-19 years following treatment. Three others who received 30-44 Gy pelvic radiation were oligospermic when tested at 10 to 15 years post-treatment. Semen analyses in 10 of 12 (83%) boys who had been treated with six cycles of MOPP with or without pelvic radiation revealed absolute azoospermia with no evidence of recovery as along as 11 years of follow-up. Following prolonged azoospermia, 2 of the 12 boys (17%) had recovery of fertility, with normalization of sperm count and/or ability to procreate at 12 and 15 years following treatment. There was no correlation with serum gonadotropin levels and sterility. Data on menstrual history, pregnancy and offspring were available in 86 (92%) of the girls. Seventy-five of the 86 girls (87%) have normal menstrual function. However, none of the females who underwent pelvic radiation without prior oophoropexy has maintained ovarian function

  12. Triple X syndrome and puberty: focus on the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Scalini, Perla; Lapi, Elisabetta; Losi, Stefania; Bencini, Erica; Masoni, Fabrizio; Dosa, Laura; Becciani, Sabrina; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis in a cohort of children and adolescents with nonmosaic triple X syndrome. Cross-sectional study with retrospective analysis. University pediatric hospital. Fifteen prepubertal subjects (median age 9.0 years, range 6.9-11.9 years) with nonmosaic triple X syndrome and age- and pubertal-matched control group (30 girls, median age 9.1 y, range 6.9-11.6 years). None. We evaluated FSH, LH, and E2 levels and performed an autoimmunity screening as well as a pelvic ultrasonography and an LH-releasing hormone stimulation test. All triple X patients (with and without pubertal signs) showed a pubertal LH peak level that was significantly different from controls. Triple X patients showed increased basal and peak FSH and LH values compared with control subjects. However, the mean E2 level was significantly lower than control subjects. However, triple X patients showed reduced DHEAS levels and reduced inhibin levels compared with control subjects. Finally, triple X patients had a significantly reduced ovarian volume compared with control subjects, in both prepubertal and pubertal patients. Triple X patients showed premature activation of the GnRH pulse generator, even without puberty signs. Both basal and peak LH and FSH levels were higher than in control subjects, and E2 and inhibin levels and ovarian volume were reduced, which led to a reduced gonadal function. Other studies and a longitudinal evaluation is necessary to better understand the endocrinologic features of these subjects. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Daily Rhythms of the Expression of Key Genes Involved in Steroidogenesis and Gonadal Function in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Di Rosa

    Full Text Available Fish present daily and seasonal rhythms in spawning and plasmatic levels of steroids that control reproduction. However, the existence of the rhythms of expression of the genes that underlie the endocrine mechanisms responsible for processes such as steroidogenesis and reproduction in fish have still been poorly explored to date. Here we investigated the daily pattern of the expression of key genes involved in sex steroid production that ultimately set the sex ratio in fish. Adult zebrafish were maintained under a 12:12 h light-dark cycle at a constant temperature of 27°C and were sampled every 4 h during a 24-hour cycle. The expression of key genes in the gonads and brains of female and male individuals were analyzed. In gonads, the expression of aromatase (cyp19a1a, ovarian aromatase and the antimüllerian hormone (amh, testis was rhythmic, with almost opposite acrophases: ZT 5:13 h (in the light phase and ZT 15:39 h (at night, respectively. The expression of foxl2 (forkhead box L2 was also rhythmic in the ovary (acrophase located at ZT 5:02 h and the expression of dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1 was rhythmic in testes (acrophase at ZT 18:36 h. In the brain, cyp19a1b (brain aromatase and cyp11b (11beta-hydroxylase presented daily differences, especially in males, where the expression peaked at night. These results provide the first evidence for marked time-of-the-day-dependent differences in the expression of the genes involved in sex ratio control, which should be considered when investigating processes such as reproduction, sex differentiation and steroidogenesis in fish.

  14. Effect of cyanotoxins on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaolu; Zhong, Anyuan; Xu, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    Microcystins LR (MC-LR) are hepatotoxic cyanotoxins that have been shown to induce reproductive toxicity, and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis (HPG) is responsible for the control of reproductive functions. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of MC-LR on HPG axis. This study aimed to investigate the MC-LR-induced toxicity in the reproductive system of mouse and focus on the HPG axis. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to various concentrations of MC-LR (0, 3.75, 7.50, 15.00 and 30.00 µg/kg body weight per day) for 1 to 14 days, and it was found that exposure to different concentrations of MC-LR significantly disturbed sperm production in the mice testes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. To elucidate the associated possible mechanisms, the serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were assessed. Meanwhile, PCR assays were employed to detect alterations in a series of genes involved in HPG axis, such as FSH, LH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and their complement receptors. Furthermore, the effect of MC-LR on the viability and testosterone production of Leydig cells were tested in vitro. MC-LR significantly impaired the spermatogenesis of mice possibly through the direct or indirect inhibition of GnRH synthesis at the hypothalamic level, which resulted in reduction of serum levels of LH that lead to suppression of testosterone production in the testis of mice. MC-LR may be a GnRH toxin that would disrupt the reproductive system of mice.

  15. Effect of cyanotoxins on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Xiong

    Full Text Available Microcystins LR (MC-LR are hepatotoxic cyanotoxins that have been shown to induce reproductive toxicity, and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis (HPG is responsible for the control of reproductive functions. However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of MC-LR on HPG axis. This study aimed to investigate the MC-LR-induced toxicity in the reproductive system of mouse and focus on the HPG axis.Adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to various concentrations of MC-LR (0, 3.75, 7.50, 15.00 and 30.00 µg/kg body weight per day for 1 to 14 days, and it was found that exposure to different concentrations of MC-LR significantly disturbed sperm production in the mice testes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. To elucidate the associated possible mechanisms, the serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were assessed. Meanwhile, PCR assays were employed to detect alterations in a series of genes involved in HPG axis, such as FSH, LH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and their complement receptors. Furthermore, the effect of MC-LR on the viability and testosterone production of Leydig cells were tested in vitro.MC-LR significantly impaired the spermatogenesis of mice possibly through the direct or indirect inhibition of GnRH synthesis at the hypothalamic level, which resulted in reduction of serum levels of LH that lead to suppression of testosterone production in the testis of mice.MC-LR may be a GnRH toxin that would disrupt the reproductive system of mice.

  16. Androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in Filipino young adult males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Calen P.; McDade, Thomas W; Gettler, Lee T.; Eisenberg, Dan T.A.; Rzhetskaya, Margarita; Hayes, M. Geoffey; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Testosterone (T), the primary androgenic hormone in males, is stimulated through pulsatile secretion of LH and regulated through negative feedback inhibition at the hypothalamus and pituitary. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis also controls sperm production through the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Negative feedback in the HPG axis is achieved in part through the binding of T to the androgen receptor (AR), which contains a highly variable trinucleotide repeat polymorphism (AR-CAGn). The number of repeats in the AR-CAGn inversely correlates with transcriptional activity of the AR. Thus, we predicted longer AR-CAGn to be associated with higher T, LH, and FSH levels. Methods We examined the relationship between AR-CAGn and total plasma T, LH, and FSH, as well as 'bioavailable' morning (AM-T) and evening (PM-T) testosterone in 722 young (21.5 ± 0.5 years) Filipino males. Results There was no relationship between AR-CAGn and total T, AM-T, or LH (P > 0.25 for all). We did observe a marginally non-significant (P = 0.066) correlation between AR-CAGn and PM-T in the predicted direction, and a negative correlation between AR-CAGn and FSH (P = 0.005). Conclusions Our results both support and differ from previous findings in this area, and study parameters that differ between our study and others, such as participant age, sample time, and the role of other hormones should be considered when interpreting our findings. While our data point to a modest effect of AR-CAGn on HPG regulation at best, the AR-CAGn may still affect somatic traits by regulating androgenic activity at peripheral tissues. PMID:27417274

  17. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  18. Patterns of fecal gonadal hormone metabolites in the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsasen, N; Rodden, M; Brown, J L; Wildt, D E

    2006-10-01

    Ex situ populations of maned wolves are not viable due to low reproductive efficiency. The objective of this study was to increase knowledge regarding the reproductive physiology of maned wolves to improve captive management. Fecal samples were collected 3-5 d/wk from 12 females of various reproductive age classes (young, prime breeding and aged) and reproductive histories (conceived and raised pups, conceived but lost pups, pseudo-pregnant and unpaired). Ovarian steroids were extracted from feces and assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Concentrations of estrogen metabolites gradually increased, beginning 2-5 d before breeding, and declined to baseline on the day of lordosis and copulation. Fecal progestin metabolite concentrations increased steadily during the periovulatory period, when sexual receptivity was observed, and remained elevated during pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy. During the luteal phase, young and prime breeding-age females excreted larger amounts of progestins than those of older age classes. Furthermore, progestin concentrations were higher during the luteal phase of pregnant versus pseudo-pregnant bitches. Profiles of fecal progestin metabolites for three singleton females were unchanged throughout the breeding season, suggesting ovulation is induced in this species. However, this finding could be confounded by age, as these females were either young or aged.

  19. Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone during normal and pathological gonadal development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Graem, N

    1999-01-01

    an inhibitory effect on AMH. However, in adolescent boys lacking germ cells because of cancer treatment and in a majority of infertile adult men with idiopathic germ cell aplasia, AMH expression was also down-regulated despite the complete lack of spermatogenesis. The decrease in AMH expression thus reflects...... expression of AMH was observed in a 20-yr-old 46,XY female with androgen insensitivity syndrome, who retained prepubertal testicular morphology. In normal testes, the switch-off of AMH expression was usually associated with the appearance of primary spermatocytes, suggesting that their presence had...

  20. Cocaine effects on pulsatile secretion of anterior pituitary, gonadal, and adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, J H; Mello, N K; Teoh, S K; Ellingboe, J; Cochin, J

    1989-12-01

    Pulse frequency analysis of LH, PRL, testosterone, and cortisol was carried out with the Cluster Analysis Program in eight male cocaine abusers and eight aged-matched normal men. Four of the eight cocaine abusers had hyperprolactinemia (range, 22.08-44.65 micrograms/L). Cocaine users as a group had significantly higher mean peak height (P less than 0.02) than control subjects. Cocaine users with hyperprolactinemia had higher mean peak height than control subjects or cocaine users with normal PRL levels (P less than 0.01). Cocaine users with hyperprolactinemia also had higher mean amplitude increments than control subjects (P less than 0.02). Cocaine users with hyperprolactinemia had a higher mean valley than controls (P less than 0.01) and cocaine users with normal PRL levels (P less than 0.03). However, there were no significant differences in PRL peak frequency, peak duration, or interpulse intervals between cocaine users with or without hyperprolactinemia and control subjects. There were minimal differences between cocaine users and control subjects in pulse frequency analysis of LH parameters; the small differences in mean LH levels and average interpulse interval were not in the abnormal range and were probably not biologically significant. No differences between cocaine users and controls were detected for pulse frequency analysis of testosterone or cortisol. Cocaine-induced hyperprolactinemia may contribute to disorders of sexual and reproductive function in men who abuse the drug, and recent reports that PRL modulates immune function suggest that cocaine-induced derangements of PRL secretion may also contribute to cocaine-related comorbidity in infectious disease. Since cocaine users with hyperprolactinemia had a higher mean valley as well as a higher peak pulse PRL height than control subjects, but did not have greater PRL pulse frequencies, we conclude that hyperprolactinemia in these men may be due to a cocaine-induced derangement of dopaminergic inhibition of basal PRL secretion.

  1. Impact of Sex and Gonadal Hormones on Cocaine and Food Reinforcement Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstetter, Kerry A.; Kippin, Tod E.

    2011-01-01

    Men and women express sexually dimorphic patterns of cocaine abuse, such that women progress faster from initially trying cocaine to becoming dependent upon the drug and display a greater incidence of relapse. Sex differences in response to cocaine are also seen in the laboratory in both humans and animal models. In this review, animal models of cocaine abuse that have reported sex differences in appetitive reinforcement are discussed. In both human and animal studies, sex differences in the ...

  2. The assessment of hormonal function of gonads in adolescent girls after antineoplastic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wszelaki-Lass, E.; Korzon, M.; Bohdan, Z.; Kuzminska, A.

    1993-01-01

    In 17 girls after the complex anti-neoplasm therapy we estimated the state of genital organs and the course of menorrhagial cycle together with plasma levels of beta-estradiol, progesterone and prolactine assessed by radioimmunoassay. We found the secondary lack of menorrhagia together with lowered progesterone and beta-estradiol levels in 3 girls, in whom the abdominal cavity was irradiated. In other 3 girls the transient lack of menorrhagia was stated in the course of chemotherapy. (author)

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus accelerates zebrafish backbone calcification and gonadal differentiation through effects on the GnRH and IGF systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo A Avella

    Full Text Available Endogenous microbiota play essential roles in the host's immune system, physiology, reproduction and nutrient metabolism. We hypothesized that a continuous administration of an exogenous probiotic might also influence the host's development. Thus, we treated zebrafish from birth to sexual maturation (2-months treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic species intended for human use. We monitored for the presence of L. rhamnosus during the entire treatment. Zebrafish at 6 days post fertilization (dpf exhibited elevated gene expression levels for Insulin-like growth factors -I and -II, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors -α and -β, VDR-α and RAR-γ when compared to untreated-10 days old zebrafish. Using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 GFP transgenic zebrafish (GnRH3-GFP, higher GnRH3 expression was found at 6, 8 and 10 dpf upon L. rhamnosus treatment. The same larvae exhibited earlier backbone calcification and gonad maturation. Noteworthy in the gonad development was the presence of first testes differentiation at 3 weeks post fertilization in the treated zebrafish population -which normally occurs at 8 weeks- and a dramatic sex ratio modulation (93% females, 7% males in control vs. 55% females, 45% males in the treated group. We infer that administration of L. rhamnosus stimulated the IGF system, leading to a faster backbone calcification. Moreover we hypothesize a role for administration of L. rhamnosus on GnRH3 modulation during early larval development, which in turn affects gonadal development and sex differentiation. These findings suggest a significant role of the microbiota composition on the host organism development profile and open new perspectives in the study of probiotics usage and application.

  4. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  5. Effects of gonadal irradiation in clinical radiation therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Casarett, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Recent improvements in radiation therapy of some malignancies in lower abdominal sites are leading to prolongation of life in persons of child-bearing age. These successes require an evaluation of the possible undesirable consequences of the unavoidable gonadal irradiation that occurs in these cases. A review of radiobiological data from experimental animal studies and retrospective clinical studies suggests that in most instances human gonadal exposures in both sexes are insufficient to cause permanent sterility, because the exposures are fractionated and the total gonadal dose is much less than 600 rads. As a consequence, return of fertility must be anticipated, and the worrisome questions of radiation-induced genetic damage in subsequent pregnancies must be addressed. This review did not substantiate this fear, because no case reports could be found of malformed infants among the progency of previously irradiated parents. Some experimental studies suggest that radiation-damaged spermatogonia are self-destructive, but any evidence for this phenomenon in the ovary is nonexistent. We suggest that the difference between fact and theory here may be the mathematical result of the interplay of low probability for occurrences and the few patients who until now have survived long enough for study

  6. New gonad protector for public survey X-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joos, M.

    1976-01-01

    A new gonad shield intended to be used for pubic survey X-ray images is introduced. This protector is mounted on the light sight and produces a shadow free of central radiation on the patient's body. The shield provides such a shape that in women the area limited by the terminal line and in which 95% of the ovaria are situated, is covered, and that in men the region below the pubic angle is protected. The 2 mm thick lead shield has dimensions of 4.0 to 2.5 cm and is inserted into a plexiglass ruler which lies freely movable on a plexiglass plate under the light sight. This shield was tested on the water phantom and on 125 patients. With this protector it was possible to lower the surface dosages calculated by film dosimeters to 20% in women, and also to reduce the gonade dosages to 9% of the dosages without protection. The position of the new gonad protector at a distance from the body provides several advantages: the shield does not alter its position when the patient moves, the protector does not slip off the abdomen in adipose female patients, the radiation protected region has always the same extent, independent from the abdominal curvature of the female patient, the hygienic problems are eliminated, and the shield can be used for both sexes.

  7. Primary gonadal damage following treatment of brain tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.R.; Shalet, S.M.; Campbell, R.H.; Deakin, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Gonadal function was studied in two groups of children previously treated for medulloblastoma with surgery followed by postoperative craniospinal irradiation. In group 1 but not in group 2, the children also received adjuvant chemotherapy for one to two years. All children in group 1 received a nitrosourea (BCNU or CCNU), plus vincristine in four and procarbazine in three patients. The nine children in group 1 showed clinical and biochemical evidence of gonadal damage with elevated serum FSH concentrations and, in the boys, small testes for their stage of pubertal development. In group 2 (n . 8), each child had completed pubertal development normally, the boys had adult sized testes and the girls regular menses. Gonadotropin values were normal in all eight children. We conclude that nitrosoureas were responsible for the gonadal damage in the children in group 1, with procarbazine also contributing to the damage in the three children who received this drug. In view of the limited proved value of adjuvant chemotherapy with nitrosoureas in the treatment of medulloblastoma, recognition of this serious complication of cytotoxic drug therapy may necessitate reassessing in which subgroups of children with medulloblastoma the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy outweigh the complications

  8. Adrenal-kidney-gonad complex measurements may not predict gonad-specific changes in gene expression patterns during temperature-dependent sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Mary; Crews, David

    2007-08-01

    Many turtles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) have temperature-dependent sex determination in which gonadal sex is determined by temperature during the middle third of incubation. The gonad develops as part of a heterogenous tissue complex that comprises the developing adrenal, kidney, and gonad (AKG complex). Owing to the difficulty in excising the gonad from the adjacent tissues, the AKG complex is often used as tissue source in assays examining gene expression in the developing gonad. However, the gonad is a relatively small component of the AKG, and gene expression in the adrenal-kidney (AK) compartment may interfere with the detection of gonad-specific changes in gene expression, particularly during early key phases of gonadal development and sex determination. In this study, we examine transcript levels as measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for five genes important in slider turtle sex determination and differentiation (AR, ERalpha, ERbeta, aromatase, and Sf1) in AKG, AK, and isolated gonad tissues. In all cases, gonad-specific gene expression patterns were attenuated in AKG versus gonad tissue. All five genes were expressed in the AK in addition to the gonad at all stages/temperatures. Inclusion of the AK compartment masked important changes in gonadal gene expression. In addition, AK and gonad expression patterns are not additive, and gonadal gene expression cannot be predicted from intact AKG measurements. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Gonadal function and fertility in survivors after Hodgkin lymphoma treatment within the German Hodgkin Study Group HD13 to HD15 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Karolin; Mueller, Horst; Goergen, Helen; Thielen, Indra; Eibl, Angelika Diana; Stumpf, Volker; Wessels, Carsten; Wiehlpütz, Martin; Rosenbrock, Johannes; Halbsguth, Teresa; Reiners, Katrin S; Schober, Thomas; Renno, Jorg H; von Wolff, Michael; van der Ven, Katrin; Kuehr, Marietta; Fuchs, Michael; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas; Borchmann, Peter

    2013-01-10

    To optimize fertility advice in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) before therapy and during survivorship, information on the impact of chemotherapy is needed. Therefore, we analyzed gonadal functions in survivors of HL. Women younger than age 40 and men younger than 50 years at diagnosis in ongoing remission at least 1 year after therapy within the German Hodgkin Study Group HD13 to HD15 trials for early- and advanced-stage HL were included. Hormone parameters, menstrual cycle, symptoms of hypogonadism, and offspring were evaluated. A total of 1,323 (55%) of 2,412 contacted female and male survivors were evaluable for the current analysis (mean follow-up, 46 and 48 months, respectively). Follicle-stimulating hormone, anti-Müllerian hormone, and inhibin B levels correlated significantly with therapy intensity (P years: 82% v 45%, respectively; P years suffered severe menopausal symptoms (three- to four-fold more frequently than expected). In contrast, male survivors had mean levels of testosterone within the normal range and reported no increased symptoms of hypogonadism. The present analysis in a large group of survivors of HL provides well-grounded information on gonadal toxicity of currently used treatment regimens and allows risk-adapted fertility preservation and comprehensive support during therapy and follow-up.

  10. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulates Expression of the DNA Damage Repair Gene, Fanconi anemia A, in Pituitary Gonadotroph Cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Larder, Rachel; Chang, Lynda; Clinton, Michael; Brown, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Gonadal function is critically dependant on regulated secretion of the gonadotropin hormones from anterior pituitary gonadotroph cells. Gonadotropin biosynthesis and release is triggered by the binding of hypothalamic GnRH to GnRH receptor expressed on the gonadotroph cell surface. The repertoire of regulatory molecules involved in this process are still being defined. We used the mouse LβT2 gonadotroph cell line, which expresses both gonadotropin hormones, as a model to investigate GnRH regu...

  11. PEMATANGAN GONAD INDUK ABALON Haliotis squamata MELALUI PENGELOLAAN PAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Rusdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abalon merupakan hewan yang bersifat herbivora di alam memakan berbagai jenis makroalga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai makroalga sebagai pakan terhadap perkembangan gonad abalon Haliotis squamata. Dalam penelitian ini diterapkan 4 perlakuan pemberian pakan yaitu: (A Gracilaria sp., (B Ulva sp., (C Sargassum sp., (D Kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (rasio 1:1:1. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan. Induk-induk abalon dipelihara dalam 12 buah kontainer plastik berlubang ukuran 0,58 m x 0,39 m x 0,31 m dan ditempatkan dalam sebuah bak semen ukuran 3 m x 2 m x 1 m. Setiap kontainer berisi abalon sebanyak 10 ekor dengan ukuran awal rata-rata panjang cangkang dan bobot masing-masing 58,9±1,37 mm dan 36,1±4,06 g. Pakan diberikan dengan dosis 15%-20% dari bobot biomassa setiap 2 hari sekali. Pergantian air menggunakan sistem sirkulasi dengan debit 5-6 L/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rata-rata pertumbuhan bobot mutlak dan laju pertumbuhan bobot harian berbeda nyata (P<0,05 antar perlakuan. Tingkat kematangan gonad (TKG induk abalon pada hari ke-70 diperoleh TKG-III tertinggi dihasilkan pada perlakuan kombinasi Gracilaria + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (P<0,05. Perlakuan pakan kombinasi Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. dan Sargassum sp. terlihat lebih sesuai dalam memacu pematangan gonad induk abalon H. squamata.  Abalone is a herbivorous animal which consumes various kinds of macroalgae in the wild. The aim of the study was to study the effects of various kinds of macroalgae on gonadal maturation of abalone, Haliotis squamata. The experiment applied four kinds of macroalgae i.e.: (A Gracilaria sp.; (B Ulva sp.; (C Sargassum sp.; and (D Combination of Gracilaria sp. + Ulva sp. + Sargassum sp. (ratio 1:1:1 as food for abalone broodstock. The experiment was arranged in complete random design with three replications. One cemented tank of 3 m x 2 m x 1 m in

  12. New trends in combined use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists with gonadotropins or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone in ovulation induction and assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K; Danforth, D R; Williams, R F; Hodgen, G D

    1992-10-01

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists as adjunctive therapy with gonadotropins for ovulation induction in in vitro fertilization and other assisted reproductive technologies has become common clinical practice. With the recent advent of potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists free from the marked histamine-release effects that stymied earlier compounds, an attractive alternative method may be available. We have established the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced inhibition of endogenous gonadotropins with exogenous gonadotropin therapy for ovulation induction in a nonhuman primate model. Here, the principal benefits to be gained from using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist rather than the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist are the immediate inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion without the "flare effect," which brings greater safety and convenience for patients and the medical team and saves time and money. We have also recently demonstrated the feasibility of combining gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy for the controlled restoration of gonadotropin secretion and gonadal steroidogenesis culminating in apparently normal (singleton) ovulatory cycles. This is feasible only with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists because, unlike gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, they achieve control of the pituitary-ovarian axis without down regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor system. This capacity to override gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced suppression of pituitary-ovarian function may allow new treatment modalities to be employed for women who suffer from chronic hyperandrogenemia with polycystic ovarian disease.

  13. Transcriptome analysis revealed the possible regulatory pathways initiating female geese broodiness within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiwen; Li, Liang; Han, Chunchun; He, Hua; Xu, Hengyong

    2018-01-01

    Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese. We constructed a unigene database based on HPGA tissues and identified 128,148 unigenes, 100% of which have been annotated. By using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) sequencing, we screened 19, 110, 289, and 211 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, stroma ovarii, and follicles, respectively, between laying and nesting geese. Expression changes of hypocretin (HCRT) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus of nesting geese may cause appetite reduction, which is possibly the first step and a prerequisite to initiate broodiness. In addition to prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), genes including oxytocin-neurophysin (OXT), chordin-like protein 1 (CHRDL1) and growth hormone (GH), expressed in the pituitary gland, are new candidate molecules that may be involved in broodiness in geese. Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) in the pituitary gland, the proto-oncogene c-Fos (FOS), heat shock protein 90-alpha (HSP90AA), and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) in the ovary that may consolidate and transduce signals regulating the HPGA during broodiness in geese. PMID:29408859

  14. Transcriptome analysis revealed the possible regulatory pathways initiating female geese broodiness within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehe Liu

    Full Text Available Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese. We constructed a unigene database based on HPGA tissues and identified 128,148 unigenes, 100% of which have been annotated. By using Digital Gene Expression (DGE sequencing, we screened 19, 110, 289, and 211 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, stroma ovarii, and follicles, respectively, between laying and nesting geese. Expression changes of hypocretin (HCRT and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC in the hypothalamus of nesting geese may cause appetite reduction, which is possibly the first step and a prerequisite to initiate broodiness. In addition to prolactin (PRL, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, genes including oxytocin-neurophysin (OXT, chordin-like protein 1 (CHRDL1 and growth hormone (GH, expressed in the pituitary gland, are new candidate molecules that may be involved in broodiness in geese. Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 in the pituitary gland, the proto-oncogene c-Fos (FOS, heat shock protein 90-alpha (HSP90AA, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 in the ovary that may consolidate and transduce signals regulating the HPGA during broodiness in geese.

  15. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Göngrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36, the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP. We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction.

  16. Effects of head down tilt upon cortisol and sex hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Felice; Pecorelli, Lia; Uva, Bianca Maria; Masini, Maria Angela; More, Massimo; Strollo, Giovanna; Riondino, Giuseppe

    2005-08-01

    Real and modelled μG conditions seem to induce reversible testicular failure. Suitable onground simulation methods are anyway needed in order to better aim further studies in humans in space. A 5- hour head down tilt (5h-HDT) was therefore performed in 22 male and female healthy volunteers looking at adrenal and gonadal hormones as compared to 12 age- and gender- matched controls. Cortisol and A decreased significantly in both genders, being cortisol decrease less pronounced in women, while leptin, LH, testosterone, estradiol and estrone failed to do so. The authors conclude that a 5h-HDT is only acceptable for adrenal adaptation studies whole longer duration HDT protocols are needed for gonadal investigations.

  17. [Pure gonad dysgenesia or Swyer sindrome. A case report having tumoral development: melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, D; Blanco, M; Falke, G; Rocca Rivarola, M; Séller, R; Puigdevall, J C; Bergada, C

    2006-10-01

    A 14 year old girl having 10-days lumbar pain, polaquiuria and moderate pain to palpation is reported. Blood and urine analysis were normal. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed cavity free and solid, rounded, heterogeneous, intrapelvic mass compressing bladder and uterus. Magnetic resonance image was performed showing right gonad compromise with extensive liver and sacro-lumbar spine invasion. Tumoral markers were ruled out. During surgery, primary tumor mass localizad in the right gonad was completely excised. Melanotic peritoneal and hepatic disemination were observed. The patient had left streak gonad and infantile uterus (2 x 3 cm). As gonad dysgenesia was suspected, high resolution cromosomic study was performed and resulted in cariotype 46 XY. Microscopy of the resected gonad showed primary gonad melanoma. Chemotherapy was instituted with no tumor response and the patient died two month later.

  18. A regulator of G Protein signaling, RGS3, inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musgrove Lois C

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteinizing hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland regulates gonadal function. Luteinizing hormone secretion is regulated both by alterations in gonadotrope responsiveness to hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone and by alterations in gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion. The mechanisms that determine gonadotrope responsiveness are unknown but may involve regulators of G protein signaling (RGSs. These proteins act by antagonizing or abbreviating interaction of Gα proteins with effectors such as phospholipase Cβ. Previously, we reported that gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger inositol trisphosphate production was inhibited when RGS3 and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor cDNAs were co-transfected into the COS cell line. Here, we present evidence for RGS3 inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from cultured rat pituitary cells. Results A truncated version of RGS3 (RGS3T = RGS3 314–519 inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated inositol trisphosphate production more potently than did RSG3 in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor-bearing COS cells. An RSG3/glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein bound more 35S-Gqα than any other member of the G protein family tested. Adenoviral-mediated RGS3 gene transfer in pituitary gonadotropes inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Adeno-RGS3 also inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulated 3H-inositol phosphate accumulation, consistent with a molecular site of action at the Gqα protein. Conclusions RGS3 inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger production (inositol trisphosphate as well as luteinizing hormone secretion from rat pituitary gonadotropes apparently by binding and suppressing the transduction properties of Gqα protein function. A version of RGS3 that is amino

  19. Desenvolvimento gonadal de fêmeas de matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, submetidas a restrição alimentar Gonadal development of matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus, females submitted to feed restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cleber da Silva Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de ciclos de restrição alimentar e realimentação (2/3 dias, aplicados durante seis meses antes da desova, no desenvolvimento gonadal de matrinxã. Na ocasião da desova, fêmeas alimentadas diariamente e submetidas ao regime alimentar experimental, selecionadas para a indução hormonal, foram sacrificadas para retirada das gônadas e do fígado, com os quais se calculou o IGS (índice gonadossomático e o IHS (índice hepatossomático, sendo os ovários processados para análise histológica. Não houve alteração no peso relativo dos ovários e fígado, e o desenvolvimento gonadal não foi afetado pelo esquema alimentar. Os valores de IGS foram de 5,09±4,98% e 9,79±4,17% e os de IHS foram de 0,84±0,07% e 0,91±0,11%, para as fêmeas controle e experimentais, respectivamente, sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Os ovários de peixes dos dois grupos apresentaram as mesmas características do estádio maduro, com predominância de ovócitos na fase final de maturação, repletos de vitelo. O estudo indica que a restrição alimentar não afetou a preparação das fêmeas para a reprodução e que ciclos adequados de restrição e realimentação poderão ser aplicados na criação do matrinxã, assegurando menores custos de produção.The present study evaluated the effect of cycles of feed restriction and refeeding (2/3 days during 6 months before the spawning on the gonadal development of matrinxã. At the spawning time, females selected to hormonal induction were killed for gonad and liver removal and GSI (gonadosomatic index and HSI (hepatosomatic index were calculated. Ovaries were processed for histological analysis. The feeding regime did not alter GSI and HSI and the gonadal development. The values of GSI were 5.09±4.98% and 9.79±4.17%, and of HSI were 0.84±0.07% and 0.91±0.11%, in control and experimental females, respectively, without significant difference between groups

  20. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerberg, Dena M; Sano, Kaori; Draper, Bruce W

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate ovary and testis develop from a sexually indifferent gonad. During early development of the organism, primordial germ cells (the gamete lineage) and somatic gonad cells coalesce and begin to undergo growth and morphogenesis to form this bipotential gonad. Although this aspect of development is requisite for a fertile adult, little is known about the genetic regulation of early gonadogenesis in any vertebrate. Here, we provide evidence that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is required for the early growth phase of a vertebrate bipotential gonad. Based on mutational analysis in zebrafish, we show that the Fgf ligand 24 (Fgf24) is required for proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the early somatic gonad, and as a result, most fgf24 mutants are sterile as adults. Additionally, we describe the ultrastructural elements of the early zebrafish gonad and show that distinct somatic cell populations can be identified soon after the gonad forms. Specifically, we show that fgf24 is expressed in an epithelial population of early somatic gonad cells that surrounds an inner population of mesenchymal somatic gonad cells that are in direct contact with the germ cells, and that fgf24 is required for stratification of the somatic tissue. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, we find that differentiation of the inner mesenchymal somatic gonad cells into functional cell types in the larval and early juvenile-stage gonad is dependent on Fgf24 signaling. Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development.

