Sample records for goldi carbene complexes

  1. Cytotoxic gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with phosphane ligands as potent enzyme inhibitors

    Rubbiani, Riccardo; Salassa, Luca; de Almeida, Andreia; Casini, Angela; Ott, Ingo


    Organometallic gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been demonstrating promising properties as novel anticancer agents. Gold(I) NHC complexes containing different phosphanes as secondary ligands were shown to trigger strong cytotoxic effects in cancer cells, and their effect

  2. Cytotoxic gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with phosphane ligands as potent enzyme inhibitors

    Rubbiani, Riccardo; Salassa, Luca; de Almeida, Andreia; Casini, Angela; Ott, Ingo


    Organometallic gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been demonstrating promising properties as novel anticancer agents. Gold(I) NHC complexes containing different phosphanes as secondary ligands were shown to trigger strong cytotoxic effects in cancer cells, and their effect

  3. Gold(I) Carbene Complexes Causing Thioredoxin 1 and Thioredoxin 2 Oxidation as Potential Anticancer Agents

    Schuh, Esther; Pflueger, Carolin; Citta, Anna; Folda, Alessandra; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Bindoli, Alberto; Casini, Angela; Mohr, Fabian


    Gold(I) complexes with 1,3-substituted imidazole-2-ylidene and benzimidazole-2-ylidene ligands of the type NHC-Au-L (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene L = Cl or 2-mercapto-pyrimidine) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative properties

  4. Gold(I) Complexes of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands Containing Benzimidazole: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity

    İlknur Özdemir; Nazan Temelli; Selami Günal; Serpil Demir


    Gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes were obtained in good yields from the corresponding silver complexes by treatment with [AuCl(PPh3)] following the commonly used silver carbene transfer route. The silver complexes were synthesized from the benzimidazolium halide salts by the in situ reactions with Ag2O in dichloromethane as a solvent at room temperature. All gold complexes have been characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Au-NHC complexes were...

  5. Gold(I Complexes of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands Containing Benzimidazole: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity

    İlknur Özdemir


    Full Text Available Gold(I N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC complexes were obtained in good yields from the corresponding silver complexes by treatment with [AuCl(PPh3] following the commonly used silver carbene transfer route. The silver complexes were synthesized from the benzimidazolium halide salts by the in situ reactions with Ag2O in dichloromethane as a solvent at room temperature. All gold complexes have been characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Au-NHC complexes were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungal species.

  6. Gold(I) carbene complexes causing thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 oxidation as potential anticancer agents.

    Schuh, Esther; Pflüger, Carolin; Citta, Anna; Folda, Alessandra; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Bindoli, Alberto; Casini, Angela; Mohr, Fabian


    Gold(I) complexes with 1,3-substituted imidazole-2-ylidene and benzimidazole-2-ylidene ligands of the type NHC-Au-L (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene L = Cl or 2-mercapto-pyrimidine) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative properties in human ovarian cancer cells sensitive and resistant to cisplatin (A2780S/R), as well in the nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293T), showing in some cases important cytotoxic effects. Some of the complexes were comparatively tested as thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione reductase (GR) inhibitors, directly against the purified proteins or in cell extracts. The compounds showed potent and selective TrxR inhibition properties in particular in cancer cell lines. Remarkably, the most effective TrxR inhibitors induced extensive oxidation of thioredoxins (Trxs), which was more relevant in the cancerous cells than in HEK-293T cells. Additional biochemical assays on glutathione systems and reactive oxygen species formation evidenced important differences with respect to the classical cytotoxic Au(I)-phosphine compound auranofin.

  7. Gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with an "activable" ester moiety : Possible biological applications

    Bertrand, Benoit; Bodio, Ewen; Richard, Philippe; Picquet, Michel; Le Gendre, Pierre; Casini, Angela


    While N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) are ubiquitous ligands in catalysts for organic or industrial synthesis, their potential to form transition metal complexes for medicinal applications has still to be exploited. Within this frame, new Au(I)-NHC compounds have been synthesized and structurally

  8. Gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with an "activable" ester moiety : Possible biological applications

    Bertrand, Benoit; Bodio, Ewen; Richard, Philippe; Picquet, Michel; Le Gendre, Pierre; Casini, Angela


    While N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) are ubiquitous ligands in catalysts for organic or industrial synthesis, their potential to form transition metal complexes for medicinal applications has still to be exploited. Within this frame, new Au(I)-NHC compounds have been synthesized and structurally char

  9. Cationic gold(I) heteroleptic complexes bearing a pyrazole-derived N-heterocyclic carbene: syntheses, characterizations, and cytotoxic activities.

    Sivaram, Haresh; Tan, Jackie; Huynh, Han Vinh


    A series of cationic gold(I) heteroleptic complexes bearing the pyrazole-derived N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) FPyr (1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octahydropyridazino[1,2-a]indazolin-11-ylidene), and either a 1,3-disubstituted benzimidazole-derived NHC of the type RR'-bimy (3: R = R' = CHPh2; 4: R = CHPh2, R' = (i)Pr; 5: R = R' = CH2Ph; 6: R = R' = (i)Bu; 7: R = R' = n-Pr; 8: R = R' = Et; 9: R = R' = 2-propenyl) or a non-NHC co-ligand L (10: L = PPh3; 11: L = P(OPh)3; 12: L = DMAP) (DMAP = 4-dimethylaminopyridine) have been synthesized from [AuCl(FPyr)] (1). Complexes 3-12 have been characterized using multinuclei NMR spectroscopies, ESI mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. X-ray diffraction analyses have been performed on complexes 5, 6, and 9-11. To the best of our knowledge, 11 represents the first gold-NHC complex to bear the P(OPh)3 ligand. The cytotoxic activities of complexes 3-12 have been studied in vitro with the NCI-H1666 non-small cell lung cancer cell line.

  10. Sequential Functionalization of Alkynes and Alkenes Catalyzed by Gold(I) and Palladium(II) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    Gómez-Herrera, Alberto


    The iodination of terminal alkynes for the synthesis of 1-iodoalkynes using N-iodosuccinimide in the presence of a AuI-NHC (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) catalyst is reported. A series of aromatic alkynes was transformed successfully into the corresponding 1-iodoalkynes in good to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. The further use of these compounds as organic building blocks and the advantageous choice of metal-NHC complexes as catalysts for alkyne functionalization were further demonstrated by performing selective AuI-catalyzed hydrofluorination to yield (Z)-2-fluoro-1-iodoalkenes, followed by a Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling with aryl boronic acids catalyzed by a PdII-NHC complex to access trisubstituted (Z)-fluoroalkenes. All methodologies can be performed sequentially with only minor variations in the optimized individual reaction conditions, maintaining high efficiency and selectivity in all cases, which therefore, provides straightforward access to valuable fluorinated alkenes from commercially available terminal alkynes.

  11. Caffeine-Based Gold(I) N-Heterocyclic Carbenes as Possible Anticancer Agents : Synthesis and Biological Properties

    Bertrand, Benoit; Stefan, Loic; Pirrotta, Marc; Monchaud, David; Bodio, Ewen; Richard, Philippe; Le Gendre, Pierre; Warmerdam, Elena; de Jager, Marina H.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Picquet, Michel; Casini, Angela


    A new series of gold(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes based on xanthine ligands have been synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. The compounds have been tested for their antiproliferative properties in human cancer cells and nontumorigenic cells in v

  12. N-heterocyclic carbene gold(I) and copper(I) complexes in C-H bond activation.

    Gaillard, Sylvain; Cazin, Catherine S J; Nolan, Steven P


    complexes are possible. These different C-H bond activation modes provide chemists with several synthetic options. In this Account, we discuss recent discoveries involving the versatile NHC-gold(I) and NHC-copper(I) hydroxide complexes (where NHC is N-heterocyclic carbene) showing interesting Brønsted basic properties for C-H bond activation or C-H bond functionalization purposes. The simple and easy synthesis of these two complexes involves their halide-bearing relatives reacting with simple alkali metal hydroxides. These complexes can react cleanly with organic compounds bearing protons with compatible pK(a) values, producing only water as byproduct. It is a very simple protocol indeed and may be sold as a C-H bond activation, although the less flashy "metalation reaction" also accurately describes the process. The synthesis of these complexes has led us to develop new organometallic chemistry and catalysis involving C-H bond activation (metalation) and subsequent C-H bond functionalization. We further highlight applications with these reactions, in areas such as photoluminescence and biological activities of NHC-gold(I) and NHC-copper(I) complexes.

  13. Reversible Covalent and Supramolecular Functionalization of Water-Soluble Gold(I) Complexes.

    Kemper, Benedict; von Gröning, Maximilian; Lewe, Vanessa; Spitzer, Daniel; Otremba, Tobias; Stergiou, Natascha; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Schmitt, Edgar; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Besenius, Pol


    The ligation of gold(I) metalloamphiphiles with biomolecules is reported, using water-soluble Au(I) -N-alkynyl substituted maleimide complexes. For this purpose, two different polar ligands were applied: 1) a neutral, dendritic tetraethylene glycol-functionalized phosphane and 2) a charged, sulfonated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC). The retro Diels-Alder reaction of a furan-protected maleimide gold(I) complex, followed by cycloaddition with a diene-functionalized biotin under mild conditions leads to a novel gold(I) metalloamphiphile. The strong streptavidin-biotin binding affinity in buffered aqueous solution of the resulting biotin alkynyl gold(I) phosphane conjugate remains intact. The cytotoxicity of the biotinylated gold(I) complex against a T47D human breast cancer cell line is higher than for cisplatin.

  14. Azido, triazolyl, and alkynyl complexes of gold(I): syntheses, structures, and ligand effects.

    Robilotto, Thomas J; Deligonul, Nihal; Updegraff, James B; Gray, Thomas G


    Gold(I) triazolyl complexes are prepared in [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of (tertiary phosphine)gold(I) azides with terminal alkynes. Seven such triazolyl complexes, not previously prepared, are described. Reducible functional groups are accommodated. In addition, two new (N-heterocyclic carbene)gold(I) azides and two new gold(I) alkynyls are described. Eight complexes are crystallographically authenticated; aurophilic interactions appear in one structure only. The packing diagrams of gold(I) triazolyls all show intermolecular hydrogen bonding between N-1 of one molecule and N-3 of a neighbor. This hydrogen bonding permeates the crystal lattice. Density-functional theory calculations of (triphenylphosphine)gold(I) triazolyls and the corresponding alkynyls indicate that the triazolyl is a stronger trans-influencer than is the alkynyl, but the alkynyl is more electron-releasing. These results suggest that trans-influences in two-coordinate gold(I) complexes can be more than a simple matter of ligand donicity.

  15. NHC-manganese(i) complexes as carbene transfer agents.

    Ruiz, Javier; Berros, Angela; Perandones, Bernabé F; Vivanco, Marilín


    Tautomerization of coordinated azoles to their corresponding N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has been carried out by reaction of complexes fac-[Mn(L)(CO)(3)(dppe)](+) (L = N-phenylimidazole) and fac-[Mn(L)(CO)(3)(bipy)](+) (L = N-methylbenzimidazole, benzoxazole, benzothiazole) with KO(t)Bu and subsequent protonation of the azolyl intermediates with NH(4)PF(6). Several NHC-manganese(i) complexes bearing an N-H residue of general formula fac-[Mn(NHC)(CO)(3)(dppe)](+) and fac-[Mn(NHC)(CO)(3)(bipy)](+) have been tested as carbene transfer agents to the gold fragments [Au(L)](+) (L = PPh(3), CNPh, CNXylyl), allowing isolation or spectroscopic detection of various Mn(i)/Au(i) heterometallic intermediates containing azolyl bridging ligands, which liberate the gold(i) carbene complexes [Au(NHC)(L)](+) by means of acid hydrolysis. By contrast, when using the silver(i) fragment [Ag(PPh(3))](+) as carbene acceptor no transmetallation process occurred but instead inverse tautomerization of the NHC to the corresponding imidazole ligand was observed.

  16. α,β-Unsaturated Gold(I) Carbenes by Tandem Cyclization and 1,5-Alkoxy Migration of 1,6-Enynes: Mechanisms and Applications.

    Calleja, Pilar; Pablo, Óscar; Ranieri, Beatrice; Gaydou, Morgane; Pitaval, Anthony; Moreno, María; Raducan, Mihai; Echavarren, Antonio M


    1,6-Enynes bearing OR groups at the propargyl position generate α,β-unsaturated gold(I)-carbenes/ gold(I) stabilized allyl cations that can be trapped by alkenes to form cyclopropanes or 1,3-diketones to give products of α-alkylation. The best migrating group is p-nitrophenyl ether, which leads to the corresponding products without racemization. Thus, an improved formal synthesis of (+)-schisanwilsonene A has been accomplished. The different competitive reaction pathways have been delineated computationally.

  17. The Stabilizing Effects in Gold Carbene Complexes.

    Nunes Dos Santos Comprido, Laura; Klein, Johannes E M N; Knizia, Gerald; Kästner, Johannes; Hashmi, A Stephen K


    Bonding and stabilizing effects in gold carbene complexes are investigated by using Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) and the intrinsic bond orbital (IBO) approach. The π-stabilizing effects of organic substituents at the carbene carbon atom coordinated to the gold atom are evaluated for a series of recently isolated and characterized complexes, as well as intermediates of prototypical 1,6-enyne cyclization reactions. The results indicate that these effects are of particular importance for gold complexes especially because of the low π-backbonding contribution from the gold atom. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. -Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Mineral Acids

    Brill, Marcel


    We have synthesized and characterized new gold-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes derived from the deprotonation of mineral acids. The use of sulfuric acid was a particularly interesting case. These complexes were tested in known gold-catalyzed reactions, such as the hydration of alkynes and the Meyer–Schuster rearrangement. They proved to be highly efficient in both reactions.

  19. Nickel N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in homogeneous catalysis

    Berding, Joris


    Described in this thesis are the investigations into the chemistry of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands and transition-metal complexes thereof. Specifically, a variety of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of nickel were prepared, characterized and used as catalysts in three types of homogeneous ca

  20. α,β‐Unsaturated Gold(I) Carbenes by Tandem Cyclization and 1,5‐Alkoxy Migration of 1,6‐Enynes: Mechanisms and Applications

    Calleja, Pilar; Pablo, Óscar; Ranieri, Beatrice; Gaydou, Morgane; Pitaval, Anthony; Moreno, María; Raducan, Mihai


    Abstract 1,6‐Enynes bearing OR groups at the propargyl position generate α,β‐unsaturated gold(I)‐carbenes/ gold(I) stabilized allyl cations that can be trapped by alkenes to form cyclopropanes or 1,3‐diketones to give products of α‐alkylation. The best migrating group is p‐nitrophenyl ether, which leads to the corresponding products without racemization. Thus, an improved formal synthesis of (+)‐schisanwilsonene A has been accomplished. The different competitive reaction pathways have been delineated computationally. PMID:27527611

  1. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and electronic structure of some new Cu(I) carbene complexes

    Chinnappan Sivasankar; Christina Baskaran; Ashoka G Samuelson


    Reaction of oligomeric Cu(I) complexes [Cu{-S-C(=NR)(O-Ar-CH3)}] with Lewis acids gave Cu(I) carbene complexes, which were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Cu(I) carbene complexes could be directly generated from RNCS, Cu(I)-OAr and Lewis acids; this method can be used to prepare Cu(I) carbene complexes with different substitutents on the carbene carbon. The complexes were unreactive towards olefins and do not undergo cyclopropanation. Electronic structure calculations (DFT) show that the charge on the carbene carbon plays an important role in controlling the reactivity of the carbene complex.

  2. Rhenium carbene complexes and their applications; Rhenium-Carben-Komplexe und ihre Anwendungen

    Hille, Claudia Heidi


    New pharmaceutically suitable metal complexes play an important role in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. One option concerning new radiopharmaceuticals, is the application of the rhenium isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re. Therefore, water soluble but at the same time stable complexes, which can be synthesized straightforward, are required. In this thesis, several synthetic pathways to such rhenium complexes bearing Nheterocyclic carbenes are presented and applicability tests of literature known complexes conducted. The selected target structures based on monocarbenes turned out to be inappropriate for use in radiopharmaceutical applications, due to their long reaction times and purification issues. Additionally, sterical and electronical effects of the carbene ligands concerning complex formation have been investigated. Possibilities of functionalization at different positions on the heterocycle as well as hydrophilic wingtips - to achieve a better stability in an aqueous media - have been examined to gain information about chemical and physical properties of the resulting complexes. Furthermore, experiments regarding the coordination of various biscarbene ligands, which provides besides the stable chelatisation additionally the possibility of varying the linking bridge, to rhenium(I/V) precursors, have been performed. Dioxo-bis-(1,1{sup '}-methylene-bis(3,3{sup '}-diisopropylimidazolium-2-ylidene)) rhenium(V )-hexafluorophosphate was synthesized via a transmetalation reaction of the corresponding silver carbene with ReOCl{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2} and silver hexafluorophosphate. This complex provided the basis for the first radiolabeled {sup 188}Rhenium NHC complex later on. An enhancement of the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of potential rhenium biscarbene complexes based on modifications concerning the length and character of the bridging moiety between the chelating NHC rings as well as the nature of

  3. Synthesis of Backfunctionalized Imidazolinium Salts and NHC Carbene Complexes


    minimally perturbs ligand electronics • Project was dropped for Z -selective work • Can this methodology be used for backfluorinated NHC carbene complexes...completion • Exotherm suggests ester group may affect electronics Backfunctionalized Imidazolinium Salts Mono and Difunctional CF2H 2 O N N MesMes CF2H 2 O

  4. Induced Circular Dichroism in Phosphine Gold(I) Aryl Acetylide Urea Complexes through Hydrogen-Bonded Chiral Co-Assemblies.

    Dubarle-Offner, Julien; Moussa, Jamal; Amouri, Hani; Jouvelet, Benjamin; Bouteiller, Laurent; Raynal, Matthieu


    Phosphine gold(I) aryl acetylide complexes equipped with a central bis(urea) moiety form 1D hydrogen-bonded polymeric assemblies in solution that do not display any optical activity. Chiral co-assemblies are formed by simple addition of an enantiopure (metal-free) complementary monomer. Although exhibiting an intrinsically achiral linear geometry, the gold(I) aryl acetylide fragment is located in the chiral environment displayed by the hydrogen-bonded co-assemblies, as demonstrated by induced circular dichroism (ICD). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity of gold(I) complexes that contain tri-tert-butylphosphine and dialkyl dithiocarbamate ligands.

    Altaf, Muhammad; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M; Seliman, Adam A A; Sohail, Manzar; Wazeer, Mohammed I M; Isab, Anvarhusein A; Li, L; Dhuna, V; Bhatia, G; Dhuna, K


    Two new gold(I) complexes that contain tri-ter-butylphosphine and dialkyl dithiocarbamate ligands were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, Cyclic voltammetry, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro cytotoxicity of both complexes was examined against A549 (lung cancer), MCF7 (breast cancer), and HeLa (cervical cancer) human cancer cell lines. Both complexes exhibit very strong in vitro cytotoxic effects against A549, MCF7 and HeLa cell lines. The screening of the cytotoxic activity based on IC50 data against the A549, MCF7, and HeLa lines shows that the synthesized gold(I) complexes are highly effective, particularly against HeLa cancer cell line. Based on IC50 data, the cytotoxic activity of both complexes is better than well-known commercial anticancer drug cisplatin against all the three cancer lines tested.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activity of gold(I) complexes that contain tri-tert-butylphosphine and dialkyl dithiocarbamate ligands

    Altaf, Muhammad


    Two new gold(I) complexes that contain tri-ter-butylphosphine and dialkyl dithiocarbamate ligands were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, Cyclic voltammetry, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro cytotoxicity of both complexes was examined against A549 (lung cancer), MCF7 (breast cancer), and HeLa (cervical cancer) human cancer cell lines. Both complexes exhibit very strong in vitro cytotoxic effects against A549, MCF7 and HeLa cell lines. The screening of the cytotoxic activity based on IC50 data against the A549, MCF7, and HeLa lines shows that the synthesized gold(I) complexes are highly effective, particularly against HeLa cancer cell line. Based on IC50 data, the cytotoxic activity of both complexes is better than well-known commercial anticancer drug cisplatin against all the three cancer lines tested.

  7. Insights into the Halogen Oxidative Addition Reaction to Dinuclear Gold(I) Di(NHC) Complexes

    Baron, Marco


    Gold(I) dicarbene complexes [Au2(MeIm-Y-ImMe)2](PF6)2(Y=CH2(1), (CH2)2(2), (CH2)4(4), MeIm=1-methylimidazol-2-ylidene) react with iodine to give the mixed-valence complex [Au(MeIm-CH2-ImMe)2AuI2](PF6)2(1 aI) and the gold(III) complexes [Au2I4(MeIm-Y-ImMe)2](PF6)2(2 cIand 4 cI). Reaction of complexes 1 and 2 with an excess of ICl allows the isolation of the tetrachloro gold(III) complexes [Au2Cl4(MeIm-CH2-ImMe)2](PF6)2(1 cCl) and [Au2Cl4(MeIm-(CH2)2-ImMe)2](Cl)2(2 cCl-Cl) (as main product); remarkably in the case of complex 2, the X-ray molecular structure of the crystals also shows the presence of I-Au-Cl mixed-sphere coordination. The same type of coordination has been observed in the main product of the reaction of complexes 3 or 4 with ICl. The study of the reactivity towards the oxidative addition of halogens to a large series of dinuclear bis(dicarbene) gold(I) complexes has been extended and reviewed. The complexes react with Cl2, Br2and I2to give the successive formation of the mixed-valence gold(I)/gold(III) n aXand gold(III) n cX(excluding compound 1 cI) complexes. However, complex 3 affords with Cl2and Br2the gold(II) complex 3 bX[Au2X2(MeIm-(CH2)3-ImMe)2](PF6)2(X=Cl, Br), which is the predominant species over compound 3 cXeven in the presence of free halogen. The observed different relative stabilities of the oxidised complexes of compounds 1 and 3 have also been confirmed by DFT calculations. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Cytotoxic properties of a new organometallic platinum(II) complex and its gold(I) heterobimetallic derivatives.

    Serratrice, Maria; Maiore, Laura; Zucca, Antonio; Stoccoro, Sergio; Landini, Ida; Mini, Enrico; Massai, Lara; Ferraro, Giarita; Merlino, Antonello; Messori, Luigi; Cinellu, Maria Agostina


    A novel platinum(ii) organometallic complex, [Pt(pbi)(Me)(DMSO)], bearing the 2-(2'-pyridyl)-benzimidazole (pbiH) ligand, was synthesized and fully characterized. Interestingly, the reaction of this organometallic platinum(ii) complex with two distinct gold(i) phosphane compounds afforded the corresponding heterobimetallic derivatives with the pbi ligand bridging the two metal centers. The antiproliferative properties in vitro of [Pt(pbi)(Me)(DMSO)] and its gold(i) derivatives as well as those of the known coordination platinum(ii) and palladium(ii) complexes with the same ligand, of the general formula [MCl2(pbiH)], were comparatively evaluated against A2780 cancer cells, either sensitive or resistant to cisplatin. A superior biological activity of the organometallic compound clearly emerged compared to the corresponding platinum(ii) complex; the antiproliferative effects are further enhanced upon attaching the gold(i) triphenylphosphine moiety to the organometallic Pt compound. Remarkably, these novel metal species are able to overcome nearly complete resistance to cisplatin. Significant mechanistic insight into the study compounds was gained after investigating their reactions with a few representative biomolecules by electrospray mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The obtained results are comprehensively discussed.

  9. Computational chemistry insights in the REDOX Behaviour of Cr and W Fischer carbene complexes

    Landman, Marile; Conradie, Jeanet; van Rooyen, Petrus H.


    An electrochemical study of a series of Fischer carbene complexes containing a hetero-aryl group showed that Cr and W carbenes exhibit different electrochemical behaviour. The Cr carbenes are oxidized in two one electron oxidation processes, namely Cr(0) to Cr(I) and Cr(I) to Cr(II). On the contrary, Fischer carbene complexes of tungsten are directly oxidized from W(0) to W(II). The first reduction process observed for both W- and Cr- carbenes, is a one electron process. A density functional theory (DFT) computational chemistry study of the electronic structure of the Cr- and W-carbenes, showed that the oxidation is metal based and the reduction is located on the carbene ligand. The DFT calculations further showed that the Cr(II) species is a triplet and the W(II) species a closed shell singlet. The DFT calculated energies of the HOMO and LUMO of the neutral carbenes relate linearly to the experimental oxidation and reduction potential, respectively. These mathematical relationships obtained can be used to predict experimentally measured potentials of related Fischer carbene complexes.

  10. Novel gold(I) complexes with 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione and phosphine as potential anticancer and antileishmanial agents.

    Chaves, Joana Darc S; Tunes, Luiza Guimarães; de J Franco, Chris Hebert; Francisco, Thiago Martins; Corrêa, Charlane Cimini; Murta, Silvane M F; Monte-Neto, Rubens Lima; Silva, Heveline; Fontes, Ana Paula S; de Almeida, Mauro V


    The current anticancer and antileishmanial drug arsenal presents several limitations concerning their specificity, efficacy, costs and the emergence of drug-resistant cells lines, which encourages the urgent need to search for new alternatives. Inspired by the fact that gold(I)-based compounds are promising antitumoral and antileishmanial drug candidates, we synthesized novel gold(I) complexes containing phosphine and 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione and evaluated their anticancer and antileishmanial activities. Synthesis was performed by reacting 5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione derivatives with chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I) and chloro(triethylphosphine)gold(I). The novel compounds were characterized by infrared, Raman, (1)H, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution mass spectra, and x-ray crystallography. The coordination of the ligands to gold(I) occurred through the exocyclic sulfur atom. All gold(I) complexes were active at low micromolar or nanomolar range with IC50 values ranging from gold(I) complexes were more active than the conterparts triphenylphosphine derivatives for both anticancer and antileishmanial activities. Triethylphosphine gold(I) derivatives presented antimony cross-resistance in L. guyanensis demonstrating their potential to be used as chemical tools to better understand mechanisms of drug resistance and action. These findings revealed the anticancer and antileishmanial potential of gold(I) oxadiazole phosphine derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxic and antitubercular activities of new gold(I) and gold(III) complexes containing ligands derived from carbohydrates.

    Chaves, Joana Darc Souza; Damasceno, Jaqueline Lopes; Paula, Marcela Cristina Ferreira; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Azevedo, Gustavo Chevitarese; Matos, Renato Camargo; Lourenço, Maria Cristina S; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Silva, Heveline; Fontes, Ana Paula Soares; de Almeida, Mauro Vieira


    Novel gold(I) and gold(III) complexes containing derivatives of D-galactose, D-ribose and D-glucono-1,5-lactone as ligands were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H, and (13)C NMR, high resolution mass spectra and cyclic voltammetry. The compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxicity against three types of tumor cells: cervical carcinoma (HeLa) breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and glioblastoma (MO59J) and one non-tumor cell line: human lung fibroblasts (GM07492A). Their antitubercular activity was evaluated as well expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) in μg/mL. In general, the gold(I) complexes were more active than gold(III) complexes, for example, the gold(I) complex (1) was about 8.8 times and 7.6 times more cytotoxic than gold(III) complex (8) in MO59J and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Ribose and alkyl phosphine derivative complexes were more active than galactose and aryl phosphine complexes. The presence of a thiazolidine ring did not improve the cytotoxicity. The study of the cytotoxic activity revealed effective antitumor activities for the gold(I) complexes, being more active than cisplatin in all the tested tumor cell lines. Gold(I) compounds (1), (2), (3), (4) and (6) exhibited relevant antitubercular activity even when compared with first line drugs such as rifampicin.

  12. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Palladium Complex Catalyzed Oxidative Carbonylation of Amines to Ureas

    ZHENG,Shu-Zhan; PENG,Xin-Gao; LIU,Jian-Ming; SUN,Wei; XIA,Chun-Gu


    Palladium carbene shows high efficiency without any promoter on oxidative carbonylation of amines to ureas and a new type of palladium carbene complex containing both an aniline and an NHC ligands was found to be the active species for the reaction.

  13. Synthetic and Structural Studies of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Nickel

    WANG,Jun-Wen; XU,Fang-Bo; LI,Qiang-Shan; SONG,Hai-Bin; LIU,Yong-Sheng; ZHANG,Zheng-Zhi


    @@ Transition metal complexes of stable N-heterocyclic carbenes have recently gained increasing attention as pre-catalysts for a number of important reactions primarily based on the analogy between N-heterocyclic carbenes and strong ó-donating tertiary phosphines,[1] Although a large number of transition-metal carbene complexes have been reported, very few incorporate chelating carbenes were reported.[2,3] Therefore, we have set out to prepare and study transition-metal compounds with chelating di-N-heterocyclic carbenes, and we now report new dicationic tetra(carbine)nickel(Ⅱ) complexes in this class (Scheme 1). Their structures have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies (Figure 1).

  14. N-Heterocyclic carbene metal complexes in medicinal chemistry.

    Oehninger, Luciano; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Ott, Ingo


    Metal complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are widely used in chemistry due to their catalytic properties and applied for olefin metathesis among other reactions. The enhanced application of this type of organometallics has over the last few years also triggered a steadily increasing number of studies in the fields of medicinal chemistry, which take advantage of the fascinating chemical properties of these complexes. In fact it has been demonstrated that metal NHC complexes can be used to develop highly efficient metal based drugs with possible applications in the treatment of cancer or infectious diseases. Complexes of silver and gold have been biologically evaluated most frequently but also platinum or other transition metals have demonstrated promising biological properties.

  15. Gold(I) NHC-based homo- and heterobimetallic complexes : synthesis, characterization and evaluation as potential anticancer agents

    Bertrand, Benoit; Citta, Anna; Franken, Inge L.; Picquet, Michel; Folda, Alessandra; Scalcon, Valeria; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Le Gendre, Pierre; Casini, Angela; Bodio, Ewen


    While N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) are ubiquitous ligands in catalysis for organic or industrial syntheses, their potential to form transition metal complexes for medicinal applications has still to be exploited. Within this frame, we synthesized new homo- and heterobimetallic complexes based on th

  16. N-heterocyclic carbene-ruthenium complexes for the racemization of chiral alcohols.

    Bosson, Johann; Nolan, Steven P


    The activity of well-defined 16-electron ruthenium complexes bearing an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand in the racemization of chiral alcohols is reported. Mechanistic considerations are also presented.

  17. Ionic liquid effects on Mizoroki-Heck reactions: more than just carbene complex formation.

    Gyton, Matthew R; Cole, Marcus L; Harper, Jason B


    Reaction profiles for a Mizoroki-Heck reaction in either an ionic liquid or a molecular solvent with different palladium sources demonstrate that the rate enhancements observed in ionic liquids cannot be solely attributed to Pd-carbene complex formation.

  18. In Vitro Antitumor Active Gold(I Triphenylphosphane Complexes Containing 7-Azaindoles

    Pavel Štarha


    Full Text Available A series of gold(I complexes of the general composition [Au(naza(PPh3] (1–8 was prepared and thoroughly characterized (e.g., electrospray ionization (ESI mass spectrometry and multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The N1-deprotonated anions of 7-azaindole or its derivatives (naza are coordinated to the metal centre through the N1 atom of their pyrrole ring, as proved by a single crystal X-ray analysis of the complexes [Au(3I5Braza(PPh3] (7 and [Au(2Me4Claza(PPh3]·½H2O (8′. The in vitrocytotoxicity of the complexes 1–8 was studied against both the cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant variants of the A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cell line, as well as against the MRC-5 human normal fibroblast cell line. The complexes 4, 5, and 8, containing deprotonated 3-iodo-7-azaindole, 5-bromo-7-azaindole, and 2-methyl-4-chloro-7-azaindole (2Me4Claza, respectively, showed significantly higher potency (IC50 = 2.8–3.5 µM than cisplatin (IC50 = 20.3 µM against the A2780 cells and markedly lower effect towards the MRC-5 non-cancerous cells (IC50 = 26.0–29.2 µM, as compared with the mentioned A2780 cancer cells. The results of the flow cytometric studies of the A2780 cell cycle perturbations revealed a G2-cell cycle phase arrest of the cells treated by the representative complexes 1 and 5, which is indicative of a different mechanism of action from cisplatin (induced S-cell cycle phase arrest. The stability of the representative complex 8 in the water-containing solution as well as its ability to interact with the reduced glutathione, cysteine and bovine serum albumin was also studied using 1H and 31P-NMR spectroscopy (studied in the 50% DMF-d7/50% D2O mixture and ESI+ mass spectrometry (studied in the 50% DMF/50% H2O mixture; DMF = dimethylformamide. The obtained results are indicative for the release of the N-donor azaindole-based ligand in the presence of the used biomolecules.

  19. Homobimetallic Ruthenium-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes For Olefin Metathesis

    Sauvage, Xavier; Demonceau, Albert; Delaude, Lionel

    In this chapter, the synthesis and catalytic activity towards olefin metathesis of homobimetallic ruthenium (Ru)-alkylidene, -cyclodiene or -arene complexes bearing phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the last category of bimetallic compounds. Three representatives of this new type of molecular scaffold were investigated. Thus, [(p-cymene)Ru(m-Cl)3RuCl (h2-C2H4)(L)] complexes with L = PCy3 (15a), IMes (16a), or IMesCl2 (16b) were prepared. They served as catalyst precursors for cross-metathesis (CM) of various styrene derivatives. These experiments revealed the outstanding aptitude of complex 16a (and to a lesser extent of 16b) to catalyze olefin metathesis reactions. Contrary to monometallic Ru-arene complexes of the [RuCl2(p-cymene)(L)] type, the new homobimetallic species did not require the addition of a diazo compound nor visible light illumination to initiate the ring-opening metathesis of norbornene or cyclooctene. When diethyl 2,2-diallylmalonate and N,N-diallyltosylamide were exposed to 16a,b, a mixture of cycloisomerization and ring-closing metathesis (RCM) products was obtained in a nonselective way. Addition of phenylacetylene enhanced the metathetical activity while completely repressing the cycloisomerization process.

  20. Chromium-53 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of pentacarbonylchromium-carbene complexes

    Hafner, A.; Hegedus, L.S.; DeWeck, G.; Hawkins, B. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA)); Doetz, K.H. (Universitaet Hans-Meerweinstrasse, Marburg (Germany, F.R.))


