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Sample records for golgi apparatus

  1. Low cytoplasmic pH reduces ER-Golgi trafficking and induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tamura, Daisuke; Ishida, Ryuichi; Nakakoji, Yoko; Osako, Shiho; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Nakamura, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus was dramatically disassembled when cells were incubated in a low pH medium. The cis-Golgi disassembled quickly, extended tubules and spread to the periphery of cells within 30 min. In contrast, medial- and trans-Golgi were fragmented in significantly larger structures of smaller numbers at a slower rate and remained largely in structures distinct from the cis-Golgi. Electron microscopy revealed the complete disassembly of the Golgi stack in low pH treated cells. The effect of low pH was reversible; the Golgi apparatus reassembled to form a normal ribbon-like structure within 1-2h after the addition of a control medium. The anterograde ER to Golgi transport and retrograde Golgi to ER transport were both reduced under low pH. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors (ONO, BEL) effectively suppressed the Golgi disassembly, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 was involved in the Golgi disassembly. Over-expression of Rab1, 2, 30, 33 and 41 also suppressed the Golgi disassembly under low pH, suggesting that they have protective role against Golgi disassembly. Low pH treatment reduced cytoplasmic pH, but not the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus, strongly suggesting that reduction of the cytoplasmic pH triggered the Golgi disassembly. Because a lower cytoplasmic pH is induced in physiological or pathological conditions, disassembly of the Golgi apparatus and reduction of vesicular transport through the Golgi apparatus may play important roles in cell physiology and pathology. Furthermore, our findings indicated that low pH treatment can serve as an important tool to analyze the molecular mechanisms that support the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Low cytoplasmic pH reduces ER-Golgi trafficking and induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus

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    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tamura, Daisuke [Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Ishida, Ryuichi; Nakakoji, Yoko; Osako, Shiho [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Akitsugu [Department of Animal Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga, 526‐0829 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuhiro, E-mail: osaru3@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Laboratory for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Division of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus was dramatically disassembled when cells were incubated in a low pH medium. The cis-Golgi disassembled quickly, extended tubules and spread to the periphery of cells within 30 min. In contrast, medial- and trans-Golgi were fragmented in significantly larger structures of smaller numbers at a slower rate and remained largely in structures distinct from the cis-Golgi. Electron microscopy revealed the complete disassembly of the Golgi stack in low pH treated cells. The effect of low pH was reversible; the Golgi apparatus reassembled to form a normal ribbon-like structure within 1–2 h after the addition of a control medium. The anterograde ER to Golgi transport and retrograde Golgi to ER transport were both reduced under low pH. Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO, BEL) effectively suppressed the Golgi disassembly, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} was involved in the Golgi disassembly. Over-expression of Rab1, 2, 30, 33 and 41 also suppressed the Golgi disassembly under low pH, suggesting that they have protective role against Golgi disassembly. Low pH treatment reduced cytoplasmic pH, but not the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus, strongly suggesting that reduction of the cytoplasmic pH triggered the Golgi disassembly. Because a lower cytoplasmic pH is induced in physiological or pathological conditions, disassembly of the Golgi apparatus and reduction of vesicular transport through the Golgi apparatus may play important roles in cell physiology and pathology. Furthermore, our findings indicated that low pH treatment can serve as an important tool to analyze the molecular mechanisms that support the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. - Highlights: • The Golgi apparatus reversibly disassembles by low pH treatment. • The cis-Golgi disassembles quickly generating tubular structures. • Both anterograde and retrograde transport between the ER and the Golgi apparatus are reduced. • Phospholipase A{sub 2} inhibitors (ONO

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced RNA polymerase is associated with Golgi apparatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Polatnick, J; Wool, S H

    1985-01-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of the Golgi apparatus isolated by differential centrifugation from radiolabeled cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus showed about 10 protein bands. The virus-induced RNA polymerase was identified by immunoprecipitation and electron microscope staining procedures. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the polymerase passed through the Golgi apparatus in less than 1 h.

  4. The asymmetrical structure of Golgi apparatus membranes revealed by in situ atomic force microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiao Xu

    Full Text Available The Golgi apparatus has attracted intense attentions due to its fascinating morphology and vital role as the pivot of cellular secretory pathway since its discovery. However, its complex structure at the molecular level remains elusive due to limited approaches. In this study, the structure of Golgi apparatus, including the Golgi stack, cisternal structure, relevant tubules and vesicles, were directly visualized by high-resolution atomic force microscope. We imaged both sides of Golgi apparatus membranes and revealed that the outer leaflet of Golgi membranes is relatively smooth while the inner membrane leaflet is rough and covered by dense proteins. With the treatment of methyl-β-cyclodextrin and Triton X-100, we confirmed the existence of lipid rafts in Golgi apparatus membrane, which are mostly in the size of 20 nm -200 nm and appear irregular in shape. Our results may be of significance to reveal the structure-function relationship of the Golgi complex and pave the way for visualizing the endomembrane system in mammalian cells at the molecular level.

  5. Inheritance of the Golgi Apparatus and Cytokinesis Are Controlled by Degradation of GBF1

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    Roberto Magliozzi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Although much is known about how chromosome segregation is coupled to cell division, how intracellular organelles partition during mitotic division is poorly understood. We report that the phosphorylation-dependent degradation of the ARFGEF GBF1 regulates organelle trafficking during cell division. We show that, in mitosis, GBF1 is phosphorylated on Ser292 and Ser297 by casein kinase-2 allowing recognition by the F-box protein βTrCP. GBF1 interaction with βTrCP recruits GBF1 to the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase complex, triggering its degradation. Phosphorylation and degradation of GBF1 occur along microtubules at the intercellular bridge of telophase cells and are required for Golgi membrane positioning and postmitotic Golgi reformation. Indeed, expression of a non-degradable GBF1 mutant inhibits the transport of the Golgi cluster adjacent to the midbody toward the Golgi twin positioned next to the centrosome and results in defective Golgi reassembly and cytokinesis failure. These findings define a mechanism that controls postmitotic Golgi reassembly and inheritance. : Magliozzi et al. demonstrate that, in mitosis, the ARFGEF GBF1 is targeted for ubiquitin-dependent degradation by casein kinase-2 and the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase and show that GBF1 proteolysis is required for Golgi inheritance and accurate cell division. Keywords: cell division, cytokinesis, mitosis, Golgi apparatus, GBF1, ubiquitin-proteasome system, protein degradation, Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase

  6. Retrograde transport of protein toxins through the Golgi apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvig, Kirsten; Skotland, Tore; van Deurs, Bo

    2013-01-01

    at the cell surface, and they are endocytosed both by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. Sorting to the Golgi and retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are common to these toxins, but the exact mechanisms turn out to be toxin and cell-type dependent. In the ER...

  7. Ceramide transport from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus is not vesicle-mediated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, JW; Babia, T; Klappe, K; Egea, G; Hoekstra, D

    1998-01-01

    Ceramide (Cer) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus was measured under conditions that block vesicle-mediated protein transfer. This was done either in intact cells by reducing the incubation temperature to 15 degrees C, or in streptolysin O-permeabilized cells by

  8. Identification of a Golgi apparatus protein complex important for the asexual erythrocytic cycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallée, Stéphanie; Thériault, Catherine; Gagnon, Dominic; Kehrer, Jessica; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Mair, Gunnar R; Richard, Dave

    2018-03-26

    Compared with other eukaryotic cell types, malaria parasites appear to possess a more rudimentary Golgi apparatus being composed of dispersed, unstacked cis and trans-cisternae. Despite playing a central role in the secretory pathway of the parasite, few Plasmodium Golgi resident proteins have been characterised. We had previously identified a new Golgi resident protein of unknown function, which we had named Golgi Protein 1, and now show that it forms a complex with a previously uncharacterised transmembrane protein (Golgi Protein 2, GP2). The Golgi Protein complex localises to the cis-Golgi throughout the erythrocytic cycle and potentially also during the mosquito stages. Analysis of parasite strains where GP1 expression is conditionally repressed and/or the GP2 gene is inactivated reveals that though the Golgi protein complex is not essential at any stage of the parasite life cycle, it is important for optimal asexual development in the blood stages. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A smart drug: a pH-responsive photothermal ablation agent for Golgi apparatus activated cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fengfeng; Wen, Ying; Wei, Peng; Gao, Yilin; Zhou, Zhiguo; Xiao, Shuzhang; Yi, Tao

    2017-06-13

    We report a pH-responsive photothermal ablation agent (pH-PTT) based on cyanine dyes for photothermal therapy (PTT). The nanoparticles formed by BSA and pH-PTT preferentially accumulated in the Golgi apparatus of cancer cells compared to normal cells, and thus can be specifically activated by the acidic Golgi apparatus in cancer cells for effective PTT both ex vivo and in vivo.

  10. Sphingomyelin synthesis in rat liver occurs predominantly at the cis and medial cisternae of the Golgi apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futerman, A.H.; Stieger, B.; Hubbard, A.L.; Pagano, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The intracellular site of sphingomyelin (SM) synthesis was examined in subcellular fractions from rat liver using a radioactive ceramide analog N-([1-14C]hexanoyl)-D-erythro-sphingosine. This lipid readily transferred from a complex with bovine serum albumin to liver fractions without disrupting the membranes, and was metabolized to radioactive SM. To prevent degradation of the newly synthesized SM to ceramide, all experiments were performed in the presence of EDTA to minimize neutral sphingomyelinase activity and at neutral pH to minimize acid sphingomyelinase activity. An intact Golgi apparatus fraction gave an 85-98-fold enrichment of SM synthesis and a 58-83-fold enrichment of galactosyltransferase activity. Controlled trypsin digestion demonstrated that SM synthesis was localized to the lumen of intact Golgi apparatus vesicles. Although small amounts of SM synthesis were detected in plasma membrane and rough microsome fractions, after accounting for contamination by Golgi apparatus membranes, their combined activity contributed less than 13% of the total SM synthesis in rat liver. Subfractions of the Golgi apparatus were obtained and characterized by immunoblotting and biochemical assays using cis/medial (mannosidase II) and trans (sialyltransferase and galactosyltransferase) Golgi apparatus markers. The specific activity of SM synthesis was highest in enriched cis and medial fractions but far lower in a trans fraction. We conclude that SM synthesis in rat liver occurs predominantly in the cis and medial cisternae of the Golgi apparatus and not at the plasma membrane or endoplasmic reticulum as has been previously suggested

  11. Overexpression of Rab22a hampers the transport between endosomes and the Golgi apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa, Rosana; Magadan, Javier; Barbieri, Alejandro; Lopez, Cecilia; Stahl, Philip D.; Mayorga, Luis S.

    2005-01-01

    The transport and sorting of soluble and membrane-associated macromolecules arriving at endosomal compartments require a complex set of Rab proteins. Rab22a has been localized to the endocytic compartment; however, very little is known about the function of Rab22a and inconsistent results have been reported in studies performed in different cell lines. To characterize the function of Rab22a in endocytic transport, the wild-type protein (Rab22a WT), a hydrolysis-deficient mutant (Rab22a Q64L), and a mutant with reduced affinity for GTP (Rab22a S19N) were expressed in CHO cells. None of the three Rab22a constructs affected the transport of rhodamine-dextran to lysosomes, the digestion of internalized proteins, or the lysosomal localization of cathepsin D. In contrast with the mild effect of Rab22a on the endosome-lysosome route, cells expressing Rab22a WT and Rab22a Q64L presented a strong delay in the retrograde transport of cholera toxin from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. Moreover, these cells accumulated the cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor in endosomes. These observations indicate that Rab22a can affect the trafficking from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus probably by promoting fusion among endosomes and impairing the proper segregation of membrane domains required for targeting to the trans-Golgi network (TGN)

  12. Golgi apparatus-localized synaptotagmin 2 is required for unconventional secretion in Arabidopsis.

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    Haiyan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most secretory proteins contain signal peptides that direct their sorting to the ER and secreted via the conventional ER/Golgi transport pathway, while some signal-peptide-lacking proteins have been shown to export through ER/Golgi independent secretory pathways. Hygromycin B is an aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus that is active against both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The hygromycin phosphotransferase (HYG(R can phosphorylate and inactivate the hygromycin B, and has been widely used as a positive selective marker in the construction of transgenic plants. However, the localization and trafficking of HYG(R in plant cells remain unknown. Synaptotagmins (SYTs are involved in controlling vesicle endocytosis and exocytosis as calcium sensors in animal cells, while their functions in plant cells are largely unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYT2 was localized on the Golgi apparatus by immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling. Surprisingly, co-expression of SYT2 and HYG(R caused hypersensitivity of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants to hygromycin B. HYG(R, which lacks a signal sequence, was present in the cytoplasm as well as in the extracellular space in HYG(R-GFP transgenic Arabidopsis plants and its secretion is not sensitive to brefeldin A treatment, suggesting it is not secreted via the conventional secretory pathway. Furthermore, we found that HYG(R-GFP was truncated at carboxyl terminus of HYG(R shortly after its synthesis, and the cells deficient SYT2 failed to efficiently truncate HYG(R-GFP,resulting in HYG(R-GFP accumulated in prevacuoles/vacuoles, indicating that SYT2 was involved in HYG(R-GFP trafficking and secretion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings reveal for the first time that SYT2 is localized on the Golgi apparatus and regulates HYG(R-GFP secretion via the unconventional protein transport from the cytosol to the extracelluar matrix in

  13. TCR¿ is transported to and retained in the Golgi apparatus independently of other TCR chains: implications for TCR assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J; Kastrup, J; Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst

    1999-01-01

    . This study focused on the intracellular localization and transport of partially assembled TCR complexes as determined by confocal microscopy analyses. We found that none of the TCR chains except for TCRzeta were allowed to exit the ER in T cell variants in which the hexameric CD3gammaepsilonTi alphabetaCD3...... deltaepsilon complex was not formed. Interestingly, TCRzeta was exported from the ER independently of other TCR chains and was predominantly located in a compartment identified as the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, in the TCRzeta-negative cell line MA5.8, the hexameric CD3gammaepsilonTi alphabetaCD3...... the ER to the Golgi apparatus independently of each other and that these partial TCR complexes are unable to be efficiently expressed at the cell surface suggest that final TCR assembly occurs in the Golgi apparatus....

  14. Proton accumulation and ATPase activity in Golgi apparatus-enriched vesicles from rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.I.; van Rossum, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism by which liver Golgi apparatus maintains the acidity of its contents, using a subcellular fraction from rat liver highly enriched in Golgi marker enzymes. Proton accumulation (measured by quenching of acridine-orange fluorescence) and anion-dependent ATPase were characterized and compared. Maximal ATPase and proton accumulation required ATP; GTP and other nucleotides gave 10% to 30% of maximal activity. Among anions, Cl- and Br- approximately doubled the activities; others were much less effective. Half-maximal increase of ATPase and H+ uptake required 55 mmol/L and 27 mmol/L Cl-, respectively. In predominantly chloride media, SCN- and NO3- markedly inhibited H+ uptake. Nitrate competitively inhibited both the chloride-dependent ATPase (apparent Ki 6 mmol/L) and proton uptake (apparent Ki 2 mmol/L). Nitrate and SCN- also inhibited uptake of 36Cl. Replacing K+ with Na+ had no effect on the initial rate of proton uptake but somewhat reduced the steady state attained. Replacement of K+ with NH4+ and choline reduced proton uptake without affecting ATPase. The ATPase and H+ uptake were supported equally well by Mg2+ or Mn2+. The ATPase was competitively inhibited by 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (apparent Ki 39 mumol/L). Other agents inhibiting both H+ uptake and ATPase were N-ethylmaleimide, N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, chlorpromazine, diethylstilbestrol, Zn2+, Co2+ and Cu2+. In the Cl- medium, accumulated protons were released by ionophores at the relative rates, monensin = nigericin greater than valinomycin greater than carbonyl cyanide mchlorophenylhydrazone; the last of these also reduced ATPase activity. In the absence of Cl-, monensin and valinomycin both stimulated the ATPase. These results show a close association between ATPase activity and acidification of liver Golgi vesicles

  15. A catechol oxidase AcPPO from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is localized to the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Patricio; Moreno, Adrián A; Sanhueza, Dayan; Balic, Iván; Silva-Sanzana, Christian; Zepeda, Baltasar; Verdonk, Julian C; Arriagada, César; Meneses, Claudio; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2018-01-01

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) is an exotic fruit with attractive organoleptic characteristics. However, it is highly perishable and susceptible to postharvest browning. In fresh fruit, browning is primarily caused by the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of o-diphenols to quinones, which polymerize to form brown melanin pigment. There is no consensus in the literature regarding a specific role of PPO, and its subcellular localization in different plant species is mainly described within plastids. The present work determined the subcellular localization of a PPO protein from cherimoya (AcPPO). The obtained results revealed that the AcPPO- green fluorescent protein co-localized with a Golgi apparatus marker, and AcPPO activity was present in Golgi apparatus-enriched fractions. Likewise, transient expression assays revealed that AcPPO remained active in Golgi apparatus-enriched fractions obtained from tobacco leaves. These results suggest a putative function of AcPPO in the Golgi apparatus of cherimoya, providing new perspectives on PPO functionality in the secretory pathway, its effects on cherimoya physiology, and the evolution of this enzyme. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The Prenylated Rab GTPase Receptor PRA1.F4 Contributes to Protein Exit from the Golgi Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung Hui; Yoo, Yun-Joo; Kim, Dae Heon; Hanh, Nguyen Hong; Kwon, Yun; Hwang, Inhwan

    2017-07-01

    Prenylated Rab acceptor1 (PRA1) functions in the recruitment of prenylated Rab proteins to their cognate organelles. Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) contains a large number of proteins belonging to the AtPRA1 family. However, their physiological roles remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological role of AtPRA1.F4, a member of the AtPRA1 family. A T-DNA insertion knockdown mutant of AtPRA1.F4 , atpra1.f4 , was smaller in stature than parent plants and possessed shorter roots, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing HA:AtPRA1.F4 showed enhanced development of secondary roots and root hairs. However, both overexpression and knockdown plants exhibited increased sensitivity to high-salt stress, lower vacuolar Na + /K + -ATPase and plasma membrane ATPase activities, lower and higher pH in the vacuole and apoplast, respectively, and highly vesiculated Golgi apparatus. HA:AtPRA1.F4 localized to the Golgi apparatus and assembled into high-molecular-weight complexes. atpra1.f4 plants displayed a defect in vacuolar trafficking, which was complemented by low but not high levels of HA : AtPRA1.F4 Overexpression of HA:AtPRA1.F4 also inhibited protein trafficking at the Golgi apparatus, albeit differentially depending on the final destination or type of protein: trafficking of vacuolar proteins, plasma membrane proteins, and trans-Golgi network (TGN)-localized SYP61 was strongly inhibited; trafficking of TGN-localized SYP51 was slightly inhibited; and trafficking of secretory proteins and TGN-localized SYP41 was negligibly or not significantly inhibited. Based on these results, we propose that Golgi-localized AtPRA1.F4 is involved in the exit of many but not all types of post-Golgi proteins from the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, an appropriate level of AtPRA1.F4 is crucial for its function at the Golgi apparatus. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. FAM21 directs SNX27–retromer cargoes to the plasma membrane by preventing transport to the Golgi apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongju; Chang, Jaerak; Blackstone, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The endosomal network maintains cellular homeostasis by sorting, recycling and degrading endocytosed cargoes. Retromer organizes the endosomal sorting pathway in conjunction with various sorting nexin (SNX) proteins. The SNX27–retromer complex has recently been identified as a major endosomal hub that regulates endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling by preventing lysosomal entry of cargoes. Here, we show that SNX27 directly interacts with FAM21, which also binds retromer, within the Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. This interaction is required for the precise localization of SNX27 at an endosomal subdomain as well as for recycling of SNX27-retromer cargoes. Furthermore, FAM21 prevents cargo transport to the Golgi apparatus by controlling levels of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, which facilitates cargo dissociation at the Golgi. Together, our results demonstrate that the SNX27–retromer–WASH complex directs cargoes to the plasma membrane by blocking their transport to lysosomes and the Golgi. PMID:26956659

  18. GOLGA2, Encoding A Master Regulator of Golgi Apparatus, Is Mutated in A Patient with A Neuromuscular Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shamseldin, Hanan E; Bennett, Alexis H; Alfadhel, Majid; Gupta, Vandana; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2016-01-01

    Golgi apparatus (GA) is a membrane-bound organelle that serves a multitude of critical cellular functions including protein secretion and sorting, and cellular polarity. Many Mendelian diseases are caused by mutations in genes encoding various components of GA. GOLGA2 encodes GM130, a necessary component for the assembly of GA as a single complex, and its deficiency has been found to result in severe cellular phenotypes. We describe the first human patient with a homozygous apparently loss of...

  19. Localization of three human polypeptide GalNAc-transferases in HeLa cells suggests initiation of O-linked glycosylation throughout the Golgi apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röttger, S; White, J; Wandall, H H

    1998-01-01

    O-glycosylation of proteins is initiated by a family of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactos-aminyltransferases (GalNAc-T). In this study, we have localized endogenous and epitope-tagged human GalNAc-T1, -T2 and -T3 to the Golgi apparatus in HeLa cells by subcellular fractionation......, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. We show that all three GalNAc-transferases are concentrated about tenfold in Golgi stacks over Golgi associated tubular-vesicular membrane structures. Surprisingly, we find that GalNAc-T1, -T2 and -T3 are present throughout the Golgi stack suggesting that initiation...... of O-glycosylation may not be restricted to the cis Golgi, but occur at multiple sites within the Golgi apparatus. GalNAc-T1 distributes evenly across the Golgi stack whereas GalNAc-T2 and -T3 reside preferentially on the trans side and in the medial part of the Golgi stack, respectively. Moreover, we...

  20. Retention in the Golgi apparatus and expression on the cell surface of Cfr/Esl-1/Glg-1/MG-160 are regulated by two distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Kato, Hidenori; Ebato, Kazuki; Saito, Shigeru; Miyata, Naoko; Imamura, Toru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2011-11-15

    Cfr (cysteine-rich fibroblast growth factor receptor) is an Fgf (fibroblast growth factor)-binding protein without a tyrosine kinase. We have shown previously that Cfr is involved in Fgf18 signalling via Fgf receptor 3c. However, as Cfr is also known as Glg (Golgi apparatus protein)-1 or MG-160 and occurs in the Golgi apparatus, it remains unknown how the distribution of Cfr is regulated. In the present study, we performed a mutagenic analysis of Cfr to show that two distinct regions contribute to its distribution and stability. First, the C-terminal region retains Cfr in the Golgi apparatus. Secondly, the Cfr repeats in the extracellular juxtamembrane region destabilizes Cfr passed through the Golgi apparatus. This destabilization does not depend on the cleavage and secretion of the extracellular domain of Cfr. Furthermore, we found that Cfr with a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor was predominantly expressed on the cell surface in Ba/F3 cells and affected Fgf18 signalling in a similar manner to the full-length Cfr, indicating that the interaction of Cfr with Fgfs on the cell surface is important for its function in Fgf signalling. These results suggest that the expression of Cfr in the Golgi apparatus and on the plasma membrane is finely tuned through two distinct mechanisms for exhibiting different functions.

  1. Proliferation of the Golgi apparatus in tobacco BY-2 cells during cell proliferation after release from the stationary phase of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Moses; Matsuoka, Ken

    2013-08-01

    We have recently developed a new method aimed at mass photo-conversion of photo-convertible fluorescence protein (PFP) fluorescence in transformed tobacco BY-2 cells. Using this method we reported recently that the Golgi apparatus is generated by the de novo formation from ER and the division of pre-existing Golgi stacks with similar extents In this work we report that the proliferation of the Golgi apparatus in tobacco cells that enter the growing cycle from the non-dividing cycle is quite similar to that in rapidly growing cells and that de novo formation from the ER and division of pre-existing stacks seems to contribute almost equally to the proliferation.

  2. GOLGA2, encoding a master regulator of golgi apparatus, is mutated in a patient with a neuromuscular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseldin, Hanan E; Bennett, Alexis H; Alfadhel, Majid; Gupta, Vandana; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2016-02-01

    Golgi apparatus (GA) is a membrane-bound organelle that serves a multitude of critical cellular functions including protein secretion and sorting, and cellular polarity. Many Mendelian diseases are caused by mutations in genes encoding various components of GA. GOLGA2 encodes GM130, a necessary component for the assembly of GA as a single complex, and its deficiency has been found to result in severe cellular phenotypes. We describe the first human patient with a homozygous apparently loss of function mutation in GOLGA2. The phenotype is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by developmental delay, seizures, progressive microcephaly, and muscular dystrophy. Knockdown of golga2 in zebrafish resulted in severe skeletal muscle disorganization and microcephaly recapitulating loss of function human phenotype. Our data suggest an important developmental role of GM130 in humans and zebrafish.

  3. Nerve growth factor induced changes in the Golgi apparatus of PC-12 rat pheochromocytoma cells as studied by ligand endocytosis, cytochemical and morphometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, W F; Stieber, A; Hogue-Angeletti, R; Gonatas, J; GOnatas, N K

    1983-10-01

    Cells of the PC-12 rat pheochromocytoma cell line respond to nerve growth factor (NGF) by sprouting neurites and biochemically differentiating into sympathetic ganglion-like cells. NGF-stimulated ('differentiated') and unstimulated ('undifferentiated') cells were studied by cytochemical techniques for the localization of the enzymes acid phosphatase (ACPase) and thiamine pyrophosphatase (TPPase), and by a morphometric analysis of the distribution of endocytosed wheat-germ agglutinin labelled with horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). Both cytochemical stains showed the enzymes to be distributed in lysosomes and certain cisternae of the Golgi apparatus in both NGF stimulated and unstimulated cells. ACPase was not confined to GERL (Golgi-endoplasmic reticulum-lysosome) as in certain other cells. The morphometric studies demonstrated that the reaction product of the internalized WGA-HRP occupied 4.7% of the cytoplasmic area in unstimulated cells and 4.5% in NGF-stimulated ones. Despite this similarity, the distribution of the WGA-HRP among the studied intracellular compartments in these two cell groups varied. In the NGF-stimulated cells 3.3% of the WGA-HRP reaction product was found in the innermost Golgi cisterna(e) while in unstimulated cells only 0.3% was seen in this compartment. Similarly, 4.3% of the WGA-HRP stain was found in small vesicles at the 'trans' aspect of the Golgi apparatus in stimulated cells, when only 0.3% of the stain occupied this compartment in 'undifferentiated' cells. The morphometric analysis also revealed that when the PC-12 cells were stimulated with NGF, the Golgi apparatus increased in area by approximately 70%. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that NGF induced differentiation of PC-12 cells is coupled with enhanced endocytosis of WGA and probably of its 'receptor' to the innermost Golgi cisterna(e) and the closely associated vesicles.

  4. Influence of copper on the Golgi apparatus of the meristematic cells of the horse-bean - Vicia faba c. v. Povazsky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, L

    1974-01-01

    The influence of copper on the Golgi apparatus of beans was investigated. At 1 mg/l copper was toxic within 24 hours. After application of 1 mg/l Cu, a striking increase in the number of split vesicles was noted together with a significant decrease in the number of cisterns. The endoplasmic reticulum is often fragmented after application of Cu, showing separation of membrane.

  5. Evidence that proliferation of golgi apparatus depends on both de novo generation from the endoplasmic reticulum and formation from pre-existing stacks during the growth of tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Moses Olabiyi; Matsuoka, Ken

    2013-04-01

    In higher plants, the numbers of cytoplasmic-distributed Golgi stacks differ based on function, age and cell type. It has not been clarified how the numbers are controlled, whether all the Golgi apparatus in a cell function equally and whether the increase in Golgi number is a result of the de novo formation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or fission of pre-existing stacks. A tobacco prolyl 4-hydroxylase (NtP4H1.1), which is a cis-Golgi-localizing type II membrane protein, was tagged with a photoconvertible fluorescent protein, mKikGR (monomeric Kikume green red), and expressed in tobacco bright yellow 2 (BY-2) cells. Transformed cells were exposed to purple light to convert the fluorescence from green to red. A time-course analysis after the conversion revealed a progressive increase in green puncta and a decrease in the red puncta. From 3 to 6 h, we observed red, yellow and green fluorescent puncta corresponding to pre-existing Golgi; Golgi containing both pre-existing and newly synthesized protein; and newly synthesized Golgi. Analysis of the number and fluorescence of Golgi at different phases of the cell cycle suggested that an increase in Golgi number with both division and de novo synthesis occurred concomitantly with DNA replication. Investigation with different inhibitors suggested that the formation of new Golgi and the generation of Golgi containing both pre-existing and newly synthesized protein are mediated by different machineries. These results and modeling based on quantified results indicate that the Golgi apparatuses in tobacco BY-2 cells are not uniform and suggest that both de novo synthesis from the ER and Golgi division contribute almost equally to the increase in proliferating cells.

  6. Violacein induces death of resistant leukaemia cells via kinome reprogramming, endoplasmic reticulum stress and Golgi apparatus collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla C S Queiroz

    Full Text Available It is now generally recognised that different modes of programmed cell death (PCD are intimately linked to the cancerous process. However, the mechanism of PCD involved in cancer chemoprevention is much less clear and may be different between types of chemopreventive agents and tumour cell types involved. Therefore, from a pharmacological view, it is crucial during the earlier steps of drug development to define the cellular specificity of the candidate as well as its capacity to bypass dysfunctional tumoral signalling pathways providing insensitivity to death stimuli. Studying the cytotoxic effects of violacein, an antibiotic dihydro-indolone synthesised by an Amazon river Chromobacterium, we observed that death induced in CD34(+/c-Kit(+/P-glycoprotein(+/MRP1(+ TF1 leukaemia progenitor cells is not mediated by apoptosis and/or autophagy, since biomarkers of both types of cell death were not significantly affected by this compound. To clarify the working mechanism of violacein, we performed kinome profiling using peptide arrays to yield comprehensive descriptions of cellular kinase activities. Pro-death activity of violacein is actually carried out by inhibition of calpain and DAPK1 and activation of PKA, AKT and PDK, followed by structural changes caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and Golgi apparatus collapse, leading to cellular demise. Our results demonstrate that violacein induces kinome reprogramming, overcoming death signaling dysfunctions of intrinsically resistant human leukaemia cells.

  7. A model for the self-organization of vesicular flux and protein distributions in the Golgi apparatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iaroslav Ispolatov

    Full Text Available The generation of two non-identical membrane compartments via exchange of vesicles is considered to require two types of vesicles specified by distinct cytosolic coats that selectively recruit cargo, and two membrane-bound SNARE pairs that specify fusion and differ in their affinities for each type of vesicles. The mammalian Golgi complex is composed of 6-8 non-identical cisternae that undergo gradual maturation and replacement yet features only two SNARE pairs. We present a model that explains how distinct composition of Golgi cisternae can be generated with two and even a single SNARE pair and one vesicle coat. A decay of active SNARE concentration in aging cisternae provides the seed for a cis[Formula: see text]trans SNARE gradient that generates the predominantly retrograde vesicle flux which further enhances the gradient. This flux in turn yields the observed inhomogeneous steady-state distribution of Golgi enzymes, which compete with each other and with the SNAREs for incorporation into transport vesicles. We show analytically that the steady state SNARE concentration decays exponentially with the cisterna number. Numerical solutions of rate equations reproduce the experimentally observed SNARE gradients, overlapping enzyme peaks in cis, medial and trans and the reported change in vesicle nature across the Golgi: Vesicles originating from younger cisternae mostly contain Golgi enzymes and SNAREs enriched in these cisternae and extensively recycle through the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER, while the other subpopulation of vesicles contains Golgi proteins prevalent in older cisternae and hardly reaches the ER.

  8. Tetrahymena gene encodes a protein that is homologous with the liver-specific F-antigen and associated with membranes of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, R; Nørgaard, P; Andreasen, P H

    1992-01-01

    The F-antigen is a prominent liver protein which has been extensively used in studies on natural and induced immunological tolerance. However, its intracellular localization and biological function have remained elusive. It has generally been assumed that the F-antigen is confined phylogenetically...... of the Golgi apparatus and transport vesicles pointing to a role of TF-ag in membrane trafficking. Transcription of the TF-ag gene, as determined by run-on analyses, was only detectable in growing cells, and following transfer to starvation condition pre-existing TF-ag mRNA was rapidly degraded. The abundance...

  9. Prostaglandin E (dmPGE{sub 2}) action in vitro on the activity of rat liver Golgi apparatus galactosyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordowiak, A.M.; Tomecki, J.; Procyk, K.; Kapusta, P. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    In vitro addition of 16,16`-dimethyl prostaglandin E{sub 2} to Golgi-rich membrane fraction in final concentration of 0.1 {mu}g/1 mg of protein increased generally the activity of galactosyltransferase in comparison with control. The percentage of phospholipids in the whole fraction was similar in both investigated groups, only the sum of phosphatidylenoamine + phosphatidic acid was significantly lower after addition of dmPGE{sub 2} than in the control (0.001 < P < 0.01). (author). 25 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  10. Proteomic dissection of the Arabidopsis Golgi and trans-Golgi network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parsons, Harriet Tempé; Drakakaki, Georgia; Heazlewood, Joshua L.

    2013-01-01

    The plant Golgi apparatus and trans-Golgi network are major endomembrane trafficking hubs within the plant cell and are involved in a diverse and vital series of functions to maintain plant growth and development. Recently, a series of disparate technical approaches have been used to isolate...

  11. IntraGolgi distribution of the Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, Eliza; Oka, Toshihiko; Ericsson, Maria; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Krieger, Monty

    2006-01-01

    The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is an eight-subunit (Cog1-8) peripheral Golgi protein involved in membrane trafficking and glycoconjugate synthesis. COG appears to participate in retrograde vesicular transport and is required to maintain normal Golgi structure and function. COG mutations interfere with normal transport, distribution, and/or stability of Golgi proteins associated with glycoconjugate synthesis and trafficking, and lead to failure of spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, misdirected migration of gonadal distal tip cells in Caenorhabditis elegans, and type II congenital disorders of glycosylation in humans. The mechanism by which COG influences Golgi structure and function is unclear. Immunogold electron microscopy was used to visualize the intraGolgi distribution of a functional, hemagglutinin epitope-labeled COG subunit, Cog1-HA, that complements the Cog1-deficiency in Cog1-null Chinese hamster ovary cells. COG was found to be localized primarily on or in close proximity to the tips and rims of the Golgi's cisternae and their associated vesicles and on vesicles and vesiculo-tubular structures seen on both the cis and trans-Golgi Network faces of the cisternal stacks, in some cases on COPI containing vesicles. These findings support the proposal that COG is directly involved in controlling vesicular retrograde transport of Golgi resident proteins throughout the Golgi apparatus

  12. Asparagus IRX9, IRX10, and IRX14A Are Components of an Active Xylan Backbone Synthase Complex that Forms in the Golgi Apparatus1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Picard, Kelsey L.; Song, Lili; Wu, Ai-Min; Farion, Isabela M.; Zhao, Jia; Ford, Kris; Bacic, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Heteroxylans are abundant components of plant cell walls and provide important raw materials for the food, pharmaceutical, and biofuel industries. A number of studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have suggested that the IRREGULAR XYLEM9 (IRX9), IRX10, and IRX14 proteins, as well as their homologs, are involved in xylan synthesis via a Golgi-localized complex termed the xylan synthase complex (XSC). However, both the biochemical and cell biological research lags the genetic and molecular evidence. In this study, we characterized garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) stem xylan biosynthesis genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14A, and AoIRX14B) by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. We reconstituted and partially purified an active XSC and showed that three proteins, AoIRX9, AoIRX10, and AoIRX14A, are necessary for xylan xylosyltranferase activity in planta. To better understand the XSC structure and its composition, we carried out coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis to show the molecular interactions between these three IRX proteins. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we showed that the DxD motifs of AoIRX10 and AoIRX14A are crucial for the catalytic activity. These data provide, to our knowledge, the first lines of biochemical and cell biological evidence that AoIRX9, AoIRX10, and AoIRX14A are core components of a Golgi-localized XSC, each with distinct roles for effective heteroxylan biosynthesis. PMID:26951434

  13. Asparagus IRX9, IRX10, and IRX14A Are Components of an Active Xylan Backbone Synthase Complex that Forms in the Golgi Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Lampugnani, Edwin R; Picard, Kelsey L; Song, Lili; Wu, Ai-Min; Farion, Isabela M; Zhao, Jia; Ford, Kris; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony

    2016-05-01

    Heteroxylans are abundant components of plant cell walls and provide important raw materials for the food, pharmaceutical, and biofuel industries. A number of studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have suggested that the IRREGULAR XYLEM9 (IRX9), IRX10, and IRX14 proteins, as well as their homologs, are involved in xylan synthesis via a Golgi-localized complex termed the xylan synthase complex (XSC). However, both the biochemical and cell biological research lags the genetic and molecular evidence. In this study, we characterized garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) stem xylan biosynthesis genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14A, and AoIRX14B) by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana We reconstituted and partially purified an active XSC and showed that three proteins, AoIRX9, AoIRX10, and AoIRX14A, are necessary for xylan xylosyltranferase activity in planta. To better understand the XSC structure and its composition, we carried out coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis to show the molecular interactions between these three IRX proteins. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we showed that the DxD motifs of AoIRX10 and AoIRX14A are crucial for the catalytic activity. These data provide, to our knowledge, the first lines of biochemical and cell biological evidence that AoIRX9, AoIRX10, and AoIRX14A are core components of a Golgi-localized XSC, each with distinct roles for effective heteroxylan biosynthesis. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Journeys through the Golgi--taking stock in a new era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emr, Scott; Glick, Benjamin S; Linstedt, Adam D; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Luini, Alberto; Malhotra, Vivek; Marsh, Brad J; Nakano, Akihiko; Pfeffer, Suzanne R; Rabouille, Catherine; Rothman, James E; Warren, Graham; Wieland, Felix T

    2009-11-16

    The Golgi apparatus is essential for protein sorting and transport. Many researchers have long been fascinated with the form and function of this organelle. Yet, despite decades of scrutiny, the mechanisms by which proteins are transported across the Golgi remain controversial. At a recent meeting, many prominent Golgi researchers assembled to critically evaluate the core issues in the field. This report presents the outcome of their discussions and highlights the key open questions that will help guide the field into a new era.

  15. Golgi organization and the apical extension of fungal hyphae: an essential relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Steven D

    2013-07-01

    The Golgi apparatus performs crucial functions in the sorting and processing of proteins destined for secretion from eukaryotic cells. In filamentous fungi, organization of the Golgi apparatus reflects the unique challenges brought about by the highly polarized nature of hyphal growth. Recent results show that Golgi compartments are spatially segregated within hyphal tip cells in a manner that depends upon the integrity of the cytoskeleton. Moreover, loss of normal Golgi organization stops polarized hyphal extension and triggers de-polarization of the hyphal tip. These results emphasize the point that a spatially organized and dynamic Golgi apparatus represents an adaptation that is as important for hyphal extension as is the presence of a Spitzenkörper. In addition, they also identify regulatory mechanisms that could enable controlled de-polarization of hyphae during development or infection-related morphogenesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Golgi coiled-coil proteins contain multiple binding sites for Rab family G proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinka, Rita; Gillingham, Alison K.; Kondylis, Vangelis; Munro, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Vesicles and other carriers destined for the Golgi apparatus must be guided to the correct cisternae. Golgins, long coiled-coil proteins that localize to particular Golgi subdomains via their C termini, are candidate regulators of vesicle sorting. In this study, we report that the GRIP domain

  17. Synthesis of cell wall xylans and glucans by golgi membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the biosynthesis of mixed-linkage β-D-glucan and glucuronoarabinoxylans which make up the hemicellulosic matrix of the primary cell walls of maize and other cereal grasses. The Golgi apparatus was enriched from plasma membrane and other organelles by flotation density gradient centrifugation. Glucan synthase I and II, which are established markers for Golgi and plasma membrane, respectively, displayed considerable overlap in conventional separations with sucrose density gradients. Flotation gradients improved separation of the membranes substantially, but the different synthases themselves also incorporated radioactivity from either 10 μM or 1 mM UDP-[ 14 C]-glucose into polymer. Relative incorporation of radioactivity into polymers from UDP-[ 14 C]-xylose by the various membrane fractions was nearly identical to relative IDPase activities, indicating that combined xylosyl transferase-xylan synthase represents a new, unequivocal marker for the Golgi apparatus. We also have developed techniques of gas-liquid chromatography and radiogas proportional counting to achieve capillary quality separation of partially methylated alditol acetates with simultaneous determination of radioactivity in the derivatives. Digestion of polymeric products by specific endo-glycanohydrolases to diagnostic oligosaccharides also reveal specific kinds of polysaccharides synthesized by the Golgi membranes. A combination of these techniques provides unequivocal determination of the linkage structure of specific polymers synthesized by the purified Golgi apparatus

  18. The Golgi localized bifunctional UDP-rhamnose/UDP-galactose transporter family of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of nucleotide sugar substrates into the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum for processes such as cell wall biosynthesis and protein glycosylation is critical for plant growth and development. Plant genomes encode large families of uncharacterized nucleotide sugar transporters that...

  19. Golgi structure formation, function, and post-translational modifications in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shijiao; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2017-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a central membrane organelle for trafficking and post-translational modifications of proteins and lipids in cells. In mammalian cells, it is organized in the form of stacks of tightly aligned flattened cisternae, and dozens of stacks are often linked laterally into a ribbon-like structure located in the perinuclear region of the cell. Proper Golgi functionality requires an intact architecture, yet Golgi structure is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle and under disease conditions. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the relationship between Golgi structure formation, function, and regulation, with focus on how post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and ubiquitination regulate Golgi structure and on how Golgi unstacking affects its functions, in particular, protein trafficking, glycosylation, and sorting in mammalian cells.

  20. cis-Golgi proteins accumulate near the ER exit sites and act as the scaffold for Golgi regeneration after brefeldin A treatment in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Shoda, Keiko; Fujimoto, Masaru; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-08-01

    The Golgi apparatus forms stacks of cisternae in many eukaryotic cells. However, little is known about how such a stacked structure is formed and maintained. To address this question, plant cells provide a system suitable for live-imaging approaches because individual Golgi stacks are well separated in the cytoplasm. We established tobacco BY-2 cell lines expressing multiple Golgi markers tagged by different fluorescent proteins and observed their responses to brefeldin A (BFA) treatment and BFA removal. BFA treatment disrupted cis, medial, and trans cisternae but caused distinct relocalization patterns depending on the proteins examined. Medial- and trans-Golgi proteins, as well as one cis-Golgi protein, were absorbed into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but two other cis-Golgi proteins formed small punctate structures. After BFA removal, these puncta coalesced first, and then the Golgi stacks regenerated from them in the cis-to-trans order. We suggest that these structures have a property similar to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and function as the scaffold of Golgi regeneration.