  1. Evaluation of the Prevalence and Utility of Gonad Shielding in Pediatrics Undergoing Pelvic X-Ray

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Karami; Mansour Zabihzadeh; Nasim Shams; Saman Sarikhani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gonad shielding has been recommended during pelvic x-rays since the 1950s. The popular method of gonad shielding is placement a lead shield in the midline of the pelvis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and utility of gonad shielding in pediatrics undergoing pelvic x-rays.Materials and MethodsFollowing study approval, we retrospectively retrieved data from the digital image library of ten radiology depertments of Khuzestan provience-Iran to identify pediatric p...

  2. The use and relevance of gonad protection shields in children during hips radiography

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C. A.; Silva, P. N.; Ventura, Sandra Rua

    2010-01-01

    Considering that ionizing radiation effects are cumulative and the gonads are particularly sensitive to these effects, and also the clinical importance of pelvic radiographs in children, the excess of radiation exposure to the gonads must be avoided. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the relevance of the correct use of gonad protection shields and to evaluate their use on the hip radiographs performed in a reference clinical institution, through the retrospective analysis of p...

  3. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  4. Progesterone as a bone-trophic hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, J C

    1990-05-01

    Experimental, epidemiological, and clinical data indicate that progesterone is active in bone metabolism. Progesterone appears to act directly on bone by engaging an osteoblast receptor or indirectly through competition for a glucocorticoid osteoblast receptor. Progesterone seems to promote bone formation and/or increase bone turnover. It is possible, through estrogen-stimulated increased progesterone binding to the osteoblast receptor, that progesterone plays a role in the coupling of bone resorption with bone formation. A model of the interdependent actions of progesterone and estrogen on appropriately-"ready" cells in each bone multicellular unit can be tied into the integrated secretions of these hormones within the ovulatory cycle. Figure 5 is an illustration of this concept. It shows the phases of the bone remodeling cycle in parallel with temporal changes in gonadal steroids across a stylized ovulatory cycle. Increasing estrogen production before ovulation may reverse the resorption occurring in a "sensitive" bone multicellular unit while gonadal steroid levels are low at the time of menstrual flow. The bone remodeling unit would then be ready to begin a phase of formation as progesterone levels peaked in the midluteal phase. From this perspective, the normal ovulatory cycle looks like a natural bone-activating, coherence cycle. Critical analysis of the reviewed data indicate that progesterone meets the necessary criteria to play a causal role in mineral metabolism. This review provides the preliminary basis for further molecular, genetic, experimental, and clinical investigation of the role(s) of progesterone in bone remodeling. Much further data are needed about the interrelationships between gonadal steroids and the "life cycle" of bone. Feldman et al., however, may have been prophetic when he commented; "If this anti-glucocorticoid effect of progesterone also holds true in bone, then postmenopausal osteoporosis may be, in part, a progesterone deficiency

  5. Evaluation of the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, V.; Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Sarikhani, S. [Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Gonad shielding has been advocated to reduce radiation exposure in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. A retrospective study was performed on 1230 anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs of 939 children under 16 years old. All the radiographs were reviewed to determine the frequency of gonad shielding and to evaluate whether gonad shields were correctly positioned when they are used. The gonad shield was present in 82 radiographs (30 girls and 52 boys) and was completely disregarded in 1148 radiographs. From 82 images which shield was present, the gonad shields adequately positioned in 28 radiographs (3 girls and 25 boys) and in the remaining 54 radiographs, the shield did not adequately protected the gonads due to incorrect placement of the shield. The inaccuracy placement and absence of gonad shields were more common in girls than boys (P-value < 0.05). More care should be taken to correctly positioning of the gonad shields in boys and its usage should be encouraged. However, the practice of ovarian shielding is not an effective way to reduce radiation exposure in girls undergoing pelvis radiography. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, V.; Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Sarikhani, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gonad shielding has been advocated to reduce radiation exposure in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and accuracy of gonad shield placement in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. A retrospective study was performed on 1230 anteroposterior (AP) pelvic radiographs of 939 children under 16 years old. All the radiographs were reviewed to determine the frequency of gonad shielding and to evaluate whether gonad shields were correctly positioned when they are used. The gonad shield was present in 82 radiographs (30 girls and 52 boys) and was completely disregarded in 1148 radiographs. From 82 images which shield was present, the gonad shields adequately positioned in 28 radiographs (3 girls and 25 boys) and in the remaining 54 radiographs, the shield did not adequately protected the gonads due to incorrect placement of the shield. The inaccuracy placement and absence of gonad shields were more common in girls than boys (P-value < 0.05). More care should be taken to correctly positioning of the gonad shields in boys and its usage should be encouraged. However, the practice of ovarian shielding is not an effective way to reduce radiation exposure in girls undergoing pelvis radiography. (author)

  7. Skin and gonadal dose reduction during hip radiography of the bull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.K.W.; Blockey, deB.; Reynolds, K.M.; Leith, I.S.; Burns, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radiology is being used to an increasing extent in the clinical diagnosis of hip lameness in bulls. Consequent gonadal doses may have important implications in later breeding programmes. Skin and gonadal doses were recorded during hip radiography of 18 bulls. An additional 0.13 mm copper filtration reduced skin dose by more than one third, but had no effect on gonadal dose. The average radiation dose to the gonads was approximately halved by completely surrounding the scrotum with lead sheeting 0.95 mm in thickness. (author)

  8. At the crossroads of fate - somatic cell lineage specification in the fetal gonad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotgers, Emmi; Jørgensen, Anne; Yao, Humphrey Hung-Chang

    2018-01-01

    The reproductive endocrine systems are vastly different between male and female. This sexual dimorphism of endocrine milieu originates from sex-specific differentiation of the somatic cells in the gonads during fetal life. The majority of gonadal somatic cells arise from the adrenogonadal...... of the reproductive tracts. Impairment of lineage specification and function of gonadal somatic cells can lead to disorders of sexual development (DSDs) in humans. Human DSDs and processes for gonadal development have been successfully modelled using genetically modified mouse models. In this review, we focus...

  9. Ex vivo culture of human fetal gonads: manipulation of meiosis signalling by retinoic acid treatment disrupts testis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, A; Nielsen, J E; Perlman, S; Lundvall, L; Mitchell, R T; Juul, A; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2015-10-01

    What are the effects of experimentally manipulating meiosis signalling by addition of retinoic acid (RA) in cultured human fetal gonads? RA-treatment accelerated meiotic entry in cultured fetal ovary samples, while addition of RA resulted in a dysgenetic gonadal phenotype in fetal testis cultures. One of the first manifestations of sex differentiation is the initiation of meiosis in fetal ovaries. In contrast, meiotic entry is actively prevented in the fetal testis at this developmental time-point. It has previously been shown that RA-treatment mediates initiation of meiosis in human fetal ovary ex vivo. This was a controlled ex vivo study of human fetal gonads treated with RA in 'hanging-drop' tissue cultures. The applied experimental set-up preserves germ cell-somatic niche interactions and the investigated outcomes included tissue integrity and morphology, cell proliferation and survival and the expression of markers of meiosis and sex differentiation. Tissue from 24 first trimester human fetuses was included in this study, all from elective terminations at gestational week (GW) 7-12. Gonads were cultured for 2 weeks with and without addition of 1 µM RA. Samples were subsequently formalin-fixed and investigated by immunohistochemistry and cell counting. Proteins investigated and quantified included; octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), transcription factor AP-2 gamma (AP2γ) (embryonic germ cell markers), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) (immature Sertoli cell markers), COUP transcription factor 2 (COUP-TFII) (marker of interstitial cells), forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) (granulosa cell marker), H2A histone family, member X (γH2AX) (meiosis marker), doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1) (meiosis regulator), cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), cleaved Caspase 3 (apoptosis markers) and Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67) (proliferation marker). Also, proliferation was determined using a 5'-bromo-2

  10. New type of canned cod gonads and liver pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of rational way of processing the offal of the Gadidae family (liver and gonads for food purposes has been proved. The possibility of using the frozen gonads (milt and caviar and the liver of the cod in the human nutrition (especially for the people of elderly age has been researched. The frozen gonads with addition of fish liver are proven to be used for producing the canned foods with high quality level. The physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the product have been determined by the standardized methods. The quality level of canned foods has been obtained using the developed criteria of the objective evaluation of the quality. The specimens of the canned pastes produced from the frozen cod milt, caviar and liver using different compositions have been researched. Near-to-optimal composition of the new product has been defined. The quality level of canned food is 88.6 %. The commercial sterility of the canned food specimens prepared using the developed technology has been established. The chemical composition and the sensory characteristics of canned food have been researched. It has been established that protein content in the canned food is 12.9 %, fat content – 13.5 %, water content – 71.2 %, sodium chloride content – 1.3 %, carbohydrates content – 0.5 %. The product is the uniform, finely ground, evenly mixed mass with the presence of the separate caviar grains. The color of the paste is light-beige. The canned food has the tender consistency, pleasant taste and aroma. The energy value of the product is 678 kJ (162 kcal. Using the frozen cod caviar, milt and liver for producing the developed assortment of canned foods will make it possible to solve the problem of the complex processing of fish, and also to manufacture the canned food of high quality on the shore enterprises from the frozen fish offal (caviar, milt and liver all the year round.

  11. Amniotic fluid phthalate levels and male fetal gonad function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    metabolite) was not consistently associated with cryptorchidism or hypospadias. However, we observed an 18% higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5%-33%) testosterone level, and a 41% lower (-56% to -21%) insulin-like factor 3 level in the highest 5cx-MEPP tertile compared with the lowest. Mono(4-methyl-7...... on the DEHP metabolite indicate possible interference with human male fetal gonadal function. Considering the DiNP metabolite, we cannot exclude (nor statistically confirm) an association with hypospadias and, less strongly, with cryptorchidism....

  12. Differential responses of brain, gonad and muscle steroid levels to changes in social status and sex in a sequential and bidirectional hermaphroditic fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varenka Lorenzi

    Full Text Available Sex steroids can both modulate and be modulated by behavior, and their actions are mediated by complex interactions among multiple hormone sources and targets. While gonadal steroids delivered via circulation can affect behavior, changes in local brain steroid synthesis also can modulate behavior. The relative steroid load across different tissues and the association of these levels with rates of behavior have not been well studied. The bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli is a sex changing fish in which social status determines sexual phenotype. We examined changes in steroid levels in brain, gonad and body muscle at either 24 hours or 6 days after social induction of protogynous sex change, and from individuals in stable social groups not undergoing sex change. For each tissue, we measured levels of estradiol (E(2, testosterone (T and 11-ketotestosterone (KT. Females had more T than males in the gonads, and more E(2 in all tissues but there was no sex difference in KT. For both sexes, E(2 was higher in the gonad than in other tissues while androgens were higher in the brain. During sex change, brain T levels dropped while brain KT increased, and brain E(2 levels did not change. We found a positive relationship between androgens and aggression in the most dominant females but only when the male was removed from the social group. The results demonstrate that steroid levels are responsive to changes in the social environment, and that their concentrations vary in different tissues. Also, we suggest that rapid changes in brain androgen levels might be important in inducing behavioral and/or morphological changes associated with protogynous sex change.

  13. Transcriptomic analyses reveal novel genes with sexually dimorphic expression in the zebrafish gonad and brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajini Sreenivasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our knowledge on zebrafish reproduction is very limited. We generated a gonad-derived cDNA microarray from zebrafish and used it to analyze large-scale gene expression profiles in adult gonads and other organs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified 116638 gonad-derived zebrafish expressed sequence tags (ESTs, 21% of which were isolated in our lab. Following in silico normalization, we constructed a gonad-derived microarray comprising 6370 unique, full-length cDNAs from differentiating and adult gonads. Labeled targets from adult gonad, brain, kidney and 'rest-of-body' from both sexes were hybridized onto the microarray. Our analyses revealed 1366, 881 and 656 differentially expressed transcripts (34.7% novel that showed highest expression in ovary, testis and both gonads respectively. Hierarchical clustering showed correlation of the two gonadal transcriptomes and their similarities to those of the brains. In addition, we have identified 276 genes showing sexually dimorphic expression both between the brains and between the gonads. By in situ hybridization, we showed that the gonadal transcripts with the strongest array signal intensities were germline-expressed. We found that five members of the GTP-binding septin gene family, from which only one member (septin 4 has previously been implicated in reproduction in mice, were all strongly expressed in the gonads. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have generated a gonad-derived zebrafish cDNA microarray and demonstrated its usefulness in identifying genes with sexually dimorphic co-expression in both the gonads and the brains. We have also provided the first evidence of large-scale differential gene expression between female and male brains of a teleost. Our microarray would be useful for studying gonad development, differentiation and function not only in zebrafish but also in related teleosts via cross-species hybridizations. Since several genes have been shown to play similar

  14. Characterization of gonadal transcriptomes from the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yulong; Huang, Meng; Wang, Weiji; Guan, Jiantao; Kong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying sexual reproduction and sex ratio determination remains unclear in turbot, a flatfish of great commercial value. And there is limited information in the turbot database regarding genes related to the reproductive system. Here, we conducted high-throughput transcriptome profiling of turbot gonad tissues to better understand their reproductive functions and to supply essential gene sequence information for marker-assisted selection programs in the turbot industry. In this study, two gonad libraries representing sex differences in Scophthalmus maximus yielded 453 818 high-quality reads that were assembled into 24 611 contigs and 33 713 singletons by using 454 pyrosequencing, 13 936 contigs and singletons (CS) of which were annotated using BLASTx. GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses revealed that various biological functions and processes were associated with many of the annotated CS. Expression analyses showed that 510 genes were differentially expressed in males versus females; 80% of these genes were annotated. In addition, 6484 and 6036 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in male and female libraries, respectively. This transcriptome resource will serve as the foundation for cDNA or SNP microarray construction, gene expression characterization, and sex-specific linkage mapping in turbot.

  15. Exposure dose to gonad and its reduction in CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shoichi; Menju, Mina; Nakazawa, Masato

    2006-01-01

    Exposure doses to gonad (ovary and uterus) due to scattering at the ordinary CT examinations of head, breast, and abdomen (liver) were measured and their reductions by the protective apron usually used in clinic were evaluated by comparison of the given and International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) data for risk assessment. Multi-slice helical/scanno-helical CT for the regions under ordinary diagnostic conditions was done by the apparatus Toshiba Aquilion 16 for the human body phantom (Alderson) with or without the apron (Hagoromo) equivalent to 0.25 mm thick lead. Doses inside and outside the beam flux were measured by the thermoluminescent dosimeter, of which data were corrected by Radcal Model 300 ionization chamber. The doses in the gonad due to scattering were found to be in the range from 0.01 (head CT) to 1 (liver CT) mGy and to be reduced in 20-30% by the apron. Found dose were far smaller than the ICRP threshold values for inducing teratosis and infertality. (T.I.)

  16. On the development of extragonadal and gonadal human germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marijne Heeren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human germ cells originate in an extragonadal location and have to migrate to colonize the gonadal primordia at around seven weeks of gestation (W7, or five weeks post conception. Many germ cells are lost along the way and should enter apoptosis, but some escape and can give rise to extragonadal germ cell tumors. Due to the common somatic origin of gonads and adrenal cortex, we investigated whether ectopic germ cells were present in the human adrenals. Germ cells expressing DDX4 and/or POU5F1 were present in male and female human adrenals in the first and second trimester. However, in contrast to what has been described in mice, where ‘adrenal’ and ‘ovarian’ germ cells seem to enter meiosis in synchrony, we were unable to observe meiotic entry in human ‘adrenal’ germ cells until W22. By contrast, ‘ovarian’ germ cells at W22 showed a pronounced asynchronous meiotic entry. Interestingly, we observed that immature POU5F1+ germ cells in both first and second trimester ovaries still expressed the neural crest marker TUBB3, reminiscent of their migratory phase. Our findings highlight species-specific differences in early gametogenesis between mice and humans. We report the presence of a population of ectopic germ cells in the human adrenals during development.

  17. Effects of treatment with radioiodine (131 I) on the gonadal function of the hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Takavar, A.; Nnsari-Gilani, K.; Akhzari, F.; Fard-Esfahani, A.; Beiki, D.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: hyperthyroidism is a relatively common disorder caused by different etiologies, Graves' disease and toxic-nodular goiter(Plummer's disease) are among the most common causes. Treatment with radioiodine is considered to be the treatment of choices in many of the patients. Higher biological half-life of 13I in hyperthyroid patients as compared with patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who have undergone thyroidectomy, may lead to a higher frequency of complications with radioiodine at similar dosage. Therefore gonadal dysfunction in hyperthyroid patients treated with radioactive iodine is not likely. Materials and methods: hyperthyroid patients with the clinical diagnosis of Graves' disease , toxic multi nodular goiter and toxic adenoma were entered the study. Their age distribution was 16-40 years in women and 17-70 years in men (reproductive years). Patients were euthyroid at the time of radioiodine treatment. FSH, LH, testosterone and semen analysis in men; and FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone in women were measured before and 3 months after radioiodine therapy. All patients with previous history of radioiodine treatment, those with known sexual hormone abnormalities, women with a history of tube ligation and men with a history of vasectomy, as well as those women who were receiving OCP contraception were excluded from the study. results: From 104 enrolled patients, 40(38.5%) were men and 64(61.5%) were women. The case of hyperthyroidism was Graves' disease in 66 cases(63.5%), toxic multi nodular goiter in 28 cases (26.9%), and toxic adenoma in 10 others (9.6%). Hormonal status was normal in all patients before therapy while this became abnormal in 20(19.2%) of patients after treatment. Semen analysis became abnormal in 8/20(40%) of the patients after treatment. Conclusion: among different variables which were analyzed during study, meaningful correlation was found in the following situations: FSH values in men and women were found to be

  18. Hormonal, anthropometric and lipid factors associated with idiopathic pubertal gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Alwan, Ibrahim; Al Azkawi, Hanan; Badri, Motasim; Tamim, Hani; Al Dubayee, Mohammed; Tamimi, Waleed

    2013-01-01

    To determine factors associated with pubertal gynecomastia. A cross-sectional study among healthy male school children and adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects were selected from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Tanner stage, height, weight, blood hormonal levels (leutilizing hormone [LH], follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], total testosterone, and estradiol), and anthropometric and lipid parameters (body mass index [BMI], triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]), were collected and compared in children with and without gynecomastia. The study included 542 children and adolescents. Median (interquartile range) age in the whole group was 11(8-13) years. The prevalence of gynecomastia was 185/542 (34%), with a peak at age 14. The 2 groups compared had nonsignificant difference in cholesterol (P=.331), LH (P=.215) and FSH (P=.571) levels. Those with gynecomastia were significantly older, had lower gonad stage, had higher anthropometric (height, weight, and BMI), and lipid (triglycerides, HDL, and LDL) values. In multivariate regression analysis, factors significantly associated with gynecomastia were BMI (odds ratio [OR]=1.05; 95%CI 1.00-1.10; P=.013), HDL (OR=0.42; 95%CI 0.19-0.92; P=.03), and gonad (Stage II OR=2.23; 95%CI 1.27-3.92; P=.005, Stage III OR=6.40; 95%CI 2.70-15.0; P gynecomastia tends to increase in mid-puberty. In our setting, BMI, HDL, and gonad stage were the major factors associated with the development of pubertal gynecomastia.

  19. Plasma concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, gonadal aromatase activity and ultrastructure of the testis in Xenopus laevis exposed to estradiol or atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, Markus; Kim, Wan Jong; Park, June-Woo; Murphy, Margaret B.; Villeneuve, Daniel; Coady, Katherine K.; Jones, Paul D.; Solomon, Keith R.; Kraak, Glen van der; Carr, James A.; Smith, Ernest E.; Preez, Louis du; Kendall, Ronald J.; Giesy, John P.

    2005-01-01

    The ultrastructure of testicular cells of adult male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) exposed to either estradiol (0.1 μg/L) or 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-s-triazine (atrazine; 10 or 100 μg/L) was examined by electron microscopy and compared to plasma concentrations of the steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), testicular aromatase activity and gonad growth expressed as the gonado-somatic index (GSI). Exposure to E2 caused significant changes both at the sub-cellular and biochemical levels. Exposure to E2 resulted in significantly fewer sperm cells, inhibition of meiotic division of germ cells, more lipid droplets that are storage compartments for the sex steroid hormone precursor cholesterol, and lesser plasma T concentrations. Although not statistically significant, frogs exposed to E2 had slightly smaller GSI values. These results may be indicative of an inhibition of gonad growth and disrupted germ cell development by E2. Concentrations of E2 in plasma were greater in frogs exposed to E2 in water. Exposure to neither concentration of atrazine caused effects on germ cell development, testicular aromatase activity or plasma hormone concentrations. These results suggest that atrazine does not affect testicular function. In contrast, exposure of male X. laevis to E2 led to sub-cellular events that are indicative of disruption of testicular development, and demasculinization processes (decrease of androgen hormone titers). These results indicate that atrazine does not cause responses that are similar to those caused by exposure to E2

  20. Disgenesia gonadal mixta como forma de presentación de un desorden de la diferenciación sexual de causa cromosómica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Valdés Alonso

    Full Text Available La diferenciación sexual es un proceso genéticamente determinado y controlado, que puede ser alterado por diferentes tipos de mutaciones genéticas, o por el efecto de hormonas u otros disruptores ambientales que actúan sobre el embrión, resultando en la formación de genitales externos que no se corresponden con el sexo genético y con los genitales internos. La disgenesia gonadal mixta clasifica en los desórdenes de la diferenciación sexual de causa cromosómica. Se describe un paciente de un año de edad que es atendido en el Hospital Pediátrico “Juan Manuel Márquez”, por presentar genitales externos atípicos. El diagnóstico del paciente fue de disgenesia gonadal mixta, y se realizó con los complementarios siguientes: ecografía ginecológica, estudios hormonales y cariotipo. El tratamiento instaurado inicialmente, fue quirúrgico en dos tiempos operatorios, y el seguimiento hormonal hasta la pubertad (14 años, cuando se inició terapia de reemplazo hormonal según lo establecido por la edad de la paciente.

  1. Sex hormonal modulation of interhemispheric transfer time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, M; Hamm, J P; Waldie, K E; Kirk, I J

    2013-08-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether functional cerebral asymmetries (FCA) of many cognitive processes are more pronounced in men than in women. Some evidence suggests that the apparent reduction in women's FCA is a result of the fluctuating levels of gonadal steroid hormones over the course of the menstrual cycle, making their FCA less static than for men. The degree of lateralization has been suggested to depend on interhemispheric communication that may be modulated by gonadal steroid hormones. Here, we employed visual-evoked EEG potentials to obtain a direct measure of interhemispheric communication during different phases of the menstrual cycle. The interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) was estimated from the interhemispheric latency difference of the N170 component of the visual-evoked potential from either left or right visual field presentation. Nineteen right-handed women with regular menstrual cycles were tested twice, once during the menstrual phase, when progesterone and estradiol levels are low, and once during the luteal phase when progesterone and estradiol levels are high. Plasma steroid levels were determined by blood-based immunoassay at each session. It was found that IHTT, in particular from right-to-left, was generally longer during the luteal phase relative to the menstrual phase. This effect occurred as a consequence of a slowed absolute N170 latency of the indirect pathway (i.e. left hemispheric response after LVF stimulation) and, in particular, a shortened latency of the direct pathway (i.e. right hemispheric response after LVF stimulation) during the luteal phase. These results show that cycle-related effects are not restricted to modulation of processes between hemispheres but also apply to cortical interactions, especially within the right hemisphere. The findings support the view that plastic changes in the female brain occur during relatively short-term periods across the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Recurrent autosomal dominant OI may occur in the offspring of unaffected parents with parental gonadal mosaicism. Genetic counseling of recurrent autosomal dominant OI should include a thorough mutational analysis of the family members, and mutational analysis of the sperm may detect paternal gonadal mosaicism for the mutation.

  3. [About the use of gonad shielding during the taking of hip joint x-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempicki, A

    1993-01-01

    X-rays of hip joints taken without gonadal shield can be found both in the literature and scientific presentations. The shield reduces irradiation of the ovaries 30 times. The shape and the size of the shield has been offered. Organisational measures to use gonadal shields have been suggested.

  4. Shielding of the patient's gonads during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, L.M.; Johanson, P.H.; Zinar, D.M.; Lenihan, M.R.; Herman, M.W. (Harbor/Univ. of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, Torrance (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Levels of exposure to radiation were recorded at sixty sites in fifteen patients during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing. Radiation film dosimeters were placed at four gonadal sites on each subject. A standard male-gonad cup or a pelvic drape of 0.5-millimeter-thick lead-equivalent was put in place to shield the gonads. A second set of four dosimeters was placed external to the shield to approximate unprotected exposure. The total duration of the fluoroscopy averaged five minutes (range, thirty seconds to fourteen minutes). The total exposure to radiation external to the shield was 35 +/- 34 millirems at the male gonadal sites and 17 +/- 11 millirems at the female gonadal sites. With use of the gonadal shield, exposure to radiation was not measurable in thirteen of the fifteen patients. The differences between the exposures of the shielded and unshielded sites to radiation were statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The highest level of gonadal exposure was found with the treatment of proximal femoral fractures and with the use of statically locked nails. Regardless of the conditions, and for all types of fractures and locations, our results demonstrated that gonadal shielding is justified.

  5. Body size and symbiotic status influence gonad development in Aiptasia pallida anemones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Judith F; Murphy, Grant K; Roark, Alison M

    2017-01-01

    Pale anemones ( Aiptasia pallida ) coexist with dinoflagellates (primarily Symbiodinium minutum ) in a mutualistic relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of these symbionts in gonad development of anemone hosts. Symbiotic and aposymbiotic anemones were subjected to light cycles that induced gametogenesis. These anemones were then sampled weekly for nine weeks, and gonad development was analyzed histologically. Anemone size was measured as mean body column diameter, and oocytes or sperm follicles were counted for each anemone. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the influence of body size and symbiotic status on whether gonads were present and on the number of oocytes or sperm follicles produced. Body size predicted whether gonads were present, with larger anemones being more likely than smaller anemones to develop gonads. Both body size and symbiotic status predicted gonad size, such that larger and symbiotic anemones produced more oocytes and sperm follicles than smaller and aposymbiotic anemones. Overall, only 22 % of aposymbiotic females produced oocytes, whereas 63 % of symbiotic females produced oocytes. Similarly, 6 % of aposymbiotic males produced sperm follicles, whereas 60 % of symbiotic males produced sperm follicles. Thus, while gonads were present in 62 % of symbiotic anemones, they were present in only 11 % of aposymbiotic anemones. These results indicate that dinoflagellate symbionts influence gonad development and thus sexual maturation in both female and male Aiptasia pallida anemones. This finding substantiates and expands our current understanding of the importance of symbionts in the development and physiology of cnidarian hosts.

  6. Studies on the relationship between leptin secretion and several pregnancy-related hormones during pregnancy in the golden hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Yang Liguo; Gen Watanabe; Kazuyoshi Taya

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationships between leptin secretion and several pregnancy related hormones, the body weight as well as food intaken in the golden hamster during pregnancy and early lactation. Methods: 100 golden hamsters were mated and divided into 16 groups. Blood specimens were taken at 11:00 daily and were determined for plasma leptin, growth hormone (GH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone estradiol and inhibin with RIA. Relationships between leptin level and food intake as well as material body weight were also noted. Results: A plasma leptin peak level occurred on day 12 of the pregnancy. Leptin levels were significantly correlated with levels of gonadal hormones but not with pituitary hormones. Food intake and material total body weight (including the fetus) bore no significant correlationship with plasma leptin throughout the whole pregnancy stage. However, if the fetus weight was subtracted, the net maternal body weight would be significantly correlated with the leptin concentration. Conclusion: These results suggest that leptin-resistance may exits in the golden hamster during pregnancy. Some pregnancy-related hormones, especially gonadal hormones, have regulatory effect on the secretion of leptin. Positive correlation between leptin and net maternal body weight suggests that leptin is still a signal of the body weight to the central nerves system during pregnancy

  7. The hormone level of both the testosterone and the gonadotropin. Chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Concentration of testosterone and gonadotropin hormones in blood serum was studied at 120 examined sick persons. It is shown that the statistically reliable (P<0.5) decrease of testosterone level is exhibiting under influence of radiation doses over 0.25 Gy. During radiation doses action increasing the legible tendency to of testosterone level reduction is noted. Results of pituitary gland-gonad system study in dependence of sexual dysfunctions are presented. Data evident that sexual dysfunction does not depend from suppression of hormone activity of gonads. It is revealed, that common testosterone level in sicks suffered from low radiation action was reduced. Differences in testosterone content at sicks with sexual dysfunction and without its have not been revealed

  8. Expression of prostaglandin synthases (pgds and pges) during zebrafish gonadal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating whether the expression pattern of the membrane bound form of prostaglandin E2 synthase (pges) and especially the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (pgds) indicates involvement in gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish as has previously been found....... In this study, a sexually dimorphic expression of pgds was found in gonads of adult zebrafish with expression in testis but not in ovaries. To determine whether the sex-specific expression pattern of pgds was present in gonads of juvenile zebrafish and therefore could be an early marker of sex in zebrafish, we...... microdissected gonads from four randomly selected individual zebrafish for every second day in the period 2-20 days post hatch (dph) and 0-1 dph. The temporal expression of pgds and pges was investigated in the microdissected gonads, however, no differential expression that could indicate sex-specific difference...