    The {sup 53}Cr NMR spectra of 46 chromium-carbene complexes were recorded, and chemical shift and line width data are reported, along with associated infrared, uv-visible, and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic data. The {sup 53}Cr chemical shifts correlated very well with the donor-acceptor properties of the carbene ligand and were quite sensitive to steric influences on efficiency of {pi}-overlap of the heteroatom with the carbene carbon. There was no correlation of {delta}({sup 53}Cr) with reactivity toward imines to form {beta}-lactams, but line width appeared to be related to reactivity. Preliminary attempts to utilize {sup 53}Cr NMR data to direct synthetic utilization of chromium-carbene complexes are reported. 5 refs., 49 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Cyclic (Alkyl)(Amino)Carbene Complexes of Rhodium and Nickel and Their Steric and Electronic Parameters.

    Paul, Ursula S D; Sieck, Carolin; Haehnel, Martin; Hammond, Kai; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo


    N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAACs) are of great interest, as their electronic and steric properties provide a unique class of ligands and organocatalysts. Herein, substitution reactions involving novel carbonyl complexes of rhodium and nickel were studied to provide a deeper understanding of the fundamental electronic factors characterizing CAAC(methyl) , which were compared with the large array of data available for NHC and sterically more demanding CAAC ligands.

  2. Synthesis and Properties of Chelating N-Heterocyclic Carbene Rhodium(I) Complexes: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organometallic Chemistry

    Mata, Jose A.; Poyatos, Macarena; Mas-Marza, Elena


    The preparation and characterization of two air-stable Rh(I) complexes bearing a chelating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is described. The synthesis involves the preparation of a Ag(I)-NHC complex and its use as carbene transfer agent to a Rh(I) precursor. The so obtained complex can be further reacted with carbon monoxide to give the…

  3. A DFT and structural investigation of the conformations of Fischer carbene complexes

    Landman, Marilé


    A set of different Fischer carbene complexes of group VI and VII metals, with varied heteroatom and heteroaromatic substituents on the carbene carbon atom, was studied. Density functional theory as well as single crystal diffraction techniques were employed to investigated the most stable conformation of these complexes. The complexes studied, [M(CO)4L{C(X)Z}], with L = PPh3 or CO, X = ethoxy (-OCH2CH3) or amino (-NH2 or NHCy) substituents as the heteroatom carbene substituents, Z = 2-furyl (-C4H3O), 2-thienyl (-C4H3S), 2-(N-methyl)pyrrolyl (-C4H3NCH3) as the second carbene substituent had their substituents varied systematically to give all the possible conformations of these complexes. The conformations of the complexes, in particular the relative orientations of the heteroatoms in the molecule (syn vs. anti), E/Z isomerism in the aminocarbene complexes and cis/trans isomerism in the ligand substituted complexes as well as various combinations of these aspects, were studied. In general, it was found that the most stable conformation theoretically as well as in the solid state for most of the complexes preferred the syn conformation. The Z-isomer is generally preferred over the E isomer while the cis is more predominant than the trans isomer. Using DFT and NBO calculations, explanations for the preferred conformations were explored. It was concluded that both steric and electronic factors influence the conformations of the carbene complexes, with the extent of contribution of these two factors varying for each of the different carbene substituents.

  4. Gold nanoparticles generated by thermolysis of "all-in-one" gold(I) carboxylate complexes.

    Tuchscherer, A; Schaarschmidt, D; Schulze, S; Hietschold, M; Lang, H


    Consecutive synthesis methodologies for the preparation of the gold(I) carboxylates [(Ph(3)P)AuO(2)CCH(2)(OCH(2)CH(2))(n)OCH(3)] (n = 0-6) (6a-g) are reported, whereby selective mono-alkylation of diols HO(CH(2)CH(2)O)(n)H (n = 0-6), Williamson ether synthesis and metal carboxylate (Ag, Au) formation are the key steps. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of 6a (n = 0) and 6b (n = 1) were carried out showing that the P-Au-O unit is essentially linear. These compounds were applied in the formation of gold nanoparticles (NP) by a thermally induced decomposition process and hence the addition of any further stabilizing and reducing reagents, respectively, is not required. The ethylene glycol functionalities, providing multiple donating capabilities, are able to stabilise the encapsulated gold colloids. The dependency of concentration, generation time and ethylene glycol chain lengths on the NP size and size distribution is discussed. Characterisation of the gold colloids was performed by TEM, UV/Vis spectroscopy and electron diffraction studies revealing that Au NP are formed with a size of 3.3 (±0.6) to 6.5 (±0.9) nm in p-xylene with a sharp size distribution. Additionally, a decomposition mechanism determined by TG-MS coupling experiments of the gold(i) precursors is reported showing that 1(st) decarboxylation occurs followed by the cleavage of the Au-PPh(3) bond and finally release of ethylene glycol fragments to give Au-NP and the appropriate organics.

  5. From betaines to anionic N-heterocyclic carbenes. Borane, gold, rhodium, and nickel complexes starting from an imidazoliumphenolate and its carbene tautomer

    Ming Liu


    Full Text Available The mesomeric betaine imidazolium-1-ylphenolate forms a borane adduct with tris(pentafluorophenylborane by coordination with the phenolate oxygen, whereas its NHC tautomer 1-(2-phenolimidazol-2-ylidene reacts with (triphenylphosphinegold(I chloride to give the cationic NHC complex [Au(NHC2][Cl] by coordination with the carbene carbon atom. The anionic N-heterocyclic carbene 1-(2-phenolateimidazol-2-ylidene gives the complexes [K][Au(NHC−2], [Rh(NHC−3] and [Ni(NHC−2], respectively. Results of four single crystal analyses are presented.

  6. Blue-emitting dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complex featuring a nearly unit quantum yield

    Baron, Marco


    Dinuclear N-heterocyclic dicarbene gold(I) complexes of general formula [Au 2(RIm-Y-ImR) 2](PF 6) 2 (R = Me, Cy; Y = (CH 2) 1-4, o-xylylene, m-xylylene) have been synthesized and screened for their luminescence properties. All the complexes are weakly emissive in solution whereas in the solid state some of them show significant luminescence intensities. In particular, crystals or powders of the complex with R = Me, Y = (CH 2) 3 exhibit an intense blue emission (λ max = 450 nm) with a high quantum yield (Φ em = 0.96). The X-ray crystal structure of this complex is characterized by a rather short intramolecular Au•••Au distance (3.272 Ǻ). Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been used to calculate the UV/vis properties of the ground state as well as of the first excited state of the complex, the latter featuring a significantly shorter Au•••Au distance. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. A Three-Step Laboratory Sequence to Prepare a Carbene Complex of Silver(I) Chloride

    Canal, John P.; Ramnial, Taramatee; Langlois, Lisa D.; Abernethy, Colin D.; Clyburne, Jason A. C.


    We have developed a multistep inorganic synthesis experiment for our second-year undergraduate teaching laboratory that introduces students to modern organometallic chemistry. The ligands are prepared in two simple steps and the preparation of an air-stable silver carbene complex is accomplished in the third step. The students are introduced to…

  8. Gold-Catalyzed Reactions via Cyclopropyl Gold Carbene-like Intermediates.

    Dorel, Ruth; Echavarren, Antonio M


    Cycloisomerizations of 1,n-enynes catalyzed by gold(I) proceed via electrophilic species with a highly distorted cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene-like structure, which can react with different nucleophiles to form a wide variety of products by attack at the cyclopropane or the carbene carbons. Particularly important are reactions in which the gold(I) carbene reacts with alkenes to form cyclopropanes either intra- or intermolecularly. In the absence of nucleophiles, 1,n-enynes lead to a variety of cycloisomerized products including those resulting from skeletal rearrangements. Reactions proceeding through cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene-like intermediates are ideally suited for the bioinspired synthesis of terpenoid natural products by the selective activation of the alkyne in highly functionalized enynes or polyenynes.

  9. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    Bertolino, María Candelaria, E-mail:; Granados, Alejandro Manuel, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Fischer carbene 1-W reacts via cycloaddition without Cu(I) with azide terminal surface. • This reaction on the surface is regioselective to internal triple bond of 1-W. • 1-W bound to glass surface produce AuNps in situ fixed to the surface. • This ability is independent of how 1-W is bonded to the surface. • This hybrid surface can be valuable as SERS substrate or in heterogeneous catalysis. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as “click reaction” and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV–vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  10. Copper(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes : synthesis, characterisation and applications in synthesis and catalysis

    Santoro, Orlando


    The work described herein focuses on the synthesis and characterisation of copper(I) complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands, their use in catalysis as well as organometallic synthesis and related reaction mechanisms. Two classes of complexes were considered: neutral NHC-Cu(I) species and their cationic analogues. Concerning the former, initial efforts were focused on the development of a general and straightforward synthetic methodology towards complexes of the type [Cu(X)(...

  11. Platinum(iv) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes: their synthesis, characterisation and cytotoxic activity.

    Bouché, M; Dahm, G; Wantz, M; Fournel, S; Achard, T; Bellemin-Laponnaz, S


    Platinum(ii) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes have been oxidized by bromine or iodobenzene dichloride to provide the fully characterised corresponding platinum(iv) NHC complexes. Antiproliferative activities of Pt(iv) NHC complexes were assayed against several cancer cell lines and the results were correlated with respect to their stability. Mechanistic investigations revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production were associated with the cytotoxic process induced by these compounds.

  12. Nucleophilic addition/double cyclization cascade processes between enynyl Fischer carbene complexes and alkynyl malonates.

    Álvarez-Fernández, Ana; Suárez-Rodríguez, Tatiana; Suárez-Sobrino, Ángel L


    Two new selective cascade processes for enynyl Fischer carbene complexes 1 are described in their reaction with alkynyl malonates. When carbene complexes 1 react with the sodium enolate of homopropargyl malonates 3 a consecutive Michael-type addition/cyclopentannulation/6-exo cyclization takes place leading, in a regio- and stereoselective way, to n/5/6 angular tricyclic compounds 5. Furthermore, when propargylic malonates are used, a delayed protonation of the reaction mixture allows intermediate 1,4-addition adduct Ia to evolve through a 5-exo cyclization, consisting of an intramolecular nucleophilic attack from the central carbon of the allenylmetallate over the triple C-C bond. Further spontaneous cyclopentannulation of the resulting metallatriene gives rise to bicyclic and linear polycyclic compounds 6 and 7, some of them bearing a polyquinane framework.

  13. Alkyne hydroarylation with Au N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts

    Cristina Tubaro


    Full Text Available Mono- and dinuclear gold complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligands have been employed as catalysts in the intermolecular hydroarylation of alkynes with simple unfunctionalised arenes. Both mono- and dinuclear gold(III complexes were able to catalyze the reaction; however, the best results were obtained with the mononuclear gold(I complex IPrAuCl. This complex, activated with one equivalent of silver tetrafluoroborate, exhibited under acidic conditions at room temperature much higher catalytic activity and selectivity compared to more commonly employed palladium(II catalysts. Moreover, the complex was active, albeit to a minor extent, even under neutral conditions, and exhibited lower activity but higher selectivity compared to the previously published complex AuCl(PPh3. Preliminary results on intramolecular hydroarylations using this catalytic system indicate, however, that alkyne hydration by traces of water may become a serious competing reaction.

  14. Theoretical NMR spectroscopy of N-heterocyclic carbenes and their metal complexes

    Falivene, Laura


    Recent theoretical analysis of the NMR properties of free N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) and Metal-NHC complexes has complemented experiments, allowing the establishment of structure/property relationships and the rationalization of otherwise surprising experimental results. In this review, the main conclusions from recent literature are discussed, with the aim to offer a vision of the potential of theoretical analyses of NMR properties.

  15. C-13 NMR Spectroscopy of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes Can Selectively Probe sigma Donation in Gold(I) Complexes

    Marchione, Demian; Izquierdo, Maria A.; Bistoni, Giovanni; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Macchioni, Alceo; Zuccaccia, Daniele; Tarantelli, Francesco; Belpassi, Leonardo

    The Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson (DCD) model provides a successful theoretical framework to describe the nature of the chemical bond in transition-metal compounds and is especially useful in structural chemistry and catalysis. However, how to actually measure its constituents (substrate- to-metal donation

  16. Gold(I) NHC-based homo- and heterobimetallic complexes: synthesis, characterization and evaluation as potential anticancer agents.

    Bertrand, Benoît; Citta, Anna; Franken, Inge L; Picquet, Michel; Folda, Alessandra; Scalcon, Valeria; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Le Gendre, Pierre; Casini, Angela; Bodio, Ewen


    While N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) are ubiquitous ligands in catalysis for organic or industrial syntheses, their potential to form transition metal complexes for medicinal applications has still to be exploited. Within this frame, we synthesized new homo- and heterobimetallic complexes based on the Au(I)-NHC scaffold. The compounds were synthesized via a microwave-assisted method developed in our laboratories using Au(I)-NHC complexes carrying a pentafluorophenol ester moiety and another Au(I) phosphane complex or a bipyridine ligand bearing a pendant amine function. Thus, we developed two different methods to prepare homo- and heterobimetallic complexes (Au(I)/Au(I) or Au(I)/Cu(II), Au(I)/Ru(II), respectively). All the compounds were fully characterized by several spectroscopic techniques including far infrared, and were tested for their antiproliferative effects in a series of human cancer cells. They showed moderate anticancer properties. Their toxic effects were also studied ex vivo using the precision-cut tissue slices (PCTS) technique and initial results concerning their reactivity with the seleno-enzyme thioredoxin reductase were obtained.

  17. Methylpalladium complexes with pyrimidine-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands

    Meyer, Dirk


    Summary A series of methylpalladium(II) complexes with pyrimidine-NHC ligands carrying different aryl- and alkyl substituents R ([((pym)^(NHC-R))PdII(CH3)X] with X = Cl, CF3COO, CH3) has been prepared by transmetalation reactions from the corresponding silver complexes and chloro(methyl)(cyclooctadiene)palladium(II). The dimethyl(1-(2-pyrimidyl)-3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene)palladium(II) complex was synthesized via the free carbene route. All complexes were fully characterized by standard methods and in three cases also by a solid state structure. PMID:27559406

  18. Synthesis in situ of gold nanoparticles by a dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex anchored to glass surfaces

    Bertolino, María Candelaria; Granados, Alejandro Manuel


    In this work we present a detailed study of classic reactions such as "click reaction" and nucleophilic substitution reaction but on glass solid surface (slides). We used different reactive center of a dialkynylalcoxy Fischer carbene complex of tungsten(0) to be anchored to modified glass surface with amine, to obtain aminocarbene, and azide terminal groups. These cycloaddition reaction showed regioselectivity to internal triple bond of dialkynyl Fischer carbene complex without Cu(I) as catalyst. Anyway the carbene anchored was able to act as a reducing agent to produce in situ very stable gold nanoparticles fixed on surface. We showed the characterization of modified glasses by contact angle measurements and XPS. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDS and UV-vis. The modified glasses showed an important enhancement Raman-SERS. This simple, fast and robust method to create a polifunctional and hybrid surfaces can be valuable in a wide range of applications such as Raman-SERS substrates and other optical fields.

  19. Bis-ligated Ti and Zr complexes of chelating N-heterocyclic carbenes

    El-Batta, Amer


    In this communication we report the synthesis of novel titanium and zirconium complexes ligated by bidentate "salicylaldimine-like" N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). Double addition of the NHC chelate to either TiCl4(thf)2 or ZrCl4 forms bis-ligated organometallic fragments with a distorted octahedral geometry. These complexes are rare examples of group IV transition-metal NHC adducts. Preliminary catalytic tests demonstrate that in the presence of methylaluminoxane (MAO) these complexes are useful initiators for the polymerization of ethylene and the copolymerization of ethylene with norbornene and 1-octene. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Ag-N-Hetero-cyclic Carbene Complexes

    İlknur Özdemir


    Full Text Available A series of imidazolidinium ligand precursors are metallated with Ag2O to give silver(I N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. All compounds were fully characterized by elemental analyses, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and IR spectroscopy techniques. All compounds studied in this work were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against the standard strains: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and the fungi Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The new imidazolidin-2-ylidene silver complexes have been found to display effective antimicrobial activity against a series of bacteria and fungi.

  1. Backbone tuning in indenylidene–ruthenium complexes bearing an unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene

    César A. Urbina-Blanco


    Full Text Available The steric and electronic influence of backbone substitution in IMes-based (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC was probed by synthesizing the [RhCl(CO2(NHC] series of complexes to quantify experimentally the Tolman electronic parameter (electronic and the percent buried volume (%Vbur, steric parameters. The corresponding ruthenium–indenylidene complexes were also synthesized and tested in benchmark metathesis transformations to establish possible correlations between reactivity and NHC electronic and steric parameters.

  2. Coinage Metal Complexes of the Carbenic Tautomer of a Conjugated Mesomeric Betaine Akin to Nitron

    Charlotte Thie


    Full Text Available This study was motivated by our recent observation that the analytical reagent Nitron (2 is an “instant carbene”, whose reaction with coinage metal salts MX afforded complexes of its carbenic tautomer 1,4-diphenyl-3-phenylamino-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene (2′. Our aim was to establish an alkyl homologue of 2 in order to achieve a carbenic tautomer of higher donicity. For this purpose 1-tert-butyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium-3-tert-butylaminide (6 was synthesized. Its reactions with MX afforded complexes of the carbenic tautomer 1-tert-butyl-3-tert-butylamino-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene (6′. With a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 complexes of the type [MX(6′] were obtained. A ratio of 2:1 furnished complexes of the type [MX(6′2] or [M(6′2]X. 6′ is a better σ-donor and less electrophilic than 2′ according to NMR spectroscopic data of 6H[BF4] and 6′ = Se, respectively, and IR spectroscopic data of [RhCl(6′(CO2] confirm that its net electron donor capacity is superior to that of 2′. A comparison of the complexes of 2′ and 6′ reveals two pronounced structural differences. [CuX(6′2] (X = Cl, Br exhibit more acute C‒Cu‒C bond angles than [CuX(2′2]. In contrast to [CuCl(2′], [CuCl(6′] aggregates through Cu···Cu contacts of ca. 2.87 Å, compatible with cuprophilic interactions. These differences may be explained by the complementary steric requirements of the t-Bu and the Me substituent of 6′.

  3. Sulfur containing platinum(II) complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene ligands obtained by reactions of a hydrosulfido complex.

    Maeda, Yuri; Hashimoto, Hideki; Nishioka, Takanori


    A hydrosulfido platinum(ii) complex with a chelated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was oxidised with O(2) in the presence of excess hydrogen sulfide, to give a linear tetrasulfido complex, and without hydrogen sulfide, to give a thiosulfato-bridged dinuclear complex. The hydrosulfido complex also reacted with an acetato complex containing the chelating NHC platinum unit to afford a trinuclear platinum complex with two triply bridging sulfido ligands showing an equilibrium in solution between two isomers based on the arrangement of the chelating NHC ligands.

  4. Reactivity studies of pincer bis-protic N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of platinum and palladium under basic conditions

    Marelius, David C; Moore, Curtis E; Rheingold, Arnold L


    Summary Bis-protic N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of platinum and palladium (4) yield dimeric structures 6 when treated with sodium tert-butoxide in CH2Cl2. The use of a more polar solvent (THF) and a strong base (LiN(iPr)2) gave the lithium chloride adducts monobasic complex 7 or analogous dibasic complex 8. PMID:27559382

  5. Fluorescent silver(I) and gold(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with cytotoxic properties : mechanistic insights

    Citta, Anna; Schuh, Esther; Mohr, Fabian; Folda, Alessandra; Massimino, Maria Lina; Bindoli, Alberto; Casini, Angela; Rigobello, Maria Pia


    Silver(I) and gold(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes bearing a fluorescent anthracenyl ligand were examined for cytotoxicity in normal and tumor cells. The silver(I) complex exhibits greater cytotoxicity in tumor cells compared with normal cells. Notably, in cell extracts, this complex deter

  6. Reactivity studies of pincer bis-protic N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of platinum and palladium under basic conditions

    David C. Marelius


    Full Text Available Bis-protic N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of platinum and palladium (4 yield dimeric structures 6 when treated with sodium tert-butoxide in CH2Cl2. The use of a more polar solvent (THF and a strong base (LiN(iPr2 gave the lithium chloride adducts monobasic complex 7 or analogous dibasic complex 8.

  7. Fluorescent silver(I) and gold(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with cytotoxic properties : mechanistic insights

    Citta, Anna; Schuh, Esther; Mohr, Fabian; Folda, Alessandra; Massimino, Maria Lina; Bindoli, Alberto; Casini, Angela; Rigobello, Maria Pia


    Silver(I) and gold(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes bearing a fluorescent anthracenyl ligand were examined for cytotoxicity in normal and tumor cells. The silver(I) complex exhibits greater cytotoxicity in tumor cells compared with normal cells. Notably, in cell extracts, this complex

  8. Rhodium catalysed conversion of carbenes into ketenes and ketene imines using PNN pincer complexes

    Tang, Z.; Mandal, S.; Paul, N.D.; Lutz, M.; Li, P.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; de Bruin, B.


    Ketene synthesis involving catalytic carbonylation of carbenes is an interesting alternative to traditional synthetic protocols, offering milder conditions to diversified products. Analogous catalytic ketene imine production from carbenes and isocyanides is also a promising reaction. However, both m

  9. Cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium complex: structure and application as latent catalyst in olefin metathesis.

    Rouen, Mathieu; Queval, Pierre; Falivene, Laura; Allard, Jessica; Toupet, Loïc; Crévisy, Christophe; Caijo, Frédéric; Baslé, Olivier; Cavallo, Luigi; Mauduit, Marc


    An unexpected cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) benzylidene ether based ruthenium complex (2 a) was prepared through the double incorporation of an unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2 -NHC) ligand that bore an N-substituted cyclododecyl side chain. The isolation and full characterization (including X-ray diffraction studies) of key synthetic intermediates along with theoretical calculations allowed us to understand the mechanism of the overall cationization process. Finally, the newly developed complex 2 a displayed interesting latent behavior during ring-closing metathesis, which could be "switched on" under acidic conditions.

  10. Synthesis of donor-acceptor alkynylcyclopropanes by diastereoselective cyclopropanation of electron-deficient alkenes with alkoxyalkynyl Fischer carbene complexes.

    Barluenga, José; Fernández-Rodríguez, Manuel A; García-García, Patricia; Aguilar, Enrique; Merino, Isabel


    The reaction of electron-deficient alkenes with alkoxyalkynyl Fischer carbene complexes (FCCs) represents a straightforward route to a new type of captodative (donor-acceptor) alkynylcyclopropanes, which have been prepared in moderate to high yields and in a diastereoselective manner. Some studies regarding the employment of additives to facilitate the recovery of the metal moiety after the reaction are also described. Finally, the first example of a cyclopropanation reaction through employing Fischer carbene complexes under microwave irradiation is presented; this method proved to be an advantageous alternative to the thermal reaction.

  11. Cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium complex: Structure and application as latent catalyst in olefin metathesis

    Rouen, Mathieu


    An unexpected cationic bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) benzylidene ether based ruthenium complex (2 a) was prepared through the double incorporation of an unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligand that bore an N-substituted cyclododecyl side chain. The isolation and full characterization (including X-ray diffraction studies) of key synthetic intermediates along with theoretical calculations allowed us to understand the mechanism of the overall cationization process. Finally, the newly developed complex 2 a displayed interesting latent behavior during ring-closing metathesis, which could be "switched on" under acidic conditions.

  12. Higher coordinate gold(I) complexes with the weak Lewis base tri(4-fluorophenyl) phosphine. Synthesis, structural, luminescence, and DFT studies

    Agbeworvi, George; Assefa, Zerihun; Sykora, Richard E.; Taylor, Jared; Crawford, Carlos


    The structures and spectroscopic properties of two high coordinate gold(I) phosphine complexes with the TFFPP=tri(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine ligand are reported. Synthesis in a 1:3 metal to ligand ratio provided the compound [AuCl(TFFPP)3] (2) that crystallize in the P 1 bar space group, where the asymmetric unit consists of three independent molecules. In all three sites, two sets of bond angles display distinctly different ranges. The three P-Au-P angles have average values of 117.92°, 117.57°, and 114.78° for sites A, B, and C, with the corresponding P-Au-Cl angles of 98.31°, 99.05°, and 103.38°, respectively. The chloride ion coordinates as the fourth ligand, at the corresponding Au-Cl distance of 2.7337, 2.6825, and 2.6951 Å for the three sites. This distance is longer by 0.40-0.45 Å than the Au-Cl distance found in the mono TFFPP complex 1 (2.285 Å) indicating a weakening of the Au-Cl interaction as the coordination number increases. In compound 3, [Au(TFFPP)3]Cl·½CH2Cl2·H2O, the structure consists of three phosphine ligands bound to the gold(I) atom, but the Cl- exists as uncoordinated counter anion. The structural differences observed in the two complexes are attributable to crystal-packing effects caused by the introduction of H-bonding as well as enhanced intra and inter-molecular π-interaction in 3. The photoluminescence of the complexes compared with that of the ligand show ligand centered emission perturbed by the metal coordination. Theoretical DFT studies conducted on these complexes supports assignments of the electronic transitions observed in these systems.

  13. Unexpected anion effect in the alkoxylation of alkynes catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) cationic gold complexes.

    Biasiolo, Luca; Trinchillo, Marina; Belanzoni, Paola; Belpassi, Leonardo; Busico, Vincenzo; Ciancaleoni, Gianluca; D'Amora, Angela; Macchioni, Alceo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Zuccaccia, Daniele


    The intermolecular alkoxylation of alkynes is the oldest application of cationic gold(I) catalysts; however, no systematic experimental data about the role of the anion are available. In this contribution, the role of the anion in this catalytic reaction as promoted by a N-heterocyclic carbene-based gold catalyst, [(NHC)AuX] (X=BARF(-) , BF4 (-) , OTf(-) , OTs(-) , TFA(-) , or OAc(-) ) is analyzed, through a combined experimental (NMR spectroscopy) and theoretical (DFT calculation) approach. The most important factor seems to be the ability to abstract the proton from the methanol during the nucleophilic attack, and such ability is related to the anion basicity. On the other hand, too high coordination power or basicity of the anion worsens the catalytic performance by preventing alkyne coordination or by forming too much free methoxide in solution, which poisons the catalyst. The intermediate coordinating power and basicity of the OTs(-) anion provides the best compromise to achieve efficient catalysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes in Olefin Metathesis

    Luan, Xinjun; Dorta, Reto; Leitgeb, Anita; Slugovc, Christian; Tiede, Sascha; Blechert, Siegfried

    Olefin metathesis is now a synthetic tool found ubiquitously in various fields involving synthesis. Of its many variations, three are prominently used: (1) catalytic ring closing metathesis (RCM) is an extremely powerful method for the construction of carbon-carbon double bonds in organic chemistry; (2) ring opening metathesis polymerisation (ROMP) where polymers are formed by use of the energy released from cyclic strain; and (3) cross metathesis (CM) where non-cyclic partners are coupled through C-C double bond formation. These important transformations and variations on these themes mediated by second generation ruthenium complexes bearing a NHC ligand will be presented in the following sections.

  15. Cationic iridium(III) complexes with two carbene-based cyclometalating ligands: cis versus trans isomers.

    Monti, Filippo; La Placa, Maria Grazia I; Armaroli, Nicola; Scopelliti, Rosario; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Kessler, Florian


    A series of cationic iridium(III) complexes with two carbene-based cyclometalating ligands and five different N^N bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline ancillary ligands is presented. For the first time--in the frame of a rarely studied class of bis(heteroleptic) iridium complexes with two carbene-based cyclometalating ligands--a pair of cis and trans isomers has been isolated. All complexes (trans-1-5 and cis-3) were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (31)P NMR, and HRMS (ESI-TOF); in addition, crystal structures of cis-3 and trans-4 are reported and discussed. Cyclic voltammetric studies show that the whole series exhibits highly reversible oxidation and reduction processes, suggesting promising potential for optoelectronic applications. Ground-state DFT and TD-DFT calculations nicely predict the blue shift experimentally observed in the room-temperature absorption and emission spectra of cis-3, compared to the trans complexes. In CH3CN, cis-3 displays a 4-fold increase in photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) with respect to trans-3, as a consequence of drastically slower nonradiative rate constant. By contrast, at 77 K, the emission properties of all the compounds, including the cis isomer, are much more similar, with a pronounced hypsochromic shift for the trans complexes. A similar behavior is found in solid state (1% w/w poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix), with all complexes displaying PLQY of ∼70-80%, comparable emission lifetimes (τ ≈ 1.3 μs), and a remarkable rigidochromic shift. To rationalize the more pronounced nonradiative deactivation (and smaller PLQY) observed for photoexcited trans complexes, comparative temperature-dependent emission studies in the range of 77-450 K for cis-3 and trans-3 were made in propylene glycol, showing that solvation effects are primarily responsible for the observed behavior.

  16. On the mechanism of imine elimination from Fischer tungsten carbene complexes

    Veit, Philipp


    Summary (Aminoferrocenyl)(ferrocenyl)carbene(pentacarbonyl)tungsten(0) (CO)5W=C(NHFc)Fc (W(CO) 5 ( E -2)) is synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of the ethoxy group of (CO)5W=C(OEt)Fc (M(CO) 5 (1 Et )) by ferrocenyl amide Fc-NH– (Fc = ferrocenyl). W(CO) 5 ( E -2) thermally and photochemically eliminates bulky E-1,2-diferrocenylimine (E -3) via a formal 1,2-H shift from the N to the carbene C atom. Kinetic and mechanistic studies to the formation of imine E -3 are performed by NMR, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and liquid injection field desorption ionization (LIFDI) mass spectrometry as well as by trapping experiments for low-coordinate tungsten complexes with triphenylphosphane. W(CO) 5 ( E -2) decays thermally in a first-order rate-law with a Gibbs free energy of activation of ΔG ‡ 298K = 112 kJ mol−1. Three proposed mechanistic pathways are taken into account and supported by detailed (time-dependent) densitiy functional theory [(TD)-DFT] calculations. The preferred pathway is initiated by an irreversible CO dissociation, followed by an oxidative addition/pseudorotation/reductive elimination pathway with short-lived, elusive seven-coordinate hydrido tungsten(II) intermediates cis (N,H)-W(CO) 4 (H)( Z -15) and cis (C,H)-W(CO) 4 (H)( Z -15). PMID:27559381

  17. NMR analysis of an Fe(i)-carbene complex with strong magnetic anisotropy.

    Damjanović, Marko; Samuel, Prinson P; Roesky, Herbert W; Enders, Markus


    A tricoordinated Fe(I) complex with two cyclic-alkyl(amino) carbene (cAAC) and one chlorido ligand, (cAAC)2FeCl (1), is studied by means of (1)H NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Due to the cAAC ligands, which can take significant amounts of spin density from the metal center, and due to the magnetic anisotropy of the Fe(I) ion (P. P. Samuel et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 11964-11971), compound 1 is a rare example of a paramagnetic d-block compound which is expected to have significant contributions from both contact and pseudocontact terms to the hyperfine NMR shift. Compound 1 is fluxional, which makes the analysis of its (1)H NMR spectrum more difficult but allows a preliminary assignment from EXSY spectra. Then, a software-aided approach enabled a satisfactory signal assignment of all protons which are distanced from the Fe(I) center and carbene cyclic core, and thereby the extraction of the axial and rhombic components of the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy tensor (Δχ). Components of Δχ enable the calculation of zero-field spitting D and E parameters from solution NMR measurements of 1, and these parameters are compared to previously reported experimental and theoretical values.

  18. Bis-mixed-carbene ruthenium-thiolate-alkylidene complexes: synthesis and olefin metathesis activity.

    Dahcheh, Fatme; Stephan, Douglas W


    A series of bis-carbene Ru-hydride species, including (IMes)(Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)RuHCl (1) and (SIMes)(Me2Im(OMe)2)(PPh3)RuHCl (2) were prepared and subsequently shown to react with aryl-vinyl-sulfides to give the bis-carbene-alkylidene complexes: Im(OMe)2(SIMes)RuCl(SR)(=CHCH3) (R = p-FC6H4 (3), p-(NO2)C6H4 (4)), Im(OMe)2(IMes)RuCl(=CHCH3)(SPh) (5), Me2Im(OMe)2(SIMes)RuCl(=CHCH3)(SPh) (6), Im(OMe)2(SIMes)(F5C6S)RuCl(=CHR) (R = C4H9 (9), C5H11 (10)). The activity of these species in the standard Grubbs' tests for ring-opening metathesis polymerization, ring-closing and cross-metathesis are reported. Although these thiolate derivatives are shown to exhibit modest metathesis activities, the reactivity is enhanced in the presence of BCl3.

  19. Atmospheric Hydrogenation of Esters Catalyzed by PNP-Ruthenium Complexes with an N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand.

    Ogata, Osamu; Nakayama, Yuji; Nara, Hideki; Fujiwhara, Mitsuhiko; Kayaki, Yoshihito


    New pincer ruthenium complexes bearing a monodentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligand were synthesized and demonstrated as powerful hydrogenation catalysts. With an atmospheric pressure of hydrogen gas, aromatic, heteroaromatic, and aliphatic esters as well as lactones were converted into the corresponding alcohols at 50 °C. This reaction protocol offers reliable access to alcohols using an easy operational setup.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of furan- and thiophene-functionalized bis(n-heterocyclic carbene) complexes of iron(II)

    Rieb, Julia


    The synthesis of iron(II) complexes bearing new heteroatom-functionalized methylene-bridged bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) ligands is reported. All complexes are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Tetrakis(acetonitrile)-cis-[bis(o-imidazol-2-ylidenefuran)methane]iron(II) hexafluorophosphate (2a) and tetrakis(acetonitrile)-cis-[bis(o-imidazol-2-ylidenethiophene)methane]iron(II) hexafluorophosphate (2b) were obtained by aminolysis of [Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2(THF)] with furan- and thiophene-functionalized bis(imidazolium) salts 1a and 1b in acetonitrile. The SC-XRD structures of 2a and 2b show coordination of the bis(carbene) ligand in a bidentate fashion instead of a possible tetradentate coordination. The four other coordination sites of these distorted octahedral complexes are occupied by acetonitrile ligands. Crystallization of 2a in an acetone solution by the slow diffusion of Et2O led to the formation of cisdiacetonitriledi[ bis(o-imidazol-2-ylidenefuran)methane]iron(II) hexafluorophosphate (3a) with two bis(carbene) ligands coordinated in a bidentate manner and two cis-positioned acetonitrile molecules. Compounds 2a and 2b are the first reported iron(II) carbene complexes with four coordination sites occupied by solvent molecules, and it was demonstrated that those solvent ligands can undergo ligand-exchange reactions.