  1. The role of Golgi reassembly and stacking protein 65 phosphorylation in H2O2-induced cell death and Golgi morphological changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guang; Zhang, Weiwei; Quan, Moyuan; Chen, Yang; Qu, Hui; Hu, Zhiping

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress on cell viability and survival, as well as changes in the distribution of Golgi apparatus and in the level of Golgi reassembly and stacking protein 65 (GRASP65). Cell viability of cultured N2a cells treated with H 2 O 2 was measured by the MTT assay. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry analyses. Cells labeled by indirect immunofluorescence were observed under confocal microscope to detect any Golgi morphological alterations; electron microscopy of Golgi apparatus was also done. Expression of GRASP65 and phospho-GRASP65 was examined by immunoblotting. H 2 O 2 treatment reduced the cell viability and raised the cell mortality of N2a cells in a time-dependent manner. Notable changes were only observed in the distribution and morphology of Golgi apparatus at 6 h after H 2 O 2 treatment. The expression of GRASP65 showed no significant changes at different time points; the phosphorylated GRASP65 level was significantly increased after H 2 O 2 treatment, peaked at 3 h, and finally dropped at 6 h. Taken together, GRASP65 phosphorylation may have a critical role in inducing cell death at the early stage after H 2 O 2 treatment, while its role in H 2 O 2 -induced Golgi morphological changes may be complex.

  2. Proteomic characterization of golgi membranes enriched from Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Ebert, Berit; Rautengarten, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The plant Golgi apparatus has a central role in the secretory pathway and is the principal site within the cell for the assembly and processing of macromolecules. The stacked membrane structure of the Golgi apparatus along with its interactions with the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum has...... historically made the isolation and purification of this organelle difficult. Density centrifugation has typically been used to enrich Golgi membranes from plant microsomal preparations, and aside from minor adaptations, the approach is still widely employed. Here we outline the enrichment of Golgi membranes...... from an Arabidopsis cell suspension culture that can be used to investigate the proteome of this organelle. We also provide a useful workflow for the examination of proteomic data as the result of multiple analyses. Finally, we highlight a simple technique to validate the subcellular localization...

  3. Phosphorylation of p37 is important for Golgi disassembly at mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yayoi; Tamura, Kaori; Totsukawa, Go; Kondo, Hisao

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → p37 is phosphorylated on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 by Cdc2 at mitosis. → Phosphorylated p37 does not bind to Golgi membranes. → p37 phosphorylation inhibits p97/p37-mediated Golgi membrane fusion. -- Abstract: In mammals, the Golgi apparatus is disassembled at early mitosis and reassembled at the end of mitosis. For Golgi disassembly, membrane fusion needs to be blocked. Golgi biogenesis requires two distinct p97ATPase-mediated membrane fusion, the p97/p47 and p97/p37 pathways. We previously reported that p47 phosphorylation on Serine-140 by Cdc2 results in mitotic inhibition of the p97/p47 pathway . In this study, we demonstrate that p37 is phosphorylated on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 by Cdc2 at mitosis, and this phosphorylated p37 does not bind to Golgi membranes. Using an in vitro Golgi reassembly assay, we show that mutated p37(S56D, T59D), which mimics mitotic phosphorylation, does not cause any cisternal regrowth, indicating that p37 phosphorylation inhibits the p97/p37 pathway. Our results demonstrate that p37 phosphorylation on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 is important for Golgi disassembly at mitosis.

  4. Proteomic identification of S-nitrosylated Golgi proteins: new insights into endothelial cell regulation by eNOS-derived NO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjamaporn Sangwung

    Full Text Available Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS is primarily localized on the Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane caveolae in endothelial cells. Previously, we demonstrated that protein S-nitrosylation occurs preferentially where eNOS is localized. Thus, in endothelial cells, Golgi proteins are likely to be targets for S-nitrosylation. The aim of this study was to identify S-nitrosylated Golgi proteins and attribute their S-nitrosylation to eNOS-derived nitric oxide in endothelial cells.Golgi membranes were isolated from rat livers. S-nitrosylated Golgi proteins were determined by a modified biotin-switch assay coupled with mass spectrometry that allows the identification of the S-nitrosylated cysteine residue. The biotin switch assay followed by Western blot or immunoprecipitation using an S-nitrosocysteine antibody was also employed to validate S-nitrosylated proteins in endothelial cell lysates.Seventy-eight potential S-nitrosylated proteins and their target cysteine residues for S-nitrosylation were identified; 9 of them were Golgi-resident or Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum (ER-associated proteins. Among these 9 proteins, S-nitrosylation of EMMPRIN and Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3 was verified in endothelial cells. Furthermore, S-nitrosylation of these proteins was found at the basal levels and increased in response to eNOS stimulation by the calcium ionophore A23187. Immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoprecipitation showed that EMMPRIN and GOLPH3 are co-localized with eNOS at the Golgi apparatus in endothelial cells. S-nitrosylation of EMMPRIN was notably increased in the aorta of cirrhotic rats.Our data suggest that the selective S-nitrosylation of EMMPRIN and GOLPH3 at the Golgi apparatus in endothelial cells results from the physical proximity to eNOS-derived nitric oxide.

  5. Depletion of the human N-terminal acetyltransferase hNaa30 disrupts Golgi integrity and ARFRP1 localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starheim, Kristian K; Kalvik, Thomas V; Bjørkøy, Geir; Arnesen, Thomas

    2017-04-30

    The organization of the Golgi apparatus (GA) is tightly regulated. Golgi stack scattering is observed in cellular processes such as apoptosis and mitosis, and has also been associated with disruption of cellular lipid metabolism and neurodegenerative diseases. Our studies show that depletion of the human N-α-acetyltransferase 30 (hNaa30) induces fragmentation of the Golgi stack in HeLa and CAL-62 cell lines. The GA associated GTPase ADP ribosylation factor related protein 1 (ARFRP1) was previously shown to require N-terminal acetylation for membrane association and based on its N-terminal sequence, it is likely to be a substrate of hNaa30. ARFRP1 is involved in endosome-to- trans -Golgi network (TGN) traffic. We observed that ARFRP1 shifted from a predominantly cis -Golgi and TGN localization to localizing both Golgi and non-Golgi vesicular structures in hNaa30-depleted cells. However, we did not observe loss of membrane association of ARFRP1. We conclude that hNaa30 depletion induces Golgi scattering and induces aberrant ARFRP1 Golgi localization. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Regulation of ER-Golgi Transport Dynamics by GTPases in Budding Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Suda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of proteins are synthesized de novo in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. They are transported through the Golgi apparatus and then delivered to their proper destinations. The ER and the Golgi play a central role in protein processing and sorting and show dynamic features in their forms. Ras super family small GTPases mediate the protein transport through and between these organelles. The ER-localized GTPase, Sar1, facilitates the formation of COPII transport carriers at the ER exit sites (ERES on the ER for the transport of cargo proteins from the ER to the Golgi. The Golgi-localized GTPase, Arf1, controls intra-Golgi, and Golgi-to-ER transport of cargo proteins by the formation of COPI carriers. Rab GTPases localized at the Golgi, which are responsible for fusion of membranes, are thought to establish the identities of compartments. Recent evidence suggests that these small GTPases regulate not only discrete sites for generation/fusion of transport carriers, but also membrane dynamics of the organelles where they locate to ensure the integrity of transport. Here we summarize the current understandings about the membrane traffic between these organelles and highlight the cutting-edge advances from super-resolution live imaging of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  7. Mitotic phosphorylation of VCIP135 blocks p97ATPase-mediated Golgi membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsukawa, Go; Matsuo, Ayaka; Kubota, Ayano; Taguchi, Yuya; Kondo, Hisao, E-mail: hk228@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: •VCIP135 is mitotically phosphorylated on Threonine-760 and Serine-767 by Cdc2. •Phosphorylated VCIP135 does not bind to p97ATPase. •The phosphorylation of VCIP135 inhibits p97ATPase-mediated Golgi membrane fusion. -- Abstract: In mammals, the Golgi apparatus is disassembled early mitosis and reassembled at the end of mitosis. For Golgi disassembly, membrane fusion needs to be blocked. Golgi biogenesis requires two distinct p97ATPase-mediated membrane fusion, the p97/p47 and p97/p37 pathways. We previously reported that p47 phosphorylation on Serine-140 and p37 phosphorylation on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 result in mitotic inhibition of the p97/p47 and the p97/p37 pathways, respectively [11,14]. In this study, we show another mechanism of mitotic inhibition of p97-mediated Golgi membrane fusion. We clarified that VCIP135, an essential factor in both p97 membrane fusion pathways, is phosphorylated on Threonine-760 and Serine-767 by Cdc2 at mitosis and that this phosphorylated VCIP135 does not bind to p97. An in vitro Golgi reassembly assay revealed that VCIP135(T760E, S767E), which mimics mitotic phosphorylation, caused no cisternal regrowth. Our results indicate that the phosphorylation of VCIP135 on Threonine-760 and Serine-767 inhibits p97-mediated Golgi membrane fusion at mitosis.

  8. The small G protein Arl5 contributes to endosome-to-Golgi traffic by aiding the recruitment of the GARP complex to the Golgi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Rosa-Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The small G proteins of the Arf family play critical roles in membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton organization. However, the function of some members of the family remains poorly understood including Arl5 which is widely conserved in eukaryotes. Humans have two closely related Arl5 paralogues (Arl5a and Arl5b, and both Arl5a and Arl5b localize to the trans-Golgi with Arl5b being involved in retrograde traffic from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. To investigate the function of Arl5, we have used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. We find that the single Arl5 orthologue in Drosophila also localizes to the trans-Golgi, but flies lacking the Arl5 gene are viable and fertile. By using both liposome and column based affinity chromatography methods we find that Arl5 interacts with the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP complex that acts in the tethering of vesicles moving from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN. In Drosophila tissues the GARP complex is partially displaced from the Golgi when Arl5 is absent, and the late endosomal compartment is enlarged. In addition, in HeLa cells GARP also becomes cytosolic upon depletion of Arl5b. These phenotypes are consistent with a role in endosome-to-Golgi traffic, but are less severe than loss of GARP itself. Thus it appears that Arl5 is one of the factors that directs the recruitment of the GARP complex to the trans-Golgi, and this function is conserved in both flies and humans.

  9. The trans-Golgi Network and the Golgi Stacks Behave Independently During Regeneration After Brefeldin A Treatment in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Fujimoto, Masaru; Ueda, Takashi; Uemura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Akihiko

    2017-04-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays an essential role in intracellular membrane trafficking. In plant cells, recent live-cell imaging studies have revealed the dynamic behavior of the TGN independent from the Golgi apparatus. In order to better understand the relationships between the two organelles, we examined their dynamic responses to the reagent brefeldin A (BFA) and their recovery after BFA removal. Golgi markers responded to BFA similarly over a range of concentrations, whereas the behavior of the TGN was BFA concentration dependent. The TGN formed aggregates at high concentrations of BFA; however, TGN proteins relocalized to numerous small vesicular structures dispersed throughout the cytoplasm at lower BFA concentrations. During recovery from weak BFA treatment, the TGN started to regenerate earlier than the completion of the Golgi. The regeneration of the two organelles proceeded independently of each other for a while, and eventually was completed by their association. Our data suggest that there is some degree of autonomy for the regeneration of the TGN and the Golgi in tobacco BY-2 cells. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Defects in the COG complex and COG-related trafficking regulators affect neuronal Golgi function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie K Climer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG complex is an evolutionarily conserved hetero-octameric protein complex that has been proposed to organize vesicle tethering at the Golgi apparatus. Defects in seven of the eight COG subunits are linked to Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG-type II, a family of rare diseases involving misregulation of protein glycosylation, alterations in Golgi structure, variations in retrograde trafficking through the Golgi and system-wide clinical pathologies. A troublesome aspect of these diseases are the neurological pathologies such as low IQ, microcephaly and cerebellar atrophy. The essential function of the COG complex is dependent upon interactions with other components of trafficking machinery, such as Rab-GTPases and SNAREs. COG-interacting Rabs and SNAREs have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Defects in Golgi maintenance disrupts trafficking and processing of essential proteins, frequently associated with and contributing to compromised neuron function and human disease. Despite the recent advances in molecular neuroscience, the subcellular bases for most neurodegenerative diseases are poorly understood. This article gives an overview of the potential contributions of the COG complex and its Rab and SNARE partners in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Golgi twins in late mitosis revealed by genetically encoded tags for live cell imaging and correlated electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaietta, Guido M; Giepmans, Ben N G; Deerinck, Thomas J; Smith, W Bryan; Ngan, Lucy; Llopis, Juan; Adams, Stephen R; Tsien, Roger Y; Ellisman, Mark H

    2006-01-01

    Combinations of molecular tags visible in light and electron microscopes become particularly advantageous in the analysis of dynamic cellular components like the Golgi apparatus. This organelle disassembles at the onset of mitosis and, after a sequence of poorly understood events, reassembles after

  12. Golgi bypass for local delivery of axonal proteins, fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carolina; Cornejo, Víctor Hugo; Couve, Andrés

    2018-04-06

    Although translation of cytosolic proteins is well described in axons, much less is known about the synthesis, processing and trafficking of transmembrane and secreted proteins. A canonical rough endoplasmic reticulum or a stacked Golgi apparatus has not been detected in axons, generating doubts about the functionality of a local route. However, axons contain mRNAs for membrane and secreted proteins, translation factors, ribosomal components, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and post-endoplasmic reticulum elements that may contribute to local biosynthesis and plasma membrane delivery. Here we consider the evidence supporting a local secretory system in axons. We discuss exocytic elements and examples of autonomous axonal trafficking that impact development and maintenance. We also examine whether unconventional post-endoplasmic reticulum pathways may replace the canonical Golgi apparatus. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Study of ethanol-induced Golgi disorganization reveals the potential mechanism of alcohol-impaired N-glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Carol A.; Bhat, Ganapati; Holzapfel, Melissa S.; Petrosyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Background It is known that ethanol (EtOH) and its metabolites have a negative effect on protein glycosylation. The fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus induced by alteration of the structure of largest Golgi matrix protein, giantin, is the major consequence of damaging effects of EtOH-metabolism on the Golgi, however, the link between this and abnormal glycosylation remains unknown. Because previously we have shown that Golgi morphology dictates glycosylation, we examined the effect EtOH administration has on function of Golgi residential enzymes involved in N-glycosylation. Methods HepG2 cells transfected with mouse ADH1 (VA-13 cells) were treated with 35 mM ethanol for 72 h. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed Lieber-DeCarli diets for 5 to 8 weeks. Characterization of Golgi-associated mannosyl (α-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (MGAT1), α-1,2-mannosidase (Man-I) and α-mannosidase II (Man-II) were performed in VA-13 cells and rat hepatocytes followed by 3D Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). Results First, we detected that EtOH administration results in the loss of sialylated N-glycans on asialoglycoprotein receptor, however the high mannose-type N-glycans are increased. Further analysis by 3D SIM microscopy revealed that EtOH treatment despite Golgi disorganization does not change cis-Golgi localization for Man-I, but does induce medial-to-cis relocation of MGAT1 and Man-II. Using different approaches, including electron microscopy, we revealed that EtOH treatment results in dysfunction of Arf1 GTPase followed by a deficiency in COPI vesicles at the Golgi. Silencing beta-COP or expression of GDP-bound mutant Arf1(T31N) mimics the EtOH effect on retaining MGAT1 and Man-II at the cis-Golgi, suggesting that (a) EtOH specifically blocks activation of Arf1, and (b) EtOH alters the proper localization of Golgi enzymes through impairment of COPI. Importantly, the level of MGAT1 was reduced, because likely MGAT1, contrary to Man-I and Man

  14. G-rich, a Drosophila selenoprotein, is a Golgi-resident type III membrane protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chang Lan; Shim, Myoung Sup; Chung, Jiyeol; Yoo, Hyun-Seung; Ha, Ji Min; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Jinmi; Zang, Shu Liang; Hou, Xiao; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Lee, Byeong Jae

    2006-01-01

    G-rich is a Drosophila melanogaster selenoprotein, which is a homologue of human and mouse SelK. Subcellular localization analysis using GFP-tagged G-rich showed that G-rich was localized in the Golgi apparatus. The fusion protein was co-localized with the Golgi marker proteins but not with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker protein in Drosophila SL2 cells. Bioinformatic analysis of G-rich suggests that this protein is either type II or type III transmembrane protein. To determine the type of transmembrane protein experimentally, GFP-G-rich in which GFP was tagged at the N-terminus of G-rich, or G-rich-GFP in which GFP was tagged at the C-terminus of G-rich, were expressed in SL2 cells. The tagged proteins were then digested with trypsin, and analyzed by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the C-terminus of the G-rich protein was exposed to the cytoplasm indicating it is a type III microsomal membrane protein. G-rich is First selenoprotein identified in the Golgi apparatus

  15. Membrane topology of Golgi-localized probable S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianping; Hayashi, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Ken

    2015-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (MTases) transfer methyl groups to substrates. In this study, a novel putative tobacco SAM-MTase termed Golgi-localized methyl transferase 1 (GLMT1) has been characterized. GLMT1 is comprised of 611 amino acids with short N-terminal region, putative transmembrane region, and C-terminal SAM-MTase domain. Expression of monomeric red fluorescence protein (mRFP)-tagged protein in tobacco BY-2 cell indicated that GLMT1 is a Golgi-localized protein. Analysis of the membrane topology by protease digestion suggested that both C-terminal catalytic region and N-terminal region seem to be located to the cytosolic side of the Golgi apparatus. Therefore, GLMT1 might have a different function than the previously studied SAM-MTases in plants.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis intercepts Golgi-derived sphingolipids through a Rab14-mediated transport required for bacterial development and replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí Capmany

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular bacteria that survive and replicate in a bacterial-modified phagosome called inclusion. As other intracellular parasites, these bacteria subvert the phagocytic pathway to avoid degradation in phagolysosomes and exploit trafficking pathways to acquire both energy and nutrients essential for their survival. Rabs are host proteins that control intracellular vesicular trafficking. Rab14, a Golgi-related Rab, controls Golgi to endosomes transport. Since Chlamydia establish a close relationship with the Golgi apparatus, the recruitment and participation of Rab14 on inclusion development and bacteria growth were analyzed. Time course analysis revealed that Rab14 associated with inclusions by 10 h post infection and was maintained throughout the entire developmental cycle. The recruitment was bacterial protein synthesis-dependent but independent of microtubules and Golgi integrity. Overexpression of Rab14 dominant negative mutants delayed inclusion enlargement, and impaired bacteria replication as determined by IFU. Silencing of Rab14 by siRNA also decreased bacteria multiplication and infectivity. By electron microscopy, aberrant bacteria were observed in cells overexpressing the cytosolic negative Rab14 mutant. Our results showed that Rab14 facilitates the delivery of sphingolipids required for bacterial development and replication from the Golgi to chlamydial inclusions. Novel anti-chlamydial therapies could be developed based on the knowledge of how bacteria subvert host vesicular transport events through Rabs manipulation.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis intercepts Golgi-derived sphingolipids through a Rab14-mediated transport required for bacterial development and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, Anahí; Damiani, María Teresa

    2010-11-22

    Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular bacteria that survive and replicate in a bacterial-modified phagosome called inclusion. As other intracellular parasites, these bacteria subvert the phagocytic pathway to avoid degradation in phagolysosomes and exploit trafficking pathways to acquire both energy and nutrients essential for their survival. Rabs are host proteins that control intracellular vesicular trafficking. Rab14, a Golgi-related Rab, controls Golgi to endosomes transport. Since Chlamydia establish a close relationship with the Golgi apparatus, the recruitment and participation of Rab14 on inclusion development and bacteria growth were analyzed. Time course analysis revealed that Rab14 associated with inclusions by 10 h post infection and was maintained throughout the entire developmental cycle. The recruitment was bacterial protein synthesis-dependent but independent of microtubules and Golgi integrity. Overexpression of Rab14 dominant negative mutants delayed inclusion enlargement, and impaired bacteria replication as determined by IFU. Silencing of Rab14 by siRNA also decreased bacteria multiplication and infectivity. By electron microscopy, aberrant bacteria were observed in cells overexpressing the cytosolic negative Rab14 mutant. Our results showed that Rab14 facilitates the delivery of sphingolipids required for bacterial development and replication from the Golgi to chlamydial inclusions. Novel anti-chlamydial therapies could be developed based on the knowledge of how bacteria subvert host vesicular transport events through Rabs manipulation.

  18. Regulation of traffic and organelle architecture of the ER-Golgi interface by signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Kerstin D; Millarte, Valentina; Farhan, Hesso

    2013-09-01

    The components that control trafficking between organelles of the secretory pathway as well as their architecture were uncovered to a reasonable extent in the past decades. However, only recently did we begin to explore the regulation of the secretory pathway by cellular signaling. In the current review, we focus on trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. We highlight recent advances that have been made toward a better understanding of how the secretory pathway is regulated by signaling and discuss how this knowledge is important to obtain an integrative view of secretion in the context of other homeostatic processes such as growth and proliferation.

  19. Phospholipase D is involved in the formation of Golgi associated clathrin coated vesicles in human parotid duct cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Brito de Souza

    Full Text Available Phospholipase D (PLD has been implicated in many cellular functions, such as vesicle trafficking, exocytosis, differentiation, and proliferation. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of PLD in HSY cells, a human cell line originating from the intercalated duct of the parotid gland. As the function and intracellular localization of PLD varies according to cell type, initially, the intracellular localization of PLD1 and PLD2 was determined. By immunofluorescence, PLD1 and PLD2 both showed a punctate cytoplasmic distribution with extensive co-localization with TGN-46. PLD1 was also found in the nucleus, while PLD2 was associated with the plasma membrane. Treatment of cells with the primary alcohol 1-butanol inhibits the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcoline by PLD thereby suppressing phosphatidic acid (PA production. In untreated HSY cells, there was only a slight co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles. When HSY cells were incubated with 1-butanol the total number of clathrin coated vesicles increased, especially in the juxtanuclear region and the co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles was augmented. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the number of Golgi-associated coated vesicles was greater. Treatment with 1-butanol also affected the Golgi apparatus, increasing the volume of the Golgi saccules. The decrease in PA levels after treatment with 1-butanol likewise resulted in an accumulation of enlarged lysosomes in the perinuclear region. Therefore, in HSY cells PLD appears to be involved in the formation of Golgi associated clathrin coated vesicles as well as in the structural maintenance of the Golgi apparatus.

  20. Live-cell imaging of dual-labeled Golgi stacks in tobacco BY-2 cells reveals similar behaviors for different cisternae during movement and brefeldin A treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Stephanie L; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    In plant cells, the Golgi apparatus consists of numerous stacks that, in turn, are composed of several flattened cisternae with a clear cis-to-trans polarity. During normal functioning within living cells, this unusual organelle displays a wide range of dynamic behaviors such as whole stack motility, constant membrane flux through the cisternae, and Golgi enzyme recycling through the ER. In order to further investigate various aspects of Golgi stack dynamics and integrity, we co-expressed pairs of established Golgi markers in tobacco BY-2 cells to distinguish sub-compartments of the Golgi during monensin treatments, movement, and brefeldin A (BFA)-induced disassembly. A combination of cis and trans markers revealed that Golgi stacks remain intact as they move through the cytoplasm. The Golgi stack orientation during these movements showed a slight preference for the cis side moving ahead, but trans cisternae were also found at the leading edge. During BFA treatments, the different sub-compartments of about half of the observed stacks fused with the ER sequentially; however, no consistent order could be detected. In contrast, the ionophore monensin resulted in swelling of trans cisternae while medial and particularly cis cisternae were mostly unaffected. Our results thus demonstrate a remarkable equivalence of the different cisternae with respect to movement and BFA-induced fusion with the ER. In addition, we propose that a combination of dual-label fluorescence microscopy and drug treatments can provide a simple alternative approach to the determination of protein localization to specific Golgi sub-compartments.

  1. Hepatic trans-Golgi action coordinated by the GTPase ARFRP1 is crucial for lipoprotein lipidation and assembly[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Deike; Radloff, Katrin; Jaschke, Alexander; Lagerpusch, Merit; Chung, Bomee; Tailleux, Anne; Staels, Bart; Schürmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a major organ in whole body lipid metabolism and malfunctioning can lead to various diseases including dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. Triglycerides and cholesteryl esters are packed in the liver as very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs). Generation of these lipoproteins is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum and further maturation likely occurs in the Golgi. ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1) is a small trans-Golgi-associated guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that regulates protein sorting and is required for chylomicron lipidation and assembly in the intestine. Here we show that the hepatocyte-specific deletion of Arfrp1 (Arfrp1liv−/−) results in impaired VLDL lipidation leading to reduced plasma triglyceride levels in the fasted state as well as after inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity by Triton WR-1339. In addition, the concentration of ApoC3 that comprises 40% of protein mass of secreted VLDLs is markedly reduced in the plasma of Arfrp1liv−/− mice but accumulates in the liver accompanied by elevated triglycerides. Fractionation of Arfrp1liv−/− liver homogenates reveals more ApoB48 and a lower concentration of triglycerides in the Golgi compartments than in the corresponding fractions from control livers. In conclusion, ARFRP1 and the Golgi apparatus play an important role in lipoprotein maturation in the liver by influencing lipidation and assembly of proteins to the lipid particles. PMID:24186947

  2. Orf virus interferes with MHC class I surface expression by targeting vesicular transport and Golgi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Jörg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Orf virus (ORFV, a zoonotic Parapoxvirus, causes pustular skin lesions in small ruminants (goat and sheep. Intriguingly, ORFV can repeatedly infect its host, despite the induction of a specific immunity. These immune modulating and immune evading properties are still unexplained. Results Here, we describe that ORFV infection of permissive cells impairs the intracellular transport of MHC class I molecules (MHC I as a result of structural disruption and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Depending on the duration of infection, we observed a pronounced co-localization of MHC I and COP-I vesicular structures as well as a reduction of MHC I surface expression of up to 50%. These subversion processes are associated with early ORFV gene expression and are accompanied by disturbed carbohydrate trimming of post-ER MHC I. The MHC I population remaining on the cell surface shows an extended half-life, an effect that might be partially controlled also by late ORFV genes. Conclusions The presented data demonstrate that ORFV down-regulates MHC I surface expression in infected cells by targeting the late vesicular export machinery and the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus, which might aid to escape cellular immune recognition.

  3. The Cirque du Soleil of Golgi membrane dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankaitis, Vytas A

    2009-07-27

    The role of lipid metabolic enzymes in Golgi membrane remodeling is a subject of intense interest. Now, in this issue, Schmidt and Brown (2009. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.200904147) report that lysophosphatidic acid-specific acyltransferase, LPAAT3, contributes to Golgi membrane dynamics by suppressing tubule formation.

  4. The Cirque du Soleil of Golgi membrane dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of lipid metabolic enzymes in Golgi membrane remodeling is a subject of intense interest. Now, in this issue, Schmidt and Brown (2009. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.200904147) report that lysophosphatidic acid?specific acyltransferase, LPAAT3, contributes to Golgi membrane dynamics by suppressing tubule formation.

  5. Sequential phosphorylation of GRASP65 during mitotic Golgi disassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danming Tang

    2012-09-01

    GRASP65 phosphorylation during mitosis and dephosphorylation after mitosis are required for Golgi disassembly and reassembly during the cell cycle. At least eight phosphorylation sites on GRASP65 have been identified, but whether they are modified in a coordinated fashion during mitosis is so far unknown. In this study, we raised phospho-specific antibodies that recognize phosphorylated T220/T224, S277 and S376 residues of GRASP65, respectively. Biochemical analysis showed that cdc2 phosphorylates all three sites, while plk1 enhances the phosphorylation. Microscopic studies using these antibodies for double and triple labeling demonstrate sequential phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during the cell cycle. S277 and S376 are phosphorylated from late G2 phase through metaphase until telophase when the new Golgi is reassembled. T220/224 is not modified until prophase, but is highly modified from prometaphase to anaphase. In metaphase, phospho-T220/224 signal localizes on both Golgi haze and mitotic Golgi clusters that represent dispersed Golgi vesicles and Golgi remnants, respectively, while phospho-S277 and S376 labeling is more concentrated on mitotic Golgi clusters. Expression of a phosphorylation-resistant GRASP65 mutant T220A/T224A inhibited mitotic Golgi fragmentation to a much larger extent than the expression of the S277A and S376A mutants. In cytokinesis, T220/224 dephosphorylation occurs prior to that of S277, but after S376. This study provides evidence that GRASP65 is sequentially phosphorylated and dephosphorylated during mitosis at different sites to orchestrate Golgi disassembly and reassembly during cell division, with phosphorylation of the T220/224 site being most critical in the process.

  6. Training apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteith, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Training apparatus for use in contamination surveillance uses a mathematical model of a hypothetical contamination source (e.g. nuclear, bacteriological or chemical explosion or leak) to determine from input data defining the contamination source, the contamination level at any location within a defined exercise area. The contamination level to be displayed by the apparatus is corrected to real time from a real time clock or may be displayed in response to a time input from a keyboard. In a preferred embodiment the location is defined by entering UTM grid reference coordinates using the keyboard. The mathematical model used by a microprocessor of the apparatus for simulation of contamination levels in the event of a nuclear explosion is described. (author)

  7. Radioimmunoassay apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for performing a quantitative radioimmunoassay comprising: a substantially spherical bead for carrying an antibody and a gripper for gripping said bead, said gripper comprising an integrally formed unit having a single elongate handle portion and a plurality of resilient fingers arranged at the base of the handle so that when said bead is secured within said fingers, said bead may be freely rotated about any diametric axis of the bead. In particular the invention relates to an apparatus for a two site immunoradiometric assay for serum ferritin in human blood samples. (author)

  8. Encephalographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray apparatus is described for determining the size and location of brain tumours by tomography during pneumoencephalography. The apparatus comprises an image recording device arranged opposite an X-ray source and a frame mounted on a tiltable patient table and rotatable with respect to the table. A patient support is arranged in the frame and is rotatable with respect to the frame. Air injected into the patients' spinal column travels up into the brain and displaces some of the cerebral fluid. Tomographic X-ray exposures are made of the air bubble which moves around in the brain cavities as the patient is rotated. (U.K.)

  9. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  10. Radiotherapy apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.M.; Webb, H.P.J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to apparatus for applying intracavitary radiotherapy. In previously-known systems radioactive material is conveyed to a desired location within a patient by transporting a chain of balls pneumatically to and from an appropriately inserted applicator. According to this invention a ball chain for such a purpose comprises several radioactive balls separated by non-radioactive tracer balls of radiographically transparent material of lower density and surface hardness than the radioactive balls. The invention also extends to radiotherapy treatment apparatus comprising a storage, sorting and assembly system

  11. Radiography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashin, D.; Sternglass, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention provides radiography apparatus wherein the use of a flat, generally rectangular beam or a fan-shaped beam of radiation in combination with a collimator, scintillator and device for optically coupling a self-scanning array of photodiodes to the scintillator means will permit production of images or image data with high contrast sensitivity and detail. It is contemplated that the self-scanning array of photodiodes may contain from about 60 to 2048, and preferably about 256 to 2048, individual photodiode elements per inch of object width, thereby permitting maximum data collection to produce a complete image or complete collection of image data

  12. Monitoring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    An improved monitoring apparatus for use with process plants, such as nuclear reactors, is described. System failure in the acquisition of data from the plant, owing to stuck signals, is avoided by arranging input signals from transducers in the plant in a test pattern. (U.K.)

  13. Prehensile apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.M.

    1993-10-12

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  14. Characterization of the sterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate binding properties of Golgi-associated OSBP-related protein 9 (ORP9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Liu

    Full Text Available Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP and OSBP-related proteins (ORPS have a conserved lipid-binding fold that accommodates cholesterol, oxysterols and/or phospholipids. The diversity of OSBP/ORPs and their potential ligands has complicated the analysis of transfer and signalling properties of this mammalian gene family. In this study we explored the use of the fluorescent sterol cholestatrienol (CTL to measure sterol binding by ORP9 and competition by other putative ligands. Relative to cholesterol, CTL and dehydroergosterol (DHE were poor ligands for OSBP. In contrast, both long (ORP9L and short (ORP9S variants of ORP9 rapidly extracted CTL, and to a lesser extent DHE, from liposomes. ORP9L and ORP9S also extracted [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P from liposomes, which was inhibited by mutating two conserved histidine residues (HH488,489AA at the entrance to the binding pocket but not by a mutation in the lid region that inhibited cholesterol binding. Results of direct binding and competition assays showed that phosphatidylserine was poorly extracted from liposomes by ORP9 compared to CTL and PI-4P. ORP9L and PI-4P did not co-localize in the trans-Golgi/TGN of HeLa cells, and siRNA silencing of ORP9L expression did not affect PI-4P distribution in the Golgi apparatus. However, transient overexpression of ORP9L or ORP9S in CHO cells, but not the corresponding PI-4P binding mutants, prevented immunostaining of Golgi-associated PI-4P. The apparent sequestration of Golgi PI-4P by ORP9S was identified as a possible mechanism for its growth inhibitory effects. These studies identify ORP9 as a dual sterol/PI-4P binding protein that could regulate PI-4P in the Golgi apparatus.

  15. Characterization of the sterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate binding properties of Golgi-associated OSBP-related protein 9 (ORP9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinwei; Ridgway, Neale D

    2014-01-01

    Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPS) have a conserved lipid-binding fold that accommodates cholesterol, oxysterols and/or phospholipids. The diversity of OSBP/ORPs and their potential ligands has complicated the analysis of transfer and signalling properties of this mammalian gene family. In this study we explored the use of the fluorescent sterol cholestatrienol (CTL) to measure sterol binding by ORP9 and competition by other putative ligands. Relative to cholesterol, CTL and dehydroergosterol (DHE) were poor ligands for OSBP. In contrast, both long (ORP9L) and short (ORP9S) variants of ORP9 rapidly extracted CTL, and to a lesser extent DHE, from liposomes. ORP9L and ORP9S also extracted [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P) from liposomes, which was inhibited by mutating two conserved histidine residues (HH488,489AA) at the entrance to the binding pocket but not by a mutation in the lid region that inhibited cholesterol binding. Results of direct binding and competition assays showed that phosphatidylserine was poorly extracted from liposomes by ORP9 compared to CTL and PI-4P. ORP9L and PI-4P did not co-localize in the trans-Golgi/TGN of HeLa cells, and siRNA silencing of ORP9L expression did not affect PI-4P distribution in the Golgi apparatus. However, transient overexpression of ORP9L or ORP9S in CHO cells, but not the corresponding PI-4P binding mutants, prevented immunostaining of Golgi-associated PI-4P. The apparent sequestration of Golgi PI-4P by ORP9S was identified as a possible mechanism for its growth inhibitory effects. These studies identify ORP9 as a dual sterol/PI-4P binding protein that could regulate PI-4P in the Golgi apparatus.

  16. EXTRACTION APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, A.E.; Brigham, H.R.

    1958-10-28

    An apparatus whereby relatlvely volatile solvents may be contacted with volatile or non-volatile material without certaln attendant hazards is described. A suitable apparatus for handling relatively volatlle liqulds may be constructed comprising a tank, and a closure covering the tank and adapted to be securely attached to an external suppont. The closure is provided with a rigidly mounted motor-driven agitator. This agitator is connected from the driving motor lnto the lnterlor of the tank through a gland adapted to be cooled witb inert gas thereby eliminating possible hazard due to frictional heat. The closure is arranged so that the tank may be removed from it without materially dlsturbing the closure which, as described, carrles the motor driven agitator and other parts.

  17. Centrifuge apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartory, Walter K.; Eveleigh, John W.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for operating a continuous flow blood separation centrifuge are provided. The hematocrit of the entrant whole blood is continuously maintained at an optimum constant value by the addition of plasma to the entrant blood. The hematocrit of the separated red cells is monitored to indicate the degree of separation taking place, thereby providing a basis for regulating the flow through the centrifuge.

  18. CASTING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-09-23

    An apparatus is described for casting small quantities of uranlum. It consists of a crucible having a hole in the bottom with a mold positioned below. A vertical rcd passes through the hole in the crucible and has at its upper end a piercing head adapted to break the oxide skin encasing a molten uranium body. An air tight cylinder surrounds the crucible and mold, and is arranged to be evacuated.

  19. Radiography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for the inspection of pipe welds comprises a radiation source for transmitting radiation, say as X-rays, through a pipe weld and a detector in a box arranged diametrically opposite the source, with respect to the pipe, for detecting the transmitted radiation and providing electrical signals which are processed to produce an image of the weld. The source and detector are mounted on a frame which is rotatable about an inner frame clamped to the pipe. (author)

  20. Hsp20 Protects against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion-Induced Golgi Fragmentation and Apoptosis through Fas/FasL Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingwu Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury plays an important role in the development of tissue injury after acute ischemic stroke. Finding effective neuroprotective agents has become a priority in the treatment of ischemic stroke. The Golgi apparatus (GA is a pivotal organelle and its protection is an attractive target in the treatment of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Protective effects of Hsp20, a potential cytoprotective agent due to its chaperone-like activity and involvement in regulation of many vital processes, on GA were assessed in an ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a (N2a cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGDR insult. OGDR induces Golgi fragmentation, apoptosis, and p115 cleavage in N2a cells. However, transfection with Hsp20 significantly attenuates OGDR-induced Golgi fragmentation and apoptosis. Hsp20 interacts with Bax, decreases FasL and Bax expression, and inhibits caspases 3 and p115 cleavage in N2a cells exposed to OGDR. Our data demonstrate that increased Hsp20 expression protects against OGDR-induced Golgi fragmentation and apoptosis, likely through interaction with Bax and subsequent amelioration of the OGDR-induced elevation in p115 cleavage via the Fas/FasL signaling pathway. This neuroprotective potential of Hsp20 against OGDR insult and the underlying mechanism will pave the way for its potential clinical application for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion related disorders.

  1. Characterization of the human GARP (Golgi associated retrograde protein) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewen, Heike; Meinhold-Heerlein, Ivo; Oliveira, Vasco; Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Luo Guorong; Wadle, Andreas; Jung, Martin; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Stenner-Liewen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The Golgi associated retrograde protein complex (GARP) or Vps fifty-three (VFT) complex is part of cellular inter-compartmental transport systems. Here we report the identification of the VFT tethering factor complex and its interactions in mammalian cells. Subcellular fractionation shows that human Vps proteins are found in the smooth membrane/Golgi fraction but not in the cytosol. Immunostaining of human Vps proteins displays a vesicular distribution most concentrated at the perinuclear envelope. Co-staining experiments with endosomal markers imply an endosomal origin of these vesicles. Significant accumulation of VFT complex positive endosomes is found in the vicinity of the Trans Golgi Network area. This is in accordance with a putative role in Golgi associated transport processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GARP is the main effector of the small GTPase Ypt6p and interacts with the SNARE Tlg1p to facilitate membrane fusion. Accordingly, the human homologue of Ypt6p, Rab6, specifically binds hVps52. In human cells, the 'orphan' SNARE Syntaxin 10 is the genuine binding partner of GARP mediated by hVps52. This reveals a previously unknown function of human Syntaxin 10 in membrane docking and fusion events at the Golgi. Taken together, GARP shows significant conservation between various species but diversification and specialization result in important differences in human cells

  2. Radiography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    A novel apparatus for radiographic examination purposes comprising an x-ray source emitting a flat beam is described. Detectors are arranged in the plane of the beam in order each to pick up part of the beam. To avoid the Compton effect, each detector has associated with it an auxiliary detector which only receives the rays emitted by the Compton effect. An electrical circuit forms a predetermined linear combination of the signals respectively picked up by each detector and the associated auxiliary detector, this in order to prevent the errors which are due to the Compton effect when the beam passes through the body being analyzed

  3. Induced oligomerization targets Golgi proteins for degradation in lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Ritika; Bachert, Collin; Linstedt, Adam D

    2015-12-01

    Manganese protects cells against forms of Shiga toxin by down-regulating the cycling Golgi protein GPP130. Down-regulation occurs when Mn binding causes GPP130 to oligomerize and traffic to lysosomes. To determine how GPP130 is redirected to lysosomes, we tested the role of GGA1 and clathrin, which mediate sorting in the canonical Golgi-to-lysosome pathway. GPP130 oligomerization was induced using either Mn or a self-interacting version of the FKBP domain. Inhibition of GGA1 or clathrin specifically blocked GPP130 redistribution, suggesting recognition of the aggregated GPP130 by the GGA1/clathrin-sorting complex. Unexpectedly, however, GPP130's cytoplasmic domain was not required, and redistribution also occurred after removal of GPP130 sequences needed for its normal cycling. Therefore, to test whether aggregate recognition might be a general phenomenon rather than one involving a specific GPP130 determinant, we induced homo-oligomerization of two unrelated Golgi-targeted constructs using the FKBP strategy. These were targeted to the cis- and trans-Golgi, respectively, using domains from mannosidase-1 and galactosyltransferase. Significantly, upon oligomerization, each redistributed to peripheral punctae and was degraded. This occurred in the absence of detectable UPR activation. These findings suggest the unexpected presence of quality control in the Golgi that recognizes aggregated Golgi proteins and targets them for degradation in lysosomes. © 2015 Tewari et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Stathmin 1/2-triggered microtubule loss mediates Golgi fragmentation in mutant SOD1 motor neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellouze, Sarah; Baillat, Gilbert; Buttigieg, Dorothée; de la Grange, Pierre; Rabouille, Catherine; Haase, Georg

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathological Golgi fragmentation represents a constant pre-clinical feature of many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but its molecular mechanisms remain hitherto unclear. RESULTS: Here, we show that the severe Golgi fragmentation in transgenic

  5. Mena–GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking. PMID:26538023

  6. Thermoforming apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallsten, H.I.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for manufacturing articles is disclosed in which a preheated sheet of thermoplastic material is intermittently fed to present successive preheated portions of the sheet in a work station having a forming tool for forming articles in each successive sheet portion and a stamping tool for co-operating with the forming tool to stamp the formed articles from the sheet. The forming tool has a plurality of forming dies which are movable successively and cyclically into the work station for forming articles in respective successive sheet portions. After each forming operation the stamping tool is brought into engagement with a resilient counter-surface on the forming die to stamp from the sheet the articles formed by that die

  7. Radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    This patent application describes a radiographic apparatus including an array of radiation sensors, a source of radiation for projecting a beam through a body and means for moving one of said source and array relative to the body and for producing an electrical signal representative of the movement of the other of said source and array needed to bring the array into register with the beam. Drive means are arranged to move the other of said source and array in response to the electrical signal. In one embodiment, the source is rotated by an amount measured by a grating and associated electronics. The required movement of the array to maintain registration is calculated and transmitted to a driver. Alternatively, a laser may be mounted with the same and the array driven so that the laser beam continuously impinges on a photocell mounted with the array. (author)

  8. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  9. Golgi bypass: skirting around the heart of classical secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieve, A.; Rabouille, C.