  9. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-05-18

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transformation. Cbx3 is up-regulated during gonad reversal and is likely to have a role in spermatogenesis. Rab37 is down-regulated during the reversal and is mainly associated with oogenesis. Both Cbx3 and Rab37 are linked up in a protein network. These datasets in gonadal proteomes provide a new resource for further studies in gonadal development.

  10. Radiation dose reduction at a price: the effectiveness of a male gonadal shield during helical CT scans

    OpenAIRE

    Erdi Yusuf E; Casciotta Kevin A; Dauer Lawrence T; Rothenberg Lawrence N

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background It is estimated that 60 million computed tomography (CT) scans were performed during 2006, with approximately 11% of those performed on children age 0–15 years. Various types of gonadal shielding have been evaluated for reducing exposure to the gonads. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction to the gonads and its effect on image quality when a wrap-around male pediatric gonad shield was used during CT scanning. This information is obtained to...

  11. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  12. Expression profiles for six zebrafish genes during gonadal sex differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Andersen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish is largely unknown and neither sex chromosomes nor a sex-determining gene have been identified. This indicates that sex determination in zebrafish is mediated by genetic signals from autosomal genes. The aim of this study was to determine...... the precise timing of expression of six genes previously suggested to be associated with sex differentiation in zebrafish. The current study investigates the expression of all six genes in the same individual fish with extensive sampling dates during sex determination and -differentiation. RESULTS......: In the present study, we have used quantitative real-time PCR to investigate the expression of ar, sox9a, dmrt1, fig alpha, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b during the expected sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation period. The expression of the genes expected to be high in males (ar, sox9a and dmrt1a) and high...

  13. A questionnaire study about gonadal shield use of urologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our aim is to reflect routines, awareness,and consciousness level of urologists about usage of gonadalshield (GS in Turkey.Materials and methods: Because of this objective aquestionnaire which includes 15 questions was prepared.The questionnaire was delivered to urologists in a TurkishUrology congress. Data derived from 271 urologists byface to face interview were evaluated.Results: Participant were urologists (n=271, consistedof professors (n=33, associate professors (n= 36, assistantprofessors (n= 36, specialists (n=94, and residents(n=81. According to the data obtained from the questionnaires,22% of the participants acquired their first informationabout GS as a medical student, 44% during theirresidency training, and 14% of them had no informationabout GS at all. Besides 64% of them did not read anymedical article about this subject until that time, and 54%them practically hadn’t seen any GS during their urologypractice. In 82% of the hospitals where participants wereworking hadn’t had any GS, and 18% of the urologistshad indicated that GS was available in their hospitals, andthey used them once in a while. Urologists responded favorably(20% or unfavorably (80 % to the question of ‘Doyou find yourself or your colleagues adequately sensitive,and mindful about GS use?Conclusions: Sensitivity and awareness about use ofgonadal shields among Turkish urologists are not at adesired level and for this reason, it is not used widely.The urologists should be informed in urological academicplatforms about gonad protecting devices.Key words: Gonad shield, questionnaire survey, radiation,urologist

  14. A genomic atlas of human adrenal and gonad development

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Ignacio; Buonocore, Federica; Duncan, Andrew J.; Lin, Lin; Barenco, Martino; Parnaik, Rahul; Shah, Sonia; Hubank, Mike; Gerrelli, Dianne; Achermann, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In humans, the adrenal glands and gonads undergo distinct biological events between 6-10 weeks post conception (wpc), such as testis determination, the onset of steroidogenesis and primordial germ cell development. However, relatively little is currently known about the genetic mechanisms underlying these processes. We therefore aimed to generate a detailed genomic atlas of adrenal and gonad development across these critical stages of human embryonic and fetal development. Methods: RNA was extracted from 53 tissue samples between 6-10 wpc (adrenal, testis, ovary and control). Affymetrix array analysis was performed and differential gene expression was analysed using Bioconductor. A mathematical model was constructed to investigate time-series changes across the dataset. Pathway analysis was performed using ClueGo and cellular localisation of novel factors confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Results: Using this approach, we have identified novel components of adrenal development (e.g. ASB4, NPR3) and confirmed the role of SRY as the main human testis-determining gene. By mathematical modelling time-series data we have found new genes up-regulated with SOX9 in the testis (e.g. CITED1), which may represent components of the testis development pathway. We have shown that testicular steroidogenesis has a distinct onset at around 8 wpc and identified potential novel components in adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis (e.g. MGARP, FOXO4, MAP3K15, GRAMD1B, RMND2), as well as testis biomarkers (e.g. SCUBE1). We have also shown that the developing human ovary expresses distinct subsets of genes (e.g. OR10G9, OR4D5), but enrichment for established biological pathways is limited. Conclusion: This genomic atlas is revealing important novel aspects of human development and new candidate genes for adrenal and reproductive disorders. PMID:28459107

  15. Reproductive gonadal steroidogenic activity in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) assessed by fecal steroid analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santymire, Rachel M; Brown, Janine L; Stewart, Rosemary A; Santymire, Robb C; Wildt, David E; Howard, JoGayle

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive fecal steroid analyses were used to characterize gonadal activity in the fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus). Estrogen, progestagen and androgen metabolites were quantified in fecal samples collected for 12 months from four males and 10 females housed at seven North American zoological institutions. Male reproductive hormone concentrations did not vary (P>0.05) among season, and estrogen cycles were observed year-round in females and averaged (±SEM) 19.9±1.0 days. Mean peak estrogen concentration during estrus (460.0±72.6ng/g feces) was five-fold higher than baseline (87.3±14.0ng/g feces). Five of seven females (71.4%) housed alone or with another female demonstrated spontaneous luteal activity (apparent ovulation without copulation), with mean progestagen concentration (20.3±4.7μg/g feces), increasing nearly five-fold above baseline (4.1±0.8μg/g feces). The non-pregnant luteal phase averaged 32.9±2.5 days (n=13). One female delivered kittens 70 days after natural mating with fecal progestagen concentrations averaging 51.2±5.2μg/g feces. Two additional females were administered exogenous gonadotropins (150IU eCG; 100IU hCG), which caused hyper-elevated concentrations of fecal estrogen and progestagen (plus ovulation). Results indicate that: (1) male and female fishing cats managed in North American zoos are reproductively active year round; (2) 71.4% of females experienced spontaneous ovulation; and (3) females are responsive to exogenous gonadotropins for ovulation induction, but a regimen that produces a normative ovarian steroidogenic response needs to be identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Microarray Data of Rainbow Trout Fry Gonad Differentiation Modulated by Ethynylestradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Depiereux

    Full Text Available Sex differentiation in fish is a highly labile process easily reversed by the use of exogenous hormonal treatment and has led to environmental concerns since low doses of estrogenic molecules can adversely impact fish reproduction. The goal of this study was to identify pathways altered by treatment with ethynylestradiol (EE2 in developing fish and to find new target genes to be tested further for their possible role in male-to-female sex transdifferentiation. To this end, we have successfully adapted a previously developed bioinformatics workflow to a meta-analysis of two datasets studying sex reversal following exposure to EE2 in juvenile rainbow trout. The meta-analysis consisted of retrieving the intersection of the top gene lists generated for both datasets, performed at different levels of stringency. The intersecting gene lists, enriched in true positive differentially expressed genes (DEGs, were subjected to over-representation analysis (ORA which allowed identifying several statistically significant enriched pathways altered by EE2 treatment and several new candidate pathways, such as progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation and PPAR signalling. Moreover, several relevant key genes potentially implicated in the early transdifferentiation process were selected. Altogether, the results show that EE2 has a great effect on gene expression in juvenile rainbow trout. The feminization process seems to result from the altered transcription of genes implicated in normal female gonad differentiation, resulting in expression similar to that observed in normal females (i.e. the repression of key testicular markers cyp17a1, cyp11b, tbx1, as well as from other genes (including transcription factors that respond specifically to the EE2 treatment. The results also showed that the bioinformatics workflow can be applied to different types of microarray platforms and could be generalized to (ecotoxicogenomics studies for environmental risk assessment

  17. Gonadal status and reproductive function following treatment for Hodgkin's disease in childhood: The Stanford experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortin, T.T.; Shostak, C.A.; Donaldson, S.S. (Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    To ascertain the impact of therapy on gonadal function and reproductive outcome among children treated for Hodgkin's disease, we reviewed the experience at Stanford University Medical Center during the years 1965-1986. There were 240 children 15 years of age or younger, 92 girls and 148 boys; with median follow-up of 9 years, maximum follow-up was 26 years. Of this cohort, data on gonadal function were available on 20 boys, 5 of whom were considered prepubescent; they had no clinical evidence of sexual maturation and were less than 13 years of age. Evaluation of the boys included testicular biopsy, semen analyses and the ability to procreate. Serum gonadotropin hormone levels (FSH, LH) were studied in 11 boys who also had semen analyses. Sexual maturation was attained in all boys without the need for androgen replacement. Among the eight boys treated with radiation alone, four were able to father a child (3 following 40-45 Gy pelvic radiation dose, 1 without pelvic radiation) from 3-19 years following treatment. Three others who received 30-44 Gy pelvic radiation were oligospermic when tested at 10 to 15 years post-treatment. Semen analyses in 10 of 12 (83%) boys who had been treated with six cycles of MOPP with or without pelvic radiation revealed absolute azoospermia with no evidence of recovery as along as 11 years of follow-up. Following prolonged azoospermia, 2 of the 12 boys (17%) had recovery of fertility, with normalization of sperm count and/or ability to procreate at 12 and 15 years following treatment. There was no correlation with serum gonadotropin levels and sterility. Data on menstrual history, pregnancy and offspring were available in 86 (92%) of the girls. Seventy-five of the 86 girls (87%) have normal menstrual function. However, none of the females who underwent pelvic radiation without prior oophoropexy has maintained ovarian function.

  18. A short term -12° head down tilt does not mimic microgravity in terms of human gonadal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Felice; Pecorelli, Lia; Strollo, Giovanna; Morè, Massimo; Riondino, Giuseppe; Masini, Maria Angela; Uva, Bianca Maria

    2006-09-01

    A significant reversible decrease in testosterone (T) has been associated with microgravity in male rodents and humans. Urinary T excretion increases in primates under hypergravity. Hypogonadism is somehow related to abnormally high levels of leptin (L), a hormone produced by the adipose tissue which has been found to increase under microgravity simulation conditions like head down bed rest (HDBR). The aim of this study was to assess hemodynamic and pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal adaptation to an acute HDBR test to be eventually used on a routine basis to get better prepared to next space flights. The Authors performed a 1 hour -12° HDBR in 6 male and 6 female volunteers who underwent heart rate and blood pressure measurement together with a blood draw three times at 30 min intervals from the start to the end of the test for L, T, estradiol (E2), LH, androstenedione (A), cortisol (F), ACTH. 12 age- and sexmatched control subjects followed the same protocol except for keeping the sitting position all the time. According to the ANOVA for repeated measures, no changes occurred in L, T, E2 or LH whereas A, F and ACTH significantly decreased independently of gender. During HDBR systolic blood pressure decreased in both genders, diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in men and HR showed a more clear-cut decrease in women than in men. As a conclusion, such an acute steep-slope HDBR protocol may be efficiently used to testing immediate individual haemodynamic or adrenal response to microgravity but is not suitable for studies concerning gonadal adaptation.

  19. New results regarding gonadal exposure in urologic X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barke, R.

    1977-01-01

    In a dosimetric study the radiation exposure of the gonads of 130 patients is determined with condenser ionization chambers in applying intravenous urography according to the valid examination standard of the Society of Medical radiology of the GDR. Shielding the gonads with 2 mm lead equivalent the gonad dose of men is less than 30 mrem, but more than 850 mrem without shielding. The gonad dose of women computationally determined from measurements of the surface dose, is about 1,200 mrem. As the radiation exposure due to each individual radiograph was recorded, the influencing factors (film size, distance of the lower field margin from the gonads) can be determined. For the statistically significant correlation between body weight and gonad dose regression equations are given which, with standard X-ray examinations, make it possible to calculate the gonad dose for the individual case with a high degree of certainty. The analysis of intravenous urographic examinations shows that there is a greater share of female patients because this type of examination is often used as an additional diagnostic procedure in case of gynaecologic diseases. Problems of exact dosimetry at the ovary can hardly be solved

  20. Gonadal status following bone marrow transplantation with low dose busulfan-cyclophosphamide regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khosh niat Nikoo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gonadal dysfunction is one of the short and long-term side effects following bone marrow transplantation (BMT. We assessed hypophyseal-gonadal axis after BMT by low dose busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning regimen (120 mg/kg. Methods: In this cohort study, we evaluated gonadal function in 48 patients (25 pubert males and 23 pubert females. Data were obtained by history, physical examination, LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol (E2, progesterone, testosterone and semen analysis before BMT and in 6 and 12 months of post-BMT. Results: Gonadal axis in 16 male subjects (64% was normal before BMT and remained normal in 6 subjects (37% 12 months post BMT. In another 10 patients (63%, hypogonadism was started in 6 months post BMT. Spermatogenesis failure (31%, low level of testosterone (25% and spermatogenesis failure plus low level of testosterone in 12.5% were found. Gonadal axis in 20 female subjects (87% was normal before BMT, but remained normal only in 10% of subject until the end of the study. Other patients (90% had primary hypogonadism in 6 months of post BMT. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of gonadal dysfunction following BMT in both adult sexes (especially in female patients. Therefore, regular gonadal assessment is recommended following BMT.

  1. Gene expression profiling reveals new potential players of gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenn-Aël Carré

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In birds as in mammals, a genetic switch determines whether the undifferentiated gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. However, understanding of the molecular pathway(s involved in gonad differentiation is still incomplete. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of improving characterization of the molecular pathway(s involved in gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo, we developed a large scale real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction approach on 110 selected genes for evaluation of their expression profiles during chicken gonad differentiation between days 5.5 and 19 of incubation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the resulting datasets discriminated gene clusters expressed preferentially in the ovary or the testis, and/or at early or later periods of embryonic gonad development. Fitting a linear model and testing the comparisons of interest allowed the identification of new potential actors of gonad differentiation, such as Z-linked ADAMTS12, LOC427192 (corresponding to NIM1 protein and CFC1, that are upregulated in the developing testis, and BMP3 and Z-linked ADAMTSL1, that are preferentially expressed in the developing ovary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of several members of the transforming growth factor β family were sexually dimorphic, with inhibin subunits upregulated in the testis, and bone morphogenetic protein subfamily members including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4 and BMP7, upregulated in the ovary. This study also highlighted several genes displaying asymmetric expression profiles such as GREM1 and BMP3 that are potentially involved in different aspects of gonad left-right asymmetry. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the overall conservation of vertebrate sex differentiation pathways but also reveals some particular feature of gene expression patterns during gonad development in the chicken. In particular, our study revealed new candidate genes which may be potential actors

  2. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals New Potential Players of Gonad Differentiation in the Chicken Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Gwenn-Aël; Couty, Isabelle; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Govoroun, Marina S.

    2011-01-01

    Background In birds as in mammals, a genetic switch determines whether the undifferentiated gonad develops into an ovary or a testis. However, understanding of the molecular pathway(s) involved in gonad differentiation is still incomplete. Methodology/Principal Findings With the aim of improving characterization of the molecular pathway(s) involved in gonad differentiation in the chicken embryo, we developed a large scale real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction approach on 110 selected genes for evaluation of their expression profiles during chicken gonad differentiation between days 5.5 and 19 of incubation. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the resulting datasets discriminated gene clusters expressed preferentially in the ovary or the testis, and/or at early or later periods of embryonic gonad development. Fitting a linear model and testing the comparisons of interest allowed the identification of new potential actors of gonad differentiation, such as Z-linked ADAMTS12, LOC427192 (corresponding to NIM1 protein) and CFC1, that are upregulated in the developing testis, and BMP3 and Z-linked ADAMTSL1, that are preferentially expressed in the developing ovary. Interestingly, the expression patterns of several members of the transforming growth factor β family were sexually dimorphic, with inhibin subunits upregulated in the testis, and bone morphogenetic protein subfamily members including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4 and BMP7, upregulated in the ovary. This study also highlighted several genes displaying asymmetric expression profiles such as GREM1 and BMP3 that are potentially involved in different aspects of gonad left-right asymmetry. Conclusion/Significance This study supports the overall conservation of vertebrate sex differentiation pathways but also reveals some particular feature of gene expression patterns during gonad development in the chicken. In particular, our study revealed new candidate genes which may be potential actors of chicken gonad

  3. Studies on the gonad dose in x-ray examination for the two day human dock at Nissei Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Shozo; Muraoka, Tsutomu; Ishigaki, Naoya; Ono, Toshio; Nakai, Toshio

    1979-01-01

    The gonad dose in x-ray examination should be reduced to the minimum extent. The purpose of this study is to estimate the gonad dose in x-ray examination for the two day-human dock at Nissei Hospital. The gonad dose to 40 males and 60 females was measured on cholecystography and gastrointestinal radiography. Dose measurement was performed using a thermoluminescence dosimeter. The results were as follows: Mean gonad dose is 6.9 mR to male and 44.2 mR to female, so that gonad dose to female is 6.4 times greater than that to male. (author)

  4. Effects of cetrorelix, a GnRH-receptor antagonist, on gonadal axis in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardelli, Rita; Gianotti, Laura; Karamouzis, Ioannis; Picu, Andreea; Giordano, Roberta; D'Angelo, Valentina; Zinnà, Domenico; Lanfranco, Fabio; Ghigo, Ezio; Arvat, Emanuela

    2011-10-01

    Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) antagonists (GnRHa) suppress gonadotropin and sex-steroid secretion. In normal women, acute GnRHa administration induces inhibitory effect on pituitary-gonadal axis, followed by Luteinizing Hormone (LH) rebound. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) is characterised by impaired gonadotropin secretion and hypogonadism secondary to blunted GnRH pulsatility. We studied the effects of a GnRHa, cetrorelix (CTX 3.0 mg), in six women with HA (age 30.7 ± 3.2 years; BMI 21.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) and six control subjects (CS, 28.2 ± 0.6 years; 22.6 ± 0.9 kg/m(2)) on LH, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and oestradiol levels over 4 h (08.00-12.00 am) before, +24 h and +96 h after CTX; LH, FSH, and oestradiol were also evaluated at +6, +8, +12, +48, +72 h after CTX. CS: CTX reduced (p < 0.05) LH, FSH, and oestradiol (nadir at +12 h, +24 h, and +24 h); LH rebounded at +96 h, FSH and oestradiol recovered at +48 h and +72 h. The 4-h evaluation showed LH and FSH reduction (p < 0.05) at +24 h, with LH rebound at +96 h. HA: CTX reduced (p < 0.05) LH, FSH, and oestradiol, (nadir at +24 h, +48 h, and +48 h, recovery at +48 h, +72 h, and +96 h). The 4-h evaluation showed gonadotropin reduction (p < 0.05) 24 h after CTX, without any rebound effect. One single CTX dose still modulates gonadotropin secretion in HA. Its 'paradoxical' stimulatory effect on gonadotropins needs to be verified after prolonged administration.

  5. Chronobiologic study in the domestic duck. II. Physiological mechanism of the chronobiologic action of visible light on the gonads of the male duck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, J M

    1978-04-01

    The physiological mechanism of the gonad-stimulant effect of light rays on the pre-pubertal duck testis, is the basis of any chronobiological study of this effect. The light stimulates the chain formed by the retina, the optic nerve, the hypothalamus and the anterior part of the pituitary. This chain includes 2 photo-receptors, a superficial one, the retina and a deep one, the hypothalamus. The retina is here only sensitive to orange and red rays. Consequently an autonomic retina intervenes instead of the visual retina. The hypothalamus, on the other hand, is sensitive to all visible rays when they are brought directly in contact with it through a quartz rod placed in the orbit which has been previously emptied. The hypothalamus, which is thus enlightened directly is more than a hundred times more sensitive than the retina. This great sensitivity allows normal stimulation by the most penetrating rays in the orbital region. Ultra-violet and infrared rays are inactive on the autonomic retina and on the hypothalamus. The neuro-secretory cells of the latter, stimulated directly or indirectly, secrete hormones which via the axones reach a capillary network covering the median eminence, then, by series of portal veins, the anterior part of the pituitary, the corresponding cells of which secrete various hormones, which through the systemic circulation reach the corresponding target organs and in particular the gonads. It is thus a neuro-hormonal mechanism which the external factor light brings into play to stimulate various functions of the autonomic life of the organism.

  6. Radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shiro; Musa, Kimitaka; Oshima, Ichiyo; Yamamoto, Suzuyo; Funato, Toyohiko

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed capable of measuring LH-RH in extracted human plasma. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, lysine vasopressin and most of LH-RH analogues did not appear to affect the assay. Hypothalamic extract and some of the LH-RH analogues produced displacement curves which were parallel to the curve obtained with the synthetic LH-RH. Sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay was about 3 pg per assay tube. The coefficient of variation of intraassays was 6.4%, while that of interassays was 9.6%. Exogenous LH-RH could be quantitatively extracted by acidic ethanol when varying amounts of synthetic LH-RH were added to the plasma. Immunoreactivity of LH-RH was preserved in plasma for 2 hrs in the cold but was gradually reduced thereafter. The plasma levels of LH-RH were 20 pg/ml or less in normal adults and not detectable in children. Aged males over 60 yr and postmenopausal women showed a tendency to have higher levels of plasma LH-RH. The plasma LH-RH level was significantly higher in midcycle than in the follicular or luteal stages. The disappearance rate of LH-RH from the circulation after intravenous injection could be represented as half-times of 4-6 min. Between 0.2-0.4% of the injected dose was excreted into urine within 1 hr. These results indicate that the determination of LH-RH might be a useful tool for elucidating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad interactions. (auth.)

  7. The Role of the Multiple Hormonal Dysregulation in the Onset of “Anemia of Aging”: Focus on Testosterone, IGF-1, and Thyroid Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maggio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a multifactorial condition whose prevalence increases in both sexes after the fifth decade of life. It is a highly represented phenomenon in older adults and in one-third of cases is “unexplained.” Ageing process is also characterized by a “multiple hormonal dysregulation” with disruption in gonadal, adrenal, and somatotropic axes. Experimental studies suggest that anabolic hormones such as testosterone, IGF-1, and thyroid hormones are able to increase erythroid mass, erythropoietin synthesis, and iron bioavailability, underlining a potential role of multiple hormonal changes in the anemia of aging. Epidemiological data more consistently support an association between lower testosterone and anemia in adult-older individuals. Low IGF-1 has been especially associated with anemia in the pediatric population and in a wide range of disorders. There is also evidence of an association between thyroid hormones and abnormalities in hematological parameters under overt thyroid and euthyroid conditions, with limited data on subclinical statuses. Although RCTs have shown beneficial effects, stronger for testosterone and the GH-IGF-1 axis and less evident for thyroid hormones, in improving different hematological parameters, there is no clear evidence for the usefulness of hormonal treatment in improving anemia in older subjects. Thus, more clinical and research efforts are needed to investigate the hormonal contribution to anemia in the older individuals.

  8. [Gonadal ontogenesis and sex differentiation in the sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, under fish-farming conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblin, C; Bruslé, J

    1983-01-01

    The histology of the different stages of gonadal development (appearance of PGC, edification of gonad primordium, organization of an undifferentiated gonad, testicular or ovarian development) has been studied in fingerlings and juveniles of sea-bass in fish-culture conditions. Sex differentiation with a caudo-cranial gradient was direct and more in accordance with length than with age. Ovarian and testicular differentiation occurred in fish 11 to 23 months old and from 90 to 187 mm SL. Testis ova were frequently observed.

  9. Gonadal shielding and collimation information for pelvic radiography in podiatric practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pelvic x-rays are often necessary in podiatric practice, to aid in the diagnosis of podiatric and foot-related disorders. The disorders which warrant such x-rays are reviewed. The author urges caution in the administration of pelvic x-rays, citing the possible genetic effects of gonadal exposure to x-rays. Various methods of dose reduction are discussed, with special emphasis on collimators to confine radiation to the smallest body area and gonadal shields to protect the gonads when they fall within the direct x-ray beam

  10. Gonadal shielding and collimation information for pelvic radiography in podiatric practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalin, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    Pelvic x-rays are often necessary in podiatric practice, to aid in the diagnosis of podiatric and foot-related disorders. The disorders which warrant such x-rays are reviewed. The author urges caution in the administration of pelvic x-rays, citing the possible genetic effects of gonadal exposure to x-rays. Various methods of dose reduction are discussed, with special emphasis on collimators to confine radiation to the smallest body area and gonadal shields to protect the gonads when they fall within the direct x-ray beam.

  11. Incorrectly placed gonad shields: Effect on CT automatic exposure correction from four different scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Weber Kusk, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of incorrectly placed gonad shields on radiation dose when performing abdominal CT with automatic exposure correction, using systems from different vendors. Methods and materials: An anthropomorphic phantom was scanned without gonad shields, and with gonad shields placed in two different positions relative to the scan range. Dose Length Product was recorded. mA distribution in the longitudinal direction was plotted. Mean dose was compared using the t-test. Results: Three scanners showed different increase in relative DLP according to shield position. Conclusion: Care must be taken when placing lead shielding at CT and characteristics of each scanner should be known to the operator

  12. Exposure to gonads and eyes due to computerised tomography for brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin-Chieh Hsu; Pao-Shan Weng; Ling-Nah Su

    1986-01-01

    Eye and gonad doses for some 150 patients were determined using thermoluminescence dosemeters. Doses received during CT scanning using a Toshiba scanner were compared with those obtained using a Pfizer scanner. A female Rando phantom was also used as the reference. For males, the average eye dose for the Toshiba was 1695+-2041 μGy per slice and the gonad dose was 2.0+-1.5 μGy per slice; for females it was 1953+-1923 μGy per slice for eyes and 0.4+-0.3 μGy per slice for gonads. (author)

  13. Feeding prepubescent gilts a high-fat diet induces molecular changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and predicts early timing of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Wu, De

    2014-01-01

    The onset of puberty in females has been occurring earlier over the past decades, presumably as a result of improved nutrition in developed countries. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the early attainment of puberty as a result of nutrition fortification remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hormone and gene expression changes in prepubescent gilts fed a high-fat diet to investigate whether these changes could predict the early timing of puberty. Forty gilts were fed a daily basal diet (LE) or a basal diet with an additional 270 g/d or 340 g/d of fat (HE) during the prepubescent phase. Blood samples were collected during the prepubescent phase to detect hormone secretion changes in insulin-like growth factor-1, kisspeptin, estradiol, progesterone, and leptin. The gene expressions at the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis were examined on day 73 of the experiment (average age on day 177) during the prepubescent phase. An HE diet resulted in accelerated body weight gain and back-fat thickness at the P2 point compared with LE gilts during the prepubescent phase. Gilts that were fed HE diets attained puberty 12 d earlier than LE gilts, and a larger proportion of HE gilts reached puberty at day 180 or 190 of age. A postmortem analysis revealed a promoted development of the uterus and ovary tissue that was characterized by a 53.7% and 29.5% increase in the uterine and ovary weight, respectively, and an increased length of the uterine horn and oviduct tissue in HE gilts. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that HE gilts had higher Kiss-1, G protein-coupled receptor 54, gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor α mRNA expression levels in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus; the leptin receptor mRNA expression level was higher in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and ovary tissue; the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression was higher in the pituitary and

  14. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  15. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... hormone can increase the risk or heart rhythm problems and bone loss making the use of thyroxine ...

  16. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  17. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  18. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  19. Adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimena, P; Castilla, J A; Peran, F; Ramirez, J P; Vergara, F; Molina, R; Vergara, F; Herruzo, A

    1992-11-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones may affect gonadal function. To assess the role of some adrenal hormones in human follicular fluid and their relationship with the ability of the oocyte to be fertilized and then to cleave in vitro, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured in follicular fluid obtained at the time of oocyte recovery for in vitro fertilization from cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. Thirty-six follicular fluid containing mature oocyte-corona-cumulus complexes and free of visible blood contamination were included in this study. There was no significant difference in follicular fluid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration between follicles with oocytes which did or did not fertilize (5.1 +/- 1.1 vs 5.8 +/- 2.0 mumol/l). However, follicular fluid from follicles whose oocytes were not fertilized had levels of cortisol significantly higher than those in follicular fluid from follicles containing successfully fertilized oocytes (406.0 +/- 75.9 vs 339.2 +/- 37.0 nmol/l; p < 0.005). No significant correlations were found between rates of embryo cleavage and cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in follicular fluid. We conclude that cortisol levels in follicular fluid may provide an index of fertilization outcome, at least in stimulated cycles by clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin.