  1. A cationic rhodium(I N-heterocyclic carbene complex isolated as an aqua adduct

    Ashley L. Huttenstine


    Full Text Available The title complex, aqua[1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene](η4-cycloocta-1,5-dienerhodium(I tetrafluoridoborate, [Rh(C8H12(C27H36N2(H2O]BF4, exihibits a square-planar geometry around the Rh(I atom, formed by a bidentate cycloocta-1,5-diene (cod ligand, an N-heterocylcic carbene and an aqua ligand. The complex is cationic and a BF4− anion balances the charge. The structure exists as a hydrogen-bonded dimer in the solid state, formed via interactions between the aqua ligand H atoms and the BF4− F atoms.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of novel silver(I) complexes with coumarin substituted N-heterocyclic carbene ligands.

    Karataş, Mert Olgun; Olgundeniz, Begüm; Günal, Selami; Özdemir, İlknur; Alıcı, Bülent; Çetinkaya, Engin


    Eight new coumarin substituted silver(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes were synthesized by the interaction of the corresponding imidazolium or benzimidazolium chlorides and Ag2O in dichloromethane at room temperature. Structures of these complexes were established on the basis of elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The antimicrobial activities of carbene precursors and silver NHC complexes were tested against standard strains: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungi Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Results showed that all the compounds inhibited the growth of the all bacteria and fungi strains and some complexes performed good activities against different microorganisms. Among all the compounds, the most lipophilic complex bis[1-(4-methylene-6,8-dimethyl-2H-chromen-2-one)-3-(naphthalene-2-ylmethyl)benzimidazol-2-ylidene]silver(I) dichloro argentate (5e) was found out as the most active one.

  3. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Osztrovszky, Gyorgyi; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk


    The direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is described with the simultaneous liberation of dihydrogen. The reaction does not require any stoichiometric additives or hydrogen acceptors and is catalyzed by ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. Three different catalyst systems...... chloride and base. A range of different primary alcohols and amines have been coupled in the presence of the three catalyst systems to afford the corresponding amides in moderate to excellent yields. The best results are obtained with sterically unhindered alcohols and amines. The three catalyst systems do...... not show any significant differences in reactivity, which indicates that the same catalytically active species is operating. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol to the aldehyde that stays coordinated to ruthenium and is not released into the reaction...

  4. Nanofiber composites containing N-heterocyclic carbene complexes with antimicrobial activity

    Elzatahry AA


    Full Text Available Ahmed A Elzatahry1,4, Abdullah M Al-Enizi1, Elsayed Ahmed Elsayed2,5, Rachel R Butorac3, Salem S Al-Deyab1, Mohammad AM Wadaan2, Alan H Cowley31Petrochemical Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, 2Chair of Advanced Proteomics & Cytomics Research, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 4Institute of Advanced Technology and New Materials, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg Alrab, Alexandria, Egypt; 5Natural & Microbial Products Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: This report concerns nanofiber composites that incorporate N-heterocyclic carbenes and the use of such composites for testing antimicrobial and antifungal activities. The nanofiber composites were produced by electrospinning mixtures of the gold chloride or gold acetate complexes of a bis(iminoacenaphthene (BIAN-supported NHC with aqueous solutions of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. The products were characterized by scanning-electron microscopy, which revealed that nanofibers in the range of 250–300 nm had been produced. The biological activities of the nanofiber composites were tested against two Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and two fungal strains. No activity was evident against the fungal strains. However, the gold chloride complex was found to be active against all the Gram-positive pathogens and one of the Gram-negative pathogens. It was also found that the activity of the produced nanofibers was localized and that no release of the bioactive compound from the nanofibers was evident. The demonstrated antimicrobial activities of these novel nanofiber composites render them potentially useful as wound dressings.Keywords: nanofiber, electrospinning, N-Heterocyclic carbene, biopolymer, antimicrobial

  5. Alkyne-Azide Cycloaddition Catalyzed by Silver Chloride and “Abnormal” Silver N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Aldo I. Ortega-Arizmendi


    Full Text Available A library of 1,2,3-triazoles was synthesized from diverse alkynes and azides using catalytic amounts of silver chloride instead of copper compounds. In addition, a novel “abnormal” silver N-heterocyclic carbene complex was tested as catalyst in this process. The results suggest that the reaction requires only 0.5% of silver complex, affording 1,2,3-triazoles in good yields.

  6. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Heterocycles and Related Substances Based on α-Imino Rhodium Carbene Complexes Derived from N-Sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles.

    Jiang, Yu; Sun, Run; Tang, Xiang-Ying; Shi, Min


    In recent years, α-imino rhodium carbene complexes derived by ring-opening of N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles have attracted much attention from organic chemists. Many transformations of these species have been reported that involve, in most cases, nucleophilic attack at the carbene center of the α-imino rhodium carbene, facilitating the synthesis of a wide range of novel and useful compounds, particularly heterocycles. This Minireview mainly focuses on advances in the transformation of N-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles during the past two years.

  7. Axially chiral benzimidazolium based silver(I) and gold(I) bis-NHC complexes of R-BINOL scaffold: synthesis, characterization and DFT studies



    The axially chiral ligand of R-BINOL scaffold was synthesized by a series of manipulations which involved different chemical reactions to obtain the desired sliver(I) and gold(I) {[L(L' -NHC) ₂]M}Cl (L = 3,3' -dimethyl-2,2' -dimethoxy-1,1' -binaphthyl, L' = i-propyl-benzo[d]imidazole) (M =Ag and Au)complexes. Enantiopure R-BINOL was employed as a basic unit to synthesize a benzimidazole based bis- NHC ligand 1g which was obtained through the formation of different intermediate 1(a-f) compounds. The newly synthesized bis-NHC ligand precursor (1g) and its corresponding {[L(L' -NHC) ₂]Ag}Cl (1h) and {[L(L' _-NHC) ₂]Au}Cl (1i) complexes were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques. The geometries of the optimized structure of the complexes 1h and 1i were computed at the B3LYP/SDD, 6-31G(d) level. Lowtemperature fluorescence spectroscopic studies did not show any evidence for the weak metal-metal interaction in these complexes.

  8. Application of silver N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in O-glycosidation reactions.

    Talisman, Ian J; Kumar, Vineet; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Frisch, Mark; Malhotra, Sanjay V


    We report the efficient O-glycosidation of glycosyl bromides with therapeutically relevant acceptors facilitated by silver N-heterocyclic carbene (Ag-NHC) complexes. A set of four Ag-NHC complexes was synthesized and evaluated as promoters for glycosidation reactions. Two new bis-Ag-NHC complexes derived from ionic liquids 1-benzyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazolium chloride and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride were found to efficiently promote glycosidation, whereas known mono-Ag complexes of 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride and 1,3-bis(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)imidazolium chloride failed to facilitate the reaction. The structures of the promoters were established by X-ray crystallography and these complexes were employed in the glycosidation of different glycosyl bromide donors with biologically valuable acceptors, such as estrone, estradiol, and various flavones. The products were obtained in yields considered good to excellent, and all reactions were highly selective for the β isomer regardless of neighboring group effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ruthenium complexes of chelating amido-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: Synthesis, structure and DFT studies

    Sachin Kumar; Anantha Narayanan; Mitta Nageswar Rao; Mobin M Shaikh; Prasenjit Ghosh


    Synthesis, structure and density functional theory (DFT) studies of a series of new ruthenium complexes, [1-(R)-3--(benzylacetamido)imidazol-2-ylidene]RuCl(-cymene) [R = Me (1c), -Pr (2c), CH2Ph (3c); -cymene = 4--propyltoluene] supported over /-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are reported. In particular, the ruthenium (1-3)c complexes were synthesized from the respective silver complexes, [1-(R)-3--(benzylacetamido)imidazol-2-ylidene]2Ag+Cl− [R = Me (1b), -Pr (2b), CH2Ph (3b)] by the treatment with [Ru(-cymene)Cl2]2 in 65-76% yields. The molecular structures of (1-3)c revealed the chelation of the N-heterocylic carbene ligand through the carbene center and an amido sidearm of the ligand in all of the three complexes. The density functional theory studies on the ruthenium (1-3)c complexes indicated strong binding of the NHC ligand to the metal center as was observed from the deeply buried NHC-Ru -bonding molecular orbitals.

  10. Silver complexes of 1,2,4-triazole derived N-heterocyclic carbenes: Synthesis, structure and reactivity studies

    Chandrakanta Dash; Mobin M Shaikh; Prasenjit Ghosh


    Two silver(I) complexes {[1-R-4-(-t4-butylacetamido)-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene]2Ag}+ Cl− [R = Et (1b), -Pr (2b)] of /-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes derived from 1,2,4-triazoles are reported. The silver complexes, 1b and 2b, have been synthesized from the reaction of the /-functionalized triazolium chloride salts namely, 1-R-4-(N-t-butylacetamido)-1,2,4-triazolium chloride [R = Et (1a), -Pr (2a)] by treatment with Ag2O in 53-56% yield. The 1,2,4-triazolium chloride salts 1a and 2a were prepared by the alkylation reaction of 1-R-1,2,4-triazole (R = Et, -Pr) with --butyl-2-chloro acetamide in 47-63% yield. The molecular structures of the silver(I) complexes, 1b and 2b, have been determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The density functional theory studies on the silver 1b and 2b complexes suggest that the 1,2,4-triazole derived N-heterocyclic carbenes to be strong −donating ligands similar to the now much recognized imidazolebased N-heterocyclic carbenes. The reactivity studies with (SMe2)AuCl and (SMe2)CuBr indicated the silver complexes, 1b and 2b, to be good transmetallating agents.

  11. Effects of Phosphine-Carbene Substitutions on the Electrochemical and Thermodynamic Properties of Nickel Complexes

    Galan, Brandon R.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; Appel, Aaron M.


    Nickel(II) complexes containing chelating N-heterocyclic carbene-phosphine ligands ([NiL2](BPh4)2, for which L = [MeIm(CH2)2PR2]) have been synthesized for the purpose of studying how this class of ligand effects the electrochemical properties compared to the nickel bis- diphosphine analogues. The nickel complexes were synthesized and characterized by x-ray crystallography and electrochemical methods. Based on the half wave potentials (E1/2), substitution of an NHC for one of the phosphines in a diphoshine ligand results in shifts in potential to 0.6 V to 1.2 V more negative than the corresponding nickel bis-diphosphine complexes. These quantitative results highlight the substantial effect that NHC ligands can have upon the electronic properties of the metal complexes. BRG, JCL, and AMA acknowledge the support by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. MLH acknoledges the support of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  12. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Imines from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert


    A new method for the direct synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described where hydrogen gas is liberated. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves. The imination can be a...... to the aldehyde, which stays coordinated to ruthenium. Nucleophilic attack of the amine affords the hemiaminal, which is released from ruthenium and converted into the imine....

  13. One-pot three-component synthesis of quinoxaline and phenazine ring systems using Fischer carbene complexes

    Priyabrata Roy


    Full Text Available One-pot three-component coupling of o-alkynylheteroaryl carbonyl derivatives with Fischer carbene complexes and dienophiles leading to the synthesis of quinoxaline and phenazine ring systems has been investigated. This involves the generation of furo[3,4-b]pyrazine and furo[3,4-b]quinoxaline as transient intermediates, which were trapped with Diels–Alder dienophiles. This is the first report on furo[3,4-b]pyrazine intermediates.

  14. Preparation of a N-Heterocyclic Carbene Nickel(II) Complex: Synthetic Experiments in Current Organic and Organometallic Chemistry

    Ritleng, Vincent; Brenner, Eric; Chetcuti, Michael J.


    A four-part experiment that leads to the synthesis of a cyclopentadienyl chloro-nickel(II) complex bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand is presented. In the first part, the preparation of 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMes[middle dot]HCl) in a one-pot procedure by reaction of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline with…

  15. Cationic tungsten-oxo-alkylidene-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes: highly active olefin metathesis catalysts.

    Schowner, Roman; Frey, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R


    The synthesis, structure, and olefin metathesis activity of the first neutral and cationic W-oxo-alkylidene-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalysts are reported. Neutral W-oxo-alkylidene-NHC catalysts can be prepared in up to 90% isolated yield. Depending on the ligands used, they possess either an octahedral (Oh) or trigonal bipyramidal ligand sphere. They can be activated with excess AlCl3 to form cationic olefin metathesis-active W-complexes; however, these readily convert into neutral chloro-complexes. Well-defined, stable cationic species can be prepared by stoichiometric substitution of one chloro ligand in the parent, neutral W-oxo-alkylidene-NHC complexes with Ag(MeCN)2B(Ar(F))4 or NaB(Ar(F))4; B(Ar(F))4 = B(3,5-(CF3)2-C6H3)4. They are highly active olefin metathesis catalysts, allowing for turnover numbers up to 10,000 in various olefin metathesis reactions including alkenes bearing nitrile, sec-amine, and thioether groups.

  16. The inverse-trans-influence in tetravalent lanthanide and actinide bis(carbene) complexes

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; Mills, David P.; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Hennig, Christoph; Scheinost, Andreas C.; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Kerridge, Andrew; Liddle, Stephen T.


    Across the periodic table the trans-influence operates, whereby tightly bonded ligands selectively lengthen mutually trans metal-ligand bonds. Conversely, in high oxidation state actinide complexes the inverse-trans-influence operates, where normally cis strongly donating ligands instead reside trans and actually reinforce each other. However, because the inverse-trans-influence is restricted to high-valent actinyls and a few uranium(V/VI) complexes, it has had limited scope in an area with few unifying rules. Here we report tetravalent cerium, uranium and thorium bis(carbene) complexes with trans C=M=C cores where experimental and theoretical data suggest the presence of an inverse-trans-influence. Studies of hypothetical praseodymium(IV) and terbium(IV) analogues suggest the inverse-trans-influence may extend to these ions but it also diminishes significantly as the 4f orbitals are populated. This work suggests that the inverse-trans-influence may occur beyond high oxidation state 5f metals and hence could encompass mid-range oxidation state actinides and lanthanides. Thus, the inverse-trans-influence might be a more general f-block principle.

  17. Steric and electronic parameters of a bulky yet flexible N-heterocyclic carbene: 1,3-bis(2,6-bis(1-ethylpropyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IPent)

    Collado, Alba


    The free N-heterocyclic carbene IPent (1; IPent = 1,3-bis(2,6-bis(1- ethylpropyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) was prepared from the corresponding imidazolium chloride salt (2). The steric and electronic parameters of 1 were determined by synthesis of the gold(I) chloride complex [Au(IPent)Cl] (3) and the nickel-carbonyl complex [Ni(IPent)(CO)3] (4), respectively. 3 and 4 were fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction studies on single crystals. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Rational Design in Catalysis: A Mechanistic Study of β-Hydride Eliminations in Gold(I) and Gold(III) Complexes Based on Features of the Reaction Valley.

    Castiñeira Reis, Marta; López, Carlos Silva; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter; Faza, Olalla Nieto


    β-Hydride eliminations for ethylgold(III) dichloride complexes are identified as reactions with an unusually long prechemical stage corresponding to the conformational preparation of the reaction complex and spanning six phases. The prechemical process is characterized by a geared rotation of the L-Au-L group (L = Cl) driving methyl group rotation and causing a repositioning of the ligands. This requires more than 28 kcal/mol of the total barrier of 34.0 kcal/mol, according to the unified reaction valley approach, which also determines that the energy requirements of the actual chemical process leading to the β-elimination product are only about 5.5 kcal/mol. A detailed mechanistic analysis was used as a basis for a rational design of substrates (via substituents on the ethyl group) and/or ligands, which can significantly reduce the reaction barrier. This strategy takes advantage of either a higher trans activity of the ligands or a tuned electronic demand of the ethyl group. The β-hydride elimination of gold(I) was found to suffer from strong Coulomb and exchange repulsion when a positively charged hydrogen atom enforces a coordination position in a d(10)-configured gold atom, thus triggering an unassisted σ-π Au(I)-C conversion.

  19. Copper(I Complexes of Mesoionic Carbene: Structural Characterization and Catalytic Hydrosilylation Reactions

    Stephan Hohloch


    Full Text Available Two series of different Cu(I-complexes of “click” derived mesoionic carbenes are reported. Halide complexes of the type (MICCuI (with MIC = 1,4-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (for 1b, 1-benzyl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (for 1c and cationic complexes of the general formula [Cu(MIC2]X (with MIC =1,4-dimesityl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = CuI2− (for 2á, 1,4-dimesityl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4− (for 2a, 1,4-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4− (for 2b, 1-benzyl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene, X = BF4− (for 2c have been prepared from CuI or [Cu(CH3CN4](BF4 and the corresponding ligands, respectively. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and standard spectroscopic methods. Complexes 2á and 1b were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Structural analysis revealed 2á to adopt a cationic form as [Cu(MIC2](CuI2 and comparison of the NMR spectra of 2á and 2a confirmed this conformation in solution. In contrast, after crystallization complex 1b was found to adopt the desired neutral form. All complexes were tested for the reduction of cyclohexanone under hydrosilylation condition at elevated temperatures. These complexes were found to be efficient catalysts for this reaction. 2c was also found to catalyze this reaction at room temperature. Mechanistic studies have been carried out as well.

  20. Palladium complexes of a new type of N-heterocyclic carbene ligand derived from a tricyclic triazolooxazine framework

    Manoj Kumar Gangwar; Alok Ch Kalita; Prasenjit Ghosh


    A new type of tricyclic triazolooxazine derived N-heterocyclic carbene precursors were developed by the alkylation reaction of a tricyclic triazolooxazine framework. In particular, the reaction of 5a,6,7,8,9,9ahexahydro-4-benzo[][1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-][1,4]oxazine with methyl iodide and ethyl iodide yielded the tricyclic triazolooxazine derived N-heterocyclic carbene precursors, (1−2)a, in 67−84% yield. The tricyclic triazolooxazinium iodide salts, (1−2)a, underwent metallation in a straight forward manner upon treatment with PdCl2 in the presence of K2CO3 in pyridine to give the trans-{3-(R)-5a,6,7,8,9,9a-hexahydro-4-benzo[][1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-][1,4]oxazin-4-ylidene} PdI2(pyridine) [R = Me (1b), Et (2b)] complexes in 23−25% yield. The new tricyclic triazolooxazine derived N-heterocyclic carbene moiety, as stabilized upon binding to palladium in the (1−2)b complexes, was structurally characterized by the X-ray single crystal diffraction studies.

  1. Diaminogermylene and diaminostannylene derivatives of gold(I): novel AuM and AuM2 (M = Ge, Sn) complexes.

    Cabeza, Javier A; Fernández-Colinas, José M; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Polo, Diego


    The reactions of [AuCl(THT)] (THT = tetrahydrothiophene) with 1 equiv of the group 14 diaminometalenes M(HMDS)(2) [M = Ge, Sn; HMDS = N(SiMe(3))(2)] lead to [Au{MCl(HMDS)(2)}(THT)] [M = Ge (1), Sn (2)], which contain a metalate(II) ligand that arises from insertion of the corresponding M(HMDS)(2) reagent into the Au-Cl bond of the gold(I) reagent. While compound 1 reacts with more Ge(HMDS)(2) to give the germanate-germylene derivative [Au{GeCl(HMDS)(2)}{Ge(HMDS)(2)}] (3), which results from substitution of Ge(HMDS)(2) for the THT ligand of 1, an analogous treatment of compound 2 with Sn(HMDS)(2) gives the stannate-stannylene derivative [Au{SnCl(HMDS)(2)}{Sn(HMDS)(2)(THT)}] (4), which has a THT ligand attached to the stannylene tin atom and which, in solution at room temperature, participates in a dynamic process that makes its two Sn(HMDS)(2) fragments equivalent (on the NMR time scale). A similar dynamic process has not been observed for the AuGe(2) compound 3 or for the AuSn(2) derivatives [Au{SnR(HMDS)(2)}{Sn(HMDS)(2)(THT)}] [R = Bu (5), HMDS (6)], which have been prepared by treating complex 4 with LiR. The structures of compounds 1 and 3-6 have been determined by X-ray diffraction.

  2. Metal-metal interaction in Fischer carbene complexes: a study of ferrocenyl and biferrocenyl tungsten alkylidene complexes.

    van der Westhuizen, Belinda; Speck, J Matthäus; Korb, Marcus; Friedrich, Joachim; Bezuidenhout, Daniela I; Lang, Heinrich


    A series of ferrocenyl (Fc = ferrocenyl; fc = ferrocen-1,1'-diyl) and biferrocenyl (Bfc = 1',1″-biferrocenyl; bfc = 1',1″-biferrocen-1,1‴-diyl) mono- and biscarbene tungsten(0) complexes of the type [(CO)5W═C(OMe)R] (1, R = Fc; 3, R = Bfc) and [(CO)5W═C(OMe)-R'-(OMe)C═W(CO)5] (2, R' = fc; 4, R' = bfc) were synthesized according to the classical synthetic methodology by reacting W(CO)6 with LiR (R = Fc, fc, bfc), followed by a subsequent alkylation using methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate. Electrochemical investigations were carried out on these complexes to get a closer insight into the electronic properties of 1-4. The ferrocenyl and biferrocenyl moieties in 1-4 show reversible one-electron redox events. It was further found that the Fischer carbene unit is reducible in an electrochemical one-electron transfer process. For the tungsten carbonyl moieties, irreversible oxidation processes were found. In addition, charge transfer studies were performed on 1-4 using in situ UV-vis-NIR and infrared spectroelectrochemical techniques. During the UV-vis-NIR investigations, typical low energy transitions for the mixed-valent biferrocenyl unit were found. A further observed high energy NIR absorption is attributed to a metal-metal charge transfer transition between the tungsten carbonyl fragment and the ferrocenyl/biferrocenyl group in the corresponding oxidized states, which can be described as class II systems according to Robin and Day. This assignment was verified by infrared spectroelectrochemical studies. The electrochemical investigations are supported by density functional theory calculations. The structural properties of 1-4 in the solid state were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies showing no substituent effects on bond lengths and angles. The biferrocenyl derivatives exhibit syn-conformation of the ferrocenyl and carbene building blocks.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Divalent Manganese, Iron, and Cobalt Complexes in Tripodal Phenolate/N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligand Environments

    Käß, Martina; Hohenberger, Johannes; Adelhardt, Mario


    . The complete ligand series offers a convenient way of tuning the electronic and steric environment around the metal center, thus, allowing for control of the complex’s reactivity. This series of divalent complexes of Mn, Fe, and Co was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, IR, and UV/vis spectroscopy....... Zero-field 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy of the Fe(II) complexes 3, 4, 8, and 11 shows isomer shifts δ that increase gradually as carbenes are substituted for phenolates in the series of ligands. From the single-crystal structure determinations of the complexes, the different steric demand...

  4. On the mechanism of imine elimination from Fischer tungsten carbene complexes

    Philipp Veit


    Full Text Available (Aminoferrocenyl(ferrocenylcarbene(pentacarbonyltungsten(0 (CO5W=C(NHFcFc (W(CO5(E-2 is synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of the ethoxy group of (CO5W=C(OEtFc (M(CO5(1Et by ferrocenyl amide Fc-NH– (Fc = ferrocenyl. W(CO5(E-2 thermally and photochemically eliminates bulky E-1,2-diferrocenylimine (E-3 via a formal 1,2-H shift from the N to the carbene C atom. Kinetic and mechanistic studies to the formation of imine E-3 are performed by NMR, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and liquid injection field desorption ionization (LIFDI mass spectrometry as well as by trapping experiments for low-coordinate tungsten complexes with triphenylphosphane. W(CO5(E-2 decays thermally in a first-order rate-law with a Gibbs free energy of activation of ΔG‡298K = 112 kJ mol−1. Three proposed mechanistic pathways are taken into account and supported by detailed (time-dependent densitiy functional theory [(TD-DFT] calculations. The preferred pathway is initiated by an irreversible CO dissociation, followed by an oxidative addition/pseudorotation/reductive elimination pathway with short-lived, elusive seven-coordinate hydrido tungsten(II intermediates cis(N,H-W(CO4(H(Z-15 and cis(C,H-W(CO4(H(Z-15.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of an iron complex bearing a cyclic tetra-N-heterocyclic carbene ligand: An artifical heme analogue?

    Anneser, Markus R.


    An iron(II) complex with a cyclic tetradentate ligand containing four N-heterocyclic carbenes was synthesized and characterized by means of NMR and IR spectroscopies, as well as by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The iron center exhibits an octahedral coordination geometry with two acetonitrile ligands in axial positions, showing structural analogies with porphyrine-ligated iron complexes. The acetonitrile ligands can readily be substituted by other ligands, for instance, dimethyl sulfoxide, carbon monoxide, and nitric oxide. Cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the electronic properties of the synthesized compounds. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  6. Evaluation of arene ruthenium(II) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes as organometallics interacting with thiol and selenol containing biomolecules.

    Oehninger, Luciano; Stefanopoulou, Maria; Alborzinia, Hamed; Schur, Julia; Ludewig, Stephanie; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro; Köster, Reinhard W; Baumann, Knut; Wölfl, Stefan; Sheldrick, William S; Ott, Ingo


    Metal complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands have been widely used in catalytic chemistry and are now increasingly considered for the development of new chemical tools and metal based drugs. Ruthenium complexes of the type (p-cymene)(NHC)RuCl(2) interacted with biologically relevant thiols and selenols, which resulted in the inhibition of enzymes such as thioredoxin reductase or cathepsin B. Pronounced antiproliferative effects could be obtained provided that an appropriate cellular uptake was achieved. Inhibition of tumor cell growth was accompanied by a perturbation of metabolic parameters such as cellular respiration.

  7. Redox noninnocence of carbene ligands: carbene radicals in (catalytic) C-C bond formation

    Dzik, W.I.; Zhang, X.P.; de Bruin, B.


    In this Forum contribution, we highlight the radical-type reactivities of one-electron-reduced Fischer-type carbenes. Carbene complexes of group 6 transition metals (Cr, Mo, and W) can be relatively easily reduced by an external reducing agent, leading to one-electron reduction of the carbene ligand

  8. On the mechanism of imine elimination from Fischer tungsten carbene complexes

    Philipp Veit; Christoph Förster; Katja Heinze


    (Aminoferrocenyl)(ferrocenyl)carbene(pentacarbonyl)tungsten(0) (CO)5W=C(NHFc)Fc (W(CO)5(E-2)) is synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of the ethoxy group of (CO)5W=C(OEt)Fc (M(CO)5(1Et)) by ferrocenyl amide Fc-NH– (Fc = ferrocenyl). W(CO)5(E-2) thermally and photochemically eliminates bulky E-1,2-diferrocenylimine (E-3) via a formal 1,2-H shift from the N to the carbene C atom. Kinetic and mechanistic studies to the formation of imine E-3 are performed by NMR, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy a...

  9. Methandiide as a non-innocent ligand in carbene complexes: from the electronic structure to bond activation reactions and cooperative catalysis.

    Becker, Julia; Modl, Tanja; Gessner, Viktoria H


    The synthesis of a ruthenium carbene complex based on a sulfonyl-substituted methandiide and its application in bond activation reactions and cooperative catalysis is reported. In the complex, the metal-carbon interaction can be tuned between a Ru-C single bond with additional electrostatic interactions and a Ru=C double bond, thus allowing the control of the stability and reactivity of the complex. Hence, activation of polar and non-polar bonds (O-H, H-H) as well as dehydrogenation reactions become possible. In these reactions the carbene acts as a non-innocent ligand supporting the bond activation as nucleophilic center in the 1,2-addition across the metal-carbon double bond. This metal-ligand cooperativity can be applied in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation for the reduction of ketones. This concept opens new ways for the application of carbene complexes in catalysis.

  10. Syntheses, crystal structures, reactivity, and photochemistry of gold(III) bromides bearing N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Hirtenlehner, Christa; Krims, Charlotte; Hölbling, Johanna; List, Manuela; Zabel, Manfred; Fleck, Michel; Berger, Raphael J F; Schoefberger, Wolfgang; Monkowius, Uwe


    Gold(I) complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) of the type (NHC)AuBr (3a/3b) [NHC = 1-methyl-3-benzylimidazol-2-ylidene (= MeBnIm), and 1,3-dibenzylimidazol-2-ylidene (= Bn(2)Im)] are prepared by transmetallation reactions of (tht)AuBr (tht = tetrahydrothiophene) and (NHC)AgBr (2a/2b). The homoleptic, ionic complexes [(NHC)(2)Au]Br (6a/6b) are synthesized by the reaction with free carbene. Successive oxidation of 3a/3b and 6a/6b with bromine gave the respective (NHC)AuBr(3) (4a/4b) and [(NHC)(2)AuBr(2)]Br (7a/7b) in good overall yields as yellow powders. All complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Reactions of the Au(III) complexes towards anionic ligands like carboxylates, phenolates and thiophenolates were investigated and result in a complete or partial reduction to a Au(I) complex. Irradiation of the Au(III) complexes with UV light yield the Au(I) congeners in a clean photo-reaction.

  11. Density functional computations of the cyclopropanation of ethene catalyzed by iron (II) carbene complexes Cp(CO)(L)Fe=CHR, L D CO, PMe3, R D Me, OMe, ph, CO2Me

    Wang, Fen; Meng, Qingxi; Li, Ming

    Density functional theory has been used to study the Fe-catalyzed cyclopropanation of Fe-carbene complexes with ethene. All the intermediates and transition states were optimized completely at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level. Calculation results confirm that the cyclopropanation of Fe-carbene complexes with ethene involves the two reaction paths I and II. In the reaction path I, the double bond of ethene attacks directly on the carbene carbon of Fe-carbene complexes to generate the cyclopropane. In the reaction path II, ethene substitution for PMe3 or CO in the Fe-carbene complexes leads to the complexes M2; and the attack of one carbon of ethene on the carbene carbon results in the complexes M3 with a Fe bond C bond C bond C four-membered ring, and then generates the cyclopropane via the elimination reaction. For Fe-carbene complexes A, C, D, E, and H, the main reaction mode is the reaction path I; for Fe-carbene complexes B, F, and G, the main reaction mode is the reaction path II.0

  12. Cyclopentadienyl molybdenum(II/VI) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes: Synthesis, structure, and reactivity under oxidative conditions

    Li, Shenyu


    A series of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes CpMo(CO) 2(NHC)X (NHC = IMe = 1,3-dimethylimidazol-2-ylidene, X = Br, 1; NHC = 1,3-dipropylimidazol-2-ylidene, X = Br, 2; NHC = IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6- trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene, X = Br, 3; NHC = IBz = 1,3-dibenzylimidazol- 2-ylidene, X = Br, 4a, and X = Cl, 4b; NHC = 1-methyl-3-propylimidazol-2- ylidene, X = Br, 5) and [CpMo(CO)2(IMes)(CH3CN)][BF 4] (6) have been synthesized and fully characterized. The stability of metal-NHC ligand bonds in these compounds under oxidative conditions has been investigated. The thermally stable Mo(VI) dioxo NHC complex [CpMoO 2(IMes)][BF4] (9) has been isolated by the oxidation of the ionic complex 6 by TBHP (tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide). Complex 6 can be applied as a very active (TOFs up to 3400 h-1) and selective olefin epoxidation catalyst. While under oxidative conditions (in the presence of TBHP), compounds 1-5 decompose into imidazolium bromide and imidazolium polyoxomolybdate. The formation of polyoxomolybdate as oxidation products had not been observed in a similar epoxidation catalyzed by Mo(II) and Mo(VI) complexes. DFT studies suggest that the presence of Br- destabilizes the CpMo(VI) oxo NHC carbene species, consistent with the experimental observations. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Aerosolized antimicrobial agents based on degradable dextran nanoparticles loaded with silver carbene complexes

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Cátia


    Degradable acetalated dextran (Ac-DEX) nanoparticles were prepared and loaded with a hydrophobic silver carbene complex (SCC) by a single-emulsion process. The resulting particles were characterized for morphology and size distribution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The average particle size and particle size distribution were found to be a function of the ratio of the organic phase to the surfactant containing aqueous phase with a 1:5 volume ratio of Ac-DEX CH2Cl2 (organic):PBS (aqueous) being optimal for the formulation of nanoparticles with an average size of 100 ± 40 nm and a low polydispersity. The SCC loading was found to increase with an increase in the SCC quantity in the initial feed used during particle formulation up to 30% (w/w); however, the encapsulation efficiency was observed to be the best at a feed ratio of 20% (w/w). In vitro efficacy testing of the SCC loaded Ac-DEX nanoparticles demonstrated their activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria; the nanoparticles inhibited the growth of every bacterial species tested. As expected, a higher concentration of drug was required to inhibit bacterial growth when the drug was encapsulated within the nanoparticle formulations compared with the free drug illustrating the desired depot release. Compared with free drug, the Ac-DEX nanoparticles were much more readily suspended in an aqueous phase and subsequently aerosolized, thus providing an effective method of pulmonary drug delivery. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Cross—Coupling of Aryl Iodides with Malononitrile Catalyzed by Palladium N—Heterocyclic Carbene Complex System

    高诚伟; 陶晓春; 等


    Eight N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC),generated in situ from their imidazolium salts,as ligands of palladium complexes were used for the catalytic coupling of iodobenzene with malononi-trile anion,It was found that 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-imidazolium chloride (IMesHCl)-Pd2(dba)3 catalytic system has the highest activity to obtain phenyl malononitrile among the imidazolium salts.The substituted iodoarenes reacted with malononitrile anions by using the catalytic system to give cross-coupling products in yields from 50% to 96%.

  15. Cross-Coupling of Aryl Iodides with Malononitrile Catalyzed by Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex System

    GAO,Cheng-Wei(高诚伟); TAO,Xiao-Chun(陶晓春); LIU,Tao-Ping(刘涛平); HUANG,Ji-Ling(黄吉玲); QIAN,Yan-Long(钱延龙)


    Eight N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC), generated in situ from their imidazolium salts, as ligands of palladium complexes were used for the catalytic coupling of iodobenzene with malononitrile anion. It was found that 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolium chloride (IMesHC1)-Pd2(dba)3 catalytic system has the highest activity to obtain phenyl malononitrile among the imidazolium salts. The substituted iodoarenes reacted with malononitrile anions by using the catalytic system to give crosscoupling products in yields from 50% to 96%.

  16. Sulfur-Functionalized N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Pd(II: Syntheses, Structures and Catalytic Activities

    Dan Yuan


    Full Text Available N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs can be easily modified by introducing functional groups at the nitrogen atoms, which leads to versatile coordination chemistry as well as diverse catalytic applications of the resulting complexes. This article summarizes our contributions to the field of NHCs bearing different types of sulfur functions, i.e., thioether, sulfoxide, thiophene, and thiolato. The experimental evidence for the truly hemilabile coordination behavior of a Pd(II thioether-NHC complex has been reported as well. In addition, complexes bearing rigid CSC-pincer ligands have been synthesized and the reasons for pincer versus pseudo-pincer formation investigated. Incorporation of the electron-rich thiolato function resulted in the isolation of structurally diverse complexes. The catalytic activities of selected complexes have been tested in Suzuki-Miyaura, Mizoroki-Heck and hydroamination reactions.