    2011-01-01

    Classical secretion consists of the delivery of transmembrane and soluble proteins to the plasma membrane and the extracellular medium, respectively, and is mediated by the organelles of the secretory pathway, the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), the ER exit sites, and the Golgi, as described by the

  10. Transmembrane domain quality control systems operate at the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briant, K.; Johnson, Nicholas; Swanton, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2017), č. článku e0173924. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : integral membrane proteins * human CD8 glycoprotein * ubiquitin ligase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173924

  11. Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions Involved in Pectin Biosynthesis in the golgi Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian Have

    for instance as food additives, nutraceutical, for paper and energy production. Pectin is a cell wall glycan that crucial for every plant growing on land. Pectin is said to be one of the most complex glycans on earth and it is hypothesized that at least 67 enzymatic reactions are involved in its biosynthesis......The plant cell wall surrounds every plant cell and is an essential component that is involved in diverse functions including plant development, morphology, resistance towards plant pathogens etc. The plant cell wall is not only important for the plant. The cell wall has many industrial applications...... the diverse pectin structures for industrial, agronomic and biomedical uses. Increasing evidence suggests that complex formation is important in governing functional coordination of proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a homogalacturonan (HG) synthase core complex between...

  12. Balanced trafficking between the ER and the Golgi apparatus increases protein secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jichen; Huang, Mingtao; Petranovic, Dina

    2018-01-01

    of ADP-ribosylation factor GTP activating proteins, Gcs1p and Glo3p, which are involved in the process of COPI-coated vesicle formation. Engineering the retrograde trafficking increased the secretion of alpha-amylase but did not induce production of reactive oxygen species. An expanded ER membrane......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a cell factory to produce recombinant proteins. However, S. cerevisiae naturally secretes only a few proteins, such as invertase and the mating alpha factor, and its secretory capacity is limited. It has been reported that engineering protein...... recombinant proteins, endoglucanase I from Trichoderma reesei and glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase from Rhizopus oryzae, indicating overexpression of GLO3 in a SEC16 moderate overexpression strain might be a general strategy for improving production of secreted proteins by yeast....

  13. Purification apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortenson, C.W.

    1982-04-27

    An apparatus is provided for converting sea or other undrinkable waters to drinkable water without the use of driven or moving parts. Reliance upon gradient effects is made to effect the vaporization of, for example, sea water, followed by the condensation of the vapor to form distilled water. Gradient effects are achieved through the provision of differentials in the thermal conductivity, capillary activity, adsorptive, absorptive and/or pressure characteristics of particulate materials, or combinations of such physicals. For example, a column is packed with material graded as to its conductivity, the least thermally conductive material being nearest the cold or ambient water that is to be purified. In packing the column each successive layer of material has a greater thermal conductivity than the layer beneath it with the most conductive being at the top near the outlet arm of the column. The final outlet arm or tube is unheated or is at a temperature lower than that of the topmost conductive material so that vapor reaching the outlet tube gets condensed. This tube leads to a container kept in a cool place as, for example, buried in the ground, as, for instance, at the seashore deep enough to be cooled or to be surrounded by water, thus keeping the condensate cold. Pure water so collected is removed by such means as is desired. Other impure, volatile liquids may be similarly purified.

  14. Phosphorylation in the C-terminal domain of Aquaporin-4 is required for Golgi transition in primary cultured astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadohira, Ikuko; Abe, Yoichiro; Nuriya, Mutsuo; Sano, Kazumi; Tsuji, Shoji; Arimitsu, Takeshi; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Yasui, Masato

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed in the perivascular and subpial astrocytes end-feet in mammalian brain, and plays a critical component of an integrated water and potassium homeostasis. Here we examine whether AQP4 is phosphorylated in primary cultured mouse astrocytes. Astrocytes were metabolically labeled with [ 32 P]phosphoric acid, then AQP4 was immunoprecipitated with anti-AQP4 antibody. We observed that AQP4 was constitutively phosphorylated, which is reduced by treatment with protein kinase CK2 inhibitors. To elucidate the phosphorylation of AQP4 by CK2, myc-tagged wild-type or mutant AQP4 was transiently transfected in primary cultured astrocytes. Substitution of Ala residues for four putative CK2 phosphorylation sites in the C terminus abolished the phosphorylation of AQP4. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that the quadruple mutant was localized in the Golgi apparatus. These observations indicate that the C-terminal domain of AQP4 is constitutively phosphorylated at least in part by protein kinase CK2 and it is required for Golgi transition.

  15. STED Imaging of Golgi Dynamics with Cer-SiR: A Two-Component, Photostable, High-Density Lipid Probe for Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Roman S; Toomre, Derek; Schepartz, Alanna

    2017-01-01

    Long time-lapse super-resolution imaging in live cells requires a labeling strategy that combines a bright, photostable fluorophore with a high-density localization probe. Lipids are ideal high-density localization probes, as they are >100 times more abundant than most membrane-bound proteins and simultaneously demark the boundaries of cellular organelles. Here, we describe Cer-SiR, a two-component, high-density lipid probe that is exceptionally photostable. Cer-SiR is generated in cells via a bioorthogonal reaction of two components: a ceramide lipid tagged with trans-cyclooctene (Cer-TCO) and a reactive, photostable Si-rhodamine dye (SiR-Tz). These components assemble within the Golgi apparatus of live cells to form Cer-SiR. Cer-SiR is benign to cellular function, localizes within the Golgi at a high density, and is sufficiently photostable to enable visualization of Golgi structure and dynamics by 3D confocal or long time-lapse STED microscopy.

  16. A small-molecule switch for Golgi sulfotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graffenried, Christopher L; Laughlin, Scott T; Kohler, Jennifer J; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2004-11-30

    The study of glycan function is a major frontier in biology that could benefit from small molecules capable of perturbing carbohydrate structures on cells. The widespread role of sulfotransferases in modulating glycan function makes them prime targets for small-molecule modulators. Here, we report a system for conditional activation of Golgi-resident sulfotransferases using a chemical inducer of dimerization. Our approach capitalizes on two features shared by these enzymes: their requirement of Golgi localization for activity on cellular substrates and the modularity of their catalytic and localization domains. Fusion of these domains to the proteins FRB and FKBP enabled their induced assembly by the natural product rapamycin. We applied this strategy to the GlcNAc-6-sulfotransferases GlcNAc6ST-1 and GlcNAc6ST-2, which collaborate in the sulfation of L-selectin ligands. Both the activity and specificity of the inducible enzymes were indistinguishable from their WT counterparts. We further generated rapamycin-inducible chimeric enzymes comprising the localization domain of a sulfotransferase and the catalytic domain of a glycosyltransferase, demonstrating the generality of the system among other Golgi enzymes. The approach provides a means for studying sulfate-dependent processes in cellular systems and, potentially, in vivo.

  17. Vibration sensitivity of human muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, James B; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2007-07-01

    The responses of the various muscle receptors to vibration are more complicated than a naïve categorization into stretch (muscle spindle primary ending), length (muscle spindle secondary endings), and tension (Golgi tendon organs) receptors. To emphasize the similarity of responses to small length changes, we recorded from 58 individual muscle afferents subserving receptors in the ankle or toe dorsiflexors of awake human subjects (32 primary endings, 20 secondary endings, and six Golgi tendon organs). Transverse sinusoidal vibration was applied to the distal tendon of the receptor-bearing muscle, while subjects either remained completely relaxed or maintained a weak isometric contraction of the appropriate muscle. In relaxed muscle, few units responded in a 1:1 manner to vibration, and there was no evidence of a preferred frequency of activation. In active muscle the response profiles of all three receptor types overlapped, with no significant difference in threshold between receptor types. These results emphasize that when intramuscular tension increases during a voluntary contraction, Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindle secondary endings, not just muscle spindle primary endings, can effectively encode small imposed length changes.

  18. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  19. Gamma tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Span, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a gamma tomography apparatus for medical diagnosis. The apparatus comprises a gamma scintillation camera head and a suspension system for supporting and positioning the camera head with respect for the patient. Both total body scanning and single photon emission tomography can be carried out with the apparatus. (U.K.)

  20. ROLLER FILTRATION APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter and liquid from a m...

  1. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  2. Gamma apparatuses for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sul'kin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific and technical achievements in development and application of gamma therapeutic apparatuses for external and intracavity irradiations are generalized. Radiation-physical parameters of apparatuses providing usability of progressive methods in radiotherapy of onclogical patients are given. Optimization of main apparatus elements, ensurance of its operation reliability, reduction of errors of irradiation plan reproduction are considered. Attention is paid to radiation safety

  3. Benzyl alcohol induces a reversible fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus and inhibits membrane trafficking between endosomes and the trans-Golgi network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simm, Roger; Kvalvaag, Audun Sverre; van Deurs, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Benzyl alcohol (BnOH) is widely used as a component of foods, cosmetics, household products and medical products. It is generally considered to be safe for human use, however, it has been connected to a number of adverse effects, including hypersensitivity reactions and neonatal deaths. Bn...

  4. Golgi enrichment and proteomic analysis of developing Pinus radiata xylem by free-flow electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet T Parsons

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the contribution of Golgi proteins to cell wall and wood formation in any woody plant species is limited. Currently, little Golgi proteomics data exists for wood-forming tissues. In this study, we attempted to address this issue by generating and analyzing Golgi-enriched membrane preparations from developing xylem of compression wood from the conifer Pinus radiata. Developing xylem samples from 3-year-old pine trees were harvested for this purpose at a time of active growth and subjected to a combination of density centrifugation followed by free flow electrophoresis, a surface charge separation technique used in the enrichment of Golgi membranes. This combination of techniques was successful in achieving an approximately 200-fold increase in the activity of the Golgi marker galactan synthase and represents a significant improvement for proteomic analyses of the Golgi from conifers. A total of thirty known Golgi proteins were identified by mass spectrometry including glycosyltransferases from gene families involved in glucomannan and glucuronoxylan biosynthesis. The free flow electrophoresis fractions of enriched Golgi were highly abundant in structural proteins (actin and tubulin indicating a role for the cytoskeleton during compression wood formation. The mass spectrometry proteomics data associated with this study have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000557.

  5. CCDC115 Deficiency Causes a Disorder of Golgi Homeostasis with Abnormal Protein Glycosylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Jos C.; Cirak, Sebahattin; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Timal, Sharita; Reunert, Janine; Rust, Stephan; Pérez, Belén; Vicogne, Dorothée; Krawitz, Peter; Wada, Yoshinao; Ashikov, Angel; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Medrano, Celia; Arnoldy, Andrea; Hoischen, Alexander; Huijben, Karin; Steenbergen, Gerry; Quelhas, Dulce; Diogo, Luisa; Rymen, Daisy; Jaeken, Jaak; Guffon, Nathalie; Cheillan, David; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P.; Maeda, Yusuke; Kaiser, Olaf; Schara, Ulrike; Gerner, Patrick; van den Boogert, Marjolein A. W.; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Sokal, Etienne; Salomon, Jody; van den Bogaart, Geert; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Veltman, Joris A.; Wevers, Ron A.; Morava, Eva; Matthijs, Gert; Foulquier, François; Marquardt, Thorsten; Lefeber, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of Golgi homeostasis form an emerging group of genetic defects. The highly heterogeneous clinical spectrum is not explained by our current understanding of the underlying cell-biological processes in the Golgi. Therefore, uncovering genetic defects and annotating gene function are

  6. Mena-GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking. © 2016 Tang et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. A role for Sar1 and ARF1 GTPases during Golgi biogenesis in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Sevil; Warren, Graham

    2017-01-01

    A single Golgi stack is duplicated and partitioned into two daughter cells during the cell cycle of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The source of components required to generate the new Golgi and the mechanism by which it forms are poorly understood. Using photoactivatable GFP, we show that the existing Golgi supplies components directly to the newly forming Golgi in both intact and semipermeabilized cells. The movement of a putative glycosyltransferase, GntB, requires the Sar1 and ARF1 GTPases in intact cells. In addition, we show that transfer of GntB from the existing Golgi to the new Golgi can be recapitulated in semipermeabilized cells and is sensitive to the GTP analogue GTPγS. We suggest that the existing Golgi is a key source of components required to form the new Golgi and that this process is regulated by small GTPases. PMID:28495798

  8. Non-synaptic signaling from cerebellar climbing fibers modulates Golgi cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietz, Angela K; Vaden, Jada H; Coddington, Luke T; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda; Wadiche, Jacques I

    2017-10-13

    Golgi cells are the principal inhibitory neurons at the input stage of the cerebellum, providing feedforward and feedback inhibition through mossy fiber and parallel fiber synapses. In vivo studies have shown that Golgi cell activity is regulated by climbing fiber stimulation, yet there is little functional or anatomical evidence for synapses between climbing fibers and Golgi cells. Here, we show that glutamate released from climbing fibers activates ionotropic and metabotropic receptors on Golgi cells through spillover-mediated transmission. The interplay of excitatory and inhibitory conductances provides flexible control over Golgi cell spiking, allowing either excitation or a biphasic sequence of excitation and inhibition following single climbing fiber stimulation. Together with prior studies of spillover transmission to molecular layer interneurons, these results reveal that climbing fibers exert control over inhibition at both the input and output layers of the cerebellar cortex.

  9. Multipactor discharge apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a multipactor discharge apparatus which can be used for tuning microwave organs such as magnetron oscillators and other cavity resonators. This apparatus is suitable for delivering an improved tuning effect in a resonation organ wherefrom the working frequency must be set. This apparatus is equipped with two multipactor discharge electrodes set in a configuration such to that a net current flows from one electrode to another. These electrodes are parallel and flat. The apparatus can be used in magnetron devices as well for continuous waves as for impulses

  10. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  11. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  12. Pipework inspection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrigglesworth, K.J.; Knowles, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The patent concerns a pipework inspection apparatus, which is capable of negotiating bends in pipework. The apparatus comprises a TV camera system, which contains an optical section and an electronics section, which are connected by a flexible coupling. The system can be pulled or pushed along the bore of the pipework. (U.K.)

  13. Nuclear core baffling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, F.W. Jr.; Silverblatt, B.L.; Knight, C.B.; Berringer, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for baffling the flow of reactor coolant fluid into and about the core of a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus includes a plurality of longitudinally aligned baffle plates with mating surfaces that allow longitudinal growth with temperature increases while alleviating both leakage through the aligned plates and stresses on the components supporting the plates

  14. Fractionation and rectification apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwald, A

    1932-05-25

    Fractionation and rectifying apparatus with a distillation vessel and a stirring tube, drainage tubes leading from its coils to a central collecting tube, the drainage tubes being somewhat parallel and attached to the outer half of the stirring tube and partly on the inner half of the central collecting tube, whereby distillation and rectification can be effected in a single apparatus.

  15. The Arf-GDP-regulated recruitment of GBF1 to Golgi membranes requires domains HDS1 and HDS2 and a Golgi-localized protein receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Douglas; Chan, Calvin J; Yurkiw, Katherine; Bain, Alexandra; Babolmorad, Ghazal; Melançon, Paul

    2018-04-19

    We previously proposed a novel mechanism by which the enzyme Golgi-specific Brefeldin A resistance factor 1 (GBF1) is recruited to the membranes of the cis -Golgi, based on in vivo experiments. Here, we extended our in vivo analysis on the production of regulatory Arf-GDP and observed that ArfGAP2 and ArfGAP3 do not play a role in GBF1 recruitment. We confirm that Arf-GDP localization is critical, as a TGN-localized Arf-GDP mutant protein fails to promote GBF1 recruitment. We also reported the establishment of an in vitro GBF1 recruitment assay that supports the regulation of GBF1 recruitment by Arf-GDP. This in vitro assay yielded further evidence for the requirement of a Golgi-localized protein because heat denaturation or protease treatment of Golgi membranes abrogated GBF1 recruitment. Finally, combined in vivo and in vitro measurements indicated that the recruitment to Golgi membranes via a putative receptor requires only the HDS1 and HDS2 domains in the C-terminal half of GBF1. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. CASTING METHOD AND APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C.F.; Thompson, R.H.

    1958-10-01

    An improved apparatus for the melting and casting of uranium is described. A vacuum chamber is positioned over the casting mold and connected thereto, and a rod to pierce the oxide skin of the molten uranium is fitted into the bottom of the melting chamber. The entire apparatus is surrounded by a jacket, and operations are conducted under a vacuum. The improvement in this apparatus lies in the fact that the top of the melting chamber is fitted with a plunger which allows squeezing of the oxide skin to force out any molten uranium remaining after the skin has been broken and the molten charge has been cast.

  17. Mirror plasma apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma

  18. Conduit grinding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D.; Korytkowski, Alfred S.

    1991-01-01

    A grinding apparatus for grinding the interior portion of a valve stem receiving area of a valve. The apparatus comprises a faceplate, a plurality of cams mounted to an interior face of the faceplate, a locking bolt to lock the faceplate at a predetermined position on the valve, a movable grinder and a guide tube for positioning an optical viewer proximate the area to be grinded. The apparatus can either be rotated about the valve for grinding an area of the inner diameter of a valve stem receiving area or locked at a predetermined position to grind a specific point in the receiving area.

  19. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are Golgi-localised GDP-sugar transporters in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Daniella; Handford, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Plant nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) are responsible for the import of nucleotide-sugar substrates into the Golgi lumen, for subsequent use in glycosylation reactions. NSTs are specific for either GDP- or UDP-sugars, and almost all transporters studied to date have been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana L. In order to determine the conservation of the import mechanism in other higher plant species, here we report the identification and characterisation of VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless), which are the orthologues of the GDP-sugar transporters GONST3 and GONST4 in Arabidopsis. Both grapevine NSTs possess the molecular features characteristic of GDP-sugar transporters, including a GDP-binding domain (GXL/VNK) towards the C-terminal. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B expression is highest at berry setting and decreases throughout berry development and ripening. Moreover, we show using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged versions and brefeldin A treatments, that both are localised in the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, in vitro transport assays after expression of both NSTs in tobacco leaves indicate that VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are capable of transporting GDP-mannose and GDP-glucose, respectively, but not a range of other UDP- and GDP-sugars. The possible functions of these NSTs in glucomannan synthesis and/or glycosylation of sphingolipids are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 3D Structure and Interaction of p24β and p24δ Golgi Dynamics Domains: Implication for p24 Complex Formation and Cargo Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagae, Masamichi; Hirata, Tetsuya; Morita-Matsumoto, Kana; Theiler, Romina; Fujita, Morihisa; Kinoshita, Taroh; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki

    2016-10-09

    The p24 family consists of four subfamilies (p24α, p24β, p24γ, and p24δ), and the proteins are thought to form hetero-oligomeric complexes for efficient transport of cargo proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. The proteins possess a conserved luminal Golgi dynamics (GOLD) domain, whose functions are largely unknown. Here, we present structural and biochemical studies of p24β1 and p24δ1 GOLD domains. Use of GOLD domain-deleted mutants revealed that the GOLD domain of p24δ1 is required for proper p24 hetero-oligomeric complex formation and efficient transport of GPI-anchored proteins. The p24β1 and p24δ1 GOLD domains share a common β-sandwich fold with a characteristic intrasheet disulfide bond. The GOLD domain of p24δ1 crystallized as dimers, allowing the analysis of a homophilic interaction site. Surface plasmon resonance and solution NMR analyses revealed that p24β1 and p24δ1 GOLD domains interact weakly (K d = ~10 -4 M). Bi-protein titration provided interaction site maps. We propose that the heterophilic interaction of p24 GOLD domains contributes to the formation of the p24 hetero-oligomeric complex and to efficient cargo transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to a multiplexer slip ring means for receiving output from the detectors and enabling interfeed to the image reconstruction station. (U.K.)

  2. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are presented of a tomographic scanning apparatus, its rotational assembly, and the control and circuit elements, with particular reference to the amplifier and multiplexing circuits enabling detector signal calibration. (U.K.)

  3. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification relates to a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal, and particularly to the design of the gas-pressurized ionization detection system. (U.K.)

  4. Scintillation counting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the accurate measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters and in particular for the liquid scintillation counting of both soft beta radiation and gamma radiation. Full constructional and operating details are given. (UK)

  5. Imaging Apparatus And Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manohar, Srirang; van Leeuwen, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A thermoacoustic imaging apparatus comprises an electromagnetic radiation source configured to irradiate a sample area and an acoustic signal detection probe arrangement for detecting acoustic signals. A radiation responsive acoustic signal generator is added outside the sample area. The detection

  6. IMAGING APPARATUS AND METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manohar, Srirang; van Leeuwen, A.G.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A thermoacoustic imaging apparatus comprises an electromagnetic radiation source configured to irradiate a sample area and an acoustic signal detection probe arrangement for detecting acoustic signals. A radiation responsive acoustic signal generator is added outside the sample area. The detection

  7. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  8. Light shielding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard Dean; Thom, Robert Anthony

    2017-10-10

    A light shielding apparatus for blocking light from reaching an electronic device, the light shielding apparatus including left and right support assemblies, a cross member, and an opaque shroud. The support assemblies each include primary support structure, a mounting element for removably connecting the apparatus to the electronic device, and a support member depending from the primary support structure for retaining the apparatus in an upright orientation. The cross member couples the left and right support assemblies together and spaces them apart according to the size and shape of the electronic device. The shroud may be removably and adjustably connectable to the left and right support assemblies and configured to take a cylindrical dome shape so as to form a central space covered from above. The opaque shroud prevents light from entering the central space and contacting sensitive elements of the electronic device.

  9. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the adjustable fan beam and its collimator system, together with the facility for taking a conventional x-radiograph without moving the patient. (U.K.)

  10. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  11. Transport of soluble proteins through the Golgi occurs by diffusion via continuities across cisternae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beznoussenko, Galina V; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Rizzo, Riccardo; Polishchuk, Roman; Martella, Oliviano; Di Giandomenico, Daniele; Fusella, Aurora; Spaar, Alexander; Sallese, Michele; Capestrano, Maria Grazia; Pavelka, Margit; Vos, Matthijn R; Rikers, Yuri GM; Helms, Volkhard; Mironov, Alexandre A; Luini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of transport through the Golgi complex is not completely understood, insofar as no single transport mechanism appears to account for all of the observations. Here, we compare the transport of soluble secretory proteins (albumin and α1-antitrypsin) with that of supramolecular cargoes (e.g., procollagen) that are proposed to traverse the Golgi by compartment progression–maturation. We show that these soluble proteins traverse the Golgi much faster than procollagen while moving through the same stack. Moreover, we present kinetic and morphological observations that indicate that albumin transport occurs by diffusion via intercisternal continuities. These data provide evidence for a transport mechanism that applies to a major class of secretory proteins and indicate the co-existence of multiple intra-Golgi trafficking modes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02009.001 PMID:24867214

  12. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  13. Test sample handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test sample handling apparatus using automatic scintillation counting for gamma detection, for use in such fields as radioimmunoassay, is described. The apparatus automatically and continuously counts large numbers of samples rapidly and efficiently by the simultaneous counting of two samples. By means of sequential ordering of non-sequential counting data, it is possible to obtain precisely ordered data while utilizing sample carrier holders having a minimum length. (U.K.)

  14. Radiation imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a radiation imaging apparatus. It relates more particularly to apparatus of this general type which employs stationary X-ray source and detector arrays capable of acquiring multiple ultrafast scans per second to facilitate the dynamic study of moving human organs such as the beating heart. While the invention has many applications, it has particular utility in connection with computerized tomographic (CT) scanners. (Auth.)

  15. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  16. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  17. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  18. Pathological changes of Golgi complex in hemocytoblasts of spleen of young axolotls after x-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turska, R.

    1975-01-01

    The data available up to now concerning the structure of Golgi complex in different types of normal and pathologically changed cells are very divergent. Results are reported from detailed studies on changes occurring within the Golgi complex in the spleen of three-month old axolotls after x-ray irradiation with a single dose of 1,200 R and killed by decapitation 15, 30, 60 minutes and 3, 6, and 12 hours after irradiation.

  19. COPI-mediated retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER regulates EGFR nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ying-Nai; Wang, Hongmei; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Lee, Hong-Jen; Lee, Heng-Huan; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → ARF1 activation is involved in the EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. → Assembly of γ-COP coatomer mediates EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. → Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking regulates nuclear transport of EGFR. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates that cell surface receptors, such as the entire epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, have been shown to localize in the nucleus. A retrograde route from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is postulated to be involved in the EGFR trafficking to the nucleus; however, the molecular mechanism in this proposed model remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-embedded vesicular trafficking is involved in the nuclear transport of EGFR. Confocal immunofluorescence reveals that in response to EGF, a portion of EGFR redistributes to the Golgi and the ER, where its NH 2 -terminus resides within the lumen of Golgi/ER and COOH-terminus is exposed to the cytoplasm. Blockage of the Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking by brefeldin A or dominant mutants of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor, which both resulted in the disassembly of the coat protein complex I (COPI) coat to the Golgi, inhibit EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. We further find that EGF-dependent nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER involving an association of EGFR with γ-COP, one of the subunits of the COPI coatomer. Our findings experimentally provide a comprehensive pathway that nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by COPI-mediated vesicular trafficking from the Golgi to the ER, and may serve as a general mechanism in regulating the nuclear transport of other cell surface receptors.

  20. Force estimation from ensembles of Golgi tendon organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileusnic, M. P.; Loeb, G. E.

    2009-06-01

    Golgi tendon organs (GTOs) located in the skeletal muscles provide the central nervous system with information about muscle tension. The ensemble firing of all GTO receptors in the muscle has been hypothesized to represent a reliable measure of the whole muscle force but the precision and accuracy of that information are largely unknown because it is impossible to record activity simultaneously from all GTOs in a muscle. In this study, we combined a new mathematical model of force sampling and transduction in individual GTOs with various models of motor unit (MU) organization and recruitment simulating various normal, pathological and neural prosthetic conditions. Our study suggests that in the intact muscle the ensemble GTO activity accurately encodes force information according to a nonlinear, monotonic relationship that has its steepest slope for low force levels and tends to saturate at the highest force levels. The relationship between the aggregate GTO activity and whole muscle tension under some pathological conditions is similar to one seen in the intact muscle during rapidly modulated, phasic excitation of the motor pool (typical for many natural movements) but quite different when the muscle is activated slowly or held at a given force level. Substantial deviations were also observed during simulated functional electrical stimulation.

  1. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-01-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:1452481

  2. Cytoarchitectonic and quantitative Golgi study of the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero, A A; Machín, C; Sanchez-Toscano, F

    1992-02-01

    A cytoarchitectural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hedgehog with special attention to the quantitative comparison of its main neuronal types. The main purposes were (1) to relate the characteristics of this nucleus in the hedgehog (a primitive mammalian insectivorous brain) with those in the SONs of more evolutionarily advanced species; (2) to identify quantitatively the dendritic fields of the main neuronal types in the hedgehog SON and to study their synaptic connectivity. From a descriptive standpoint, 3 neuronal types were found with respect to the number of dendritic stems arising from the neuronal soma: bipolar neurons (48%), multipolar neurons (45.5%) and monopolar neurons (6.5%). Within the multipolar type 2 subtypes could be distinguished, taking into account the number of dendritic spines: (a) with few spines (93%) and (b) very spiny (7%). These results indicate that the hedgehog SON is similar to that in other species except for the very spiny neurons, the significance of which is discussed. In order to characterise the main types more satisfactorily (bipolar and multipolars with few spines) we undertook a quantitative Golgi study of their dendritic fields. Although the patterns of the dendritic field are similar in both neuronal types, the differences in the location of their connectivity can reflect functional changes and alterations in relation to the synaptic afferences.

  3. Oxysterol-binding Protein Activation at Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Contact Sites Reorganizes Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate Pools*

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Asako; Charman, Mark; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2015-01-01

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) exchanges cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P) at contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25OH) competitively inhibits this exchange reaction in vitro and causes the constitutive localization of OSBP at the ER/Golgi interface and PI-4P-dependent recruitment of ceramide transfer protein (CERT) for sphingomyelin synthesis. We used PI-4P probes and mass analysis to de...

  4. The regulation of ER export and Golgi retention of ST3Gal5 (GM3/GM4 synthase) and B4GalNAcT1 (GM2/GD2/GA2 synthase) by arginine/lysine-based motif adjacent to the transmembrane domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Satoshi; Shishido, Fumi; Kashimura, Madoka; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    In the Golgi maturation model, the Golgi cisternae dynamically mature along a secretory pathway. In this dynamic process, glycosyltransferases are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where they remain and function. The precise mechanism behind this maturation process remains unclear. We investigated two glycosyltransferases, ST3Gal5 (ST3G5) and B4GalNAcT1 (B4GN1), involved in ganglioside synthesis and examined their signal sequences for ER export and Golgi retention. Reports have suggested that the [R/K](X)[R/K] motif functions as an ER exporting signal; however, this signal sequence is insufficient in stably expressed, full-length ST3G5. Through further analysis, we have clarified that the (2)R(3)R(X)(5) (9)K(X)(3) (13)K sequence in ST3G5 is essential for ER export. We have named the sequence the R/K-based motif. On the other hand, for ER export of B4GN1, the homodimer formation in addition to the R/K-based motif is required for ER export suggesting the importance of unidentified lumenal side interaction. We found that ST3G5 R2A/R3A and K9A/K13A mutants localized not only in Golgi apparatus but also in endosomes. Furthermore, the amounts of mature type asparagine-linked (N)-glycans in ST3G5 R2A/R3A and K9A/K13A mutants were decreased compared with those in wild-type proteins, and the stability of the mutants was lower. These results suggest that the R/K-based motif is necessary for the Golgi retention of ST3G5 and that the retention is involved in the maturation of N-glycans and in stability. Thus, several basic amino acids located on the cytoplasmic tail of ST3G5 play important roles in both ER export and Golgi retention. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.W.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Fassel, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved apparatus is described for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet

  6. Uranium dioxide calcining apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, E.A.; Peterson, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved continuous calcining apparatus for consistently and controllably producing from calcinable reactive solid compounds of uranium, such as ammonium diuranate, uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) having an oxygen to uranium ratio of less than 2.2. The apparatus comprises means at the outlet end of a calciner kiln for receiving hot UO 2 , means for cooling the UO 2 to a temperature of below 100 deg C and conveying the cooled UO 2 to storage or to subsequent UO 2 processing apparatus where it finally comes into contact with air, the means for receiving cooling and conveying being sealed to the outlet end of the calciner and being maintained full of UO 2 and so operable as to exclude atmospheric oxygen from coming into contact with any UO 2 which is at elevated temperatures where it would readily oxidize, without the use of extra hydrogen gas in said means. (author)

  7. Nonrandom γ-TuNA-dependent spatial pattern of microtubule nucleation at the Golgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anna A W M; Chang, Kevin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Thoppil, Roslin J; Holmes, William R; Kaverina, Irina

    2017-11-07

    Noncentrosomal microtubule (MT) nucleation at the Golgi generates MT network asymmetry in motile vertebrate cells. Investigating the Golgi-derived MT (GDMT) distribution, we find that MT asymmetry arises from nonrandom nucleation sites at the Golgi (hotspots). Using computational simulations, we propose two plausible mechanistic models of GDMT nucleation leading to this phenotype. In the "cooperativity" model, formation of a single GDMT promotes further nucleation at the same site. In the "heterogeneous Golgi" model, MT nucleation is dramatically up-regulated at discrete and sparse locations within the Golgi. While MT clustering in hotspots is equally well described by both models, simulating MT length distributions within the cooperativity model fits the data better. Investigating the molecular mechanism underlying hotspot formation, we have found that hotspots are significantly smaller than a Golgi subdomain positive for scaffolding protein AKAP450, which is thought to recruit GDMT nucleation factors. We have further probed potential roles of known GDMT-promoting molecules, including γ-TuRC-mediated nucleation activator (γ-TuNA) domain-containing proteins and MT stabilizer CLASPs. While both γ-TuNA inhibition and lack of CLASPs resulted in drastically decreased GDMT nucleation, computational modeling revealed that only γ-TuNA inhibition suppressed hotspot formation. We conclude that hotspots require γ-TuNA activity, which facilitates clustered GDMT nucleation at distinct Golgi sites. © 2017 Sanders et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Golgi-type I and Golgi-type II neurons in the ventral anterior thalamic nucleus of the adult human: morphological features and quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussain Bani Hani, Saleh M; El-Dwairi, Qasim A; Bataineh, Ziad M; Al-Haidari, Mohammad S; Al-Alami, Jamil

    2008-05-01

    The morphological and quantitative features of neurons in the adult human ventral anterior thalamic nucleus were studied in Golgi preparations. Two neuronal types were found and their quantitative features were studied. Golgi-type I neurons were medium to large cells with dense dendritic trees and dendritic protrusions and short hair-like appendages. They have somatic mean diameter of 30.8 microm (+/-9.4, n = 85). They have an average 100.3 dendritic branches, 48.97 dendritic branching points, and 58.85 dendritic tips. The mean diameters of their primary, secondary, and tertiary dendrites were 3.1 microm (+/-1, n = 80), 1.85 microm (+/-0.8, n = 145), and 1.5 microm (+/-0.4, n = 160), respectively. Golgi-type II neurons were small to medium cells with few sparsely branching dendrites and dendritic stalked appendages with or without terminal swellings. They have somatic mean diameters of 22.2 microm (+/-5.8, n = 120). They have an average 33.76 dendritic branches, 16.49 dendritic branching points, and 21.97 dendritic tips. The mean diameters of their primary, secondary, and tertiary dendrites were 1.6 microm (+/-0.86, n = 70), 1.15 microm (+/-0.55, n = 118), and 1 microm (+/-0.70, n = 95), respectively. These quantitative data may form the basis for further quantitative studies involving aging or some degenerative diseases that may affect cell bodies and/or dendritic trees of the Golgi-type I and/or Golgi-type II thalamic neurons.

  9. Electroplating method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, R.B.; Smith, W.E.L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for high speed electroplating or anodizing tubular members such as nuclear reactor fuel elements. A loading arm positions the member on a base for subsequent support by one of two sets of electrical contacts. A carriage assembly positions electrodes into and around the member. Electrolyte is pumped between the electrodes and the member while electric current is applied. Programmed controls sequentially employ each of the two sets of contacts to expose all surfaces of the member to the electrolyte. The member is removed from the apparatus by an unloading arm

  10. Electroplating method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Robert B.; Smith, William E. L.

    1978-06-20

    An apparatus for high speed electroplating or anodizing tubular members such as nuclear reactor fuel elements. A loading arm positions the member on a base for subsequent support by one of two sets of electrical contacts. A carriage assembly positions electrodes into and around the member. Electrolyte is pumped between the electrodes and the member while electric current is applied. Programmed controls sequentially employ each of the two sets of contacts to expose all surfaces of the member to the electrolyte. The member is removed from the apparatus by an unloading arm.

  11. Organelle-cytoskeleton relationships in fibroblasts: mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum in phases of movement and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Rees, D A

    1982-01-01

    When fibroblasts first emerge from explants of embryonic chick heart, most mitochondria are clustered tightly around the nucleus, with very few extending towards the leading lamella. Although cytoplasmic microtubules are well displayed, mitochondria do not obviously codistribute with them. As the...

  12. Semiconductor apparatus and method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor apparatus (1) and a method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus (1), wherein the semiconductor apparatus (1) comprises a semiconductor layer (2) and a passivation layer (3), arranged on a surface of the semiconductor layer (2), for passivating the

  13. The cerebellar Golgi cell and spatiotemporal organization of granular layer activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio eD‘Angelo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellar granular layer has been suggested to perform a complex spatiotemporal reconfiguration of incoming mossy fiber signals. Central to this role is the inhibitory action exerted by Golgi cells over granule cells: Golgi cells inhibit granule cells through double feedforward and feedback inhibitory loops and generate a broad lateral inhibition that extends beyond the afferent synaptic field. This characteristic connectivity has recently been investigated in great detail and been correlated with specific functional properties of the neuron. These include theta-frequency pacemaking, network entrainment into coherent oscillations and phase resetting. Important advances have also been made in terms of determining the membrane and synaptic properties of the neuron, and clarifying the mechanisms of activation by input bursts. Moreover, voltage sensitive dye imaging and multi-electrode array recordings, combined with mathematical simulations based on realistic computational models, have improved our understanding of the impact of Golgi cell activity on granular layer circuit computations. These investigations have highlighted the critical role of Golgi cells in: generating dense clusters of granule cell activity organized in center-surround structures, implementing combinatorial operations on multiple mossy fiber inputs, regulating transmission gain and cut-off frequency, controlling spike timing and burst transmission, and determining the sign, intensity and extension of long-term synaptic plasticity at the mossy fiber-granule cell relay. This review considers recent advances in the field, highlighting the functional implications of Golgi cells for granular layer network computation and indicating new challenges for cerebellar research.

  14. PERMANGANATE FIXATION OF THE GOLGI COMPLEX AND OTHER CYTOPLASMIC STRUCTURES OF MAMMALIAN TESTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Hilton H.; Zebrun, William

    1960-01-01

    Observations on the fine structure of KMnO4-fixed testes of small mammals (guinea pig, rat, and mouse) reveal certain morphological differences between the spermatogenic and Sertoli cells which have not been demonstrated in the same tissue fixed with OsO4. Aggregates of minute circular profiles, much smaller than the spherical Golgi vesicles, are described in close association with the Golgi complex of developing spermatids. Groups of dense flattened vesicles, individually surrounded by a membrane of different dimensions than that which bounds most of the other cell organelles, appear dispersed within the cytoplasm of some spermatogenic cells. Flattened vesicles of greater density than those belonging to the Golgi complex are reported confined to the inner Golgi zone of developing guinea pig spermatids between the Golgi cisternae and the head cap. The profiles of endoplasmic reticulum within spermatocytes appear shorter, wider, and more tortuous than those of Sertoli cells. Minute cytoplasmic particles approximately 300 A in diameter and of high electron opacity appear randomly disposed in some Sertoli cells. Groups of irregular-shaped ovoid bodies within the developing spermatids are described as resembling portions of cytoplasm from closely adjacent spermatids. Interpretation is presented regarding the fine structure of KMnO4-fixed testes in view of what has already been reported for mammalian testes fixed in OsO4. PMID:13771855

  15. The Golgin GMAP210/TRIP11 anchors IFT20 to the Golgi complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Follit

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells often use proteins localized to the ciliary membrane to monitor the extracellular environment. The mechanism by which proteins are sorted, specifically to this subdomain of the plasma membrane, is almost completely unknown. Previously, we showed that the IFT20 subunit of the intraflagellar transport particle is localized to the Golgi complex, in addition to the cilium and centrosome, and hypothesized that the Golgi pool of IFT20 plays a role in sorting proteins to the ciliary membrane. Here, we show that IFT20 is anchored to the Golgi complex by the golgin protein GMAP210/Trip11. Mice lacking GMAP210 die at birth with a pleiotropic phenotype that includes growth restriction, ventricular septal defects of the heart, omphalocele, and lung hypoplasia. Cells lacking GMAP210 have normal Golgi structure, but IFT20 is no longer localized to this organelle. GMAP210 is not absolutely required for ciliary assembly, but cilia on GMAP210 mutant cells are shorter than normal and have reduced amounts of the membrane protein polycystin-2 localized to them. This work suggests that GMAP210 and IFT20 function together at the Golgi in the sorting or transport of proteins destined for the ciliary membrane.

  16. Physiological Roles of Plant Post-Golgi Transport Pathways in Membrane Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Tomohiro

    2016-10-01

    Membrane trafficking is the fundamental system through which proteins are sorted to their correct destinations in eukaryotic cells. Key regulators of this system include RAB GTPases and soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). Interestingly, the numbers of RAB GTPases and SNAREs involved in post-Golgi transport pathways in plant cells are larger than those in animal and yeast cells, suggesting that plants have evolved unique and complex post-Golgi transport pathways. The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is an important organelle that acts as a sorting station in the post-Golgi transport pathways of plant cells. The TGN also functions as the early endosome, which is the first compartment to receive endocytosed proteins. Several endocytosed proteins on the plasma membrane (PM) are initially targeted to the TGN/EE, then recycled back to the PM or transported to the vacuole for degradation. The recycling and degradation of the PM localized proteins is essential for the development and environmental responses in plant. The present review describes the post-Golgi transport pathways that show unique physiological functions in plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the means of adjusting the apparent gain of the signal processing means for receiving output signals from the detectors, to compensate for drift in the gain characteristics, including means for passing a reference signal. (U.K.)

  18. Positioning and locking apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  19. Electrolysis apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure in which electrolysis is combined with radiolysis to improve the reaction yield is proposed for the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water. An apparatus for this procedure is disclosed. High-energy electric pulses are applied between the anode and kathode of an electrolytical cell in such a way that short-wave electromagnetic radiation is generated at the same time

  20. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  1. Apparatus for decomposing shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gislain, M

    1865-06-20

    The apparatus is designed to fulfill the three following conditions: (1) complete extraction of the mineral oil, by avoiding partial decomposition; (2) purification of the said oil from products formed in the decomposition of the shale; (3) breaking down of the said oil into more products of different density. The separation of the heavy and bituminous products is claimed.

  2. Building scientific apparatus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, John H; Davis, Christopher C; Coplan, Michael A; Greer, Sandra C

    2009-01-01

    ... specification of the components of apparatus, many new to this edition. Data on the properties of materials and components used by manufacturers are included. Mechanical, optical, and electronic construction techniques carried out in the laboratory, as well as those let out to specialized shops, are also described. Step-by-step instruc...

  3. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  4. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures......Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport...... accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development....

  5. Segregation of sphingolipids and sterols during formation of secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Robin W; Ejsing, Christer S.; Surma, Michal A

    2009-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is the major sorting station in the secretory pathway of all eukaryotic cells. How the TGN sorts proteins and lipids to generate the enrichment of sphingolipids and sterols at the plasma membrane is poorly understood. To address this fundamental question in membrane...... trafficking, we devised an immunoisolation procedure for specific recovery of post-Golgi secretory vesicles transporting a transmembrane raft protein from the TGN to the cell surface in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a novel quantitative shotgun lipidomics approach, we could demonstrate that TGN...... than the late Golgi membrane, as measured by C-Laurdan spectrophotometry, strongly suggests that lipid rafts play a role in the TGN-sorting machinery....

  6. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L

    2016-07-06

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development.