  20. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran is far less potent than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in disrupting the pituitary–gonad axis of the rat fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taura, Junki; Takeda, Tomoki; Fujii, Misaki; Hattori, Yukiko; Ishii, Yuji [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroki, Hiroaki [Daiichi University of Pharmacy, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsukimori, Kiyomi [Department of Obstetrics, Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Uchi, Hiroshi [Research and Clinical Center for Yusho and Dioxin, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Furue, Masutaka [Research and Clinical Center for Yusho and Dioxin, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamada, Hideyuki, E-mail: hyamada@phar.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    The effect of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) on the fetal pituitary–gonad axis was compared with that produced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Wistar rats. Maternal treatment at gestational day (GD) 15 with PnCDF and TCDD reduced the fetal expression at GD20 of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and the testicular proteins necessary for steroidogenesis. The relative potencies of PnCDF ranged from 1/42nd to 1/63rd of the TCDD effect. While PnCDF, at a dose sufficient to cause a reduction in fetal LH, provoked defects in sexual behavior at adulthood, a dose less than the ED{sub 50} failed to produce any abnormality. There was a loss of fetal body weight following in utero exposure to PnCDF, and the effect of PnCDF was also much less than that of TCDD. The disturbance in fetal growth was suggested to be due to a reduction in the level of fetal growth hormone (GH) by dioxins. The disorder caused by PnCDF/TCDD in the fetal pituitary–gonad axis occurred at doses less than those needed to cause wasting syndrome in pubertal rats. The harmful effect of PnCDF relative to TCDD was more pronounced in fetal rats than in pubertal rats. These lines of evidence suggest that: 1) PnCDF as well as TCDD imprints defects in sexual behavior by disrupting the fetal pituitary–gonad axis; 2) these dioxins hinder fetal growth by reducing the expression of fetal GH; and 3) the fetal effects of PnCDF/TCDD are more sensitive than sub-acute toxicity during puberty, and the relative effect of PnCDF varies markedly depending on the indices used. - Highlights: • 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) lowers gonadal steroidogenesis in fetuses. • PnCDF exerts the above effect through an initial attenuation in gonadotropin level. • PnCDF imprints sexual immaturity by transiently disrupting the pituitary–gonad axis. • PnCDF also disturbs pup growth probably due to a reduction in growth hormone level. • The above effects are far lesser in PnCDF than 2

  1. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran is far less potent than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in disrupting the pituitary–gonad axis of the rat fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Junki; Takeda, Tomoki; Fujii, Misaki; Hattori, Yukiko; Ishii, Yuji; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The effect of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) on the fetal pituitary–gonad axis was compared with that produced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Wistar rats. Maternal treatment at gestational day (GD) 15 with PnCDF and TCDD reduced the fetal expression at GD20 of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and the testicular proteins necessary for steroidogenesis. The relative potencies of PnCDF ranged from 1/42nd to 1/63rd of the TCDD effect. While PnCDF, at a dose sufficient to cause a reduction in fetal LH, provoked defects in sexual behavior at adulthood, a dose less than the ED 50 failed to produce any abnormality. There was a loss of fetal body weight following in utero exposure to PnCDF, and the effect of PnCDF was also much less than that of TCDD. The disturbance in fetal growth was suggested to be due to a reduction in the level of fetal growth hormone (GH) by dioxins. The disorder caused by PnCDF/TCDD in the fetal pituitary–gonad axis occurred at doses less than those needed to cause wasting syndrome in pubertal rats. The harmful effect of PnCDF relative to TCDD was more pronounced in fetal rats than in pubertal rats. These lines of evidence suggest that: 1) PnCDF as well as TCDD imprints defects in sexual behavior by disrupting the fetal pituitary–gonad axis; 2) these dioxins hinder fetal growth by reducing the expression of fetal GH; and 3) the fetal effects of PnCDF/TCDD are more sensitive than sub-acute toxicity during puberty, and the relative effect of PnCDF varies markedly depending on the indices used. - Highlights: • 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) lowers gonadal steroidogenesis in fetuses. • PnCDF exerts the above effect through an initial attenuation in gonadotropin level. • PnCDF imprints sexual immaturity by transiently disrupting the pituitary–gonad axis. • PnCDF also disturbs pup growth probably due to a reduction in growth hormone level. • The above effects are far lesser in PnCDF than 2

  2. Gonadal germ cell tumors in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cecchetto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric germ cell tumors (GCT are rare tumors: 80% are benign, 20% malignant (2-3% of all malignant pediatric tumors. The gonadal sites (ovary and testis account for 40% of cases. Ovarian GCTs: Represent 30% of GCTs and 70% of neoplastic ovarian masses, being the most common ovarian neoplasms in children and teenagers. Benign and immature forms (teratomas constitute about 80% of all ovarian GCTs, malignant forms represent 20% increasing during adolescence. The most common malignant entity in children is the yolk sac tumors (YST; dysgerminoma is frequent during adolescence and being bilateral in 10% of cases. Presentation is similar in malignant and benign lesions; abdominal pain (70-80% and lower abdominal mass are common symptoms. Evaluation of alpha-fetoprotein (αFP or beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG is essential to address the nature of the tumors: Their elevation means presence of malignancy. Surgery includes intraoperative staging procedures and requires ovariectomy or ovarosalpingectomy for malignant lesions, but may be conservative in selected benign tumors. Since malignant GCTs are very chemosensitive, primary chemotherapy is recommended in metastatic or locally advanced tumors. Testicular GCT: Represent 10% of pediatric GCT, and about 30% of malignant GCT with two age peaks: Children <3 years may experience mature teratoma and malignant GCTs, represented almost exclusively by YST, while adolescents may also show seminomas or other mixed tumors. The main clinical feature is a painless scrotal mass. Surgery represents the cornerstone of the management of testicular GCTs, with an inguinal approach and a primary high orchidectomy for malignant tumors, while a testis-sparing surgery can be considered for benign lesions. A retroperitoneal lymph node (LN biopsy may be necessary to define the staging when the involvement of retroperitoneal LN is uncertain at imaging investigations. Conclusion: Patients with gonadal

  3. Serum AMH in Physiology and Pathology of Male Gonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Matuszczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AMH is secreted by immature Sertoli cells (SC and is responsible for the regression of Müllerian ducts in the male fetus as part of the sexual differentiation process. AMH is also involved in testicular development and function. AMHs are at their lowest levels in the first days after birth but increase after the first week, likely reflecting active SC proliferation. AMH rises rapidly in concentration in boys during the first month, reaching a peak level at about 6 months of age, and then slowly declines during childhood, falling to low levels in puberty. Basal and FSH-stimulated levels of AMH, might become a useful predictive marker of the spermatogenic response to gonadotropic treatment in young patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. After puberty, AMH is released preferentially by the apical pole of the SC towards the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, resulting in higher concentrations in the seminal plasma than in the serum. Defects in AMH production and insensitivity to AMH due to receptor defects result in the persistent Müllerian duct syndrome. A measurable value of AMH in a boy with bilateral cryptorchidism is predictive of undescended testes, while an undetectable value is highly suggestive of anorchia or ovaries, as would be the case in girls with female pseudohermaphroditism and pure gonadal dysgenesis. Lower serum AMH concentrations in otherwise healthy boys with cryptorchidism, who were compared with their age-matched counterparts with palpable testes, have been reported previously. AMH levels are higher in prepubertal patients with varicocele than in controls. This altered serum profile of AMH in boys with varicoceles may indicate an early abnormality in the regulation of the seminiferous epithelial function. Serum AMH is known to be valuable in assessing gonadal function. As compared to testing involving the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin, the measurement of AMH is more sensitive and equally specific

  4. Origin of the somatic cells in the rat gonad: An autoradiographic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant-Larios, H [Departamento de Biologia del Desarrollo, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Mexico City

    1979-01-01

    Gonads from rats of 11 and 12 days of gestation that had been given a pulse of /sup 3/H-thymidine were studied at different times using autoradiographic techniques. When the animals were labeled before the formation of the gonadal blastema (11 days), the percentage of labeled cells in this structure was greater than in the coelomic epithelium and mesenchyme. However, when /sup 3/H-thymidine was injected after the gonadal blastema was already established (12 days), very few of these cells took up the compound; they remained in this conditions until the sexual differentiation of the gonad. From this characteristic, which is an indication of the early differentiation of the blastemal cells, one may conclude that the seminiferous cords arise from this initial cellular line. On the other hand, there appears to be a contribution of coelomic epithelial cells during the formation of the sex cords in the ovary.

  5. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, A.; Goswami, U.

    DNA damage (determined by the Comet Assay) and the occurrence of deformed nuclei were measured as endpoints of genotoxicity in male gonad cells of the marine mussel (Perna viridis). Upon exposure of the organism to varying concentrations...

  6. Irradiation damage to the gonads caused by radiotherapy of benign diseases. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenstein, E.; Nuesslin, F.

    1976-01-01

    The irradiation damage to the gonads caused by the radiotherapy of parotiditis and mastitis and of cheloids was determined partially under different irradiation methods. The measurements were carried out with LiF dosimeters in the Alderson phantom with a tube tension of 250 kV for the inflammatory diseases and 55 kV for the cheloids. The gonad dose measured at the surface was within the range of hundreths of permille for the parotiditis, for the mastitis it was between tenths of permille and 2 0 / 00 depending on the therapy method. The gonad dose of the cheloid irradiations showed a clear relation to the distance between radiation source and gonads. The importance of radiation protection is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  7. The effect of gamma rays on the gonads of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    Pupae of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin) 1 to 2 days before adult emergence were irradiated with the suitable sterilizing dose of 80 Gy gamma rays. At intervals of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after adult emergence, anatomical and biometrical studies were performed to determine the extent of recovery of D. oleae gonads during one month of adult life. There were some indications of gonad recovery after two weeks. This recovery was observed as a decrease in the percentage deviation from the corresponding controls of 20-day-old adult gonad (especially those of males). Generally, female gonads are more sensitive to gamma-rays than those of males. (author)

  8. Defining global gene expression changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in female sGnRH-antisense transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio.

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    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus, 16 and 12 (pituitary, 119 and 93 (ovary, respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the

  9. Defining Global Gene Expression Changes of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Female sGnRH-Antisense Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Huang, Wei; Zhong, Chengrong; Luo, Daji; Li, Shuangfei; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus), 16 and 12 (pituitary), 119 and 93 (ovary), respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. Conclusions/Significance This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the reproductive system of

  10. The Functional Status of Hypophysis — ​Gonad Axis in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Yu.M. Urmanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most frequent form of endocrine pathology and occurs in 5–10 % women of reproductive age and makes up 80 %, and according to some data, even 90 % of all forms of hyperandrogenism. The information about pathogenesis of PCOS is contradictory. The main step of the SPCO pathogenesis is hyperproduction of LH of by the hypophysis, revealed in 40–80 % patients. According to one of numerous theories, an increase secretion results in the increase of LH by the hypothalamus of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GRH, secreted in the discrete mode under control sexual steroid hormones, monoamines and opioid peptides. The aim of the investigation is to study the functional status of hypophysis — gonads axis for women with SPCO. Material and methods. In the department of neuroendocrinology of the Center of Endocrinology of Health Ministry of the Republic of Uzbekistan in a period from September 2015 till July 2016 120 outpatients of fertile age with PCOS were inspected. Mean age of patients was 25.5 ± 4.3 years. The duration of the disease hesitated from 7 months to 9 years. 20 healthy women of corresponding age made a control group. The complex of researches, including clinical, biochemical (glycemia, glucose tolerance test, hormonal (LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrostendion (ДGEA, 17-oxyprogesterone, аntimuller hormone (АМH, insulin was performed in all patients, ultrasonic examination of uterus and ovaries (transabdominal and transvaginal on the 14th day of cycle with folliculometria in dynamics, and also magnetically-resonant tomography of hypophysis and questionnaire of patients were carried out. Results. Patients were divided into two groups: with primary sterility (94 cases and with secondary sterility (26 cases. In the first group of patients with primary sterility the reliable decline of both pituitary and ovarian hormones was determined on a background of

  11. Proteomic analysis of three gonad types of swamp eel reveals genes differentially expressed during sex reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Song, Ying; Li, Zhigang; Luo, Majing; Lei, Quan; Cheng, Hanhua; Zhou, Rongjia

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms are engaged in sex determination in vertebrates. The teleost fish swamp eel undergoes sex reversal naturally and is an ideal model for vertebrate sexual development. However, the importance of proteome-wide scanning for gonad reversal was not previously determined. We report a 2-D electrophoresis analysis of three gonad types of proteomes during sex reversal. MS/MS analysis revealed a group of differentially expressed proteins during ovary to ovotestis to testis transf...

  12. Radioprotection to the Gonads in Pediatric Pelvic Radiography: Effectiveness of Developed Bismuth Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Karami; Mansour Zabihzadeh; Nasim Shams; Mehrdad Golami

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use and effectiveness of traditional lead gonad shields in pediatric pelvic radiography has been challenged by several literatures over the past two decades. The aim of this study was to develop a new radioprotective gonad shields to be use in pediatric pelvic radiography. Materials and Methods: The commercially available 0.06 mm lead equivalent bismuth garment has cropped squarely and used as ovarian shield to cover the entire region of pelvis. In order to prevent deteriorati...

  13. Non-stochastic effects of ionising radiations on gonads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, P.J.N.D.

    1986-01-01

    Fractionated gonad doses of 0.35 Gy cause marked temporary reduction in sperm count; fractionated ovarian doses up to 1.5 Gy have no apparent effect in women aged 20 to 30. Single testicular doses of 0.5 to 3 Gy cause aspermia; return to pre-irradiation sperm counts occurs about 30 months after single doses of 2 and 3 Gy. The ovary also has a recovery capacity, particularly in women under 40. Type B spermatogonia are the most radiosensitive germ cells for cell killing. Later stages are more radioresistant, forming a transient population in the total male reproductive life. Following radiation-induced sterilisation, fertility is restored if enough spermatogonia survive to repopulate the seminiferous tubules. Radiation effects on female fertility are explained on the basis of reduction in a fixed oocyte pool. Doses needed to induce artificial menopause are higher in younger women because their ovaries contain larger oocyte numbers. Particular fractionation regimes decrease the threshold dose for permanent male sterility. It has been inferred that human testes could tolerate 1 mGy per day indefinitely without fertility impairment. In female experimental mammals, fractionation reduces fertility damage. Fractionation may also have a protective effect on the human ovary, depending on age and total dose. (U.K.)

  14. Gonad Shielding during Pelvic Radiography: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Vahid; Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Shams, Nasim; Saki Malehi, Amal

    2017-02-01

    Gonad shielding has been extensively advocated during pelvic radiography at or below reproductive ages. The popular practice of gonad shielding is placement of a lead shield in the midline of the pelvis. The aim of this study was to address the prevalence of gonad shielding and find out whether the current practice of gonad shielding can be considered as an effective method to reduce radiation exposure in patients undergoing pelvic radiography. National and international electronic databases, including PubMed, MEDLIN, EMBASE, and Google-Scholar, were searched up to January 2016. The database searches were supplemented with manual searches of reference lists. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of all studies and extracted data. The searches yielded a total of 243 publications. After assessing each identified study against specific inclusion exclusion criteria, 18 studies were deemed as relevant for this review. The total prevalence rate of gonad shielding was estimated at 58% (95% CI: 40 to 74%). It was estimated that only 34% (95% CI: 25 to 44%) of the radiographs had correct positioning of the shield. Also, incorrect positioning of the shield was statistically significantly higher in females than males (85% vs. 52 %; P-value gonad shielding during female pelvic radiography should be no longer considered as an effective method to reduce radiation exposure. Training the best qualified radiographers is the key to accurate positioning of the shield in male subjects.

  15. Gonadal status in long-term male survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, E; Felicetti, F; Castiglione, A; Nervo, A; Biasin, E; Ciccone, G; Fagioli, F; Corrias, A

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of gonadal dysfunction and the associated risk factors in a cohort of male childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Gonadal function was evaluated measuring FSH, LH, inhibin B and total testosterone levels. Patients with total testosterone 10 UI/l and inhibin B 2000). The adjusted risk of gonadal dysfunction was higher in patients treated with radiotherapy (OR = 8.72; 95 % CI 3.94-19.30) and in those exposed to both alkylating and platinum-derived agents (OR = 9.22; 95 % CI 2.17-39.23). Sarcomas were the cancer diagnosis associated with the higher risk of gonadal dysfunction (OR = 3.69; 95 % CI 1.11-12.22). An extremely high rate of gonadal dysfunction was detected in patients who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and/or total body irradiation. Gonadal dysfunction still remains a significant late effect of anticancer therapies; thus, it is mandatory to inform patients (and parents) about this risk, and semen cryopreservation should be offered to all boys who are able to produce semen.

  16. Comparative gonadogenesis and hormonal induction of spawning of cultured and wild mediterranean amberjack (Seriola dumerili, Risso 1810

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    V. Kozul

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The histological characteristics of wild and cultured Mediterranean amberjack gonads were studied during the first four years of their life cycle. No differences were found in the gonad development of both wild and captive males and females during the first and second year. In the third year, wild females showed more advanced oocyte development than captive females. In the fourth year, vitellogenic oocytes were noted for captive females. Fertilised eggs were obtained after a HCG hormone treatment of four- to nine-year old wild specimens. A smaller quantity of mature and fertilised eggs was also obtained through the spawning of hormone-treated four-year old captive broodstock specimens. Eggs in the stage of gastrulation died within eight hours following fertilisation.

  17. The Role of Kiss1 Neurons As Integrators of Endocrine, Metabolic, and Environmental Factors in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis

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    Shel-Hwa Yeo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin–GPR54 signaling in the hypothalamus is required for reproduction and fertility in mammals. Kiss1 neurons are key regulators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH release and modulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG axis. Arcuate Kiss1 neurons project to GnRH nerve terminals in the median eminence, orchestrating the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH through the intricate interaction between GnRH pulse frequency and the pituitary gonadotrophs. Arcuate Kiss1 neurons, also known as KNDy neurons in rodents and ruminants because of their co-expression of neurokinin B and dynorphin represent an ideal hub to receive afferent inputs from other brain regions in response to physiological and environmental changes, which can regulate the HPG axis. This review will focus on studies performed primarily in rodent and ruminant species to explore potential afferent inputs to Kiss1 neurons with emphasis on the arcuate region but also considering the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V. Specifically, we will discuss how these inputs can be modulated by hormonal, metabolic, and environmental factors to control gonadotropin secretion and fertility. We also summarize the methods and techniques that can be used to study functional inputs into Kiss1 neurons.

  18. Vinclozolin Exposure in Utero Induces Postpubertal Prostatitis and Reduces Sperm Production via a Reversible Hormone-Regulated Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Cowin, Prue A.; Gold, Elspeth; Aleksova, Jasna; O'Bryan, Moira K.; Foster, Paul M. D.; Scott, Hamish S.; Risbridger, Gail P.

    2010-01-01

    Vinclozolin is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that binds with high affinity to the androgen receptor (AR) and blocks the action of gonadal hormones on male reproductive organs. An alternative mechanism of action of Vinclozolin involves transgenerational effects on the male reproductive tract. We previously reported in utero Vinclozolin exposure-induced prostatitis (prostate inflammation) in postpubertal rats concurrent with down-regulation of AR and increased nuclear factor-κB activat...

  19. UV laser radiation alters the embryonic protein profile of adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex and gonadal differentiation in the lizard, Calotes Versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodnapur, Bharati S; Inamdar, Laxmi S; Nindi, Robertraj S; Math, Shivkumar A; Mulimani, B G; Inamdar, Sanjeev R

    2015-02-01

    To examine the impact of ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation on the embryos of Calotes versicolor in terms of its effects on the protein profile of the adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex (AKG), sex determination and differentiation, embryonic development and hatching synchrony. The eggs of C. versicolor, during thermo-sensitive period (TSP), were exposed to third harmonic laser pulses at 355 nm from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for 180 sec. Subsequent to the exposure they were incubated at the male-producing temperature (MPT) of 25.5 ± 0.5°C. The AKG of hatchlings was subjected to protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and to histology. The UV laser radiation altered the expression of the protein banding pattern in the AKG complex of hatchlings and it also affected the gonadal sex differentiation. SDS-PAGE of AKG of one-day-old hatchlings revealed a total of nine protein bands in the control group whereas UV laser irradiated hatchlings expressed a total of seven protein bands only one of which had the same Rf as a control band. The UV laser treated hatchlings have an ovotestes kind of gonad exhibiting a tendency towards femaleness instead of the typical testes. It is inferred that 355 nm UV laser radiation during TSP induces changes in the expression of proteins as well as their secretions. UV laser radiation had an impact on the gonadal differentiation pathway but no morphological anomalies were noticed.

  20. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

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    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  1. Fanconi Anemia a Is a Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Molecule Required for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Transduction of the GnRH Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Larder, Rachel; Karali, Dimitra; Nelson, Nancy; Brown, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    GnRH binds its cognate G protein-coupled GnRH receptor (GnRHR) located on pituitary gonadotropes and drives expression of gonadotropin hormones. There are two gonadotropin hormones, comprised of a common α- and hormone-specific β-subunit, which are required for gonadal function. Recently we identified that Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a DNA damage repair gene, is differentially expressed within the LβT2 gonadotrope cell line in response to stimulation with GnRH. FANCA is mutated in more than 60%...

  2. Dynamics of gonadal development of Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae Dinâmica do desenvolvimento gonadal de Aegla platensis Schmitt (Decapoda, Anomura, Aeglidae

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    Carolina C. Sokolowicz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One way to estimate gonadal development through the reproductive cycle is to observe the growth of the gonads related to the organs used to store energy. The aim of this study was to follow the gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes during annual cycle of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Adult animals were collected in Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Males and females were initially weighed and dissected and had their gonads and hepatopancreas (HP removed and weighed in order to estimate the Gonadosomatic (GI and hepatosomatic (HI indexes. In females, the indexes were also compared to the degree of development of the ovaries. In males the GI showed a peak of gonadal development in the autumn (p Uma maneira de estimar o desenvolvimento gonadal ao longo do ciclo reprodutivo é observar o crescimento das gônadas em relação aos órgãos utilizados para o estoque de energia. O objetivo desse estudo foi acompanhar os índices gonadossomático e hepatossomático durante o ciclo reprodutivo de Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942. Animais adultos foram coletados em Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (29°46'S, 50°53'W. Machos e fêmeas foram pesados e dissecados, gônadas e hepatopâncreas (HP foram retirados e pesados para obtenção dos índices gonadossomático (IG e hepatossomático (IH. Nas fêmeas, os índices também foram comparados com o grau de desenvolvimento dos ovários. Nos machos o IG mostrou um pico de desenvolvimento gonadal no outono (p < 0,05, quando os valores do IH diminuíram (p < 0,05. Fêmeas mostraram um aumento do IG no final do verão e início do outono (p < 0,05 e os valores do IG aumentaram à medida que o ovário tornava-se maduro. Em A. platensis, tanto nos machos como nas fêmeas, os valores do IH nunca mostraram valores mais baixos que o IG, o que pode indicar que esses aeglídeos apresentam um padrão de utilização de energia diferente dos outros decápodos, onde à medida que o desenvolvimento

  3. Gonadal cell surface receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Bhat, M.; Cama, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    A specific membrane receptor for plasma retinol-binding protein has been demonstrated in testicular cells. Prealbumin-2 did not show any specific binding to the membrane. The affinity of retinol-binding protein for receptor drastically decreases upon delivery of retinol and the retinol-binding protein does not enter the cell. The mechanism of delivery of retinol to the target cell by plasma retinol-binding protein has been investigated. The process involves two steps; direct binding of retinol-binding protein to the receptor and uptake of retinol by the target cell with a concomitant drastic reduction in the affinity of the retinol-binding protein to the receptor. Probably the second step of the process needs a cytosolic factor, possibly the cellular retinol-binding protein or an enzyme. The binding of retinol-binding protein to the receptor is saturable and reversible. The interaction shows a Ksub(d) value of 2.1x10 -10 . The specific binding of a retinol-binding protein with great affinity has been employed in the development of a method for radioassay of the receptor. The receptor level of the gonadal cell has been found to vary with the stage of differentiation. The receptor concentrations in 11-week-old birds and adult birds are comparable. Testosterone treatment of 11-week-old birds produced a substantial increase in the receptor concentration over control, while the protein content increased marginally, indicating that, probably, synthesis of the receptor is specifcally induced by testosterone during spermatogenesis, and the concentration of receptor is relatively higher before the formation of the acrosome. (Auth.)

  4. Poor Utility of Gonadal Shielding for Pediatric Pelvic Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark C; Lloyd, Jessica; Solomito, Matthew J

    2017-07-01

    Plain pelvic radiographs are commonly used for a variety of pediatric orthopedic disorders. Lead shielding is typically placed over the gonads to minimize radiation exposure to these sensitive tissues. However, misplaced shielding can sabotage efforts to protect patients from excessive radiation exposure either by not covering radiosensitive tissues or by obscuring anatomic areas of interest, prompting repeat radiographic examinations. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of misplaced shielding for pelvic radiographs obtained for pediatric orthopedic evaluation. Children 8 to 16 years old who had an anteroposterior or frog lateral pelvic radiograph between 2008 and 2014 were included. A total of 3400 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 84 boys and 84 girls were randomly selected for review. For both boys and girls, the percentage of incorrectly positioned or missing shields was calculated. Chi-square testing was used to compare the frequency of missing or incorrectly placed shields between sexes and age groups. Pelvic shields were misplaced in 49% of anteroposterior and 63% of frog lateral radiographs. Shielding was misplaced more frequently for girls than for boys on frog lateral radiographs (76% vs 51%; P<.05). Pelvic bony landmarks were often obscured by pelvic shielding, with a frequency of 7% to 43%, depending on the specific landmark. The femoral head and acetabulum were obscured by shielding in up to 2% of all images. The findings suggest that accepted pelvic shielding protocols are ineffective. Consideration should be given to alternative protocols or abandonment of this practice. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e623-e627.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Leptin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system, digestive organs, and gonads of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Anurucpreeda, Panat; Sobhon, Prasert

    2017-06-01

    Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin. With WB, a leptin-like peptide, having a molecular weight of 15kDa, was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, parts of the gastro-intestinal tract, hepatopancreas, adipocytes and gonads. By ID, leptin immunoreactivity (leptin-ir) was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia and intersegmental commissural nerve fibers of abdominal ganglia. In the gastrointestinal tract, there was intense leptin-ir in the apical part of the epithelial cells of the cardiac and pyloric parts of the stomach. In the midgut and hindgut, the leptin-ir was detected in epithelial cells and basal cells located near the basal lamina of the epithelium. In addition, there was leptin-ir in the Restzellen cells in the hepatopancreas which produce digestive enzymes. In the ovary, the strong intensity of a leptin-ir was detected in the cytoplasm of middle to late stage oocytes, whereas no positive staining was detected in follicular cells. An intense leptin-ir was detected in spermatocytes and sustentacular cells in the seminiferous tubules in the testes of small and orange claw males. Taken together, the detection of the leptin-ir in several organs implicates the existence of a leptin-like peptide in various organs of the freshwater prawn; and like in vertebrates this peptide may be an important hormonal factor in controlling feeding and reproductive process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  6. Cloning, localization and differential expression of Neuropeptide-Y during early brain development and gonadal recrudescence in the catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Anitha, Arumugam; Murugananthkumar, Raju; Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar; Bhasker, Dharavath; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

    2017-09-15

    Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) has diverse physiological functions which are extensively studied in vertebrates. However, regulatory role of NPY in relation to brain ontogeny and recrudescence with reference to reproduction is less understood in fish. Present report for the first time evaluated the significance of NPY by transient esiRNA silencing and also analyzed its expression during brain development and gonadal recrudescence in the catfish, Clarias gariepinus. As a first step, full-length cDNA of NPY was cloned from adult catfish brain, which shared high homology with its counterparts from other teleosts upon phylogenetic analysis. Tissue distribution revealed dominant expression of NPY in brain and testis. NPY expression increased during brain development wherein the levels were higher in 100 and 150days post hatch females than the respective age-matched males. Seasonal cycle analysis showed high expression of NPY in brain during pre-spawning phase in comparison with other reproductive phases. Localization studies exhibited the presence of NPY, abundantly, in the regions of preoptic area, hypothalamus and pituitary. Transient silencing of NPY-esiRNA directly into the brain significantly decreased NPY expression in both the male and female brain of catfish which further resulted in significant decrease of transcripts of tryptophan hydroxylase 2, catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH), tyrosine hydroxylase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in brain and luteinizing hormone-β/gonadotropin-II (lh-β/GTH-II) in pituitary exhibiting its influence on gonadal axis. In addition, significant decrease of several ovary-related transcripts was observed in NPY-esiRNA silenced female catfish, indicating the plausible role of NPY in ovary through cfGnRH-GTH axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the Prevalence and Utility of Gonad Shielding in Pediatrics Undergoing Pelvic X-Ray

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    Vahid Karami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gonad shielding has been recommended during pelvic x-rays since the 1950s. The popular method of gonad shielding is placement a lead shield in the midline of the pelvis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and utility of gonad shielding in pediatrics undergoing pelvic x-rays.Materials and MethodsFollowing study approval, we retrospectively retrieved data from the digital image library of ten radiology depertments of Khuzestan provience-Iran to identify pediatric patients who underwent pelvic x-ray (anteriorposterior [AP] view. All the images were reviewed for the probable evidence of gonad shield. If there was evidence of shielding, the accuracy positioning of the shield was also investigated by a single assistant radiologist.ResultsIn all 1745 pelvic x-rays (942 girls and 803 boys were identified of which the shield was present in 51 (5.41% radiographs of girls and 132 (16.43% radiographs of boys. When a shield was present; the shields has adequate positioning only in 8 (15.68% radiographs in girls and 59 radiographs in boys. Inaccurate placement and absence of gonad shields were more common in girls than the boys. Due to the shield has concealed the anatomical criteria of the pelvis, retakes of the examination was required in 11 (21.56% radiographs of girls and 14 (10.6% radiographs of boys.ConclusionThe current methods of gonad shielding in girls pelvic x-ray was not effective nor is justifiable. We  no longer advocate of gonad shielding during girls pelvic x-ray. However in boys it is controversial and depends on the skill and effort of radiographers.

  8. Octopus gonadotrophin-releasing hormone: a multifunctional peptide in the endocrine and nervous systems of the cephalopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, H; Shigeno, S; Kano, N; Haraguchi, S; Osugi, T; Tsutsui, K

    2009-03-01

    The optic gland, which is analogous to the anterior pituitary in the context of gonadal maturation, is found on the upper posterior edge of the optic tract of the octopus Octopus vulgaris. In mature octopus, the optic glands enlarge and secrete a gonadotrophic hormone. A peptide with structural features similar to that of vertebrate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was isolated from the brain of octopus and was named oct-GnRH. Oct-GnRH showed luteinising hormone-releasing activity in the anterior pituitary cells of the Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix. Oct-GnRH immunoreactive signals were observed in the glandular cells of the mature optic gland. Oct-GnRH stimulated the synthesis and release of sex steroids from the ovary and testis, and elicited contractions of the oviduct. Oct-GnRH receptor was expressed in the gonads and accessory organs, such as the oviduct and oviducal gland. These results suggest that oct-GnRH induces the gonadal maturation and oviposition by regulating sex steroidogenesis and a series of egg-laying behaviours via the oct-GnRH receptor. The distribution and expression of oct-GnRH in the central and peripheral nervous systems suggest that oct-GnRH acts as a multifunctional modulatory factor in feeding, memory processing, sensory, movement and autonomic functions.