  17. N, N'-Olefin functionalized bis-imidazolium gold(I salt is an efficient candidate to control keratitis-associated eye infection.

    Tapastaru Samanta

    Full Text Available Keratitis treatment has become more complicated due to the emergence of bacterial or fungal pathogens with enhanced antibiotic resistance. The pharmaceutical applications of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes have received remarkable attention due to their antimicrobial properties. In this paper, the new precursor, 3,3'-(p-phenylenedimethylene bis{1-(2- methyl-allylimidazolium} bromide (1a and its analogous PF6 salt (1b were synthesized. Furthermore, silver(I and gold(I -N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC complexes [Ag2LBr2/Au2LBr2; 2a/3a], [(Ag2L2(PF62/(Au2L2(PF62; 2b/3b] were developed from their corresponding ligands. All compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against multiple keratitis-associated human eye pathogens, including bacteria and fungi. Complexes 2a and 3a showed highest activity, and the effectiveness of 3a was also studied, focusing eradication of pathogen biofilm. Furthermore, the structures of 1a, 2a and 3b were determined using single crystal X-ray analysis, 2b and 3a were optimized theoretically. The mechanism of action of 3a was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and docking experiments, suggesting that its target is the cell membrane. In summary, 3a may be helpful in developing antimicrobial therapies in patients suffering from keratitis-associated eye infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  18. Vasile Goldis, Familia magazine contributor

    Maria Alexandra PANTEA


    Full Text Available In the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century around Oradea “Familia” magazine have worked important culture people, including Vasile Goldis. As a teacher he was concerned about the development of theatrical movement and he was supported by Iosif Vulcan. Vasile Goldis ˝ as secretary of the “Society for the creation of a Fund for the Romanian theater ˝ was the author of some issues printed in the “Familia” magazine where he has shown the importance of the Romanian theater and believed that,by developping theater can be achieved the developpement of the national culture.. Vasile Goldis considered theater one of the most important institutions of the Transylvanian Romanians which, along with the school and the church could sow in the hearts of Romanian the national sentiment.

  19. Iridium(I) complexes with anionic N-heterocyclic carbene ligands as catalysts for the hydrogenation of alkenes in nonpolar media.

    Kolychev, Eugene L; Kronig, Sabrina; Brandhorst, Kai; Freytag, Matthias; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias


    A series of lithium complexes of anionic N-heterocyclic carbenes that contain a weakly coordinating borate moiety (WCA-NHC) was prepared in one step from free N-heterocyclic carbenes by deprotonation with n-butyl lithium followed by borane addition. The reaction of the resulting lithium-carbene adducts with [M(COD)Cl]2 (M = Rh, Ir; COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) afforded zwitterionic rhodium(I) and iridium(I) complexes of the type [(WCA-NHC)M(COD)], in which the metal atoms exhibit an intramolecular interaction with the N-aryl groups of the carbene ligands. For M = Rh, the neutral complex [(WCA-NHC)Rh(CO)2] and the ate complex (NEt4)[(WCA-NHC)Rh(CO)2Cl] were prepared, with the latter allowing an assessment of the donor ability of the ligand by IR spectroscopy. The zwitterionic iridium-COD complexes were tested as catalysts for the homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes, which can be performed in the presence of nonpolar solvents or in the neat alkene substrate. Thereby, the most active complex showed excellent stability and activity in hydrogenation of alkenes at low catalyst loadings (down to 10 ppm).

  20. Chiral gold(I vs chiral silver complexes as catalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of the second generation GSK-hepatitis C virus inhibitor

    María Martín-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The synthesis of a GSK 2nd generation inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, by enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a leucine derived iminoester and tert-butyl acrylate, was studied. The comparison between silver(I and gold(I catalysts in this reaction was established by working with chiral phosphoramidites or with chiral BINAP. The best reaction conditions were used for the total synthesis of the hepatitis C virus inhibitor by a four step procedure affording this product in 99% ee and in 63% overall yield. The origin of the enantioselectivity of the chiral gold(I catalyst was justified according to DFT calculations, the stabilizing coulombic interaction between the nitrogen atom of the thiazole moiety and one of the gold atoms being crucial.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of divalent manganese, iron, and cobalt complexes in tripodal phenolate/N-heterocyclic carbene ligand environments.

    Käß, Martina; Hohenberger, Johannes; Adelhardt, Mario; Zolnhofer, Eva M; Mossin, Susanne; Heinemann, Frank W; Sutter, Jörg; Meyer, Karsten


    Two novel tripodal ligands, (BIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))(-) and (MIMPN(Mes,Ad,Me))(2-), combining two types of donor atoms, namely, NHC and phenolate donors, were synthesized to complete the series of N-anchored ligands, ranging from chelating species with tris(carbene) to tris(phenolate) chelating arms. The complete ligand series offers a convenient way of tuning the electronic and steric environment around the metal center, thus, allowing for control of the complex's reactivity. This series of divalent complexes of Mn, Fe, and Co was synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, and UV/vis spectroscopy as well as by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Variable-temperature SQUID magnetization measurements in the range from 2 to 300 K confirmed high-spin ground states for all divalent complexes and revealed a trend of increasing zero-field splitting |D| from Mn(II), to Fe(II), to Co(II) complexes. Zero-field (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy of the Fe(II) complexes 3, 4, 8, and 11 shows isomer shifts δ that increase gradually as carbenes are substituted for phenolates in the series of ligands. From the single-crystal structure determinations of the complexes, the different steric demand of the ligands is evident. Particularly, the molecular structure of 1-in which a pyridine molecule is situated next to the Mn-Cl bond-and those of azide complexes 2, 4, and 6 demonstrate the flexibility of these mixed-ligand derivatives, which, in contrast to the corresponding symmetrical TIMEN(R) ligands, allow for side access of, e.g., organic substrates, to the reactive metal center.

  2. Anticancer Agents: Does a Phosphonium Behave Like a Gold(I) Phosphine Complex? Let a "Smart" Probe Answer!

    Ali, Moussa; Dondaine, Lucile; Adolle, Anais; Sampaio, Carla; Chotard, Florian; Richard, Philippe; Denat, Franck; Bettaieb, Ali; Le Gendre, Pierre; Laurens, Véronique; Goze, Christine; Paul, Catherine; Bodio, Ewen


    Gold phosphine complexes, such as auranofin, have been recognized for decades as antirheumatic agents. Clinical trials are now underway to validate their use in anticancer or anti-HIV treatments. However, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. A challenging question is whether the gold phosphine complex is a prodrug that is administered in an inactive precursor form or rather that the gold atom remains attached to the phosphine ligand during treatment. In this study, we present two novel gold complexes, which we compared to auranofin and to their phosphonium analogue. The chosen ligand is a phosphine-based smart probe, whose strong fluorescence depends on the presence of the gold atom. The in vitro biological action of the gold complexes and the phosphonium derivative were investigated, and a preliminary in vivo study in healthy zebrafish larvae allowed us to evaluate gold complex biodistribution and toxicity. The different analyses carried out showed that these gold complexes were stable and behaved differently from phosphonium and auranofin, both in vitro and in vivo. Two-photon microscopy experiments demonstrated that the cellular targets of these gold complexes are not the same as those of the phosphonium analogue. Moreover, despite similar IC50 values in some cancer cell lines, gold complexes displayed a low toxicity in vivo, in contrast to the phosphonium salt. They are therefore suitable for future in vivo investigations.

  3. Synthesis and crystal structure of the iridium(I) carbene complex with a pair of hydrogen wing tips

    Huang, H.-Y.; Chen, Z.-M.; Wang, Y.; Wu, E.-M.; Wang, G.; Jiang, M.-J.


    The iridium(I) cyclooctadiene complex with two (3- tert-butylimidazol-2-ylidene) ligands [(H-I m t Bu)2Ir(COD)]+PF 6 - (C22H32PF6IrN4) has been prepared, and its crystal structure is determined by X-ray diffraction. Complex exhibits slightly distorted square planar configurations around the metal atom, which is coordinated by two H-I m t Bu ligands and one cyclooctadiene group. The new iridium carbene complex has a pair of hydrogen wing tips. The Ir-Ccarbene bond lengths are 2.066(5) and 2.052(5) Å, and the bond angle C-Ir-C between these bonds is 95.54(19)°. The dihedral angle between two imidazol-2-ylidene rings is 86.42°.

  4. Axially Chiral C2-Symmetric N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) Palladium Complex-Catalyzed Asymmetric Fluorination and Amination of Oxindoles

    张睿; 王德; 徐琴; 姜佳俊; 施敏


    Chiral C2-symmetric N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) palladium diaquo complex 5b prepared from (S)-BINAM was found to be a fairly effective catalyst for the enantioselective asymmetric fluorination of oxindoles to give the corresponding products in moderate enantioselectivities along with good to excellent yields.

  5. A new type of self-supported, polymeric Ru-carbene complex for homogeneous catalysis and heterogeneous recovery: synthesis and catalytic activities for ring-closing metathesis.

    Chen, Shu-Wei; Kim, Ju Hyun; Shin, Hyunik; Lee, Sang-Gi


    A novel 2nd generation Grubbs-type catalyst tethering an isopropoxystyrene has been synthesized and automatically polymerized in solution to form a self-supported polymeric Ru-carbene complex, which catalyzed ring-closing metathesis homogeneously, but was recovered heterogeneously.

  6. Synthesis and anticancer activity of silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes derived from the natural xanthine products caffeine, theophylline and theobromine.

    Mohamed, Heba A; Lake, Benjamin R M; Laing, Thomas; Phillips, Roger M; Willans, Charlotte E


    A new library of silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes prepared from the natural products caffeine, theophylline and theobromine is reported. The complexes have been fully characterised using a combination of NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the hydrophobicity of the complexes has been measured. The silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbenes have been evaluated for their antiproliferative properties against a range of cancer cell lines of different histological types, and compared to cisplatin. The data shows different profiles of response when compared to cisplatin in the same panel of cells, indicating a different mechanism of action. Furthermore, it appears that the steric effect of the ligand and the hydrophobicity of the complex both play a role in the chemosensitivity of these compounds, with greater steric bulk and greater hydrophilicity delivering higher cytotoxicity.

  7. Recent Advances in Medicinal Applications of Coinage-Metal (Cu and Ag) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes.

    Marinelli, Marika; Santini, Carlo; Pellei, Maura


    The fascinating chemical properties of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes showed them to be a suitable class of complexes to be investigated for their applications as drugs in the treatment of the infectious disease or cancer. In particular, the great structural versatility provided a library of compounds with a low cytotoxic profile, suitable candidates as new anticancer agents. Most of these complexes have shown higher cytotoxicity than cisplatin. In the present review, the medicinal applications of copper(I)- and silver(I)-NHC complexes are summarized. Specifically, azolium precursors and related Cu(I)- and Ag(I)-NHC complexes of functionalized and non-functionalized imidazole-, and benzimidazole-based NHC complexes studied as an alternative to cisplatin as chemotherapeutic agents are reviewed. An outline of the most significant chemical features is presented: copper(I)- and silver(I)-NHC complexes tested as anticancer drugs have been reported and a description of structure-activity relationships was made as far as possible.

  8. Iridium(I) Compounds as Prospective Anticancer Agents: Solution Chemistry, Antiproliferative Profiles and Protein Interactions for a Series of Iridium(I) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes.

    Gothe, Yvonne; Marzo, Tiziano; Messori, Luigi; Metzler-Nolte, Nils


    A series of structurally related mono- and bis-NHC-iridium(I) (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbene) complexes have been investigated for their suitability as potential anticancer drugs. Their spectral behaviour in aqueous buffers under physiological-like conditions and their cytotoxicity against the cancer cell lines MCF-7 and HT-29 are reported. Notably, almost all complexes exhibit significant cytotoxic effects towards both cancer cell lines. In general, the cationic bis-carbene complexes show higher stability and greater anticancer activity than their neutral mono-carbene analogues with IC50 values in the high nanomolar range. Furthermore, to gain initial mechanistic insight, the interactions of these iridium(I)-NHC complexes with two model proteins, namely lysozyme and cytochrome c, were explored by HR-ESI-MS analyses. The different protein metalation patterns of the complexes can be roughly classified into two distinct groups. Those interactions give us a first idea about the possible mechanism of action of this class of compounds. Overall, our findings show that iridium(I)-NHC complexes represent very interesting candidates for further development as new metal-based anticancer drugs.

  9. A curious interplay in the films of N-heterocyclic carbene PtII complexes upon deposition of alkali metals

    Makarova, Anna A.; Grachova, Elena V.; Niedzialek, Dorota; Solomatina, Anastasia I.; Sonntag, Simon; Fedorov, Alexander V.; Vilkov, Oleg Yu.; Neudachina, Vera S.; Laubschat, Clemens; Tunik, Sergey P.; Vyalikh, Denis V.


    The recently synthesized series of PtII complexes containing cyclometallating (phenylpyridine or benzoquinoline) and N-heterocyclic carbene ligands possess intriguing structures, topologies, and light emitting properties. Here, we report curious physicochemical interactions between in situ PVD-grown films of a typical representative of the aforementioned PtII complex compounds and Li, Na, K and Cs atoms. Based on a combination of detailed core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations at the density functional theory level, we found that the deposition of alkali atoms onto the molecular film leads to unusual redistribution of electron density: essential modification of nitrogen sites, reduction of the coordination PtII centre to Pt0 and decrease of electron density on the bromine atoms. A possible explanation for this is formation of a supramolecular system “Pt complex-alkali metal ion” the latter is supported by restoration of the system to the initial state upon subsequent oxygen treatment. The discovered properties highlight a considerable potential of the PtII complexes for a variety of biomedical, sensing, chemical, and electronic applications.

  10. A curious interplay in the films of N-heterocyclic carbene Pt(II) complexes upon deposition of alkali metals.

    Makarova, Anna A; Grachova, Elena V; Niedzialek, Dorota; Solomatina, Anastasia I; Sonntag, Simon; Fedorov, Alexander V; Vilkov, Oleg Yu; Neudachina, Vera S; Laubschat, Clemens; Tunik, Sergey P; Vyalikh, Denis V


    The recently synthesized series of Pt(II) complexes containing cyclometallating (phenylpyridine or benzoquinoline) and N-heterocyclic carbene ligands possess intriguing structures, topologies, and light emitting properties. Here, we report curious physicochemical interactions between in situ PVD-grown films of a typical representative of the aforementioned Pt(II) complex compounds and Li, Na, K and Cs atoms. Based on a combination of detailed core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations at the density functional theory level, we found that the deposition of alkali atoms onto the molecular film leads to unusual redistribution of electron density: essential modification of nitrogen sites, reduction of the coordination Pt(II) centre to Pt(0) and decrease of electron density on the bromine atoms. A possible explanation for this is formation of a supramolecular system "Pt complex-alkali metal ion"; the latter is supported by restoration of the system to the initial state upon subsequent oxygen treatment. The discovered properties highlight a considerable potential of the Pt(II) complexes for a variety of biomedical, sensing, chemical, and electronic applications.

  11. Metal-ligand bifunctional reactivity and catalysis of protic N-heterocyclic carbene and pyrazole complexes featuring β-NH units.

    Kuwata, Shigeki; Ikariya, Takao


    Metal-ligand bifunctional cooperation has attracted much attention because it offers a powerful methodology to realize a number of highly efficient and selective catalysts. In this article, recent developments in the metal-ligand cooperative reactions of protic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and pyrazole complexes bearing an acidic NH group at the position β to the metal are surveyed. Protic 2-pyridylidenes as related cooperating non-innocent ligands are also described.

  12. Insights Into the Carbene-Initiated Aggregation of [Fe(cot)2

    Lavallo, Vincent


    Carbenes attack! Stable carbenes react with [Fe(cot)2] in very different ways. Whereas the classical N-heterocyclic carbenes induce the formation of tetra- and trimetallic iron clusters, abnormal NHCs and carbocyclic carbenes (BACs) form mono- and bimetallic iron complexes. Cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAACs) react with [Fe(cot)2] in a completely different manner, namely through outersphere [4+1] cycloaddition.

  13. Expedient Syntheses of Neutral and Cationic Au(I)–NHC Complexes

    Veenboer, Richard M. P.


    The synthesis and isolation of gold(I) precatalysts often requires the generation of several isolable intermediates as well as numerous purification steps. New protocols for the expedient synthesis of neutral [Au(OH)(NHC)] and [Au(CH2COCH3)(NHC)] species from [AuCl(NHC)] or [AuCl(DMS)] precursors bearing a variety of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are presented. These methods can be employed in a telescoping manner for the synthesis of catalytically relevant [Au(NTf2)(NHC)] and [Au(NHC)(NCCH3)][BF4] complexes. These attractive methods are straightforward and practical leading to various complexes in high isolated yields and purity.

  14. Synthesis, crystal, and biological activity of a novel carbene silver(I) complex with imidazole derivative

    Jiu-Fu, Lu, E-mail:; Hong-Guang, Ge; Juan, Shi [Chemical Engineering College, Shaanxi University of Technology (China)


    Reaction of 2-(1-methyl-1,2-dihydroimidazol-3-yl)acetonitrile tetrafluoroborate with silver oxide in dichloromethane readily yields [Ag(DIM){sub 2}]BF{sub 4}, where DIM is 2-(1-methyl-1, 2-dihydroimidazol-3-yl)acetonitrile, representing a carbene organic ligand. The title compound was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, MS and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal is of monoclinic system, space group C2/c with a = 14.010(18), b = 8.303(11), c = 14.936(20) Å, β = 93.910(4)°, V = 1639(4) Å{sup 3}, Z = 4, D{sub x} = 1.771 g/cm{sup 3}, F (000) = 864, µ(MoK{sub α}) = 1.278 mm{sup –1}. The final R{sup 1} = 0.0711 and wR{sup 2} = 0.1903 for reflections with I > 2σ(I). In addition, the preliminary biological test showed that the title compound had anti-fungus yeast activity.

  15. Actinide metals with multiple bonds to carbon: synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of U(IV) and Th(IV) bis(iminophosphorano)methandiide pincer carbene complexes.

    Ma, Guibin; Ferguson, Michael J; McDonald, Robert; Cavell, Ronald G


    Treatment of ThCl(4)(DME)(2) or UCl(4) with 1 equiv of dilithiumbis(iminophosphorano) methandiide, [Li(2)C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2)] (1), afforded the chloro actinide carbene complexes [Cl(2)M(C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2))] (2 (M = Th) and 3 (M = U)) in situ. Stable PCP metal-carbene complexes [Cp(2)Th(C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2))] (4), [Cp(2)U(C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2))] (5), [TpTh(C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2))Cl] (6), and [TpU(C(Ph(2)P═NSiMe(3))(2))Cl] (7) were generated from 2 or 3 by further reaction with 2 equiv of thallium(I) cyclopentadienide (CpTl) in THF to yield 4 or 5 or with 1 equiv of potassium hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl) borate (TpK) also in THF to give 6 or 7, respectively. The derivative complexes were isolated, and their crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction. All of these U (or Th)-carbene complexes (4-7) possess a very short M (Th or U)═carbene bond with evidence for multiple bond character. Gaussian 03 DFT calculations indicate that the M═C double bond is constructed by interaction of the 5f and 6d orbitals of the actinide metal with carbene 2p orbitals of both π and σ character. Complex 3 reacted with acetonitrile or benzonitrile to cyclo-add C≡N to the U═carbon double bond, thereby forming a new C-C bond in a new chelated quadridentate ligand in the bridged dimetallic complexes (9 and 10). A single carbon-U bond is retained. The newly coordinated uranium complex dimerizes with one equivalent of unconverted 3 using two chlorides and the newly formed imine derived from the nitrile as three connecting bridges. In addition, a new crystal structure of [CpUCl(3)(THF)(2)] (8) was determined by X-ray diffraction.


    Rukiye Fırıncı


    Full Text Available A series of N-butyl substituted imidazolium salts, (1a-c and their pyridine enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilization and initiation (PEPPSI themed palladium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes (2a-c were synthesized and characterized. Pd-NHC complexes were fully determined by elemental analysis and spectroscopic. The synthesized complexes were tested in Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. These complexes were found to be efficient catalysts for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction of phenylboronic acid with aryl bromides.

  17. Sterically (un)encumbered mer-tridentate N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of titanium(iv) for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide with CO2.

    Hessevik, Julie; Lalrempuia, Ralte; Nsiri, Hajar; Törnroos, Karl W; Jensen, Vidar R; Le Roux, Erwan


    Titanium(iv) complexes bearing an unsubstituted tridentate bis(phenolate) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) were synthesized and structurally identified. While sterically unencumbered NHC-Ti(iv) complexes bearing chloro and alkoxy co-ligands tend to dimerize in solution and in solid-state, the use of a bulky aryloxy as co-ligand favors the monomeric species. Upon activation by onium salts, all these complexes were found to be highly selective towards the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide (CHO) with CO2 under mild conditions (PCO2 < 1 bar), albeit the sterically unencumbered NHC-Ti(iv) complexes are less stable and active than their structural analogues bearing bulkier substituents.

  18. Tunable and Efficient White Light Phosphorescent Emission Based on Single Component N-Heterocyclic Carbene Platinum(II) Complexes.

    Bachmann, Michael; Suter, Dominik; Blacque, Olivier; Venkatesan, Koushik


    A new class of cyclometalated pyridine N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) Pt(II) complexes with electronically different alkyne derivatives (C≡CR; R = C6H4C(CH3)3 (1), C6H5 (2), C6H4F (3), C6H3(CF3)2 (4)) as ancillary ligands were synthesized, and the consequences of the electronic properties of the different substituted phenylacetylene ligands on the phosphorescent emission efficiencies were studied, where C≡CC6H4C(CH3)3 = 4-tert-butylphenylacetylene, C≡CC6H5 = phenylacetylene, C≡CC6H4F = 4-fluorophenylacetylene, and C≡CC6H3(CF3)2 = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetylene. Structural characterization, electrochemistry, and photophysical investigations were performed for all four compounds. Moreover, the emission quantum efficiencies and wavelength emission intensities of the complexes were also recorded in different weight percents in poly(methyl methacrylate) films (PMMA) and evaluated in the CIE-1931 chromaticity diagram. The square planar coordination geometry with the alkynyl ligands was corroborated for complexes 1, 2, and 3 by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These complexes show tunable monomeric high energy triplet emission and an additional concentration-dependent low-energy excimer-based phosphorescence. While adopting weight percent concentrations between 15 and 25%, the two emission bands covering the entire visible spectrum were obtained with these particular complexes displaying the properties of an efficient white light triplet emitter with excellent CIE-1931 coordinates (0.31, 0.33). On the basis of the high luminescent quantum efficiency of over 50% for white light emission, these compounds could be potentially useful for white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based applications.

  19. Carbenes and Nitrenes

    Coyle, J. D.


    Summarizes the general methods for carbene and nitrene formation and the reactions in which carbenes and nitrenes are involved such as their reactions with transition metal atoms, alkenes of aromatic compounds, and uncharged oxygen or nitrogen nucleophiles. (CC)

  20. Bulky N-Phosphino-Functionalized N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands: Synthesis, Ruthenium Coordination Chemistry, and Ruthenium Alkylidene Complexes for Olefin Metathesis.

    Brown, Christopher C; Rominger, Frank; Limbach, Michael; Hofmann, Peter


    Ruthenium chemistry and applications in catalytic olefin metathesis based on N-phosphino-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (NHCPs) are presented. Alkyl NHCP Ru coordination chemistry is described, and access to several potential synthetic precursors for ruthenium alkylidene complexes is outlined, incorporating both trimethylsilyl and phenyl alkylidenes. The Ru alkylidene complexes are evaluated as potential olefin metathesis catalysts and were shown to behave in a latent fashion. They displayed catalytic activity at elevated temperatures for both ring closing metathesis and ring opening metathesis polymerization.

  1. Ruthenium(II) complexes bearing pyridine-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: Synthesis, structure and catalytic application over amide synthesis



    A series of four imidazolium salts was synthesized by the reaction of 2-bromopyridine with 1- substituted imidazoles. These imidazolium salts (1a–d) were successfully employed as ligand precursors for the syntheses of new ruthenium(II) complexes bearing neutral bidentate ligands of N-heterocyclic carbene and pyridine donor moiety. The NHC-ruthenium(II) complexes (3a–d) were synthesized by reacting the appropriately substituted pyridine-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes with Ag₂O forming the NHC–silver bromide in situ followed by transmetalation with [RuHCl(CO)(PPh₃)₃]. The new complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopy (IR, UV-Vis, ¹H, ¹³C, ³¹P-NMR) as well as ESI mass spectrometry. Based on the spectral results, an octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes. The complexes were shown to be efficient catalysts for the one-pot conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding primary amides with good to excellent isolated yields using NH₂OH.HCl and NaHCO₃. The effects of solvent, base, temperature, time and catalyst loading were also investigated. A broad range of amides were successfully synthesized with excellent isolated yields using the above optimized protocol. Notably, the complex 3a was found to be a very efficient and versatile catalyst towards amidation of a wide range of aldehydes.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of a cationic phthalimido-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene complex of palladium(II) and its catalytic activity

    Goh, Li Min Serena


    A cationic phthalimido-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) palladium(II) complex has been synthesized from [3-methyl-1-(2′- phthalimidoethyl)imidazolium] hexafluorophosphate ([NHCMe,PhtH] PF6) by transmetalation and isolated in 67 % yield. The title complex has been applied as catalyst in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction under benign aqueous conditions. The catalyst is active without any observable initiation period. High average turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 55000 h-1 have been reached with catalyst concentrations as low as 0.01 mol-%. A cationic phthalimido-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) palladium(II) complex has been prepared in high yield. The complex was activated instantly, without an initiation period, in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction under benign aqueous aerobic conditions. Turnover frequencies (TOFs) up to 55000 h-1, were achieved with 0.01 mol-% of the complex. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Structure and spectroscopic properties of the dimeric copper(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complex [Cu₂(CNC(t-Bu))₂](PF₆)₂.

    Riener, Korbinian; Pöthig, Alexander; Cokoja, Mirza; Herrmann, Wolfgang A; Kühn, Fritz E


    In recent years, the use of copper N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes has expanded to fields besides catalysis, namely medicinal chemistry and luminescence applications. In the latter case, multinuclear copper NHC compounds have attracted interest, however, the number of these complexes in the literature is still quite limited. Bis[μ-1,3-bis(3-tert-butylimidazolin-2-yliden-1-yl)pyridine]-1κ(4)C(2),N:N,C(2');2κ(4)C(2),N:N,C(2')-dicopper(I) bis(hexafluoridophosphate), [Cu2(C19H25N5)2](PF6)2, is a dimeric copper(I) complex bridged by two CNC, i.e. bis(N-heterocyclic carbene)pyridine, ligands. Each Cu(I) atom is almost linearly coordinated by two NHC ligands and interactions are observed between the pyridine N atoms and the metal centres, while no cuprophilic interactions were observed. Very strong absorption bands are evident in the UV-Vis spectrum at 236 and 274 nm, and an emission band is observed at 450 nm. The reported complex is a new example of a multinuclear copper NHC complex and a member of a compound class which has only rarely been reported.

  4. Novel Nonsymmetrically p-Benzyl-Substituted (Benzimidazole N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Silver(I Acetate Complexes: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Frauke Hackenberg


    Full Text Available Nonsymmetrically substituted N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC precursors 1a–d and 3a–d were synthesised by first reacting 1H-(benzimidazole with p-cyanobenzyl bromide to give 4-(1H-imidazole-1-ylmethylbenzonitrile (1 and 4-(1H-benzimidazole-1-ylmethylbenzonitrile (3 and afterwards introducing benzyl bromide, 1-(bromomethyl-4-methylbenzene, 1-(bromomethyl-4-methoxybenzene, and methyl 4-(bromomethylbenzoate. The NHC-silver(I acetate complexes (1-benzyl-3-(4-cyanobenzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (2a, (1-(4-cyanobenzyl-3-(4-methylbenzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (2b, (1-(4-cyanobenzyl-3-[4-(methoxycarbonylbenzyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (2c, (1-benzyl-3-(4-cyanobenzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (4a, (1-(4-cyanobenzyl-3-(4-methylbenzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (4b, (1-(4-cyanobenzyl-3-(4-methoxybenzyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (4c, and (1-(4-cyanobenzyl-3-[4-(methoxycarbonylbenzyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazole-2-ylidene silver(I acetate (4d were yielded by reacting these NHC precursors with silver(I acetate. The silver(I acetate complex 4b was characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial studies against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, were carried out on the seven NHC-silver(I acetate complexes 2a–c and 4a–d. Also the IC50 values of these seven complexes were determined by an MTT-based assay against the human renal cancer cell line Caki-1. The complexes 2a–c and 4a–c revealed the following IC50 values, respectively, 25 (±1, 15 (±2, 5.4 (±0.8, 16 (±2, 7.1 (±1, 20 (±4, and 14 (±1 μM.

  5. Synthesis, electronic structure, and magnetism of [Ni(6-Mes)2]+: a two-coordinate nickel(I) complex stabilized by bulky N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Poulten, Rebecca C; Page, Michael J; Algarra, Andrés G; Le Roy, Jennifer J; López, Isidoro; Carter, Emma; Llobet, Antoni; Macgregor, Stuart A; Mahon, Mary F; Murphy, Damien M; Murugesu, Muralee; Whittlesey, Michael K


    The two-coordinate cationic Ni(I) bis-N-heterocyclic carbene complex [Ni(6-Mes)2]Br (1) [6-Mes =1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene] has been structurally characterized and displays a highly linear geometry with a C-Ni-C angle of 179.27(13)°. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the five occupied metal-based orbitals are split in an approximate 2:1:2 pattern. Significant magnetic anisotropy results from this orbital degeneracy, leading to single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior.

  6. Synthesis of Well-Defined Copper "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes and Their Use as Catalysts for a "Click Reaction": A Multistep Experiment that Emphasizes the Role of Catalysis in Green Chemistry

    Ison, Elon A.; Ison, Ana


    A multistep experiment for an advanced synthesis lab course that incorporates topics in organic-inorganic synthesis and catalysis and highlights green chemistry principles was developed. Students synthesized two "N"-heterocyclic carbene ligands, used them to prepare two well-defined copper(I) complexes and subsequently utilized the complexes as…

  7. Synthesis of Well-Defined Copper "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes and Their Use as Catalysts for a "Click Reaction": A Multistep Experiment that Emphasizes the Role of Catalysis in Green Chemistry

    Ison, Elon A.; Ison, Ana


    A multistep experiment for an advanced synthesis lab course that incorporates topics in organic-inorganic synthesis and catalysis and highlights green chemistry principles was developed. Students synthesized two "N"-heterocyclic carbene ligands, used them to prepare two well-defined copper(I) complexes and subsequently utilized the complexes as…

  8. Chemistry of Iron N -heterocyclic carbene complexes: Syntheses, structures, reactivities, and catalytic applications

    Riener, Korbinian


    Iron is the most abundant transition metal in Earth\\'s crust. It is relatively inexpensive, not very toxic, and environmentally benign. Undoubtedly, due to the involvement in a multitude of biological processes, which heavily rely on the rich functionalities of iron-containing enzymes, iron is one of the most important elements in nature. Additionally, three-coordinate iron complexes have been reported during the past several years. In this review, the mentioned iron NHC complexes are categorized by their main structure and reactivity attributes. Thus, monocarbene and bis-monocarbene complexes are presented first. This class is subdivided into carbonyl, nitrosyl, and halide compounds followed by a brief section on other, more unconventional iron NHC motifs. Subsequently, donor-substituted complexes bearing bi-, tri-, tetra-, or even pentadentate ligands and further pincer as well as scorpionato motifs are described.

  9. Electronic bond tuning with heterocyclic carbenes

    Falivene, Laura


    We discuss the impact of the nature of the heterocyclic carbene ring, when used as a complex forming ligand, on the relative stability of key intermediates in three typical Ru, Pd and Au promoted reactions. Results show that P-heterocyclic carbenes have a propensity to increase the bonding of the labile ligand and of the substrate in Ru-promoted olefin metathesis, whereas negligible impact is expected on the stability of the ruthenacycle intermediate. In the case of Pd cross-coupling reactions, dissociation of a P-heterocyclic carbene is easier than dissociation of the N-heterocyclic analogue. In the case of the Au-OH synthon, the Au-OH bond is weakened with the P-heterocyclic carbene ligands. A detailed energy decomposition analysis is performed to rationalize these results. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Unimolecular reaction mechanism of an imidazolin-2-ylidene: an iPEPICO study on the complex dissociation of an Arduengo-type carbene.

    Hemberger, Patrick; Bodi, Andras; Gerber, Thomas; Würtemberger, Max; Radius, Udo


    The photoionization and dissociative photoionization of Im(iPr)2, 1,3-diisopropylimidazolin-2-ylidene, was investigated by imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (iPEPICO) with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. A lone-pair electron of the carbene carbon atom is removed upon ionization and the molecular geometry changes significantly. Only 0.5 eV above the adiabatic ionization energy, IEad =7.52±0.1 eV, the carbene cation fragments, yielding propene or a methyl radical in parallel dissociation reactions with appearance energies of 8.22 and 8.17 eV, respectively. Both reaction channels appear at almost the same photon energy, suggesting a shared transition state. This is confirmed by calculations, which reveal the rate-determining step as hydrogen-atom migration from the isopropyl group to the carbene carbon center forming a resonance-stabilized imidazolium ion. Above 10.5 eV, analogous sequential dissociation channels open up. The first propene-loss fragment ion dissociates further and another methyl or propene is abstracted. Again, a resonance-stabilized imidazolium ion acts as intermediate. The aromaticity of the system is enhanced even in vertical ionization. Indeed, the coincidence technique confirms that a real imidazolium ion is produced by hydrogen transfer over a small barrier. The simple analysis of the breakdown diagram yields all the clues to disentangle the complex dissociative photoionization mechanism of this intermediate-sized molecule. Photoelectron photoion coincidence is a promising tool to unveil the fragmentation mechanism of larger molecules in mass spectrometry.

  11. Nickel N-heterocyclic carbene complexes in the vinyl polymerization of norbornene

    Berding, J.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Bouwman, E.


    Vinyl polymerized norbornene has some useful properties such as good mechanical strength, optical transparency and heat resistance. Several transition metal complexes have been described in the literature as active catalysts for the vinyl polymerization of norbornene. We now report the use of three

  12. Luminescent cyclometalated alkynylplatinum(II) complexes with a tridentate pyridine-based N-heterocyclic carbene ligand: synthesis, characterization, electrochemistry, photophysics, and computational studies.