  7. Cholesterol depletion of enterocytes. Effect on the Golgi complex and apical membrane trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, L L; Thorsen, Evy

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal brush border enzymes, including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, are associated with "rafts" (membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipids). To assess the functional role of rafts in the present work, we studied the effect of cholesterol depletion on apical......, the rates of the Golgi-associated complex glycosylation and association with rafts of newly synthesized aminopeptidase N were reduced, and less of the enzyme had reached the brush border membrane after 2 h of labeling. In contrast, the basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was neither missorted nor raft......-associated. Our results implicate the Golgi complex/trans-Golgi network in raft formation and suggest a close relationship between this event and apical membrane trafficking....

  8. A novel Golgi retention signal RPWS for tumor suppressor UBIAD1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Wang

    Full Text Available UBIAD1 plays critical roles in physiology including vitamin K and CoQ10 biosynthesis as well as pathophysiology including dyslipimedia-induced SCD (Schnyder's corneal dystrophy, Parkinson's disease, cardiovascular disease and bladder carcinoma. Since the subcellular localization of UBIAD1 varies in different cell types, characterization of the exact subcellular localization of UBIAD1 in specific human disease is vital for understanding its molecular mechanism. As UBIAD1 suppresses bladder carcinoma, we studied its subcellular localization in human bladder carcinoma cell line T24. Since fluorescent images of UBIAD1-EGFP in T24, human prostate cancer cell line PC-3, human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 and human hepatocyte cell line L02 are similar, these four cell lines were used for present study. Using a combination of fluorescent microscopy and immunohistochemistry, it was found that UBIAD1 localized on the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER, but not on the plasma membrane, of T24 and HEK293 cells. Using scanning electron microscopy and western blot analysis, we found that UBIAD1 is enriched in the Golgi fraction extracted from the L02 cells, verifying the Golgi localization of UBAID1. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the RPWS motif, which forms an Arginine finger on the UBIAD1 N terminus, serves as the Golgi retention signal. With both cycloheximide and brefeldin A inhibition assays, it was shown that UBIAD1 may be transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi by a COPII-mediated mechanism. Based upon flow cytometry analysis, it is shown that mutation of the RPWS motif reduced the UBIAD1-induced apoptosis of T24 cells, indicating that the proper Golgi localization of UBIAD1 influences its tumor suppressant activity. This study paves the way for further understanding the molecular mechanism of UBIAD1 in human diseases.

  9. Quantifying Golgi structure using EM: combining volume-SEM and stereology for higher throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sophie; Steyer, Anna M; Mayhew, Terry M; Schwab, Yannick; Lucocq, John Milton

    2017-06-01

    Investigating organelles such as the Golgi complex depends increasingly on high-throughput quantitative morphological analyses from multiple experimental or genetic conditions. Light microscopy (LM) has been an effective tool for screening but fails to reveal fine details of Golgi structures such as vesicles, tubules and cisternae. Electron microscopy (EM) has sufficient resolution but traditional transmission EM (TEM) methods are slow and inefficient. Newer volume scanning EM (volume-SEM) methods now have the potential to speed up 3D analysis by automated sectioning and imaging. However, they produce large arrays of sections and/or images, which require labour-intensive 3D reconstruction for quantitation on limited cell numbers. Here, we show that the information storage, digital waste and workload involved in using volume-SEM can be reduced substantially using sampling-based stereology. Using the Golgi as an example, we describe how Golgi populations can be sensed quantitatively using single random slices and how accurate quantitative structural data on Golgi organelles of individual cells can be obtained using only 5-10 sections/images taken from a volume-SEM series (thereby sensing population parameters and cell-cell variability). The approach will be useful in techniques such as correlative LM and EM (CLEM) where small samples of cells are treated and where there may be variable responses. For Golgi study, we outline a series of stereological estimators that are suited to these analyses and suggest workflows, which have the potential to enhance the speed and relevance of data acquisition in volume-SEM.

  10. Galacturonomannan and Golgi-derived membrane linked to growth and shaping of biogenic calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, M. E.; Ridall, A. L.; Azadi, P.; Duke, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    The coccolithophores are valuable models for the design and synthesis of composite materials, because the cellular machinery controlling the nucleation, growth, and patterning of their calcitic scales (coccoliths) can be examined genetically. The coccoliths are formed within the Golgi complex and are the major CaCO(3) component in limestone sediments-particularly those of the Cretaceous period. In this study, we describe mutants lacking a sulfated galacturonomannan and show that this polysaccharide in conjunction with the Golgi-derived membrane is directly linked to the growth and shaping of coccolith calcite but not to the initial orientated nucleation of the mineral phase.

  11. Human Diseases Associated with Form and Function of the Golgi Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C. Simpson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Golgi complex lies at the heart of the secretory pathway and is responsible for modifying proteins and lipids, as well as sorting newly synthesized molecules to their correct destination. As a consequence of these important roles, any changes in its proteome can negatively affect its function and in turn lead to disease. Recently, a number of proteins have been identified, which when either depleted or mutated, result in diseases that affect various organ systems. Here we describe how these proteins have been linked to the Golgi complex, and specifically how they affect either the morphology, membrane traffic or glycosylation ability of this organelle.

  12. The critical role of Golgi cells in regulating spatio-temporal integration and plasticity at the cerebellum input stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery at the end of the 19th century (Golgi, 1883, the Golgi cell was precisely described by S.R. y Cajal (see Cajal, 1987, 1995 and functionally identified as an inhibitory interneuron 50 years later by J.C. Eccles and colleagues (Eccles e al., 1967. Then, its role has been casted by Marr (1969 within the Motor Learning Theory as a codon size regulator of granule cell activity. It was immediately clear that Golgi cells had to play a critical role, since they are the main inhibitory interneuron of the granular layer and control activity of as many as 100 millions granule cells. In vitro, Golgi cells show pacemaking, resonance, phase-reset and rebound-excitation in the theta-frequency band. These properties are likely to impact on their activity in vivo, which shows irregular spontaneous beating modulated by sensory inputs and burst responses to punctuate stimulation followed by a silent pause. Moreover, investigations have given insight into Golgi cells connectivity within the cerebellar network and on their impact on the spatio-temporal organization of activity. It turns out that Golgi cells can control both the temporal dynamics and the spatial distribution of information transmitted through the cerebellar network. Moreover, Golgi cells regulate the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity at the mossy fiber - granule cell synapse. Thus, the concept is emerging that Golgi cells are of critical importance for regulating granular layer network activity bearing important consequences for cerebellar computation as a whole.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to include the effect of a magnetic object in a subject under investigation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) apparatus is operable at more than one radio frequency (RF) frequency. The apparatus allows normal practice as far as obtaining an NMR response or image from a given nuclear species is concerned, but, in addition, interrogates the nuclear spin system at a frequency which is different from the resonance frequency normally used for the given nuclear species, as determined from the applied magnetic field. The magnetic field close to a magnetised or magnetisable object is modified and the given nuclear species gives a response at the different frequency. Thus detection of a signal at the frequency indicates the presence of the chosen nuclei close to the magnetised or magnetisable object. Applications include validation of an object detection or automatic shape inspection system in the presence of magnetic impurities, and the detection of magnetic particles which affect measurement of liquid flow in a pipe. (author)

  14. Ion implantation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forneris, J.L.; Hicks, W.W.; Keller, J.H.; McKenna, C.M.; Siermarco, J.A.; Mueller, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    The invention relates to ion bombardment or implantation apparatus. It comprises an apparatus for bombarding a target with a beam of ions, including an arrangement for measuring the ion beam current and controlling the surface potential of the target. This comprises a Faraday cage formed, at least in part, by the target and by walls adjacent to, and electrically insulated from, the target and surrounding the beam. There is at least one electron source for supplying electrons to the interior of the Faraday cage and means within the cage for blocking direct rectilinear radiation from the source to the target. The target current is measured and combined with the wall currents to provide a measurement of the ion beam current. The quantity of electrons supplied to the interior of the cage can be varied to control the target current and thereby the target surface potential. (U.K.)

  15. Improvements in measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, W.

    1976-01-01

    Measuring apparatus is described that is suitable for gauging the wall profiles of downwardly extending channels in nuclear reactors, but which is equally applicable to channels such as pipe bores and conduits in other types of plant. The apparatus comprises a probe carrying a measuring transducer giving an electrical output. The probe support may be moved stepwise along the channel along a track between end members. An electrical conductor is provided for transmitting the electrical output of the transducer to an indicator located remote from the probe. The probe support may consist of a cable attached at one end to a winding drum, and incorporating an electrical conductor connected to the transducer. Channel engaging means are provided on the probe that permits free upward movement of the probe when the latter is suspended by the cable and moves into gripping engagement with the channel wall when the tension in the cable is relaxed. (U.K.)

  16. Characterization of p28, a novel ERGIC/"cis"-Golgi protein, required for Golgi ribbon formation. pH measurements in the early secretory pathway "in vivo"

    OpenAIRE

    Kögler, Eva Jutta

    2008-01-01

    The secretory pathway of mammalian cells consists of several compartments. Transport between these organelles is accomplished via vesicular carriers or maturation. For non abundant proteins it is thought that transport receptors help the proteins to exit the ER in an effective way. The best characterized mammalian cargo receptor is ERGIC-53, which transports blood coagulation factor V and VIII, cathespin C and Z as well as alpha1-antitrypsin. It localizes to the ER Golgi intermediate compartm...

  17. Wave disc engine apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  18. Medical radiological apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    With the apparatus described, images can be obtained by rotation scanning and the image formation from a three dimensional image matrix is converted into an overall picture. Detectors for both X-ray radiation and γ radiation are present and these consist of a row of detector elements, from each of which a separate read-out can be obtained. Therefore both X-ray and γ ray images emitted from the examined object can be obtained. (Th.P.)

  19. Multicusp plasma containment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limpaecher, R.

    1980-01-01

    It has been discovered that plasma containment by a chamber having multi-pole magnetic cusp reflecting walls in combination with electronic injection for electrostatic containment provides the means for generating magnetic field free quiescent plasmas for practical application in ion-pumps, electronic switches, and the like. 1250 ''alnico v'' magnets 1/2 '' X 1/2 '' X 1 1/2 '' provide containment in one embodiment. Electromagnets embodying toroidal funneling extend the principle to fusion apparatus

  20. Apparatus for obtaining radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for making x-ray pictures by imagewise exposing a cloud chamber containing a high atomic number gas mixed with a condensate vapor is described. The gas is under sufficiently high pressure to assure substantially complete absorption of the incident x-rays. Optical means are provided so that visible x-ray tracks are viewed from a direction aligned with the tracks

  1. Pyrolysis process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei

    1983-01-01

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  2. Thermal power measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal power measurements are important in nuclear power plants, fossil-fuel plants and other closed loop systems such as heat exchangers and chemical reactors. The main object of this invention is to determine the enthalpy of a fluid using only acoustically determined sound speed and correlating the speed with enthalpy. An enthalpy change is measured between two points in the fluid flow: the apparatus is described in detail. (U.K.)

  3. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  4. Dosimeter charging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, F.A.; Moorman, Ch.J.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for charging a dosimeter which has a capacitor connected between first and second electrodes and a movable electrode in a chamber electrically connected to the first electrode. The movable electrode deflects varying amounts depending upon the charge present on said capacitor. The charger apparatus includes first and second charger electrodes couplable to the first and second dosimeter electrodes. To charge the dosimeter, it is urged downwardly into a charging socket on the charger apparatus. The second dosimeter electrode, which is the dosimeter housing, is electrically coupled to the second charger electrode through a conductive ring which is urged upwardly by a spring. As the dosimeter is urged into the socket, the ring moves downwardly, in contact with the second charger electrode. As the dosimeter is further urged downwardly, the first dosimeter electrode and first charger electrode contact one another, and an insulator post carrying the first and second charger electrodes is urged downwardly. Downward movement of the post effects the application of a charging potential between the first and second charger electrodes. After the charging potential has been applied, the dosimeter is moved further into the charging socket against the force of a relatively heavy biasing spring until the dosimeter reaches a mechanical stop in the charging socket

  5. Layer 6 cortical neurons require Reelin-Dab1 signaling for cellular orientation, Golgi deployment, and directed neurite growth into the marginal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Ryan S; Ustine, Candida J M; Cameron, David A; Lawless, Sean M; Williams, Rebecca M; Zipfel, Warren R; Olson, Eric C

    2012-07-07

    The secreted ligand Reelin is believed to regulate the translocation of prospective layer 6 (L6) neocortical neurons into the preplate, a loose layer of pioneer neurons that overlies the ventricular zone. Recent studies have also suggested that Reelin controls neuronal orientation and polarized dendritic growth during this period of early cortical development. To explicitly characterize and quantify how Reelin controls this critical aspect of neurite initiation and growth we used a new ex utero explant model of early cortical development to selectively label a subset of L6 cortical neurons for complete 3-D reconstruction. The total neurite arbor sizes of neurons in Reelin-deficient (reeler mutant) and Dab1-deficient (Reelin-non-responsive scrambler mutant) cortices were quantified and unexpectedly were not different than control arbor lengths (p = 0.51). For each mutant, however, arbor organization was markedly different: mutant neurons manifested more primary processes (neurites emitted directly from the soma) than wild type, and these neurites were longer and displayed less branching. Reeler and scrambler mutant neurites extended tangentially rather than radially, and the Golgi apparatus that normally invests the apical neurite was compact in both reeler and scrambler mutants. Mutant cortices also exhibited a neurite "exclusion zone" which was relatively devoid of L6 neuron neurites and extended at least 15 μm beneath the pial surface, an area corresponding to the marginal zone (MZ) in the wild type explants. The presence of an exclusion zone was also indicated in the orientation of mutant primary neurite and neuronal somata, which failed to adopt angles within ~20˚ of the radial line to the pial surface. Injection of recombinant Reelin to reeler, but not scrambler, mutant cortices fully rescued soma orientation, Golgi organization, and dendritic projection defects within four hrs. These findings indicate Reelin promotes directional dendritic growth into

  6. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, E.P. III; Cook, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  7. Ramón y Cajal erroneously identified as Camillo Golgi on a souvenir postage stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on a philatelic oddity that erringly identifies a picture of Santiago Ramón y Cajal as that of Camillo Golgi, this brief article examines official and unofficial stamp issues honoring the two great neuroanatomists, one from Spain and the other from Italy, who were early Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine.

  8. FMNL2 and -3 regulate Golgi architecture and anterograde transport downstream of Cdc42

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kage, Frieda; Steffen, Anika; Ellinger, Adolf

    2017-01-01

    The Rho-family small GTPase Cdc42 localizes at plasma membrane and Golgi complex and aside from protrusion and migration operates in vesicle trafficking, endo- and exocytosis as well as establishment and/or maintenance of cell polarity. The formin family members FMNL2 and -3 are actin assembly fa...

  9. A novel, modernized Golgi-Cox stain optimized for CLARITY cleared tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mustafa S; Fok, Sandra Y Y; Smith, Kristie L; Kuligowski, Michael; Balleine, Bernard W

    2018-01-15

    High resolution neuronal information is extraordinarily useful in understanding the brain's functionality. The development of the Golgi-Cox stain allowed observation of the neuron in its entirety with unrivalled detail. Tissue clearing techniques, e.g., CLARITY and CUBIC, provide the potential to observe entire neuronal circuits intact within tissue and without previous restrictions with regard to section thickness. Here we describe an improved Golgi-Cox stain method, optimised for use with CLARITY and CUBIC that can be used in both fresh and fixed tissue. Using this method, we were able to observe neurons in their entirety within a fraction of the time traditionally taken to clear tissue (48h). We were also able to show for the first-time that Golgi stained tissue is fluorescent when visualized using a multi-photon microscope, allowing us to image synaptic spines with a detail previously unachievable. These novel methods provide cheap and easy to use techniques to investigate the morphology of cellular processes in the brain at a new-found depth, speed, utility and detail, without previous restrictions of time, tissue type and section thickness. This is the first application of a Golgi-Cox stain to cleared brain tissue, it is investigated and discussed in detail, describing different methodologies that may be used, a comparison between the different clearing techniques and lastly the novel interaction of these techniques with this ultra-rapid stain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-01-01

    The importance of endosome-to–trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51–VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. PMID:26157166

  11. Blocking variant surface glycoprotein synthesis alters endoplasmic reticulum exit sites/Golgi homeostasis in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Cher-Pheng; Smith, Terry K; Gluenz, Eva; Wand, Nadina Vasileva; Vaughan, Sue; Rudenko, Gloria

    2018-06-01

    The predominant secretory cargo of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei is variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), comprising ~10% total protein and forming a dense protective layer. Blocking VSG translation using Morpholino oligonucleotides triggered a precise pre-cytokinesis arrest. We investigated the effect of blocking VSG synthesis on the secretory pathway. The number of Golgi decreased, particularly in post-mitotic cells, from 3.5 ± 0.6 to 2.0 ± 0.04 per cell. Similarly, the number of endoplasmic reticulum exit sites (ERES) in post-mitotic cells dropped from 3.9 ± 0.6 to 2.7 ± 0.1 eight hours after blocking VSG synthesis. The secretory pathway was still functional in these stalled cells, as monitored using Cathepsin L. Rates of phospholipid and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis remained relatively unaffected, except for the level of sphingomyelin which increased. However, both endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi morphology became distorted, with the Golgi cisternae becoming significantly dilated, particularly at the trans-face. Membrane accumulation in these structures is possibly caused by reduced budding of nascent vesicles due to the drastic reduction in the total amount of secretory cargo, that is, VSG. These data argue that the total flux of secretory cargo impacts upon the biogenesis and maintenance of secretory structures and organelles in T. brucei, including the ERES and Golgi. © 2018 The Authors. Traffic published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A rapid method combining Golgi and Nissl staining to study neuronal morphology and cytoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilati, Nadia; Barker, Matthew; Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Donga, Revers; Hamann, Martine

    2008-06-01

    The Golgi silver impregnation technique gives detailed information on neuronal morphology of the few neurons it labels, whereas the majority remain unstained. In contrast, the Nissl staining technique allows for consistent labeling of the whole neuronal population but gives very limited information on neuronal morphology. Most studies characterizing neuronal cell types in the context of their distribution within the tissue slice tend to use the Golgi silver impregnation technique for neuronal morphology followed by deimpregnation as a prerequisite for showing that neuron's histological location by subsequent Nissl staining. Here, we describe a rapid method combining Golgi silver impregnation with cresyl violet staining that provides a useful and simple approach to combining cellular morphology with cytoarchitecture without the need for deimpregnating the tissue. Our method allowed us to identify neurons of the facial nucleus and the supratrigeminal nucleus, as well as assessing cellular distribution within layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. With this method, we also have been able to directly compare morphological characteristics of neuronal somata at the dorsal cochlear nucleus when labeled with cresyl violet with those obtained with the Golgi method, and we found that cresyl violet-labeled cell bodies appear smaller at high cellular densities. Our observation suggests that cresyl violet staining is inadequate to quantify differences in soma sizes.

  13. The organization of the Golgi complex and microtubules in skeletal muscle is fiber type-dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Lu, Z; Ploug, Thorkil

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has a nonconventional Golgi complex (GC), the organization of which has been a subject of controversy in the past. We have now examined the distribution of the GC by immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy in whole fibers from different rat muscles, both innervated a...

  14. Morphometric golgi study of some cortical locations in wag/rij and aci rat strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpova, A.V.; Bikbaev, A.F.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Kuznetsova, G.D.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Chepurnov, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the neuronal organization of two neocortical frontal zones using a Golgi staining technique in genetic epileptic rats, WAG/Rij's. One cortical zone was a specific part of the somatosensory cortex, which was recently proposed to contain a cortical epileptic

  15. Role of myristoylation in membrane attachment and function of G alpha i-3 on Golgi membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, S H; Holtzman, E J; Scher, D A; Ausiello, D A; Stow, J L

    1996-05-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunits localized on the cytoplasmic face of Golgi membranes are involved in regulating vesicle trafficking and protein secretion. We investigated the role of myristoylation in attachment of the G alpha i-3 subunit to Golgi membranes. G alpha i-3 was epitope-tagged by insertion of a FLAG sequence at an NH2-terminal site predicted to interfere with myristoylation, and the resulting NT-alpha i-3 construct was stably transfected and expressed in polarized epithelial LLC-PK1 cells. Metabolic labeling confirmed that the translation product of NT-alpha i-3 was not myristoylated. In contrast to endogenous G alpha 1-3, which is tightly bound to Golgi membranes, the unmyristoylated FLAG-tagged NT-alpha i-3 did not attach to membranes; it was localized by immunofluorescence in the cytoplasm of LLC-PK1 cells and was detected only in the cytosol fraction of cell homogenates. Pertussis toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation was used to test the ability of NT-alpha i-3 to interact with membrane-bound beta gamma-subunits. In both in vitro and in vivo assays, cytosolic NT-alpha i-3 alone was not ADP-ribosylated, although in the presence of membranes it could interact with G beta gamma-subunits to form heterotrimers. The expression of NT-alpha i-3 in LLC-PK1 cells altered the rate of basolateral secretion of sulfated proteoglycans, consistent with the demonstrated function of endogenous G alpha i-3. These data are consistent with a model in which G alpha i-3 utilizes NH2-terminal myristoylation to bind to Golgi membranes and to maximize its interaction with G beta gamma-subunits. Furthermore, our results show that stable attachment of G alpha i-3 to Golgi membranes is not required for it to participate as a regulatory element in vesicle trafficking in the secretory pathway.

  16. Informationization nuclear apparatus communication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tiqi; Fang Zongliang; Wen Qilin

    2006-01-01

    The paper explains the request of communication ability in nuclear technique application area. Based on the actuality of nuclear apparatus communication ability, and mainly combining with the development of communication technique, the authors analyzes the application trend of communication technique applying in nuclear apparatus, for the apparatus and system needing communication ability, they need selecting suitable communication means to make them accomplish the task immediately and effectively. (authors)

  17. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehnholm, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an electron spin resonance enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (ESREMRI) apparatus able to generate a primary magnetic field during periods of nuclear spin transition excitation and magnetic resonance signal detection. This allows the generation of ESREMRI images of a subject. A primary magnetic field of a second and higher value generated during periods of nuclear spin transition excitation and magnetic resonance signal detection can be used to generate conventional MR images of a subject. The ESREMRI and native MR images so generated may be combined, (or superimposed). (author)

  19. Improvements in radiological apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in radiological apparatus are described which allow better unilateral access to the patient. A base mounts ring supports for rotation about an axis and a table for supporting a subject is fitted to the ring support. An X-ray tube and receptor are held on opposite ends of a two-limbed carriage and radiation axis. The carriage is mounted on a sliding arm carried on the ring support and extending parallel to the rotational axis of the support. The carriage also pivots on the arm about an axis perpendicular to the rotational axis and to the radiation axis. (author)

  20. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abele, M.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized tomographic scanning apparatus suitable for diagnosis and for improving target identification in stereotactic neurosurgery is described. It consists of a base, a source of penetrating energy, a detector which produces scanning signals and detector positioning means. A frame with top and bottom arms secures the detector and source to the top and bottom arms respectively. A drive mechanism rotates the frame about an axis along which the frame may also be moved. Finally, the detector may be moved relative to the bottom arm in a direction contrary to the rotation of the frame. (U.K.)

  1. Control rod testing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaunt, R.R.; Ashman, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    A control rod testing apparatus is described comprising: a first guide means having a vertical cylindrical opening for grossly guiding a control rod; a second guide means having a vertical cylindrical opening for grossly guiding a control rod. The first and second guide means are supported at axially spaced locations with the openings coaxial; and a substantially cylindrical subassembly having a vertical cylindrical opening therethrough. The subassembly is trapped coaxial with and between the first and second guide means, and the subassembly radially floats with respect to the first and second guide means

  2. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Herring, J Stephen [Idaho Falls, ID; Grandy, Jon D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  3. The ATHENA Antihydrogen Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Amoretti, M; Bonomi, G; Bouchta, A; Bowe, P; Carraro, C; Charlton, M; Collier, M; Doser, Michael; Filippini, V; Fine, K S; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Glauser, A; Grögler, D; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hayano, R S; Higaki, H; Holzscheiter, Michael H; Joffrain, W; Jørgensen, L V; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, Rolf; Cesar, C L; Lindelöf, D; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macri, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, D; Manuzio, G; Marchesotti, M; Montagna, P; Pruys, H S; Regenfus, C; Riedler, P; Rochet, J; Rotondi, A; Rouleau, G; Testera, G; Van der Werf, D P; Variola, A; Watson, T L; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y

    2004-01-01

    The ATHENA apparatus that recently produced and detected the first cold antihydrogen atoms is described. Its main features, which are described herein, are: an external positron accumulator, making it possible to accumulate large numbers of positrons; a separate antiproton catching trap, optimizing the catching, colling and handling of antiprotons: a unique high resolution antihydrogen annihilation detector, allowing a clear determination that antihydrogen has been produced; an open, modular design making variations in the experimental approach possible and a "nested" Penning trap situated in a cryogenic, 3T magnetic field environment used for the mixing of the antiprotons and positrons.

  4. Isotope diagnostics apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a measuring probe for an isotope diagnostics apparatus to determine the distribution of radioactive substances in a body by measuring the radiation emanating from this body by means of a multiplicity of measuring probes directed simultaneously towards areas of measuring surfae and carried in guidances of a holding block. The measuring results of the individual probes are recorded separately, thus allowing the possibility of being evaluated separately, too. Measuring probes of this kind are used in multi-channel measuring objects and are useful particularly for determining the regional cerebral blood flow. (orig./ORU) [de

  5. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  6. Remote docking apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, T.H.; Sumpman, W.C.; Wilhelm, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The remote docking apparatus comprises a support plate with locking devices mounted thereon. The locking devices are capable of being inserted into tubular members for suspending the support plate therefrom. A vertical member is attached to the support plate with an attachment mechanism attached to the vertical member. A remote access manipulator is capable of being attached to the attachment mechanism so that the vertical member can position the remote access manipulator so that the remote access manipulator can be initially attached to the tubular members in a well defined manner

  7. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Jansen, G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  8. Apparatus for gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Oga, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    This is the standard of Japan Non-Destructive Inspection Society, NDIS 1101-79, which stipulates on the design, construction and testing method of the apparatuses for gamma ray radiography used for taking industrial radiograms. The gamma ray apparatuses stipulated in this standard are those containing sealed radioactive isotopes exceeding 100 μCi, which emit gamma ray. The gamma ray apparatuses are classified into three groups according to their movability. The general design conditions, the irradiation dose rate and the sealed radiation sources for the gamma ray apparatuses are stipulated. The construction of the gamma ray apparatuses must be in accordance with the notification No. 52 of the Ministry of Labor, and safety devices and collimators must be equipped. The main bodies of the gamma ray apparatuses must pass the vibration test, penetration test, impact test and shielding efficiency test. The method of each test is described. The attached equipments must be also tested. The tests according to this standard are carried out by the makers of the apparatuses. The test records must be made when the apparatuses have passed the tests, and the test certificates are attached. The limit of guarantee by the endurance test must be clearly shown. The items to be shown on the apparatuses are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  9. Oxysterol-binding Protein Activation at Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Contact Sites Reorganizes Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate Pools*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Asako; Charman, Mark; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2016-01-01

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) exchanges cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P) at contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25OH) competitively inhibits this exchange reaction in vitro and causes the constitutive localization of OSBP at the ER/Golgi interface and PI-4P-dependent recruitment of ceramide transfer protein (CERT) for sphingomyelin synthesis. We used PI-4P probes and mass analysis to determine how OSBP controls the availability of PI-4P for this metabolic pathway. Treatment of fibroblasts or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with 25OH caused a 50–70% reduction in Golgi-associated immunoreactive PI-4P that correlated with Golgi localization of OSBP. In contrast, 25OH caused an OSBP-dependent enrichment in Golgi PI-4P that was detected with a pleckstrin homology domain probe. The cellular mass of phosphatidylinositol monophosphates and Golgi PI-4P measured with an unbiased PI-4P probe (P4M) was unaffected by 25OH and OSBP silencing, indicating that OSBP shifts the distribution of PI-4P upon localization to ER-Golgi contact sites. The PI-4P and sterol binding activities of OSBP were both required for 25OH activation of sphingomyelin synthesis, suggesting that 25OH must be exchanged for PI-4P to be concentrated at contact sites. We propose a model wherein 25OH activation of OSBP promotes the binding and retention of PI-4P at ER-Golgi contact sites. This pool of PI-4P specifically recruits pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins involved in lipid transfer and metabolism, such as CERT. PMID:26601944

  10. Oxysterol-binding Protein Activation at Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Contact Sites Reorganizes Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Asako; Charman, Mark; Ridgway, Neale D

    2016-01-15

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) exchanges cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P) at contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25OH) competitively inhibits this exchange reaction in vitro and causes the constitutive localization of OSBP at the ER/Golgi interface and PI-4P-dependent recruitment of ceramide transfer protein (CERT) for sphingomyelin synthesis. We used PI-4P probes and mass analysis to determine how OSBP controls the availability of PI-4P for this metabolic pathway. Treatment of fibroblasts or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with 25OH caused a 50-70% reduction in Golgi-associated immunoreactive PI-4P that correlated with Golgi localization of OSBP. In contrast, 25OH caused an OSBP-dependent enrichment in Golgi PI-4P that was detected with a pleckstrin homology domain probe. The cellular mass of phosphatidylinositol monophosphates and Golgi PI-4P measured with an unbiased PI-4P probe (P4M) was unaffected by 25OH and OSBP silencing, indicating that OSBP shifts the distribution of PI-4P upon localization to ER-Golgi contact sites. The PI-4P and sterol binding activities of OSBP were both required for 25OH activation of sphingomyelin synthesis, suggesting that 25OH must be exchanged for PI-4P to be concentrated at contact sites. We propose a model wherein 25OH activation of OSBP promotes the binding and retention of PI-4P at ER-Golgi contact sites. This pool of PI-4P specifically recruits pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins involved in lipid transfer and metabolism, such as CERT. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Isotope separation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.I.

    1983-01-01

    This application discloses a method for and an apparatus in which isotopes of an element in a compared are separated from each other while that compound, i.e., including a mixture of such isotopes, flows along a predetermined path. The apparatus includes a flow tube having a beginning and an end. The mixture of isotopes is introduced into the flow tube at a first introduction point between the beginning and the end thereof to flow the mixture toward the end thereof. A laser irradiates the flow tube dissociating compounds of a preselected one of said isotopes thereby converting the mixture in an isotopically selective manner. The dissociation products are removed from the tube at a first removal point between the first introduction point and the end. The dissociation product removed at the the first removal point are reconverted back into the comound thereby providing a first stage enriched compound. This first stage enriched compound is reintroduced into the flow tube at a second introduction point between the beginning thereof and the first introduction point. Further product is removed from the flow tube at a second removal point between the second introduction point and the first introduction point. The second introduction point is chosen so that the isotope composition of the first stage enriched compound is approximately the same as that of the compound in the flow tube

  12. Apparatus for fuel replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To support a telescope mast such that no deforming load is applied to it even during massive vibration, it is held fixed at the time of fuel replacement to permit satisfactory remote control operation by automatic operation. Structure: The body of the fuel replacement apparatus is provided with telescope mast fixing means comprising a slide base supported for reciprocal movement with respect to a telescope mast, an operating arm pivoted at the slide base, a wrist member mounted on the free end of the operating arm and an engagement member for restricting the slide base and operating arm at the time of loading and unloading the fuel. When loading and unloading the fuel, the slide base and operating arm are restrained by the engagement member to reliably restrict the vibration of the telescope mast. When the fuel replacement apparatus is moved, the means provided on the operating arm is smoothly displaced to follow the swing (vibration) of the telescope mast to prevent the deforming load from being applied to the support portion or other areas. The wrist member supports the telescope mast such that it can be rotated while restraining movement in the axial direction, and it is provided with revolution drive means for rotating the telescope mast under remote control. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Radiographic scanner apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The preferred embodiment of this invention includes a hardware system, or processing means, which operates faster than software. Moreover the computer needed is less expensive and smaller. Radiographic scanner apparatus is described for measuring the intensity of radiation after passage through a planar region and for reconstructing a representation of the attenuation of radiation by the medium. There is a source which can be rotated, and detectors, the output from which forms a data line. The detectors are disposed opposite the planar region from the source to produce a succession of data lines corresponding to the succession of angular orientations of the source. There is a convolver means for convolving each of these data lines, with a filter function, and a means of processing the convolved data lines to create the representation of the radiation attenuation in the planar region. There is also apparatus to generate a succession of data lines indicating radiation attenuation along a determinable path with convolver means. (U.K.)

  14. Apparatus for gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The aim of the present standard is to fix the rules for the construction of gamma radiography instrumentation without prejudice to the present regulations. These apparatus have to be fitted with only sealed sources conformable to the experimental standard M 61-002. The present standard agrees with the international standard ISO 3999 of 1977 dealing with the same subject. Nevertheless, it is different on the three main following points: it does not accept the same limits of absorbed dose rates in the air calculated on the external surface of projectors; it precribes tightness, bending, crushing and tensile tests for some components of the gamma radiography it prescribes tests of endurance and resistance to breaking for the locking systems of the gamma radiography apparatus. The present standard also specifies the following points: symbols and indications to put on projectors and on the source-holder; identification of the source contained in the projector; and, accompanying documents. The regulation references are given in annexe [fr

  15. Fuel exchanging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko; Sato, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a centripetal device, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of a telescope mast, on a mast fixing device mounted on a body of fuel exchanging apparatus so that the telescope mast may be secured quickly returning to a predetermined initial position. Structure: When the body of fuel exchanging apparatus is stopped at a predetermined position, a tension spring, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of the telescope mast, causes a lug to be forced by means of a push rod to position a sliding base plate to its original position. At the same time, a device of similar structure causes an operating arm to be positioned to the original position, and a lock pin urged by a cylinder is inserted into a through hole in the sliding base plate and operating arm so that the telescope mast may be fixed and retained. (Hanada, M.)

  16. Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi in a ligand-dependent manner in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper S; Færgeman, Nils J; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2008-01-01

    showed that ACBP targeted to the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and Golgi in a ligand-binding-dependent manner. A variant Y28F/K32A-FACI-50, which is unable to bind acyl-CoA, did no longer show association with the ER and became segregated from the Golgi, as analysed by intensity correlation calculations....... Depletion of fatty acids from cells by addition of FAFBSA (fatty-acid-free BSA) significantly decreased FACI-50 association with the Golgi, whereas fatty acid overloading increased Golgi association, strongly supporting that ACBP associates with the Golgi in a ligand-dependent manner. FRAP (fluorescence...... recovery after photobleaching) showed that the fatty-acid-induced targeting of FACI-50 to the Golgi resulted in a 5-fold reduction in FACI-50 mobility. We suggest that ACBP is targeted to the ER and Golgi in a ligand-binding-dependent manner in living cells and propose that ACBP may be involved...

  17. Direct interaction of the Golgi V-ATPase a-subunit isoform with PI(4)P drives localization of Golgi V-ATPases in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subhrajit; Kane, Patricia M

    2017-09-15

    Luminal pH and phosphoinositide content are fundamental features of organelle identity. Vacuolar H + -ATPases (V-ATPases) drive organelle acidification in all eukaryotes, and membrane-bound a-subunit isoforms of the V-ATPase are implicated in organelle-specific targeting and regulation. Earlier work demonstrated that the endolysosomal lipid PI(3,5)P 2 activates V-ATPases containing the vacuolar a-subunit isoform in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Here we demonstrate that PI(4)P, the predominant Golgi phosphatidylinositol (PI) species, directly interacts with the cytosolic amino terminal (NT) domain of the yeast Golgi V-ATPase a-isoform Stv1. Lysine-84 of Stv1NT is essential for interaction with PI(4)P in vitro and in vivo, and interaction with PI(4)P is required for efficient localization of Stv1-containing V-ATPases. The cytosolic NT domain of the human V-ATPase a2 isoform specifically interacts with PI(4)P in vitro, consistent with its Golgi localization and function. We propose that NT domains of V o a-subunit isoforms interact specifically with PI lipids in their organelles of residence. These interactions can transmit organelle-specific targeting or regulation information to V-ATPases. © 2017 Banerjee and Kane. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robb M [Albuquerque, NM; Shul, Randy J [Albuquerque, NM; Polosky, Marc A [Albuquerque, NM; Hoke, Darren A [Albuquerque, NM; Vernon, George E [Rio Rancho, NM

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  19. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod

  20. Multichannel Thomson scattering apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretz, N.; Dimock, D.; Foote, V.; Johnson, D.; Long, D.; Tolnas, E.

    1977-07-01

    A Thomson scattering apparatus for measuring the electron temperature and density along a 90 cm diameter of the PLT plasma has been built. A wide angle objective images the 3 mm x 900 mm ruby laser beam onto an image dissector which rearranges the 300 : 1 image to 20 : 1 forming the input slit of a spectrometer. The stigmatic spectrometer provides 20 wavelength elements of approximately 70 A each. A micro-channel-plate image intensifier optically coupled to a cooled SIT tube provides detection with single frame linearity and 1000 : 1 dynamic range. Spatial profiles of N/sub e/ and T/sub e/ in the range 10 13 - 10 14 cm -3 and 0.05 - 3 keV have an accuracy of 30 √10 13 /N/sub e/ (cm -3 ) percent per 1.2 cm element

  1. Apparatus for stereotactic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koslow, M.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for stereotactic surgery consisting of a probe and a computerized tomographic scanning system is described. The scanning system comprises a display and means for reconstructing cross-sectional images on the display using data from partial circumferential scans of source and detectors. It operates on the data with an algorithm that provides the difference between the local values of the linear attenuation coefficient and average of these values within a circle centered at each reconstruction point. The scanning system includes a means of maintaining the frames of reference of the probe and scanning system rigid with respect to one another. The position of the probe, which may be a cryogenic probe, with respect to the actual anatomical structure of the body, particularly a human head, may thus be viewed by the surgeon. (author)

  2. Radiation imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Lanza, R.C.; Sohval, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation imaging apparatus especially suited for use in a computerized tomographic (CT) scanner is specified. It employs a fixed array of discrete X-ray sources, each being a cold cathode diode having an impedance in excess of about 100 ohms and an adjacent fixed array of closely packed radiation detectors to produce images of rapidly moving body organs such as the beating heart. The X-ray source is pulsed by a 120 to 130 kv pulse of 150 to 160 ns duration, derived from an unregulated DC source, of output voltage 15 to 30 kv. Each X-ray source may comprise a cold cathode pulse or may be constituted by a pair of annular cathodes having radially extending anodes therebetween. (author)

  3. Radiation measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    A colorimeter in which a light source, a collimating lens and a band pass filter are supported by a housing that is movable with respect to a stationary beam dividing assembly in a direction at least substantially transverse to the optical axis of the light from the source. The assembly separates the incoming collimated and filtered light into a sample beam and a reference beam which are directed back toward the housing in directions parallel to the optical axis. The movement of the housing toward or away from the sample produces an increase or decrease in the intensity of the light illuminating the sample and a corresponding decrease or increase in the intensity of the light at the reference detector. The arrangement is such that the apparatus may be readily adjusted to obtain accurate colorimeter readings even for samples having abnormally high or low density characteristics

  4. Apparatus for extracting petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coogan, J

    1921-01-18

    An apparatus for extracting petroleum from petroleum bearing sand or shale is described comprising a container for liquids, the container being divided into a plurality of compartments, an agitator mounted within the container and below the liquid level and having its forward end opening into one of the compartments, means for delivering sand or shale to the forward end of the agitator, means for subjecting the sand or shale to the action of a solvent for the petroleum while the sand or shale is being agitated and is submerged, the first-mentioned compartment being adapted to receive the extracted petroleum and means for removing the treated sand or shale from adjacent the rear end of the agitator.

  5. Radiation shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullagh, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure pertains to a clamping apparatus having a stud capturing portion and a stud facing portion bolted together so as to compressively support a radiation-proof sheet material, such as lead sheeting, there-in-between. The interior wall covering material, such as panelling or wall board, is secured to the external surface of the stud facing portion. No nails are required to support the radiation-proof sheeting material, thereby minimizing accidental leakage due to harmful radiation passing through openings inadvertently disposed in the radiation-proof sheeting in the conventional nail securing supporting thereof. A pair of radiation-proof tracks capture the free ends of the stud capturing portion and the stud facing portion

  6. Radioactive waste treatment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Chellis, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment apparatus is disclosed in which the waste is burned in a controlled combustion process, the ash residue from the combustion process is removed and buried, the gaseous effluent is treated in a scrubbing solution the pH of which is maintained constant by adding an alkaline compound to the solution while concurrently extracting a portion of the scrubbing solution, called the blowdown stream. The blowdown stream is fed to the incinerator where it is evaporated and the combustibles in the blowdown stream burned and the gaseous residue sent to the scrubbing solution. Gases left after the scrubbing process are treated to remove iodides and are filtered and passed into the atmosphere

  7. Capacitive gauging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for gauging physical dimensions of solid or tubular bodies (e.g. a nuclear fuel pellet) comprises a capacitive transducer having electrodes forming diametrically arranged pairs of capacitors and means for connecting the pairs, preferably sequentially, in an arm of a four arm electrical network. For circumferential scanning of a solid body along its length, the body is moved along a path of travel through head assembly including the transducer by means of plungers with the axis of the body being coincident with the axis of the transducer. As the body moves through the transducer the diametrically arranged pairs of capacitors scan the surface to result in a surface profile of the body. For scanning the bore of a pipe or tube the transducer is inserted as a probe and moved along the bore of the pipe or tube, means being provided for maintaining the probe coaxial with the pipe or tube. (author)

  8. Nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Teruhiro.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a nuclear fusion apparatus which can make a disorderly magnetic field due to shell current as small as possible, thereby enhancing efficiency. Structure: On each divided end of each shell is integrally projected an auxiliary shell which has thick greater than the other portion of shell. These auxiliary shells are made of a material of high electric conductivity, and the shape of the auxiliary shells may properly be selected so that electric resistance of the auxiliary shell at the divided end of the shell to the shell current may be made smaller than the electric resistance of intermediate of the shell to the shell current. With this, the shell current is concentrated on the auxiliary shell at the divided end of the shell to form an adjacent reciprocating current between it and the shell current opposite the auxiliary shell, thus reducing the disorderly magnetic field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  9. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  10. Foil changing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crist, C.E.; Ives, H.C.; Leifeste, G.T.; Miller, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    A self-contained foil changer apparatus for replenishing foil material across the path of a high energy particle beam is described comprising: a cylindrical hermetically sealed housing comprising an end plate having an aperture defining a beam passageway therethrough; foil supply means disposed inside the housing for storing a foil web and supporting a portion of the web across the beam passageway to form a plane perpendicular to the beam path; a barrel assembly disposed inside the housing; web control means extending through the housing and operably connected to the foil supply means for selectively advancing the foil web to replenish a portion across the beam passageway; and barrel control means extending through the housing and operably connected to the barrel assembly for selectively moving the barrel to and from the advanced and retracted positions

  11. Spine immobilization apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  12. Apparatus for proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors. 10 claims, 7 drawing figures

  13. Radioactive gas solidification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji; Yabu, Tomohiko; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Handling of a solidification container from the completion for the solidifying processing to the storage of radioactive gases by a remote control equipment such as a manipulator requires a great cost and is difficult to realize. In a radioactive gas solidification device for injection and solidification in accumulated layers of sputtered metals by glow discharge, radiation shieldings are disposed surrounding the entire container, and cooling water is supplied to a cooling vessel formed between the container and the shielding materials. The shielding materials are divided into upper and lower shielding materials, so that solidification container can be taken out from the shielding materials. As a result, the solidification container after the solidification of radioactive gases can be handled with ease. Further, after-heat can be removed effectively from the ion injection electrode upon solidifying treatment upon storage, to attain a radioactive gas solidifying processing apparatus which is safe, economical and highly reliable. (N.H.)