  9. Improved shielding of the gonads of infants during comparative X-ray examination of the hip joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrik, R.; Reumuth, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Improved shielding of the gonads of infants during comparative X-ray examination of the hip joints. The presented gonad shielding device for male and female infants aged 3 to 12 months has two small windows for the incident X-ray beam and allows to keep the gonad dose very low. The regions of the skeleton concerned are adequately displayed. The shield can be applied in routine examinations and does not require personnel to hold the patient. (author)

  10. Effects of Evolocumab on Vitamin E and Steroid Hormone Levels: Results From the 52-Week, Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled DESCARTES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Dirk J; Djedjos, C Stephen; Monsalvo, Maria Laura; Bridges, Ian; Wasserman, Scott M; Scott, Rob; Roth, Eli

    2015-09-25

    Vitamin E transport and steroidogenesis are closely associated with low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) metabolism, and evolocumab can lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to low levels. To determine the effects of evolocumab on vitamin E and steroid hormone levels. After titration of background lipid-lowering therapy per cardiovascular risk, 901 patients with an LDL-C ≥2.0 mmol/L were randomized to 52 weeks of monthly, subcutaneous evolocumab, or placebo. Vitamin E, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and gonadal hormones were analyzed at baseline and week 52. In a substudy (n=100), vitamin E levels were also measured in serum, LDL, high-density lipoprotein, and red blood cell membranes at baseline and week 52. Absolute vitamin E decreased in evolocumab-treated patients from baseline to week 52 by 16% but increased by 19% when normalized for cholesterol. In the substudy, vitamin E level changes from baseline to week 52 mirrored the changes in the lipid fraction, and red blood cell membrane vitamin E levels did not change. Cortisol in evolocumab-treated patients increased slightly from baseline to week 52, but adrenocorticotropic hormone and the cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio did not change. No patient had a cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio <3.0 (nmol/pmol). Among evolocumab-treated patients, gonadal hormones did not change from baseline to week 52. Vitamin E and steroid changes were consistent across subgroups by minimum postbaseline LDL-C <0.4 and <0.6 mmol/L. As expected, vitamin E levels changed similarly to lipids among patients treated for 52 weeks with evolocumab. No adverse effects were observed in steroid or gonadal hormones, even at very low LDL-C levels. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01516879. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Potential Players of Left-Right Asymmetry in Female Chicken Gonads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyi Wan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most female birds develop only a left ovary, whereas males develop bilateral testes. The mechanism underlying this process is still not completely understood. Here, we provide a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of female chicken gonads and identify novel candidate side-biased genes. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out on total RNA harvested from the left and right gonads on embryonic day 6 (E6, E12, and post-hatching day 1 (D1. By comparing the gene expression profiles between the left and right gonads, 347 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were obtained on E6, 3730 were obtained on E12, and 2787 were obtained on D1. Side-specific genes were primarily derived from the autosome rather than the sex chromosome. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that the DEGs were most enriched in the Piwi-interactiing RNA (piRNA metabolic process, germ plasm, chromatoid body, P granule, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, microbial metabolism in diverse environments, and methane metabolism. A total of 111 DEGs, five gene ontology (GO terms, and three pathways were significantly different between the left and right gonads among all the development stages. We also present the gene number and the percentage within eight development-dependent expression patterns of DEGs in the left and right gonads of female chicken.

  12. The use of gonad shielding in paediatric hip and pelvis radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, S L; Barter, S J

    2009-05-01

    The problem of inaccurate placement of gonad shields in children has been highlighted by several publications nationally and internationally over the past decade and more. Here, we review the literature and present the results of a regional audit designed to assess the use and accuracy of placement of gonad shields for hip and pelvis radiographs in children. 100 consecutive anteroposterior hip or pelvis radiographs in patients under the age of 16 years were reviewed in each of 9 centres. We also included the most recent and all previously available relevant radiographs. A total of 2405 radiographs were reviewed with regard to the presence of a shield and to the accuracy of any shield placement with respect to gonad protection and visualization of orthopaedic landmarks. It is recommended that gonad shields are used in all follow-up paediatric pelvis radiographs. Our results show they were only used in 70% of such cases. When placed, only 38% of all shields were considered to be positioned accurately. For cases where shielding was indicated, an accurately placed shield was present in just 26% of radiographs. Formal written departmental guidelines for shield use were only available in two centres. We conclude that clear guidelines need to be formulated which, together with shield redesign, improved training and audit, should increase effective gonad protection for children.

  13. MAP3K1-related gonadal dysgenesis: Six new cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Andrea; Alaniz, Veronica I; Mohnach, Lauren; Barseghyan, Hayk; Vilain, Eric; Ostrer, Harry; Quint, Elisabeth H; Chen, Ming; Keegan, Catherine E

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of disorders of sex development (DSD) has resulted in the discovery of multiple sex-determining genes. MAP3K1 encodes a signal transduction regulator in the sex determination pathway and is emerging as one of the more common genes responsible for 46,XY DSD presenting as complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis. Clinical assessment, endocrine evaluation, and genetic analysis were performed in six individuals from four unrelated families with 46,XY DSD. All six individuals were found to have likely pathogenic MAP3K1 variants. Three of these individuals presented with complete gonadal dysgenesis, characterized by bilateral streak gonads with typical internal and external female genitalia, while the other three presented with partial gonadal dysgenesis, characterized by incomplete testicular development, resulting in clitoral hypertrophy with otherwise typical female external genitalia. Testing for MAP3K1 variants should be considered in patients with 46,XY complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis, particularly in families with multiple members affected with 46,XY DSD. Identification of a MAP3K1 variant should prompt an evaluation for DSD in female siblings of the proband. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Potential Players of Left-Right Asymmetry in Female Chicken Gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhiyi; Lu, Yanan; Rui, Lei; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Fang; Tu, Chengfang; Li, Zandong

    2017-06-20

    Most female birds develop only a left ovary, whereas males develop bilateral testes. The mechanism underlying this process is still not completely understood. Here, we provide a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of female chicken gonads and identify novel candidate side-biased genes. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out on total RNA harvested from the left and right gonads on embryonic day 6 (E6), E12, and post-hatching day 1 (D1). By comparing the gene expression profiles between the left and right gonads, 347 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained on E6, 3730 were obtained on E12, and 2787 were obtained on D1. Side-specific genes were primarily derived from the autosome rather than the sex chromosome. Gene ontology and pathway analysis showed that the DEGs were most enriched in the Piwi-interactiing RNA (piRNA) metabolic process, germ plasm, chromatoid body, P granule, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, microbial metabolism in diverse environments, and methane metabolism. A total of 111 DEGs, five gene ontology (GO) terms, and three pathways were significantly different between the left and right gonads among all the development stages. We also present the gene number and the percentage within eight development-dependent expression patterns of DEGs in the left and right gonads of female chicken.

  15. INDUCED FUCTIONAL MALE OF CORAL TROUT GROUPER (Plectropomus leopardus USING 17α-METHYLTESTOSTERONE HORMONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sar Budi Moria Sembiring

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of grouper seeds production is depends on the availability of qualified broodstock. The nature of grouper is protogynous hermaphrodite, causing difficulties to mantain female and a bit difficult to get male broodstock, one possibility to accelerate sex revers is by hormone manipulation. The aim of this experiment was to find effectiveness of 17α-methyl testosterone hormone to produce coral trout grouper (Plectropomus leopardus functional male. The experiment was conducted in floating net cage by using 6 net cages with size of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m at density of 25 fish/cage, size of fish were 377.27±21.49 g. The fishes were treated by hormone implantation at concentration of 50 μg/kg body weight and without hormone implantation as a control with 3 replicates. The results showed that the highest concentration of testosteron in fish blood (1.144±0.135 pg/mL was detected after four months of hormone treatment, but the concentration of testosteron in fish blood declined after 8th months of treatment. The treated fish with hormone grew faster than control. Based on histological analysis of gonad, female gonado somatic index was higher for treated fish compare to control. Its seems that hormone tratment lead to promote development of female maturity and than sex reverse into male become faster.

  16. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, L.; Mariotti, S.; Pinchera, A.

    1987-01-01

    For many years, methods based on iodine content determination have represented the only techniques available for the estimation of total thyroid hormone concentrations in serum. Subsequently, simple, sensitive, and specific radioligand assays for thyroid hormones have replaced these chemical methods. For the purpose of this chapter, iodometric techniques are only briefly summarized for their historical importance, whereas attention is focused on radioligand assays

  18. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er ( Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  19. KERAGAAN REMATURASI GONAD INDUK TERIPANG PASIR, Holothuria scabra DENGAN PEMBERIAN JENIS PAKAN BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Budi Moria Sembiring

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rematurasi gonad induk teripang pasir Holothuria scabra yang sudah memijah masih banyak masalah, padahal rematurasi diperlukan untuk keberlanjutan pemijahan dan penyediaan benih. Tujuan penelitian adalah memperoleh jenis pakan yang dapat mempercepat proses rematurasi gonad terhadap induk alam yang sudah dipijahkan sehingga dapat memenuhi kebutuhan untuk pembenihan teripang di hatcheri, serta mengetahui performa benih yang dihasilkan secara fenotipe dan genotipe. Penelitian rematurasi gonad dengan pemberian pakan berbeda telah dilakukan di Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut, Gondol. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode eksperimental secara rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan perbedaan jenis pakan, yaitu: A Ulva sp. dan bentos; B Gracilaria sp. dan bentos, dan C bentos saja. Dosis pemberian pakan sebanyak 4% dari bobot badan dengan frekuensi pemberian 1 kali/hari. Setiap perlakuan terdiri atas tiga ulangan. Jumlah induk setiap ulangan sebanyak tiga ekor dengan ukuran panjang dan bobot 13,08 ± 2,04 cm dan 182,75 ± 47,74 g. Benih yang dihasilkan sebelum induk dirematurasi dan setelah rematurasi diamati performa fenotipe dan genotipenya. Analisis genotipe menggunakan metode mikrosatellit dengan empat lokus (Hsc-11; Hsc-28; Hsc-49; dan Hsc-59. Parameter yang diamati meliputi frekuensi pemijahan induk teripang, tingkat kematangan gonad, indeks gonadosomatik, fekunditas, diameter telur, pertumbuhan benih F-1 sebelum dan sesudah rematurasi, serta performa genotipe benih tersebut. Data indeks gonad somatik dan diameter telur dianalisis dengan ANOVA, sedangkan data pertumbuhan, pemijahan, dan fekunditas disajikan dalam bentuk tabel dan grafik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua perlakuan dapat mempercepat rematurasi gonad dan induk teripang memijah setelah dua bulan pemeliharaan. Jenis pakan bentos menghasilkan indeks gonadosomatik dan diameter telur lebih baik dibandingkan dengan perlakuan pakan lainnya (P0,05. Successful rate

  20. Is the ICRP-26 weighting factor for gonadal dose appropriate for new federal regulations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1977 the ICRP recommended that computation of the occupational whole body effective dose equivalent include individual organ dose weighting factors derived from risk coefficients for stochastic effects. The-preeminent weighting factor of 0.25 was assigned to irradiation of the gonads in order to account for heritable genetic effects manifest in later generations. As of 1990, there exists no positive significant evidence for the occurrence of transmitted genetic effects in humans after radiation of any form, dose, or dose rate. To assign to gonads 25% of the health detriment from radiation has no basis in medical experience. It establishes a policy that may underestimate the proportion of real mortality from other more radiosensitive organs, and the policy could compromise unreasonably the occupational stability of workers whose activities may involve gonadal irradiation

  1. Radiation dose reduction to the male gonads during MDCT: the effectiveness of a lead shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Christian; Mahnken, Andreas H; Klotz, Ernst; Das, Marco; Stargardt, Achim; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Schmidt, Thorsten; Günther, Rolf W; Wildberger, Joachim E

    2005-01-01

    Our study was designed to quantify the effect of a standard gonad shield on the testicular radiation exposure due to scatter during routine abdominopelvic MDCT. Routine abdominopelvic MDCT was performed in 34 patients with gonadal lead shielding and 32 patients without this shielding; the testes were not exposed to the direct beam during the examination. We estimated the testicular dose administered with thermoluminescent dosimetry, taking into account each patient's body weight and body mass index (BMI). With a 1-mm lead shield, the mean testicular dose was reduced from 2.40 to 0.32 mSv, a reduction of 87%. The difference was found to be statistically significant (p Shielding the male gonads reduces the testicular radiation dose during abdominopelvic MDCT significantly and can be recommended for routine use.

  2. Macro and trace elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from South West Atlantic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camacho, Carolina; Rocha, A. Cristina; Barbosa, Vera L.

    2018-01-01

    Sea urchin represents one of the most valuable seafood product being harvested and explored for their edible part, the gonads or roe. This species is generally considered a sentinel organism for ecotoxicological studies being widely used in monitoring programs to assess coastal aquatic environments...... quality, because is directly exposed to anthropogenic contaminants in their habitat. In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of macro (Cl, K, P, Ca, S) and trace (Zn, Br, Fe, Sr, I, Se, Rb, Cu, Cr, Ni, As, iAs, Cd, Pb, Hg) elements in Paracentrotus lividus gonads from...... three South West Atlantic production areas subjected to distinct environmental and anthropogenic pressures. In all studied areas, the elements profile in sea urchin gonads was Cl > K > P > Ca > S > Zn > Br > Fe > Sr > I > Rb > Cu > Se > Cr > Ni, suggesting an element guide profile with special interest...

  3. Regulation of meiotic entry and gonadal sex differentiation in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a unique type of cell division that is performed only by germ cells to form haploid gametes. The switch from mitosis to meiosis exhibits a distinct sex-specific difference in timing, with female germ cells entering meiosis during fetal development and male germ cells at puberty when...... spermatogenesis is initiated. During early fetal development, bipotential primordial germ cells migrate to the forming gonad where they remain sexually indifferent until the sex-specific differentiation of germ cells is initiated by cues from the somatic cells. This irreversible step in gonadal sex...... in the context of fetal gonad development and germ cell differentiation, with emphasis on results obtained in humans. Furthermore, the consequences of dysregulated meiosis signaling in humans are briefly discussed in the context of selected pathologies, including testicular germ cell cancer and some forms...

  4. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  5. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  6. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  7. Mammary tumors and serum hormones in the bitch treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or progesterone for four years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, D.W.; Kirton, K.T.; Murchison, T.E.; Quinlan, W.J.; Coleman, M.E.; Gilbertson, T.J.; Feenstra, E.S.; Kimball, F.A.

    1978-01-01

    After four years of a long term contraceptive steroid safety study, the incidence and the histologic type of mammary dysplasia produced is similar in beagles treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (medroxyprogesterone) or progesterone. Serum insulin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine, growth hormone, prolactin, 17..beta..-estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were determined by radioimmunoassay on samples collected after 45 months of treatment. Serum growth hormone and insulin concentrations were elevated in a dose related manner in both treatment groups. Triiodothyronine, cortisol, and estradiol-17..beta.. (medroxyprogesterone only) were lowered. TSH and prolactin concentrations were not changed. Pituitary--gonadal hormone interaction in the pathogenesis of mammary neoplasia of the dog is discussed. Prolonged treatment of the beagle with massive doses of progesterone or medroxyprogesterone results in a dose related incidence of mammary modules.

  8. Autoradiographic demonstration of 3H-estradiol and 3H-cholesterol incorporation in hamster gonads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, P.; Martinova, J.; Kyncheva, L.; Baleva-Ivanova, K.

    1989-01-01

    Male and female hamster gonads were investigated on day 14 of pregnancy, at birth, on days 7, 18 and 25 after birth and at sexual maturity. [2,4,6,7 3 H]-estradiol -17β, specific activity 110 Ci.mmol -1 and [1α, 2α - 3 H] - cholesterol specific activity 44 Ci.mmol -1 have been used for labelling. On embrional day 14 the histological image has been similar to that in the neonatal gonads - diffusive labelling includding germ, satellite and Leyding cells in fetal ovaries and testes. On the 7th postnatal day in the ovary a formation of primary follicles began in the deeper layers of gonads and an incorporation of the labelled substances in the germ and prefollicular cells in both ovary and testis have been observed. On the 18th postnatal day growing follicles have been seen in the ovary and labelling have been noticed in the oocytes and follicular cells. In the prepubertal testis the meiolic process has started, spermatocytes have been found and an incorporation of the radioactive substances in germ, Sertoli and Leydig cells has been established. In the ovaries of both 25th day old hamsters and adult animals multi-layered and preovulatory follicles have been seen. Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spertamids in the seminiferons tubules have been observed. The incorporation of 3 H-estradiol and 3 H cholesterol in both germ and Sertoli cells has been found. A presence has been observed of specific estradiol receptors in all three main cell types of fetal and developing gonads: germ, satellite and intertitial cells. The presence of estradiol receptors in developing hamster gonads has indicated a participation of steroids in the process of development and differentiation of male and female gonads

  9. Histological characteristics of the gonads of pig fetuses and their relationship with fetal anatomical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontelo, Thais Preisser; Miranda, José Rafael; Felix, Matheus Augusto Rodrigues; Pereira, Barbara Azevedo; da Silva, William Eduardo; Avelar, Gleide Fernandes; Mariano, Flávia Cristina Martins Queiroz; Guimarães, Gregório Corrêa; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the histomorphometric characteristics of the testis and ovaries of pig fetuses at different gestational ages, as well as their correlation with some fetus measurements. Forty-four fetuses were separated for gender (male and female) and gestational age (50, 80 and 106days of gestation). After slaughter, fetuses had their body length, head and thoracic perimeters measured and their gonads submitted to histomorphometric analyses. The gonadal characteristics at different gestational ages were statistically compared, correlations with the fetal measurements were performed and equations to predict the gonadal characteristics from the fetal measurements were obtained. The testis weight logarithmically increased along pregnancy, whereas ovary weight increased in a linear manner. The cordonal length and number of Sertoli cells were positively correlated with the fetal measurements, being higher at 106days gestation, while the nuclear volume of these cells were negatively correlated. The total number of follicles was higher at day 80 and 106 of pregnancy. The number of oogonia decreased along the pregnancy, however, their nucleus size was increased. The number of follicles and volume of oogonia were positively correlated with the fetal measurements, while the number of oogonia was negatively correlated. Equations were obtained for the prediction of gonadal characteristics of fetuses. We concluded that in pigs testis cell proliferation, ovary development and histological organization was more pronounced during the final third of pregnancy. Fetal weight and size were strongly related to gonadal development, and can be used to estimate the histological characteristics of gonads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of gonad doses during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery for various tumor sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorlu, Faruk; Dugel, Gozde; Ozyigit, Gokhan; Hurmuz, Pervin; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yildiz, Ferah; Akyol, Fadil; Gurkaynak, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors evaluated the absorbed dose received by the gonads during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of different tumor localizations. Methods: The authors measured the gonad doses during the treatment of head and neck, thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic tumors in both RANDO phantom and actual patients. The computerized tomography images were transferred to the treatment planning system. The contours of tumor and critical organs were delineated on each slice, and treatment plans were generated. Measurements for gonad doses were taken from the geometric projection of the ovary onto the skin for female patients, and from the scrotal skin for male patients by attaching films and Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). SRS was delivered with CyberKnife (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Results: The median gonadal doses with TLD and film dosimeter in actual patients were 0.19 Gy (range, 0.035–2.71 Gy) and 0.34 Gy (range, 0.066–3.18 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median ovarian doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.08 Gy (range, 0.03–0.159 Gy) and 0.05 Gy (range, 0.015–0.13 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median testicular doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.134 Gy (range 0.056–1.97 Gy) and 0.306 Gy (range, 0.065–2.25 Gy). Conclusions: Gonad doses are below sterility threshold in robotic SRS for different tumor localizations. However, particular attention should be given to gonads during robotic SRS for pelvic tumors.

  11. Determination of gonad doses during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery for various tumor sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorlu, Faruk; Dugel, Gozde; Ozyigit, Gokhan; Hurmuz, Pervin; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yildiz, Ferah; Akyol, Fadil; Gurkaynak, Murat [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluated the absorbed dose received by the gonads during robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of different tumor localizations. Methods: The authors measured the gonad doses during the treatment of head and neck, thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic tumors in both RANDO phantom and actual patients. The computerized tomography images were transferred to the treatment planning system. The contours of tumor and critical organs were delineated on each slice, and treatment plans were generated. Measurements for gonad doses were taken from the geometric projection of the ovary onto the skin for female patients, and from the scrotal skin for male patients by attaching films and Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). SRS was delivered with CyberKnife (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Results: The median gonadal doses with TLD and film dosimeter in actual patients were 0.19 Gy (range, 0.035-2.71 Gy) and 0.34 Gy (range, 0.066-3.18 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median ovarian doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.08 Gy (range, 0.03-0.159 Gy) and 0.05 Gy (range, 0.015-0.13 Gy), respectively. In the RANDO phantom, the median testicular doses with TLD and film dosimeter were 0.134 Gy (range 0.056-1.97 Gy) and 0.306 Gy (range, 0.065-2.25 Gy). Conclusions: Gonad doses are below sterility threshold in robotic SRS for different tumor localizations. However, particular attention should be given to gonads during robotic SRS for pelvic tumors.

  12. Estimation of human gonadal Pu and Ce concentrations from animal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.; Durbin, P.W.; McInroy, J.F.; Healy, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Data were obtained from the literature for gonad and body weights and for the Pu or Ce content of the gonads and body at death for several laboratory animal species, five human Pu injection cases, and 731 human adults exposed environmentally to Pu in fallout. Data for Pu concentration in gonads, liver, and bone samples of 59 male and five female occupational Pu cases (including four completely analyzed whole bodies) were obtained from the U.S. Transuranium Registry. A logarithmic function was used to relate fractional Pu or Ce concentration in testes and ovaries to body weight of the animals and to predict fractional Pu or Ce concentrations in human gonads, [Pu]G . PuB-1 = aBWb, where [Pu]G or [Ce]G is the nuclide concentration in gonads (Bq g-1 of wet weight), PuB or CeB is the nuclide content of the body at death, and BW is body weight (kg). The fractional Pu and Ce concentrations in both the testes and ovaries are inverse and nearly linear functions of body weight. The regression lines of fractional Pu or Ce concentration in testes and ovaries have similar slopes (b = -1.07 +/- 0.14); however, the nuclide concentrations (coefficient a) in ovaries are six times greater than in testes. Extrapolation of the animal data yielded fractional Pu concentrations in human testes and ovaries that agree with those calculated for the occupational cases and those recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The good agreement between the fractional concentrations of Pu and Ce in the testes and in the ovaries suggests that these data can be substituted in metabolic models of chemically similar elements for which gonadal data are scarce

  13. Effects of Crocin on The Pituitary-Gonadal Axis and Hypothalamic Kiss-1 Gene Expression in Female Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Zohrabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Saffron (Crocus sativus L. has been traditionally used as a spice for coloring and flavoring in some countries cuisine. One of the main components of saffron is Crocin. Recent research have shown that crocin has various pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of crocin on the Pituitary-Gonadal axis and Kiss-1 gene expression in hypothalamus and ovarian tissue organization in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 18 adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Control group received normal saline and experimental groups received two different doses of crocin (100 and 200 mg/kg every two days for 30 days. After the treatment period, blood samples were obtained from the heart and centrifuged. Next, the serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, estrogen and progesterone hormones were measured by ELISA assay. The ovarian tissues were removed and fixed for histological investigation. The hypothalamic Kiss-1 gene expression was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results A significant reduction (P=0.038 in the number of atretic graafian follicles (0.5 ± 0.31 was observed in rats treated with 200 mg/kg crocin. In addition, estrogen concentration in experimental groups (35.04 ± 0.85 and 36.18 ± 0.69 in crocin 100 and 200 mg/kg groups, respectively compared to control group (38.35 ± 0.64 and progesterone concentration in rats treated with crocin 200 mg/kg (2.06 ± 0.07 compared to control group (2.16 ± 0.04, significantly decreased. Interestingly, relative expressions of Kiss-1 mRNA significantly decreased in experimental groups (0.00053 ± 0.00051 and 0.0011 ± 0.00066 in crocin 100 and 200 mg/kg groups, respectively (P=0.000 compared to control group (1 ± 0. Conclusion Crocin, at hypothalamic level, reduces Kiss-1 gene expression and it can prevent

  14. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.

    1985-01-01

    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  15. Differential regulation of kiss1 expression by melatonin and gonadal hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansel, L; Bolborea, M; Bentsen, A H

    2010-01-01

    ). In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Because both the duration of the nocturnal peak of melatonin and circulating sex steroid levels vary with photoperiod, the aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin and sex steroids...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy evidence of efficacy for adrenal and gonadal hormone replacement therapy in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Ecklund, Kirsten; Mulkern, Robert V; Feldman, Henry A; O'Donnell, Jennifer M; DiVasta, Amy D; Rosen, Clifford J; Gordon, Catherine M

    2018-05-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)+estrogen/progestin therapy for adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN) has the potential to arrest bone loss. The primary aim of this study was to test the effects of DHEA+estrogen/progestin therapy in adolescent girls with AN on bone marrow in the distal femur using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy. Seventy adolescent girls with AN were enrolled in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial at two urban hospital-based programs. Seventy-six girls were randomly assigned to receive 12months of either oral micronized DHEA or placebo. DHEA was administered with conjugated equine estrogens (0.3mg daily) for 3months, then an oral contraceptive (20μg ethinyl estradiol/ 0.1mg levonorgestrel) for 9months. The primary outcome measure was bone marrow fat by MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). T2 of the water resonance dropped significantly less in the active vs. placebo group over 12months at both the medial and lateral distal femur (p=0.02). Body mass index (BMI) was a significant effect modifier for T1 and for T2 of unsaturated (T2 unsat ) and saturated fat (T2 sat ) in the lateral distal femur. Positive effects of the treatment of DHEA+estrogen/progestin were seen primarily for girls above a BMI of about 18kg/m 2 . These findings suggest treatment with oral DHEA+estrogen/progestin arrests the age- and disease-related changes in marrow fat composition in the lateral distal femur reported previously in this population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Principles and clinical applications of liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of adrenal and gonadal steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulle, A E; Welzel, M; Holterhus, P-M; Riepe, F G

    2011-10-01

    Liquid-chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is becoming the method of choice for clinical steroid analysis. In most instances, it has the advantage of higher sensitivity, better reproducibility and greater specificity than commercial immunoassay techniques. The method requires only minimal sample preparation and a small sample volume. Furthermore, it has the potential to analyze multiple steroids simultaneously. Modern instruments guarantee high throughput, allowing an affordable price for the individual assay. All this makes LC-MS/MS an attractive method for use in a clinical setting. Reliable reference ranges for the detected analytes are the pre-requisite for their clinical use. If these are available, LC-MS/MS can find application in congenital disorders of steroid metabolism, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, disorders of sex development and disorders of salt homeostasis, as well as in acquired disorders of steroid metabolism, such as primary aldosteronism, Cushing's disease, Addison's disease, and hyperandrogenemia, as well as in psychiatric disease states such as depression or anxiety disorders. The principles of LC-MS/MS for steroid measurement, the pros and cons of LC-MS/MS compared with conventional immunoassays and the possible applications in clinical routine, with a special focus on pediatric endocrinology needs, are discussed here.

  18. Histamine-induced paradoxical GH response to TRH/GnRH in men and women: dependence on gonadal steroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Thuesen, B; Dejgaard, A

    1990-01-01

    .025), but not during the early follicular phase of the cycle (GH peak: 1.7 +/- 0.5 vs 1.6 +/- 0.3 micrograms/l). In luteal-phase women the GH response to TRH/GnRH correlated with the serum estradiol-17 beta level (GH area/E2: r = 0.98; p less than 0.005) and the serum estrone level (GH area/E1: r = 0.81; p less than 0...

  19. The measurement of gonadal and bone-marrow doses from dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.; Morris, N.D.

    1980-06-01

    The method of calculation of the radiation doses to the gonads and to the active bone marrow arising from dental radiography is described. The bone-marrow doses have been calculated using a computer model of X-ray depth doses within the skull for typical dental radiographic examinations as performed in Australia. The ovarian and testicular doses, as a percentage of skin dose have been determined experimentally. The dependence of the gonadal doses on X-ray tube voltage, face to cone distance and direction of the X-ray beam relative to the face is detailed

  20. METHOD FOR OBSERVATION OF DEEMBEDDED SECTIONS OF FISH GONAD BY SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a method for examining the intracellular structure of fish gonads using a scanning electron microscope(SEM). The specimen preparation procedure is similar to that for transmission electron microscopy wherein samples cut into semi-thin sections are fixed and embedded in plastic. The embedment matrix was removed by solvents. Risen-free specimens could be observed by SEM. The morphology of matured sperms in the gonad was very clear, and the oocyte internal structures appeared in three-dimensional images. Spheroidal nucleoli and yolk vesicles and several bundles of filaments adhered on the nucleoli could be viewed by SEM for the first time.

  1. Radiation exposure to the gonads in x-ray examinations of the stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, I [Staedtisches Klinikum Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentrum; Angerstein, W [Forschungsinstitut fuer Tuberkulose und Lungenkrankheiten, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Koenig, W; Menzel, B [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic)

    1978-12-01

    The measurement of the gonad dose in 95 examinations of the stomach according to the recommendations of the Society of Medical Radiology of the GDR is reported. An average of 62 mR was found in 37 intravaginal measurements. For 58 men the average dose was 6.9 mR. Moreover, the measuring results of 23 authors are tabulated. According to these gonad doses are between 10 and 830 mrads for women and between 1.2 and 230 mrads for men. Finally, data are given on the frequency of examinations of the stomach.

  2. Radiation exposure to the gonads in x-ray examinations of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, I.; Koenig, W.; Menzel, B.

    1978-01-01

    The measurement of the gonad dose in 95 examinations of the stomach according to the recommendations of the Society of Medical Radiology of the GDR is reported. An average of 62 mR was found in 37 intravaginal measurements. For 58 men the average dose was 6.9 mR. Moreover, the measuring results of 23 authors are tabulated. According to these gonad doses are between 10 and 830 mrads for women and between 1.2 and 230 mrads for men. Finally, data are given on the frequency of examinations of the stomach. (author)

  3. A gonadal shield with appropriate wall thicknesses for Co-60-teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, J.

    1982-01-01

    A gonadal shield for men has been designed especially for use in Co-60-teletherapy of ventral fields in supine position. It has been made by simple means in the clinical workshop. The thickness of the top, sides, and botton are equal to about 3 half value layers for scattered radiation incident in the respective directions. Radiation dose rate to the testicles during irradiation of a large abdominal field ('inverted Y') was measured in a phantom and was found to be 7.1% of tumour dose rate without shield and 0.9% with gonadal shield. (orig.) [de

  4. Reducing radiation doses to the breast, thyroid and gonads during diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherburn, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of doses to the gonads during radiography of the pelvis is discussed. Phantom measurements to estimate doses to the ovaries in antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projections of the pelvis showed that the dose is 15% of the skin entry dose in the AP projection and 9% in the PA projection. The air gap technique and its applications in reducing radiation doses to the gonads, breast and thyroid is described. A summary of dose reduction factors for these radiosensitive organs achieved by modified radiographic techniques in radiography of the chest, pelvis, spine and skull is given. (U.K.)

  5. 21 CFR 1000.50 - Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad shielding on patients during medical diagnostic x-ray procedures. 1000.50 Section 1000.50 Food and Drugs... GENERAL Radiation Protection Recommendations § 1000.50 Recommendation for the use of specific area gonad...

  6. Gonad protection for the antero-posterior projection of the pelvis in diagnostic radiography in Dublin hospitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolan, Aoife; Brennan, Patrick C. E-mail: patrick.brennan@ucd.ie; Rainford, Louise A.; Healy, Jan

    2004-02-01

    Gonad shielding during diagnostic X-ray procedures is an effective way of reducing radiation dose to patients' reproductive organs and reduces the risk of genetic effects in future generations. The utilisation of gonad shielding, the availability of shields and the existence of written protocols for the use of radiation shielding for antero-posterior projections of the male and female pelvis were examined in four major Dublin hospitals. A retrospective study of 198 pelvic radiographs revealed that only 2% (n=4) of images had evidence of gonad shielding. All four images that demonstrated shielding showed that the shield was malpositioned with either important bony anatomy obscured or gonads not sufficiently protected. Some of the hospitals surveyed had inadequate supplies of gonad shields in the general radiography rooms and no written protocols were available. The results of this study indicate that patients in the hospitals investigated are receiving avoidable gonad irradiation due to the omission, or malpositioning of gonad shields during pelvis examinations. In line with recent EC recommendations appropriate shielding of the gonads during pelvis AP examinations should be encouraged.