    Leung, Sammual Yu-Lut; Lam, Elizabeth Suk-Hang; Lam, Wai Han; Wong, Keith Man-Chung; Wong, Wing-Tak; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah


    A new class of luminescent alkynylplatinum(II) complexes with a tridentate pyridine-based N-heterocyclic carbene (2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidenyl)pyridine) ligand, [Pt(II)(C^N^C)(C≡CR)][PF6], and their chloroplatinum(II) precursor complex, [Pt(II)(C^N^C)Cl][PF6], have been synthesized and characterized. One of the alkynylplatinum(II) complexes has also been structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The electrochemistry, electronic absorption and luminescence properties of the complexes have been studied. Nanosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy has also been performed to probe the nature of the excited state. The origin of the absorption and emission properties has been supported by computational studies.

  13. Multicomponent synthesis of unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene precursors and their related transition-metal complexes

    Queval, Pierre


    A low-cost, modular, and easily scalable multicomponent procedure affording access in good yields and excellent selectivity (up to 93 %) to a wide range of (a)chiral unsymmetrical 1-aryl-3-cycloalkyl-imidazolium salts is disclosed. Electronic and steric properties of the corresponding unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligands were evaluated and evidenced strong electron donor ability, high steric discrimination, and modular steric demand. A low-cost, modular, and easily scalable multicomponent procedure, affording access to a wide range of (a)chiral unsymmetrical 1-aryl-3-cycloalkyl- imidazolium salts in good yields and excellent selectivities, is disclosed. Electronic and steric properties of the corresponding unsymmetrical unsaturated N-heterocyclic carbene (U2-NHC) ligands were evaluated and evidenced strong electron-donor ability, high steric discrimination, and modular steric demand. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Gold(I) compounds with lansoprazole-type ligands : synthesis, characterization and anticancer properties in vitro

    Serratice, M.; Bertrand, B.; Janssen, E. F. J.; Hemelt, E.; Zucca, A.; Cocco, F.; Cinellu, M. A.; Casini, A.


    A number of gold(I) complexes containing the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) lansoprazole and its reduced precursor 2-((3-methyl-4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)pyridin-2-yl)methylthio)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole have been synthesized and their biological effects have been evaluated in human cancer and nontumorigeni

  15. A new target for gold(I) compounds : Glutathione-S-transferase inhibition by auranofin

    De Luca, Anastasia; Hartinger, Christian G.; Dyson, Paul J.; Lo Bello, Mario; Casini, Angela


    Nowadays, gold compounds occupy a relevant position constituting a promising class of experimental anticancer metallodrugs. Several research efforts have been devoted to the investigations of the pharmacological properties of gold(I) complexes bearing phosphine ligands, such as the antiarthritic dru

  16. Cu(I)-N heterocyclic carbene complexes: Synthesis, catalysis and DFT studies

    Dinda, Joydev; Roymahapatra, Gourisankar; Sarkar, Deblina; Mondal, Tapan K.; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Sinha, Chittaranjan; Hwang, Wen-Shu


    The structural, spectroscopic and catalytic properties of the two Cu(I) complexes [Cu2(L1)2](PF6)2;(1) and [Cu2(L2)2](PF6)2; (2), bearing proligands 2,6-bis-(N-methylimidazolium)pyrazine hexafluorophosphate (L1) and 2,6-bis-(N-methylbenzimidazolium)pyrazine hexafluorophosphate (L2), have been investigated. The solid state structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray diffraction studies, while DFT computation technique has been used to optimize structure 2. From molecular orbital calculations using TD-DFT, the absorption bands are assigned to metal to ligand charge transfer(MLCT) along with some inter ligand charge transfer (ILCT) transitions. Complexes 1 and 2 possess very weak Cu(I)sbnd Cu(I) interactions within the reported distance 2.947-3.020 Å. They are expected to have luminescent properties due to Cu(I)sbnd Cu(I) interactions. Preliminary studies revealed both complexes to possess catalytic efficiency in general hydrosilylation reactions.

  17. Formation of cellulose-carbene complex via depolymerization in ILs: Dependence of IL types on kinetics, conformation and dispersity.

    Ahn, Yongjun; Song, Younghan; Kim, Hyungsup; Kwak, Seung-Yeop


    This study focused on the influence of anion type on the depolymerization and its effect on the molecular state, dynamics and dispersity of cellulose. GPC and the van Gurp-Palmen plot showed that molar mass was more significantly decreased by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4C1Im][Cl]) comparing to 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4C1Im][OAc]). Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose in IL was proved using base titration which was monitored by conductivity and pH value. On the contrary to the depolymerization case, [C4C1Im][OAc] solution needed more base to be neutralized than [C4C1Im][Cl] solution. The generated carbene was combined with reducing ends of cellulose, which was facilitated in low molar mass consisting of a large number of reducing ends. The formation of cellulose-carbene substitution caused steric hindrance of cellulose chain, thus resulting in increased segmental friction with high molecular density. The cellulose particle combined with carbene can be dispersed stably in aqueous media.

  18. Synthesis, structural characterization, solution behavior, and in vitro antiproliferative properties of a series of gold complexes with 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole as ligand: comparisons of gold(III) versus gold(I) and mononuclear versus binuclear derivatives.

    Serratrice, Maria; Cinellu, Maria A; Maiore, Laura; Pilo, Maria; Zucca, Antonio; Gabbiani, Chiara; Guerri, Annalisa; Landini, Ida; Nobili, Stefania; Mini, Enrico; Messori, Luigi


    A variety of gold(III) and gold(I) derivatives of 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (pbiH) were synthesized and fully characterized and their antiproliferative properties evaluated in a representative ovarian cancer cell line. The complexes include the mononuclear species [(pbi)AuX(2)] (X = Cl, 1; OAc, 2), [(pbiH)AuCl] (3), [(pbiH)Au(PPh(3))][PF(6)] (4-PF(6)), and [(pbi)Au(L)] (L = PPh(3), 5; TPA, 6), and the binuclear gold(I)/gold(I) and gold(I)/gold(III) derivatives [(PPh(3))(2)Au(2)(μ(2)-pbi)][PF(6)] (10-PF(6)), [ClAu(μ(3)-pbi)AuCl(2)] (7),and [(PPh(3))Au(μ(3)-pbi)AuX(2)][PF(6)] (X = Cl, 8-PF(6); OAc, 9-PF(6)). The molecular structures of 6, 7, and 10-PF(6) were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The chemical behavior of these compounds in solution was analyzed both by cyclic voltammetry in DMF and absorption UV-vis spectroscopy in an aqueous buffer. Overall, the stability of these gold compounds was found to be acceptable for the cellular studies. For all complexes, relevant antiproliferative activities in vitro were documented against A2780 human ovarian carcinoma cells, either resistant or sensitive to cisplatin, with IC(50) values falling in the low micromolar or even in the nanomolar range. The investigated gold compounds were found to overcome resistance to cisplatin to a large degree. Results are interpreted and discussed in the frame of current knowledge on cytotoxic and antitumor gold compounds.

  19. Conformations of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands in Ruthenium Complexes Relevant to Olefin Metathesis

    Stewart, Ian C.; Benitez, Diego; O'Leary, Daniel J.; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Day, Michael W.; Goddard, William A.; Grubbs, Robert H.


    The structure of ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalyst 3 and model π-complex 5 in solution and in the solid state are reported. The N-tolyl ligands, due to their lower symmetry than the traditional N-mesityl substituents, complicate this analysis, but ultimately provide explanation for the enhanced reactivity of 3 relative to standard catalyst 2. The tilt of the N-tolyl ring provides additional space near the ruthenium center, which is consistent with the enhanced reactivity of 3 towards sterically demanding substrates. Due to this tilt, the more sterically accessible face bears the two methyl substituents of the N-aryl rings. These experimental studies are supported by computational studies of these complexes by DFT. The experimental data provides a means to validate the accuracy of the B3LYP and M06 functionals. B3LYP provides geometries that match X-ray crystal structural data more closely, though it leads to slightly less (∼0.5 kcal mol−1) accuracy than M06 most likely because it underestimates attractive non-covalent interactions. PMID:19146414

  20. Deconstructing selectivity in the gold-promoted cyclization of alkynyl benzothioamides to six-membered mesoionic carbene or acyclic carbene complexes

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.


    We demonstrate that the experimentally observed switch in selectivity from 5-exo-dig to 6-endo-dig cyclization of an alkynyl substrate, promoted by Au I and AuIII complexes, is connected to a switch from thermodynamic to kinetic reaction control. The AuIII center pushes alkyne coordination toward a single Au-C(alkyne) σ-bond, conferring carbocationic character (and reactivity) to the distal alkyne C atom. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. Solvent-dependent switch of ligand donor ability and catalytic activity of ruthenium(II) complexes containing pyridinylidene amide (PYA) N-heterocyclic carbene hybrid ligands.

    Leigh, Vivienne; Carleton, Daniel J; Olguin, Juan; Mueller-Bunz, Helge; Wright, L James; Albrecht, Martin


    Chelating ligands incorporating both N-[1-alkylpyridin-4(1H)-ylidene]amide (PYA) and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donor sites were prepared and used for the synthesis of ruthenium(II) complexes. Cyclic voltammetry, NMR, and UV-vis spectroscopy of the complexes indicate a solvent-dependent contribution of the limiting resonance structures associated with the ligand in solution. The neutral pyridylidene imine structure is more pronounced in apolar solvents (CH2Cl2), while the mesoionic pyridinium amide form is predominant in polar solvents (MeOH, DMSO). The distinct electronic properties of these hybrid PYA-NHC ligands in different solvents have a direct influence on the catalytic activity of the ruthenium center, e.g., in the dehydrogenation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The activity in different solvents qualitatively correlates with the solvent permittivity.

  2. Mixed N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Bis(oxazolinyl)borato Rhodium and Iridium Complexes in Photochemical and Thermal Oxidative Addition Reactions

    Xu, Songchen [Ames Laboratory; Manna, Kuntal [Ames Laboratory; Ellern, Arkady [Ames Laboratory; Sadow, Aaron D [Ames Laboratory


    In order to facilitate oxidative addition chemistry of fac-coordinated rhodium(I) and iridium(I) compounds, carbene–bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborate proligands have been synthesized and reacted with organometallic precursors. Two proligands, PhB(OxMe2)2(ImtBuH) (H[1]; OxMe2 = 4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazoline; ImtBuH = 1-tert-butylimidazole) and PhB(OxMe2)2(ImMesH) (H[2]; ImMesH = 1-mesitylimidazole), are deprotonated with potassium benzyl to generate K[1] and K[2], and these potassium compounds serve as reagents for the synthesis of a series of rhodium and iridium complexes. Cyclooctadiene and dicarbonyl compounds {PhB(OxMe2)2ImtBu}Rh(η4-C8H12) (3), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(η4-C8H12) (4), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Rh(CO)2 (5), {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(η4-C8H12) (6), and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}Ir(CO)2 (7) are synthesized along with ToMM(η4-C8H12) (M = Rh (8); M = Ir (9); ToM = tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate). The spectroscopic and structural properties and reactivity of this series of compounds show electronic and steric effects of substituents on the imidazole (tert-butyl vs mesityl), effects of replacing an oxazoline in ToM with a carbene donor, and the influence of the donor ligand (CO vs C8H12). The reactions of K[2] and [M(μ-Cl)(η2-C8H14)2]2 (M = Rh, Ir) provide {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}Rh(μ-H)(μ-Cl)Rh(η2-C8H14)2 (10) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(η3-C8H13) (11). In the former compound, a spontaneous oxidative addition of a mesityl ortho-methyl to give a mixed-valent dirhodium species is observed, while the iridium compound forms a monometallic allyl hydride. Photochemical reactions of dicarbonyl compounds 5 and 7 result in C–H bond oxidative addition providing the compounds {κ4-PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes'CH2}RhH(CO) (12) and {PhB(OxMe2)2ImMes}IrH(Ph)CO (13). In 12, oxidative addition results in cyclometalation of the mesityl ortho-methyl similar to 10, whereas the iridium compound reacts with the benzene solvent to give a rare crystallographically characterized cis

  3. Chemistry of Stable Carbenes and «Green» Technologies

    Korotkikh, N.I.


    Full Text Available Brief analysis of fundamental research in the chemistry of stable carbenes and applications in the field of «green» chemistry on their basis carried out at the L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical Organic & Coal Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine over the last decade is given. Carbene versions of ester Claisen condensation to form zwitterionic compounds, the Leuckart-Wallach reaction with the autoreduction of carbenoid azolium salts, Hofmann cleavage of aminocarbene insertion products, an induced tandem autotransformation of 1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidenes into 5-amidino-1,2,4-triazoles were found. New carbene reactions of ad dition, deesterification, oxidation and complexation were revealed. Effective methods of obtaining stable carbenes and carbenoids were suggested. New types of carbenes, namely benzimidazolylidenes, superstable conjugated biscarbenes and new types of carbenoids were synthesized. The existence of hypernucleophilic carbenes was theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed. The prospects of the use of carbenes and their derivatives, in particular, carbene complexes of transition metals in catalysis of organic reactions and the search of biologically active compounds were shown.

  4. Silver-free activation of ligated gold(I) chlorides: the use of [Me3NB12Cl11]- as a weakly coordinating anion in homogeneous gold catalysis.

    Wegener, Michael; Huber, Florian; Bolli, Christoph; Jenne, Carsten; Kirsch, Stefan F


    Phosphane and N-heterocyclic carbene ligated gold(I) chlorides can be effectively activated by Na[Me3NB12Cl11] (1) under silver-free conditions. This activation method with a weakly coordinating closo-dodecaborate anion was shown to be suitable for a large variety of reactions known to be catalyzed by homogeneous gold species, ranging from carbocyclizations to heterocyclizations. Additionally, the capability of 1 in a previously unknown conversion of 5-silyloxy-1,6-allenynes was demonstrated.

  5. Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Selective Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Nickel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Isoquinoline Complex

    Thoi, VanSara; Kornienko, Nick; Margarit, C; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher


    The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni(Prbimiq1)]2+ (1c, where Prbimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (Ecat = 1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s1, respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

  6. A RhIII-N-heterocyclic carbene complex from metal-metal singly bonded [RhII−RhII] precursor

    Arup Sinha; Abir Sarbajna; Shrabani dinda; Jitendra K Bera


    Metal-metal singly bonded [Rh2(CO)4(acac)2][OTf]2 (1) has been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. A density functional theory (DFT) optimized structure has been computed for the unbridged centro-symmetric structure. Reaction of 1 with PIN.HBr results in the [Rh(PIN)2(H2O)Br][OTf]2 (2) in high yield. The reaction involves metal-oxidation from RhII to RhIII accompanied by the metal-metal bond cleavage. The X-ray structure of 2 has been determined which reveals the incorporation of two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to each rhodium. This work demonstrates the general utility of the metal-metal bonded compounds for the easy synthesis of metal-NHC compounds.

  7. Palladium(ii-Acetylacetonato Complexes with Mesoionic Carbenes: Synthesis, Structures and Their Application in the Suzuki-Miyaura Cross Coupling Reaction

    Lara Hettmanczyk


    Full Text Available A series of novel palladium(ii acetylacetonato complexes bearing mesoionic carbenes (MICs have been synthesized and characterized. The synthesis of the complexes of type (MICPd(acacI (MIC = 1-mesityl-3-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (1, 1,4-(2,4,6-methyl-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (2, 1,4-(2,6-diisopropyl-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene (3; acac = acetylacetonato via direct metalation starting from the corresponding triazolium iodides and palladium(ii acetylacetonate is described herein. All complexes were characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, two of the complexes were characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography confirming a square-planar coordination geometry of the palladium(ii center. A delocalized bonding situation was observed within the triazolylidene rings as well as for the acac ligand respectively. Complex 2 was found to be an efficient pre-catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction between aryl-bromides or -chlorides with phenylboronic acid.

  8. Gold(I) complex of 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino) ferrocene-quinoline conjugate: a virostatic agent against HIV-1.

    Gama, Ntombenhle; Kumar, Kamlesh; Ekengard, Erik; Haukka, Matti; Darkwa, James; Nordlander, Ebbe; Meyer, Debra


    HIV infection is known for replicating in proliferating CD(+) T-cells. Treatment of these cells with cytostatic (anti-proliferation) compounds such as hydroxyurea interferes with the cells's ability support HIV replication. Combinations of such cytostatic compounds with proven anti-retroviral drugs (like ddI) are known as virostatic, and have been shown to aid in the control of the infection. The use of two different drugs in virostatic combinations however, carries the risk of adverse effects including drug-drug interactions, which could lead to augmented toxicities and reduced efficacy. Here, a novel digold(I) complex of ferrocene-quinoline (3) was investigated for cytostatic behaviour as well as anti-viral activity which if demonstrated would eliminate concerns of drug-drug interactions. The complex was synthesized and characterized by NMR, FT-IR and mass spectroscopy and the molecular structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Bio-screening involved viability dyes, real time electronic sensing and whole virus assays. The complex showed significant (p = 0.0092) inhibition of virus infectivity (83 %) at 10 ug/mL. This same concentration caused cytostatic behaviour in TZM-bl cells with significant (p < 0.01) S and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. These data supports 3 as a virostatic agent, possessing both anti-viral and cytostatic characteristics. In the absence of 3, TZM-bl cells were infected by a pseudovirus and this was demonstrated through luminescence in a luciferase assay. Pre-incubation of the virus with 3 decreased luminescence, indicating the anti-viral activity of 3. Complex 3 also showed cytostatic behavior with increased S-phase and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest.

  9. Toward new organometallic architectures: synthesis of carbene-centered rhodium and palladium bisphosphine complexes. stability and reactivity of [PC(BIm)PRh(L)][PF6] pincers.

    Plikhta, Andriy; Pöthig, Alexander; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Rieger, Bernhard


    In this article, we report the synthesis of a tridentate carbene-centered bisphosphine ligand precursor and its complexes. The developed four-step synthetic strategy of a new PC(BIm)P pincer ligand represents the derivatization of benzimidazole in the first and third positions by (diphenylphosphoryl)methylene synthone, followed by phosphine deprotection and subsequent insertion of a noncoordinating anion. The obtained ligand precursor undergoes complexation, with PdCl2 and [μ-OCH3Rh(COD)]2 smoothly forming the target organometallics [PC(BIm)PPdCl][PF6] and [PC(BIm)PRh(L)][PF6] under mild hydrogenation conditions. A more detailed study of the rhodium complexes [PC(BIm)PRh(L)][PF6] reveals significant thermal stability of the PC(BIm)PRh moiety in the solid state as well as in solution. The chemical behavior of 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphinomethylene)benzimidazol-2-ylrhodium acetonitrile hexafluorophosphate has been screened under decarbonylation, hydrogenation, and hydroboration reaction conditions. Thus, the PC(BIm)PRh(I) complex is a sufficiently stable compound, with the potential to be applied in catalysis.

  10. Cyclometalated Palladium(II) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: Anticancer Agents for Potent In Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Tumor Growth Suppression.

    Fong, Tommy Tsz-Him; Lok, Chun-Nam; Chung, Clive Yik-Sham; Fung, Yi-Man Eva; Chow, Pui-Keong; Wan, Pui-Ki; Che, Chi-Ming


    Palladium(II) complexes are generally reactive toward substitution/reduction, and their biological applications are seldom explored. A new series of palladium(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes that are stable in the presence of biological thiols are reported. A representative complex, [Pd(C^N^N)(N,N'-nBu2 NHC)](CF3 SO3 ) (Pd1 d, HC^N^N=6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridine, N,N'-nBu2 NHC=N,N'-di-n-butylimidazolylidene), displays potent killing activity toward cancer cell lines (IC50 =0.09-0.5 μm) but is less cytotoxic toward a normal human fibroblast cell line (CCD-19Lu, IC50 =11.8 μm). In vivo anticancer studies revealed that Pd1 d significantly inhibited tumor growth in a nude mice model. Proteomics data and in vitro biochemical assays reveal that Pd1 d exerts anticancer effects, including inhibition of an epidermal growth factor receptor pathway, induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, and antiangiogenic activity to endothelial cells.

  11. Structure, bonding and energetics of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) stabilized low oxidation state group 2 (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) metal complexes: A theoretical study

    Ashim Baishya; V Rao Mundlapati; Sharanappa Nembenna; Himansu S Biswal


    A series of N-heterocyclic carbene stabilized low oxidation state group 2 metal halide and hydrides with metal-metal bonds ([L(X) M-M(X) L]; L = NHC ((CHNH)2C:), M = Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba, and X = Cl or H) has been studied by computational methods. The main objective of this study is to predict whether it is possible to stabilize neutral ligated low oxidation state alkaline-earth metal complexes with metal-metal bonds. The homolytic metal-metal Bond Dissociation Energy (BDE) calculation, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Energy Decomposition Analyses (EDA) on density functional theory (DFT) optimized [L(X)M-M(X)L] complexes revealed that they are as stable as their -diketiminate, guanidinate and -diimine counterparts. The optimized structures of the complexes are in trans-linear geometries. The bond order analyses such as Wiberg Bond Indices (WBI) and Fuzzi Bond Order (FBO) confirm the existence of single bond between two metal atoms, and it is covalent in nature.

  12. Impact of Substituents Attached to N-Heterocyclic Carbenes on the Catalytic Activity of Copper Complexes in the Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds with Triethoxysilane

    PENG, Jiajian; CHEN, Lingzhen; XU, Zheng; HU, Yingqian; LI, Jiayun; BAI, Ying; QIU, Huayu; LAI, Guoqiao


    By using functionalized imidazolium salts such as 1-allyl-3-alkylimidazolium or 1-alkyi-3-vinylimidazolium salts as carbene ligand precursors, the reduction of aryl ketones with triethoxysilane may be catalyzed by copper salt/imidazolium salt/KO~tBu systems. The functional substituents attached to the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) serve to enhance the catalytic activity. Different copper salts also have an effect on the catalytic activity, with copper(Ⅱ) acetate monohydrate being superior to copper(I) chloride.

  13. Generating and trapping metalla-N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Ruiz, Javier; García, Lucía; Vivanco, Marilín; Berros, Ángela; Van der Maelen, Juan Francisco


    By means of a combined experimental and theoretical approach, the electronic features and chemical behavior of metalla-N-heterocyclic carbenes (MNHCs, N-heterocyclic carbenes containing a metal atom within the heterocyclic skeleton) have been established and compared with those of classical NHCs. MNHCs are strongly basic (proton affinity and pK(a) values around 290 kcal mol(-1) and 36, respectively) with a narrow singlet-triplet gap (around 23 kcal mol(-1)). MNHCs can be generated from the corresponding metalla-imidazolium salts and trapped by addition of transition-metal complexes affording the corresponding heterodimetallic dicarbene derivatives, which can serve as carbene transfer agents.

  14. Properties and reactions of manganese methylene complexes in the gas phase. The importance of strong metal: carbene bonds for effective olefin metathesis catalysts

    Stevens, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.L.


    In this communication the formation, properties and reactions of the gas phase carbenes MnCH/sub 2//sup +/, (CO)/sub 5/MnCH/sub 2//sup +/, and (CO)/sub 4/MnCH/sub 2//sup +/ are described. Reported results include observation of metathesis and abstraction reactions of the methylene ligand with olefins and the first experimental determination of metal-carbene bond dissociation energies. Important points are that: (a) metal-methylene bond energies are extremely strong; and (b) the Mn/sup +/-methylene bond energy is decreased substantially on addition of five carbonyls to the metal center. If the metal-carbene bond energy exceeds 100 kcal/mol, then transfer of the carbene to an olefin to give a cyclopropane or new olefin will be endothermic and thus will not compete with the metathesis reaction. In order to avoid low turnover numbers resulting from consumption of carbene intermediates, strong metal-carbene bonds are a desirable feature of practical metathesis catalysts. (DP)

  15. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) 1,2,3-triazolylidene organometallics: a preliminary investigation into the biological activity of 'click' carbene complexes.

    Kilpin, Kelly J; Crot, Stéphanie; Riedel, Tina; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Dyson, Paul J


    Taking advantage of the facile and versatile synthetic properties of 'click' 1,2,3-triazolylidene N-heterocyclic carbenes (tzNHC's), a range of new organometallic Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes containing functionalised tzNHC ligands, [M(η(6)-p-cymene)(tzNHC)Cl2] [M = Ru(II), Os(II)], have been synthesised and fully characterised, including the X-ray crystal structure of one of the Os(II) complexes. The tzNHC ligands remain coordinated to the metal centres under relevant physiological conditions, and following binding to the model protein, ubiquitin. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds towards human ovarian cancer cells is dependent on the substituent on the tzNHC ligand but is generally <50 μM and in some cases <1 μM, whilst still retaining a high degree of selectivity towards cancer cells over healthy cells (1.85 μM in A2780 ovarian cancer cells versus 435 μM in human embryonic kidney cells in one case).

  16. Low-spin hexacoordinate Mn(III): synthesis and spectroscopic investigation of homoleptic tris(pyrazolyl)borate and tris(carbene)borate complexes.

    Forshaw, Adam P; Smith, Jeremy M; Ozarowski, Andrew; Krzystek, J; Smirnov, Dmitry; Zvyagin, S A; Harris, T David; Karunadasa, Hemamala I; Zadrozny, Joseph M; Schnegg, Alexander; Holldack, Karsten; Jackson, Timothy A; Alamiri, Ahmad; Barnes, Diane M; Telser, Joshua


    unrestricted Hartree-Fock methods. This analysis also shows that spin-crossover behavior is not thermally accessible for these complexes as solids. The donor properties of the three different scorpionate ligands were further characterized using the LFT model that suggests that the tris(carbene)borate is a strong σ-donor with little or no π-bonding.

  17. Siim Nestor soovitab : Goldie. Chris Simmonds / Siim Nestor

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-


    Drum'n'bassi esimese superstaari Goldie esinemisest 16. nov. Circulation-sarja peol Lillepaviljonis Tallinnas. Londoni diskori Chris Simmondsi esinemistest 15. nov. Tartu klubis Tallinn ja 16. nov. Tallinnas kohvikus Moskva

  18. Siim Nestor soovitab : Goldie. Chris Simmonds / Siim Nestor

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-


    Drum'n'bassi esimese superstaari Goldie esinemisest 16. nov. Circulation-sarja peol Lillepaviljonis Tallinnas. Londoni diskori Chris Simmondsi esinemistest 15. nov. Tartu klubis Tallinn ja 16. nov. Tallinnas kohvikus Moskva

  19. First Insertions of Carbene Ligands into Ge-N and Si-N Bonds.

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, Lucía; Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Gómez-Gallego, Mar; Merinero, Alba D; Sierra, Miguel A


    The insertion of carbene ligands into Ge-N (three examples) and Si-N (one example) bonds has been achieved for the first time by treating Fischer carbene complexes (M = W, Cr) with bulky amidinatotetrylenes (E = Ge, Si). These reactions, which start with a nucleophilic attack of the amidinatotetrylene heavier group-14 atom to the carbene C atom, proceed through a stereoselective insertion of the carbene fragment into an E-N bond of the amidinatotetrylene ENCN four-membered ring, leading to [M(CO)5L] derivatives in which L belongs to a novel family of tetrylene ligands comprising an ECNCN five-membered ring.

  20. Silver(I) complexes of mono- and bidentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: synthesis, crystal structures, and in vitro antibacterial and anticancer studies.

    Haque, Rosenani A; Choo, Sze Yii; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul


    A series of benzimidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) proligands {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (1/4), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (2/5) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium-1-ylmethylbenzene dibromide/dihexafluorophosphate (3/6)} has been synthesized by the successive N-alkylation method. Ag complexes {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (7), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (8) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidene)-1-ylmethylbenzene disilver(I) dihexafluorophosphate (9)} of NHC ligands have been synthesized by the treatment of benzimidazolium salts with Ag2O at mild reaction conditions. Both, NHC proligands and Ag-NHC complexes have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR and FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis technique. Additionally, the structure of the NHC proligand 5 and the mononuclear Ag complexes 7 and 8 has been elucidated by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the complexes exhibit the same general structural motif with linear coordination geometry around the Ag centre having two NHC ligands. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial potentials of reported compounds against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria evidenced the higher activity of mononuclear silver(I) complexes. The anticancer studies against the human derived colorectal cancer (HCT 116) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell lines using the MTT assay method, revealed the higher activity of Ag-NHC complexes. The benzimidazolium salts 4-6 and Ag-NHC complexes 7-9 displayed the following IC50 values against the HCT 116 and HT29 cell lines, respectively, 31.8 ± 1.9, 15.2 ± 1.5, 4.8 ± 0.6, 10.5 ± 1.0, 18.7 ± 1.6, 1.20 ± 0.3 and 245.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 0.8, 146.1 ± 3.1, 7.6 ± 0.7, 5.5 ± 0.8, 103.0 ± 2.3 μM.

  1. Organic Transformations Catalyzed by N-Heterocyclic Carben e-Metal Complexes%以N-杂环卡宾为配体的金属络合物催化有机合成的反应

    李林涛; 麻生明


    Reactions catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbene-metal complexes, such as ol efin metathesis, coupling reaction, hydrosilylation reaction, etc. were revi ewed.   Ruthenium (II) complexes bearing one or two imidazolin-2-ylidene ligands are h ighly active catalysts for all types of ring closing metathesis reactions. Impor tantly, they even allow the formation of tetrasubstituted alkenes that were not previously achieved by ruthenium-phosphine metathesis catalysts. In addition, f unctionalized olefins were synthesized by intermolecular cross-metathesis and r ing-closing metathesis.   Palladium(0) complexes of imidazolin-2-ylidenes (19) could not catalyze the coupling of p-chlorotoluene and phenylboronic acid. However, a system consists of a Pd(0) precursor and dihydroimidazoline carbene ligand, wh ich is generated in situ, showed high activity for Suzuki cross-coupling re action of aryl chlorides with arylboronic acids, Kumada cross-coupling reaction of aryl chlorides with aryl Grignard reagents and amination of aryl chlorides.   Complexes of the (NHC)Pd(PR3)I2-type with bulky N-heterocyclic carbene s (NHC) are efficient catalysts for the Suzuki and Stille cross-coupling reacti ons, etc.   Imidazolidin-2-ylidene derivatives of rhodium(I) and ruthenium(II) catalyze t he carbon-carbon coupling of terminal alkynes, the cyclopropanation reactions o f diazoalkane derivatives with styrene, hydrosilylation of alkenes, alkynes, keto nes and hydrogenation of olefins.%综述了近几年来以N-杂环卡宾 为配体的金属络合物催化有机合成的反应。

  2. Trinuclear complexes of palladium(ii) with chalcogenated N-heterocyclic carbenes: catalysis of selective nitrile-primary amide interconversion and Sonogashira coupling.

    Dubey, Pooja; Gupta, Sonu; Singh, Ajai K


    3-Methyl-1-(2-(phenylthio/seleno)ethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-3-ium iodide (L1/L2), a precursor of sulfated/selenated N-heterocyclic carbene, was synthesized by the reaction of benzimidazole with 1,2-dichloroethane followed by treatment with PhS/SeNa and MeI. The reaction of L1/L2 with Ag2O followed by treatment with [Pd(CH3CN)2Cl2] (metal to ligand ratio 3 : 2), i.e. transmetallation, resulted in trinuclear palladium(ii) complexes [Pd3(L1/L2-HI)2(CH3CN)Cl6] (1-2). The complexes were characterized with (1)H, (13)C{(1)H} and (77)Se{(1)H} NMR (2 only), elemental analyses, HR-MS and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The geometry of three Pd atoms in each complex is nearly square planar. The Pd-S/Se, Pd-C, Pd-N and Pd-Cl bond distances (Å) in 1/2 are 2.3179(19)/2.4312(10), 1.968(7)/1.952(4), 2.073(8)/2.079(4) and 2.2784(19)-2.298(2)/2.292(2)-2.3003(15), respectively. In both the complexes, all Cl are trans to each other. For the central Pd atom, two benzimidazole rings are also trans to each other. The C-HCl non-covalent interactions result in a three-dimensional network. The moisture and air insensitive trinuclear Pd(ii) complexes 1 and 2 are thermally stable and efficient as a catalyst for nitrile-amide interconversion and amine-free Sonogashira C-C coupling (in the presence of CuI). The optimum temperature is 80 °C for the interconversion and 110 °C for the coupling. The catalytic protocols are applicable to both aliphatic and aromatic amides/nitriles. The optimum catalyst loading is 1 mol% for the C-C coupling and 0.5 to 1 mol% for the interconversion. K2CO3 as a base gives the best result for Sonogashira C-C coupling. In the conversion of nitriles to amides, the formation of an acid was not detected. After using once, 1/2 can carry out the conversion of ten fresh lots of nitriles to amides with almost the same efficiency. The real catalytic species for the interconversion and coupling appear to be based on Pd(ii) and Pd(0), respectively.

  3. Structural Diversity of Copper(I)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes; Ligand Tuning Facilitates Isolation of the First Structurally Characterised Copper(I)-NHC Containing a Copper(I)-Alkene Interaction

    Willans, CE; Lake, BRM


    The preparation of a series of imidazolium salts bearing N-allyl substituents, and a range of substituents on the second nitrogen atom that have varying electronic and steric properties, is reported. The ligands have been coordinated to a copper(I) centre and the resulting copper(I)–NHC (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) complexes have been thoroughly examined, both in solution and in the solid-state. The solid-state structures are highly diverse and exhibit a range of unusual geometries and cuprop...

  4. "Decarbonization" of an imino N-heterocyclic carbene via triple benzyl migration from hafnium

    An imino N-heterocyclic carbene underwent three sequential benzyl migrations upon reaction with tetrabenzylhafnium, resulting in complete removal of the carbene carbon from the ligand. The resulting eneamido-amidinato hafnium complex showed alkene polymerization activity comparable to that of a prec...

  5. Copper N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes As Active Catalysts for the Synthesis of 2-Substituted Oxazolines from Nitriles and Aminoalcohols.

    Trose, Michael; Lazreg, Faïma; Lesieur, Mathieu; Cazin, Catherine S J


    The reaction between nitriles and aminoalcohols to access 2-substituted oxazolines was investigated. Using copper-NHC complexes, various nitriles were successfully converted into the corresponding oxazolines, under milder and less wasteful conditions than those of previously reported methods.