  14. Induction melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  15. TMEM199 Deficiency Is a Disorder of Golgi Homeostasis Characterized by Elevated Aminotransferases, Alkaline Phosphatase, and Cholesterol and Abnormal Glycosylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Jos C.; Timal, Sharita; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Michelakakis, Helen; Vicogne, Dorothée; Ashikov, Angel; Moraitou, Marina; Hoischen, Alexander; Huijben, Karin; Steenbergen, Gerry; van den Boogert, Marjolein A. W.; Porta, Francesco; Calvo, Pier Luigi; Mavrikou, Mersyni; Cenacchi, Giovanna; van den Bogaart, Geert; Salomon, Jody; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Wevers, Ron A.; Morava, Eva; Foulquier, François; Veltman, Joris A.; Lefeber, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) form a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of diseases with aberrant protein glycosylation as a hallmark. A subgroup of CDGs can be attributed to disturbed Golgi homeostasis. However, identification of pathogenic variants is seriously

  16. The GTPase Rab43 Controls the Anterograde ER-Golgi Trafficking and Sorting of GPCRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunman Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs constitute the largest superfamily of cell-surface signaling proteins. However, mechanisms underlying their surface targeting and sorting are poorly understood. Here, we screen the Rab family of small GTPases in the surface transport of multiple GPCRs. We find that manipulation of Rab43 function significantly alters the surface presentation and signaling of all GPCRs studied without affecting non-GPCR membrane proteins. Rab43 specifically regulates the transport of nascent GPCRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi. More interestingly, Rab43 directly interacts with GPCRs in an activation-dependent fashion. The Rab43-binding domain identified in the receptors effectively converts non-GPCR membrane protein transport into a Rab43-dependent pathway. These data reveal a crucial role for Rab43 in anterograde ER-Golgi transport of nascent GPCRs, as well as the ER sorting of GPCR members by virtue of its ability to interact directly.

  17. Transport According to GARP: Receiving Retrograde Cargo at the Trans-Golgi Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hierro, Aitor

    2010-01-01

    Tethering factors are large protein complexes that capture transport vesicles and enable their fusion with acceptor organelles at different stages of the endomembrane system. Recent studies have shed new light on the structure and function of a heterotetrameric tethering factor named Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP), which promotes fusion of endosome-derived, retrograde transport carriers to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). X-ray crystallography of the Vps53 and Vps54 subunits of GARP has revealed that this complex is structurally related to other tethering factors such as the exocyst, COG and Dsl1, indicating that they all might work by a similar mechanism. Loss of GARP function compromises the growth, fertility and/or viability of the defective organisms, underscoring the essential nature of GARP-mediated retrograde transport. PMID:21183348

  18. Live-cell imaging of post-golgi transport vesicles in cultured hippocampal neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Stampe; Misonou, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    compartments of neurons. In the past two decades, the establishment and advancement of fluorescent protein technology have provided us with opportunities to study how proteins are trafficked in living cells. However, live imaging of trafficking processes in neurons necessitate imaging tools to distinguish...... the several different routes that neurons use for protein trafficking. Here we provide a novel protocol to selectively visualize post-Golgi transport vesicles carrying fluorescent-labeled ion channel proteins in living neurons. Further, we provide a number of analytical tools we developed to quantify...... mechanisms by which post-Golgi vesicles are trafficked in neurons. Our protocol uniquely combines the classic temperature-block with close monitoring of the transient expression of transfected protein tagged with fluorescent proteins, and provides a quick and easy way to study protein trafficking in living...

  19. Golgi-associated Rab14, a new regulator for Chlamydia trachomatis infection outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, Anahí; Leiva, Natalia; Damiani, María Teresa

    2011-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causing agent of the most frequent bacterial sexually-transmitted diseases worldwide and is an underlying cause of chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases and cervical cancer. It is an obligate intracellular bacterium that establishes a close relationship with the Golgi complex and parasites the biosynthetic machinery of host cells. In a recent study, we have demonstrated that Rab14, a newly-described Golgi-associated Rab, is involved in the delivery of sphingolipids to the growing bacteria-containing vacuole. The interference with Rab14-controlled trafficking pathways delays chlamydial inclusion enlargement, decreases bacterial lipid uptake, negatively impact on bacterial differentiation, and reduces bacterial progeny and infectivity. C. trachomatis manipulation of host trafficking pathways for the acquisition of endogenously-biosynthesized nutrients arises as one of the characteristics of this highly evolved pathogen. The development of therapeutic strategies targeted to interfere with bacterium-host cell interaction is a new challenge for pharmacological approaches to control chlamydial infections.

  20. Plasma Membrane Targeting of Protocadherin 15 Is Regulated by the Golgi-Associated Chaperone Protein PIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocadherin 15 (PCDH15 is a core component of hair cell tip-links and crucial for proper function of inner ear hair cells. Mutations of PCDH15 gene cause syndromic and nonsyndromic hearing loss. At present, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the intracellular transportation of PCDH15 largely remain unknown. Here we show that PIST, a Golgi-associated, PDZ domain-containing protein, interacts with PCDH15. The interaction is mediated by the PDZ domain of PIST and the C-terminal PDZ domain-binding interface (PBI of PCDH15. Through this interaction, PIST retains PCDH15 in the trans-Golgi network (TGN and reduces the membrane expression of PCDH15. We have previously showed that PIST regulates the membrane expression of another tip-link component, cadherin 23 (CDH23. Taken together, our finding suggests that PIST regulates the intracellular trafficking and membrane targeting of the tip-link proteins CDH23 and PCDH15.

  1. Short length transmembrane domains having voluminous exoplasmic halves determine retention of Type II membrane proteins in the Golgi complex

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Trenchi, Alejandra; Gonzalez Montoro, Ayelén; Valdez, Javier Esteban; Maccioni, Hugo Jose Fernando

    2017-01-01

    It is still unclear why some proteins that travel along the secretory pathway are retained in the Golgi complex whereas others make their way to the plasma membrane. Recent bioinformatic analyses on a large number of single-spanning membrane proteins support the hypothesis that specific features of the transmembrane domain (TMD) are relevant to the sorting of these proteins to particular organelles. Here we experimentally test this hypothesis for Golgi and plasma membrane proteins. Using the ...

  2. GABARAP activates ULK1 and traffics from the centrosome dependent on Golgi partners WAC and GOLGA2/GM130.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Justin; Tooze, Sharon A

    2016-05-03

    WAC and GOLGA2/GM130 are 2 Golgi proteins that affect autophagy; however, their mechanism of action was unknown. We have shown that WAC binding to GOLGA2 at the Golgi displaces GABARAP from GOLGA2 to allow the maintenance of a nonlipidated centrosomal GABARAP pool. Centrosomal GABARAP can traffic to autophagic structures during starvation. In addition GABARAP specifically promotes ULK1 activation and this is independent of GABARAP lipidation but likely requires a LIR-mediated GABARAP-ULK1 interaction.

  3. GABARAP activates ULK1 and traffics from the centrosome dependent on Golgi partners WAC and GOLGA2/GM130

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim, Justin; Tooze, Sharon A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT WAC and GOLGA2/GM130 are 2 Golgi proteins that affect autophagy; however, their mechanism of action was unknown. We have shown that WAC binding to GOLGA2 at the Golgi displaces GABARAP from GOLGA2 to allow the maintenance of a nonlipidated centrosomal GABARAP pool. Centrosomal GABARAP can traffic to autophagic structures during starvation. In addition GABARAP specifically promotes ULK1 activation and this is independent of GABARAP lipidation but likely requires a LIR-mediated GABARAP...

  4. Vesicular transport of progeny parvovirus particles through ER and Golgi regulates maturation and cytolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Séverine; Rommelaere, Jean; Nüesch, Jürg P F

    2013-09-01

    Progeny particles of non-enveloped lytic parvoviruses were previously shown to be actively transported to the cell periphery through vesicles in a gelsolin-dependent manner. This process involves rearrangement and destruction of actin filaments, while microtubules become protected throughout the infection. Here the focus is on the intracellular egress pathway, as well as its impact on the properties and release of progeny virions. By colocalization with cellular marker proteins and specific modulation of the pathways through over-expression of variant effector genes transduced by recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors, we show that progeny PV particles become engulfed into COPII-vesicles in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are transported through the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Besides known factors like sar1, sec24, rab1, the ERM family proteins, radixin and moesin play (an) essential role(s) in the formation/loading and targeting of virus-containing COPII-vesicles. These proteins also contribute to the transport through ER and Golgi of the well described analogue of cellular proteins, the secreted Gaussia luciferase in absence of virus infection. It is therefore likely that radixin and moesin also serve for a more general function in cellular exocytosis. Finally, parvovirus egress via ER and Golgi appears to be necessary for virions to gain full infectivity through post-assembly modifications (e.g. phosphorylation). While not being absolutely required for cytolysis and progeny virus release, vesicular transport of parvoviruses through ER and Golgi significantly accelerates these processes pointing to a regulatory role of this transport pathway.

  5. Adiponectin release and insulin receptor targeting share trans-Golgi-dependent endosomal trafficking routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rödiger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intracellular vesicle trafficking maintains cellular structures and functions. The assembly of cargo-laden vesicles at the trans-Golgi network is initiated by the ARF family of small GTPases. Here, we demonstrate the role of the trans-Golgi localized monomeric GTPase ARFRP1 in endosomal-mediated vesicle trafficking of mature adipocytes. Methods: Control (Arfrp1flox/flox and inducible fat-specific Arfrp1 knockout (Arfrp1iAT−/− mice were metabolically characterized. In vitro experiments on mature 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse adipocytes were conducted to validate the impact of ARFRP1 on localization of adiponectin and the insulin receptor. Finally, secretion and transferrin-based uptake and recycling assays were performed with HeLa and HeLa M-C1 cells. Results: We identified the ARFRP1-based sorting machinery to be involved in vesicle trafficking relying on the endosomal compartment for cell surface delivery. Secretion of adiponectin from fat depots was selectively reduced in Arfrp1iAT−/− mice, and Arfrp1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed an accumulation of adiponectin in Rab11-positive endosomes. Plasma adiponectin deficiency of Arfrp1iAT−/− mice resulted in deteriorated hepatic insulin sensitivity, increased gluconeogenesis and elevated fasting blood glucose levels. Additionally, the insulin receptor, undergoing endocytic recycling after ligand binding, was less abundant at the plasma membrane of adipocytes lacking Arfrp1. This had detrimental effects on adipose insulin signaling, followed by insufficient suppression of basal lipolytic activity and impaired adipose tissue expansion. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that adiponectin secretion and insulin receptor surface targeting utilize the same post-Golgi trafficking pathways that are essential for an appropriate systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Keywords: Adiponectin, ARFRP1, Exocytosis, Insulin receptor, trans-Golgi

  6. A Quantitative Golgi Study of Dendritic Morphology in the Mice Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hladnik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups. The average neuronal soma surface was between 160 μm2 and 180 μm2, and the cells had 5–6 primary dendrites with close to 40 segments per neuron. Sholl analysis confirmed regular pattern of dendritic branching. The total length of dendrites was around 2100 μm with the average length of individual branching (intermediate segment around 22 μm and for the terminal segment around 100 μm. Even though each experimental group underwent the same strictly defined protocol in tissue preparation and Golgi staining, we found inconsistency in dendritic volume and soma surface. These changes could be methodologically influenced during the Golgi procedure, although without affecting the dendritic length and tree complexity. Since the neuronal activity affects the dendritic thickness, it could not be excluded that observed volume inconsistency was related with functional states of neurons prior to animal sacrifice. Comprehensive analyses of tree complexity and dendritic length provided here could serve as an additional tool for understanding morphological variability in the most numerous neuronal population of the striatum. As reference values they could provide basic ground for comparisons with the results obtained in studies that use various models of genetically modified mice in explaining different pathological conditions that

  7. Conditional deletion of Cadherin 13 perturbs Golgi cells and disrupts social and cognitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, M; Guo, L; Kim, J; Zainolabidin, N; Eulenburg, V; Augustine, G J; Chen, A I

    2018-02-15

    Inhibitory interneurons mediate the gating of synaptic transmission and modulate the activities of neural circuits. Disruption of the function of inhibitory networks in the forebrain is linked to impairment of social and cognitive behaviors, but the involvement of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum has not been assessed. We found that Cadherin 13 (Cdh13), a gene implicated in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is specifically expressed in Golgi cells within the cerebellar cortex. To assess the function of Cdh13 and utilize the manipulation of Cdh13 expression in Golgi cells as an entry point to examine cerebellar-mediated function, we generated mice carrying Cdh13-floxed alleles and conditionally deleted Cdh13 with GlyT2::Cre mice. Loss of Cdh13 results in a decrease in the expression/localization of GAD67 and reduces spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) in cerebellar Golgi cells without disrupting spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). At the behavioral level, loss of Cdh13 in the cerebellum, piriform cortex and endopiriform claustrum have no impact on gross motor coordination or general locomotor behaviors, but leads to deficits in cognitive and social abilities. Mice lacking Cdh13 exhibit reduced cognitive flexibility and loss of preference for contact region concomitant with increased reciprocal social interactions. Together, our findings show that Cdh13 is critical for inhibitory function of Golgi cells, and that GlyT2::Cre-mediated deletion of Cdh13 in non-executive centers of the brain, such as the cerebellum, may contribute to cognitive and social behavioral deficits linked to neurological disorders. © 2018 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Xyloglucan biosynthesis by Golgi membranes from suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.; Xin, Yi

    1990-01-01

    Xyloglucan is a major hemicellulose polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Biosynthesis of such cell wall polysaccharides is closely linked to the process of plant cell growth and development. Xyloglucan polysaccharides consist of a β-1,4 glucan backbone synthesized by xyloglucan synthase and sidechains of xylose, galactose, and fucose added by other transferase enzymes. Most plant Golgi and plasma membranes also contain glucan synthases I ampersand II, which make β-1,4 and β-1,3 glucans, respectively. All of these enzymes have very similar activities. Cell walls on suspension-cultured cells from Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple) were enzymatically softened prior to cell disruption by passing through a 30 μm nylon screen. Cell membranes from homogenates were separated by ultracentrifugation on top-loaded or flotation sucrose density gradients. Samples were collected by gradient fractionation and assayed for membrane markers and xyloglucan and glucan synthase activities. Standard marker assays (cyt. c reductase for eR, IDPase ampersand UDPase for Golgi, and eosin 5'-malelmide binding for plasma membrane) showed partial separation of these three membrane types. Golgi and plasma membrane markers overlapped in most gradients. Incorporation of 14 C-labeled sugars from UDP-glucose and UDP-xylose was used to detect xyloglucan synthase, glucan synthases I ampersand II, and xylosyl transferase in Golgi membrane fractions. These activities overlapped, although distinct peaks of xyloglucan synthase and xylosyl transferase were found. Ca ++ had a stimulatory effect on glucan synthases I ampersand II, while Mn ++ had an inhibitory effect on glucan synthase I in the presence of Ca ++ . The similarity of these various synthase activities demonstrates the need for careful structural characterization of newly synthesized polysaccharides

  9. Neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) deficiency disrupts the Golgi secretory pathway and causes growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Wilhelm; Hammels, Ina; Jenke, Bitta; Binczek, Erika; Schmidt-Soltau, Inga; Brodesser, Susanne; Schauss, Astrid; Etich, Julia; Heilig, Juliane; Zaucke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Systemic loss of neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) in mice leads to a novel form of systemic, juvenile hypoplasia (dwarfism). SMPD3 deficiency in mainly two growth regulating cell types contributes to the phenotype, in chondrocytes of skeletal growth zones to skeletal malformation and chondrodysplasia, and in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons to systemic hypothalamus–pituitary–somatotropic hypoplasia. The unbiased smpd3−/− mouse mutant and derived smpd3−/− primary chondrocytes were instrumental in defining the enigmatic role underlying the systemic and cell autonomous role of SMPD3 in the Golgi compartment. Here we describe the unprecedented role of SMPD3. SMPD3 deficiency disrupts homeostasis of sphingomyelin (SM), ceramide (Cer) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the Golgi SMPD3-SMS1 (SM-synthase1) cycle. Cer and DAG, two fusogenic intermediates, modify the membrane lipid bilayer for the initiation of vesicle formation and transport. Dysproteostasis, unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis perturb the Golgi secretory pathway in the smpd3−/− mouse. Secretion of extracellular matrix proteins is arrested in chondrocytes and causes skeletal malformation and chondrodysplasia. Similarly, retarded secretion of proteo-hormones in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons leads to hypothalamus induced combined pituitary hormone deficiency. SMPD3 in the regulation of the protein vesicular secretory pathway may become a diagnostic target in the etiology of unknown forms of juvenile growth and developmental inhibition. PMID:27882938

  10. Role of the AP-5 adaptor protein complex in late endosome-to-Golgi retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hirst

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The AP-5 adaptor protein complex is presumed to function in membrane traffic, but so far nothing is known about its pathway or its cargo. We have used CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out the AP-5 ζ subunit gene, AP5Z1, in HeLa cells, and then analysed the phenotype by subcellular fractionation profiling and quantitative mass spectrometry. The retromer complex had an altered steady-state distribution in the knockout cells, and several Golgi proteins, including GOLIM4 and GOLM1, were depleted from vesicle-enriched fractions. Immunolocalisation showed that loss of AP-5 led to impaired retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR, GOLIM4, and GOLM1 from endosomes back to the Golgi region. Knocking down the retromer complex exacerbated this phenotype. Both the CIMPR and sortilin interacted with the AP-5-associated protein SPG15 in pull-down assays, and we propose that sortilin may act as a link between Golgi proteins and the AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 complex. Together, our findings suggest that AP-5 functions in a novel sorting step out of late endosomes, acting as a backup pathway for retromer. This provides a mechanistic explanation for why mutations in AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 cause cells to accumulate aberrant endolysosomes, and highlights the role of endosome/lysosome dysfunction in the pathology of hereditary spastic paraplegia and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. CCDC115 Deficiency Causes a Disorder of Golgi Homeostasis with Abnormal Protein Glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jos C; Cirak, Sebahattin; van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Timal, Sharita; Reunert, Janine; Rust, Stephan; Pérez, Belén; Vicogne, Dorothée; Krawitz, Peter; Wada, Yoshinao; Ashikov, Angel; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Medrano, Celia; Arnoldy, Andrea; Hoischen, Alexander; Huijben, Karin; Steenbergen, Gerry; Quelhas, Dulce; Diogo, Luisa; Rymen, Daisy; Jaeken, Jaak; Guffon, Nathalie; Cheillan, David; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Maeda, Yusuke; Kaiser, Olaf; Schara, Ulrike; Gerner, Patrick; van den Boogert, Marjolein A W; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Sokal, Etienne; Salomon, Jody; van den Bogaart, Geert; Drenth, Joost P H; Huynen, Martijn A; Veltman, Joris A; Wevers, Ron A; Morava, Eva; Matthijs, Gert; Foulquier, François; Marquardt, Thorsten; Lefeber, Dirk J

    2016-02-04

    Disorders of Golgi homeostasis form an emerging group of genetic defects. The highly heterogeneous clinical spectrum is not explained by our current understanding of the underlying cell-biological processes in the Golgi. Therefore, uncovering genetic defects and annotating gene function are challenging. Exome sequencing in a family with three siblings affected by abnormal Golgi glycosylation revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.92T>C (p.Leu31Ser), in coiled-coil domain containing 115 (CCDC115), the function of which is unknown. The same mutation was identified in three unrelated families, and in one family it was compound heterozygous in combination with a heterozygous deletion of CCDC115. An additional homozygous missense mutation, c.31G>T (p.Asp11Tyr), was found in a family with two affected siblings. All individuals displayed a storage-disease-like phenotype involving hepatosplenomegaly, which regressed with age, highly elevated bone-derived alkaline phosphatase, elevated aminotransferases, and elevated cholesterol, in combination with abnormal copper metabolism and neurological symptoms. Two individuals died of liver failure, and one individual was successfully treated by liver transplantation. Abnormal N- and mucin type O-glycosylation was found on serum proteins, and reduced metabolic labeling of sialic acids was found in fibroblasts, which was restored after complementation with wild-type CCDC115. PSI-BLAST homology detection revealed reciprocal homology with Vma22p, the yeast V-ATPase assembly factor located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human CCDC115 mainly localized to the ERGIC and to COPI vesicles, but not to the ER. These data, in combination with the phenotypic spectrum, which is distinct from that associated with defects in V-ATPase core subunits, suggest a more general role for CCDC115 in Golgi trafficking. Our study reveals CCDC115 deficiency as a disorder of Golgi homeostasis that can be readily identified via screening for abnormal

  12. Submersible energy storage apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mccartney, J.F.; Rowe, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A submersible energy storage apparatus for an electrical power source is provided which includes an electrolysis unit feed water gas collection assembly and a fuel cell. The electrolysis unit feed water gas collection assembly includes a hydrogen container and an oxygen container wherein each container has a gas outlet and is capable of containing feed water as well as hydrogen and oxygen gases respectively. An electrolysis cell is provided which has a hydrogen outlet, an oxygen outlet and a feed water inlet. The hydrogen outlet is located in the hydrogen container, the oxygen outlet is located in the oxygen container, and the feed water inlet is located in one of the containers. Each of the containers has an opening to the submersible environment so as to be pressure responsive thereto. A barrier device is provided in association with the opening in each container for isolating the feed water in the container from water in the submersible environment. The fuel cell is operatively connected to the hydrogen and oxygen containers, and the electrical power source is operatively connected to the electrolysis cell. With this arrangement the electrolysis cell is capable of utilizing power from the power source during low electrical energy demand, and the fuel cell is capable of utilizing the hydrogen and oxygen gases for generating electricity during high demand periods

  13. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  14. Nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Daizaburo; Yamada, Masao.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a nuclear fusion apparatus in which a magnetic limiter is disposed within a vacuum vessel, said magnetic limiter being supported in such a manner so as to not to exert mechanical action upon said vacuum vessel, thereby minimizing a force applied to the vacuum vessel to easily manufacture the vacuum vessel. Structure: The magnetic limiter disposed within the vacuum vessel is connected to one end of a supporting post which extends through the wall of the vacuum vessel through a seal portion, the other end of the supporting post being secured to a structure such as a house outside the vacuum vessel. The seal portion comprises a bellows of high spring elasticity mounted on the vacuum vessel and a seal element comprised of an electric insulator such as ceramic for connecting the bellows to the supporting post, the supporting post extending through the wall of the vacuum vessel in vacuum-tight fashion, the force applied to the magnetic limiter exerting no influence upon the vacuum vessel. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    In fan-beam computed tomography apparatus, timing reference pulses, normally occurring at intervals t, for data transfer and reset of approx. 500 integrators in the signal path from the detector array, are generated from the scan displacement, e.g. using a graticule and optical sensor to relate the measurement paths geometrically to the body section. Sometimes, a slow scan rate is required to provide a time-averaged density image, e.g. for planning irradiation therapy, and then the sensed impulses will occur at extended intervals and can cause integrator overload. An improvement is described which provides a pulse generator which responds to a reduced scan rate by generating a succession of further transfer and reset pulses at intervals approximately equal to t starting a time t after each timing reference pulse. Then, using an adding device and RAM, all the transferred signals integrated in the interval t' between two successive slow scan reference pulses are accumulated in order to form a corresponding measurement signal. (author)

  16. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A diffuser separator apparatus is described which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage. Each of said channels has an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports. At least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels is a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels is a different cross sectional area. Means are provided for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series. Also provided are a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area

  17. Plastic waste disposal apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kito, S

    1972-05-01

    A test plant plastic incinerator was constructed by the Takuma Boiler Manufacturing Co. for Sekisui Chemical Industries, and the use of a continuous feed spreader was found to be most effective for prevention of black smoke, and the use of a venturi scrubber proved to be effective for elimination of hydrogen chloride gas. The incinerator was designed for combustion of polyvinyl chloride exclusively, but it is also applicable for combustion of other plastics. When burning polyethylene, polypropylene, or polystyrene, (those plastics which do not produce toxic gases), the incinerator requires no scrubber for the combustion gas. The system may or may not have a pretreatment apparatus. For an incinerator with a pretreatment system, the flow chart comprises a pit, a supply crane, a vibration feeder, a metal eliminator, a rotation shredder, a continuous screw feeder with a quantitative supply hopper, a pretreatment chamber (300 C dry distillation), a quantitative supply hopper, and the incinerator. The incinerator is a flat non-grid type combustion chamber with an oil burner and many air nozzles. From the incinerator, ashes are sent by an ash conveyor to an ash bunker. The combustion gas goes to the boiler, and the water supplied the boiler water pump creates steam. The heat from the gas is sent back to the pretreatment system through a heat exchanger. The gas then goes to a venturi scrubber and goes out from a stack.

  18. Radiographic examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetham, S.; Hogg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tube examination apparatus has a head actuated by fluid pressure, for centralising a radioactive source. Preferably the source is shielded during transport from its storage unit to the head. A body attached to a drive-wire has hollow shield-parts which define a radiation window therebetween, and closure shield-parts which have the source located therebetween and which are a sliding fit. A spring biases the closure shields towards a first position relative to the body in which the source is enclosed. When the body moves along a guide in the head, the closure shield engages an abutment surface which arrests the closure shields. Further movement of the body to engage an abutment surface causes relative movement between the shield parts to a second position relative to the body in which the source is exposed at the window. Retraction of the body along the guide allows the spring to restore the closure shield parts to the first position. (U.K.)

  19. Sample-taking apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanov, Y I; Ismailov, R A; Orazov, A

    1980-10-07

    The invention refers to the equipment for testing water-bearing levels in loose rocks. Its purpose is to simultaneously remove with the rock sample a separate fluid sample from the assigned interval. The sample-taking apparatus contains a core lifter which can be submerged into the casting string with housing and front endpiece in the form of a rod with a piston which covers the cavity of the core lifter, as well as mechanism for fixing and moving the endpiece within the core lifter cavity. The device differs from the known similar devices because the upper part of the housing of the core lifter is equipped with a filter and mobile casting which covers the filter. In this case the casing is connected to the endpiece rod and the endpiece is installed with the possibility of movement which is limited with fixing in the upper position and in the extreme upper position it divides the core lifter cavity into two parts, filter settling tank and core-receiving cavity.

  20. Medical radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described which relates to computer-assisted tomography. The apparatus provides for investigating a cross-section slice of a patient's body and includes a source of fan-shaped distribution of penetrating radiation and a means for locating the source, in relation to the patient's body so that the radiation is directed towards a slice of the body. The source can be rotated about the patient's body and radiation detected by a number of detectors situated in an arc around the body. The number, and thus the cost, of detectors can be reduced by putting the ring of detectors between the x-ray source and the patient's body. This presents a problem in that if the detectors are on the same side of the body as the source and if no steps are taken to the contrary, the detectors will interupt the radiation so that it does not pass through the patient's body. This invention overcomes that problem. (OT)

  1. Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, R.W.; Coppi, B.

    1982-01-01

    A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and/or recycled for subsequent use within the same blanket region. Thermonuclear ignition of the plasma is obtained by feeding neutral fusible gas into the plasma in a controlled manner such that charged particle heating produced by the fusion reaction is utilized to bootstrap the device to a region of high temperatures and high densities wherein charged particle heating is sufficient to overcome radiation and thermal conductivity losses. The high density plasma produces a large radiation and particle flux on the first wall of the plasma core region thereby necessitating replacement of the core from the blanket region from time to time. A series of potentially disposable and replaceable central core regions are disclosed for a large-scale economical electrical power generating plant

  2. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  3. Radiographic film cassette unloading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievenart, E.F.; Plessers, H.S.; Neujens, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for unloading cassettes, containing exposed radiographic films, has means for unfastening the cassettes, an inclined pathway for gravity feeding and rotating feed members (rollers or belts) to propel the films into the processor. (UK)

  4. INFLATE: INFlate Landing Apparatus Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koryanov, V. V. K.; Da-Poian, V. D. P.

    2018-02-01

    Our project, named INFLATE (INFlatable Landing Apparatus Technology), aims at reducing space landing risks and constraints and so optimizing space missions (reducing cost, mass, and risk and in the same time improving performance).

  5. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and method are described for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell

  6. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, T. Kenneth

    1978-11-14

    Apparatus and method for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell.

  7. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs

  8. Apparatus for washing out halogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M; Hahn, J; Kroenig, W

    1941-03-26

    An apparatus is described for washing out of halogens and the like or liquid halogen compounds from the products, which are formed on pressure hydrogenation or splitting of carbon-containing material in the presence of halogens or halogen compounds, consisting of a washing apparatus installed between the reaction vessel and the hot separator, which is inclined in relatively small space for steam regulation and contains, with the steam, arranged baffles, especially spirals.

  9. Inducible Inhibition of Gβγ Reveals Localization-dependent Functions at the Plasma Membrane and Golgi*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klayman, Lauren M.; Wedegaertner, Philip B.

    2017-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins signal at a variety of endomembrane locations, in addition to their canonical function at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane (PM), where they are activated by cell surface G protein-coupled receptors. Here we focus on βγ signaling at the Golgi, where βγ activates a signaling cascade, ultimately resulting in vesicle fission from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). To develop a novel molecular tool for inhibiting endogenous βγ in a spatial-temporal manner, we take advantage of a lipid association mutant of the widely used βγ inhibitor GRK2ct (GRK2ct-KERE) and the FRB/FKBP heterodimerization system. We show that GRK2ct-KERE cannot inhibit βγ function when expressed in cells, but recruitment to a specific membrane location recovers the ability of GRK2ct-KERE to inhibit βγ signaling. PM-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphorylation of Akt, whereas Golgi-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits cargo transport from the TGN to the PM. Moreover, we show that Golgi-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits model basolaterally targeted but not apically targeted cargo delivery, for both PM-destined and secretory cargo, providing the first evidence of selectivity in terms of cargo transport regulated by βγ. Last, we show that Golgi fragmentation induced by ilimaquinone and nocodazole is blocked by βγ inhibition, demonstrating that βγ is a key regulator of multiple pathways that impact Golgi morphology. Thus, we have developed a new molecular tool, recruitable GRK2ct-KERE, to modulate βγ signaling at specific subcellular locations, and we demonstrate novel cargo selectivity for βγ regulation of TGN to PM transport and a novel role for βγ in mediating Golgi fragmentation. PMID:27994056

  10. Apparatus Development In Maros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aras Solong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to identify and describe 1 Development of Administrative through education and training training promotion transfer and rotation and the application of demotion system non-title under Law No. 43 of 1999 on the development of career civil servants based merit system and work performance and Government Regulation No. 101 of 2000 on Education and Training Training for Civil Servants. 2 Revealing differences in work motivation based on the intensity of the education or training training using Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factors motivator that influence employees motivation Maros regency government in carrying out its duties and functions as members civil in public service. This study uses a quantitative approach to date collection techniques through a questionnaire Questionnaire. Informant are civil servants who occupied echelon II III. And IV while the analysis of the date used quantitative analysis to uncover the implementation of personnel development and employees motivation difference Maros region based on the intensity of the education or training training to get job satisfaction in the public service. The results of this study will reveal that 1 Development of Apparatus for improving the knowledge ability professionalism competence skills can work as a reformer change attitude eager to work motivated to do the work get satisfaction in work and getting justice in employment. 2 The difference in work motivation Maros local government employees affected by extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factor motivator is the variable gain high salary H occupies the first ranking while serving the community satisfaction variables M occupy the last ranking. That is that the satisfaction of serving the people affected by the high salaries earned by the employees to do the job.

  11. The cyclic nucleotide gated cation channel AtCNGC10 traffics from the ER via Golgi vesicles to the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis root and leaf cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Marilou A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs maintain cation homeostasis essential for a wide range of physiological processes in plant cells. However, the precise subcellular locations and trafficking of these membrane proteins are poorly understood. This is further complicated by a general deficiency of information about targeting pathways of membrane proteins in plants. To investigate CNGC trafficking and localization, we have measured Atcngc5 and Atcngc10 expression in roots and leaves, analyzed AtCNGC10-GFP fusions transiently expressed in protoplasts, and conducted immunofluorescence labeling of protoplasts and immunoelectron microscopic analysis of high pressure frozen leaves and roots. Results AtCNGC10 mRNA and protein levels were 2.5-fold higher in roots than leaves, while AtCNGC5 mRNA and protein levels were nearly equal in these tissues. The AtCNGC10-EGFP fusion was targeted to the plasma membrane in leaf protoplasts, and lightly labeled several intracellular structures. Immunofluorescence microscopy with affinity purified CNGC-specific antisera indicated that AtCNGC5 and AtCNGC10 are present in the plasma membrane of protoplasts. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that AtCNGC10 was associated with the plasma membrane of mesophyll, palisade parenchyma and epidermal cells of leaves, and the meristem, columella and cap cells of roots. AtCNCG10 was also observed in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi cisternae and vesicles of 50–150 nm in size. Patch clamp assays of an AtCNGC10-GFP fusion expressed in HEK293 cells measured significant cation currents. Conclusion AtCNGC5 and AtCNGC10 are plasma membrane proteins. We postulate that AtCNGC10 traffics from the endoplasmic reticulum via the Golgi apparatus and associated vesicles to the plasma membrane. The presence of the cation channel, AtCNGC10, in root cap meristem cells, cell plate, and gravity-sensing columella cells, combined with the previously reported

  12. Structural Insights into Arl1-Mediated Targeting of the Arf-GEF BIG1 to the trans-Golgi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Galindo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The GTPase Arf1 is the major regulator of vesicle traffic at both the cis- and trans-Golgi. Arf1 is activated at the cis-Golgi by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF GBF1 and at the trans-Golgi by the related GEF BIG1 or its paralog, BIG2. The trans-Golgi-specific targeting of BIG1 and BIG2 depends on the Arf-like GTPase Arl1. We find that Arl1 binds to the dimerization and cyclophilin binding (DCB domain in BIG1 and report a crystal structure of human Arl1 bound to this domain. Residues in the DCB domain that bind Arl1 are required for BIG1 to locate to the Golgi in vivo. DCB domain-binding residues in Arl1 have a distinct conformation from those in known Arl1-effector complexes, and this plasticity allows Arl1 to interact with different effectors of unrelated structure. The findings provide structural insight into how Arf1 GEFs, and hence active Arf1, achieve their correct subcellular distribution.

  13. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedas, Pai Rosager; Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 , which encode membrane...... in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts...

  14. Trafficking of human ADAM 12-L: retention in the trans-Golgi network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Loechel, F; Xu, X

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the trafficking of the membrane-anchored form of human ADAM 12 (ADAM 12-L) fused to a green fluorescence protein tag. Subcellular localization of the protein in transiently transfected cells was determined by fluorescence microscopy and trypsin sensitivity. Full-length ADAM 12...... the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains, but not the Src homology 3 domain (SH3) binding sites. These results raise the possibility that a trafficking checkpoint in the trans-Golgi network is one of the cellular mechanisms for regulation of ADAM 12-L function, by allowing a rapid release of ADAM 12-L...

  15. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  16. The Conservation Ideological State Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared D Margulies

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Louis Althusser's theory of the ideological state apparatuses (ISAs for advancing political ecology scholarship on the functioning of the state in violent environments. I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis.

  17. Apparatus for filtering radioactive fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gischel, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for filtering radioactive particles from the cooling and/or auxiliary process water of a nuclear reactor, or nuclear fuel processing plant, or other installations wherein radioactive fluid systems are known to exist. The apparatus affords disposal of the captured particles in a manner which minimizes the exposure of operating personnel to radioactivity. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to contain a removable filter cartridge assembly, a valve normally closing the lower end of the housing, an upwardly-open shipping cask located below the valve, and an elongated operating rod assembly projecting upwardly from the filter cartridge assembly and through the upper end of the housing to enable a workman to dismount the filter cartridge assembly from its housing and to lower the filter cartridge assembly through the valve and into the cask from a remote location above the housing. (U.S.)

  18. La técnica de impregnación argéntica de Golgi. Conmemoración del centenario del premio nobel de Medicina (1906 compartido por Camillo Golgi y Santiago Ramón y Cajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Torres-Fernández

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La técnica de Golgi es un sencillo procedimiento histológico que revela la morfología neuronal completa en tres dimensiones. Este método se fundamenta en la formación de depósitos opacos intracelulares de cromato argéntico, producto de la reacción entre el bicromato de potasio y el nitrato de plata (reacción negra. Camillo Golgi, su descubridor, y Santiago Ramón y Cajal, su principal exponente, recibieron el premio nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1906 por su contribución al conocimiento de la estructura del sistema nervioso. Gran parte de sus logros se obtuvieron a través de la aplicación del método de impregnación argéntica. Sin embargo, Golgi y Cajal tenían interpretaciones diferentes sobre la estructura del tejido nervioso. Golgi era defensor de la teoría reticular, la cual proponía que el sistema nervioso estaba conformado por una red de células fusionadas a través de los axones a manera de un sincitio. Por el contrario, la doctrina neuronal, defendida por Cajal, sostenía que las neuronas eran células independientes. También se debe a Golgi y su reazione nera el descubrimiento del organelo celular conocido como ‘aparato de Golgi'. La microscopía electrónica confirmó los postulados de la doctrina neuronal, así como la existencia del complejo de Golgi, y contribuyó al resurgimiento de la técnica de impregnación argéntica. Aunque existen métodos modernos de tinción intracelular que revelan imágenes excelentes de la morfología neuronal, la técnica de Golgi se mantiene vigente por ser un método más práctico y menos costoso para el estudio de la morfología normal y patológica de las neuronas.

  19. Apparatus for control of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  20. Apparatus for blending small particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.A.; Reese, C.R.; Sease, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is described for blending small particles and uniformly loading the blended particles in a receptacle. Measured volumes of various particles are simultaneously fed into a funnel to accomplish radial blending and then directed onto the apex of a conical splitter which collects the blended particles in a multiplicity of equal subvolumes. Thereafter the apparatus sequentially discharges the subvolumes for loading in a receptacle. A system for blending nuclear fuel particles and loading them into fuel rod molds is described in a preferred embodiment

  1. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  2. Nuclear fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerkey, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    An automatic apparatus for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into a nuclear fuel element to be used in a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus consists of a vibratory bed capable of supporting corrugated trays containing rows of nuclear fuel pellets and arranged in alignment with the open ends of several nuclear fuel elements. A sweep mechanism is arranged above the trays and serves to sweep the rows of fuel pellets onto the vibratory bed and into the fuel element. A length detecting system, in conjunction with a pellet stopping mechanism, is also provided to assure that a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets are loaded into each fuel element

  3. OSBP-related protein 11 (ORP11) dimerizes with ORP9 and localizes at the Golgi-late endosome interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, You [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Biomedicum 2U, and National Institute for Health and Welfare/Public Health Genomics Unit, Biomedicum 1, FI-00290, Helsinki (Finland); Li, Shiqian [Department of Biology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Maeyraenpaeae, Mikko I. [Wihuri Research Institute, FI-00140 Helsinki, and the Department of Forensic Medicine, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Zhong, Wenbin [Department of Biology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Baeck, Nils [Institute of Biomedicine/Anatomy, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Yan, Daoguang [Department of Biology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Olkkonen, Vesa M., E-mail: vesa.olkkonen@helsinki.fi [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Biomedicum 2U, and National Institute for Health and Welfare/Public Health Genomics Unit, Biomedicum 1, FI-00290, Helsinki (Finland); Institute of Biomedicine/Anatomy, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    We characterize here ORP11, a member of the oxysterol-binding protein family. ORP11 is present at highest levels in human ovary, testis, kidney, liver, stomach, brain, and adipose tissue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates abundant ORP11 in the epithelial cells of kidney tubules, testicular tubules, caecum, and skin. ORP11 in HEK293 cells resides on Golgi complex and LE, co-localizing with GFP-Rab9, TGN46, GFP-Rab7, and a fluorescent medial-trans-Golgi marker. Under electron microscopic observation, cells overexpressing ORP11 displayed lamellar lipid bodies associated with vacuolar structures or the Golgi complex, indicating a disturbance of lipid trafficking. N-terminal fragment of ORP11 (aa 1-292) localized partially to Golgi, but displayed enhanced localization on Rab7- and Rab9-positive LE, while the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (aa 273-747) was cytosolic, demonstrating that the membrane targeting determinants are N-terminal. Yeast two-hybrid screen revealed interaction of ORP11 with the related ORP9. The interacting region was delineated within aa 98-372 of ORP9 and aa 154-292 of ORP11. Overexpressed ORP9 was able to recruit EGFP-ORP11 to membranes, and ORP9 silencing inhibited ORP11 Golgi association. The results identify ORP11 as an OSBP homologue distributing at the Golgi-LE interface and define the ORP9-ORP11 dimer as a functional unit that may act as an intracellular lipid sensor or transporter.

  4. OSBP-related protein 11 (ORP11) dimerizes with ORP9 and localizes at the Golgi-late endosome interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, You; Li, Shiqian; Maeyraenpaeae, Mikko I.; Zhong, Wenbin; Baeck, Nils; Yan, Daoguang; Olkkonen, Vesa M.

    2010-01-01

    We characterize here ORP11, a member of the oxysterol-binding protein family. ORP11 is present at highest levels in human ovary, testis, kidney, liver, stomach, brain, and adipose tissue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates abundant ORP11 in the epithelial cells of kidney tubules, testicular tubules, caecum, and skin. ORP11 in HEK293 cells resides on Golgi complex and LE, co-localizing with GFP-Rab9, TGN46, GFP-Rab7, and a fluorescent medial-trans-Golgi marker. Under electron microscopic observation, cells overexpressing ORP11 displayed lamellar lipid bodies associated with vacuolar structures or the Golgi complex, indicating a disturbance of lipid trafficking. N-terminal fragment of ORP11 (aa 1-292) localized partially to Golgi, but displayed enhanced localization on Rab7- and Rab9-positive LE, while the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (aa 273-747) was cytosolic, demonstrating that the membrane targeting determinants are N-terminal. Yeast two-hybrid screen revealed interaction of ORP11 with the related ORP9. The interacting region was delineated within aa 98-372 of ORP9 and aa 154-292 of ORP11. Overexpressed ORP9 was able to recruit EGFP-ORP11 to membranes, and ORP9 silencing inhibited ORP11 Golgi association. The results identify ORP11 as an OSBP homologue distributing at the Golgi-LE interface and define the ORP9-ORP11 dimer as a functional unit that may act as an intracellular lipid sensor or transporter.