  7. Gonad protection for the antero-posterior projection of the pelvis in diagnostic radiography in Dublin hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolan, Aoife; Brennan, Patrick C.; Rainford, Louise A.; Healy, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Gonad shielding during diagnostic X-ray procedures is an effective way of reducing radiation dose to patients' reproductive organs and reduces the risk of genetic effects in future generations. The utilisation of gonad shielding, the availability of shields and the existence of written protocols for the use of radiation shielding for antero-posterior projections of the male and female pelvis were examined in four major Dublin hospitals. A retrospective study of 198 pelvic radiographs revealed that only 2% (n=4) of images had evidence of gonad shielding. All four images that demonstrated shielding showed that the shield was malpositioned with either important bony anatomy obscured or gonads not sufficiently protected. Some of the hospitals surveyed had inadequate supplies of gonad shields in the general radiography rooms and no written protocols were available. The results of this study indicate that patients in the hospitals investigated are receiving avoidable gonad irradiation due to the omission, or malpositioning of gonad shields during pelvis examinations. In line with recent EC recommendations appropriate shielding of the gonads during pelvis AP examinations should be encouraged

  8. Both cell-autonomous mechanisms and hormones contribute to sexual development in vertebrates and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Ashley; Monteiro, Antónia

    2013-08-01

    The differentiation of male and female characteristics in vertebrates and insects has long been thought to proceed via different mechanisms. Traditionally, vertebrate sexual development was thought to occur in two phases: a primary and a secondary phase, the primary phase involving the differentiation of the gonads, and the secondary phase involving the differentiation of other sexual traits via the influence of sex hormones secreted by the gonads. In contrast, insect sexual development was thought to depend exclusively on cell-autonomous expression of sex-specific genes. Recently, however, new evidence indicates that both vertebrates and insects rely on sex hormones as well as cell-autonomous mechanisms to develop sexual traits. Collectively, these new data challenge the traditional vertebrate definitions of primary and secondary sexual development, call for a redefinition of these terms, and indicate the need for research aimed at explaining the relative dependence on cell-autonomous versus hormonally guided sexual development in animals. © 2013 The Authors. BioEssays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), stress, and sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S Bradley; Toufexis, Donna J; Hammack, Sayamwong E

    2017-09-01

    Stressor exposure is associated with the onset and severity of many psychopathologies that are more common in women than men. Moreover, the maladaptive expression and function of stress-related hormones have been implicated in these disorders. Evidence suggests that PACAP has a critical role in the stress circuits mediating stress-responding, and PACAP may interact with sex hormones to contribute to sex differences in stress-related disease. In this review, we describe the role of the PACAP/PAC1 system in stress biology, focusing on the role of stress-induced alterations in PACAP expression and signaling in the development of stress-induced behavioral change. Additionally, we present more recent data suggesting potential interactions between stress, PACAP, and circulating estradiol in pathological states, including PTSD. These studies suggest that the level of stress and circulating gonadal hormones may differentially regulate the PACAPergic system in males and females to influence anxiety-like behavior and may be one mechanism underlying the discrepancies in human psychiatric disorders.

  10. Vitamin A, endocrine tissues and hormones: interplay and interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brossaud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (retinol is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Two endocrine systems have been particularly studied. In the pituitary, retinoids target the corticotrophs with a possible therapeutic use in corticotropinomas. In the thyroid, retinoids interfere with iodine metabolism and vitamin A deficiency aggravates thyroid dysfunction caused by iodine-deficient diets. Retinoids use in thyroid cancer appears less promising than expected. Recent and still controversial studies investigated the relations between retinoids and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, retinoids contribute to pancreatic development and modify fat and glucose metabolism. However, more detailed studies are needed before planning any therapeutic use. Finally, retinoids probably play more minor roles in adrenal and gonads development and function apart from their major effects on spermatogenesis.

  11. Testicular dose and hormonal changes after radiotherapy of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Robert M.; Henkel, Karsten; Christiansen, Hans; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Hess, Clemens F.; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To measure the dose received by the testicles during radiotherapy for rectal cancer and to determine the contribution of each field of the pelvic box and the relevance for hormonal status. Materials and methods: In 11 patients (mean age 55.2 years) testicular doses were measured with an ionisation chamber between 7 and 10 times during the course of pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy) for rectal carcinoma. Before and several months after radiotherapy luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and total testosterone serum levels were determined. Results: The mean cumulative radiation exposure to the testicles was 3.56 Gy (0.7-8.4 Gy; 7.1% of the prescribed dose). Seventy-three percent received more than 2 Gy to the testicles. Fifty-eight percent of the measured dose was contributed by the p.a. field, 30% by the a.p. field and 12% by the lateral fields. Mean LH and FSH levels were significantly increased after therapy (350%/185% of the pre-treatment values), testosterone levels decreased to 78%. No correlation could be found between changes of hormones and doses to the testis, probably due to the low number of evaluated patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy of rectal carcinoma causes significant damage to the testis, as shown by increased levels of gonadotropins after radiotherapy. Most of the gonadal dose is delivered by the p.a. field, due to the divergence of the p.a. beam towards the testicles. The reduction in testosterone level may be of clinical concern. Patients who will receive radiotherapy for rectal carcinoma must be instructed about a high risk of permanent infertility, and the risk of endocrine failure (hypogonadism). Larger studies are needed to establish the correlation between testicular radiation dose and hormonal changes in this group of patients

  12. Ontogenesis of neurons producing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in the nervus terminalis of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzel-Fukuda, M; Morrell, J I; Pfaff, D W

    1985-08-15

    Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) was first detected at 15 days of gestation in ganglion cells associated with the peripheral, intracranial, and central parts of the nervus terminalis of the rat. LHRH was not detected in any other structure of the central nervous system at this age. In the 17-day-old fetal rat, 62% of the total LHRH-reactive neuronal population was found in ganglion cells of the nervus terminalis. At this same age, immunoreactive beta-luteinizing hormone (beta-LH) was first seen in gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. At 19 days of gestation, 31% of the total number of LHRH-reactive neurons observed in the rat brain was found in the nervus terminalis, and immunoreactive processes were first seen in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and in the median eminence. Our data indicate that from 15 to 19 days of gestation the nervus terminalis is a principal source of LHRH in the fetal rat. Presence of the decapeptide in the nervus terminalis prior to appearance of beta-LH in the anterior pituitary suggests a possible role for LHRH in this system on maturation of the gonadotropes and differentiation of the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  13. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or ...

  14. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  15. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiarowska, Małgorzata; Safranow, Krzysztof; Dziedziejko, Violetta; Bialecka, Monika; Koziołek, Monika; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2014-02-06

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN). 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient's alcohol or drug abuse. The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  16. Association of plasma hormones, nutritional status, and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śmiarowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationships between plasma hormones, body weight parameters and stressful life events in anorexia nervosa (AN. Material and Methods: 72 females in the active phase of AN were evaluated. 52 healthy women constituted the control group. RIA kits were used to measure plasma hormone levels. Results: The concentrations of leptin, insulin, IGF-1, triiodothyronine, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone were significantly lower and those of cortisol and growth hormone significantly higher in the AN than the control group. No hormonal differences between restrictive and binge-purging AN subtypes were found. Leptin, IGF-1, gonadotropins, and sex steroids correlated significantly negatively and growth hormone positively with total reduction of body weight or the degree of undernutrition. Associations were also found between lower insulin concentration and family violence, lower cortisol and psychiatric diseases in the family, higher testosterone and patient’s alcohol or drug abuse. Discussion: The changed activity of the somatotropin-somatomedin, gonadal, and corticotrophin axes corresponds to the clinical stage of AN. Plasma IGF-1 seems to be the most sensitive and useful independent hormonal marker of cachexia.

  17. Identification of 2 novel genes developmentally regulated in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Orelio; E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region at embryonic day 10.5 prior to their appearance in the yolk sac and fetal liver. Although several genes are implicated in the regulation of HSCs, there

  18. Gene expression analysis in gonads and brain of catfish Clarias batrachus after the exposure of malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, Y; Murugananthkumar, R; Rajakumar, A; Laldinsangi, C; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-04-01

    Pesticides like malathion have the potential to disrupt development and reproduction of aquatic organisms including fishes. To investigate the likely consequences of malathion exposure at low doses in juvenile catfish, Clarias batrachus, we studied the expression pattern of genes encoding certain transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes which are known to be involved in gonadal development along with histological changes. To compare further, we also analyzed certain brain specific genes related to gonadal axis. Fifty days post hatch catfish fingerlings were exposed continuously to 1 and 10 µg/L of malathion for 21 days. Results from these experiments indicated that transcript levels of various genes were altered by the treatments, which may further affect the gonadal development either directly or indirectly through brain. Histological analysis revealed slow progression of spermatogenesis in testis, while in ovary, the oil droplet oocytes were found to be higher after treatment (10 µg/L). Our findings revealed that the exposure of malathion, even at low doses, hinder or modulate early gonadal development differentially by targeting gene expression pattern of transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes with an evidence on histological changes. Further, some of the genes showed differential expression at the level of brain in male and female sex after the exposure of malathion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Adaptive Response in Female Modeling of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals can affect reproduction and development in both humans and wildlife. We are developing a mechanistic computational model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in female fathead minnows to predict dose-response and time-course ...

  20. Biogenic acidification reduces sea urchin gonad growth and increases susceptibility of aquaculture to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mos, Benjamin; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2016-02-01

    Decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification) has emphasised the influence of carbonate chemistry on growth of calcifying marine organisms. However, calcifiers can also change carbonate chemistry of surrounding seawater through respiration and calcification, a potential limitation for aquaculture. This study examined how seawater exchange rate and stocking density of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla that were reproductively mature affected carbonate system parameters of their culture water, which in turn influenced growth, gonad production and gonad condition. Growth, relative spine length, gonad production and consumption rates were reduced by up to 67% by increased density (9-43 individuals.m(-2)) and reduced exchange rates (3.0-0.3 exchanges.hr(-1)), but survival and food conversion efficiency were unaffected. Analysis of the influence of seawater parameters indicated that reduced pH and calcite saturation state (ΩCa) were the primary factors limiting gonad production and growth. Uptake of bicarbonate and release of respiratory CO2 by T. gratilla changed the carbonate chemistry of surrounding water. Importantly total alkalinity (AT) was reduced, likely due to calcification by the urchins. Low AT limits the capacity of culture water to buffer against acidification. Direct management to counter biogenic acidification will be required to maintain productivity and reproductive output of marine calcifiers, especially as the ocean carbonate system is altered by climate driven ocean acidification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. miRNAome expression profiles in the gonads of adult Melopsittacus undulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus is one of the most widely studied parrot species, serving as an excellent animal model for behavior and neuroscience research. Until recently, it was unknown how sexual differences in the behavior, physiology, and development of organisms are regulated by differential gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous short non-coding RNA molecules that can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and play a critical role in gonadal differentiation as well as early development of animals. However, very little is known about the role gonadal miRNAs play in the early development of birds. Research on the sex-biased expression of miRNAs in avian gonads are limited, and little is known about M. undulatus. In the current study, we sequenced two small non-coding RNA libraries made from the gonads of adult male and female budgerigars using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We obtained 254 known and 141 novel miRNAs, and randomly validated five miRNAs. Of these, three miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs and 18 miRNAs involved in sexual differentiation as determined by functional analysis with GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis. In conclusion, this work is the first report of sex-biased miRNAs expression in the budgerigar, and provides additional sequences to the avian miRNAome database which will foster further functional genomic research.

  2. Disorders of sexual development and associated changes in the pituitary-gonadal axis in dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtels, J.J.C.W.M.; de Gier, J.; Kooistra, H.S.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Naan, E.C.; Zijlstra, C.; Okkens, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual differentiation depends on completion of chromosomal sex determination, gonadal differentiation, and development of the phenotypic sex. An irregularity in any of these three steps can lead to a disorder in sexual development (DSD). We examined nine dogs with DSD by abdominal

  3. Gonadal Dysgenesis: Report of a Middle-Aged Patient with Un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-12-11

    Dec 11, 1971 ... The extreme delay of epiphyseal maturation encountered in this case is thought to be the longest yet recorded in the literature. The finding supports the contention that delayed epiphyseal maturation is always to be found in gonadal .... The remain- ing 20% with 'female' pattern do not, as a rule, show.

  4. Clinical and genetic examinations of children with one parent whose gonads were therapeutically irradiated before conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.; Herrmann, T.; Koelling, H.L.; Oelssner, W.; Schoeneich, R.

    1978-01-01

    A systematic program for investigating genetic radiation hazards is outlined. The program is aimed at obtaining clinical, genetic and biochemical data on children with one parent whose gonads were exposed to therapeutic radiation before conception. First results obtained show that there is no contraindication against radiotherapy. However, it is recommended to consult a geneticist in such cases. (author)

  5. Study on the use of gonadal protection shields during paediatric pelvic X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikand, Manoj; Stinchcombe, S; Livesley, P J

    2003-11-01

    There are national guidelines issued by all hospital radiology departments concerning the use of gonadal protection shields for taking X-rays of the pelvis. It is important to follow these guidelines especially when paediatric X-rays are taken. Gonads are very susceptible to radiation as they fall directly in the line of radiation exposure when pelvic X-rays are taken. To examine whether these guidelines were being followed. This audit considered 355 radiographs taken in a 6-month period on 149 patients, under the age of 16 years, attending the orthopaedic department at King's Mill Hospital. In only 23% of the cases studied, the correct use of gonad protection shields had been performed. In 67% of the unprotected patients, the shields were not used at all. In the remainder, the shield was incorrectly applied. Out of all the patients, 45% had more than one X-ray thus exposing the gonads to unnecessary radiation. In addition, 8% of patients had a CT scan, 6% had fluoroscopy and 42% had radiographs of other regions of the body. Guidelines should be adhered to as far as possible and efforts always be made to decrease radiation exposure. Application of the current guidelines excludes the first X-ray exposure of the female pelvis and of the pelvis of trauma patients from the use of shields, thus adding to the number of the X-rays done without protection.

  6. Task force's viewpoint of the current BRH Program. Gonad shield, Part F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, A.

    1975-01-01

    A previous report on radiation protection during diagnostic exposure is reviewed. Some topics discussed are: Task Force regulations for the model by which routine use of patient shielding or gonad shielding would be required; shielding in relation to collimation, scatter radiation, and enforcement of regulations; and proposed regulations for reduction of unnecessary radiation

  7. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Evsey Fridlyand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggesting that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications.

  8. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  9. Growth hormone (GH) activity is associated with increased serum oestradiol and reduced Anti-Müllerian Hormone in healthy male volunteers treated with GH and a GH antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, M; Frystyk, Jan; Faber, J

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors are present on pituitary gonadotrophs and on testicular Leydig and Sertoli cells. Thus, the GH/IGF-I system may modulate the pituitary-gonadal axis in males. This is a randomized cross-over study. Eight healthy male volunteers...... (160-290) vs. 106 (97-157) μg/L, p = 0.001) and oestradiol (86 ± 28 vs. 79 ± 25 pm, p = 0.060) decreased. No significant changes or trends in the other reproductive hormones occurred during the two treatment regimens. GH/IGF-I activity was positively associated with serum oestradiol, suggesting that GH...

  10. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosselin, G; Bataille, D; Laburthe, M; Duran-Garcia, S [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1975-12-01

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms ofenteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones.

  11. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Effects of in ovo exposure of Imazalil and Atrazine on sexual differentiation in chick gonads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, J.; Ikeda, M. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Matsushita, S.; Iwasawa, T.; Ikeya, M. [Shizuoka Swine and Poultry Experiment Station, Kikugawa (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In contrast to mammals, the heterogametic sex (sex chromosome: ZW) in avian species is the genetic female whereas the homogametic (sex chromosome: ZZ) is the genetic male. The W chromosome positively controls early aromatase synthesis and consequently estrogen production. The presence of estrogens and their receptors plays a crucial role in female sexual differentiation. Chicken embryonic gonads are bipotential at an early stage. During development of the female, the left gonad differentiates to a single ovary/oviduct, and the right gonad regresses, developing a permanent female phenotype. This sexual differentiation occurs as a result of aromatase expression in the left gonad at day 6.5 and the production of estrogen from testosterone. In the male genotype, both gonads develop into two testes. The time- and sex-dependent expression of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, which determine the ratio of androgens/estrogens produced by the gonads, has been extensively investigated during the last 5-6 year. These results show that the lack of estrogen synthesis in the male appears to be due to the extremely low levels of P450 aromatase expression. In female, extensive expression of the aromatase gene (around day 5-6 incubation), leading to estrogen synthesis, and specific expression of the estrogen receptor-mRNA in the left gonad result in the development of a functional left ovary. Experimental sex reversal has been performed using anti-estrogens, androgens, aromatase inhibitors and synthetic steroid. Differences between male and female gonadal differentiation and development are depended on the absence of aromatase and estrogen. On the one hand, differences between left and right ovarian development are depended on the specific expression of the estrogen receptor in the left gonad. Persistent chlorine-containing pesticide, imazalil is structurally similar to various imidazolecontaining chemicals used clinically such as the potent aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole and

  13. Detection of Spiroplasma and Wolbachia in the bacterial gonad community of Chorthippus parallelus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, P; Hernández-Pérez, M; Bella, J L

    2013-07-01

    We have recently detected the endosymbiont Wolbachia in multiple individuals and populations of the grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus (Orthoptera: acrididae). This bacterium induces reproductive anomalies, including cytoplasmic incompatibility. Such incompatibilities may help explain the maintenance of two distinct subspecies of this grasshopper, C. parallelus parallelus and C. parallelus erythropus, which are involved in a Pyrenean hybrid zone that has been extensively studied for the past 20 years, becoming a model system for the study of genetic divergence and speciation. To evaluate whether Wolbachia is the sole bacterial infection that might induce reproductive anomalies, the gonadal bacterial community of individuals from 13 distinct populations of C. parallelus was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments and sequencing. The study revealed low bacterial diversity in the gonads: a persistent bacterial trio consistent with Spiroplasma sp. and the two previously described supergroups of Wolbachia (B and F) dominated the gonad microbiota. A further evaluation of the composition of the gonad bacterial communities was carried out by whole cell hybridization. Our results confirm previous studies of the cytological distribution of Wolbachia in C. parallelus gonads and show a homogeneous infection by Spiroplasma. Spiroplasma and Wolbachia cooccurred in some individuals, but there was no significant association of Spiroplasma with a grasshopper's sex or with Wolbachia infection, although subtle trends might be detected with a larger sample size. This information, together with previous experimental crosses of this grasshopper, suggests that Spiroplasma is unlikely to contribute to sex-specific reproductive anomalies; instead, they implicate Wolbachia as the agent of the observed anomalies in C. parallelus.

  14. Gonadal differentiation in frogs, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, raised from UV irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirane, T.

    1982-01-01

    The gonadal differentiation of anurans, Rana japonica and R. brevipoda, was examined in animals raised from eggs which had been irradiated at the vegetal hemisphere with UV (9300 erg/mm2) at the 2-cell stage. In R. japonica about 70% of the larvae at stage I from the pressed and UV-irradiated eggs were germ cell free, but at a stage immediately after metamorphosis all animals had at least some germ cells, although their gonads often were extremely small and poorly differentiated. When male animals matured sexually, many of them had abnormal gonads. However, all of them were shown by artificial means to be capable of fertilization. In the nonpressed and irradiated group, no larvae were germ cell free and the animals immediately after metamorphosis showed nearly normal gonadal differentiation except for the presence of a few degenerate oocytes in the ovaries. The results in R. brevipoda were basically similar to those in R. japonica. In both species, sex ratios were determined at two stages, the first immediately after metamorphosis and the other when the animals matured, as based on gonad morphology and histology and on external sexually dimorphic characters as well. Sex ratios at these two stages in frogs from the pressed and irradiated eggs differed markedly in R. brevipoda. The ratio was normal at metamorphosis but high M/F ratios occurred when animals became mature. That sex reversal took place in this species as well as in R. japonica (in which sex-ratio deviation was not statistically significant) was supported by the sex ratios of the progenies of these supernumerary males

  15. INTERVENSI FOLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH DALAM PROSES REMATURASI INDUK IKAN GABUS HARUAN Channa Striata Blkr DIDALAM WADAH BUDIDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Ridha Fani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Snakehead and other fish species in waters of the swamp doing spawning at the beginning or in the middle of the rainy season. Gonadal maturation process so as to return time is limited. Aquaculture development is highly dependent on the availability of seeds that meet the timeliness, quality and quantity. The seeds can be produced continuously if supported by the availability of mature broodstock with good quality eggs. Some research about the role of hormones and or the use of stimulants to the success in support of gonad development and spawning, such as; Siam Jambal fish, Pangasius hypophthalmus (Ernawati 1999, Catfish, Clarias batrachus (Zairin et al. 2001, and catfish, Hemibagrus nemurus (Supriyadi 2005. By because they were with potential memamfaatkan folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH that serves as the control at the start of the reproductive cycle up to ovulation and spermiasi in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the injection folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH in the parent rematurisasi catfish. Results from the start 17007-52327 item, 0,63-1,07mm egg diameter, IGS range of 4, 13 to 8.50%, and ranged from 0.86 2.4% IHS. Based on the results of the study injection folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH capable mepersingkat rematurasi processing time.

  16. Gonadal steroids differentially modulate neurotoxicity of HIV and cocaine: testosterone and ICI 182,780 sensitive mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mactutus Charles F

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV Associated Dementia (HAD is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection that erodes the quality of life for patients and burdens health care providers. Intravenous drug use is a major route of HIV transmission, and drug use is associated with increased HAD. Specific proteins released as a consequence of HIV infection (e.g., gp120, the HIV envelope protein and Tat, the nuclear transactivating protein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HAD. In primary cultures of human fetal brain tissue, subtoxic doses of gp120 and Tat are capable of interacting with a physiologically relevant dose of cocaine, to produce a significant synergistic neurotoxicity. Using this model system, the neuroprotective potential of gonadal steroids was investigated. Results 17β-Estradiol (17β-E2, but not 17α-estradiol (17α-E2, was protective against this combined neurotoxicity. Progesterone (PROG afforded limited neuroprotection, as did dihydrotestosterone (DHT. The efficacy of 5α-testosterone (T-mediated neuroprotection was robust, similar to that provided by 17β-E2. In the presence of the specific estrogen receptor (ER antagonist, ICI-182,780, T's neuroprotection was completely blocked. Thus, T acts through the ER to provide neuroprotection against HIV proteins and cocaine. Interestingly, cholesterol also demonstrated concentration-dependent neuroprotection, possibly attributable to cholesterol's serving as a steroid hormone precursor in neurons. Conclusion Collectively, the present data indicate that cocaine has a robust interaction with the HIV proteins gp120 and Tat that produces severe neurotoxicity, and this toxicity can be blocked through pretreatment with ER agonists.

  17. Ghrelin Partially Protects Against Cisplatin-Induced Male Murine Gonadal Toxicity in a GHSR-1a-Dependent Manner1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whirledge, Shannon D.; Garcia, Jose M.; Smith, Roy G.; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin causes a number of dose-dependent side effects, including cachexia and testicular damage. Patients receiving a high cumulative dose of cisplatin may develop permanent azoospermia and subsequent infertility. Thus, the development of chemotherapeutic regimens with the optimal postsurvival quality of life (fertility) is of high importance. This study tested the hypothesis that ghrelin administration can prevent or minimize cisplatin-induced testicular damage and cachexia. Ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR-1a), are expressed and function in the testis. Targeted deletion of ghrelin, or its receptor, significantly increases the rate of cell death in the testis, suggesting a protective role. Intraperitoneal administration of vehicle, ghrelin, or cisplatin alone or in combination with ghrelin, in cycles of 9 or 18 days, to adult male C57Bl/6 mice was performed. Body weight was measured daily and testicular and epididymal weight, sperm density and motility, testicular histology, and testicular cell death were analyzed at the time of euthanization. Ghrelin coadministration decreased the severity of cisplatin-induced cachexia and gonadal toxicity. Body, testicular, and epididymal weights significantly increased as testicular cell death decreased with ghrelin coadministration. The widespread damage to the seminiferous epithelium induced by cisplatin administration was less severe in mice simultaneously treated with ghrelin. Furthermore, ghrelin diminished the deleterious effects of cisplatin on testis and body weight homeostasis in wild-type but not Ghsr−/− mice, showing that ghrelin's actions are mediated via GHSR. Ghrelin or more stable GHSR agonists potentially offer a novel therapeutic approach to minimize the testicular damage that occurs after gonadotoxin exposure. PMID:25631345

  18. Developmental effects of Arochlor 1242 in American kestrels and associated hormone concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Henry, P.F.P.; Rattner, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, diverse field and experimental studies have been brought together to suggest that abnormal sexual and reproductive development in wildlife might be caused by the endocrine-like activity of pollutants acting on embryos. For example, hormonal and gonadal anomalies in juvenile alligators from Florida are associated with exposure to DDT and dicofol, experimental work on laboratory rodents has identified estrogenic and androgenic properties of several pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, and injection of gull eggs with metabolites of DDT produces intersex gonads in the male hatchlings. Very little evidence is available for birds that demonstrates a deficit in reproductive capability by this mechanism. Our breeding and egg-injection studies are investigating the potential of Aroclor 1242 and hydroxylated PCB congener 30, both with known estrogenic activity, to alter the course of embryonic development of reproductive structures and to affect later reproductive function in American kestrels. Findings from young birds whose parents were exposed indicated that gonadal morphology appeared consistent with the genetic sex of exposed birds; testes of exposed birds showed no difference in size or symmetry when compared to controls. Histological preparations showed very little intersexuality of male testes; females had ovaries that were indistinguishable from controls. Female hatchlings tended to show increased androgen and decreased estrogen in their serum with greater dose of Aroclor; females hatchlings that resulted from injected eggs showed an opposite trend. Analyses in progress include LHRH and catecholamine concentrations in the brain.

  19. Sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type-III (GnRH3) neurons and hormonal sex reversal of male reproductive behavior in Mozambique tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Asami; Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Kaneko, Toyoji; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

    2011-10-01

    In tilapia, hormone treatment during the period of sexual differentiation can alter the phenotype of the gonads, indicating that endocrine factors can cause gonadal sex reversal. However, the endocrine mechanism underlying sex reversal of reproductive behaviors remains unsolved. In the present study, we detected sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type III (GnRH3) neurons in Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Our immunohistochemical observations showed sex differences in the number of GnRH3 immunoreactive neurons in mature tilapia; males had a greater number of GnRH3 neurons in the terminal ganglion than females. Treatment with androgen (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) or methyltestosterone), but not that with 17β-estradiol, increased the number of GnRH3 neurons in females to a level similar to that in males. Furthermore, male-specific nest-building behavior was induced in 70% of females treated with 11-KT within two weeks after the onset of the treatment. These results indicate androgen-dependent regulation of GnRH3 neurons and nest-building behavior, suggesting that GnRH3 is importantly involved in sex reversal of male-specific reproductive behavior.

  20. Sex hormone activity in alcohol addiction: integrating organizational and activational effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tissue explant coculture model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) as a predictive tool for endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Theresa K; Perkins, Edward; Ferguson, Duncan C; Cropek, Donald M

    2016-10-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can impact the reproductive system by interfering with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Although in vitro testing methods have been developed to screen chemicals for endocrine disruption, extrapolation of in vitro responses to in vivo action shows inconsistent accuracy. The authors describe a tissue coculture of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) HPG axis and liver (HPG-L) as a tissue explant model that mimics in vivo results. Brain (hypothalamus), pituitary, gonad, and liver tissue explants from adult fish were examined for function both individually and in coculture to determine combinations and conditions that could replicate in vivo behavior. Only cocultures had the ability to respond to an EDC, trenbolone, similarly to in vivo studies, based on estradiol, testosterone, and vitellogenin production trends, where lower exposure doses suppressed hormone production but higher doses increased production, resulting in distinctive U-shaped curves. These data suggest that a coculture system with all components of the HPG-L axis can be used as a link between in vitro and in vivo studies to predict endocrine system disruption in whole organisms. This tissue-based HPG-L system acts as a flexible deconstructed version of the in vivo system for better control and examination of the minute changes in system operation and response on EDC exposure with options to isolate, interrogate, and recombine desired components. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2530-2541. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  2. Long-Term Recordings of Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Neurons Reveal Patterned Activity That Is Modulated by Gonadal Steroids in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Charlotte; Moya, Manuel Ricu; DeFazio, R Anthony; Johnson, Michael L; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-10-01

    Pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is key to fertility. Pulse frequency is modulated by gonadal steroids and likely arises subsequent to coordination of GnRH neuron firing activity. The source of rhythm generation and the site of steroid feedback remain critical unanswered questions. Arcuate neurons that synthesize kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (KNDy) may be involved in both of these processes. We tested the hypotheses that action potential firing in KNDy neurons is episodic and that gonadal steroids regulate this pattern. Targeted extracellular recordings were made of green fluorescent protein-identified KNDy neurons in brain slices from adult male mice that were intact, castrated, or castrated and treated with estradiol or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). KNDy neurons exhibited marked peaks and nadirs in action potential firing activity during recordings lasting 1 to 3.5 hours. Peaks, identified by Cluster analysis, occurred more frequently in castrated than intact mice, and either estradiol or DHT in vivo or blocking neurokinin type 3 receptor in vitro restored peak frequency to intact levels. The frequency of peaks in firing rate and estradiol regulation of this frequency is similar to that observed for GnRH neurons, whereas DHT suppressed firing in KNDy but not GnRH neurons. We further examined the patterning of action potentials to identify bursts that may be associated with increased neuromodulator release. Burst frequency and duration are increased in castrated compared with intact and steroid-treated mice. The observation that KNDy neurons fire in an episodic manner that is regulated by steroid feedback is consistent with a role for these neurons in GnRH pulse generation and regulation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  3. Ectopic KIT copy number variation underlies impaired migration of primordial germ cells associated with gonadal hypoplasia in cattle (Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Venhoranta

    Full Text Available Impaired migration of primordial germ cells during embryonic development causes hereditary gonadal hypoplasia in both sexes of Northern Finncattle and Swedish Mountain cattle. The affected gonads exhibit a lack of or, in rare cases, a reduced number of germ cells. Most affected animals present left-sided gonadal hypoplasia. However, right-sided and bilateral cases are also found. This type of gonadal hypoplasia prevails in animals with white coat colour. Previous studies indicated that gonadal hypoplasia is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion with incomplete penetrance. In order to identify genetic regions underlying gonadal hypoplasia, a genome-wide association study (GWAS and a copy number variation (CNV analysis were performed with 94 animals, including 21 affected animals, using bovine 777,962 SNP arrays. The GWAS and CNV results revealed two significantly associated regions on bovine chromosomes (BTA 29 and 6, respectively (P=2.19 x 10(-13 and P=5.65 x 10(-6. Subsequent cytogenetic and PCR analyses demonstrated that homozygosity of a ~500 kb chromosomal segment translocated from BTA6 to BTA29 (Cs29 allele is the underlying genetic mechanism responsible for gonadal hypoplasia. The duplicated segment includes the KIT gene that is known to regulate the migration of germ cells and precursors of melanocytes. This duplication is also one of the two translocations associated with colour sidedness in various cattle breeds.