  6. Calcium carbene complexes with boranophosphorano side-arms: CaC[P(Ph)(2)BH(3)](2).

    Orzechowski, Lars; Jansen, Georg; Lutz, Martin; Harder, Sjoerd


    The ligand H(2)C(PPh(2)BH(3))(2) (-H(2)) reacted with one or a half equivalent of (para-tBu-C(6)H(4)CH(2))(2)Ca.(THF)(4) to form the calcium complexes Ca[HC(PPh(2)BH(3))(2)](2) (-H)(2)Ca and CaC(PPh(2)BH(3))(2) (-Ca), respectively. The crystal structures of their THF adducts (-H)(2)Ca.THF and [-Ca.(THF)](2) follow the same trends as observed for the corresponding iminophosphorano substituted complexes Ca[HC(PPh(2)NR)(2)](2) and [CaC(PPh(2)NR)(2)](2). The P-C bonds shorten upon gradual deprotonation, whereas the P-B and P-N bonds elongate. The geometries of DFT-optimized model systems and complete molecular structures show similar trends. Also the charge distribution within the boranophosphorano complexes is similar to that in the iminophosphorano complexes. The high positive charges on Ca (1.74-1.75) indicate a predominantly ionic ligand-Ca bonding. High negative charges on the central carbon atom (-1.103 in Ca[HC(PH(2)BH(3))(2)](2) and -1.775 in [CaC(PH(2)BH(3))(2)](2)) compare well to those calculated for analogous iminophosphorano complexes (-1.126 Ca[HC(PH(2)NH)(2)](2) and -1.847 [CaC(PH(2)NH)(2)](2), respectively). Thus, in both types of complexes delocalization of electron density over the boranophosphorano or iminophosphorano substituents does not play a major role. Complex [-Ca.(THF)](2) does not react with adamantyl cyanide. Instead the adduct (-Ca)(2).(THF).(adamantyl-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]N) formed (a crystal structure has been determined).

  7. Effect of the nature of the substituent in N-alkylimidazole ligands on the outcome of deprotonation: ring opening versus the formation of N-heterocyclic carbene complexes.

    Huertos, Miguel A; Pérez, Julio; Riera, Lucía; Díaz, Jesús; López, Ramón


    Complexes [Re(CO)(3)(N-RIm)(3)]OTf (N-RIm=N-alkylimidazole, OTf=trifluoromethanesulfonate; 1a-d) have been straightforwardly synthesised from [Re(OTf)(CO)(5)] and the appropriate N-alkylimidazole. The reaction of compounds 1a-d with the strong base KN(SiMe(3))(2) led to deprotonation of a central C-H group of an imidazole ligand, thus affording very highly reactive derivatives. The latter can evolve through two different pathways, depending on the nature of the substituents of the imidazole ligands. Compound 1a contains three N-MeIm ligands, and its product 2a features a C-bound imidazol-2-yl ligand. When 2a is treated with HOTf or MeOTf, rhenium N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) 3a or 4a are afforded as a result of the protonation or methylation, respectively, of the non-coordinated N atom. The reaction of 2a with [AuCl(PPh(3))] led to the heterobimetallic compound 5, in which the N-heterocyclic ligand is once again N-bound to the Re atom and C-coordinated to the gold fragment. For compounds 1b-d, with at least one N-arylimidazole ligand, deprotonation led to an unprecedented reactivity pattern: the carbanion generated by the deprotonation of the C2-H group of an imidazole ligand attacks a central C-H group of a neighbouring N-RIm ligand, thus affording the product of C-C coupling and ring-opening of the imidazole moiety that has been attacked (2c, d). The new complexes featured an amido-type N atom that can be protonated or methylated, thus obtaining compounds 3c, d or 4c, d, respectively. The latter reaction forces a change in the disposition of the olefinic unit generated by the ring-opening of the N-RIm ligand from a cisoid to a transoid geometry. Theoretical calculations help to rationalise the experimental observation of ring-opening (when at least one of the substituents of the imidazole ligands is an aryl group) or tautomerisation of the N-heterocyclic ligand to afford the imidazol-2-yl product.

  8. Efficient C-F and C-C activation by a novel N-heterocyclic carbene-nickel(0) complex.

    Schaub, Thomas; Radius, Udo


    The NHC-stabilized complex [Ni2(iPr2Im)4(cod)] (1) was isolated in good yield from the reaction of [Ni(cod)2] with 1,3-diisopropylimidazole-2-ylidene (iPr2Im). Compound 1 is a source of the [Ni(iPr2Im)2] complex fragment in stoichiometric and catalytic transformations. The reactions of 1 with ethylene and CO under atmospheric pressure or with equimolar amounts of diphenylacetylene lead to the compounds [Ni(iPr2Im)2(eta2-C2H4)] (2), [Ni(iPr2Im)2(eta2-C2Ph2)] (3), and [Ni(iPr2Im)2(CO)2] (4) in good yields. In all cases the [Ni(iPr2Im)2] complex fragment is readily transferred without decomposition or fragmentation. In the infrared spectrum of carbonyl complex 4, the CO stretching frequencies are observed at 1847 and 1921 cm(-1), and are significantly shifted to lower wavenumbers compared with other nickel(0) carbonyl complexes of the type [NiL2(CO)2]. Complex 1 activates the C--F bond of hexafluorobenzene very efficiently to give [Ni(iPr2Im)2(F)(C6F5)] (5). Furthermore, [Ni2(iPr2Im)4(cod)] (1) is also an excellent catalyst for the catalytic insertion of diphenylacetylene into the 2,2' bond of biphenylene. The reaction of 1 with equimolar amounts of biphenylene at low temperature leads to [Ni(iPr2Im)2(2,2'-biphenyl)] (6), which is formed by insertion into the strained 2,2' bond. The reaction of diphenylacetylene and biphenylene at 80 degrees C in the presence of 2 mol % of 1 as catalyst yields diphenylphenanthrene quantitatively and is complete within 30 minutes.

  9. Dehydrogenative Coupling of Primary Alcohols To Form Esters Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Madsen, Robert


    The ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] catalyzes the direct condensation of primary alcohols into esters and lactones with the release of hydrogen gas. The reaction is most effective with linear aliphatic alcohols and 1,4-diols and is believed to proceed with a ruthenium dihydride as the c......The ruthenium complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] catalyzes the direct condensation of primary alcohols into esters and lactones with the release of hydrogen gas. The reaction is most effective with linear aliphatic alcohols and 1,4-diols and is believed to proceed with a ruthenium dihydride...

  10. Straightforward synthesis of [Au(NHC)X] (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene, X = Cl, Br, I) complexes.

    Collado, Alba; Gómez-Suárez, Adrián; Martin, Anthony R; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Nolan, Steven P


    An improved protocol for the synthesis of [Au(NHC)X] (X = Cl, Br, I) complexes is reported. This versatile one-step synthetic methodology proceeds under mild conditions, in air, using technical grade solvents, is scalable and is applicable to a wide range of imidazolium and imidazolidinium salts.

  11. N, N′-Olefin functionalized Bis-Imidazolium Pd(II) chloride N-Heterocyclic carbene complex builds a supramolecular framework and shows catalytic efficacy for `C–C' coupling reactions

    Gourisankar Roymahapatra; Tapastaru Samanta; Saikat Kumar Seth; Ambikesh Mahapatra; Shyamal Kumar Chattopadhyay; Joydev Dinda


    The ligand 3,3′-(-phenylenedimethylene)bis{1-(2-methylallyl)} imidazolium bromide (1) and its Palladium(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex (3) has been synthesized and characterized by several spectroscopic techniques and the solid-state structure of 3 has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The Pd(II) complex possesses ring head to tail – stacking interactions (3.767 A°) through imidazole rings. Complex 3 catalyzes Suzuki-Miyaura `C–C' coupling reaction. DFT calculations have been used to understand the HOMO/LUMO energy and hence the stability and reactivity of Pd(II) complex in syn and anti-configuration.

  12. Neutral and Cationic Molybdenum Imido Alkylidene N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: Reactivity in Selected Olefin Metathesis Reactions and Immobilization on Silica.

    Sen, Suman; Schowner, Roman; Imbrich, Dominik A; Frey, Wolfgang; Hunger, Michael; Buchmeiser, Michael R


    The synthesis and single-crystal X-ray structures of the novel molybdenum imido alkylidene N-heterocyclic carbene complexes [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(IMesH2)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf)2] (3), [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(IMes)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf)2] (4), [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(IMesH2)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf){OCH(CF3)2}] (5), [Mo(N-2,6-Me2C6H3)(CH3CN)(IMesH2)(CHCMe2Ph)(OTf)](+)BArF(-) (6), [Mo(N-2,6-Cl2C6H3)(IMesH2)(CHCMe3)(OTf)2] (7) and [Mo(N-2,6-Cl2C6H3)(IMes)(CHCMe3)(OTf)2] (8) are reported (IMesH2=1,3-dimesitylimidazolidin-2-ylidene, IMes=1,3-dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene, BArF(-)=tetrakis-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] borate, OTf=CF3SO3(-)). Also, silica-immobilized versions I1 and I2 were prepared. Catalysts 3-8, I1 and I2 were used in homo-, cross-, and ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions and in the cyclopolymerization of α,ω-diynes. In the RCM of α,ω-dienes, in the homometathesis of 1-alkenes, and in the ethenolysis of cyclooctene, turnover numbers (TONs) up to 100,000, 210,000 and 30,000, respectively, were achieved. With I1 and I2, virtually Mo-free products were obtained (<3 ppm Mo). With 1,6-hepta- and 1,7-octadiynes, catalysts 3, 4, and 5 allowed for the regioselective cyclopolymerization of 4,4-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)-1,6-heptadiyne, 4,4-bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,6-heptadiyne, 4,4-bis[(3,5-diethoxybenzoyloxy)methyl]-1,6-heptadiyne, 4,4,5,5-tetrakis(ethoxycarbonyl)-1,7-octadiyne, and 1,6-heptadiyne-4-carboxylic acid, underlining the high functional-group tolerance of these novel Group 6 metal alkylidenes.

  13. Crystal structure of bis(1,3-dimethoxyimidazolin-2-ylidenesilver(I hexafluoridophosphate, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC complex

    Barbara Rietzler


    Full Text Available The title salt, [Ag(C5H8N2O22]PF6, was obtained by deprotonation and metalation of 1,3-dimethoxyimidazolium hexafluoridophosphate using silver(I oxide in methanol. The C—Ag—C angle in the cation is 178.1 (2°, and the N—C—N angles are 101.1 (4 and 100.5 (4°. The methoxy groups adopt an anti conformation. In the crystal, anions (A are sandwiched between cations (C in a layered arrangement {C…A…C}n stacked along [001]. Within a C…A…C layer, the hexafluoridophosphate anions accept several C—H...F hydrogen bonds from the cationic complex.

  14. Palladium complexes of abnormal N-heterocyclic carbenes as precatalysts for the much preferred Cu-free and amine-free Sonogashira coupling in air in a mixed-aqueous medium.

    John, Alex; Shaikh, Mobin M; Ghosh, Prasenjit


    A series of new PEPPSI (Pyridine Enhanced Precatalyst Preparation Stabilization and Initiation) themed precatalysts of abnormal N-heterocyclic carbenes for the highly desirable Cu-free and amine-free Sonogashira coupling in air in a mixed-aqueous medium is reported. Specifically, the PEPPSI themed (NHC)PdI2(pyridine) type precatalysts, 1b-4b, efficiently carried out the highly convenient Cu-free and amine-free Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides and iodides with terminal acetylenes in air in a mixed aqueous medium. Complexes, 1b-4b, were synthesized by the direct reaction of the corresponding imidazo[1,2-a]pyridinium iodide salts, 1a-4a, with PdCl2 in pyridine in the presence of K2CO3 as a base while the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridinium iodide salts, 1a-4a, were in turn synthesized by the alkylation reactions of the respective imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives with alkyl iodides. The density functional theory (DFT) studies revealed that these imidazol-3-ylidene[1,2-a]pyridine derived abnormal carbenes are strongly sigma-donating and consequently significantly weaken the catalytically important labile trans pyridine ligand in 1b-4b.

  15. Ligand versus Complex: C-F and C-H Bond Activation of Polyfluoroaromatics at a Cyclic (Alkyl)(Amino)Carbene.

    Paul, Ursula S D; Radius, Udo


    C-F and C-H bond activation reactions of polyfluoroaromatics at the cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene (cAAC) cAAC(methyl) (1) are reported. Studies on the C-F bond activation using the cAAC-stabilized nickel(0) complex [Ni(cAAC(methyl) )2 ] (2) have shown that 2 does not react with fluorinated arenes. However, these investigations led to the observation of C-F bond cleavage of perfluorinated arenes by the carbene ligand cAAC(methyl) (1) itself. The reaction of 1 with C6 F6 , C6 F5 -C6 F5 , C6 F5 -CF3 , and C5 F5 N afforded the insertion products of cAAC into one of the C-F bonds of the substrate, that is, the C-F bond activation products (cAAC(methyl) )F(Ar(f) ) (Ar(f) =C6 F5 4 a, C6 F4 -C6 F5 4 b, C6 F4 -CF3 4 c, C5 F4 N 4 d). These products decompose readily upon heating to 80 °C within a few hours in solution with formation of ionic iminium salts [(cAAC(methyl) )(Ar(f) )][X] 6 a-d or neutral alkenyl perfluoroaryl imine compounds 7 a-d. The compounds (cAAC(methyl) )F(Ar(f) ) 4 a-d readily transfer fluoride, which has been exemplified by the fluoride transfer of all compounds using BF3 etherate as fluoride acceptor. Fluoride transfer has also been achieved starting from (cAAC(methyl) )F(C6 F4 -CF3 ) (4 c) or (cAAC(methyl) )F(C5 F4 N) (4 d) to other selected substrates such as trimethylchlorosilane, benzoyl chloride and tosyl chloride. Instead of C-F bond activation, insertion of the cAAC into the C-H bond was observed if 1 was treated with the partially fluorinated arenes C6 F5 H, 1,2,4,5-C6 F4 H2 , 1,3,5-C6 F3 H3 , and 1,3-C6 F2 H4 . The compounds (cAAC(methyl) )H(Ar(f) ) (Ar(f) =C6 F5 12 e, 2,3,5,6-C6 F4 H 12 f, 2,4,6-C6 F3 H2 12 g and 2,6-C6 F2 H3 12 h) have been isolated in good yields and have been characterized including X-ray analysis. Fluorobenzene C6 FH5 (pKa ≈37), the least C-H acidic fluoroarene used in this study, does not react. In order to investigate the scope and limitations of this type of cAAC C-H bond activation

  16. Cyclic Trinuclear Gold(I) Clusters with N,N and Unusual C,C Mixed-Ligand Bridges.

    Melgarejo, Doris Y; Chiarella, Gina M; Fackler, John P


    Three crystalline trinuclear gold(I) clusters, [Au3f2y] (1), [Au3fy2] (2), and [Au3y3] (3), where f = N,N'-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)methanimidamidate and y = dimethylendiphenylphosphinate, exhibit bridges from the N,N-formamidinate and/or from the ylide anion ligand whose P-methylene groups chelate in an unusual fashion, where the chelate CPC unit is perpendicular to the trigonal plane of the metal atoms. Assemblies 1 and 2 are the first gold(I) trinuclear clusters featuring mixed-ligand bridges from different N,N and C,C donors; 3 is a previously unknown homoleptic ylide anion cyclic trinuclear assembly. Formamidinate bridges in 1 and 2 connect gold(I) atoms at aurophilic distances of 3.084(2) and 3.0543(4) Å, whereas an out-of-plane (perpendicular) P-ylide anion bite produces Au(I)-Au(I) distances of as large as 3.900(2) Å in 3. The crystal space groups for 1 and 2 are triclinic P1̅ and that for 3 is monoclinic P21/c, with Z = 2 for 1 and 2 and Z = 4 for 3. Compounds are synthesized under Schlenk conditions at -20 °C in toluene by reacting the proper ratios of the gold(I) formamidinate [Au2f2] with the phosphorus ylide [Hy] under basic conditions (KOH), followed by extraction with ether. This synthesis also produces a dinuclear cation, [Au2f(Hy)2](+), previously reported by our group. A neutral mixed-ligand dinuclear complex, [Au2fy], was not observed. Under UV light, 1 and 2 display a bright-green luminescence at room temperature and in frozen methyltetrahydrofuran solutions under liquid nitrogen, with microsecond lifetimes. All three complexes 1-3 are characterized by their X-ray crystal structures, (1)H NMR, IR, UV-visible, and luminescence spectroscopies, and elemental analysis.

  17. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Coinage Metal Complexes of the Germanium-Rich Metalloid Clusters [Ge9R3]− and [Ge9RI2]2− with R = Si(iPr3 and RI = Si(TMS3

    Felix S. Geitner


    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of novel coinage metal NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene compounds of the germanium-rich metalloid clusters [Ge9R3]− and [Ge9RI2]2− with R = Si(iPr3 and RI = Si(TMS3. NHCDippCu{η3Ge9R3} with R = Si(iPr3 (1 represents a less bulky silyl group-substituted derivative of the known analogous compounds with R = Si(iBu3 or Si(TMS3. The coordination of the [NHCDippCu]+ moiety to the cluster unit occurs via one triangular face of the tri-capped trigonal prismatic [Ge9] cluster. Furthermore, a series of novel Zintl cluster coinage metal NHC compounds of the type (NHCM2{η3Ge9RI2} (RI = Si(TMS3 M = Cu, Ag and Au; NHC = NHCDipp or NHCMes is presented. These novel compounds represent a new class of neutral dinuclear Zintl cluster coinage metal NHC compounds, which are obtained either by the stepwise reaction of a suspension of K12Ge17 with Si(TMS3Cl and the coinage metal carbene complexes NHCMCl (M = Cu, Ag, Au, or via a homogenous reaction using the preformed bis-silylated cluster K2[Ge9(Si(TMS32] and the corresponding NHCMCl (M = Cu, Ag, Au complex. The molecular structures of NHCDippCu{η3Ge9(Si(iPr33} (1 and (NHCDippCu2{η3-Ge9(Si(TMS32} (2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. In 2, the coordination of the [NHCDippCu]+ moieties to the cluster unit takes place via both open triangular faces of the [Ge9] entity. Furthermore, all compounds were characterized by means of NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, 29Si and ESI-MS.

  18. Unexpected rearrangements in the synthesis of an unsymmetrical tridentate dianionic N-heterocyclic carbene

    Despagnet-Ayoub, Emmanuelle


    Starting from the same ethylenediamine species, three valuable carbene precursors were synthesized under differing conditions: a tridentate dianionic N-heterocyclic carbene bearing an aniline, a phenol and a central dihydroimidazolium salt, its benzimidazolium isomer by intramolecular rearrangement and a dicationic benzimidazolium-benzoxazolium salt by changing the Brønsted acid from HCl to HBF4. A DFT study was performed to understand the rearrangement pathway. The structure of a bis[(NCO)carbene] zirconium complex was determined. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Gold(I)-selenolate complexes: Synthesis, characterization and ligand exchange reactions

    Krishna P Bhabak; Govindasamy Mugesh


    In this paper, the synthesis and characterization of some imidazole-based gold-selenolates are described. This study indicates that the nature of selenolate plays an important role in ligand exchange reactions in gold(I) selenolates. Furthermore, the reactivity of imidazole-based gold(I) selenolates toward nucleophiles such as selenols and phosphines is strikingly different from that of the ,-dimethylaminobenzylamine-based gold(I) complexes. The presence of Se$\\cdots$N non-bonded interactions in ,-dimethylaminobenzylamine-based gold(I) complexes modulates the reactivity of Au(I) centre towards incoming nucleophiles.

  20. Protonolysis of a Ruthenium-Carbene Bond and Applications in Olefin Metathesis

    Keitz, Benjamin K.; Bouffard, Jean; Bertrand, Guy; Grubbs, Robert H.


    The synthesis of a ruthenium complex containing an N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and a mesoionic carbene (MIC) is described wherein addition of a Brønsted acid results in protonolysis of the Ru-MIC bond to generate an extremely active metathesis catalyst. Mechanistic studies implicate a rate-determining protonation step to generate the metathesis active species. The NHC/MIC catalyst was found to have activity exceeding current commercial ruthenium catalysts. PMID:21574621

  1. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the high-electron donor character of pyrido-annelated N-heterocyclic carbenes

    Michael Nonnenmacher


    Full Text Available Rh(CO2Cl(NHC complexes of dipyrido-annelated N-heterocyclic carbenes were prepared. From the C–H coupling constant of the respective imidazolium salts and the N–C–N angle of the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC, a weaker σ-donor character than that of typical unsaturated NHCs is expected. However, the IR stretching frequencies of their Rh(CO2Cl complexes suggest an electron-donor character even stronger than that of saturated NHCs. We ascribe this to the extremely weak π-acceptor character of the dipyrido-annelated NHCs caused by the conjugated 14 πe− system that thus allows for an enhanced Rh–CO backbonding. This extremely low π-acceptor ability is also corroborated by the 77Se NMR chemical shift of −55.8 ppm for the respective selenourea, the lowest value ever measured for imidazole derived selenoureas. DFT-calculations of the free carbene confirm the low σ-donor character by the fact that the σ-orbital of the carbene is the HOMO−1 that lies 0.58 eV below the HOMO which is located at the π-system. Natural population analysis reveals the lowest occupation of the pπ-orbital for the saturated carbene carbon atom and the highest for the pyrido-annelated carbene. Going from the free carbene to the Rh(CO2Cl(NHC complexes, the increase in occupancy of the complete π-system of the carbene ligand upon coordination is lowest for the pyrido-annelated carbene and highest for the saturated carbene.

  2. Role of Lanthanide-Ligand bonding in the magnetization relaxation of mononuclear single-ion magnets: A case study on Pyrazole and Carbene ligated LnIII(Ln=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) complexes



    Ab initio CASSCF+RASSI-SO+SINGLE_ANISO and DFT based NBO and QTAIM investigations were carried out on a series of trigonal prismatic M(BcMe)₃ (M = Tb(1), Dy(2), Ho(3), Er(4), [BcMe]⁻ = dihydrobis (methylimidazolyl) borate) and M(BpMe)₃ (M = Tb(1a), Dy(2a), Ho(3a), Er(4a) [BpMe]⁻ = dihydrobis (methypyrazolyl) borate) complexes to ascertain the anisotropic variations of these two ligand field environments and the influence of Lanthanide-ligand bonding on the magnetic anisotropy. Among all the complexes studied, only 1 and 2 show large Ucal (computed energy barrier for magnetization reorientation) values of 256.4 and 268.5 cm⁻¹, respectively and this is in accordance with experiment. Experimentally only frequency dependent χ” tails are observed for complex 1a and our calculation predicts a large Ucalof 229.4 cm⁻¹ for this molecule. Besides these, none of the complexes (3, 4, 2a, 3a and 4a) computed to possess large energy barrier and this is affirmed by the experiments. These observed differences in the magnetic properties are correlated to the Ln-Ligand bonding. Our calculations transpire comparatively improved Single-Ion Magnet (SIM) behaviour for carbene analogues due to the more axially compressed trigonal prismatic ligand environment. Furthermore, our detailed Mulliken charge, spin density, NBO and Wiberg bond analysis implied stronger Ln...H–BH agostic interaction for pyrazole analogues. Further, QTAIM analysis reveals the physical nature of coordination, covalent, and fine details of the agostic interactions in all the eight complexes studied. Quite interestingly, for the first time, using the Laplacian density, we are able to quantify the prolate and oblate nature of the electron clouds in lanthanides and this is expected to have a far reaching outcome beyond the examples studied.

  3. Electronic structure and excited state properties of iron carbene photosensitizers - A combined X-ray absorption and quantum chemical investigation

    Ericson, Fredric; Honarfar, Alireza; Prakash, Om; Tatsuno, Hideyuki; Fredin, Lisa A.; Handrup, Karsten; Chabera, Pavel; Gordivska, Olga; Kjær, Kasper S.; Liu, Yizhu; Schnadt, Joachim; Wärnmark, Kenneth; Sundström, Villy; Persson, Petter; Uhlig, Jens


    The electronic structure and excited state properties of a series of iron carbene photosensitizers are elucidated through a combination of X-ray absorption measurements and density functional theory calculations. The X-ray absorption spectra are discussed with regard to the unusual bonding environment in these carbene complexes, highlighting the difference between ferrous and ferric carbene complexes. The valence electronic structure of the core excited FeIII - 3d5 complex is predicted by calculating the properties of a CoIII - 3d6 carbene complex using the Z+1 approximation. Insight is gained into the potential of sigma-donating ligands as strategy to tune properties for light harvesting applications.

  4. Modular chiral gold(i) phosphite complexes†Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental results and NMR data. CCDC 933751 (L11(AuCl)), 933752 (L12(AuCl)a), 933753 (L9(AuCl)), 933754 (L10(AuCl)), 933756 (L8(AuCl)), 933757 (L12(AuCl)e). For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c3cy00250kClick here for additional data file.Click here for additional data file.

    Delpont, Nicolas; Escofet, Imma; Pérez-Galán, Patricia; Spiegl, Dirk; Raducan, Mihai; Bour, Christophe; Sinisi, Riccardo; Echavarren, Antonio M


    Chiral gold(i) phosphite complexes are readily prepared modularly from 3,3'-bis(triphenylsilyl)-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol. These chiral gold(i) phosphite complexes are very reactive precatalysts for the [4+2] cycloaddition of aryl-substituted 1,6-enynes with enantiomeric ratios ranging from 86 : 14 up to 94 : 6.

  5. A computational insight into a metal mediated pathway for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactides by an ionic {(NHC)2Ag}(+)X(-) (X = halide) type N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex.

    Stephen, Raji; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Ghosh, Prasenjit


    A metal mediated coordination-insertion pathway for the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide by an ionic {(NHC)(2)Ag}(+)X(-) (X = halide) type silver complex of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) has been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. A clear insight into the lactide insertion process could be obtained by modeling two consecutive monomer addition steps with the first one mimicking chain initiation with the second representing a propagation step. In particular, in each of the cycles, the reaction initiates with the formation of a lactide coordinated species, [1+LL] and [2+LL] that transforms into a metal bound cyclic lactide intermediate, I([1+LL]→2) and I([2+LL]→3), which subsequently ring opens to give the lactide inserted products, 2 and 3. The estimated overall activation barrier for the initiation step is 42.0 kcal mol(-1) while the same for the propagation step is 31.5 kcal mol(-1). Studies on higher monomer insertions showed a decrease in the relative product energies as anticipated for an addition polymerization pathway.

  6. Goldie Brangman Remembers the Operation to Save Dr King.

    Koch, Evan; Brangman, Goldie


    In September 1958 the Rev Dr Martin Luther King Jr was stabbed and nearly assassinated. Surgeons at Harlem Hospital in New York City removed a 17.8-cm (7-in)-long letter opener from Dr King's chest. Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist Goldie Brangman remembers this event because she participated in Dr King's anesthetic. This article correlates Brangman's memories with published accounts of the event. It also places the event within the context of the modern civil rights movement that Dr King led.

  7. Computational Chemistry Studies on the Carbene Hydroxymethylene

    Marzzacco, Charles J.; Baum, J. Clayton


    A density functional theory computational chemistry exercise on the structure and vibrational spectrum of the carbene hydroxymethylene is presented. The potential energy curve for the decomposition reaction of the carbene to formaldehyde and the geometry of the transition state are explored. The results are in good agreement with recent…

  8. Reactivity of Cys4 Zinc Finger Domains with Gold(III) Complexes : Insights into the Formation of "Gold Fingers"

    Jacques, Aurélie; Lebrun, Colette; Casini, Angela; Kieffer, Isabelle; Proux, Olivier; Latour, Jean-Marc; Sénèque, Olivier


    Gold(I) complexes such as auranofin or aurothiomalate have been used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis for several decades. Several gold(I) and gold(III) complexes have also shown in vitro anticancer properties against human cancer cell lines, including cell lines resis

  9. Reactivity of Cys4 Zinc Finger Domains with Gold(III) Complexes : Insights into the Formation of "Gold Fingers"

    Jacques, Aurélie; Lebrun, Colette; Casini, Angela; Kieffer, Isabelle; Proux, Olivier; Latour, Jean-Marc; Sénèque, Olivier


    Gold(I) complexes such as auranofin or aurothiomalate have been used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis for several decades. Several gold(I) and gold(III) complexes have also shown in vitro anticancer properties against human cancer cell lines, including cell lines

  10. Crystallographic and computational studies of luminescent, binuclear gold(I) complexes, Au(I)2(Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2)2I2 (n = 3-6).

    Lim, Sang Ho; Schmitt, Jennifer C; Shearer, Jason; Jia, Jianhua; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Fettinger, James C; Balch, Alan L


    Four crystalline dimers of the type, Au(I)(2)(μ-PnP)(2)I(2), where PnP is PPh(2)(CH(2))(n)PPh(2) with n = 3, 4, 5, and 6 have been prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and by (31)P NMR and infrared spectroscopy. Au(I)(2)(μ-P3P)(2)I(2) and Au(I)(2)(μ-P6P)(2)I(2) are centrosymmetric dimers with the planar Au(I)P(2)I units oriented in antiparallel fashion. Remarkably, noncentrosymmetric Au(I)(2)(μ-P5P)(2)I(2) has its planar Au(I)P(2)I units oriented in parallel manner. Au(I)(2)(μ-P4P)(2)(μ-I)(2) is unique, since it contains four-coordinate gold centers that are bridged by both iodide and diphosphine ligands. All four compounds are luminescent as solids at room temperature. B3LYP, B2PLYP, and spectroscopically oriented configuration interaction (SORCI) calculations have been conducted to give insight into the electronic and geometric structures of the ground and first excited triplet states of the three trigonal-planar complexes. The emission energies for the trigonal planar complexes are more strongly correlated with changes in the Au-I bond length rather than changes in the P-Au-P angle.

  11. N-Heterocyclic carbene functionalized goup 7-9 transition metal

    Aktas, H.; Slootweg, J.C.; Ehlers, A.W.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Lammertsma, K.


    The N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) functionalized phosphinidene complexes [(pCy)(IiPr2Me2)- RudPMes*] (4), [(pCy)(IiPr2Me2)OsdPMes*] (6), and [(Cp*)(IiPr2Me2)RhdPMes*] (7) were generated by a double-dehydrohalogenation-ligation sequence of the corresponding primary phosphine complexes with 3 equiv of

  12. N-Heterocyclic carbene functionalized goup 7-9 transition metal

    Aktas, H.; Slootweg, J.C.; Ehlers, A.W.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.; Lammertsma, K.


    The N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) functionalized phosphinidene complexes [(pCy)(IiPr2Me2)- RudPMes*] (4), [(pCy)(IiPr2Me2)OsdPMes*] (6), and [(Cp*)(IiPr2Me2)RhdPMes*] (7) were generated by a double-dehydrohalogenation-ligation sequence of the corresponding primary phosphine complexes with 3 equiv of

  13. Highly Active Carbene Ruthenium Catalyst for Metathesis of 1-Hexene

    BAI Chen-Xi; ZHANG Zhi-Qiang; L(U) Xiao-Bing; HE Ren; ZHANG Wen-Zhen; LU Shu-Lai


    A new carbene ruthenium complex, 1,3-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene)(PPh3)Cl2-Ru=CHPh, was synthesized and used as catalyst for the metathesis of 1-hexene. The resulting complex exhibited very high catalytic activity whose TOF is up to 6680 h-1. However, at the same time significant olefin isomerization was observed and could be surpressed by changing reaction conditions, such as temperature, time, alkene/Ru molar ratio and solvent.

  14. Adjusting the DNA Interaction and Anticancer Activity of Pt(II) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes by Steric Shielding of the Trans Leaving Group

    Muenzner, Julienne K.; Rehm, Tobias; Biersack, Bernhard; Casini, Angela; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Worawutputtapong, Pawida; Noor, Awal; Kempe, Rhett; Brabec, Viktor; Kasparkova, Jana; Schobert, Rainer


    Five platinum(LI) complexes bearing a (1,3-dibenzyl)imidazol-2-ylidene ligand but different leaving groups trans to it were examined for cytotomicity, DNA and cell cycle interference, vascular disrupting properties, and nephrotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of complexes 3a-c increased with the steric shi

  15. Olefin Metathesis With Ruthenium-Arene Catalysts Bearing N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands

    Delaude, Lionel; Demonceau, Albert

    In this chapter, we summarize the main results of our investigations on the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of cyclooctene catalyzed by various ruthenium (Ru)-arene complexes bearing imidazolin-2-ylidene, imidazolidin- 2-ylidene, or triazolin-5-ylidene ligands. Three major findings emerged from this study. First, we underscored the intervention of a photochemical activation step due to visible light illumination. Second, we established that the presence of an endocyclic double bond in the carbene ligand central heterocycle was not crucial to achieve high catalytic efficiencies. Third, we demonstrated that ortho-metallation of the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand by the Ru center led to inactive catalysts.

  16. Highly selective palladium–benzothiazole carbene-catalyzed allylation of active methylene compounds under neutral conditions

    Antonio Monopoli


    Full Text Available The Pd–benzothiazol-2-ylidene complex I was found to be a chemoselective catalyst for the Tsuji–Trost allylation of active methylene compounds carried out under neutral conditions and using carbonates as allylating agents. The proposed protocol consists in a simplified procedure adopting an in situ prepared catalyst from Pd2dba3 and 3-methylbenzothiazolium salt V as precursors. A comparison of the performance of benzothiazole carbene with phosphanes and an analogous imidazolium carbene ligand is also proposed.

  17. Pincer-CNC mononuclear, dinuclear and heterodinuclear Au(III) and Pt(II) complexes supported by mono- and poly-N-heterocyclic carbenes: synthesis and photophysical properties.

    Gonell, S; Poyatos, M; Peris, E


    A family of cyclometallated Au(iii) and Pt(ii) complexes containing a CNC-pincer ligand (CNC = 2,6-diphenylpyridine) supported by pyrene-based mono- or bis-NHC ligands have been synthesized and characterized, together with the preparation of a Pt-Au hetero-dimetallic complex based on a Y-shaped tris-NHC ligand. The photophysical properties of all the new species and of two related Ru(ii)-arene complexes were studied and compared. Whereas the pyrene-based complexes only exhibit emission in solution, those containing the Y-shaped tris-NHC ligand are only luminescent when dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). In particular, the pyrene-based complexes were found to be emissive in the range of 373-440 nm, with quantum yields ranging from 3.1 to 6.3%, and their emission spectra were found to be almost superimposable, pointing to the fluorescent pyrene-centered nature of the emission. This observation suggests that the emission properties of the pyrene fragment may be combined with some of the numerous applications of NHCs as supporting ligands allowing, for instance, the design of biological luminescent agents.