  5. Mutations in TRAPPC12 Manifest in Progressive Childhood Encephalopathy and Golgi Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Miroslav P; Grout, Megan E; Saint-Dic, Djenann; Cheng, Yong-Han Hank; Glass, Ian A; Hale, Christopher J; Hanna, David S; Dorschner, Michael O; Prematilake, Keshika; Shaag, Avraham; Elpeleg, Orly; Sacher, Michael; Doherty, Dan; Edvardson, Simon

    2017-08-03

    Progressive childhood encephalopathy is an etiologically heterogeneous condition characterized by progressive central nervous system dysfunction in association with a broad range of morbidity and mortality. The causes of encephalopathy can be either non-genetic or genetic. Identifying the genetic causes and dissecting the underlying mechanisms are critical to understanding brain development and improving treatments. Here, we report that variants in TRAPPC12 result in progressive childhood encephalopathy. Three individuals from two unrelated families have either a homozygous deleterious variant (c.145delG [p.Glu49Argfs ∗ 14]) or compound-heterozygous variants (c.360dupC [p.Glu121Argfs ∗ 7] and c.1880C>T [p. Ala627Val]). The clinical phenotypes of the three individuals are strikingly similar: severe disability, microcephaly, hearing loss, spasticity, and characteristic brain imaging findings. Fibroblasts derived from all three individuals showed a fragmented Golgi that could be rescued by expression of wild-type TRAPPC12. Protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to and through the Golgi was delayed. TRAPPC12 is a member of the TRAPP protein complex, which functions in membrane trafficking. Variants in several other genes encoding members of the TRAPP complex have been associated with overlapping clinical presentations, indicating shared and distinct functions for each complex member. Detailed understanding of the TRAPP-opathies will illuminate the role of membrane protein transport in human disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 3D Printing of Plant Golgi Stacks from Their Electron Tomographic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Keith Ka Ki; Kang, Madison J; Kang, Byung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an effective tool for preparing tangible 3D models from computer visualizations to assist in scientific research and education. With the recent popularization of 3D printing processes, it is now possible for individual laboratories to convert their scientific data into a physical form suitable for presentation or teaching purposes. Electron tomography is an electron microscopy method by which 3D structures of subcellular organelles or macromolecular complexes are determined at nanometer-level resolutions. Electron tomography analyses have revealed the convoluted membrane architectures of Golgi stacks, chloroplasts, and mitochondria. But the intricacy of their 3D organizations is difficult to grasp from tomographic models illustrated on computer screens. Despite the rapid development of 3D printing technologies, production of organelle models based on experimental data with 3D printing has rarely been documented. In this chapter, we present a simple guide to creating 3D prints of electron tomographic models of plant Golgi stacks using the two most accessible 3D printing technologies.

  7. APPARATUS FOR ELECTRON BEAM HEATING CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W.H.; Reece, J.B.

    1962-09-18

    An improved electron beam welding or melting apparatus is designed which utilizes a high voltage rectifier operating below its temperature saturation region to decrease variations in electron beam current which normally result from the gas generated in such apparatus. (AEC)

  8. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  9. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...

  10. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  11. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  12. X-ray examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Griswa, P.J.; Halter, P. Jr.; Kidd, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray cardiovascular examination and which can also be used for general purpose examination is described. An advantage of the system is that there is no mechanical connection between the image intensifier and source to interfere with the medical examiner or emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  13. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  14. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  15. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  16. Support of nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watarai, Tetsuo; Ito, Yutaka.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To integrally form a bed for a body for supporting a vacuum container, coil and the like and a bed for a current transformer for supporting the current transformer prior to installation thereof on the floor thereby facilitating assembly and installation. Structure: To provide a base common to a current transformer bed and a body bed without direct installation thereof on the floor. Prior to installation of the current transformer bed and body bed, they are fastened to the base by means of bolts and welded integrally, and the thus formed base is fixed to the floor by means of anchor bolts. Since the current transformer bed and the body bed are formed integrally through the common base, apparatus may easily be carried in and disassembling and re-assembling of apparatus become unnecessary when installed. Further, since the positional relation of the current transformer bed and body bed does not depend on accuracy at the time of installation but depends on accuracy when apparatus manufactured, the toroidal type nuclear fusion apparatus of good accuracy may be obtained. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. Identification of rice cornichon as a possible cargo receptor for the Golgi-localized sodium transporter OsHKT1;3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Santiago, Paul; Lagunas-Gómez, Daniel; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Lalonde, Sylvie; Jones, Alexander; Frommer, Wolf B; Zimmermannova, Olga; Sychrová, Hana; Pantoja, Omar

    2015-05-01

    Membrane proteins are synthesized and folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and continue their path to their site of residence along the secretory pathway. The COPII system has been identified as a key player for selecting and directing the fate of membrane and secretory cargo proteins. Selection of cargo proteins within the COPII vesicles is achieved by cargo receptors. The cornichon cargo receptor belongs to a conserved protein family found in eukaryotes that has been demonstrated to participate in the selection of integral membrane proteins as cargo for their correct targeting. Here it is demonstrated at the cellular level that rice cornichon OsCNIH1 interacts with OsHKT1;3 and, in yeast cells, enables the expression of the sodium transporter to the Golgi apparatus. Physical and functional HKT-cornichon interactions are confirmed by the mating-based split ubiquitin system, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and Xenopus oocyte and yeast expression systems. The interaction between the two proteins occurs in the ER of plant cells and their co-expression in oocytes leads to the sequestration of the transporter in the ER. In the yeast cornichon mutant erv14, OsHKT1;3 is mistargeted, preventing the toxic effects of sodium transport in the cell observed in wild-type cells or in the erv14 mutant that co-expressed OsHKT1;3 with either OsCNIH1 or Erv14p. Identification and characterization of rice cornichon as a possible cargo receptor opens up the opportunity to improve our knowledge on membrane protein targeting in plant cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Identification of rice cornichon as a possible cargo receptor for the Golgi-localized sodium transporter OsHKT1;3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Santiago, Paul; Lagunas-Gómez, Daniel; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Lalonde, Sylvie; Jones, Alexander; Frommer, Wolf B.; Zimmermannova, Olga; Sychrová, Hana; Pantoja, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins are synthesized and folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and continue their path to their site of residence along the secretory pathway. The COPII system has been identified as a key player for selecting and directing the fate of membrane and secretory cargo proteins. Selection of cargo proteins within the COPII vesicles is achieved by cargo receptors. The cornichon cargo receptor belongs to a conserved protein family found in eukaryotes that has been demonstrated to participate in the selection of integral membrane proteins as cargo for their correct targeting. Here it is demonstrated at the cellular level that rice cornichon OsCNIH1 interacts with OsHKT1;3 and, in yeast cells, enables the expression of the sodium transporter to the Golgi apparatus. Physical and functional HKT–cornichon interactions are confirmed by the mating-based split ubiquitin system, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and Xenopus oocyte and yeast expression systems. The interaction between the two proteins occurs in the ER of plant cells and their co-expression in oocytes leads to the sequestration of the transporter in the ER. In the yeast cornichon mutant erv14, OsHKT1;3 is mistargeted, preventing the toxic effects of sodium transport in the cell observed in wild-type cells or in the erv14 mutant that co-expressed OsHKT1;3 with either OsCNIH1 or Erv14p. Identification and characterization of rice cornichon as a possible cargo receptor opens up the opportunity to improve our knowledge on membrane protein targeting in plant cells. PMID:25750424

  19. Multidimensional fractionation is a requirement for quantitation of Golgi-resident glycosylation enzymes from cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hung; Chik, Jenny H L; Packer, Nicolle H; Molloy, Mark P

    2015-02-06

    Glycosylation results from the concerted action of glycosylation enzymes in the secretory pathway. In general, gene expression serves as the primary control mechanism, but post-translational fine-tuning of glycosylation enzyme functions is often necessary for efficient synthesis of specific glycan epitopes. While the field of glycomics has rapidly advanced, there lacks routine proteomic methods to measure expression of specific glycosylation enzymes needed to fill the gap between mRNA expression and the glycomic profile in a "reverse genomics" workflow. Toward developing this workflow we enriched Golgi membranes from two human colon cancer cell lines by sucrose density centrifugation and further mass-based fractionation by SDS-PAGE. We then applied mass spectrometry to demonstrate a doubling in the number of Golgi resident proteins identified, compared to the unenriched, low speed centrifuged supernatant of lysed cells. A total of 35 Golgi-resident glycosylation enzymes, of which 23 were glycosyltransferases, were identified making this the largest protein database so far of Golgi resident glycosylation enzymes experimentally identified in cultured human cells. We developed targeted mass spectrometry assays for specific quantitation of many of these glycosylation enzymes. Our results show that alterations in abundance of glycosylation enzymes at the protein level were generally consistent with the resultant glycomic profiles, but not necessarily with the corresponding glycosyltransferase mRNA expression as exemplified by the case of O-glycan core 1 T synthase.

  20. Role of the Conserved Ologomeric Golgi Complex in the Abnormalities of Glycoprotein Processing in Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zolov, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    .... We propose that the COG3 protein plays one of the main roles in these processes. We utilized RNA interference assay to knockdown COG3p in HeLa cells to determine the effect of its depletion on Golgi proteins localization...

  1. Inducible Inhibition of Gβγ Reveals Localization-dependent Functions at the Plasma Membrane and Golgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klayman, Lauren M; Wedegaertner, Philip B

    2017-02-03

    Heterotrimeric G proteins signal at a variety of endomembrane locations, in addition to their canonical function at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane (PM), where they are activated by cell surface G protein-coupled receptors. Here we focus on βγ signaling at the Golgi, where βγ activates a signaling cascade, ultimately resulting in vesicle fission from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). To develop a novel molecular tool for inhibiting endogenous βγ in a spatial-temporal manner, we take advantage of a lipid association mutant of the widely used βγ inhibitor GRK2ct (GRK2ct-KERE) and the FRB/FKBP heterodimerization system. We show that GRK2ct-KERE cannot inhibit βγ function when expressed in cells, but recruitment to a specific membrane location recovers the ability of GRK2ct-KERE to inhibit βγ signaling. PM-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits lysophosphatidic acid-induced phosphorylation of Akt, whereas Golgi-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits cargo transport from the TGN to the PM. Moreover, we show that Golgi-recruited GRK2ct-KERE inhibits model basolaterally targeted but not apically targeted cargo delivery, for both PM-destined and secretory cargo, providing the first evidence of selectivity in terms of cargo transport regulated by βγ. Last, we show that Golgi fragmentation induced by ilimaquinone and nocodazole is blocked by βγ inhibition, demonstrating that βγ is a key regulator of multiple pathways that impact Golgi morphology. Thus, we have developed a new molecular tool, recruitable GRK2ct-KERE, to modulate βγ signaling at specific subcellular locations, and we demonstrate novel cargo selectivity for βγ regulation of TGN to PM transport and a novel role for βγ in mediating Golgi fragmentation. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Construction of shallow land simulation apparatuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Takebe, Shinichi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Harada, Yoshikane; Saitoh, Kazuaki; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1984-07-01

    Shallow land simulation apparatuses in which natural soil can be used as testing soil have been constructed to investigate the migration characteristics of radionuclides in a disposal site. These apparatuses consist of aerated zone apparatus and aquifer zone one. In the aerated zone apparatus, aerated soil upon ground water level is contained in the soil column (d: 30cm x h: 120cm). In the aquifer zone apparatus, aquifer soil laying ground water level is contained in the soil vessel (b: 90cm x l: 270cm x h: 45cm). This report describes the outline of shallow land simulation apparatuses : function of apparatuses and specification of devices, analysis of obstructions, safety rules, analysis of accidents and operation manual. (author)

  3. Regulation of cytokine receptors by Golgi N-glycan processing and endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Emily A; Le Roy, Christine; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M; Pawling, Judy; Cheung, Pam; Granovsky, Maria; Nabi, Ivan R; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Dennis, James W

    2004-10-01

    The Golgi enzyme beta1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (Mgat5) is up-regulated in carcinomas and promotes the substitution of N-glycan with poly N-acetyllactosamine, the preferred ligand for galectin-3 (Gal-3). Here, we report that expression of Mgat5 sensitized mouse cells to multiple cytokines. Gal-3 cross-linked Mgat5-modified N-glycans on epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta receptors at the cell surface and delayed their removal by constitutive endocytosis. Mgat5 expression in mammary carcinoma was rate limiting for cytokine signaling and consequently for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. Mgat5 also promoted cytokine-mediated leukocyte signaling, phagocytosis, and extravasation in vivo. Thus, conditional regulation of N-glycan processing drives synchronous modification of cytokine receptors, which balances their surface retention against loss via endocytosis.

  4. Research advances in association between Golgi protein 73 and liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Fengxian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Golgi protein 73 (GP73 has a very low expression level in normal people, while it has a significantly higher expression level in patients with liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and therefore, it may become a new marker for HCC. This article introduces the distribution of GP73 in human body and definitions of different subtypes of GP73 and elaborates on its association with benign/malignant liver diseases and surgical operation based on the subtypes of GP73, as well as the application of GP73 in the differentiation of benign/malignant liver diseases. Since GP73 is closely associated with the development, progression, and prognosis of liver diseases, this article summarizes the latest advances in basic research, introduces the structural basis of fucosylated GP73 and proliferation, migration, and invasion of hepatoma cells and known signaling pathways, and lists the factors which affect the expression of GP73.

  5. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transitions upon herpes virus infection [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 3 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wild

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herpesvirus capsids are assembled in the nucleus, translocated to the perinuclear space by budding, acquiring tegument and envelope, or released to the cytoplasm via impaired nuclear envelope. One model proposes that envelopment, “de-envelopment” and “re-envelopment” is essential for production of infectious virus. Glycoproteins gB/gH were reported to be essential for de-envelopment, by fusion of the “primary” envelope with the outer nuclear membrane. Yet, a high proportion of enveloped virions generated from genomes with deleted gB/gH were found in the cytoplasm and extracellular space, suggesting the existence of alternative exit routes. Methods: We investigated the relatedness between the nuclear envelope and membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, in cells infected with either herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 or a Us3 deletion mutant thereof, or with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, employing freezing technique protocols. Results:  The Golgi complex is a compact entity in a juxtanuclear position covered by a membrane on the cis face. Golgi membranes merge with membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum forming an entity with the perinuclear space. All compartments contained enveloped virions. After treatment with brefeldin A, HSV-1 virions aggregated in the perinuclear space and endoplasmic reticulum, while infectious progeny virus was still produced. Conclusions: The data suggest that virions derived by budding at nuclear membranes are intraluminally transported from the perinuclear space via Golgi -endoplasmic reticulum transitions into Golgi cisternae for packaging. Virions derived by budding at nuclear membranes are infective like Us3 deletion mutants, which  accumulate in the perinuclear space. Therefore, i de-envelopment followed by re-envelopment is not essential for production of infective progeny virus, ii the process taking place at the outer nuclear

  7. Radiation scatter apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molbert, J. L.; Riddle, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    A radiation scatter gauge includes multiple detector locations for developing separate and independent sets of data from which multiple physical characteristics of a thin material and underlying substrate may be determined. In an illustrated embodiment, the apparatus and method of the invention are directed to determining characteristics of resurfaced pavement by nondestructive testing. More particularly, the density and thickness of a thin asphalt overlay and the density of the underlying pavement may be determined

  8. Torque application technique and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineault, Raymond P.

    1993-11-01

    A tool which produces a measured torque is coupled to a bolt head or nut, located in a relatively inaccessible area, by apparatus which includes a wrench member affixed to an adaptor. The wrench member is sized and shaped to engage the fastener to be operated upon and the adaptor has a tubular construction with a tool engaging socket at one end. The adaptor is provided with an elongated slot which accommodates any wires which may pass through the fastener.

  9. Nuclear reactor vessel inspection apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstone, E.G.; Lofy, R.A.; Williams, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for the in situ inspection of a nuclear reactor vessel to detect the location and character of flaws in the walls of the vessel, in the welds joining the various sections of the vessel, in the welds joining attachments such as nozzles, elbows and the like to the reactor vessel and in such attachments wherein an inspection head carrying one or more ultrasonic transducers follows predetermined paths in scanning the various reactor sections, welds and attachments

  10. Vibration damping method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.

  11. Hepatitis C virus replication and Golgi function in brefeldin a-resistant hepatoma-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Farhat

    Full Text Available Recent reports indicate that the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV depends on the GBF1-Arf1-COP-I pathway. We generated Huh-7-derived cell lines resistant to brefeldin A (BFA, which is an inhibitor of this pathway. The resistant cell lines could be sorted into two phenotypes regarding BFA-induced toxicity, inhibition of albumin secretion, and inhibition of HCV infection. Two cell lines were more than 100 times more resistant to BFA than the parental Huh-7 cells in these 3 assays. This resistant phenotype was correlated with the presence of a point mutation in the Sec7 domain of GBF1, which is known to impair the binding of BFA. Surprisingly, the morphology of the cis-Golgi of these cells remained sensitive to BFA at concentrations of the drug that allowed albumin secretion, indicating a dichotomy between the phenotypes of secretion and Golgi morphology. Cells of the second group were about 10 times more resistant than parental Huh-7 cells to the BFA-induced toxicity. The EC50 for albumin secretion was only 1.5-1.8 fold higher in these cells than in Huh-7 cells. However their level of secretion in the presence of inhibitory doses of BFA was 5 to 15 times higher. Despite this partially effective secretory pathway in the presence of BFA, the HCV infection was almost as sensitive to BFA as in Huh-7 cells. This suggests that the function of GBF1 in HCV replication does not simply reflect its role of regulator of the secretory pathway of the host cell. Thus, our results confirm the involvement of GBF1 in HCV replication, and suggest that GBF1 might fulfill another function, in addition to the regulation of the secretory pathway, during HCV replication.

  12. The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Lucas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB into the reticulate body (RB. The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans-Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE, syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin10-associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical towards understanding the molecular signals involved in

  13. Secretory granule formation and membrane recycling by the trans-Golgi network in adipokinetic cells of Locusta migratoria in relation to flight and rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederen, J H; Vullings, H G

    1995-03-01

    The influence of flight activity on the formation of secretory granules and the concomitant membrane recycling by the trans-Golgi network in the peptidergic neurosecretory adipokinetic cells of Locusta migratoria was investigated by means of ultrastructural morphometric methods. The patterns of labelling of the trans-Golgi network by the exogenous adsorptive endocytotic tracer wheat-germ agglutinin-conjugated horse-radish peroxidase and by the endogenous marker enzyme acid phosphatase were used as parameters and were measured by an automatic image analysis system. The results show that endocytosed fragments of plasma membrane with bound peroxidase label were transported to the trans-Golgi network and used to build new secretory granules. The amounts of peroxidase and especially of acid phosphatase within the trans-Golgi network showed a strong tendency to be smaller in flight-stimulated cells than in non-stimulated cells. The amounts of acid phosphatase in the immature secretory granules originating from the trans-Golgi network were significantly smaller in stimulated cells. The number of immature secretory granules positive for acid phosphatase tended to be higher in stimulated cells. Thus, flight stimulation of adipokinetic cells for 1 h influences the functioning of the trans-Golgi network; this most probably results in a slight enhancement of the production of secretory granules by the trans-Golgi network.

  14. Apparatus for making molten silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  15. The Apparatus of Digital Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Huggett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Archaeology is predicated upon an ever-changing set of apparatuses – technological, methodological, software, hardware, material, immaterial – which in their own ways and to varying degrees shape the nature of Digital Archaeology. Our attention, however, is perhaps inevitably more closely focused on research questions, choice of data, and the kinds of analyses and outputs. In the process we tend to overlook the effects the tools themselves have on the archaeology we do beyond the immediate consequences of the digital. This article introduces cognitive artefacts as a means of addressing the apparatus more directly within the context of the developing archaeological digital ecosystem. It argues that a critical appreciation of our computational cognitive artefacts is key to understanding their effects on both our own cognition and on the creation of archaeological knowledge. In the process, it defines a form of cognitive digital archaeology in terms of four distinct methods for extracting cognition from the digital apparatus layer by layer.

  16. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  17. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.; Inayat, Salman Bin; Smith, Casey Eben

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  18. Apparatus for producing laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Baker, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an apparatus and method for producing deuterium targets or pellets of 25u to 75u diameter. The pellets are sliced from a continuously spun solid deuterium thread at a rate of up to 10 pellets/second. The pellets after being sliced from the continuous thread of deuterium are collimated and directed to a point of use, such as a laser activated combustion or explosion chamber wherein the pellets are imploded by laser energy or laser produced target plasmas for neutral beam injection

  19. X-ray photographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray photographic system is designed for medical applications. Two detectors are used for surveys in different planes, and produce electrical signals which are supplied to a comparator. The electron beams are examined according to a system of reference time steps. The apparatus includes a light source and a photo-detector and enables a reference signal to be produced against which the detected signals are compared. The beam source is formed from an electron gun, an extractor electrode and an anode; beam then passes through a collimator. (G.C.)

  20. Apparatus for measuring radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.C.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material comprises at least one radiation detector in a housing serving as a first radiation shield and in which at least one groove is formed to expose at least a portion of a receptor surface of the detector. The groove extends transverse to the direction of movement of the material over the detector. A second radiation shield may be located between at least a portion of the first shield and the detector. The material of the second shield is inherently less contaminated and emits secondary excitation radiation of lower energy than the first material. (author)

  1. Strip casting apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  2. Specifications for surface reaction analysis apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2001-03-01

    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8 as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry. The apparatus is devoted to the study concerning the influence of translational kinetic energy of incident molecules to chemical reactions on solid surfaces with gas molecules. In order to achieve the research purpose, reactive molecular scattering experiments and photoemission spectroscopic measurements using synchrotron radiation are performed in that apparatus via a supersonic molecular beam generator, an electron energy analyzer and a quadrupole mass analyzer. The detail specifications for the apparatus are described in this report. (author)

  3. Restoration of compact Golgi morphology in advanced prostate cancer enhances susceptibility to galectin-1-induced apoptosis by modifying mucin O-glycan synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, Armen; Holzapfel, Melissa S; Muirhead, David E; Cheng, Pi-Wan

    2014-12-01

    Prostate cancer progression is associated with upregulation of sialyl-T antigen produced by β-galactoside α-2,3-sialyltransferase-1 (ST3Gal1) but not with core 2-associated polylactosamine despite expression of core 2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-L (C2GnT-L/GCNT1). This property allows androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells to evade galectin-1 (LGALS1)-induced apoptosis, but the mechanism is not known. We have recently reported that Golgi targeting of glycosyltransferases is mediated by golgins: giantin (GOLGB1) for C2GnT-M (GCNT3) and GM130 (GOLGA2)-GRASP65 (GORASP1) or GM130-giantin for core 1 synthase. Here, we show that for Golgi targeting, C2GnT-L also uses giantin exclusively whereas ST3Gal1 uses either giantin or GM130-GRASP65. In addition, the compact Golgi morphology is detected in both androgen-sensitive prostate cancer and normal prostate cells, but fragmented Golgi and mislocalization of C2GnT-L are found in androgen-refractory cells as well as primary prostate tumors (Gleason grade 2-4). Furthermore, failure of giantin monomers to be phosphorylated and dimerized prevents Golgi from forming compact morphology and C2GnT-L from targeting the Golgi. On the other hand, ST3Gal1 reaches the Golgi by an alternate site, GM130-GRASP65. Interestingly, inhibition or knockdown of non-muscle myosin IIA (MYH9) motor protein frees up Rab6a GTPase to promote phosphorylation of giantin by polo-like kinase 3 (PLK3), which is followed by dimerization of giantin assisted by protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3), and restoration of compact Golgi morphology and targeting of C2GnT-L. Finally, the Golgi relocation of C2GnT-L in androgen-refractory cells results in their increased susceptibility to galectin-1-induced apoptosis by replacing sialyl-T antigen with polylactosamine. This study demonstrates the importance of Golgi morphology and regulation of glycosylation and provides insight into how the Golgi influences cancer progression and metastasis. ©2014 American

  4. Self-propelled pulse X-ray apparatus Sirena-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danil'chenko, N.T.; Ershov, L.S.; Il'chenko, A.V.; Krasil'nikov, S.B.; Kristalinskij, A.L.; Lozovoj, L.N.; Markov, S.N.; Morgovskij, L.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and specifications of a self-propelled pulse X-ray apparatus ''Sirena-1'' for testing oilt and gas pipelines welded joints are described. The apparatus is designed on the base of pulse X-ray apparatus MIRA. Apparatus control is realized by means of the 137 Cs source or manual control desk. The apparatus ensures perfect control sensitivity

  5. Active Dendrites and Differential Distribution of Calcium Channels Enable Functional Compartmentalization of Golgi Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Stephanie; Hull, Court; Regehr, Wade G

    2015-11-25

    Interneurons are essential to controlling excitability, timing, and synaptic integration in neuronal networks. Golgi cells (GoCs) serve these roles at the input layer of the cerebellar cortex by releasing GABA to inhibit granule cells (grcs). GoCs are excited by mossy fibers (MFs) and grcs and provide feedforward and feedback inhibition to grcs. Here we investigate two important aspects of GoC physiology: the properties of GoC dendrites and the role of calcium signaling in regulating GoC spontaneous activity. Although GoC dendrites are extensive, previous studies concluded they are devoid of voltage-gated ion channels. Hence, the current view holds that somatic voltage signals decay passively within GoC dendrites, and grc synapses onto distal dendrites are not amplified and are therefore ineffective at firing GoCs because of strong passive attenuation. Using whole-cell recording and calcium imaging in rat slices, we find that dendritic voltage-gated sodium channels allow somatic action potentials to activate voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) along the entire dendritic length, with R-type and T-type VGCCs preferentially located distally. We show that R- and T-type VGCCs located in the dendrites can boost distal synaptic inputs and promote burst firing. Active dendrites are thus critical to the regulation of GoC activity, and consequently, to the processing of input to the cerebellar cortex. In contrast, we find that N-type channels are preferentially located near the soma, and control the frequency and pattern of spontaneous firing through their close association with calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels. Thus, VGCC types are differentially distributed and serve specialized functions within GoCs. Interneurons are essential to neural processing because they modulate excitability, timing, and synaptic integration within circuits. At the input layer of the cerebellar cortex, a single type of interneuron, the Golgi cell (GoC), carries these functions. The

  6. Selectivity of neuronal [3H]GABA accumulation in the visual cortex as revealed by Golgi staining of the labeled neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, P.; Freund, T.F.; Kisvarday, Z.F.; Halasz, N.

    1981-01-01

    [ 3 H]GABA was injected into the visual cortex of rats in vivo. The labeled amino acid was demonstrated by autoradiography using semithin sections of Golgi material. Selective accumulation was seen in the perikarya of Golgi-stained, gold-toned, aspinous stellate neurons. Spine-laden pyramidal-like cells did not show labeling. This method gives direct information about the dendritic arborization of a neuron, and its putative transmitter, and allows the identification of its synaptic connections. (Auth.)

  7. Monocrotaline pyrrole-induced megalocytosis of lung and breast epithelial cells: Disruption of plasma membrane and Golgi dynamics and an enhanced unfolded protein response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Shah, Mehul; Patel, Kirit; Sehgal, Pravin B.

    2006-01-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid monocrotaline (MCT) initiates pulmonary hypertension by inducing a 'megalocytosis' phenotype in target pulmonary arterial endothelial, smooth muscle and Type II alveolar epithelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, a single exposure to the pyrrolic derivative of monocrotaline (MCTP) results in large cells with enlarged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi and increased vacuoles. However, these cells fail to enter mitosis. Largely based upon data from endothelial cells, we proposed earlier that a disruption of the trafficking and mitosis-sensor functions of the Golgi (the 'Golgi blockade' hypothesis) may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to MCTP-induced megalocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the applicability of the Golgi blockade hypothesis to epithelial cells. MCTP induced marked megalocytosis in cultures of lung A549 and breast MCF-7 cells. This was associated with a change in the distribution of the cis-Golgi scaffolding protein GM130 from a discrete juxtanuclear localization to a circumnuclear distribution consistent with an anterograde block of GM130 trafficking to/through the Golgi. There was also a loss of plasma membrane caveolin-1 and E-cadherin, cortical actin together with a circumnuclear accumulation of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and α-tubulin. Flotation analyses revealed losses/alterations in the association of caveolin-1, E-cadherin and CHC with raft microdomains. Moreover, megalocytosis was accompanied by an enhanced unfolded protein response (UPR) as evidenced by nuclear translocation of Ire1α and glucose regulated protein 58 (GRP58/ER-60/ERp57) and a circumnuclear accumulation of PERK kinase and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). These data further support the hypothesis that an MCTP-induced Golgi blockade and enhanced UPR may represent the subcellular mechanism leading to enlargement of ER and Golgi and subsequent megalocytosis

  8. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.; Macivergan, R.; Mckenzie, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus incorporating a microprocessor control is provided for automatically loading nuclear fuel pellets into fuel rods commonly used in nuclear reactor cores. The apparatus comprises a split ''v'' trough for assembling segments of fuel pellets in rows and a shuttle to receive the fuel pellets from the split ''v'' trough when the two sides of the split ''v'' trough are opened. The pellets are weighed while in the shuttle, and the shuttle then moves the pellets into alignment with a fuel rod. A guide bushing is provided to assist the transfer of the pellets into the fuel rod. A rod carousel which holds a plurality of fuel rods presents the proper rod to the guide bushing at the appropriate stage in the loading sequence. The bushing advances to engage the fuel rod, and the shuttle advances to engage the guide bushing. The pellets are then loaded into the fuel rod by a motor operated push rod. The guide bushing includes a photocell utilized in conjunction with the push rod to measure the length of the row of fuel pellets inserted in the fuel rod

  9. Diseases of the branquial apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Wiehoff, A.; Avial, R.

    2000-01-01

    To correlate ht embryologic and radiologic findings in the branchial apparatus or system with the anomalies that can occur. We reviewed the cases of branchial anomalies examined over the past 6 years, finding periparotid cysts at the first branchial cleft (n=2), cysts (n=13) and fistulas (n=4) at the second, and cysts (n=2) and thymopharyngeal cysts (n=3) at the third. The studies included ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fistulography. All the patients underwent surgery, with histological confirmation. Knowledge of the embryology of the branchial apparatus or system helps in the understanding of anomalies, which appear as cervical cystic masses, mainly located along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, or as fistulas running from the exterior to the pharyngeal lumen at the level of the tonsillar fossa, sometimes forming sinuses, that is fistulas that are blind at either the external or internal end. The most common anomalies arise from the second branchial cleft and are easily diagnosed in the presence of a cystic mass located to one side of the SCM muscle, behind the submandibular gland and occupying the carotid space. (Author) 14 refs

  10. Fuel cell catholyte regenerating apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struthers, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    A catholyte regenerating apparatus for a fuel cell having a cathode section containing a catholyte solution and wherein fuel cell reaction reduces the catholyte to gas and water. The apparatus includes means to conduct partically reduced water diluted catholyte from the fuel cell and means to conduct the gas from the fuel cell to a mixing means. An absorption tower containing a volume of gas absorbing liquid solvent receives the mixed together gas and diluted catholyte from the mixing means within the absorption column, the gas is absorbed by the solvent and the gas ladened solvent and diluted catholyte are commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled. A liquid transfer means conducts gas ladened commingled solvent and electrolyte from the absorption column to an air supply means wherein air is added and commingled therewith and a stoichiometric volume of oxygen from the air is absorbed thereby. A second liquid transfer means conducts the gas ladened commingled solvent and diluted catholyte into a catalyst column wherein the oxygen and gas react to reconstitute the catholyte from which the gas was generated wna wherein the reconstituted diluted catholyte is separated from the solvent. Recirculating means conducts the solvent from the catalyst column back into the absorption column and liquid conducting means conducts the reconstituted catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for catholyte to a holding tank preparatory for recirculation through the cathode section of the fuel cell

  11. Apparatus for use in radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C-H.; Tsay, H-M.; Heyer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus for solid-phase antibody separation techniques used in radioimmunoassays is described in this invention. It consists of a rectangular prism tray with multiple wells protruding into its interior from one side. Near the base of the tray is an orifice used for creating evacuated condition within the structure. At the base of each well there is an orifice of such size and shape as to retain an aqueous liquid under given pressure conditions but permit the evacuation of this liquid at reduced pressure. The outlet of these orifices is in the shape of an inverted conical frustrum. Each of the wells contains an antibody coated disc of porous cellulose paper surrounded by a plastic support. The porous nature of the cellulose paper ensures contact between the antibody coating and the antigen. The use of antibody coated porous cellulose paper in combination with the vacuum operated apparatus simplifies the manipulative steps whilst still maintaining the sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay. It also obviates the need for aspiration and thus lessens the risk of contamination from one sample to another. (UK)

  12. Conveyor with rotary airlock apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbert, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus for transferring objects from a first region to a second region, the first and second regions having differing atmospheric environments. The apparatus includes a shell having an entrance and an exit, a conveyer belt running through the shell from the entrance to the exit, and a horizontally mounted `revolving door` with at least four vanes revolving about its axis. The inner surface of the shell and the top surface of the conveyer belt act as opposing walls of the `revolving door`. The conveyer belt dips as it passes under but against the revolving vanes so as not to interfere with them but to engage at least two of the vanes and define thereby a moving chamber. Preferably, the conveyer belt has ridges or grooves on its surface that engage the edges of the vanes and act to rotate the vane assembly. Conduits are provided that communicate with the interior of the shell and allow the adjustment of the atmosphere of the moving chamber or recovery of constituents of the atmosphere of the first region from the moving chamber before they escape to the second region.

  13. Nuclear reactor core servicing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved core servicing apparatus for a nuclear reactor of the type having a reactor vessel, a vessel head having a head penetration therethrough, a removable plug adapted to fit in the head penetration, and a core of the type having an array of elongated assemblies. The improved core servicing apparatus comprises a plurality of support columns suspended from the removable plug and extending downward toward the nuclear core, rigid support means carried by each of the support columns, and a plurality of servicing means for each of the support columns for servicing a plurality of assemblies. Each of the plurality of servicing means for each of the support columns is fixedly supported in a fixed array from the rigid support means. Means are provided for rotating the rigid support means and servicing means between condensed and expanded positions. When in the condensed position, the rigid support means and servicing means lie completely within the coextensive boundaries of the plug, and when in the expanded position, some of the rigid support means and servicing means lie without the coextensive boundaries of the plug

  14. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  15. Pipe and hose decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A pipe and hose decontamination apparatus is disclosed using freshly filtered high pressure Freon solvent in an integrated closed loop to remove radioactive particles or other contaminants from items having a long cylindrical geometry such as hoses, pipes, cables and the like. The pipe and hose decontamination apparatus comprises a chamber capable of accomodating a long cylindrical work piece to be decontaminated. The chamber has a downward sloped bottom draining to a solvent holding tank. An entrance zone, a cleaning zone and an exit drying zone are defined within the chamber by removable partitions having slotted rubber gaskets in their centers. The entrance and exit drying zones contain a horizontally mounted cylindrical housing which supports in combination a plurality of slotted rubber gaskets and circular brushes to initiate mechanical decontamination. Solvent is delivered at high pressure to a spray ring located in the cleaning zone having a plurality of nozzles surrounding the work piece. The solvent drains into a solvent holding tank located below the nozzles and means are provided for circulating the solvent to and from a solvent cleaning, distilling and filter unit

  16. BETA (Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Evan M.; Birmingham, William J.; Rivera, William F.; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.

    2017-10-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) prototype of the 10-T Adjustable Long Pulse High-Field Apparatus (ALPHA). These water-cooled resistive magnets use high DC currents to produce strong uniform magnetic fields. Presented here is the successful completion of the BETA project and experimental results validating analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory (DPL). BETA's final design specifications will be highlighted which include electromagnetic, thermal and stress analyses. The magnet core design will be explained which include: Bitter Arcs, helix starters, and clamping annuli. The final version of the magnet's vessel and cooling system are also presented, as well as the electrical system of BETA, which is composed of a unique solid-state breaker circuit. Experimental results presented will show the operation of BETA at 1 T. The results are compared to both analytical design methods and finite element analysis calculations. We also explore the steady state maximums and theoretical limits of BETA's design. The completion of BETA validates the design and manufacturing techniques that will be used in the succeeding magnet, ALPHA.

  17. GOLGA2/GM130, cis-Golgi Matrix Protein, is a Novel Target of Anticancer Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Seung-Hee; Hong, Seong-Ho; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Ji-Eun; Shin, Ji-Young; Kang, Bitna; Park, Sungjin; Han, Kiwon; Chae, Chanhee; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2012-01-01

    Achievement of long-term survival of patients with lung cancer treated with conventional chemotherapy is still difficult for treatment of metastatic and advanced tumors. Despite recent progress in investigational therapies, survival rates are still disappointingly low and novel adjuvant and systemic therapies are urgently needed. A recently elucidated secretory pathway is attracting considerable interest as a promising anticancer target. The cis-Golgi matrix protein, GOLGA2/GM130, plays an im...

  18. PI3K class II α regulates δ-opioid receptor export from the trans-Golgi network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwarski, Daniel J; Darr, Marlena; Telmer, Cheryl A; Bruchez, Marcel P; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A

    2017-08-01

    The interplay between signaling and trafficking by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has focused mainly on endocytic trafficking. Whether and how surface delivery of newly synthesized GPCRs is regulated by extracellular signals is less understood. Here we define a signaling-regulated checkpoint at the trans -Golgi network (TGN) that controls the surface delivery of the delta opioid receptor (δR). In PC12 cells, inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) activity blocked export of newly synthesized δR from the Golgi and delivery to the cell surface, similar to treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF). Depletion of class II phosphoinositide-3 kinase α (PI3K C2A), but not inhibition of class I PI3K, blocked δR export to comparable levels and attenuated δR-mediated cAMP inhibition. NGF treatment displaced PI3K C2A from the Golgi and optogenetic recruitment of the PI3K C2A kinase domain to the TGN-induced δR export downstream of NGF. Of importance, PI3K C2A expression promotes export of endogenous δR in primary trigeminal ganglion neurons. Taken together, our results identify PI3K C2A as being required and sufficient for δR export and surface delivery in neuronal cells and suggest that it could be a key modulator of a novel Golgi export checkpoint that coordinates GPCR delivery to the surface. © 2017 Shiwarski et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Autometallographic (AMG) technique used for enhancement of the Golgi-Cox staining gives good contrast andhigh resolution of dendrites and spines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowski, Dariusz

    Despite the existence of many newer staining methods, Golgi staining still remains the primary method forvisualization of the dendrites and spines. The black deposit in the Golgi-Cox impregnated cells is a Mercuricsulphide, therefore autometallographic (AMG) technique which is used for visualizat...... of dendrites and spines in the rat hippocampus. The describedmethod will be of value for future behavioural-anatomical studies, examining changes in dendrite branching andspine density caused by brain diseases and their subsequent treatment.......Despite the existence of many newer staining methods, Golgi staining still remains the primary method forvisualization of the dendrites and spines. The black deposit in the Golgi-Cox impregnated cells is a Mercuricsulphide, therefore autometallographic (AMG) technique which is used...... for visualization of the metals and metalsulphides/selenides in tissue may be used to enhance the Golgi-Cox staining. We demonstrated accordingly thatuse of AMG enhancement method on the Golgi-Cox staining gives good contrast and high resolution of dendritesand spines. Moreover, this method is cheaper and more...

  20. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of STK16 (PKL12), a Golgi-resident serine/threonine kinase involved in VEGF expression regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea, Barbara; Ligos, Jose Manuel; Lain de Lera, Teresa; Martin-Caballero, Juan; Flores, Juana; Gonzalez de la Pena, Manuel; Garcia-Castro, Javier; Bernad, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    PKL12/STK16 protein is the first identified mammalian member of a ser/thr kinase subfamily that is conserved across several kingdoms, with a broad expression pattern in murine tissues and cell types. Endogenous STK16 subcellular localization was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence in NIH/3T3 and NRK cells, demonstrating a Golgi-associated pattern that appears to be independent of signals provided by integrin pathways. When cells were treated with brefeldin A (BFA) or nocodazole, drugs that promote Golgi disorganization, we observed STK16 translocation to the nuclear compartment. Constitutive overexpression of this protein by retroviral vectors also promotes accumulation of STK16 in the nuclear compartment, as shown by subfractionation studies. A kinase-dead STK16 mutant (E202A) was used to demonstrate that both the Golgi association and the nuclear translocation capabilities seem to be independent of the STK16 kinase activity. In addition, we show that STK16 overexpression in several cell lines enhances their capacity to produce and secrete VEGF. To confirm these data in vivo, we injected tumor cells overexpressing STK16 into immunodeficient BALBc/SCID mice. HT1080-derived tumors overexpressing STK16 showed increased volume and number of blood vessels compared to controls. Altogether, these data concur with previous reports suggesting a potential role for STK16 as a transcriptional co-activator

  1. Endogenous glycosphingolipid acceptor specificity of sialosyltransferase systems in intact golgi membranes, synaptosomes, and synaptic plasma membranes from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrie, R.; Saito, M.; Rosenberg, A.