  4. Radiation dose reduction at a price: the effectiveness of a male gonadal shield during helical CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauer, Lawrence T; Casciotta, Kevin A; Erdi, Yusuf E; Rothenberg, Lawrence N

    2007-01-01

    It is estimated that 60 million computed tomography (CT) scans were performed during 2006, with approximately 11% of those performed on children age 0–15 years. Various types of gonadal shielding have been evaluated for reducing exposure to the gonads. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction to the gonads and its effect on image quality when a wrap-around male pediatric gonad shield was used during CT scanning. This information is obtained to assist the attending radiologist in the decision to utilize such male gonadal shields in pediatric imaging practice. The dose reduction to the gonads was measured for both direct radiation and for indirect scattered radiation from the abdomen. A 6 cm 3 ion chamber (Model 10X5-6, Radcal Corporation, Monrovia, CA) was placed on a Humanoid real bone pelvic phantom at a position of the male gonads. When exposure measurements with shielding were made, a 1 mm lead wrap-around gonadal shield was placed around the ion chamber sensitive volume. The use of the shields reduced scatter dose to the gonads by a factor of about 2 with no appreciable loss of image quality. The shields reduced the direct beam dose by a factor of about 35 at the expense of extremely poor CT image quality due to severe streak artifacts. Images in the direct exposure case are not useful due to these severe artifacts and the difficulties in positioning these shields on patients in the scatter exposure case may not be warranted by the small absolute reduction in scatter dose unless it is expected that the patient will be subjected to numerous future CT scans

  5. Radiation dose reduction at a price: the effectiveness of a male gonadal shield during helical CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Lawrence T; Casciotta, Kevin A; Erdi, Yusuf E; Rothenberg, Lawrence N

    2007-03-16

    It is estimated that 60 million computed tomography (CT) scans were performed during 2006, with approximately 11% of those performed on children age 0-15 years. Various types of gonadal shielding have been evaluated for reducing exposure to the gonads. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction to the gonads and its effect on image quality when a wrap-around male pediatric gonad shield was used during CT scanning. This information is obtained to assist the attending radiologist in the decision to utilize such male gonadal shields in pediatric imaging practice. The dose reduction to the gonads was measured for both direct radiation and for indirect scattered radiation from the abdomen. A 6 cm3 ion chamber (Model 10X5-6, Radcal Corporation, Monrovia, CA) was placed on a Humanoid real bone pelvic phantom at a position of the male gonads. When exposure measurements with shielding were made, a 1 mm lead wrap-around gonadal shield was placed around the ion chamber sensitive volume. The use of the shields reduced scatter dose to the gonads by a factor of about 2 with no appreciable loss of image quality. The shields reduced the direct beam dose by a factor of about 35 at the expense of extremely poor CT image quality due to severe streak artifacts. Images in the direct exposure case are not useful due to these severe artifacts and the difficulties in positioning these shields on patients in the scatter exposure case may not be warranted by the small absolute reduction in scatter dose unless it is expected that the patient will be subjected to numerous future CT scans.

  6. Radiation dose reduction at a price: the effectiveness of a male gonadal shield during helical CT scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdi Yusuf E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that 60 million computed tomography (CT scans were performed during 2006, with approximately 11% of those performed on children age 0–15 years. Various types of gonadal shielding have been evaluated for reducing exposure to the gonads. The purpose of this study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction to the gonads and its effect on image quality when a wrap-around male pediatric gonad shield was used during CT scanning. This information is obtained to assist the attending radiologist in the decision to utilize such male gonadal shields in pediatric imaging practice. Methods The dose reduction to the gonads was measured for both direct radiation and for indirect scattered radiation from the abdomen. A 6 cm3 ion chamber (Model 10X5-6, Radcal Corporation, Monrovia, CA was placed on a Humanoid real bone pelvic phantom at a position of the male gonads. When exposure measurements with shielding were made, a 1 mm lead wrap-around gonadal shield was placed around the ion chamber sensitive volume. Results The use of the shields reduced scatter dose to the gonads by a factor of about 2 with no appreciable loss of image quality. The shields reduced the direct beam dose by a factor of about 35 at the expense of extremely poor CT image quality due to severe streak artifacts. Conclusion Images in the direct exposure case are not useful due to these severe artifacts and the difficulties in positioning these shields on patients in the scatter exposure case may not be warranted by the small absolute reduction in scatter dose unless it is expected that the patient will be subjected to numerous future CT scans.

  7. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  8. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  9. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  10. Gonadal toxicity of Hodgkin lymphoma treatment in adolescents and young males: issue relevance and ways of solve (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vinokurov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin`s Lymphoma (HL is one of the most curable cancer disease. A half of all patients are young males under 35 years old. Gonadal toxicity is one of the most frequent late effects of HL therapy and associated with significant decrease in patient’s quality of life. In present article frequency and risk factors of gonadal toxicity in males with HL were summarized. It was shown that chemotherapy with alkylating agents and radiotherapy may lead to gonadal toxicity in significant number of patients. Current possibilities of semen cryopreservation before start of the treatment are discussed.

  11. Gonadal toxicity of Hodgkin lymphoma treatment in adolescents and young males: issue relevance and ways of solve (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vinokurov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin`s Lymphoma (HL is one of the most curable cancer disease. A half of all patients are young males under 35 years old. Gonadal toxicity is one of the most frequent late effects of HL therapy and associated with significant decrease in patient’s quality of life. In present article frequency and risk factors of gonadal toxicity in males with HL were summarized. It was shown that chemotherapy with alkylating agents and radiotherapy may lead to gonadal toxicity in significant number of patients. Current possibilities of semen cryopreservation before start of the treatment are discussed.

  12. X-ray exposure dose for the gonadal gland by the examination of computerized tomography and its protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriuchi, Iwao; Kaiya, Hisanori; Hirata, Toshifumi; Asada, Shuichi

    1978-01-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) is very useful for neuroradiological examination, and so it may possibly be used for screening tests. But x-ray exposure dose by a examination of CT is considerable, especially for the male gonadal gland. This study showed that the dose from a complete CT examination of 10 - 15 scans for a male gonadal gland was about 1,800 times more than a single plain neuroradiography. But by only a 0.07 mm lead equivalent protecter, the exposure dose resulting from CT for a gonadal gland could be reduced to 0.0 mrad. (auth.)

  13. Growth Hormone Overexpression Disrupts Reproductive Status Through Actions on Leptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth and reproduction are closely related. Growth hormone (GH-transgenic common carp exhibit accelerated growth and delayed reproductive development, which provides an amenable model to study hormone cross talk between the growth and reproductive axes. We analyzed the energy status and reproductive development in GH-transgenic common carp by using multi-tissue RNA sequencing, real-time-PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and in vitro incubation. The expression of gys (glycogen synthase and igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein as well as blood glucose concentrations are lower in GH-transgenic carp. Agrp1 (agouti-related protein 1 and sla (somatolactin a, which are related to appetite and lipid catabolism, are significantly higher in GH-transgenic carp. Low glucose content and increased appetite indicate disrupted metabolic and energy deprivation status in GH-transgenic carp. Meanwhile, the expression of genes, such as gnrhr2 (gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2, gthα (gonadotropin hormone, alpha polypeptide, fshβ (follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide, lhβ [luteinizing hormone, beta polypeptide] in the pituitary, cyp19a1a (aromatase A in the gonad, and cyp19a1b (aromatase B in the hypothalamus, are decreased in GH-transgenic carp. In contrast, pituitary gnih (gonadotropin inhibitory hormone, drd1 (dopamine receptor D1, drd3 (dopamine receptor D3, and drd4 (dopamine receptor D4 exhibit increased expression, which were associated with the retarded reproductive development. Leptin receptor mRNA was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in the pituitary including the pars intermedia and proximal pars distalis, suggesting a direct effect of leptin on LH. Recombinant carp Leptin protein was shown to stimulate pituitary gthα, fshβ, lhβ expression, and ovarian germinal vesicle breakdown in vitro. In addition to neuroendocrine factors, we suggest that reduced hepatic leptin signaling to the

  14. The pituitary-gonadal axis in healthy female dogs and bitches with gynecological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtels, J.J.C.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The pituitary gland produces and secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in a pulsatile fashion, induced by pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. Different cells in the ovary are capable of secreting estradiol, testosterone and

  15. Stress-induced cognitive dysfunction: hormone-neurotransmitter interactions in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Shansky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms and neural circuits that drive emotion and cognition are inextricably linked. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis as a result of stress or other causes of arousal initiates a flood of hormone and neurotransmitter release throughout the brain, affecting the way we think, decide, and behave. This review will focus on factors that influence the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, a brain region that governs higher-level cognitive processes and executive function. The PFC becomes markedly impaired by stress, producing measurable deficits in working memory. These deficits arise from the interaction of multiple neuromodulators, including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and gonadal hormones; here we will discuss the non- human primate and rodent literature that has furthered our understanding of the circuitry, receptors, and signaling cascades responsible for stress-induced prefrontal dysfunction.

  16. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  17. Physical growth, puberty and hormones in adolescents with Nodding Syndrome; a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piloya-Were, Theresa; Odongkara-Mpora, Beatrice; Namusoke, Hanifa; Idro, Richard

    2014-11-28

    Nodding syndrome is an epidemic symptomatic generalized epilepsy syndrome of unknown cause in Eastern Africa. Some patients have extreme short stature. We hypothesized that growth failure in nodding syndrome is associated with specific endocrine dysfunctions. In this pilot study, we examined the relationship between serum hormone levels and stature, bone age and sexual development. We recruited ten consecutive children, 13 years or older, with World Health Organization defined nodding syndrome and assessed physical growth, bone age, development of secondary sexual characteristics and serum hormone levels. Two children with incomplete results were excluded. Of the eight remaining, two had severe stunting (height for age Z [HAZ] scorebone age was delayed by a median 3(range 0-4) years. Serum growth hormone levels were normal in all eight but the two patients with severe stunting and one with moderate stunting had low levels of Somatomedin C (Insulin like Growth Factor [IGF1]) and/or IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), mediators of growth hormone function. A linear relationship was observed between serum IGF1 level and HAZ score. With the exception of one child, all were either pre-pubertal or in early puberty (Tanner stages 1 and 2) and in the seven, levels of the gonadotrophins (luteinising and follicle stimulating hormone) and the sex hormones (testosterone/oestrogen) were all within pre-pubertal ranges or ranges of early puberty. Thyroid function, prolactin, adrenal, and parathyroid hormone levels were all normal. Patients with nodding syndrome may have dysfunctions in the pituitary growth hormone and pituitary gonadal axes that manifest as stunted growth, delayed bone age and puberty. Studies are required to determine if such endocrine dysfunction is a primary manifestation of the disease or a secondary consequence of chronic ill health and malnutrition and if so, whether targeted interventions can improve outcome.

  18. The Role of Steroid Hormones on the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, whilst metabolic syndromes, like diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact on the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, like calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes.

  19. Identification of Gender-specific Transcripts by Microarray in Gonad Tissue of Larval and Juvenile Xenopus tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibian model species Xenopus tropicalis is currently being utilized by EPA in the development of a standardized in vivo reproductive toxicity assay. Perturbations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis from exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds during larval develop...

  20. Quality and shelf life of the gonad of lion's paw scallop transported and stored whole in refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Ocaño-Higuera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated 48h transport and 4 days storage on the quality and shelf life of the whole lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus gonad was evaluated. Proximal composition, adenosine 5´triphosphate (ATP and related products, K-value, total volatile bases (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA-N, pH, fatty acid profile and microbiological analyses were quantified. Gonad holds a significant composition of essential fatty acids while levels of gonadal ATP were initially low; moreover, K-value of the gonad remained constant. With respect to TVB-N and TMA-N, only the former exceeded allowed limits. The pH level showed no significant variation during storage and, despite the high level of TVB-N, according to the TMA-N as well as microbiological analyses it was demonstrated innocuity after 4 days under the transportation and storage conditions utilized.

  1. Peripheral dose to the testes: the design and clinical use of a practical and effective gonadal shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, B.A.; Kinsella, T.J.; Harrington, F.S.; Galtstein, E.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and practical gonadal shield has been developed for use near megavoltage radiation fields. The lead shield encloses only the testes, allowing its use with nearly any radiation field that does not include the testes. The dose to the testes with and without the shield has been measured extensively both in phantoms and on patients. The gonadal shield allows a 3 to 10-fold reduction in dose to the testes depending primarily on the distance from the field edge to the gonads. When the shield is used, the gonadal dose is always less than 1% of the patient's prescription dose. Based on our patient studies of testicular injury following conventionally-fractionated irradiation, a dose of less than 50 cGy should preserve normal testicular function

  2. Peripheral dose to the testes: the design and clinical use of a practical and effective gonadal shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraass, B A; Kinsella, T J; Harrington, F S; Glatstein, E

    1985-03-01

    A simple and practical gonadal shield has been developed for use near megavoltage radiation fields. The lead shield encloses only the testes, allowing its use with nearly any radiation field that does not include the testes. The dose to the testes with and without the shield has been measured extensively both in phantoms and on patients. The gonadal shield allows a 3 to 10-fold reduction in dose to the testes depending primarily on the distance from the field edge to the gonads. When the shield is used, the gonadal dose is always less than 1% of the patient's prescription dose. Based on our patient studies of testicular injury following conventionally-fractionated irradiation, a dose of less than 50 cGy (1% of a typical 5000 cGy treatment regimen) should preserve normal testicular function.

  3. The evaluation and presentation of a rare case of gonadal dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafarnejad M

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A seventeen-years old woman was presented with infertility and primary amenorrhea. She had normal stature, femate phenotype and normal development of breasts, external genitalia, vagina and cervix. Pelvic examination showed a large lobulated mass. On sonography there was a mass with probable origin of ovary. Paraclinic tests were carried out. Gonadotropins were in postmeno pausal limits. Alpha Fetoprotein, Beta Subunit (B-HCG assay were normal Laparotomy revealed a gonadat mass on right side, normal uterus and left streak gonad. Pathologic report of tumor was dysgerminoma and teratoma. Due to pathology of tumor and Y chromosome, we advised the patient to remove the other streak gonad and have irradiatio

  4. Survey of gonad and bone marrow doses from IUCD fluoroscopy in women of Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xishen; Fan Jincai

    1984-01-01

    The local exposure doses in fluoroscopy for intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) were surveyed with TLD in 150 women. The gonad and bone marrow doses were calculated by adopting both the results of radiation experiment on MIXD phantom and related data. The mean gonad and bone marrow doses are 13.6 and 18.7 mrad, respectively. The collective bone marrow dose equivalent was estimated from the numbers of women fitted with IUCD and of women undergoing fluoroscopy, and the census of women of child-bearing age in Guangdong Province. The significance of collective bone marrow dose equivalent by IUCD fluoroscopy is discussed on the basis of the risk estimate of leukemia in ICRP publication No 26. (author)

  5. Effects of tributyltin on metamorphosis and gonadal differentiation of Xenopus laevis at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huahong; Zhu, Pan; Guo, Suzhen

    2014-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a well known endocrine disruptor, has high teratogenicity to embryos of amphibian (Xenopus tropicalis). An amphibian metamorphosis assay (AMA) and a complete AMA (CAMA) were conducted for TBT. In AMA, the body weight, the snout-to-vent length and the hind limb length of X. laevis tadpoles were decreased in tributyltin chloride (TBTCl; 12.5-200 ng/L) treatment groups after 7 days exposure. TBT greatly retarded the development of tadpoles, decreased the number of follicle and induced thyroid follicle cell hyperplasia after 19 days exposure. In CAMA, 10 and 100 ng/L TBTCl led to various malformations of gonad, including intersex, segmental aplasia and multiple ovary cavities of X. laevis following exposure from stages 46 to stage 66. The sex ratio was male-biased in TBT treatment groups. These results suggest that TBT delayed the metamorphosis, inhibited the growth of tadpoles and disrupted the gonadal differentiation of X. laevis at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  6. A rare case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sriharibabu; Veeraabhinav, C H; Jetti, Mounica; Himabindu, Yalamanchali; Donthu, Kiranmai; Badireddy, Mutyalarayudu

    2016-01-01

    46,XX gonadal dysgenesis is a rare genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by underdeveloped ovaries with consequent, impuberism, primary amenorrhea, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Mullerian agenesis or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part (2/3) of the vagina in a woman with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and a normal 46,XX karyotype. The phenotypic manifestations of MRKH syndrome may sometimes overlap with various other syndromes and require accurate delineation. The coexistence of both these disorders is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis and MRKH syndrome with anatomically dispersed congenital anomalies unique among reported cases.

  7. Assessment of eye, hand and male gonadal skin dose in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushap, M.P.S.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt has been made to gauge the dose to (1) the eye, (2) the skin of the hands and (3) the gonads from radiotherapy of other parts of the body. The study has been done on actual male patients at the Jorjani Medical Centre, Tehran. The study, indicated high dose to the eye lid i.e. about 3% of the tumour dose in the case of head irradiation. The eyes and gonads lie at unequal distances from thorax, so are their doses. It is further emphasised that a minimum dose of 400 rad in three weeks to one month has been reported to be cataractogenic in man. A 50% incidence of progressive loss of vision with a dose of 750 rad to 1000 rad in three weeks to three months time has been observed. If appropriate techniques are not employed to shield the eye, even from stray radiation, such limits may easily be reached. (K.B.)

  8. Influence of physical factors on sexual function and pituitary gland-gonads system. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Chapter 3 it is noted, that different physical factors even with low intensity (vibration, noise, electromagnetic oscillations of s.h.f. and u.h.f range, laser radiation, temperature changes) predictably lead to spermatogenesis dysfunctions and functional shift in hypothalamus-pituitary gland-gonads system with examined animals and man. The sexual function of men changing in the result of contact with unfavourable physical factors arise early and quite often they preceding the manifestation of occupational diseases pattern

  9. A novel mouse Fgfr2 mutant, hobbyhorse (hob, exhibits complete XY gonadal sex reversal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Siggers

    Full Text Available The secreted molecule fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9 plays a critical role in testis determination in the mouse. In embryonic gonadal somatic cells it is required for maintenance of SOX9 expression, a key determinant of Sertoli cell fate. Conditional gene targeting studies have identified FGFR2 as the main gonadal receptor for FGF9 during sex determination. However, such studies can be complicated by inefficient and variable deletion of floxed alleles, depending on the choice of Cre deleter strain. Here, we report a novel, constitutive allele of Fgfr2, hobbyhorse (hob, which was identified in an ENU-based forward genetic screen for novel testis-determining loci. Fgr2hob is caused by a C to T mutation in the invariant exon 7, resulting in a polypeptide with a mis-sense mutation at position 263 (Pro263Ser in the third extracellular immunoglobulin-like domain of FGFR2. Mutant homozygous embryos show severe limb and lung defects and, when on the sensitised C57BL/6J (B6 genetic background, undergo complete XY gonadal sex reversal associated with failure to maintain expression of Sox9. Genetic crosses employing a null mutant of Fgfr2 suggest that Fgr2hob is a hypomorphic allele, affecting both the FGFR2b and FGFR2c splice isoforms of the receptor. We exploited the consistent phenotype of this constitutive mutant by analysing MAPK signalling at the sex-determining stage of gonad development, but no significant abnormalities in mutant embryos were detected.

  10. Malignant tumour stroma gonads Sertoli-Leydig:a communication clinic case and bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krygier Waltier, G.; Rodriguez Lemes, R.; Carlevaro Elizondo, T.

    1995-01-01

    The malignant tumors of the stroma gonads represent 0.2% of all the tumors of the testicle, and they are almost exclusive of the relatively refractory to the radiotherapy and the chemotherapy, and the medium survive of the illness is of two years. it presents a clinical case of tumour to cells of Sertoli-Leydig in a 45 year-old man that heI consulted for sterility . A review of the literature it is made for finish [es

  11. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  13. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  14. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  15. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  16. Radioimmunoassay of protein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talas, M.; Fingerova, H.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the history of RIA methods for FSH, LH, HCG, HPL and prolactin determinations with special regard to the double antibody method in a kinetic system. Problems are shown in 125 I-labelling protein hormones in preparing own antisera. (L.O.)

  17. Interplay of oxytocin, vasopressin, and sex hormones in the regulation of social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Christopher S; Phan, Anna; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2012-02-01

    Social Recognition is a fundamental skill that forms the basis of behaviors essential to the proper functioning of pair or group living in most social species. We review here various neurobiological and genetic studies that point to an interplay of oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), and the gonadal hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in the mediation of social recognition. Results of a number of studies have shown that OT and its actions at the medial amygdala seem to be essential for social recognition in both sexes. Estrogens facilitate social recognition, possibly by regulating OT production in the hypothalamus and the OT receptors at the medial amygdala. Estrogens also affect social recognition on a rapid time scale, likely through nongenomic actions. The mechanisms of these rapid effects are currently unknown but available evidence points at the hippocampus as the possible site of action. Male rodents seem to be more dependent on AVP acting at the level of the lateral septum for social recognition than female rodents. Results of various studies suggest that testosterone and its metabolites (including estradiol) influence social recognition in males primarily through the AVP V1a receptor. Overall, it appears that gonadal hormone modulation of OT and AVP regulates and fine tunes social recognition and those behaviors that depend upon it (e.g., social bonds, social hierarchies) in a sex specific manner. This points at an important role for these neuroendocrine systems in the regulation of the sex differences that are evident in social behavior and of sociality as a whole.

  18. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  19. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  20. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  1. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  2. Gonadal steroids modulate Fas-induced apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaita, Gabriela; Zárate, Sandra; Ferrari, Luciana; Radl, Daniela; Ferraris, Jimena; Eijo, Guadalupe; Zaldivar, Verónica; Pisera, Daniel; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2011-02-01

    We have previously reported that Fas activation induces apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells from rats at proestrus but not at diestrus and in an estrogen-dependent manner. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Fas activation on apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes during the estrous cycle and explored the action of gonadal steroids on Fas-induced apoptosis. Also, we studied whether changes in Fas expression are involved in the apoptotic response of anterior pituitary cells. Fas activation increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive lactotropes and somatotropes at proestrus but not at diestrus. FasL triggered apoptosis of somatotropes only when cells from ovariectomized rats were cultured in the presence of 17 β-estradiol (E2). Progesterone (P4) blocked the apoptotic action of the Fas/FasL system in lactotropes and somatotropes incubated with E2. Both E2 and P4 increased the percentage of cells expressing Fas at the cell membrane. Our results show that Fas activation induces apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes at proestrus but not at diestrus. Gonadal steroids may be involved in the apoptotic response of lactotropes and somatotropes, suggesting that Fas activation is implicated in the renewal of these pituitary subpopulations during the estrous cycle. The effect of gonadal steroids on Fas expression may be only partially involved in regulation of the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway in the anterior pituitary gland.

  3. The C. elegans VAPB homolog VPR-1 is a permissive signal for gonad development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottee, Pauline A; Cole, Tim; Schultz, Jessica; Hoang, Hieu D; Vibbert, Jack; Han, Sung Min; Miller, Michael A

    2017-06-15

    VAMP/synaptobrevin-associated proteins (VAPs) contain an N-terminal major sperm protein domain (MSPd) that is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VAPs have an intracellular housekeeping function, as well as an extracellular signaling function mediated by the secreted MSPd. Here we show that the C. elegans VAP homolog VPR-1 is essential for gonad development. vpr-1 null mutants are maternal effect sterile due to arrested gonadogenesis following embryo hatching. Somatic gonadal precursor cells and germ cells fail to proliferate fully and complete their respective differentiation programs. Maternal or zygotic vpr-1 expression is sufficient to induce gonadogenesis and fertility. Genetic mosaic and cell type-specific expression studies indicate that vpr-1 activity is important in the nervous system, germ line and intestine. VPR-1 acts in parallel to Notch signaling, a key regulator of germline stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Neuronal vpr-1 expression is sufficient for gonadogenesis induction during a limited time period shortly after hatching. These results support the model that the secreted VPR-1 MSPd acts at least in part on gonadal sheath cell precursors in L1 to early L2 stage hermaphrodites to permit gonadogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Production, optimisation and characterisation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chan; Sun, Le-Chang; Yan, Long-Jie; Lin, Yi-Chen; Liu, Guang-Ming; Cao, Min-Jie

    2018-01-24

    In this study, production of bioactive peptides with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) gonad using commercial protamex was optimised by response surface methodology (RSM). As a result, the optimal condition to achieve the highest ACE inhibitory activity in sea cucumber gonad hydrolysate (SCGH) was hydrolysis for 1.95 h and E/S of 0.75%. For further characterisation, three individual peptides (EIYR, LF and NAPHMR) were purified and identified. The peptide NAPHMR showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity with IC 50 of 260.22 ± 3.71 μM. NAPHMR was stable against simulated gastrointestinal digestion and revealed no significant cytotoxicity toward Caco-2 cells. Molecular docking study suggested that Arg, His and Asn residues in NAPHMR interact with the S2 pocket or Zn 2+ binding motifs of ACE via hydrogen or π-bonds, potentially contributing to ACE inhibitory effect. Sea cucumber gonad is thus a potential resource to produce ACE inhibitory peptides for preparation of functional foods.

  5. Prey resources before spawning influence gonadal investment of female, but not male, white crappie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B.; Thomas, S.E.; Stein, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, an outdoor pool experiment was used to evaluate the effect of prey resources during 4 months before spawning on the gonadal investments of male and female white crappie Pomoxis annularis, a popular freshwater sportfish that exhibits erratic recruitment. Fish were assigned one of three feeding treatments: starved, fed once every 5 days (intermediate) or fed daily (high). All measurements of male testes (i.e. wet mass, energy density and spermatocrit) were similar across treatments. Conversely, high-fed females produced larger ovaries than those of intermediate-fed and starved fish, and invested more energy in their ovaries than starved fish. Compared to pre-experiment fish, starved and intermediate-fed females appeared to increase their ovary size by relying on liver energy stores (‘capital’ spawning). Conversely, high-fed females increased liver and gonad mass, implying an ‘income’-spawning strategy (where gonads are built from recently acquired energy). Fecundity did not differ among treatments, but high-fed fish built larger eggs than those starved. Females rarely ‘skipped’ spawning opportunities when prey resources were low, as only 8% of starved females and 8% of intermediate-fed females lacked vitellogenic eggs. These results suggest that limited prey resources during the months before spawning can limit ovary production, which, in turn, can limit reproductive success of white crappies.

  6. SOX4 regulates gonad morphogenesis and promotes male germ cell differentiation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Arsenault, Michel; Ng, Ee Ting; Longmuss, Enya; Chau, Tevin Chui-Ying; Hartwig, Sunny; Koopman, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The group C SOX transcription factors SOX4, -11 and -12 play important and mutually overlapping roles in development of a number of organs. Here, we examined the role of SoxC genes during gonadal development in mice. All three genes were expressed in developing gonads of both sexes, predominantly in somatic cells, with Sox4 being most strongly expressed. Sox4 deficiency resulted in elongation of both ovaries and testes, and an increased number of testis cords. While female germ cells entered meiosis normally, male germ cells showed reduced levels of differentiation markers Nanos2 and Dnmt3l and increased levels of pluripotency genes Cripto and Nanog, suggesting that SOX4 may normally act to restrict the pluripotency period of male germ cells and ensure their proper differentiation. Finally, our data reveal that SOX4 (and, to a lesser extent, SOX11 and -12) repressed transcription of the sex-determining gene Sox9 via an upstream testis-specific enhancer core (TESCO) element in fetal gonads, raising the possibility that SOXC proteins may function as transcriptional repressors in a context-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A special gonad protection for comparing sciatic radiographs of infants with dosimetric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepler, P.; Havranek, C.; Nava, N.

    1976-01-01

    For comparing radiographs to recognize sciatic dysplasias, a special gonad protection was applied leaving unprotected, in the manner of a window, only those parts of the skeleton which are of importance for this examination, while all surrounding parts including the gonads are covered by a 1.5 mm lead sheet. The testicles are additionally protected against scattered rediation by a trough-shaped 1.5 mm lead sheet. The effectiveness of this device has been tested by dosimetric studies with LiF and CaF 2 dosemeters directly on the patient. For correcting the energy dependence of the CaF 2 dosemeters, a special method was applied. Besides the intake and exit dose the gonad exposure was determined by measurements behind the scrotum and in the rectum, 7 cm above the anus. The smallest radiation exposure at still satisfactory quality of the picture was achieved by the setting of 60 kV, 1 mAs, namely 0.12 +- 0.04 mrads for the ovary and 0.03 - 0.07 mR for the scrotum. For girls this would correspond to half the natural daily radiation exposure, for boys to only one tenth of this value. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Paediatric pelvic imaging: improvement in gonad shield placement by multidisciplinary audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, M.; Waugh, R.; McCallum, H.; Montgomery, R.J.; Aszkenasy, O.M. [South Cleveland Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    In 1996, there were local reports of poor gonad protection for paediatric pelvic radiographs. To investigate the nature of the problem and make necessary improvements. Materials and methods: A retrospective audit of 218 paediatric pelvic radiographs was undertaken in 1997. Each radiograph was assessed for the presence of a gonad shield, appropriateness of the device and its position. A multidisciplinary team was formed with representation from radiology, radiography, orthopaedics and medical physics to investigate ways of improving technique and reducing patient dose. These included radiographer training and the introduction of digital fluoroscopy as an alternative imaging technique in follow-up patients. There were further rounds of data collection in 1998 and 1999. In round 1, a gonad shield was present in 77.9 % of boys' films and 76 % of girls' films where one should have been, increasing to 85.2 % and 85.4 % respectively by round 3 of the audit (P < 0.05). Only 31.6 % of boys' devices and 21.9 % of girls' devices were correctly positioned in round 1, increasing to 78.3 % and 94.3 %, respectively, by round 3 of the audit (P < 0.05). After round 1, no inappropriate devices were used. Audit was an effective tool in gaining the resources needed to improve technique and reduce radiation exposure in children. The multidisciplinary approach was vital in the success of this project. (orig.)