  18. Co(III)-Carbene Radical Approach to Substituted 1H-Indenes.

    Das, Braja Gopal; Chirila, Andrei; Tromp, Moniek; Reek, Joost N H; Bruin, Bas de


    A new strategy for the catalytic synthesis of substituted 1H-indenes via metalloradical activation of o-cinnamyl N-tosyl hydrazones is presented, taking advantage of the intrinsic reactivity of a Co(III) carbene radical intermediate. The reaction uses readily available starting materials and is operationally simple, thus representing a practical method for the construction of functionalized 1H-indene derivatives. The cheap and easy to prepare low spin cobalt(II) complex [Co(II)(MeTAA)] (MeTAA = tetramethyltetraaza[14]annulene) proved to be the most active catalyst among those investigated, which demonstrates catalytic carbene radical reactivity for a nonporphyrin cobalt(II) complex, and for the first time catalytic activity of [Co(II)(MeTAA)] in general. The methodology has been successfully applied to a broad range of substrates, producing 1H-indenes in good to excellent yields. The metallo-radical catalyzed indene synthesis in this paper represents a unique example of a net (formal) intramolecular carbene insertion reaction into a vinylic C(sp(2))-H bond, made possible by a controlled radical ring-closure process of the carbene radical intermediate involved. The mechanism was investigated computationally, and the results were confirmed by a series of supporting experimental reactions. Density functional theory calculations reveal a stepwise process involving activation of the diazo compound leading to formation of a Co(III)-carbene radical, followed by radical ring-closure to produce an indanyl/benzyl radical intermediate. Subsequent indene product elimination involving a 1,2-hydrogen transfer step regenerates the catalyst. Trapping experiments using 2,2,6,6-tetra-methylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) radical or dibenzoylperoxide (DBPO) confirm the involvement of cobalt(III) carbene radical intermediates. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic spin-trapping experiments using phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) reveal the radical nature of the reaction.

  19. N-heterocyclic carbene copper(I) catalysed N-methylation of amines using CO2

    Santoro, Orlando


    The N-methylation of amines using CO2 and PhSiH3 as source of CH3 was efficiently performed using a N-heterocyclic carbene copper(I) complex. The methodology was found compatible with aromatic and aliphatic primary and secondary amines. Synthetic and computational studies have been carried out to support the proposed reaction mechanism for this transformation.

  20. Influence of bulky yet flexible N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in gold catalysis.

    Collado, Alba; Patrick, Scott R; Gasperini, Danila; Meiries, Sebastien; Nolan, Steven P


    Three new Au(I) complexes of the formula [Au(NHC)(NTf2)] (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) bearing bulky and flexible ligands have been synthesised. The ligands studied are IPent, IHept and INon which belong to the 'ITent' ('Tent' for 'tentacular') family of NHC derivatives. The effect of these ligands in gold-promoted transformations has been investigated.

  1. N-Heterocyclic carbene chemistry of iron: fundamentals and applications.

    Ingleson, Michael J; Layfield, Richard A


    The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) in the chemistry of iron is stimulating important new applications of one of the most ubiquitous ligand types in modern organometallic chemistry. A series of reports has shown how the flexible and modifiable stereo-electronic properties of NHC ligands can be combined with iron in a range of oxidation states to create opportunities for studying unique structures, bonding and reactivity. Of particular interest are the roles of iron NHC complexes in: the stabilization of unusual oxidation states and coordination environments; the activation of small molecules; homogeneous catalysis; and bio-mimetic chemistry. Our feature article summarizes the key developments in the field.

  2. Accesses to electronic structures and the excited states of blue luminescent copper(I) complexes containing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: a DFT/TDDFT exploitation.

    Li, Qiang; Zhao, Feng; Xu, Shengxian; Xia, Hongying; Wang, Jinglan; Wang, Yibo


    The ground electronic states and photophysical properties of three designed Cu(I) complexes [Cu(ImNHC)(POP)](+) (1), [Cu(methyl-ImNHC)(POP)](+) (2), and [Cu(BenzImNHC)(POP)](+) (3); where [ImNHC = 3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene; methyl-ImNHC = 3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene; BenzImNHC = 3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylidene], have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The results reveal that the presence of the methylene spacer in the NHC ligands has a more direct effect on the distribution of frontier molecular orbitals while the elongation of π conjugation provided by the fused imidazole in the NHC ligands has a negligible effect. The UV-vis absorption spectra of all the complexes are well produced by TD-DFT calculations based on the charge transfer amount calculations and the corresponding band assignments are discussed. Importantly, the triplet energy calculations demonstrated that complex 2 would be a highly efficient blue emitter with the deep-blue of 440 nm.

  3. High efficiency In Vivo genome engineering with a simplified 15-RVD GoldyTALEN design.

    Alvin C Ma

    Full Text Available Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs enable genome engineering in cell culture and many organisms. Recently, the GoldyTALEN scaffold was shown to readily introduce mutations in zebrafish (Danio rerio and livestock through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ and homology-directed repair (HDR. To deploy the GoldyTALEN system for high-throughput mutagenesis in model organisms, a simple design with high efficacy is desirable. We tested the in vivo efficacy of a simplified 15-RVD GoldyTALEN design (spacer between 13-20 bp and T nucleotide preceding each TALEN binding site in zebrafish. All 14 tested TALEN pairs (100% introduced small insertions and deletions at somatic efficacy ranging from 24 to 86%, and mutations were inheritable at high frequencies (18-100%. By co-injecting two GoldyTALEN pairs, inheritable deletions of a large genomic fragment up to 18 kb were successfully introduced at two different loci. In conclusion, these high efficiency 15-RVD GoldyTALENs are useful for high-throughput mutagenesis in diverse application including hypothesis testing from basic science to precision medicine.

  4. Effect of tert-Butyl Functionalization on the Photoexcited Decay of a Fe(II)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Pápai, Mátyás Imre; Penfold, Thomas J.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard


    Understanding and subsequently being able to manipulate the excited-state decay pathways of functional transition-metal complexes is of utmost importance in order to solve grand challenges in solar energy conversion and data storage. Herein, we perform quantum chemical calculations and spin......)pyridine), completely alters the excited-state relaxation. Ultrafast deactivation of the initially excited metal-to-ligand charge transfer (1,3MLCT) states occurs within 350 fs. In contrast to the widely adopted mechanism of Fe(II) photophysics, these states decay into close-lying singlet metal-centered (1MC) states...

  5. Bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry: aspects of gold(I)-protein complexes.

    Bhabak, Krishna P; Bhuyan, Bhaskar J; Mugesh, Govindasamy


    Gold(I)-based drugs have been used successfully for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for several years. Although the exact mechanism of action of these gold(I) drugs for RA has not been clearly established, the interaction of these compounds with mammalian enzymes has been extensively studied. In this paper, we describe the interaction of therapeutic gold(I) compounds with mammalian proteins that contain cysteine (Cys) and selenocysteine (Sec) residues. Owing to the higher affinity of gold(I) towards sulfur and selenium, gold(I) drugs rapidly react with the activated cysteine or selenocysteine residues of the enzymes to form protein-gold(I)-thiolate or protein-gold(I)-selenolate complexes. The formation of stable gold(I)-thiolate/selenolate complexes generally lead to inhibition of the enzyme activity. The gold-thiolate/selenolate complexes undergo extensive ligand exchange reactions with other nucleophiles and such ligand exchange reactions alter the inhibitory effects of gold(i) complexes. Therefore, the effect of gold(I) compounds on the enzymatic activity of cysteine- or selenocysteine-containing proteins may play important roles in RA. The interaction of gold(I) compounds with different enzymes and the biochemical mechanism underlying the inhibition of enzymatic activities may have broad medicinal implications for the treatment of RA.

  6. Crystal structure of bis-(1,3-di-meth-oxy-imidazolin-2-yl-idene)silver(I) hexa-fluorido-phosphate, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex.

    Rietzler, Barbara; Laus, Gerhard; Kahlenberg, Volker; Schottenberger, Herwig


    The title salt, [Ag(C5H8N2O2)2]PF6, was obtained by deprotonation and metalation of 1,3-di-meth-oxy-imidazolium hexa-fluorido-phosphate using silver(I) oxide in methanol. The C-Ag-C angle in the cation is 178.1 (2)°, and the N-C-N angles are 101.1 (4) and 100.5 (4)°. The meth-oxy groups adopt an anti conformation. In the crystal, anions (A) are sandwiched between cations (C) in a layered arrangement {C…A…C} n stacked along [001]. Within a C…A…C layer, the hexafluoridophosphate anions accept several C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds from the cationic complex.

  7. Interaction of cyclohexadienone carbene with piperylene oligomer

    Vorotnikov, A.P.; Dauydou, E.Y.; Toptygin, D.Y.


    The authors report on an investigation of the mechanism of conversion, in a PO matrix, of cyclohexadienone carbene C/sub 6/H/sub 4/O (CHC), obtained by photodecomposition of p-benzoquinonediazide (QDA). In the ground triplet state, one unpaired electron of CHC is localized in the o-orbital, and the other is delocalized through the ..pi..-orbital of the ring. Thus, the electronic structure of this carbene is similar to those of phenyl and phenoxyl radicals. A tunneling mechanism of H atom transfer has been proposed in the reaction of the carbene with the matrix. Estimates of the height and width of the potential barrier of the reaction are given.

  8. A theobromine derived silver N-heterocyclic carbene: synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial efficacy studies on cystic fibrosis relevant pathogens.

    Panzner, Matthew J; Hindi, Khadijah M; Wright, Brian D; Taylor, Jane B; Han, Daniel S; Youngs, Wiley J; Cannon, Carolyn L


    The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pulmonary infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) population has prompted the investigation of innovative silver based therapeutics. The functionalization of the naturally occurring xanthine theobromine at the N(1) nitrogen atom with an ethanol substituent followed by the methylation of the N(9) nitrogen atom gives the N-heterocyclic carbene precursor 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3,7,9-trimethylxanthinium iodide. The reaction of this xanthinium salt with silver acetate produces the highly hydrophilic silver carbene complex SCC8. The in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of this newly synthesized complex was evaluated with excellent results on a variety of virulent and MDR pathogens isolated from CF patients. A comparative in vivo study between the known caffeine derived silver carbene SCC1 and SCC8 demonstrated the ability of both complexes to improve the survival rates of mice in a pneumonia model utilizing the clinically isolated infectious strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA M57-15.

  9. Studies of coal structure using carbene chemistry


    The object of this grant was to react coal, derivatized forms of coal, and solvent swelled coal with carbenes (divalent carbon species) under mild conditions. These carbenes were to be prepared by treating the coal with several diazo compounds and then thermally decomposing them at relatively low temperatures (80--130{degree}C). The carbenes were to be chosen to show varying selectively toward aromatic rings containing heteroatom functionalities and toward polynuclear aromatic systems. In some instances, where selectivities toward aromatic and heteroaromatic ring systems were not known, model studies were to be carried out. Because of the generally mild conditions employed and the good selectivity anticipated, and actually observed with one particular system, it was expected that this methodology would provide structural information about the coal, along with data on the extent of occurrence and type of aromatic systems. After carbene reactions, treatment of the coal samples was to include extractions and thermolysis. Physical studies included thermogravimetric analysis, diffuse reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, GC/MS and GC/FT-IR. 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Siim Nestor soovitab : Goldie. Kevin Saunderson. Nicole Willis. King Britt / Siim Nestor

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-


    Popmuusikaüritustest: briti muusik Goldie esineb jungle-muusikaga Tallinnas 21. apr. klubis Privé, DJ Kevin Saunderson 22. apr. klubis Privé, laulja Nicole Willis 27. apr. BonBon Jazz Lounge'il klubis BonBon, Philadelphia muusik King Britt ja Eesti ansambel Broken Time Orchestra esitlevad oma heliplaate

  11. Siim Nestor soovitab : Goldie. Kevin Saunderson. Nicole Willis. King Britt / Siim Nestor

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-


    Popmuusikaüritustest: briti muusik Goldie esineb jungle-muusikaga Tallinnas 21. apr. klubis Privé, DJ Kevin Saunderson 22. apr. klubis Privé, laulja Nicole Willis 27. apr. BonBon Jazz Lounge'il klubis BonBon, Philadelphia muusik King Britt ja Eesti ansambel Broken Time Orchestra esitlevad oma heliplaate

  12. Clusters containing carbene ligands. The unusual synthesis, coordination, and reactivity of a bridging (dimetalliomethyl)(diethylamino)carbene ligand in the cluster complex Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/(/mu//sub 3/-HCC(NEt/sub 2/))(/mu/-H)/sub 2/

    Adams, R.D.; Tanner, J.T.


    The photoinduced decarbonylation of Os/sub 3/-(CO)/sub 10/(/mu/-C(H)C(H)NEt/sub 2/)(/mu/-H) (1) yields Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/(/mu//sub 3/-CC(H)NEt/sub 2/)(/mu/-H)/sub 2/ (2; 58% yield) and Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/(/mu//sub 3/-C(H)CNEt/sub 2/)(/mu/-H)/sub 2/ (3; 21% yield). Compound 3 was also obtained from 2 in 70% yield by heating to 68/degree/C in hexane solvent. Both products were characterized by IR, /sup 1/H NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 2 contains and /eta//sup 1/-triply bridging (diethylamino)alkenylidene ligand coordinated to a triangular triosmium cluster. Compound 3 contains a triply bridging HC/sub 2/NEt/sub 2/ ligand that is formulated to include two osmiums as a (dimetalliomethyl)(diethylamino)carbene ligand on the basis of structural and reactivity evidence. Compound 3 reacts with NHPr/sub 2//sup n/ to yield Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/(/mu//sub 3/-C(H)CNPr/sub 2//sup n/)(/mu/-H)/sub 2/ (4) in 74% yield by replacement of the diethylamino group.

  13. Fascinating frontiers of N/O-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene chemistry: from chemical catalysis to biomedical applications.

    John, Alex; Ghosh, Prasenjit


    The in vogue N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have attracted attention largely for its new found popularity in chemical catalysis and also for displaying promising traits in biomedical applications. The current perspective provides an account of our efforts in exploring the utility of N/O-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes in these two areas. On the catalysis front, we have employed the N/O-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene based precatalysts for the C-C and C-N bond forming reactions like the Suzuki-Miyaura, Sonogashira and Hiyama cross-couplings, the base-free Michael addition, the alkene and alkyne hydroamination reactions and the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactides that produce biodegradable polylactide polymers while on the biomedical application front, the anticancer and antimicrobial properties of these N/O-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene complexes were evaluated. Towards this objective, the N-heterocyclic carbene chemistry of a variety of transition metals like Ag, Au, Ni and Pd has been investigated.

  14. Direct estimate of the internal π-donation to the carbene centre within N-heterocyclic carbenes and related molecules

    Diego M. Andrada


    Full Text Available Fifteen cyclic and acylic carbenes have been calculated with density functional theory at the BP86/def2-TZVPP level. The strength of the internal X→p(π π-donation of heteroatoms and carbon which are bonded to the C(II atom is estimated with the help of NBO calculations and with an energy decomposition analysis. The investigated molecules include N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs, the cyclic alkyl(aminocarbene (cAAC, mesoionic carbenes and ylide-stabilized carbenes. The bonding analysis suggests that the carbene centre in cAAC and in diamidocarbene have the weakest X→p(π π-donation while mesoionic carbenes possess the strongest π-donation.

  15. Highly stable water-soluble platinum nanoparticles stabilized by hydrophilic N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Baquero, Edwin A; Tricard, Simon; Flores, Juan Carlos; de Jesús, Ernesto; Chaudret, Bruno


    Controlling the synthesis of stable metal nanoparticles in water is a current challenge in nanochemistry. The strategy presented herein uses sulfonated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to stabilize platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) in water, under air, for an indefinite time period. The particles were prepared by thermal decomposition of a preformed molecular Pt complex containing the NHC ligand and were then purified by dialysis and characterized by TEM, high-resolution TEM, and spectroscopic techniques. Solid-state NMR studies showed coordination of the carbene ligands to the nanoparticle surface and allowed the determination of a (13)C-(195)Pt coupling constant for the first time in a nanosystem (940 Hz). Additionally, in one case a novel structure was formed in which platinum(II) NHC complexes form a second coordination sphere around the nanoparticle.

  16. Supported ruthenium-carbene catalyst on ionic magnetic nanoparticles for olefin metathesis.

    Chen, Shu-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Ma, Miaofeng; Zhong, Chong-Min; Lee, Sang-gi


    The Grubbs-Hoveyda ruthenium-carbene complex has been covalently immobilized on ionic magnetic nanoparticles utilizing an imidazolium salt linker. The supported catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity for ring-closing metathesis (RCM) and cross-metathesis (CM) in the presence of less than 1 mol % of ruthenium. The catalysts can easily be recovered magnetically and reused up to seven times with minimal leaching of ruthenium species.

  17. Interfacial charge separation and photovoltaic efficiency in Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized solar cells.

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Duchanois, Thibaut; Liu, Li; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier; Haacke, Stefan; Gros, Philippe C


    The first combined theoretical and photovoltaic characterization of both homoleptic and heteroleptic Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized photoanodes in working dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been performed. Three new heteroleptic Fe(ii)-NHC dye sensitizers have been synthesized, characterized and tested. Despite an improved interfacial charge separation in comparison to the homoleptic compounds, the heteroleptic complexes did not show boosted photovoltaic performances. The ab initio quantitative analysis of the interfacial electron and hole transfers and the measured photovoltaic data clearly evidenced fast recombination reactions for heteroleptics, even associated with un unfavorable directional electron flow, and hence slower injection rates, in the case of homoleptics. Notably, quantum mechanics calculations revealed that deprotonation of the not anchored carboxylic function in the homoleptic complex can effectively accelerate the electron injection rate and completely suppress the electron recombination to the oxidized dye. This result suggests that introduction of strong electron-donating substituents on the not-anchored carbene ligand in heteroleptic complexes, in such a way of mimicking the electronic effects of the carboxylate functionality, should yield markedly improved interfacial charge generation properties. The present results, providing for the first time a detailed understanding of the interfacial electron transfers and photovoltaic characterization in Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized solar cells, open the way to a rational molecular engineering of efficient iron-based dyes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  18. Carbene-metal hydrides can be much less acidic than phosphine-metal hydrides: significance in hydrogenations.

    Zhu, Ye; Fan, Yubo; Burgess, Kevin


    Acidities of iridium hydride intermediates were shown to be critical in some transformations mediated by the chiral analogues of Crabtree's catalyst, 1-3. To do this, several experiments were undertaken to investigate the acidities of hydrogenation mixtures formed using these iridium-oxazoline complexes. DFT calculations indicated that the acidity difference for Ir-H intermediates in these hydrogenations were astounding; iridium hydride from the N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst 1 was calculated to be around seven pK(a) units less acidic than those from the P-based complexes 2 and 3. Consistent with this, the carbene complex 1 was shown to be more effective for hydrogenations of acid-sensitive substrates. In deuteration experiments, less "abnormal" deuteration was observed, corresponding to fewer complications from acid-mediated alkene isomerization preceding the D(2)-addition step. Finally, simple tests with pH indicators provided visual evidence that phosphine-based catalyst precursors give significantly more acidic reaction mixtures than the corresponding N-heterocyclic carbene ones. These observations indicate carbene-for-phosphine (and similar) ligand substitutions may impact the outcome of catalytic reactions by modifying the acidities of the metal hydrides formed.

  19. Goldie Roth unchained: risk and its management in Lian Tanner’s Museum of Thieves

    Wood, Danielle


    Full Text Available In her children’s action adventure novel Museum of Thieves, Lian Tanner overtly critiques adult risk-aversion and the over-protection of children. The protagonist is Goldie, an unruly child who escapes the oppressive regime of the City of Jewel where children up to the age of 12 are chained, for their own safety, to adult companions. Goldie escapes Jewel’s power structures and enters a mysterious museum housing the city’s unwanted wildness and danger. In its opening chapter Museum of Thieves establishes a subversive schema that problematises concepts of safety and order and glorifies chaos and risk, but this paper argues that as the novel progresses the author finds the schema increasingly difficult to control. It is tempting to read the museum as a “time out” zone such as CS Lewis’s Narnia, L Frank Baum’s Oz, and Maurice Sendak’s “place where the wild things are”: a space in which child characters can gain self-knowledge and skills before returning to an adult-dominated order. However, because of the degree to which Jewel and its structures are pathologised, Tanner finds she cannot bring Goldie back from “time out”. But rather than being a transgressive text, Museum of Thieves ends in a much less subversive place than it sets out to reach; the museum is revealed as a tightly controlled space and Goldie is well-protected, both within the diegesis by the museum’s special features, and beyond the diegesis by the author and the author’s cognisance of contemporary publishing industry expectations about the depiction of risk in children’s fiction.

  20. Imidazol(in)ium hydrogen carbonates as a genuine source of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs): applications to the facile preparation of NHC metal complexes and to NHC-organocatalyzed molecular and macromolecular syntheses.

    Fèvre, Maréva; Pinaud, Julien; Leteneur, Alexandre; Gnanou, Yves; Vignolle, Joan; Taton, Daniel; Miqueu, Karinne; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc


    Anion metathesis of imidazol(in)ium chlorides with KHCO(3) afforded an easy one step access to air stable imidazol(in)ium hydrogen carbonates, denoted as [NHC(H)][HCO(3)]. In solution, these compounds were found to be in equilibrium with their corresponding imidazol(in)ium carboxylates, referred to as N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-CO(2) adducts. The [NHC(H)][HCO(3)] salts were next shown to behave as masked NHCs, allowing for the NHC moiety to be readily transferred to both organic and organometallic substrates, without the need for dry and oxygen-free conditions. In addition, such [NHC(H)][HCO(3)] precursors were successfully investigated as precatalysts in two selected organocatalyzed reactions of molecular chemistry and polymer synthesis, namely, the benzoin condensation reaction and the ring-opening polymerization of d,l-lactide, respectively. The generation of NHCs from [NHC(H)][HCO(3)] precursors occurred via the formal loss of H(2)CO(3)via a concerted low energy pathway, as substantiated by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  1. Photophysical properties of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl-gold(I) ethynyl dyads and triads containing mono- or diethynylphenanthroline incorporated into gold(I) triphenylphosphine organometallics.

    Shiotsuka, Michito; Tsuji, Yasushi; Keyaki, Kazutoshi; Nozaki, Koichi


    A new ruthenium(II)-gold(I) dyad, [Ru(bpy)(2){5-{(PPh(3))-Au-C[tripe bond]C}-phen}](PF(6))(2) (2), with a different substituted site compared to [Ru(bpy)(2){3-{(PPh(3))-Au-C[triple bond]C}-phen}](PF(6))(2) (1), and a triad, [Ru(bpy)(2){3,6-bis{(PPh(3))-Au-C[triple bond]C}-phen}](PF(6))(2) (3), with an unsymmetric diethynylphenanthroline relative to [Ru(bpy)(2){3,8-bis{(PPh(3))-Au-C[triple bond]C}-phen}](PF(6))(2) (4) have been prepared. These four ruthenium(II)-gold(I) compounds showed typical metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorption bands in the 400-550 nm region and a lowest energy pi-pi* absorption involved with the gold(I) perturbation in the 300-400 nm region. Broad emission bands assignable to the triplet MLCT transition were definitely observed in all compounds, indicating that the hybrid architecture constructed with Ru(II)-polypyridyl and Au(I)-ethynyl units converts the blue-green gold(I) perturbed pi-pi* phosphorescence into an orange MLCT-based emission. The transient absorption difference spectra of four compounds showed the difference in the electron transfer process between 2 and other compounds 1, 3, and 4 under the excited state. Ru(II)-Au(I) compounds except for 2 receive the supposed charge injection from a ruthenium center to an extended pi-conjugated ethynyl-substituted phenanthroline, which contains one or two gold(I) organometallic unit(s), while 2 undergoes the electron transfer process from the ruthenium center not to the 5-ethynylphenanthroline but to one of the bipyridyl ligands under the excited state. This hypothesis is supported by the deflection of the spots of 2 and [Ru(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2) from a linear correlation line in a plot of E(0-0) versus DeltaE(1/2), which was based on the electrochemical and emission data of Ru(II)-Au(I) compounds and mononuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes.

  2. 1,2 Migration in Carbenoid and Carbene Reactions

    MA Ming; JIANG Nan; SHI Wei-Feng; WANG Jian-Bo


    @@ 1,2-Hydride, 1,2-alkyl and 1,2-aryl migrations are common in free carbene chemistry, and they are also fre quently encountered in the reactions of metal carbenes. In some cases, these migration reactions can compete with the typical reactions of metal carbenes, such as X-H (X = Si, C, O, N, S, etc. ) insertions and cyclopropanations. [1] The 1,2-migration also found synthetic application. An example is the SnCl2-promoted 1,2-hydride migration of α-diazo-β-hydroxy esters, known as Roskamp homologation, which leads to the formation of β-keto esters. [2

  3. Enantiocontrol in Macrocycle Formation from Catalytic MetalCarbene Transformations

    DOYLE, Michael P.; DOYLE, Michael P; HU, Wen-Hao(胡文浩); 胡文浩


    The development of catalytic metal carbene transformations for the construction of macrocyclic lactones has dramatically increased their synthetic advantages.This is the first review of this developing methodology.

  4. Latent ruthenium–indenylidene catalysts bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene and a bidentate picolinate ligand

    Thibault E. Schmid


    Full Text Available A silver-free methodology was developed for the synthesis of unprecedented N-heterocyclic carbene ruthenium indenylidene complexes bearing a bidentate picolinate ligand. The highly stable (SIPr(picolinateRuCl(indenylidene complex 4a (SIPr = 1,3-bis(2-6-diisopropylphenylimidazolidin-2-ylidene demonstrated excellent latent behaviour in ring closing metathesis (RCM reaction and could be activated in the presence of a Brønsted acid. The versatility of the catalyst 4a was subsequently demonstrated in RCM, cross-metathesis (CM and enyne metathesis reactions.

  5. Formation of Oxazoles from Elusive Gold(I) α-Oxocarbenes: A Mechanistic Study.

    Schulz, Jiří; Jašík, Juraj; Gray, Andrew; Roithová, Jana


    The gold(I) catalyzed reaction between phenylacetylene, pyridine N-oxide and acetonitrile leading, via a putative gold-α-oxocarbene intermediate, towards an oxazole product has been investigated. A novel mass spectrometric method called "delayed reactant labeling" is used to track consecutive and parallel reactions. It clearly shows that the intramolecular formation of a pyridine adduct of gold-α-oxocarbene is in competition with the formation of the oxazole product. The reaction mechanism most probably corresponds to competition between acetonitrile and pyridine in an almost barrierless reaction with putative gold-α-oxocarbene within the solvent cage. The detected ionic species have been characterized by helium tagging infrared photodissociation spectroscopy.

  6. O-Glycosidation reactions promoted by in situ generated silver N-heterocyclic carbenes in ionic liquids.

    Talisman, Ian Jamie; Kumar, Vineet; Razzaghy, Jacqueline; Malhotra, Sanjay V


    We herein report O-glycosidation reactions promoted via silver N-heterocyclic carbene complexes formed in situ in ionic liquids. Seven different room temperature ionic liquids were screened for the glycosidation reaction of 4-nitrophenol with tetra-O-acetyl-α-d-galactopyranosyl bromide. Good to excellent yields were obtained using Ag-NHC complexes derived from imidazolium halide salts to promote the glycosidation reaction, whereas yields considered moderate to low were obtained without use of the silver carbene complex. Anion metathesis of the ionic liquids with inexpensive alkylammonium halides also resulted in silver N-heterocyclic carbene formation and subsequent O-glycosidation in the presence of silver carbonate. Effective utility of this methodology has been demonstrated with biologically relevant acceptors (including flavones and steroids) where O-β-glycoside products were obtained selectively in moderate to good yields. We have also demonstrated that the Ag-NHC complex is a superior promoter to traditionally used silver carbonate for the glycosidation of polyphenolic acceptors. The ionic liquids used in the study could be recycled three times without apparent loss in activity. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Synthesis of axially chiral oxazoline-carbene ligands with an N-naphthyl framework and a study of their coordination with AuCl·SMe(2).

    Wang, Feijun; Li, Shengke; Qu, Mingliang; Zhao, Mei-Xin; Liu, Lian-Jun; Shi, Min


    Axially chiral oxazoline-carbene ligands with an N-naphthyl framework were successfully prepared, and their coordination behavior with AuCl·SMe(2) was also investigated, affording the corresponding Au(I) complexes in moderate to high yields.

  8. Evaluation of an olefin metathesis pre-catalyst with a bulky and electron-rich N-heterocyclic carbene

    Manzini, Simone


    The commercially-available metathesis pre-catalyst M23 has been evaluated alongside new complex [RuCl2((3-phenyl)indenylidene)(PPh3)(SIPrOMe)] (1), which bears a para-methoxy-substituted N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. Several model metathesis reactions could be conducted using only parts-per-million levels of ruthenium catalyst. The effects of the different NHC ligands on reactivity have been explored.

  9. New metathesis catalyst bearing chromanyl moieties at the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand

    Agnieszka Hryniewicka


    Full Text Available The synthesis of a new type of Hoveyda–Grubbs 2nd generation catalyst bearing a modified N-heterocyclic carbene ligands is reported. The new catalyst contains an NHC ligand symmetrically substituted with chromanyl moieties. The complex was tested in model CM and RCM reactions. It showed very high activity in CM reactions with electron-deficient α,β-unsaturated compounds even at 0 °C. It was also examined in more demanding systems such as conjugated dienes and polyenes. The catalyst is stable, storable and easy to purify.

  10. Ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts featuring unsymmetrical N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Paradiso, Veronica; Bertolasi, Valerio; Costabile, Chiara; Grisi, Fabia


    New ruthenium Grubbs' and Hoveyda-Grubbs' second generation catalysts bearing N-alkyl/N-isopropylphenyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands with syn or anti backbone configuration were obtained and compared in model olefin metathesis reactions. Different catalytic efficiencies were observed depending on the size of the N-alkyl group (methyl or cyclohexyl) and on the backbone configuration. The presence of an N-cyclohexyl substituent determined the most significant reactivity differences between catalysts with syn or anti phenyl groups on the backbone. In particular, anti catalysts proved highly efficient, especially in the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of encumbered diolefins, while syn catalysts showed low efficiency in the RCM of less hindered diolefins. This peculiar behavior, rationalized through DFT studies, was found to be related to the high propensity of these catalysts to give nonproductive metathesis events. Enantiopure anti catalysts were also tested in asymmetric metathesis reactions, where moderate enantioselectivities were observed. The steric and electronic properties of unsymmetrical NHCs with the N-cyclohexyl group were then evaluated using the corresponding rhodium complexes. While steric factors proved unimportant for both syn and anti NHCs, a major electron-donating character was found for the unsymmetrical NHC with anti phenyl substituents on the backbone.

  11. Reactivity of cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAACs) and bis(amino)cyclopropenylidenes (BACs) with heteroallenes: comparisons with their N-heterocyclic carbene (NHCs) counterparts.

    Kuchenbeiser, Glenn; Soleilhavoup, Michele; Donnadieu, Bruno; Bertrand, Guy


    Similarly to NHCs, CAAC(a) and BAC(a) react with CO2 to give the corresponding betaines. Based on the carbonyl stretching frequencies of cis-[RhCl(CO)2(L)] complexes, the order of electron donor ability was predicted to be CAAC(a) approximately BAC(a)>NHCs. When the betaines nu(asym)(CO2) values are used, the apparent ordering is BAC(a)>NHCs approximately CAAC(a) that indicates a limitation for the use of IR spectroscopy in the ranking of ligand sigma-donating ability. Although all carbenes react with carbon disulfide to give the corresponding betaines, a second equivalent of CS2 reacts with the BAC-CS2 leading to a bicyclic thieno[2,3-diamino]-1,3-dithiole-2-thione, which results from a novel ring expansion process. Surprisingly, in contrast to NHCs, CAAC(a) does not react with carbodiimide, whereas BAC(a) exclusively gives a ring expanded product, analogous to that obtained with CS2. The intermediate amidinate can be trapped, using the lithium tetrafluoroborate adduct of BAC(b) as a carbene surrogate.

  12. Dihydrogen activation by frustrated carbene-borane Lewis pairs: an experimental and theoretical study of carbene variation.

    Kronig, Sabrina; Theuergarten, Eileen; Holschumacher, Dirk; Bannenberg, Thomas; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias


    A variety of Lewis acid-base pairs consisting of tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, B(C(6)F(5))(3), in combination with sterically demanding five- and six-membered N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) of the imidazolin-2-ylidene, imidazolidin-2-ylidene, and tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene types were investigated with respect to their potential to act as frustrated Lewis pairs (FLP) by reaction with dihydrogen (H(2)) and tetrahydrofuran (THF). A sufficient degree of "frustration" was usually established by introduction of a 1,3-di-tert-butyl or 1,3-diadamantyl carbene substitution pattern, which allows an unquenched acid-base reactivity and thus leads to heterolytic dihydrogen activation and ring-opening of THF. In contrast, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-substituted carbenes showed ambiguous behavior, and the corresponding five-membered imidazolin-2-ylidene formed a stable carbene-B(C(6)F(5))(3) adduct, whereas fast C-F activation and formation of a zwitterionic pyrimidinium-fluoroborate was observed for the six-membered tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene. A stable adduct was also isolated for the combination of the acyclic carbene bis(diisopropylamino)methylene with B(C(6)F(5))(3), and consequently no reactivity toward H(2) and THF was observed. To rationalize the reactivity of the carbene-borane Lewis pairs, the thermodynamics of adduct formation with B(C(6)F(5))(3) were calculated for 10 different carbenes; the stability (or instability) of these adducts can be used as a good measure of the degree of "frustration".

  13. Kinetic Selectivity of Olefin Metathesis Catalysts Bearing Cyclic (Alkyl)(Amino)Carbenes

    Anderson, Donde R.; Ung, Thay; Mkrtumyan, Garik; Bertrand, Guy; Grubbs, Robert H.; Schrodi, Yann


    The evaluation of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts 4–6 bearing cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAACs) in the cross-metathesis of cis-1,4-diacetoxy-2-butene (7) with allylbenzene (8) and the ethenolysis of methyl oleate (11) is reported. Relative to most NHC-substituted complexes, CAAC-substituted catalysts exhibit lower E/Z ratios (3:1 at 70% conversion) in the cross-metathesis of 7 and 8. Additionally, complexes 4–6 demonstrate good selectivity for the formation of terminal olefins versus internal olefins in the ethenolysis of 11. Indeed, complex 6 achieved 35 000 TONs, the highest recorded to date. CAAC-substituted complexes exhibit markedly different kinetic selectivity than most NHC-substituted complexes. PMID:18584055

  14. Probing the limits of ligand steric bulk: backbone C-H activation in a saturated N-heterocyclic carbene.

    Phillips, Nicholas; Tirfoin, Remi; Aldridge, Simon


    The consequences of extremely high steric loading have been probed for late transition metal complexes featuring the expanded ring N-heterocyclic carbene 6-Dipp. The reluctance of this ligand to form 2:1 complexes with d-block metals (rationalised on the basis of its percentage buried volume, % Vbur , of 50.8%) leads to C-H and C-N bond activation processes driven by attack at the backbone β-CH2 unit. In the presence of Ir(I) (or indeed H(+) ) the net result is the formation of an allyl formamidine fragment, while Au(I) brings about an additional ring (re-)closure step via nucleophilic attack at the coordinated alkene. The net transformation of 6-Dipp in the presence of [(6-Dipp)Au](+) represents to our knowledge the first example of backbone C-H activation of a saturated N-heterocyclic carbene, proceeding in this case via a mechanism which involves free carbene in addition to the Au(I) centre. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Insights on the mechanism of thioredoxin reductase inhibition by gold N-heterocyclic carbene compounds using the synthetic linear selenocysteine containing C-terminal peptide hTrxR(488-499): an ESI-MS investigation.