    1988-01-01

    Preparations highly enriched in Golgi complex membranes, synaptosomes, and synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) by marker enzyme analysis and electron microscopic morphology were made from the brains of 28-day-old rats. These were incubated with cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-acetyl[ 14 C]neuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) in a physiologic buffer, without detergents. Glycolipid sialosyltransferase activities (SATs) were measured by analyzing incorporation of radiolabeled NeuAc into endogenous membrane gangliosides. Golgi SAT was diversified in producing all the various molecular species of labeled gangliosides. Synaptosomal SAT exhibited a lower activity, but it was highly specific in its labeling pattern, with a marked preference for labeling NeuAcα2 → 8NeuAcα2 → 3Galβ1 → 4Glcβ1 → 1Cer (GD3 ganglioside). SPM prepared from the synaptosomes retained the GD3-related SAT (or SAT-2), and the total specific activity increased, which suggests that the location of the synaptosomal activity is in the SPM. These results indicate that SAT activity in Golgi membranes differs from that in synaptosomes with regard to endogenous acceptor substrate specificity and SAT activity of synaptosomes should be located in the synaptosomal plasma membrane. This SAT could function as an ectoenzyme in concert with ecto-sialidase to modulate the GD3 and other ganglioside population in situ at the SPM of the central nervous system

  2. The Drosophila Neurally Altered Carbohydrate Mutant Has a Defective Golgi GDP-fucose Transporter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Christoph; Kotu, Varshika; Sharrow, Mary; Rendić, Dubravko; Pöltl, Gerald; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Studying genetic disorders in model organisms can provide insights into heritable human diseases. The Drosophila neurally altered carbohydrate (nac) mutant is deficient for neural expression of the HRP epitope, which consists of N-glycans with core α1,3-linked fucose residues. Here, we show that a conserved serine residue in the Golgi GDP-fucose transporter (GFR) is substituted by leucine in nac1 flies, which abolishes GDP-fucose transport in vivo and in vitro. This loss of function is due to a biochemical defect, not to destabilization or mistargeting of the mutant GFR protein. Mass spectrometry and HPLC analysis showed that nac1 mutants lack not only core α1,3-linked, but also core α1,6-linked fucose residues on their N-glycans. Thus, the nac1 Gfr mutation produces a previously unrecognized general defect in N-glycan core fucosylation. Transgenic expression of a wild-type Gfr gene restored the HRP epitope in neural tissues, directly demonstrating that the Gfr mutation is solely responsible for the neural HRP epitope deficiency in the nac1 mutant. These results validate the Drosophila nac1 mutant as a model for the human congenital disorder of glycosylation, CDG-IIc (also known as LAD-II), which is also the result of a GFR deficiency. PMID:22745127

  3. Golgi Study of Medium Spiny Neurons from Dorsolateral Striatum of the Turtle Trachemys scripta elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carolina; Mendoza, Janeth; Avila-Costa, María Rosa; Arias, Juan M; Barral, Jaime

    2013-10-25

    Comparative anatomy has shown similarities between reptilian and mammalian basal ganglia. Here the morphological characteristics of the medium spiny neurons (MSN) in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of the turtle are described after staining them with the Golgi technique. The soma of MSN in DLS showed three main forms: spherical, ovoid, and fusiform. The number of primary dendritic branches (3-4 dendrites/cell) was less than observed in mammals. The MSN axon originates mainly from the soma, and randomly it emerges at the beginning of the primary dendrite. The main differences between turtle and mammalian MSN were detected on dendritic spines. Short, thin, bifurcated and fungiform types of dendritic spines were observed in the turtle's MSN, according to their shape. In most of the analyzed spines, it was found that its length considerably exceeded that reported in mammals, with dendritic spines up to 8μm in length. These differences could play an important role in the modulation of motor networks preserved along the vertebrate evolution. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Golgi Outpost Synthesis Impaired by Toxic Polyglutamine Proteins Contributes to Dendritic Pathology in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Geon Chung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendrite aberration is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases caused by protein toxicity, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we show that nuclear polyglutamine (polyQ toxicity resulted in defective terminal dendrite elongation accompanied by a loss of Golgi outposts (GOPs and a decreased supply of plasma membrane (PM in Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (da (C4 da neurons. mRNA sequencing revealed that genes downregulated by polyQ proteins included many secretory pathway-related genes, including COPII genes regulating GOP synthesis. Transcription factor enrichment analysis identified CREB3L1/CrebA, which regulates COPII gene expression. CrebA overexpression in C4 da neurons restores the dysregulation of COPII genes, GOP synthesis, and PM supply. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-PCR revealed that CrebA expression is regulated by CREB-binding protein (CBP, which is sequestered by polyQ proteins. Furthermore, co-overexpression of CrebA and Rac1 synergistically restores the polyQ-induced dendrite pathology. Collectively, our results suggest that GOPs impaired by polyQ proteins contribute to dendrite pathology through the CBP-CrebA-COPII pathway.

  5. Cholesterol Regulates Syntaxin 6 Trafficking at trans-Golgi Network Endosomal Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Reverter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of cholesterol export from late endosomes causes cellular cholesterol imbalance, including cholesterol depletion in the trans-Golgi network (TGN. Here, using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1 mutant cell lines and human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts, we show that altered cholesterol levels at the TGN/endosome boundaries trigger Syntaxin 6 (Stx6 accumulation into VAMP3, transferrin, and Rab11-positive recycling endosomes (REs. This increases Stx6/VAMP3 interaction and interferes with the recycling of αVβ3 and α5β1 integrins and cell migration, possibly in a Stx6-dependent manner. In NPC1 mutant cells, restoration of cholesterol levels in the TGN, but not inhibition of VAMP3, restores the steady-state localization of Stx6 in the TGN. Furthermore, elevation of RE cholesterol is associated with increased amounts of Stx6 in RE. Hence, the fine-tuning of cholesterol levels at the TGN-RE boundaries together with a subset of cholesterol-sensitive SNARE proteins may play a regulatory role in cell migration and invasion.

  6. A traffic signal for heterodimeric amino acid transporters to transfer from the ER to the Golgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2009-01-15

    Heterodimeric amino acid transporters represent a unique class of transport systems that consist of a light chain that serves as the 'transporter proper' and a heavy chain that is necessary for targeting the complex to the plasma membrane. The currently prevailing paradigm assigns no role for the light chains in the cellular processing of these transporters. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Sakamoto et al. provide evidence contrary to this paradigm. Their studies with the rBAT -b(0,+)AT (related to b(0,+) amino acid transporter-b(0,+)-type amino acid transporter) heterodimeric amino acid transporter show that the C-terminus of the light chain b(0,+)AT contains a sequence motif that serves as the traffic signal for the transfer of the heterodimeric complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. This is a novel function for the light chain in addition to its already established role as the subunit responsible for the transport activity. These new findings also seem to be applicable to other heterodimeric amino acid transporters as well.

  7. COPA mutations impair ER-Golgi transport causing hereditary autoimmune-mediated lung disease and arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkin, Levi B.; Jessen, Birthe; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Vece, Timothy; Jan, Max; Sha, Youbao; Thamsen, Maike; Santos-Cortez, Regie L. P.; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Gambin, Tomasz; Forbes, Lisa; Law, Christopher S.; Stray-Petersen, Asbjørg; Cheng, Mickie H.; Mace, Emily M.; Anderson, Mark S.; Liu, Dongfang; Tang, Ling Fung; Nicholas, Sarah K.; Nahmod, Karen; Makedonas, George; Canter, Debra; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Hicks, John; Jones, Kirk D.; Penney, Samantha; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Rosenblum, Michael D.; Dell, Sharon D.; Waterfield, Michael R.; Papa, Feroz R.; Muzny, Donna M.; Zaitlen, Noah; Leal, Suzanne M.; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Boerwinkle, Eric; Eissa, N. Tony; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Orange, Jordan S.; Shum, Anthony K.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genomics have allowed unbiased genetic studies of human disease with unexpected insights into the molecular mechanisms of cellular immunity and autoimmunity1. We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and targeted sequencing in patients with an apparent Mendelian syndrome of autoimmune disease characterized by high-titer autoantibodies, inflammatory arthritis and interstitial lung disease (ILD). In five families, we identified four unique deleterious variants in the Coatomer subunit alpha (COPA) gene all located within the same functional domain. We hypothesized that mutant COPA leads to a defect in intracellular transport mediated by coat protein complex I (COPI)2–4. We show that COPA variants impair binding of proteins targeted for retrograde Golgi to ER transport and demonstrate that expression of mutant COPA leads to ER stress and the upregulation of Th17 priming cytokines. Consistent with this pattern of cytokine expression, patients demonstrated a significant skewing of CD4+ T cells toward a T helper 17 (Th17) phenotype, an effector T cell population implicated in autoimmunity5,6. Our findings uncover an unexpected molecular link between a vesicular transport protein and a syndrome of autoimmunity manifested by lung and joint disease. These findings provide a unique opportunity to understand how alterations in cellular homeostasis caused by a defect in the intracellular trafficking pathway leads to the generation of human autoimmune disease. PMID:25894502

  8. Algorithm of Golgi protein 73 and liver stiffness accurately diagnoses significant fibrosis in chronic HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhujun; Li, Ziqiang; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yuhan; Xu, Yumin; Mo, Ruidong; Ren, Peipei; Chen, Lichang; Lu, Jie; Li, Hong; Zhuang, Yan; Liu, Yunye; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Gangde; Tang, Weiliang; Xiang, Xiaogang; Cai, Wei; Liu, Longgen; Bao, Shisan; Xie, Qing

    2017-11-01

    Serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a potential biomarker for fibrosis assessment. We aimed to develop an algorithm based on GP73 and liver stiffness (LS) for further improvement of accuracy for significant fibrosis in patients with antiviral-naïve chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Diagnostic accuracy evaluation of GP73 and development of GP73-LS algorithm was performed in training cohort (n = 267) with an independent cohort (n = 133) for validation. A stepwise increasing pattern of serum GP73 was observed across fibrosis stages in patients with antiviral-naïve chronic HBV infection. Serum GP73 significantly correlated (rho = 0.48, P 73, accuracy: 63.6%). Using GP73-LS algorithm, GP73 < 63 in agreement with LS < 8.5 provided accuracy of 81.7% to excluded significant fibrosis. GP73 ≥ 63 in agreement with LS ≥ 8.5 provided accuracy of 93.3% to confirm significant fibrosis. Almost 64% or 68% of patients in the training or validation cohort could be accurately classified. Serum GP73 is a robust biomarker for significant fibrosis diagnosis. GP73-LS algorithm provided better diagnostic accuracy than currently available approaches. More than 60% antiviral naïve CHB patients could use this algorithm without resorting to liver biopsy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Apparatus and method for gelling liquefied gasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Adam (Inventor); DiSalvo, Roberto (Inventor); Shepherd, Phillip (Inventor); Kosier, Ryan (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for gelling liquid propane and other liquefied gasses includes a temperature controlled churn mixer, vacuum pump, liquefied gas transfer tank, and means for measuring amount of material entering the mixer. The apparatus and method are particularly useful for the production of high quality rocket fuels and propellants.

  10. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  11. Radiation therapy apparatus having retractable beam stopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coad, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to a radiation therapy apparatus which utilized a linear translation mechanism for positioning a beam stopper. An apparatus is described wherein the beam stopper is pivotally attached to the therapy machine with an associated drive motor in such a way that the beam stopper retracts linearly

  12. Method and apparatus for producing microspherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egli, W.; Bailey, W.H.; Leary, D.F.; Lansley, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for producing microspherical particles and more particularly to a method and apparatus which are particularly useful in connection with the sol-gel process for the production of nuclear fuel kernels. (U.K.)

  13. The Acoustical Apparatus of Rudolph Koenig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history of Rudolph Koenig's contribution to the development of acoustical apparatus. Contributions include the clock fork to determine absolute acoustic frequencies, a forerunner of the oscilloscope called the manometric flame, and an acoustic interference apparatus used in the Fourier synthesis of musical sounds. (MDH)

  14. 47 CFR 32.2311 - Station apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2311 Station apparatus... company shall prepare a list of station apparatus which shall be used as its list of disposition units for... technicians, and others, shall be included in Account 2114, Tools and other work equipment, Account 2220...

  15. SCANNING AND TRACKING MONITORING APPARATUS AND METHOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed is a scanning monitoring apparatus for medical imaging, the scanning monitoring apparatus comprising a controller unit and a display, wherein the controller unit during a scanning session is configured to obtain tracking data (102) of a subject in a medical scanner, obtain scanner data ...

  16. Apparatus for separating solids from a liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus and a method for separating a material stream consisting of several materials. The materials to be separated have different densities or density ranges, so that the material of the highest density can be discharged through a screen of the apparatus, while the

  17. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  18. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  19. Method and apparatus for dismantling mechanical anchors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovskiy, Yu P; Chendev, F S; Gritsayuk, B I; Gubin, N I; Osipov, S P

    1982-01-01

    This apparatus is designed to reduce the amount of labor required to dismantle mechanical anchors while at the same time lowering expenditures for lumber. Longwall beams and timber skips are used to support the cap and any fractured rock faces. The apparatus itself has grooves, vertical guides, and a drive system to position the longwall beams.

  20. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  1. low-cost apparatus from locally available materials for teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    twofold: i) to design and produce appropriate low cost apparatus from locally .... How are the low-cost and manufactured apparatus compared in terms of cost and efficiency? ... BASIC TOOLS FOR THE LOW COST APPARATUS PRODUCTION.

  2. Role of the Small GTPase Rho3 in Golgi/Endosome trafficking through functional interaction with adaptin in Fission Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Kita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We had previously identified the mutant allele of apm1(+ that encodes a homolog of the mammalian µ1A subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 (AP-1 complex, and we demonstrated the role of Apm1 in Golgi/endosome trafficking, secretion, and vacuole fusion in fission yeast. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we isolated rho3(+, which encodes a Rho-family small GTPase, an important regulator of exocystosis, as a multicopy-suppressor of the temperature-sensitive growth of the apm1-1 mutant cells. Overexpression of Rho3 suppressed the Cl(- sensitivity and immunosuppressant sensitivity of the apm1-1 mutant cells. Overexpression of Rho3 also suppressed the fragmentation of vacuoles, and the accumulation of v-SNARE Syb1 in Golgi/endosomes and partially suppressed the defective secretion associated with apm1-deletion cells. Notably, electron microscopic observation of the rho3-deletion cells revealed the accumulation of abnormal Golgi-like structures, vacuole fragmentation, and accumulation of secretory vesicles; these phenotypes were very similar to those of the apm1-deletion cells. Furthermore, the rho3-deletion cells and apm1-deletion cells showed very similar phenotypic characteristics, including the sensitivity to the immunosuppressant FK506, the cell wall-damaging agent micafungin, Cl(-, and valproic acid. Green fluorescent protein (GFP-Rho3 was localized at Golgi/endosomes as well as the plasma membrane and division site. Finally, Rho3 was shown to form a complex with Apm1 as well as with other subunits of the clathrin-associated AP-1 complex in a GTP- and effector domain-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings reveal a novel role of Rho3 in the regulation of Golgi/endosome trafficking and suggest that clathrin-associated adaptor protein-1 and Rho3 co-ordinate in intracellular transport in fission yeast. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence

  3. Multileaf collimator and related apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    In radiotherapy apparatus using a multileaf collimator, the adjustment positions of the individual leaves can be determined optically by means of a video camera which observes the leaves via a radiation transparent mirror in the beam path. In order to overcome problems of low contrast and varying object brightness, the improvement comprises adding retroreflectors to the collimator leaves whose positions are known relative to the inner edge of the respective leaf. The retroreflectors can extend along the length of the leaf or they can be small. For setting up, corresponding manually adjustable optical diaphragm leaves can be used to project an optical simulation of the treatment area onto the patient, retroreflectors being similarly located relative to the shadow-casting edge of the leaves. (author)

  4. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  5. Isotope separation method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are specified for separating a mixture of isotopes present in a compound, preferably a gaseous compound, into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes differ from the natural abundances of the isotopes in the compound. The invention particularly relates to carrying out a laser induced, isotopically selective conversion of gaseous molecules in such a manner as to achieve more than one stage of isotope separation along the length of the laser beam. As an example, the invention is applied to the separation of the isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , in which either the U-235 or U-238 isotope is selectively excited by means of irradiation from an infrared laser, and the selectively excited isotope converted into a product that can be recovered from UF 6 by one of a variety of methods that are described. (U.K.)

  6. Molecular separation method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for separating a gaseous mixture of chemically identical but physically different molecules based on their polarities. The gaseous mixture of molecules is introduced in discrete quantities into the proximal end of a porous glass molecular sieve. The molecular sieve is exposed to microwaves to excite the molecules to a higher energy state from a lower energy state, those having a higher dipole moment being excited more than those with a lower energy state. The temperature of the sieve kept cold by a flow of liquid nitrogen through a cooling jacket so that the heat generated by the molecules colliding with the material is transferred away from the material. The molecules thus alternate between a higher energy state and a lower one, with the portion of molecules having the higher dipole moment favored over the others. The former portion can then be extracted separately from the distal end of the molecular sieve. 2 figs

  7. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  8. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  9. Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamargot, J.-P.; Wanin, Maurice.

    1980-01-01

    This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device [fr

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance diagnostic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance diagnostic apparatus including a coil for generating a gradient field in a plane perpendicular to a static magnetic field, means for controlling the operation of the coil to rotationally shift in angular steps the gradient direction of the gradient field at an angle pitch of some multiple of the unit index angle through a plurality of rotations to assume all the shift positions of the gradient direction, a rough image reconstructor for reconstructing a rough tomographic image on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance signals acquired during a rotation of the second gradient magnetic field, a rough image display for depicting the rough tomographic image, a final image reconstructor for reconstructing a final tomographic image on the basis of all nuclear magnetic resonance signals corresponding to all of the expected rotation shift positions acquired during a plurality of rotations and a final image display for depicting the final tomographic image

  11. Spheromak type plasma experiment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagiri, Kiyoyuki; Miyauchi, Yasuyuki; Oomura, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    The fusion power reactor which is expected to be the most promising energy has been developed for several plasma confinement systems. Under these circumstances, Spheromak configuration has recently attracted attention because of its simple structure and efficient plasma confinement. This apparatus was ordered by the Engineering Department of University of Tokyo for basic studies of the Spheromak plasma confinement technologies. This forms Spheromak plasma according to the induction discharge system which injects this plasma with magnetic energy generated by a toroidal current in the plasma and discharges the current through the electrical feed through. Toroidal current is induced by the poloidal coil in the vessel. We worked together with the researchers of University of Tokyo to conduct experiments and confirmed the formation and confinement of Spheromak plasma in the initial test. (author)

  12. Apparatuses to support photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2017-08-22

    Methods and apparatuses to support photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. A saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. A grounding washer has a first portion to couple to a support; and a second portion coupled to the first portion to provide a ground path to a PV module. A PV system has a saddle bracket; a PV module over the saddle bracket; and a grounding washer coupled to the saddle bracket and the PV module. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets.

  13. Apparatus for sampling hazardous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.F.; Showalter, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus for sampling a hazardous medium, such as radioactive or chemical waste, selectively collects a predetermined quantity of the medium in a recess of an end-over-end rotatable valving member. This collected quantity is deposited in a receiving receptacle located in a cavity while the receiving receptacle is in a sealed relationship with a recess to prevent dusting of the sampled media outside the receiving receptacle. The receiving receptacle is removably fitted within a vehicle body which is, in turn, slidably movable upon a track within a transport tube. The receiving receptacle is transported in the vehicle body from its sample receiving position within a container for the hazardous medium to a sample retrieval position outside the medium container. The receiving receptacle may then be removed from the vehicle body, capped and taken to a laboratory for chemical analysis. (author)

  14. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a hermetic seal leak detection apparatus, which can be used to test for hermetic seal leaks in instruments and containers. A vacuum tight chamber is created around the unit being tested to minimize gas space outside of the hermetic seal. A vacuum inducing device is then used to increase the gas chamber volume inside the device, so that a slight vacuum is pulled on the unit being tested. The pressure in the unit being tested will stabilize. If the stabilized pressure reads close to a known good seal calibration, there is not a leak in the seal. If the stabilized pressure reads closer to a known bad seal calibration value, there is a leak in the seal. The speed of the plunger can be varied and by evaluating the resulting pressure change rates and final values, the leak rate/size can be accurately calculated.

  15. X-ray tomographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus is claimed for constructing a representation of the variation of attenuation of penetrating radiation in a planar slice of an object positioned in a scan circle. It comprises means for generating sets of data, each set representing a characteristic of the attenuation of a fan-shaped swath of paths of radiation passing through the scan circle. Each swath has an apex at one of a plurality of angular positions around the scan circle. The angular positions of the apices span an arc of between 180 and 360 degrees. There is a means operatively connected to the generating means for convolving each set of data and means for transforming the convolved sets of data into the representation

  16. Emergency cooling apparatus for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described which has the core surrounded by coolant and an inert cover gas all sealed within a container, an emergency cooling apparatus employing a detector that will detect cover gas or coolant, particularly liquid sodium, leaking from the container of the reactor, to release a heat exchange material that is inert to the coolant, which heat exchange material is cooled during operation of the reactor. The heat exchange material may be liquid niitrogen or a combination of spheres and liquid nitrogen, for example, and is introduced so as to contact the coolant that has leaked from the container quickly so as to rapidly cool the coolant to prevent or extinguish combustion. (Official Gazette)

  17. Acute ethanol exposure inhibits silencing of cerebellar Golgi cell firing induced by granule cell axon input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eBotta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Golgi cells (GoCs are specialized interneurons that provide inhibitory input to granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. GoCs are pacemaker neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials, triggering spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in granule cells and also contributing to the generation tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in granule cells. In turn, granule cell axons provide feedback glutamatergic input to GoCs. It has been shown that high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons induces a transient pause in GoC firing in a type 2-metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2-dependent manner. Here, we investigated the effect ethanol on the pause of GoC firing induced by high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons. GoC electrophysiological recordings were performed in parasagittal cerebellar vermis slices from postnatal day 23 to 26 rats. Loose-patch cell-attached recordings revealed that ethanol (40 mM reversibly decreases the pause duration. An antagonist of mGluR2 reduced the pause duration but did not affect the effect of ethanol. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that currents evoked by an mGluR2 agonist were not significantly affected by ethanol. Perforated-patch experiments in which hyperpolarizing and depolarizing currents were injected into GoCs demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between spontaneous firing and pause duration. Slight inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump mimicked the effect of ethanol on pause duration. In conclusion, ethanol reduces the granule cell axon-mediated feedback mechanism by reducing the input responsiveness of GoCs. This would result in a transient increase of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of granule cells, limiting information flow at the input stage of the cerebellar cortex.

  18. A golgi study of the optic tectum of the tegu lizard, Tupinambis nigropunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A B; Ebbesson, O E

    1975-06-01

    The dendritic patterns of cells in the optic tectum of the tegu lizard, Tupinambis nigropunctatus, were analyzed with the Ramon-Moliner modification of the Golgi-Cox technique. Cell types were compared with those described by other authors in the tectum of other reptiles; particular comparisons of our results were made with the description of cell types in the chameleon (Ramń, 1896), as the latter is the most complete analysis in the literature. The periventricular gray layers 3 and 5 consist primarily of two cell types--piriform or pyramidal shaped cells and horizontal cells. Cells in the medial portion of the tectum, in an area coextensive with the bilateral spinal projection zone, possess dendrites that extend across the midline. The latter cells have either fusiform or pyramidal shaped somas. The central white zone, layer 6, contains fibers, large fusiform or pyramidal shaped cells, fusiform cells, and small horizontal cells. The central gray zone, layer 7, is composed predominately of fusiform cells which have dendrites extending to the superficial optic layers, large polygonal cells, and horizontal cells. The superficial gray and white layers, layers 8-13, contain polygonal, fusiform, stellate, and horizontal elements. Layer 14 is composed solely of afferent optic tract fibers. Several differences in the occurrence and distribution of cell types between the tegu and the other reptiles studied are noted. Additionally, the laminar distribution of retinal, tectotectal, telencephalic, and spinal projections in the tegutectum can be related to the distribution of cell types, and those cells which may be postsynaptic to specific inputs can be identified. The highly differentiated laminar structure of the reptilian optic tectum, both in regard to cell type and to afferent and efferent connections, may serve as a model for studying some functional properties of lamination common to cortical structures.

  19. Serum Golgi protein 73 is a prognostic rather than diagnostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Min; Chen, Zhan-Hong; Li, Xing; Li, Xiao-Yun; Wen, Jing-Yun; Lin, Qu; Ma, Xiao-Kun; Wei, Li; Chen, Jie; Ruan, Dan-Yun; Lin, Ze-Xiao; Wang, Tian-Tian; Wu, Dong-Hao; Wu, Xiang-Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Serum Golgi protein 73 (sGP73) is a candidate diagnostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, current evidence of its diagnostic value is conflicting, primarily due to the small sample sizes of previous studies, and its prognostic role in HCC also remains unclear. In the present study, sGP73 levels in 462 patients with HCC, 186 patients with liver cirrhosis, and 83 healthy controls were evaluated using ELISA, and it was identified that the median sGP73 levels were significantly higher in the HCC (18.7 ng/ml) and liver cirrhosis (18.5 ng/ml) patients than in the healthy controls (0 ng/ml; both P<0.001); however, the levels did not significantly differ between the HCC and liver cirrhosis groups (P=0.632). sGP73 had an inferior sensitivity and specificity for HCC diagnosis (27.79 and 77.96%, respectively) compared with α-fetoprotein (57.36 and 90.96%, respectively; P<0.001). In the HCC group, a high level of sGP73 was associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and independently predicted poor overall survival (OS) time (P<0.001). Additionally, in patients with resectable HCC, a high level of sGP73 was associated with significantly decreased disease-free survival (P<0.001) and OS (P=0.039) times compared with a low level of sGP73. This study demonstrated that sGP73 is unsuitable as a diagnostic marker for the early detection of HCC; however, it is an independent negative prognostic marker, providing a novel risk stratification factor and a potential therapeutic molecular target for HCC.

  20. Golgi protein 73 as a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma: A diagnostic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Jingjing; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Shen, Miao; Chen, Kan; Cheng, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chengfen; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Junshan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Conflicting results have been reported regarding the use of serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) as a promising serum marker for the diagnosis of HCC; therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide a systematic review of the diagnostic performance of GP73 for HCC. Following a systematic review of the relevant studies, a number of indices associated with the accuracy of the diagnostic performance of GP73, including the sensitivity and specificity, were pooled using Meta Disc 1.4 software. Data were presented as forest plots, and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve analysis was used to summarize the overall test performance. Eleven studies were included in this meta-analysis. The summary estimates for serum GP73 in diagnosing HCC were as follows: Sensitivity, 77% [95% confidence interval (CI), 75-79%]; specificity, 91% (95% CI, 90-92%); positive likelihood ratio, 4.34 (95% CI, 2.19-8.59); negative likelihood ratio, 0.30 (95% CI, 0.26-0.36) and diagnostic odds ratio, 15.78 (95% CI, 6.95-35.83). The area under the SROC curve was 0.8638, and the Q index was 0.7944. Significant heterogeneity was found. This meta-analysis indicates a moderate diagnostic value of GP73 in HCC; however, further studies with rigorous design, large sample size and multiregional cooperation are required.

  1. Predictive value of serum Golgi protein 73 for prominent hepatic necroinflammation in chronic HBV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhengju; Shen, Jiankun; Pan, Xingnan; Wei, Meijuan; Liu, Liguan; Wei, Kaipeng; Liu, Lifei; Yang, Huanwen; Huang, Jinfa

    2018-06-01

    As a noninvasive marker, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) has limitations, because a large proportion of patients chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) suffer from severe hepatic necroinflammation, but have normal or mildly elevated ALT. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential value of serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) in predicting significant hepatic necroinflamation among chronic HBV infected patients. A cohort of 497 chronic HBV infected patients was retrospectively recruited. Liver biopsy was performed in all patients and serum GP73 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum GP73 increased in parallel with the increase in hepatic necroinflammatory activity grade (r = 0.682) and the stage of liver fibrosis (r = 0.539). The positive correlation of serum GP73 with the degree of hepatic necroinflammatory activity was statistically significant, while serum GP73 with the stage of liver fibrosis was weaker than that with hepatic necroinflammation. Furthermore, serum GP73 levels were significantly greater in patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT and significant hepatic necroinflammation (≥G2) than in patients with minimal to mild hepatic necroinflammation. The sensitivity and specificity of GP73 for the diagnosis of G2 hepatic necroinflammation was 42.35% and 95.0%, respectively, at a cut-off value of 88.38 ng/mL. When the cut-off value was set at 124.76 ng/mL, the sensitivity and specificity of GP73 for the diagnosis of G3 hepatic necroinflammation was 55.56% and 97.29%, respectively. These findings indicate that GP73 holds promise as an important candidate for diagnosing significant hepatic necroinflammation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Process and apparatus for cracking petroleum, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-04-25

    Process for catalytic cracking of petroleum and similar material at normal pressure, characterized by the oil vaporized in a vaporizer being treated in a first catalyst-chamber and in a separator attached to it, light constituents being separated, and then its being run into a second apparatus-group (vaporizer, catalyst-chamber, and separator), further groups following in series, whereby the catalyst works in a separate catalyst apparatus with ever-increasing activity time on the always lesser but always more difficult to crack material, so that in the whole apparatus a methodical cracking process is effected.

  3. Apparatus for concentrating by dual temperature exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in an apparatus for isotope concentration by dual temperature exchange between feed and auxiliary fluids in a multistage system are described. The first fluid is a vaporizable liquid and the auxiliary fluid a gas, the apparatus having means for cascading the auxiliary fluid and the feed fluid in vapor and preferably also in liquid form. The apparatus also contains new combinations of means for improving the heating and/or cooling and/or humidifying and/or dehumidifying operations of the system. The reactants in the example given are hydrogen sulfide gas and liquid water

  4. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  5. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to control systems for controlling crystal growth, and more particularly to such a system which uses a beam of light refracted by the fluid in which crystals are growing to detect concentration of solutes in the liquid. In a hanging drop apparatus, a laser beam is directed onto drop which refracts the laser light into primary and secondary bows, respectively, which in turn fall upon linear diode detector arrays. As concentration of solutes in drop increases due to solvent removal, these bows move farther apart on the arrays, with the relative separation being detected by arrays and used by a computer to adjust solvent vapor transport from the drop. A forward scattering detector is used to detect crystal nucleation in drop, and a humidity detector is used, in one embodiment, to detect relative humidity in the enclosure wherein drop is suspended. The novelty of this invention lies in utilizing angular variance of light refracted from drop to infer, by a computer algorithm, concentration of solutes therein. Additional novelty is believed to lie in using a forward scattering detector to detect nucleating crystallites in drop.

  6. Bi-planal angiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Angiography apparatus has an L-arm rotatable about a vertical axis and a U-arm mounted on the upstanding section of the L-arm for rotation about a horizontal axis. An x-ray source is at one end of the U-arm and image receptors including an image intensifier and a first film changer are at the other end to enable making posterior-anterior and anterior-posterior x-ray views at various angles relative to a patient who is located on the isocenter which is the intersection of the horizontal, vertical and x-ray beam axis. A second film changer for making lateral generally isocentric views is mounted within the U-arm on a stand that is movable along the horizontal U-arm axis to allow obtaining various distances between the image plane of the film and another x-ray source. The lateral changer is on a mechanism for shifting it vertically and longitudinally a limited amount and for rotating it with a motor so this changer will stay level until the U-arm has been tilted through a pre-determined angle. After this angle is reached motorized rotation is discontinued and the lateral changer is allowed to rotate with the U-arm. (Auth.)

  7. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferable substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. The laser beam comprises pi-pulses of a selected wavelength which excite unexcited molecules, or cause stimulated emission of excited molecules of one of the isotopes. Excitation caused by first direction pi-pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning pi-pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement is accomplished by a large number of pi-pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam

  8. Isotope separation apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for laser isotope separation by photodeflection. A molecular beam comprising at least two isotopes to be separated intersects, preferably substantially perpendicular to one broad side of the molecular beam, with a laser beam traveling in a first direction. The laser beam is reflected back through the molecular beam, preferably in a second direction essentially opposite to the first direction. Because the molecules in the beam occupy various degenerate energy levels, if the laser beam comprises chirped pulses comprising selected wavelengths, the laser beam will very efficiently excite substantially all unexcited molecules and will cause stimulated emission of substantially all excited molecules of a selected one of the isotopes in the beam which such pulses encounter. Excitation caused by first direction chirped pulses moves molecules of the isotope excited thereby in the first direction. Stimulated emission of excited molecules of the isotope is brought about by returning chirped pulses traveling in the second direction. Stimulated emission moves emitting molecules in a direction opposite to the photon emitted. Because emitted photons travel in the second direction, emitting molecules move in the first direction. Substantial molecular movement of essentially all the molecules containing the one isotope is accomplished by a large number of chirped pulse-molecule interactions. A beam corer collects the molecules in the resulting enriched divergent portions of the beam

  9. Determinants for membrane association and permeabilization of the coxsackievirus 2B protein and the identification of the Golgi complex as the target organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Arjan S; Wessels, Els; Dijkman, Henri B P M; Galama, Jochem M D; Melchers, Willem J G; Willems, Peter H G M; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2003-01-10

    The 2B protein of enterovirus is responsible for the alterations in the permeability of secretory membranes and the plasma membrane in infected cells. The structural requirements for the membrane association and the subcellular localization of this essential virus protein, however, have not been defined. Here, we provide evidence that the 2B protein is an integral membrane protein in vivo that is predominantly localized at the Golgi complex upon individual expression. Addition of organelle-specific targeting signals to the 2B protein revealed that the Golgi localization is an absolute prerequisite for the ability of the protein to modify plasma membrane permeability. Expression of deletion mutants and heterologous proteins containing specific domains of the 2B protein demonstrated that each of the two hydrophobic regions could mediate membrane binding individually. However, the presence of both hydrophobic regions was required for the correct membrane association, efficient Golgi targeting, and the membrane-permeabilizing activity of the 2B protein, suggesting that the two hydrophobic regions are cooperatively involved in the formation of a membrane-integral complex. The formation of membrane-integral pores by the 2B protein in the Golgi complex and the possible mechanism by which a Golgi-localized virus protein modifies plasma membrane permeability are discussed.

  10. Dynamin-like protein 1 at the Golgi complex: A novel component of the sorting/targeting machinery en route to the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonekamp, Nina A.; Vormund, Kerstin; Jacob, Ralf; Schrader, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The final step in the liberation of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) involves the mechanical action of the large GTPase dynamin as well as conserved dynamin-independent fission mechanisms, e.g. mediated by Brefeldin A-dependent ADP-ribosylated substrate (BARS). Another member of the dynamin family is the mammalian dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1/Drp1) that is known to constrict and tubulate membranes, and to divide mitochondria and peroxisomes. Here, we examined a potential role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex. DLP1 localized to the Golgi complex in some but not all cell lines tested, thus explaining controversial reports on its cellular distribution. After silencing of DLP1, an accumulation of the apical reporter protein YFP-GL-GPI, but not the basolateral reporter VSVG-SP-GFP at the Golgi complex was observed. A reduction in the transport of YFP-GL-GPI to the plasma membrane was confirmed by surface immunoprecipitation and TGN-exit assays. In contrast, YFP-GL-GPI trafficking was not disturbed in cells silenced for BARS, which is involved in basolateral sorting and trafficking of VSVG-SP-GFP in COS-7 cells. Our data indicate a new role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex and thus a role for DLP1 as a novel component of the apical sorting machinery at the TGN is discussed.

  11. Retromer guides STxB and CD8-M6PR from early to recycling endosomes, EHD1 guides STxB from recycling endosome to Golgi

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jenna E.; Raisley, Brent; Zhou, Xin; Naslavsky, Naava; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Caplan, Steve; Sheff, David

    2012-01-01

    Retrograde trafficking transports proteins, lipids and toxins from the plasma membrane to the Golgi and ER. To reach the Golgi, these cargos must transit the endosomal system, consisting of early endosomes, recycling endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes. All cargos pass through early endosomes, but may take different routes to the Golgi. Retromer dependent cargos bypass the late endosomes to reach the Golgi. We compared how two very different retromer dependent cargos negotiate the endosomal sorting system. Shiga toxin B, bound to the external layer of the plasma membrane, and chimeric CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor, which is anchored via a transmembrane domain. Both appear to pass through the recycling endosome. Ablation of the recycling endosome diverted both of these cargos to an aberrant compartment and prevented them from reaching the Golgi. Once in the recycling endosome, Shiga toxin required EHD1 to traffic to the TGN, while the CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor was not significantly dependent on EHD1. Knockdown of retromer components left cargo in the early endosomes, suggesting that it is required for retrograde exit from this compartment. This work establishes the recycling endosome as a required step in retrograde traffic of at least these two retromer dependent cargos. Along this pathway, retromer is associated with EE to recycling endosome traffic, while EHD1 is associated with recycling endosome to TGN traffic of STxB. PMID:22540229

  12. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  13. Disquisition and technical alteration about TL apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangxiang; Li Mingliang

    2002-01-01

    The author simply introduces the disadvantage of TL apparatus controlled by single chip. The project uses the PC computer to replace single chip control. So it must be changed the interface and made up a software with Chinese

  14. Neutron logging reliability techniques and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for verifying the validity of data derived at least in part by neutron logging of earth formations, and, where indicated, for affording neutron diffusion-corrected values of such data, are disclosed. (WHK)

  15. Apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.; Mousa, Mustafa; Abdulaal, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitory can have a Lagrangian inertial measurement unit. The Lagrangian inertial measurement unit can have a processor, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and/or a wireless transmitter. The processor can

  16. 42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. 84.74...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. (a) Apparatus may be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  17. Report upon inquiry into radiation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    In this report the committee has provided its assessment of the need and justification for the law to provide for the control of the provision of radiation apparatus, the planning needs for the provision of diagnostic and therapeutic facilities, the location of such facilities, the appropriateness or otherwise of existing legislation, the necessity for any further legislative needs and the criteria governing the provision of such radiation apparatus

  18. Apparatus, System, And Method For Roadway Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-06-02

    An apparatus, system, and method for monitoring traffic and roadway water conditions. Traffic flow and roadway flooding is monitored concurrently through a wireless sensor network. The apparatus and system comprises ultrasound rangefinders monitoring traffic flow, flood water conditions, or both. Routing information may be calculated from the traffic conditions, such that routes are calculated to avoid roadways that are impassable or are slow due to traffic conditions.

  19. Apparatus for carbonization of bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupa, G

    1924-08-25

    Apparatus is described for carbonization of bituminous fuels and bituminous shale, in which the material to be carbonized slips continuously over sloping surfaces of a retort arranged in a zigzag and thereby it is exposed to a continuously increasing heating. The apparatus is characterized by the sloping surface being of a boxlike solid hearth with internal heating through which every hearth can be heated directly to a determined constant degree of heat.

  20. Proton imaging apparatus for proton therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipala, V.; Lo Presti, D.; Brianzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Bruzzi, M.; Scaringella, M.; Talamonti, C.; Bucciolini, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Randazzo, N.; Stancampiano, C.; Tesi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy with protons, due to the physical properties of these particles, offers several advantages for cancer therapy as compared to the traditional radiotherapy and photons. In the clinical use of proton beams, a p CT (Proton Computer Tomography) apparatus can contribute to improve the accuracy of the patient positioning and dose distribution calculation. In this paper a p CT apparatus built by the Prima (Proton Imaging) Italian Collaboration will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  1. Apparatus, System, And Method For Roadway Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for monitoring traffic and roadway water conditions. Traffic flow and roadway flooding is monitored concurrently through a wireless sensor network. The apparatus and system comprises ultrasound rangefinders monitoring traffic flow, flood water conditions, or both. Routing information may be calculated from the traffic conditions, such that routes are calculated to avoid roadways that are impassable or are slow due to traffic conditions.

  2. Continuously rotating cat scanning apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    A tomographic scanner with a continuously rotating source of radiation is energized by converting inertial mechanical energy to electrical energy. The mechanical-to-electrical conversion apparatus is mounted with the x-ray source to be energized on a rotating flywheel. The inertial mechanical energy stored in the rotating conversion apparatus, flywheel and x-ray source is utilized for generating electrical energy used, in turn, to energize the x-ray source

  3. Aberrant accumulation of the diabetes autoantigen GAD65 in Golgi membranes in conditions of ER stress and autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelps, Edward A; Cianciaruso, Chiara; Michael, Iacovos P

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic islet beta cells are particularly susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is implicated in beta cell dysfunction and loss during the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The peripheral membrane protein GAD65 is an autoantigen in human T1D. GAD65 synthesizes GABA......, an important autocrine and paracrine signaling molecule and a survival factor in islets. We show that ER stress in primary beta cells perturbs the palmitoylation cycle controlling GAD65 endomembrane distribution, resulting in aberrant accumulation of the palmitoylated form in trans-Golgi membranes...... release from stressed and/or damaged beta cells, triggering autoimmunity....