  9. A new gonad protector for public survey X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, M.

    1976-01-01

    A new gonad shield intended to be used for pubic survey X-ray images is introduced. This protector is mounted on the light sight and produces a shadow free of central radiation on the patient's body. The shield provides such a shape that in women the area limited by the terminal line and in which 95% of the ovaria are situated, is covered, and that in men the region below the pubic angle is protected. The 2 mm thick lead shield has dimensions of 4.0 to 2.5 cm and is inserted into a plexiglass ruler which lies freely movable on a plexiglass plate under the light sight. This shield was tested on the water phantom and on 125 patients. With this protector it was possible to lower the surface dosages calculated by film dosimeters to 20% in women, and also to reduce the gonade dosages to 9% of the dosages without protection. The position of the new gonad protector at a distance from the body provides several advantages: the shield does not alter its position when the patient moves, the protector does not slip off the abdomen in adipose female patients, the radiation protected region has always the same extent, independent from the abdominal curvature of the female patient, the hygienic problems are eliminated, and the shield can be used for both sexes. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Paediatric pelvic imaging: improvement in gonad shield placement by multidisciplinary audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M; Waugh, R; McCallum, H; Montgomery, R J; Aszkenasy, O M

    2001-09-01

    In 1996, there were local reports of poor gonad protection for paediatric pelvic radiographs. To investigate the nature of the problem and make necessary improvements. A retrospective audit of 218 paediatric pelvic radiographs was undertaken in 1997. Each radiograph was assessed for the presence of a gonad shield, appropriateness of the device and its position. A multidisciplinary team was formed with representation from radiology, radiography, orthopaedics and medical physics to investigate ways of improving technique and reducing patient dose. These included radiographer training and the introduction of digital fluoroscopy as an alternative imaging technique in follow-up patients. There were further rounds of data collection in 1998 and 1999. In round 1, a gonad shield was present in 77.9 % of boys' films and 76 % of girls' films where one should have been, increasing to 85.2 % and 85.4 % respectively by round 3 of the audit (P < 0.05). Only 31.6 % of boys' devices and 21.9 % of girls' devices were correctly positioned in round 1, increasing to 78.3 % and 94.3 %, respectively, by round 3 of the audit (P < 0.05). After round 1, no inappropriate devices were used. Audit was an effective tool in gaining the resources needed to improve technique and reduce radiation exposure in children. The multidisciplinary approach was vital in the success of this project.

  11. Measurement of the gonad dose of infants during X-ray examination of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, N.; Krepler, P.; Harranek, C.

    1977-01-01

    To protect the gonads during X-ray examination of the hip joints a special lead shield of 1,5 mm Pb with a fenestration can be used. This window allows the delineation of all parts of the skeleton to make a correct diagnosis while all other parts, especially the gonads, are safely shielded. To check the effectiveness of this gonad protection direct dosimetric studies on the infants were performed with LiF and CaF 2 :Dy TL-dosimeters at different adjustments of the x-ray machine and with various screen-film combinations. To correct the energy response of the LiF and CaF 2 :Dy dosimeters in the energy range below 100 keV tandem dosimeters were used. From the ratio of indications by TLD-200/TLD-100 the effective energy of the x-ray spectrum can be estimated and therefrom the response of the high sensitive TLD-200 dosimeters determined. To measure the ovary dose the dosimeters were placed in the rectum on the tip of a tube. The lowest exposure values were registrated using rare earth intensifying screens and generator adjustment of 60 kV and 1 mAs: 0,12 mrad for the ovary and 0,03 - 0,07 mR for the testes

  12. Germ cells are not required to establish the female pathway in mouse fetal gonads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M Maatouk

    Full Text Available The fetal gonad is composed of a mixture of somatic cell lineages and germ cells. The fate of the gonad, male or female, is determined by a population of somatic cells that differentiate into Sertoli or granulosa cells and direct testis or ovary development. It is well established that germ cells are not required for the establishment or maintenance of Sertoli cells or testis cords in the male gonad. However, in the agametic ovary, follicles do not form suggesting that germ cells may influence granulosa cell development. Prior investigations of ovaries in which pre-meiotic germ cells were ablated during fetal life reported no histological changes during stages prior to birth. However, whether granulosa cells underwent normal molecular differentiation was not investigated. In cases where germ cell loss occurred secondary to other mutations, transdifferentiation of granulosa cells towards a Sertoli cell fate was observed, raising questions about whether germ cells play an active role in establishing or maintaining the fate of granulosa cells. We developed a group of molecular markers associated with ovarian development, and show here that the loss of pre-meiotic germ cells does not disrupt the somatic ovarian differentiation program during fetal life, or cause transdifferentiation as defined by expression of Sertoli markers. Since we do not find defects in the ovarian somatic program, the subsequent failure to form follicles at perinatal stages is likely attributable to the absence of germ cells rather than to defects in the somatic cells.

  13. Germ Cells Are Not Required to Establish the Female Pathway in Mouse Fetal Gonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatouk, Danielle M.; Mork, Lindsey; Hinson, Ashley; Kobayashi, Akio; McMahon, Andrew P.; Capel, Blanche

    2012-01-01

    The fetal gonad is composed of a mixture of somatic cell lineages and germ cells. The fate of the gonad, male or female, is determined by a population of somatic cells that differentiate into Sertoli or granulosa cells and direct testis or ovary development. It is well established that germ cells are not required for the establishment or maintenance of Sertoli cells or testis cords in the male gonad. However, in the agametic ovary, follicles do not form suggesting that germ cells may influence granulosa cell development. Prior investigations of ovaries in which pre-meiotic germ cells were ablated during fetal life reported no histological changes during stages prior to birth. However, whether granulosa cells underwent normal molecular differentiation was not investigated. In cases where germ cell loss occurred secondary to other mutations, transdifferentiation of granulosa cells towards a Sertoli cell fate was observed, raising questions about whether germ cells play an active role in establishing or maintaining the fate of granulosa cells. We developed a group of molecular markers associated with ovarian development, and show here that the loss of pre-meiotic germ cells does not disrupt the somatic ovarian differentiation program during fetal life, or cause transdifferentiation as defined by expression of Sertoli markers. Since we do not find defects in the ovarian somatic program, the subsequent failure to form follicles at perinatal stages is likely attributable to the absence of germ cells rather than to defects in the somatic cells. PMID:23091613

  14. Paediatric pelvic imaging: improvement in gonad shield placement by multidisciplinary audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, M.; Waugh, R.; McCallum, H.; Montgomery, R.J.; Aszkenasy, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, there were local reports of poor gonad protection for paediatric pelvic radiographs. To investigate the nature of the problem and make necessary improvements. Materials and methods: A retrospective audit of 218 paediatric pelvic radiographs was undertaken in 1997. Each radiograph was assessed for the presence of a gonad shield, appropriateness of the device and its position. A multidisciplinary team was formed with representation from radiology, radiography, orthopaedics and medical physics to investigate ways of improving technique and reducing patient dose. These included radiographer training and the introduction of digital fluoroscopy as an alternative imaging technique in follow-up patients. There were further rounds of data collection in 1998 and 1999. In round 1, a gonad shield was present in 77.9 % of boys' films and 76 % of girls' films where one should have been, increasing to 85.2 % and 85.4 % respectively by round 3 of the audit (P < 0.05). Only 31.6 % of boys' devices and 21.9 % of girls' devices were correctly positioned in round 1, increasing to 78.3 % and 94.3 %, respectively, by round 3 of the audit (P < 0.05). After round 1, no inappropriate devices were used. Audit was an effective tool in gaining the resources needed to improve technique and reduce radiation exposure in children. The multidisciplinary approach was vital in the success of this project. (orig.)

  15. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Dong; Huang, Min; Lü, Wen-Gang; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Ming-Hui; Li, Xiang-Min; Wang, Rong-Xia; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2015-01-01

    The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and antizyme (AZ) are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ) consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC) analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone.

  16. Involvement of Antizyme Characterized from the Small Abalone Haliotis diversicolor in Gonadal Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Li

    Full Text Available The small abalone Haliotis diversicolor is an economically important mollusk that is widely cultivated in Southern China. Gonad precocity may affect the aquaculture of small abalone. Polyamines, which are small cationic molecules essential for cellular proliferation, may affect gonadal development. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC and antizyme (AZ are essential elements of a feedback circuit that regulates cellular polyamines. This paper presents the molecular cloning and characterization of AZ from small abalone. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA sequence of H. diversicolor AZ (HdiODCAZ consisted of two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs and conformed to the +1 frameshift property of the frame. Thin Layer chromatography (TLC analysis suggested that the expressed protein encoded by +1 ORF2 was the functional AZ that targets ODC to 26S proteasome degradation. The result demonstrated that the expression level of AZ was higher than that of ODC in the ovary of small abalone. In addition, the expression profiles of ODC and AZ at the different development stages of the ovary indicated that these two genes might be involved in the gonadal development of small abalone.

  17. Gonadal disorder in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a biomarker of environmental stress in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh Dawood; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  18. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827 as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tancioni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  19. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Dawood Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas. PMID:25664693

  20. Steroid signaling system responds differently to temperature and hormone manipulation in the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M; Crews, D

    2007-01-01

    Many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Temperature determines gonadal sex during the middle of embryogenesis, or the temperature-sensitive period (TSP), when gonadal sex is labile to both temperature and hormones--particularly estrogen. The biological actions of steroid hormones are mediated by their receptors as defined here as the classic transcriptional regulation of target genes. To elucidate estrogen action during sex determination, we examined estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1, hereafter referred to as ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (Esr2, hereafter referred to as ERbeta), and androgen receptor (Ar, hereafter referred to as AR) expression in slider turtle gonads before, during and after the TSP, as well as following sex reversal via temperature or steroid hormone manipulation. ERalpha and AR levels spike at the female-producing temperature while ovarian sex is determined, but none of the receptors exhibited sexually dimorphic localization within the gonad prior to morphological differentiation. All three receptors respond differentially to sex-reversing treatments. When shifted to female-producing temperatures, embryos maintain ERalpha and AR expression while ERbeta is reduced. When shifted to male-producing temperatures, medullary expression of all three receptors is reduced. Feminization via estradiol (E(2)) treatment at a male-producing temperature profoundly changed the expression patterns for all three receptors. ERalpha and ERbeta redirected to the cortex in E(2)-created ovaries, while AR medullary expression was transiently reduced. Although warmer incubation temperature and estrogen result in the same endpoint (ovarian development), our results indicate different steroid signaling patterns between temperature- and estrogen-induced feminization. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones and enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    General principles of radioimmunoassay are reviewed. Detailed procedures are reviewed for the following hormones: insulin, pituitary hormones, gonadotropins, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, glucagon, gastrin, and peptide hormones. Radioimmunoassay of enzymes is also discussed. (U.S.)

  2. Usability evaluation through gonad shielding production of pediatric patients by gender and age rating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Park, Jung Eun; Chun, Woon Kwan; Ju, Yong Jin; Yang, Nam Hee; Dong, Kyung Rae

    2015-01-01

    The gonad shielding is used to minimize the impact of the exposure to gonads when Abdomen, Plevis and Hip X-ray inspections are conducted on radiation impressionable pediatric patients. By the way, the gonad is palpable difficult and impossible to check visually because it's a sensitive area, so tests are conducted with the approximate location of shielding, thereby appearing problems of not shielding gonads accurately. Accordingly, this study produced shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and studied the method of positioning shields with ASIS as a reference point without palpable sensitive areas, and tried to evaluate its usability. The study surveyed 30 pediatric patients by gender and age, who came and got inspected in Department of Radiology, our hospital from February 2012 to January 2014 and obtained the value of tolerance by measuring the average size of the pelvis using the distance measurement function of Infinitt Piview with the images stored in the PACS and producing shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and specifying the areas at random for the comparative analysis of pre- and post-using. It calculated the technology statistics (mean±SD) with the value of tolerance measured the length using SPSS 12.0 statistical program. As for boys, differences in the tolerance range of pre- and post-using shields were 2.69 mm in case of 1 year old, 2.58 mm in 2 years, 2.37 mm in 3 years, 2.815 mm in 4-5 years, 2.043 mm in 7-10 years, and as for girls,1.92 mm in 1-2 years, 1.75 mm in 3-4 years, 2.52 mm in 5-6 years and 1.93 mm in 7-10. After analyzing the pre- and post-using shields for all of boys and girls, there were statistically significant differences (P<0.050). It is considered that we can minimize the exposure to gonads and get a better video for diagnosis in testing high biological impressionable pediatric, if we use shields correctly with ASIS as a reference point considering its shape and size by age and gender in Abdomen, Plevis

  3. Usability evaluation through gonad shielding production of pediatric patients by gender and age rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, Sung Hyun; Park, Jung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Woon Kwan; Ju, Yong Jin; Yang, Nam Hee [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The gonad shielding is used to minimize the impact of the exposure to gonads when Abdomen, Plevis and Hip X-ray inspections are conducted on radiation impressionable pediatric patients. By the way, the gonad is palpable difficult and impossible to check visually because it's a sensitive area, so tests are conducted with the approximate location of shielding, thereby appearing problems of not shielding gonads accurately. Accordingly, this study produced shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and studied the method of positioning shields with ASIS as a reference point without palpable sensitive areas, and tried to evaluate its usability. The study surveyed 30 pediatric patients by gender and age, who came and got inspected in Department of Radiology, our hospital from February 2012 to January 2014 and obtained the value of tolerance by measuring the average size of the pelvis using the distance measurement function of Infinitt Piview with the images stored in the PACS and producing shields by age and gender of pediatric patients and specifying the areas at random for the comparative analysis of pre- and post-using. It calculated the technology statistics (mean±SD) with the value of tolerance measured the length using SPSS 12.0 statistical program. As for boys, differences in the tolerance range of pre- and post-using shields were 2.69 mm in case of 1 year old, 2.58 mm in 2 years, 2.37 mm in 3 years, 2.815 mm in 4-5 years, 2.043 mm in 7-10 years, and as for girls,1.92 mm in 1-2 years, 1.75 mm in 3-4 years, 2.52 mm in 5-6 years and 1.93 mm in 7-10. After analyzing the pre- and post-using shields for all of boys and girls, there were statistically significant differences (P<0.050). It is considered that we can minimize the exposure to gonads and get a better video for diagnosis in testing high biological impressionable pediatric, if we use shields correctly with ASIS as a reference point considering its shape and size by age and gender in Abdomen, Plevis

  4. Testicular shield for para-aortic radiotherapy and estimation of gonad doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Kannadhasan, S; Shariff, M H; Ghamrawy, Kamal El

    2008-10-01

    For radiotherapy of para-aortic and abdominal regions in male patients, gonads are to be protected to receive less than 2% of the prescribed dose. A testicular shield was fabricated for abdominal radiotherapy with 15 MV X-rays ((Clinac 2300 CD, Varian AG) with low melting point alloy (Cerroband). The dimensions of the testicular shield were 6.5 cm diameter and 3.5 cm depth with 1.5 cm wall thickness. During treatment, this shield was held in position by a rectangular sponge and Styrofoam support. Phantom measurement was carried out with a humanoid phantom and a 0.6 cc ion chamber. The mean energy of the scattered photon was calculated for single scattering at selected distances from the beam edge and with different field dimensions. One patient received radiotherapy with an inverted Y field and gonad doses were estimated using calibrated thermo-luminescent detector (TLD) chips. Measured doses with the ion chamber were 7.1 and 3.5% of the mid-plane doses without a shield at 3 and 7.5 cm off-field respectively. These values decreased to 4.6 and 1.7% with the bottom shield alone, and to 1.7 and 0.8% with both bottom and top shields covering the ion chamber. The measured doses at the gonads during the patient's treatment were 0.5-0.92% for the AP field (0.74 +/- 0.17%, n = 5) and 0.5-1.2% for the PA field (0.88 +/- 0.24%, n = 5). The dose received by the testis for the full course of treatment was 32 cGy (0.8%) for a total mid-plane dose of 40 Gy. The first-scatter energy estimated at the gonads is around 1.14 MeV for a primary beam of 15 MV for a long axis dimension of 37 cm of primary field. During the patient's treatment, the estimated absorbed doses at the gonads were comparable with reported values in similar treatments. The testicular shield reported in this study is of light weight and could be used conveniently in treatments of abdominal fields.

  5. Testicular shield for para-aortic radiotherapy and estimation of gonad doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For radiotherapy of para-aortic and abdominal regions in male patients, gonads are to be protected to receive less than 2% of the prescribed dose. A testicular shield was fabricated for abdominal radiotherapy with 15 MV X-rays ((Clinac 2300 CD, Varian AG with low melting point alloy (Cerroband. The dimensions of the testicular shield were 6.5 cm diameter and 3.5 cm depth with 1.5 cm wall thickness. During treatment, this shield was held in position by a rectangular sponge and Styrofoam support. Phantom measurement was carried out with a humanoid phantom and a 0.6 cc ion chamber. The mean energy of the scattered photon was calculated for single scattering at selected distances from the beam edge and with different field dimensions. One patient received radiotherapy with an inverted Y field and gonad doses were estimated using calibrated thermo-luminescent detector (TLD chips. Measured doses with the ion chamber were 7.1 and 3.5% of the mid-plane doses without a shield at 3 and 7.5 cm off-field respectively. These values decreased to 4.6 and 1.7% with the bottom shield alone, and to 1.7 and 0.8% with both bottom and top shields covering the ion chamber. The measured doses at the gonads during the patient′s treatment were 0.5-0.92% for the AP field (0.74 ± 0.17%, n = 5 and 0.5-1.2% for the PA field (0.88 ± 0.24%, n = 5. The dose received by the testis for the full course of treatment was 32 cGy (0.8% for a total mid-plane dose of 40 Gy. The first-scatter energy estimated at the gonads is around 1.14 MeV for a primary beam of 15 MV for a long axis dimension of 37 cm of primary field. During the patient′s treatment, the estimated absorbed doses at the gonads were comparable with reported values in similar treatments. The testicular shield reported in this study is of light weight and could be used conveniently in treatments of abdominal fields.

  6. Thyroid hormone actions on male reproductive system of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo-Neto, Aldo; da Silva Rodrigues, Maira; Habibi, Hamid R; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique

    2018-04-17

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in the regulation of many biological processes of vertebrates, such as growth, metabolism, morphogenesis and reproduction. An increasing number of studies have been focused on the involvement of THs in the male reproductive system of vertebrates, in particular of fish. Therefore, this mini-review aims to summarize the main findings on THs role in male reproductive system of fish, focusing on sex differentiation, testicular development and spermatogenesis. The existing data in the literature have demonstrated that THs exert their roles at the different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In general a positive correlation has been shown between THs and fish reproductive status; where THs are associated with testicular development, growth and maturation. Recently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of THs in spermatogenesis have been unraveled in zebrafish testis. THs promote germ cell proliferation and differentiation by increasing a stimulatory growth factor of spermatogenesis produced by Sertoli cells. In addition, THs enhanced the gonadotropin-induced androgen release in zebrafish testis. Next to their functions in the adult testis, THs are involved in the gonadal sex differentiation through modulating sex-related gene expression, and testicular development via regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation. In conclusion, this mini-review showed that THs modulate the male reproductive system during the different life stages of fish. The physiological and molecular mechanisms showed a link between the thyroid and reproduction, suggesting a possibly co-evolution and interdependence of these two systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prolonged inhibition of luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels in male rats with the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist SB-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, L; Bajusz, S; Groot, K; Schally, A V

    1990-09-01

    levels rose to 33 ng/ml 3 hr after administration and then fell gradually to approximately 3.4 ng/ml on day 16, but a second small peak was seen on day 28. Subsequently, the analog levels decreased slowly to 2.9 ng/ml on day 42. At this time, testosterone serum levels were still significantly lower than in controls. These overall results demonstrate the efficacy of SB-75 in the suppression of the pituitary-gonadal axis. This modern luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist can possibly be used for treating sex hormone-sensitive cancers and other disorders.

  8. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  9. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in relation to liver function in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Serum concentrations of oestrone, oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than 0.01) raised in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (no. = 42) compared with age-matched controls (no. = 20). No signi......Serum concentrations of oestrone, oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than 0.01) raised in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (no. = 42) compared with age-matched controls (no. = 20...... affected liver function (no. = 18) had significantly (P less than 0.05) raised serum concentrations of testosterone, FSH, and LH when compared with both controls and patients with severely affected liver function (no. = 13). Serum concentrations of testosterone, FSH, and LH in the latter group showed...

  11. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.; Richmond, M.; Quesada, S.; Lahaman, S.; Ramirez, A.; Herrera, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  12. Reproductive hormones and metabolic syndrome in 24 testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandak, M; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A; Lauritsen, J; Kier, M G G; Mortensen, M S; Oturai, P S; Mortensen, J; Hojman, P; Helge, J W; Daugaard, G

    2017-07-01

    Testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to healthy controls. However, because of the fetal etiology of testicular cancer, familial unrelated healthy men might not be an optimal control group. The objective of this study was to clarify if testicular cancer survivors have impaired gonadal function and increased risk of metabolic syndrome when compared to their biological brothers. A cross-sectional study of testicular cancer survivors (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02240966) was conducted between 2014 and 2016. Of 158 testicular cancer survivors included, 24 had a biological brother who accepted to participate in the study. Serum levels of reproductive hormones and prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to International Diabetes Federation Criteria and National Cholesterol Education Program (Adult Treatment Panel III) criteria comprised the main outcome measures of the study. Median age was similar in testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers [44 years (IQR 39-50) vs. 46 (40-53) years respectively (p = 0.1)]. In testicular cancer survivors, follow-up since treatment was 12 years (7-19). Serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were elevated (p ≤ 0.001), while total testosterone, free testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone were lower (p ≤ 0.001) in testicular cancer survivors than in their biological brothers. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was similar and apart from HDL-cholesterol, which was lower in testicular cancer survivors (p = 0.01); there were no differences in the individual components of the metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their brothers. In conclusion, gonadal function was impaired in testicular cancer survivors, while we did not detect any difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between testicular cancer survivors and their biological brothers. © 2017 American

  13. Gonadal function and fertility after stem cell transplantation in childhood: comparison of a reduced intensity conditioning regimen containing melphalan with a myeloablative regimen containing busulfan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasiuk, Anna; Nussey, Stephen; Veys, Paul; Amrolia, Persis; Rao, Kanchan; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna; Leiper, Alison

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of late sequelae after myeloablative conditioning regimens for stem-cell transplantation (SCT) has prompted the introduction of reduced-intensity chemotherapy (RIC) regimens in an attempt to reduce toxicity and spare fertility. We retrospectively evaluated gonadal function in survivors of SCT in childhood by comparing patients conditioned with a myeloablative regimen containing busulfan and cyclophosphamide (BuCy, N = 51, 28 boys) and a RIC regimen containing fludarabine and melphalan (FluMel, N = 40, 19 boys). Spontaneous puberty occurred in 56% of girls and 89% of boys after BuCy, whereas 90% of females and all males in the FluMel group entered puberty spontaneously (P = 0·012). Significantly more females (61%) conditioned with BuCy required hormone replacement compared with the FluMel group (10·5%, P = 0·012). Females in the FluMel group took significantly longer to develop elevation of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations (>10 iu/l) from the onset of puberty than females in the BuCy group (median 5·2 years vs. 2·7 years respectively, P = 0·0135). In males no difference was noted between the two conditioning groups in time to FSH elevation (median 4 years in FluMel versus 6 years in BuCy). Whilst the two regimens have similar effects on the testis, ovarian function seems to be better preserved in females undergoing SCT with RIC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of BPA and E2 on expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengling; Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Qingyin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2013-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly viewed as persistent pollutants, similar to natural hormones in function. This paper describes the expression profiles of 7 genes ( DMRT, VTG GnRHR FSHR CYP17A CYP19A, and CYP19B) involved in sex steroid synthesis and action as well as sexual development in adult male and female Cynoglossus semilaevis, after exposure to different concentrations of Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Both BPA (1, 10, 50, 125, and 250 mg/kg) and E2 (0.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) induced changes in target gene expression, although the estrogenic effects of E2 as a model estrogen were stronger. Among the 7 genes, VTG CYP17A and CYP19 responded strongly to BPA or E2 exposure and can thus serve as reference biomarkers for estrogenic EDCs exposure in marine teleosts. These data will provide a window to establish a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal model in C. semilaevis to better understand the effect pathways of EDCs.

  15. Comparing effects of metformin and ginger rhizome extract on the pituitary - gonad function in adult female rats with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Foroozandeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. Due to the prevalence of PCOS in worldwide, this study aimed to compare the effect of metformin with ginger on pituitary-gonad function in PCOS adult female rats was performed. Methods: In this experimental study, 72 adult female rats divided to control, sham PCOS and 7 experimental groups PCOS receiving metformin at 500mg/kg, the ginger at doses 100, 200 & 300mg/kg and ginger at doses 100, 200 & 300mg /kg with metformin at 500 mg/kg were used. All injections by gavage and for 28 days were conducted. After phlebotomizing the animals, to measure hormones FSH, LH and estrogen, progesterone and testosterone, their ovaries removed and after preparing tissue sections, follicles were counted. Data obtained by 18-SPSS software and ANOVA and Duncan were analyzed, then the significant difference of data at P> 0.05was considered. Results: The results showed that letrozole by creating PCOS causes to increase atretic follicles, testosterone, estrogen and reduce other follicles and FSH at P<0.01, and metformin and Ginger alone and together cause to reduce atretic follicles, testosterone, estrogen and increase other follicles and FSH at P<0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that metformin and Ginger alone or together cause to improve PCOS, and these improvements in both groups receiving simultaneous ginger with metformin can be seen more.

  16. Expression profiling of c-kit and its impact after esiRNA silencing during gonadal development in catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laldinsangi, C; Senthilkumaran, B

    2018-04-03

    C-kit receptor is a member of a family of growth factor receptors that have tyrosine kinase activity, and are involved in the transduction of growth regulatory signals across plasma membrane by activation of its ligand, kitl/scf. The present study analysed mRNA and protein expression profiles of c-kit in the gonads of catfish, Clarias gariepinus, using real time PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Tissue distribution analysis revealed higher expression mainly in the catfish gonads. Ontogeny studies showed minimal expression during early developmental stages and highest during 50-75 days post hatch, and the dimorphic expression in gonads decreased gradually till adulthood, which might suggest an important role for this gene around later stages of sex differentiation and gonadal development. Expression of C-kit was analysed at various phases of gonadal cycle in both male and female, which showed minimal expression during the resting phase, and higher expression in male compared to females during the pre-spawning phase. In vitro and in vivo induction using human chorionic gonadotropin elevated the expression of c-kit indicating the regulatory influence of hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. In vivo transient gene silencing using c-kit-esiRNA in adult catfish during gonadal recrudescence showed a decrease in c-kit expression, which affected the expression level of germ cell meiotic marker sycp3, as well as several factors and steroidogenic enzyme genes involved in germ cell development. Decrease in the levels of serum 11-KT and T were also observed after esiRNA silencing. The findings of this study suggest that c-kit has an important role in the process of germ cell proliferation, development and maturation during gonadal development and recrudescence in catfish. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Manifestation of x-radiation induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutation impairing the development of imaginal disks and gonads in Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeleva, Eh.A.; Ivanov, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made of Drosophila melanogaster mutations impairing the development of imaginal disks. The state of gonads in these mutants was not studied. Using X-radiation a lethal mutation in X chromosome was obtained that induced degeneration of imaginal disks at the 3d stage of larva development. The gonads of the mutants at this stage of development vary in size. The transplantation tests showed that the mutation manifests itself in both the imaginal disks and the gonads

  18. Gonad organochlorine concentrations and plasma steroid levels in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E.P.; Fitzpatrick, M.S.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.; Yates, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sturgeon are an important fishery resource world-wide, providing food and income through commercial, sport, and tribal fisheries. However, sturgeon populations are imperiled in many areas due to overharvest, habitat loss, and pollution. White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are found along the west coast of North America from San Francisco Bay, USA to British Columbia, Canada. The Columbia River, located in the Pacific Northwest USA, supports active commercial, sport, and tribal white sturgeon fisheries. The white sturgeon fishery in the Columbia River estuary is one of the most productive sturgeon fisheries in the World. Despite the success of the Columbia River estuary white sturgeon fishery, the populations within the impounded sections (i.e. behind the hydroelectric dams) of the Columbia River experience poor reproductive success (Beamesderfer et al. 1995). This poor reproductive success has been attributed to hydroelectric development, but water pollution could also be a significant factor. The bottom dwelling life history and late maturing reproductive strategy for this species may make it particularly sensitive to the adverse effects of bioaccumulative pollutants.The Columbia River receives effluent from bleached-kraft pulp mills, aluminum smelters, municipal sewage treatment plants and runoff from agricultural. industrial, and urban areas. Bioaccumulative contaminants that have the potential for endocrine disruption have been detected in fish and sediments from the Columbia River (Foster et al. 1999). An integrated system of hormones control reproduction in vertebrates. Plasma steroids direct developmental events essential for reproduction. Disruption of endocrine control by contaminants has been linked to reproductive anomalies and failure in a number of vertebrate species (Guillette et al. 1996; Jobling et al. 1996). Because of this, it is important to understand if organochlorine compounds are accumulating in Columbia River white sturgeon and having

  19. Expression of a natural antisense transcript of Cg-Foxl2 during the gonadic differentiation of the oyster Crassostrea gigas: first demonstration in the gonads of a lophotrochozoa species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santerre, C; Sourdaine, P; Martinez, A-S

    2012-01-01

    In the oyster Crassostrea gigas, a successive hermaphrodite, Cg-Foxl2, an ortholog of Foxl2, is suspected to be involved in vitellogenesis or female sex determination. The existence of a natural antisense transcript (NAT) of this factor has been suspected in gonads but needs to be confirmed to better understand the early events of the gonadic differentiation. The occurrence of this NAT was studied by orientation-specific RT-PCR. The NAT and its mRNA expressions were investigated during the development and in adults by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. The presence of stable in vivo RNA-RNA duplexes was also explored by RNase protection-based approach. This work is the first evidence of characterization of a NAT in the gonads of mollusks and Lophotrochozoa. This NAT named Cg-Foxl2os is supposed to be polyadenylated and forms RNA-RNA duplexes with its mRNA. Cg-Foxl2os is significantly more expressed than Cg-Foxl2 in 2-month-old spats and in mature males. It is co-localized with the mRNA in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and spermatocytes. The results of this study demonstrate the existence of a NAT of Cg-Foxl2 in the gonads of C. gigas. It may regulate its mRNA expression through formation of cytoplasmic RNA-RNA duplexes during the oyster gonadic differentiation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The Influence of Season on the Gonad Index and Biochemical Composition of the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus from the Golf of Tunis

    OpenAIRE

    Arafa, Soumaya; Chouaibi, Moncef; Sadok, Saloua; El Abed, Amor

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal variation in the gonad weight and biochemical composition of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from the Golf of Tunis (Tunisia) were studied between September 2003 and August 2004. The highest gonad indices occurred in March (16.71%). The spawning period occurred between April and July and resulted in a fall in gonad indices to low level (7.12 ± 0.12%). Protein constituted the main component of the gonad, and lipid and carbohydrate were found at appreciable amounts. Consistent wit...