  4. Quantum behaviour of measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amri, T.

    2011-05-01

    This thesis explores the quantum behavior of measurement apparatus with illustrations in quantum optics. This is the first study of quantum properties of measurements performed by any kind of devices. We show that the quantum properties of a measurement, such as its projective or non-classical character, are revealed only by the quantum states of an unusual approach of quantum physics: the retrodictive approach. This approach involves retro-predictions about state preparations leading to a given measurement result, contrary to the predictive approach with which we usually make predictions about the results of an experiment. By clarifying the mathematical foundations of the retrodictive approach, we propose a general procedure for reconstructing the quantum states of this approach: the retrodicted states. We have realized these reconstructions for single-photon detectors, widely used in quantum cryptography for instance. This is the first tomography of quantum states totally based on the retrodictive approach and preparation choices, contrary to usual reconstructions based on measurement results. These tomographies enabled us to study experimentally the noise influence on the quantum properties of measurements performed by these detectors, in particular their transition from a strongly quantum behavior into a more classical behavior. Finally, we propose a detector of Schroedinger's Cat states of light, which are superpositions of incompatible quasi-classical states of light. In a modern version of a thought experiment proposed by Eugene Wigner in 1961, such a device could allow the Wigner's Friend to detect a Schroedinger's Cat, contrary to human eyes for which we specify some quantum properties. We generalize the use of such a non-classical detector to an estimation protocol, totally based on the retrodictive approach and preparation choices. Such a procedure could enable optimal estimations, by reaching the quantum Cramer-Rao bound, which is a very topical issue

  5. Improvements to the APEX apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    A number of technical issues led us to rework extensively the APEX apparatus in summer 1994. During the earlier runs, a significant fraction of the 432 silicon detector elements showed degraded resolution such that they had to be excluded from the final analysis in software. The effect of this is to reduce the efficiency of APEX and possibly also to introduce holes in the acceptance which, for some perhaps exotic scenarios, might reduce the acceptance to an unacceptably low level. Also, the energy thresholds below which it is not possible to generate timing information from the silicon detectors, were high enough that the low-energy acceptance of APEX was compromised to a significant extent. The origins of these difficulties were in part due to degraded performance of the silicon detectors themselves, problems with the silicon cooling systems and electronics problems. Both silicon arrays were disassembled and sub-standard detectors replaced, all detectors were also cleaned with the result that all detectors now performed at the specified values of leakage current. The silicon cooling systems were disassembled and rebuilt with the result that many small leaks were fixed. Defective electronics channels were repaired or replaced. The rotating target wheel was also improved with the installation of new bearings and a computer-controlled rotation and readout system. The rebuilt wheel can now run at speeds up to 900 rpm for weeks on end without breakdown. The target wheel and associated beam sweeping now work extremely well so that low-melting-point targets such as Pb and In can be used in quite intense beams without melting

  6. Cask handling method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoli, A.H.; Husain, I.

    1977-01-01

    The method of transferring radioactive material into and out of the cask comprises positioning a tank with an open end in a well. Then a cask having a passage for moving radioactive material into and out of the cask is placed in the tank through the opening in the tank. The tank opening is then sealed to the cask relative to the well without sealing the passage relative to the well to prevent water filled into the well from leaking into the tank. Then the well is filled with water above the seal, and radioactive material is then moved through the water in the well through the passage into the cask. The tank may be filled with demineralized water from a separate source to pressurize the space in the tank on the other side of the seal from the well to prevent water in the well from entering the tank. The water level in the well and in the tank is then lowered, the tank opening to the cask seal is removed, and a cover is attached to the cask passage to maintain the radioactive material and contaminated water in the cask. The apparatus which accomplishes the above method comprises a tank in a well for receiving a cask therein. A seal between the tank and the cask prevents water in the well from flowing into the tank about the cask and permits water in the well to flow through the cask opening into the cask. A first water supply means raises and lowers the water level in the well, and a second water supply means supplies clean demineralized water to the tank under pressure to prevent water in the well from leaking into the tank. The seal is annularly shaped and is attached to the top of the tank. The central portion of the annular seal is aligned with the cask opening and it has means to seal the annular seal to the cask

  7. Radioactive decontamination apparatus and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, O.L.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus for removing radioactive contamination from metal objects is disclosed, consisting of three of three separate pieces. The first is an electro- polishing tank, pump and filter assembly, ventilation duct and filter assembly, and DC power supply. The second is a rinse tank and a pump and filter assembly therefor. The third is a divot crane. The electro-polishing tank assembly and the rinse tank assembly are each separately mounted on pallets to facilitate moving. The filter systems of the electro-polishing tank and the rinse tank are designed to remove the radioactive contamination from the fluids in those tanks. Heavy items or highly contaminated items are handled with the divot crane constructed of stainless steel. The electro- polishing tank and the rinse tank are also made of stainless steel. The ventilation system on the electro- polishing tank exhausts acid fumes resulting from the tank heaters and the electro-polishing process. Inside the electro-polishing tank are two swinging arms that carry two stainless steel probes that hang down in the electrolyte fluid. These negative DC probes and are electrically isolated from the tank and the rest of the system. Across the top center of the tank is a copper pipe, which is also electrically isolated from the tank. This is the positive side of the DC system. To decontaminate a metal object, it is suspended from the positive copper pipe, with good electrical contact, into the electrolyte fluid. The negative probes are then moved on their swinging arms to a close proximity to the object being decontaminated, without making contact

  8. Hydraulic Apparatus for Mechanical Testing of Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Salazar, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts an apparatus for mechanical testing of nuts. In the original application for which the apparatus was developed, the nuts are of a frangible type designed for use with pyrotechnic devices in spacecraft applications in which there are requirements for rapid, one-time separations of structures that are bolted together. The apparatus can also be used to test nonfrangible nuts engaged without pyrotechnic devices. This apparatus was developed to replace prior testing systems that were extremely heavy and immobile and characterized by long setup times (of the order of an hour for each nut to be tested). This apparatus is mobile, and the setup for each test can now be completed in about five minutes. The apparatus can load a nut under test with a static axial force of as much as 6.8 x 10(exp 5) lb (3.0 MN) and a static moment of as much as 8.5 x 10(exp 4) lb in. (9.6 x 10(exp 3) N(raised dot)m) for a predetermined amount of time. In the case of a test of a frangible nut, the pyrotechnic devices can be exploded to break the nut while the load is applied, in which case the breakage of the nut relieves the load. The apparatus can be operated remotely for safety during an explosive test. The load-generating portion of the apparatus is driven by low-pressure compressed air; the remainder of the apparatus is driven by 110-Vac electricity. From its source, the compressed air is fed to the apparatus through a regulator and a manually operated valve. The regulated compressed air is fed to a pneumatically driven hydraulic pump, which pressurizes oil in a hydraulic cylinder, thereby causing a load to be applied via a hydraulic nut (not to be confused with the nut under test). During operation, the hydraulic pressure is correlated with the applied axial load, which is verified by use of a load cell. Prior to operation, one end of a test stud (which could be an ordinary threaded rod or bolt) is installed in the hydraulic nut. The other end of the test stud passes

  9. Disturbed neuronal ER-Golgi sorting of unassembled glycine receptors suggests altered subcellular processing is a cause of human hyperekplexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Natascha; Kluck, Christoph J; Price, Kerry L; Meiselbach, Heike; Vornberger, Nadine; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Hartmann, Stephanie; Langlhofer, Georg; Schulz, Solveig; Schlegel, Nadja; Brockmann, Knut; Lynch, Bryan; Becker, Cord-Michael; Lummis, Sarah C R; Villmann, Carmen

    2015-01-07

    Recent studies on the pathogenic mechanisms of recessive hyperekplexia indicate disturbances in glycine receptor (GlyR) α1 biogenesis. Here, we examine the properties of a range of novel glycine receptor mutants identified in human hyperekplexia patients using expression in transfected cell lines and primary neurons. All of the novel mutants localized in the large extracellular domain of the GlyR α1 have reduced cell surface expression with a high proportion of receptors being retained in the ER, although there is forward trafficking of glycosylated subpopulations into the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi compartment. CD spectroscopy revealed that the mutant receptors have proportions of secondary structural elements similar to wild-type receptors. Two mutants in loop B (G160R, T162M) were functional, but none of those in loop D/β2-3 were. One nonfunctional truncated mutant (R316X) could be rescued by coexpression with the lacking C-terminal domain. We conclude that a proportion of GlyR α1 mutants can be transported to the plasma membrane but do not necessarily form functional ion channels. We suggest that loop D/β2-3 is an important determinant for GlyR trafficking and functionality, whereas alterations to loop B alter agonist potencies, indicating that residues here are critical elements in ligand binding. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350422-16$15.00/0.

  10. Functional genomics indicates yeast requires Golgi/ER transport, chromatin remodeling, and DNA repair for low dose DMSO tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon David Gaytán

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO is frequently utilized as a solvent in toxicological and pharmaceutical investigations. It is therefore important to establish the cellular and molecular targets of DMSO in order to differentiate its intrinsic effects from those elicited by a compound of interest. We performed a genome-wide functional screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify deletion mutants exhibiting sensitivity to 1% DMSO, a concentration standard to yeast chemical profiling studies. We report that mutants defective in Golgi/ER transport are sensitive to DMSO, including those lacking components of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG complex. Moreover, strains deleted for members of the SWR1 histone exchange complex are hypersensitive to DMSO, with additional chromatin remodeling mutants displaying a range of growth defects. We also identify DNA repair genes important for DMSO tolerance. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of histone H2A.Z, which replaces chromatin-associated histone H2A in a SWR1-catalyzed reaction, confers resistance to DMSO. Many yeast genes described in this study have homologs in more complex organisms, and the data provided is applicable to future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of DMSO toxicity.

  11. Design of neutral particle incident heating apparatus for large scale helical apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Osamu; Oka, Yoshihide; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Asano, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Tsutomu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Fusion Science, construction of the large scale helical apparatus has been progressed favorably, and constructions of the heating apparatus as well as of electron resonance apparatus were begun in their orders under predetermined manner since 1994 fiscal year. And, on 1995 fiscal year, construction of neutral particle incident heating apparatus, leading heat apparatus, was begun under 3 years planning. The plasma heating study system adopted the study results developed in this institute through the large scale hydrogen negative ion source and also adopted thereafter development on nuclear fusion study by modifying the original specification set at the beginning of the research plan before 7 years. As a result, system design was changed from initial 125 KeV to 180 KeV in the beam energy and to execute 15 MW incidence using two sets beam lines, to begin its manufacturing. Here is described on its new design with reason of its modifications. (G.K.)

  12. A Study on Test Technology to Diagnose the Power Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K H; Kang, Y S; Jeon, Y K; Lee, W Y; Kang, D S; Kyu, H S; Sun, J H; Jo, K H [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J S; Mun, Y T; Lee, K H; Jung, E H; Kim, J H [Korea Water Resources Corporation (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we have educated KOWACO(Korea Water Resources Corporation) specialists about the insulation diagnostic technology and trained them the insulation diagnostic test and estimation method of power apparatus. The main results of this study are as follows; A. Education of basic high-voltage engineering. B. Research of insulation characteristic and deterioration mechanism in power apparatus C. Discussion on high-voltage test standard specifications. D. Study on insulation deterioration diagnostics in power apparatus. E. Field testing of insulation diagnosis in power apparatus. F. Engineering of insulation diagnostic testing apparatus to diagnose power apparatus. KOWACO specialists are able to diagnose insulation diagnostic test of power apparatus through this study. As they have instruments to diagnose power apparatus, they can do the test and estimation of the power apparatus insulation diagnosis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  13. BROACHING AND TUBE-INSTALLING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.

    1961-05-16

    An apparatus is given for sizing long holes in graphite bodies. The apparatus comprises a shaft having 3 spiral broach cutting elements and a straight broach cutting element rotatably mounted thereon. The broach cutting elements are keyed to each other in end to end relationship with the straight broach cutting element at one end of the shaft. The spiral broach cutting elements when considered toward the straight broach cutting element increase in diameter and the cutting teeth thereon increase in lead angle. The straight broach cutting element, when considered in the same direction, increases in diameter from the minimum to maximum diameters of the spiral broach cutting elements. No longitudinal movement of the broach cutting elements is permitted on the shsft snd means are provided for the removal of chips from the apparatus.

  14. Superconducting magnetic shielding apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, John R.; Clem, John R.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for providing magnetic shielding around a working volume. The apparatus includes a hollow elongated superconducting shell or cylinder having an elongated low magnetic pinning central portion, and two high magnetic pinning end regions. Transition portions of varying magnetic pinning properties are interposed between the central and end portions. The apparatus further includes a solenoid substantially coextensive with and overlying the superconducting cylinder, so as to be magnetically coupled therewith. The method includes the steps passing a longitudinally directed current through the superconducting cylinder so as to depin magnetic reservoirs trapped in the cylinder. Next, a circumferentially directed current is passed through the cylinder, while a longitudinally directed current is maintained. Depinned magnetic reservoirs are moved to the end portions of the cylinder, where they are trapped.

  15. Construction apparatus for thermochemical hydrogen production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, S.; Nakajima, H.; Higashi, S.; Onuki, K.; Akino, S.S.N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan). Nuclear Heat Utilization Engineering Lab

    2001-06-01

    Studies have been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) on hydrogen production through thermochemical processes such as water-splitting. These studies are classified with iodine-sulphur cycle studies using heat from high temperature gas-cooled reactors. An experimental apparatus was constructed with fluorine resin, glass and quartz. It can produce hydrogen at a rate of 50 litres per hour. Electricity provides the heat required for the operation. The closed chemical process requires special control techniques. The process flow diagram for the apparatus was designed based on the results of previous studies including one where hydrogen production was successfully achieved at a rate of one liter per hour for 48 hours. Experimental operations under atmospheric pressure will be carried out for the next four years to develop the process. The data will be used in the next research and development programs aimed at designing a bench-scale apparatus. 7 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  16. Superconducting magnetic shielding apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, J.R.

    1982-07-09

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for providing magnetic shielding around a working volume. The apparatus includes a hollow elongated superconducting shell or cylinder having an elongated low magnetic pinning central portion, and two high magnetic pinning end regions. Transition portions of varying magnetic pinning properties are interposed between the central and end portions. The apparatus further includes a solenoid substantially coextensive with and overlying the superconducting cylinder, so as to be magnetically coupled therewith. The method includes the steps passing a longitudinally directed current through the superconducting cylinder so as to depin magnetic reservoirs trapped in the cylinder. Next, a circumferentially directed current is passed through the cylinder, while a longitudinally directed current is maintained. Depinned magnetic reservoirs are moved to the end portions of the cylinder, where they are trapped.

  17. Uranium dioxide calcining apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, E.A.; Peterson, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved continuous calcining apparatus for consistently and controllably producing from calcinable reactive solid compounds of uranium, such as ammonium diuranate, uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) having an oxygen to uranium ratio of less than 2.2. The apparatus comprises means at the outlet end of a calciner kiln for receiving hot UO 2 , means for cooling the UO 2 to a temperature of below 100 0 C and conveying the cooled UO 2 to storage or to subsequent UO 2 processing apparatus where it finally comes into contact with air, the means for receiving, cooling and conveying being sealed to the outlet end of the calciner and being maintained full of UO 2 and so operable as to exclude atmospheric oxygen from coming into contact with any UO 2 which is at elevated temperatures where it would readily oxidize, without the use of extra hydrogen gas in said means

  18. Apparatus for controlling nuclear core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, and dispersing reactor debris assumed to flow from the core area in the unlikely event of an accident causing core meltdown. The apparatus includes a plurality of horizontally disposed vertically spaced plates, having depressions to contain debris in controlled amounts, and a plurality of holes therein which provide natural circulation cooling and a path for debris to continue flowing downward to the plate beneath. The uppermost plates may also include generally vertical sections which form annular-like flow areas which assist the natural circulation cooling

  19. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Marcucci, Rudolph V.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  20. Apparatus for controlling nuclear core debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear reactor apparatus for containing, cooling, and dispersing reactor debris assumed to flow from the core area in the unlikely event of an accident causing core meltdown. The apparatus includes a plurality of horizontally disposed vertically spaced plates, having depressions to contain debris in controlled amounts, and a plurality of holes therein which provide natural circulation cooling and a path for debris to continue flowing downward to the plate beneath. The uppermost plates may also include generally vertical sections which form annular-like flow areas which assist the natural circulation cooling.

  1. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1972-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures

  2. Realtime radiation exposure monitor and control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowart, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to an apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. An exposure measuring apparatus is disclosed which comprises a multilayered detector structure having an external circuit connected to a transparent insulating layer and to a conductive plate a radiation source adapted to irradiate the detector structure with radiation capable of producing electron-hole pairs in a photoconductive layer of the detector wherein the flow of current within the external circuit is measured when the detector is irradiated by the radiation source. (author)

  3. Methods and apparatus for controlling rotary machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Barnes, Gary R [Delanson, NY; Fric, Thomas Frank [Greer, SC; Lyons, James Patrick Francis [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Holley, William Edwin [Greer, SC; Barbu, Corneliu [Guilderland, NY

    2009-09-01

    A control system for a rotary machine is provided. The rotary machine has at least one rotating member and at least one substantially stationary member positioned such that a clearance gap is defined between a portion of the rotating member and a portion of the substantially stationary member. The control system includes at least one clearance gap dimension measurement apparatus and at least one clearance gap adjustment assembly. The adjustment assembly is coupled in electronic data communication with the measurement apparatus. The control system is configured to process a clearance gap dimension signal and modulate the clearance gap dimension.

  4. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  5. Apparatus for handling control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, A.; Watanabe, M.; Yoshida, T.; Sugaya, Z.; Saito, T.; Ishii, Y.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for handling control rod drives (CRD's) attached by detachable fixing means to housings mounted in a reactor pressure vessel and each coupled to one of control rods inserted in the reactor pressure vessel is described. The apparatus for handling the CRD's comprise cylindrical housing means, uncoupling means mounted in the housing means for uncoupling each of the control rods from the respective CRD, means mounted on the housing means for effecting attaching and detaching of the fixing means, means for supporting the housing means, and means for moving the support means longitudinally of the CRD

  6. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Gregory H [Castro Valley, CA; Caldeira, Kenneth G [Livermore, CA

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  7. Two-dimensional heat flow apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Patrick; Ayars, Eric

    2014-06-01

    We have created an apparatus to quantitatively measure two-dimensional heat flow in a metal plate using a grid of temperature sensors read by a microcontroller. Real-time temperature data are collected from the microcontroller by a computer for comparison with a computational model of the heat equation. The microcontroller-based sensor array allows previously unavailable levels of precision at very low cost, and the combination of measurement and modeling makes for an excellent apparatus for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course.

  8. Programmers for diagnostic x-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Novel apparatus is described for providing a pre-programmed selection of various parameters in X-ray radiography. The equipment consists of push-buttons which prompt the radiographer to make decisions such as thickness of patient, part of the anatomy to be X-rayed etc. From these data the apparatus selects the appropriate parameters such as H.T. voltage, current, product of current and irradiation time etc. The values of these parameters are displayed to the radiographer and facilities are provided to override the programmed parameters at the radiographer's discretion. (U.K.)

  9. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  10. Purged window apparatus utilizing heated purge gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Evan O.

    1984-01-01

    A purged window apparatus utilizing tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows, and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube. Use of this apparatus prevents backstreaming of gases under investigation which are flowing past the mouth of the mounting tube which would otherwise deposit on the windows. Lengthy spectroscopic investigations and analyses can thereby be performed without the necessity of interrupting the procedures in order to clean or replace contaminated windows.

  11. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-06-05

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  12. Identification and functional analysis of two Golgi-localized UDP-galactofuranose transporters with overlapping functions in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohae; Tefsen, Boris; Heemskerk, Marc J; Lagendijk, Ellen L; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; van Die, Irma; Ram, Arthur F J

    2015-11-02

    Galactofuranose (Galf)-containing glycoconjugates are present in numerous microbes, including filamentous fungi where they are important for morphology, virulence and maintaining cell wall integrity. The incorporation of Galf-residues into galactomannan, galactomannoproteins and glycolipids is carried out by Golgi-localized Galf transferases. The nucleotide sugar donor used by these transferases (UDP-Galf) is produced in the cytoplasm and has to be transported to the lumen of the Golgi by a dedicated nucleotide sugar transporter. Based on homology with recently identified UDP-Galf-transporters in A. fumigatus and A. nidulans, two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in A. niger were found. Their function and localization was determined by gene deletions and GFP-tagging studies, respectively. The two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in A. niger are homologous to each other and are predicted to contain eleven transmembrane domains (UgtA) or ten transmembrane domains (UgtB) due to a reduced length of the C-terminal part of the UgtB protein. The presence of two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in the genome was not unique for A. niger. From the twenty Aspergillus species analysed, nine species contained two additional putative UDP-Galf-transporters. Three of the nine species were outside the Aspergillus section nigri, indication an early duplication of UDP-Galf-transporters and subsequent loss of the UgtB copy in several aspergilli. Deletion analysis of the single and double mutants in A. niger indicated that the two putative UDP-Galf-transporters (named UgtA and UgtB) have a redundant function in UDP-Galf-transport as only the double mutant displayed a Galf-negative phenotype. The Galf-negative phenotype of the double mutant could be complemented by expressing either CFP-UgtA or CFP-UgtB fusion proteins from their endogenous promoters, indicating that both CFP-tagged proteins are functional. Both Ugt proteins co-localize with each other as well as with the GDP

  13. The role of the active site Zn in the catalytic mechanism of the GH38 Golgi alpha-mannosidase II: Implications from noeuromycin inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Kuntz, Douglas A.; Rose, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Golgi alpha-mannosidase II (GMII) is a Family 38 glycosyl hydrolase involved in the eukaryotic N-glycosylation pathway in protein synthesis. Understanding of its catalytic mechanism has been of interest for the development of specific inhibitors that could lead to novel anti-metastatic or anti-in...

  14. Association of the golgi UDP-galactose transporter with UDP-galactose: ceramide galactosyltransferase allows UDP-galactose import in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.; Degroote, S.; Nilsson, T.; Kawakita, M.; Ishida, N.; van der Sluijs, P.; van Meer, G.

    2003-01-01

    UDP-galactose reaches the Golgi lumen through the UDP-galactose transporter (UGT) and is used for the galactosylation of proteins and lipids. Ceramides and diglycerides are galactosylated within the endoplasmic reticulum by the UDP-galactose: ceramide galactosyltransferase. It is not known how

  15. Function of the Golgi-located phosphate transporter PHT4;6 is critical for senescence-associated processes in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassler, S.; Jung, B.; Lemke, L.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Martinoia, E.; Neuhaus, H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 15 (2016), s. 4671-4684 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22322S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ammonium * cytokinin * golgi Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  16. Identification of rice cornichon as a possible cargo receptor for the Golgi-localized sodium transporter OsHKT1;3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosas-Santiago, P.; Lagunas-Goméz, D.; Barkla, B. J.; Vera-Estrella, R.; Lalonde, S.; Jones, A.; Frommer, W. B.; Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana; Pantoja, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 9 (2015), s. 2733-2748 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13037 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Cornichon * endoplasmic reticulum * Golgi * OsHKT1-3 * protein–protein interaction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2015

  17. Apparatuses, Systems and Methods for Cleaning Photovoltaic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Eitelhuber, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Embodiments of solar panel cleaning apparatuses, solar panel cleaning systems, and solar panel cleaning methods are disclosed. In certain embodiments, the disclosed solar panel cleaning apparatuses, systems and methods do may not require any water

  18. Apparatus and method for radiation processing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberg, W.B.; Luniewski, R.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiation degradation processing of polytetrafluoroethylene makes use of a simultaneous irradiation, agitation and cooling. The apparatus is designed to make efficent use of radiation in the processing. (author)

  19. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C W [Radiological and Safety Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  20. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  1. Method and apparatus for calibrating spectrophotometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreutelkamp, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of calibrating spectrophotometers by placing one or more filters in the light path of the spectrophotometer and measuring the amount of radiation by means of a detector. The present invention furthermore relates to an apparatus to be used with such a method.

  2. Process and apparatus for controlling control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebelin, B.; Couture, R.

    1987-01-01

    This process and apparatus is characterized by 2 methods, for examination of cluster of nuclear control rods. Foucault current analyzer which examines fraction by fraction all the control rods. This examination is made by rotation of the cluster. Doubtful rods are then analysed by ultrasonic probe [fr

  3. Apparatus for distillation of bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carthaus, E; von Rittersberg, K; Abraham, A

    1917-05-03

    Apparatus for dry distillation of bituminous material, such as oil shale and brown coal with simultaneous fractional separation of the distillate, consists in the fact, that the domed water-cooled condenser, arranged above the conveyer carrying it, is divided by double vertical partitions in the chamber.

  4. Improved cold neutron radiographic apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An improved cold neutron radiography technique is described in which the neutron temperature is matched to the specific material to be analyzed. In addition to a beam source and detector the apparatus incorporates a cryogenic refrigerator which enables the moderator material to be cooled to a predetermined adjustable temperature below the Bragg edge temperature of the sample. (U.K.)

  5. Apparatus and method for reconstructing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for constructing a two-dimensional picture of an object slice from linear projections of radiation not absorbed or scattered by the object, using convolution methods of data reconstruction, useful in the fields of medical radiology, microscopy, and non-destructive testing. (U.K.)

  6. Filter apparatus for actively reducing noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nijsse, G.

    2010-01-01

    A filter apparatus for reducing noise from a primary noise source, comprising a secondary source signal connector for generating secondary noise to reduce said primary noise and a sensor connector for connecting to a sensor for measuring said primary and secondary noise as an error signal. A first

  7. A filter apparatus for actively reducing noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nijsse, G.

    2006-01-01

    A filter apparatus for reducing noise from a primary noise source, comprising a secondary source signal connector for generating secondary noise to reduce said primary noise and a sensor connector for connecting to a sensor for measuring said primary and secondary noise as an error signal. A first

  8. Kinematic X-Ray Analysis Apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Brinkgreve, P.

    1983-01-01

    In an X-ray analysis apparatus, a moving mechanism is provided by a main guide member along which a main slide device can be displaced. Rotatably connected with the main slide device is a detector guide member along which a detection slide device is displaced. The main slide device, as well as the

  9. Electroless plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles by electroless techniques. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with each other for a time sufficient for such to occur

  10. Apparatus for measurement of tree core density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincow, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is described for direct measurement of the density of a core sample from a tree. A radiation source and detector with a receptacle for the core therebetween, an integrator unit for the detector output, and an indicating meter driven by the integrator unit are described

  11. Status of the LHCf apparatus at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Castellini, G; D’Alessandro, R; Faus, A; Fukui, K; Haguenauer, M; Itow, Y; Kasahara, K; Macina, D; Mase, T; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Menjo, H; Mizuishi, M; Muraki, Y; Papini, P; Perrot, A L; Ricciarini, S; Sako, T; Shimizu, Y; Taki, K; Tamura, T; Torii, S; Tricomi, A; Turner, W C; Velasco, J; Viciani, A; Yoshida, K

    2009-01-01

    The LHCf experiment at the LHC accelerator is ready for data taking. Both the LHCf detectors have been successfully tested and installed in their running configuration. The status of the apparatus, control software and some results of the last beam test at the SPS accelerator are presented in this work.

  12. Electrolytic plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.

    1976-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for electrolytically producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with a powered cathode for a time sufficient for such to occur. 4 claims, 2 figures

  13. Portable apparatus for measurement of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The apparatus described is stated to be particularly applicable to the measurement of tritium contamination of a surface, although it may have other applications to the determination of radioactivity on surfaces. The mean range of a tritium β particle in air at normal atmospheric pressure is only 1.5 mm. and when monitoring such radiation with the apparatus it is necessary to exclude light. The apparatus comprises a plastic scintillator sheet located in the base of a housing, with a sealing ring mounted in the base so as to make a hermetic and light-tight seal between a support surface and the base of the housing. Photomultiplier means are optically coupled to the scintillator sheet to detect and amplify the scintillations, and a pump device is provided to reduce the air pressure in the vicinity of the sheet to below atmospheric pressure. The scintillator sheet and the photomultiplier means are movable as one unit within the housing, the unit being arranged to be acted upon by atmospheric pressure so as to move the unit into an operative position against a spring when the air pressure in the vicinity of the sheet is reduced to below atmospheric pressure. A shutter is provided to prevent exposure of the scintillator sheet to light when the apparatus is not in use. (U.K.)

  14. Apparatus for combining oxygen and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, E.C.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus is described for catalytically combining hydrogen and oxygen which includes two concentric catalyst chambers arranged so that the outer chamber surrounds the inner chamber and the gas stream passes radially through the outer catalyst chamber. 10 claims, 2 figures

  15. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into

  16. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the

  17. Analysis apparatus and method of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous streaming method developed for the excution of immunoassays is described in this patent. In addition, a suitable apparatus for the method was developed whereby magnetic particles are automatically employed for the consecutive analysis of a series of liquid samples via the RIA technique

  18. Neutron logging reliability techniques and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates in general to neutron logging of earth formations, and in particular, to novel apparatus and procedures for determining the validity, or reliability, of data derived at least in part by logging neutron characteristics of earth formations and, if desired, for affording verifiably accurate indications of such data

  19. Neutron logging reliability techniques and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates in general to neutron logging of earth formations, and in particular, to novel apparatus and procedures for determining the validity, or reliability, of data derived at least in part by logging neutron characteristics of earth formations and, if desired, for affording verifiably accurate indications of such data. (author)

  20. Collection shield for ion separation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, K.L.; Pugh, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The ion separation electrodes in isotope separation apparatus are provided with removable collection shields to collect neutral particles which would normally pass through the ionization region. A preferred collection shield comprises a u-shaped section for clipping onto the leading edge of an electrode and a pair of flanges projecting substantially perpendicular to the clipping section for collecting neutral particles

  1. Apoptosis-linked Gene-2 (ALG-2)/Sec31 Interactions Regulate Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Jared R.; Bentley, Marvin; Thorsen, Kevin D.; Wang, Ting; Foltz, Lauren; Oorschot, Viola; Klumperman, Judith; Hay, Jesse C.

    2014-01-01

    Luminal calcium released from secretory organelles has been suggested to play a regulatory role in vesicle transport at several steps in the secretory pathway; however, its functional roles and effector pathways have not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate for the first time that specific luminal calcium depletion leads to a significant decrease in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport rates in intact cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that luminal calcium depletion is accompanied by increased accumulation of intermediate compartment proteins in COPII buds and clusters of unfused COPII vesicles at ER exit sites. Furthermore, we present several lines of evidence suggesting that luminal calcium affected transport at least in part through calcium-dependent interactions between apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2) and the Sec31A proline-rich region: 1) targeted disruption of ALG-2/Sec31A interactions caused severe defects in ER-to-Golgi transport in intact cells; 2) effects of luminal calcium and ALG-2/Sec31A interactions on transport mutually required each other; and 3) Sec31A function in transport required luminal calcium. Morphological phenotypes of disrupted ALG-2/Sec31A interactions were characterized. We found that ALG-2/Sec31A interactions were not required for the localization of Sec31A to ER exit sites per se but appeared to acutely regulate the stability and trafficking of the cargo receptor p24 and the distribution of the vesicle tether protein p115. These results represent the first outline of a mechanism that connects luminal calcium to specific protein interactions regulating vesicle trafficking machinery. PMID:25006245

  2. Two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins that facilitate ER-to-Golgi transport of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, W P; Walter, P

    1999-04-01

    Many eukaryotic cell surface proteins are anchored in the lipid bilayer through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). GPI anchors are covalently attached in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The modified proteins are then transported through the secretory pathway to the cell surface. We have identified two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LAG1 and a novel gene termed DGT1 (for "delayed GPI-anchored protein transport"), encoding structurally related proteins with multiple membrane-spanning domains. Both proteins are localized to the ER, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Deletion of either gene caused no detectable phenotype, whereas lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells displayed growth defects and a significant delay in ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that LAG1 and DGT1 encode functionally redundant or overlapping proteins. The rate of GPI anchor attachment was not affected, nor was the transport rate of several non-GPI-anchored proteins. Consistent with a role of Lag1p and Dgt1p in GPI-anchored protein transport, lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells deposit abnormal, multilayered cell walls. Both proteins have significant sequence similarity to TRAM, a mammalian membrane protein thought to be involved in protein translocation across the ER membrane. In vivo translocation studies, however, did not detect any defects in protein translocation in lag1Delta dgt1Delta cells, suggesting that neither yeast gene plays a role in this process. Instead, we propose that Lag1p and Dgt1p facilitate efficient ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins.

  3. An extraordinary tabletop speed of light apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegna, Guido

    2017-09-01

    A compact, low-cost, pre-aligned apparatus of the modulation type is described. The apparatus allows accurate determination of the speed of light in free propagation with an accuracy on the order of one part in 104. Due to the 433.92 MHz radio frequency (rf) modulation of its laser diode, determination of the speed of light is possible within a sub-meter measuring base and in small volumes (some cm3) of transparent solids or liquids. No oscilloscope is necessary, while the required function generators, power supplies, and optical components are incorporated into the design of the apparatus and its receiver can slide along the optical bench while maintaining alignment with the laser beam. Measurement of the velocity factor of coaxial cables is also easily performed. The apparatus detects the phase difference between the rf modulation of the laser diode by further modulating the rf signal with an audio frequency signal; the phase difference between these signals is then observed as the loudness of the audio signal. In this way, the positions at which the minima of the audio signal are found determine where the rf signals are completely out of phase. This phase detection method yields a much increased sensitivity with respect to the display of coincidence of two signals of questionable arrival time and somewhat distorted shape on an oscilloscope. The displaying technique is also particularly suitable for large audiences as well as in unattended exhibits in museums and science centers. In addition, the apparatus can be set up in less than one minute.

  4. 21 CFR 886.4100 - Radiofrequency electrosurgical cautery apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiofrequency electrosurgical cautery apparatus... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4100 Radiofrequency electrosurgical cautery apparatus. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency electrosurgical cautery apparatus is an AC...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add nitric oxide to gases that are to be breathed by a patient. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is to be used in conjunction with a ventilator or other breathing gas administration system. (b) Classification...

  6. Switched-mode power supply apparatus and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a switched-mode power supply apparatus and a corresponding method. For an effective compensation of non-linearities caused by dead- time and voltage drops in the switching power amplifier of the apparatus, an apparatus is proposed comprising a switching power

  7. Switched-mode power supply apparatus and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a switched-mode power supply apparatus and a corresponding method. For an effective compensation of non-linearities caused by dead-time and voltage drops in the switching power amplifier of the apparatus, an apparatus is proposed comprising a switching power

  8. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors--I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Let us now praise famous physicists, and the apparatus named after them, with apologies to the writer of Ecclesiastes. I once compiled a list of about 300 pieces of apparatus known to us as X's Apparatus. Some of the values of X are familiar, like Wheatstone and Kelvin and Faraday, but have you heard of Pickering or Rhumkorff or Barlow? In an…

  9. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  10. Apparatus and method for assembling fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element assembling method and apparatus is preferably operable under programmed control unit to receive fuel rods from storage, arrange them into axially aligned stacks of closely monitored length, and transfer the stacks of fuel rods to a loading device for insertion into longitudinal passages in the fuel elements. In order to handle large numbers of one or more classifications of fuel rods or other cylindrical parts, the assembling apparatus includes at least two feed troughs each formed by a pair of screw members with a movable table having a plurality of stacking troughs for alignment with the feed troughs and with a conveyor for delivering the stacks to the loading device, the fuel rods being moved along the stacking troughs upon a fluid cushion. 23 claims, 6 figures

  11. Apparatus for measuring a concentration of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, H.; Ogushi, A.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for measuring concentration of radioactivity in a fluid circulating in a cooling system or a disposal system, etc., of a nuclear power plant (e.g. coolant), the apparatus having a plurality of sampling tubes with different diameters depending on the intensities of radioactivity, and the sampling tubes having valves for switching from one fluid to another fluid. The sampling tubes are connected to the system to a discharge pipe, and are disposed in the proximity of a radiation detector adapted to issue a signal representative of radiation. The issued signal is supplied to a multichannel pulse height analyzer and a data processing system providing an indication of the concentrations of radioactivities for respective radionuclides

  12. Apparatus and method for treating waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the packaging of waste material in a vessel, comprising: a vessel entry station having inlet and outlet doors; a filling station downstream of the vessel entry station and having a filling position to which vessels are transferred from the entry station through the outlet door, the filling station having filling means for introducing radioactive waste into the vessel; a mixing station having a mixing position to which a vessel is transferred from the filling position; a capping station having a capping position to which a vessel is transferred from the mixing position; and means for effecting transfer of a vessel through the apparatus. Radiation shielding is provided. (U.K.)

  13. Nuclear propulsion apparatus with alternate reactor segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, T.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion apparatus comprising: (a) means for compressing incoming air; (b) nuclear fission reactor means for heating said air; (c) means for expanding a portion of the heated air to drive said compressing means; (d) said nuclear fission reactor means being divided into a plurality of radially extending segments; (e) means for directing a portion of the compressed air for heating through alternate segments of said reactor means and another portion of the compressed air for heating through the remaining segments of said reactor means; and (f) means for further expanding the heated air from said drive means and the remaining heated air from said reactor means through nozzle means to effect reactive thrust on said apparatus. 12 claims

  14. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  15. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

  16. Therapeutic radiation apparatus having an optical pointer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification relates to a therapeutic irradiating apparatus including a radiation source arranged to provide a beam of penetrating radiation and an optical alignment indicator comprising at least two light sources each provided with means to provide a planar divergent beam of light located so that at least two light beams intersect along a line substantially coincident with the central axis of the path of the radiation beam. The claim relates to cylindrical lenses providing the means of providing the divergent beams, and to lasers as the light sources. Claims are also made for the apparatus providing means of supporting and aligning the patient, and for disposing the light sources so that the exit point of the radiation beam is illuminated. (U.K.)

  17. Safety apparatus for serious radioactive accidents (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estournel, R.; Rodier, J.

    1962-01-01

    In the case of a serious radioactive accident, radioactive dust and gases may be released into the atmosphere. It is therefore necessary to be able to evaluate rapidly the importance of the risk to the surrounding population, and to be able to ensure, even in the event of an evacuation of the Centre, the continuation of the radioactivity analyses and the decontamination of the personnel. For this, the Anti-radiation Protection Service at Marcoule has organised mobile detection teams and designed a mobile laboratory and a mobile shower-unit. After describing the duty of the mobile teams, the report gives a description of the apparatus which would be used at the Marcoule Centre in the case of a serious radioactive accident. The method of using this apparatus is given. (authors) [fr

  18. New apparatus for training the avoidance reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1988-01-01

    A new apparatus for active avoidance training in rats consists of a short, wide runway which can be tilted from a horizontal to vertical position. One half of the electrifiable grid floor is covered by a nonconducting sheet. For brightness (black-white) discrimination training a white walled goal box can be inserted into the runway and shifted from left to right during training. Avoidance training of 24 rats (female Wistar SPF) required 14.1 +/- 2.6 (mean +/- SEM) to-criterion trials (9/10) and was completed in less than 4 min. Brightness discrimination training required 21.3 +/- 2.1 to-criterion trials and the time of training did not exceed 12 min. The retention of the acquired responses was very good in both cases. The main advantage of the apparatus is very rapid acquisition of the one-way and discriminated avoidance without the necessity of manual manipulation of the animal.

  19. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus for mounting a photovoltaic (PV) module on a surface, including a support with an upper surface, a lower surface, tabs, one or more openings, and a clip comprising an arm and a notch, where the apparatus resists wind forces and seismic forces and creates a grounding electrical bond between the PV module, support, and clip. The invention further includes a method for installing PV modules on a surface that includes arranging supports in rows along an X axis and in columns along a Y axis on a surface such that in each row the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the longest side of a PV module and in each column the distance between two neighboring supports does not exceed the length of the shortest side of a PV module.

  20. Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, John D.; Tong, Long S.

    1977-03-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.

  1. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  2. A steam separator-superheater apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androw, Jean; Bessouat, Roger; Peyrelongue, J.-P.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a separator-superheater apparatus comprising an outer enclosure containing a separating-unit and a steam superheating unit according to the main patent. The present addition relates to an improvement in that apparatus, characterized in that the separating unit and the superheating unit, mounted in two distinct portions of the outer enclosure, are divided into the same number of sub-units of each unit being identical and operating in parallel, and in that to each separator sub-unit is associated a superheater sub-unit, said sub-units being mounted in series and located in one in the other of the enclosure two portions, respectively. This can be applied to the treatment of the exhaust steam of a turbine high pressure body, prior to re-injecting said steam into the low pressure body [fr

  3. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

  4. Apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-08-25

    An apparatus, system, and method for traffic monitory can have a Lagrangian inertial measurement unit. The Lagrangian inertial measurement unit can have a processor, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, and/or a wireless transmitter. The processor can have an integrated direction cosine matrix. The accelerometer can be configured to measure linear accelerations of a vehicle and/or can communicate measured linear acceleration to the processor. The gyroscope can be configured to measure rotational accelerations of the vehicle and/or can communicate measured rotational acceleration to the processor. The processor can be configured to calculate estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The wireless transmitter can be configured to wirelessly transmit estimated vehicle speed and/or estimated vehicle attitude. The apparatus, system, and method can be integrated with a wireless sensor network.

  5. Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods. 3 claims, 9 figures

  6. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  7. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  8. Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.

  9. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  10. Molding apparatus. [for thermosetting plastic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Apparatus for compression molding of thermosetting plastics compositions including interfitting hollow male and female components is reported. The components are adapted to be compressed to form a rocket nozzle in a cavity. A thermal jacket is provided exteriorly adjacent to the female component for circulating a thermal transfer fluid to effect curing of a thermosetting plastics material being molded. Each of the male and female components is provided with suitable inlets and outlets for circulating a thermal transfer fluid.

  11. Hafnium - material for chemical apparatus engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennert, D.

    1981-01-01

    This work describes - on the background of available literature - the properties of hafnium in technical quality (DIN-material No. 2.6400) as material for chemical apparatus engineering. The occurence, refining, physical and chemical properties will be described as well as the material behavior. In conclusion, it has been found that there is, at present, sufficient information for the engineering of hafnium which has to be completed by additional investigations for special applications. (orig.) [de

  12. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  13. Capacity control of rotary vane apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A capacity control arrangement for a rotary vane fluid displacement apparatus, such as a rotary vane compressor, having a vane retaining means that normally engages and retains the vanes in their retracted or nonworking position within the rotor defined guide slits of such rotary vane compressor. The retaining means are actuated to the vane-disengaged position by hydraulic control fluid which is communicated to the retaining means in response to an external parameter sensed by a control means

  14. Apparatus and Methods for Mitigating Electromagnetic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M. (Inventor); Niedra, Janis M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Apparatus, methods, and other embodiments associated with mitigation of magnetic fields are described herein. In an embodiment, a method for mitigating an electromagnetic field includes positioning a mitigating coil around a linear alternator of linear motor so that the mitigating coil is coaxially located with an alternator coil; arranging the mitigating coil to generate a field to mitigate an electromagnetic field generated by the alternator coil; and passing an induced current from the alternator coil through the mitigating coil.

  15. Apparatus for storing and processing fissionable substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky, B.G.; Bogatyrev, V.K.; Vladykov, G.M.; Sviridenko, V.Y.

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus is described for storing and processing fissionable substances in which there is provided a protective shield in the form of a layer of neutron absorbing material located in direct proximity to a vessel with a fissionable substance contained therein. The layer of neutron retarding material according to the present invention has alternating projections and depressions facing the layer of neutron-absorbing material. (author)

  16. A muon trigger for the MACRO apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; DeCataldo, G.; DeMarzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Liuzzi, R.; Spinelli, P.

    1991-01-01

    A trigger circuit based on EPROM components, able to manage up to 30 lines from independent counters, is described. The circuit has been designed and used in the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso Laboratory for triggering on fast particles. The circuit works with standard TTL positive logic and is assembled in a double standard CAMAC module. It has a high triggering capacity and a high flexibility. (orig.)

  17. Apparatus for neutralization of accelerated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.; Frank, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus is described for neutralization of a beam of accelerated ions, such as hydrogen negative ions (H - ), using relatively efficient strip diode lasers which emit monochromatically at an appropriate wavelength (lambda = 8000 A for H - ions) to strip the excess electrons by photodetachment. A cavity, formed by two or more reflectors spaced apart, causes the laser beams to undergo multiple reflections within the cavity, thus increasing the efficiency and reducing the illumination required to obtain an acceptable percentage (approx. 85%) of neutralization

  18. Tomographic scanning apparatus with ionization detector means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal. Particular reference is made to the gas-pressurized ionization detector chamber, consisting of an array of side-by-side elongate ionization detection cells, the principal axis of each of the said cells being oriented along a radius extending towards the radiation source, and connection means for applying potentials across the cells for taking their output signals. (U.K.)

  19. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  20. Apparatus Tests Peeling Of Bonded Rubbery Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Russell A.; Graham, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Instrumented hydraulic constrained blister-peel apparatus obtains data on degree of bonding between specimen of rubbery material and rigid plate. Growth of blister tracked by video camera, digital clock, pressure transducer, and piston-displacement sensor. Cylinder pressure controlled by hydraulic actuator system. Linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) and float provide second, independent measure of change in blister volume used as more precise volume feedback in low-growth-rate test.