    Pratesi, Alessandro; Gabbiani, Chiara; Michelucci, Elena; Ginanneschi, Mauro; Papini, Anna Maria; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Ott, Ingo; Messori, Luigi


    Gold-based drugs typically behave as strong inhibitors of the enzyme thioredoxin reductase (hTrxR), possibly as the consequence of direct Gold(I) coordination to its active site selenocysteine. To gain a deeper insight into the molecular basis of enzyme inhibition and prove gold-selenocysteine coordination, the reactions of three parent Gold(I) NHC compounds with the synthetic C-terminal dodecapeptide of hTrxR containing Selenocysteine at position 498, were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Formation of 1:1 Gold-peptide adducts, though in highly different amounts, was demonstrated in all cases. In these adducts the same [Au-NHC](+) moiety is always associated to the intact peptide. Afterward, tandem MS experiments, conducted on a specific Gold-peptide complex, pointed out that Gold is coordinated to the selenolate group. The relatively large strength of the Gold-selenolate coordinative bond well accounts for potent enzyme inhibition typically afforded by these Gold(I) compounds. In a selected case, the time course of enzyme inhibition was explored. Interestingly, enzyme inhibition turned out to show up very quickly and reached its maximum just few minutes after mixing. Overall, the present results offer some clear insight into the process of thioredoxin reductase inhibition by Gold-based compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gold(I) catalysis at extreme concentrations inside self-assembled nanospheres.

    Gramage-Doria, Rafael; Hessels, Joeri; Leenders, Stefan H A M; Tröppner, Oliver; Dürr, Maximilian; Ivanović-Burmazović, Ivana; Reek, Joost N H


    Homogeneous transition-metal catalysis is a crucial technology for the sustainable preparation of valuable chemicals. The catalyst concentration is usually kept as low as possible, typically at mM or μM levels, and the effect of high catalyst concentration is hardly exploited because of solubility issues and the inherent unfavorable catalyst/substrate ratio. Herein, a self-assembly strategy is reported which leads to local catalyst concentrations ranging from 0.05 M to 1.1 M, inside well-defined nanospheres, whilst the overall catalyst concentration in solution remains at the conventional mM levels. We disclose that only at this high concentration, the gold(I) chloride is reactive and shows high selectivity in intramolecular CO and CC bond-forming cyclization reactions.

  17. Hydrofluorination of Alkynes Catalysed by Gold Bifluorides

    Nahra, Fady; Patrick, Scott R.; Bello, Davide; Brill, Marcel; Obled, Alan; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; O'Hagan, David; Steven P. Nolan


    We report the synthesis of nine new N-heterocyclic carbene gold bifluoride complexes starting from the corresponding N-heterocyclic carbene gold hydroxides. A new methodology to access N,N′-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) fluoride starting from N,N′-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene gold(I) hydroxide and readily available potassium bifluoride is also reported. These gold bifluorides were shown to be efficient catalysts in the hydrofluorination of symmetrical an...

  18. Synthesis, characterisation, and oxygen atom transfer reactions involving the first gold(I)-alkylperoxo complexes.

    Collado, Alba; Gómez-Suárez, Adrián; Oonishi, Yoshihiro; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Nolan, Steven P


    The synthesis of a new class of organogold species containing a peroxo moiety is reported. Complexes [Au(IPr)(OO(t)Bu)] and [Au(SIPr)(OO(t)Bu)] have been synthesised via a straightforward methodology using the parent gold(I) hydroxide complexes as synthons. These complexes have been successfully used in oxygen-transfer reactions to triphenylphosphine.

  19. In Silico Olefin Metathesis with Ru-Based Catalysts Containing N-Heterocyclic Carbenes Bearing C60 Fullerenes.

    Martínez, Juan Pablo; Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama Chaitanya; Falivene, Laura; Nolan, Steven P; Cavallo, Luigi; Solà, Miquel; Poater, Albert


    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Ru-based complexes with 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene (SIMes) ligand backbone (A) being modified in silico by the insertion of a C60 molecule (B and C), as olefin metathesis catalysts. To this end, we investigated the olefin metathesis reaction catalyzed by complexes A, B, and C using ethylene as the substrate, focusing mainly on the thermodynamic stability of all possible reaction intermediates. Our results suggest that complex B bearing an electron-withdrawing N-heterocyclic carbene improves the performance of unannulated complex A. The efficiency of complex B is only surpassed by complex A when the backbone of the N-heterocyclic carbene of complex A is substituted by two amino groups. The particular performance of complexes B and C has to be attributed to electronic factors, that is, the electronic-donating capacity of modified SIMes ligand rather than steric effects, because the latter are predicted to be almost identical for complexes B and C when compared to those of A. Overall, this study indicates that such Ru-based complexes B and C might have the potential to be effective olefin metathesis catalysts.

  20. In Silico Olefin Metathesis with Ru-Based Catalysts Containing N-Heterocyclic Carbenes Bearing C60Fullerenes

    Martínez, Juan Pablo


    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Ru-based complexes with 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene (SIMes) ligand backbone (A) being modified in silico by the insertion of a C60 molecule (B and C), as olefin metathesis catalysts. To this end, we investigated the olefin metathesis reaction catalyzed by complexes A, B, and C using ethylene as the substrate, focusing mainly on the thermodynamic stability of all possible reaction intermediates. Our results suggest that complex B bearing an electron-withdrawing N-heterocyclic carbene improves the performance of unannulated complex A. The efficiency of complex B is only surpassed by complex A when the backbone of the N-heterocyclic carbene of complex A is substituted by two amino groups. The particular performance of complexes B and C has to be attributed to electronic factors, that is, the electronic-donating capacity of modified SIMes ligand rather than steric effects, because the latter are predicted to be almost identical for complexes B and C when compared to those of A. Overall, this study indicates that such Ru-based complexes B and C might have the potential to be effective olefin metathesis catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Reactivity of the uranium(IV) carbene complex [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(μ-Cl)₂Li(THF)₂] (BIPM(TMS) = {C(PPh₂NSiMe₃)₂}) towards carbonyl and heteroallene substrates: metallo-Wittig, adduct formation, C-F bond activation, and [2 + 2]-cycloaddition reactions.

    Cooper, Oliver J; Mills, David P; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Liddle, Stephen T


    The reactivity of the uranium(IV) carbene complex [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(μ-Cl)2Li(THF)2] (1, BIPM(TMS) = {C(PPh2NSiMe3)2}) towards carbonyl and heteroallene substrates is reported. Reaction of 1 with benzophenone proceeds to give the metallo-Wittig terminal alkene product Ph2C=C(PPh2NSiMe3)2 (2); the likely "UOCl2" byproduct could not be isolated. Addition of the bulky ketone PhCOBu(t) to 1 resulted in loss of LiCl, coordination of the ketone, and dimerisation to give [U(BIPM(TMS))(Cl)(μ-Cl){OC(Ph)(Bu(t))}]2 (3). The reaction of 1 with coumarin resulted in ring opening of the cyclic ester and a metallo-Wittig-type reaction to afford [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(O)(CHCHC6H4O-2)]-κ(3)-N,O,O'}(Cl)2(THF)] (4) where the enolate product remains coordinated to uranium. The reaction of PhCOF with 1 resulted in C-F bond activation and oxidation resulting in isolation of [U(O)2(Cl)2(μ-Cl)2{(μ-LiDME)OC(Ph)=C(PPh2NSiMe3)(PPh2NHSiMe3)}2] (5) along with [U(Cl)2(F)2(py)4] (6). The reactions of 1 with tert-butylisocyanate or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide resulted in the isolation of the [2 + 2]-cycloaddition products [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(NBu(t)){OLi(THF)2(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3}]-κ(4)-C,N,N',N''}(Cl)3] (7) and [U{BIPM(TMS)[C(NCy)2]-κ(4)-C,N,N',N''}(Cl)(μ-Cl)2Li(THF)2] (8). Complexes 2-8 have been variously characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction, multi-nuclear NMR and FTIR spectroscopies, Evans method solution magnetic moments, variable temperature SQUID magnetometry, and elemental analyses.

  2. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  3. N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed direct carbonylation of dimethylamine.

    Li, Xiaonian; Liu, Kun; Xu, Xiaoliang; Ma, Lei; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Dahao; Zhang, Qunfeng; Lu, Chunshan


    N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyzed direct carbonylation of dimethylamine leading to the formation of DMF was successfully accomplished under metal-free conditions. The catalytic efficiency was investigated and the turnover numbers can reach as high as >300. The possible mechanism was also proposed.

  4. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals



    Determination of bond dissociation energies and heats of formation of hydrocarbon radicals and carbenes requires knowledge of their structures, but this is not provided by standard mass spectrometric studies; what is needed is high-resolution spectroscopy, often best achieved at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths. Nearly 60 reactive organic molecules were investigated in the period from 1988--1998.

  5. Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed synthesis of trifluoromethyldihydropyridinones.

    Wang, Dong-Ling; Liang, Zhi-Qin; Chen, Kun-Quan; Sun, De-Qun; Ye, Song


    The enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [4 + 2] cyclocondensation of α-chloroaldehydes and trifluoromethyl N-Boc azadienes was developed, giving the corresponding 3,4-disubstituted-6-trifluoromethyldihydropyridin-2(1H)-ones in good yields with exclusive cis-selectivities and excellent enantioselectivities.

  6. N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) Binuclear Gold Complexes Catalyzed Aminoarylation of Olefins%氮杂环卡宾双核金络合物催化的胺芳基化反应

    张睿; 徐琴; 施敏


    N-Heterocyclic carbene(NHC) binuclear gold complexes and mononuclear gold complex have been successfully prepared from 1,1’-binaphthalenyl-2,2’-diamine(BINAM) in good yields.Their structures have been unambiguously determined by spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction.On the basis of X-ray diffraction,a weak interaction between Au-Au has been identified in the N-heterocyclic carbene(NHC) binuclear gold complex 4b,in which the distance of Au(I)-Au(I) is 4.190.We also found that NHC-binuclear gold complex 4b is a more effective catalyst than that of NHC-mononuclear gold complex in the aminoarylation of olefins under identical conditions.Based on these experimental data,the improved yield of aminoarylation is possibly attributed to the weak Au(I)-Au(I) interaction in the N-heterocyclic carbene(NHC) binuclear gold complex 4b.A plausible reaction mechanism has been proposed on the basis of previous literature.The reaction procedure is quite simple.When NHC-gold(I) catalyst 4b(3 mol%,3.0 μmol) was dissolved in solvent(2.0 mL) in a flame-dried Schlenk tube equipped with a septum cap and stirring bar,the additive AgSbF6(6.0 μmol) was added under argon,and then the mixture was stirred under argon at room temperature for 10 min.Alkylamine(0.1 mmol),arylboronic acid(0.2 mmol),and selectfluor(0.2 mmol) were added,and then the reaction mixture was stirred at 60 ℃ for 12 h.The crude product was concentrated under reduced pressure,and purified by flash chromatography on silica gel(eluent: EtOAc/petroleum ether=1/16) to yield the pure corresponding product.Recently,a number of bis(gold) vinyl species have been isolated from homogeneous gold catalysis and have been identified as the key intermediate in the catalytic process.Meanwhile,binuclear gold complexes have been also realized as the key species in the homogeneous gold catalysis recently.In this paper,we first disclosed that the N

  7. A reaction mode of carbene-catalysed aryl aldehyde activation and induced phenol OH functionalization

    Chen, Xingkuan; Wang, Hongling; Doitomi, Kazuki; Ooi, Chong Yih; Zheng, Pengcheng; Liu, Wangsheng; Guo, Hao; Yang, Song; Song, Bao-An; Hirao, Hajime; Chi, Yonggui Robin


    The research in the field of asymmetric carbene organic catalysis has primarily focused on the activation of carbon atoms in non-aromatic scaffolds. Here we report a reaction mode of carbene catalysis that allows for aromatic aldehyde activation and remote oxygen atom functionalization. The addition of a carbene catalyst to the aldehyde moiety of 2-hydroxyl aryl aldehyde eventually enables dearomatization and remote OH activation. The catalytic process generates a type of carbene-derived intermediate with an oxygen atom as the reactive centre. Inexpensive achiral urea co-catalyst works cooperatively with the carbene catalyst, leading to consistent enhancement of the reaction enantioselectivity. Given the wide presence of aromatic moieties and heteroatoms in natural products and synthetic functional molecules, we expect our reaction mode to significantly expand the power of carbene catalysis in asymmetric chemical synthesis.

  8. The N-heterocyclic carbene chemistry of transition-metal carbonyl clusters.

    Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo


    In the last decade, chemists have dedicated many efforts to investigate the coordination chemistry of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs). Although most of that research activity has been devoted to mononuclear complexes, transition-metal carbonyl clusters have not escaped from these investigations. This critical review, which is focussed on the reactivity of NHCs (or their precursors) with transition-metal carbonyl clusters (mostly are of ruthenium and osmium) and on the transformations underwent by the NHC-containing species initially formed in those reactions, shows that the polynuclear character of these metallic compounds or, more precisely, the close proximity of one or more metal atoms to that which is or can be attached to the NHC ligand, is responsible for reactivity patterns that have no parallel in the NHC chemistry of mononuclear complexes (74 references).

  9. Mismatched changes of the photoluminescence and crystalline structure of a mechanochromic gold(I) isocyanide complex.

    Seki, Tomohiro; Sakurada, Kenta; Ito, Hajime


    The mechanochromic compound 1 forms green-emitting crystals (1g) and blue-emitting crystals (1b) that exhibit two intriguing responses to mechanical stimulation. Upon mechanical stimulation, the emission color of 1g does not change but its crystalline structure does. Conversely, 1b shows a clear emission shift, but it retains its molecular arrangement upon grinding.

  10. Alcohol-Induced C-N Bond Cleavage of Cyclometalated N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands with a Methylene-Linked Pendant Imidazolium Ring.

    Zhong, Wei; Fei, Zhaofu; Scopelliti, Rosario; Dyson, Paul J


    Reaction of the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl rhodium iodide dimer [Cp*RhI2 ]2 with 1,1'-diphenyl-3,3'-methylenediimidazolium diiodide in non-alcohol solvents, in the presence of base, led to the formation of bis-carbene complex [Cp*Rh(bis-NHC)I]I (bis-NHC=1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-methylenediimidazoline-5,5'-diylidene). In contrast, when employing alcohols as the solvent in the same reaction, cleavage of a methylene C-N bond is observed, affording ether-functionalized (cyclometalated) carbene ligands coordinated to the metal center and the concomitant formation of complexes with a coordinated imidazole ligand. Studies employing other 1,1'-diimidazolium salts indicate that the cyclometalation step is a prerequisite for the activation/scission of the C-N bond and, based on additional experimental data, a SN 2 mechanism for the reaction is tentatively proposed.

  11. Continuous-Flow N-Heterocyclic Carbene Generation and Organocatalysis.

    Di Marco, Lorenzo; Hans, Morgan; Delaude, Lionel; Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe M


    Two methods were assessed for the generation of common N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) from stable imidazol(in)ium precursors using convenient and straightforward continuous-flow setups with either a heterogeneous inorganic base (Cs2CO3 or K3PO4) or a homogeneous organic base (KN(SiMe3)2). In-line quenching with carbon disulfide revealed that the homogeneous strategy was most efficient for the preparation of a small library of NHCs. The generation of free nucleophilic carbenes was next telescoped with two benchmark NHC-catalyzed reactions; namely, the transesterification of vinyl acetate with benzyl alcohol and the amidation of N-Boc-glycine methyl ester with ethanolamine. Both organocatalytic transformations proceeded with total conversion and excellent yields were achieved after extraction, showcasing the first examples of continuous-flow organocatalysis with NHCs.

  12. Spiro-fused six-membered N-heterocyclic carbene: a new scaffold toward unique properties and activities.

    Yang, Bin-Miao; Xiang, Kai; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Shi-Heng; Yang, Deng-Tao; Wang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Fu-Ming


    A six-membered N-heterocyclic carbene fused with a spiro-scaffold is designed. The new NHC shows stronger σ-donation ability than typical 5-membered NHCs. This property leads to interesting reactivities of this spiro-fused six-membered NHC. For example, the NHC-BF3 Lewis pair complex can be readily prepared by using LiBF4 as the BF3 source, or through a direct bond-reconstruction of the tetrafluoroborate salt NHC·HBF4.

  13. New heteronuclear gold(I)-platinum(II) complexes with cytotoxic properties : Are two metals better than one?

    Wenzel, Margot; Bigaeva, Emilia; Richard, Philippe; Le Gendre, Pierre; Picquet, Michel; Casini, Angela; Bodio, Ewen


    A series of mono- and heterodinuclear gold(I) and platinum(II) complexes with a new bipyridylamine-phosphine ligand have been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray structures of the ligand precursor 4-iodo-N,N-di(pyridin-2-yl)benzamide, and of one gold derivative are reported. All the complexes d

  14. The Depolymerization of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) Using N-Heterocyclic Carbenes from Ionic Liquids

    Kamber, Nahrain E.; Tsujii, Yasuhito; Keets, Kate; Waymouth, Robert M.; Pratt, Russell C.; Nyce, Gregory W.; Hedrick, James L.


    The depolymerization of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) is described in this laboratory procedure. The transesterification reaction used to depolymerize PET employs a highly efficient N-heterocyclic carbene catalyst derived from a commercially available imidazolium ionic liquid. N-heterocyclic carbenes are potent nucleophilic…

  15. The SolemnAddress Uttered by Vasile Goldiş in Alba-Iulia on 1 December, 1918

    Eugen GAGEA


    Full Text Available In the report he presented before the Great National Assembly of Alba-Iulia, Vasile Goldişunderlined some of the ideals for which humankind had fought and continued to fight in the postwarperiod: national freedom, social equality. The solemn address he uttered is an expression of hishumanism and confidence in human civilization, of the conviction that the organization of ademocratic state and the achievement of equality of rights for all citizens are and must be a “workof civilization”.

  16. Non-destructive method for the analysis of gold(I) cyanide plating baths Complexometric determination of nickel and indium.

    Pribil, R; Veselý, V


    A method is described for rapid determination of nickel and indium in gold(I) cyanide baths containing large amounts of citric acid and/or sodium citrate, without previous destruction of organic matter. Gold is removed by extraction with ethyl acetate. In one aliquot of the solution indium is masked with thioglycollic acid and nickel is precipitated with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into chloroform, stripped into water and determined complexometrically. In a second aliquot indium and nickel are precipitated together with the same reagent and stripped into water, then nickel is masked with 1,10-phenanthroline, and indium is determined by direct titration with EDTA.

  17. Recent advances in carbon dioxide capture, fixation, and activation by using N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Yang, Longhua; Wang, Hongming


    In the last two decades, CO2 emission has caused a lot of environmental problems. To mitigate the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, various strategies have been implemented, one of which is the use of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and related complexes to accomplish the capture, fixation, and activation of CO2 effectively. In this review, we summarize CO2 capture, fixation, and activation by utilizing NHCs and related complexes; homogeneous reactions and their reaction mechanisms are discussed. Free NHCs and NHC salts can capture CO2 in both direct and indirect ways to form imidazolium carboxylates, and they can also catalyze the reaction of aromatic aldehydes with CO2 to form carboxylic acids and derivatives. Moreover, associated with transition metals (TMs), NHCs can form NHC-TM complexes to transform CO2 into industrial acid or esters. Non-metal-NHC complexes can also catalyze the reactions of silicon and boron complexes with CO2 . In addition, catalytic cycloaddition of epoxides with CO2 is another effective function of NHC complexes, and NHC ionic liquids perform excellently in this aspect.

  18. Who needs empathy? A response to Goldie's arguments against empathy and suggestions for an account of mutual perspective-shifting in contexts of help and care

    Coeckelbergh, Mark


    According to an influential view, empathy has, and should have, a role in ethics, but it is by no means clear what is meant by 'empathy', and why exactly it is supposed to be morally good. Recently, Peter Goldie has challenged that view. He shows how problematic empathy is, and argues that taking an

  19. Who needs empathy? A response to Goldie's arguments against empathy and suggestions for an account of mututal perspective-shifting in contexts of help and care.

    Coeckelbergh, Mark


    According to an influential view, empathy has, and should have, a role in ethics, but it is by no means clear what is meant by 'empathy', and why exactly it is supposed to be morally good. Recently, Peter Goldie has challenged that view. He shows how problematic empathy is, and argues that taking an

  20. Gold complexes with benzimidazole derivatives: synthesis, characterization and biological studies.

    Mota, Vinicius Zamprogno; de Carvalho, Gustavo Senra Gonçalves; da Silva, Adilson David; Costa, Luiz Antônio Sodré; de Almeida Machado, Patrícia; Coimbra, Elaine Soares; Ferreira, Carmen Veríssima; Shishido, Silvia Mika; Cuin, Alexandre


    Synthesis, characterization, DFT studies and biological assays of new gold(I) and gold(III) complexes of benzimidazole are reported. Molecular and structural characterizations of the compounds were based on elemental (C, H and N) and thermal (TG-DTA) analyses, and FT-IR and UV-Visible spectroscopic measurements. The structures of complexes were proposed based DFT calculations. The benzimidazole compounds (Lig1 and Lig2) and the gold complexes were tested against three Leishmania species related to cutaneous manifestations of leishmaniasis. The free benzimidazole compounds showed no leishmanicidal activity. On the other hand, the gold(I and III) complexes have shown to possess significant activity against Leishmania in both stages of parasite, and the gold(III) complex with Lig2 exhibited expressive leishmanicidal activity with IC50 values below 5.7 μM. Also, the gold complexes showed high leishmania selectivity. The gold(I) complex with Lig1, for example, is almost 50 times more toxic for the parasite than for macrophages. Besides the leishmanicidal activity, all complexes exhibited toxic effect against SK-Mel 103 and Balb/c 3T3, cancer cells.

  1. Theoretical Insights on the Interaction of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes with Tetravalent Silicon Reagents.

    Pathak, Dipanjali; Deuri, Sanjib; Phukan, Prodeep


    Lewis acid-base type interaction between N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) and tetravalent silicon reagent (SiR) has been investigated computationally. This NHC-Si interaction is of fundamental importance to the understanding of variety of NHC catalyzed organic transformations involving silicon compounds such as cyanosilylation, trifluoromethylsilylation, etc. Geometries of 24 NHCs, 10 silicon reagents, and their 61 Lewis acid-base complexes have been optimized using the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) and M05-2X/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. The strength of NHC-Si interaction has been assessed in terms of binding energy of the complexes, charge transfer (CT) and the length of Si-CNHC bond. Energy decomposition analysis (EDA) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis at M052X/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory has been carried out to get a deeper understanding of the nature of bonding and charge delocalization. Proton affinity of the NHCs and fluoride affinity of the SiRs have been calculated and correlated with the binding energy of the resulting complexes.

  2. Nitrene-carbene-carbene rearrangement. Photolysis and thermolysis of tetrazolo[5,1-a]phthalazine with formation of 1-phthalazinylnitrene, o-cyanophenylcarbene, and phenylcyanocarbene.

    Høj, Martin; Kvaskoff, David; Wentrup, Curt


    1-Azidophthalazine 9A is generated in trace amount by mild FVT of tetrazolo[5,1-a]phthalazine 9T and is observable by its absorption at 2121 cm(-1) in the Ar matrix IR spectrum. Ar matrix photolysis of 9T/9A at 254 nm causes ring opening to generate two conformers of (o-cyanophenyl)diazomethane 11 (2079 and 2075 cm(-1)), followed by (o-cyanophenyl)carbene (3)12, cyanocycloheptatetraene 13, and finally cyano(phenyl)carbene (3)14 as evaluated by IR spectroscopy. The two carbenes (3)12 and (3)14 were observed by ESR spectroscopy (D|hc = 0.5078, E|hc = 0.0236 and D|hc = 0.6488, E|hc = 0.0195 cm(-1), respectively). The rearrangement of 12 ⇄ 13 ⇄ 14 constitutes a carbene-carbene rearrangement. 1-Phthalazinylnitrene (3)10 is observed by means of its UV-vis spectrum in Ar matrix following FVT of 9 above 550 °C. Rearrangement to cyanophenylcarbenes also takes place on FVT of 9 as evidenced by observation of the products of ring contraction, viz., fulvenallenes and ethynylcyclopentadienes 16-18. Thus the overall rearrangement 10 → 11 → 12 ⇄ 13 ⇄ 14 can be formulated.

  3. Highly enantioselective [4 + 2] cyclization of chloroaldehydes and 1-azadienes catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Jian, Teng-Yue; Sun, Li-Hui; Ye, Song


    Highly functionalized dihydropyridinones were synthesized via the N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed enantioselective [4 + 2] annulation of α-chloroaldehydes and azadienes. Hydrogenation of the resulted dihydropyridinones afforded the corresponding piperidinones with high enantiopurity.

  4. First spectroscopic observation of gold(i) butadiynylide: Photodetachment velocity map imaging of the AuC4H anion

    Visser, Bradley R.; Addicoat, Matthew A.; Gascooke, Jason R.; Lawrance, Warren D.; Metha, Gregory F.


    The velocity map imaging technique was used in the investigation of gold(i) butadiynylide, AuC4H-, with images recorded at two excitation wavelengths. The resultant photodetachment spectra show a well defined vibrational progression in the neutral with an energy spacing of 343 ± 3 cm-1. The adiabatic electron affinity was determined to be 1.775 ± 0.005 eV and assigned to the X1Σ+←X2Σ+ transition between the anionic and neutral ground states. Franck-Condon simulations performed on density functional theory optimized geometries assisted the assignment of linear geometries to the neutral and anion and the observed vibrational progression to that of the Au-C4H stretch.

  5. Molecular distribution of gold(I) in human blood plasma after treatment with the antiarthritic disodium aurothiomalate.

    Rayner, M H; Grootveld, M; Sadler, P J


    On-line separation and detection of both high- and low-molecular-weight gold species in human blood plasma treated with disodium aurothiomalate were achieved by a technique incorporating a combination of fast protein liquid chromatography with continuous monitoring of absorbance at 254 nm and eluant gold concentration by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The fate of gold (40 microM disodium aurothiomalate) in human blood plasma was monitored over a period of 24 h. Results obtained indicated that more than 50% of the gold is associated with a peak identified as albumin after a 5 min incubation period at 37 degrees C, and by 30 min more than 90% is found to be associated with albumin. This novel analytical combination enables the rapid, selective and sensitive determination of gold(I) and its biotransformation products (both protein--and non-protein-bound) in biological fluids.

  6. N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed synthesis of dimethyl carbonate via transesterification of ethylene carbonate with methanol

    Guang-Fen Du


    Full Text Available An organocatalytic protocol for the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate has been developed. Under the catalysis of 5 mol% N-heterocyclic carbenes, ethylene carbonate undergoes transesterification reaction with methanol under very mild reaction conditions, producing dimethyl carbonate with high efficiency. Furthermore, this N-heterocyclic carbene promoted transesterification can be scaled-up easily without lose of the conversion of dimethyl carbonate.

  7. Synthesis of mixed silylene-carbene chelate ligands from N-heterocyclic silylcarbenes mediated by nickel.

    Tan, Gengwen; Enthaler, Stephan; Inoue, Shigeyoshi; Blom, Burgert; Driess, Matthias


    The Ni(II) -mediated tautomerization of the N-heterocyclic hydrosilylcarbene L(2) Si(H)(CH2 )NHC 1, where L(2) =CH(CCH2 )(CMe)(NAr)2 , Ar=2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 ; NHC=3,4,5-trimethylimidazol-2-yliden-6-yl, leads to the first N-heterocyclic silylene (NHSi)-carbene (NHC) chelate ligand in the dibromo nickel(II) complex [L(1) Si:(CH2 )(NHC)NiBr2 ] 2 (L(1) =CH(MeCNAr)2 ). Reduction of 2 with KC8 in the presence of PMe3 as an auxiliary ligand afforded, depending on the reaction time, the N-heterocyclic silyl-NHC bromo Ni(II) complex [L(2) Si(CH2 )NHCNiBr(PMe3 )] 3 and the unique Ni(0) complex [η(2) (Si-H){L(2) Si(H)(CH2 )NHC}Ni(PMe3 )2 ] 4 featuring an agostic SiH→Ni bonding interaction. When 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane (DMPE) was employed as an exogenous ligand, the first NHSi-NHC chelate-ligand-stabilized Ni(0) complex [L(1) Si:(CH2 )NHCNi(dmpe)] 5 could be isolated. Moreover, the dicarbonyl Ni(0) complex 6, [L(1) Si:(CH2 )NHCNi(CO)2 ], is easily accessible by the reduction of 2 with K(BHEt3 ) under a CO atmosphere. The complexes were spectroscopically and structurally characterized. Furthermore, complex 2 can serve as an efficient precatalyst for Kumada-Corriu-type cross-coupling reactions.

  8. Nitrenes, carbenes, diradicals, and ylides. Interconversions of reactive intermediates.

    Wentrup, Curt


    Rearrangements of aromatic and heteroaromatic nitrenes and carbenes can be initiated with either heat or light. The thermal reaction is typically induced by flash vacuum thermolysis, with isolation of the products at low temperatures. Photochemical experiments are conducted either under matrix isolation conditions or in solution at ambient temperature. These rearrangements are usually initiated by ring expansion of the nitrene or carbene to a seven-membered ring ketenimine, carbodiimide, or allene (that is, a cycloheptatetraene or an azacycloheptatetraene when a nitrogen is involved). Over the last few years, we have found that two types of ring opening take place as well. Type I is an ylidic ring opening that yields nitrile ylides or diazo compounds as transient intermediates. Type II ring opening produces either dienylnitrenes (for example, from 2-pyridylnitrenes) or 1,7-(1,5)-diradicals (such as those formed from 2-quinoxalinylnitrenes), depending on which of these species is better stabilized by resonance. In this Account, we describe our achievements in elucidating the nature of the ring-opened species and unraveling the connections between the various reactive intermediates. Both of these ring-opening reactions are found, at least in some cases, to dominate the subsequent chemistry. Examples include the formation of ring-opened ketenimines and carbodiimides, as well as the ring contraction reactions that form five-membered ring nitriles (such as 2- and 3-cyanopyrroles from pyridylnitrenes, N-cyanoimidazoles from 2-pyrazinyl and 4-pyrimidinylnitrenes, N-cyanopyrazoles from 2-pyrimidinylnitrenes and 3-pyridazinylnitrenes, and so forth). The mechanisms of formation of the open-chain and ring-contraction products were unknown at the onset of this study. In the course of our investigation, several reactions with three or more consecutive reactive intermediates have been unraveled, such as nitrene, seven-membered cyclic carbodiimide, and open-chain nitrile ylide

  9. Ab initio study of the transition-metal carbene cations

    李吉海; 冯大诚; 冯圣玉


    The geometries and bonding characteristics of the first-row transition-metal carbene cations MCH2+ were investigated by ab initio molecular orbital theory (HF/LANL2DZ). All of MCH2+ are coplanar. In the closed shell structures the C bonds to M with double bonds; while in the open shell structures the partial double bonds are formed, because one of the σ and π orbitals is singly occupied. It is mainly the π-type overlap between the 2px orbital of C and 4px, 3dxz, orbitals of M+ that forms the π orbitals. The dissociation energies of C—M bond appear in periodic trend from Sc to Cu. Most of the calculated bond dissociation energies are close to the experimental ones.

  10. Computational Study on the Intramolecular Carbene-CO Coupling in M(CH2(CO3 Radicals (M = Co, Rh, Ir

    Gábor Tollár


    Full Text Available The intramolecular carbene-carbonyl coupling has been investigated for the simple M(CH2(CO3 (M = Co, Rh, Ir radical complexes at the DFT PBEPBE/TZVP level of theory. The coupling is predicted to be very fast for the cobalt-containing system, but it is still feasible for the systems based on the other two metals. The back-way reaction, that is, the conversion of the ketene complex into carbonyl-carbene complex, cannot be excluded from the Ir-containing system in CH2Cl2, and it is even favored in gas phase. The intermolecular ketene formation by the addition of external CO onto the CH2 moiety is the favored pathway for the Ir-complex. The Laplacian distribution, as well as the natural spin density distribution of all the species, being involved in the reaction, gives explanation for the significant difference between the nature of the Co-complex and the Rh- and Ir-systems.

  11. [bmim][Br] as a solvent and activator for the Ga-mediated Barbier allylation: direct formation of an N-heterocyclic carbene from Ga metal.

    Goswami, Dibakar; Chattopadhyay, Angshuman; Sharma, Anubha; Chattopadhyay, Subrata


    The room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [bmim][Br] has been found to be an excellent green and inexpensive medium for the Ga-mediated allylation of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and ketones. The RTIL activated the metal via formation of a Ga-N-heterocyclic carbene complex that assisted in the completion of the reaction at ambient temperature with only 0.5 equiv of Ga and 1.2 equiv of allyl bromide with respect to the carbonyl substrates. The present protocol required a much shorter time than those reported in the literature using other metals and solvents and proceeded with good yields and excellent selectivity.

  12. Large yet flexible N-heterocyclic carbene ligands for palladium catalysis.

    Meiries, Sebastien; Le Duc, Gaëtan; Chartoire, Anthony; Collado, Alba; Speck, Klaus; Athukorala Arachchige, Kasun S; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Nolan, Steven P


    A straightforward and scalable eight-step synthesis of new N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has been developed from inexpensive and readily available 2-nitro-m-xylene. This process allows for the preparation of a novel class of NHCs coined ITent ("Tent" for "tentacular") of which the well-known IMes (N,N'-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), IPr (N,N'-bis(2,6-di(2-propyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) and IPent (N,N'-bis(2,6-di(3-pentyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) NHCs are the simplest and already known congeners. The synthetic route was successfully used for the preparation of three members of the ITent family: IPent (N,N'-bis(2,6-di(3-pentyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), IHept (N,N'-bis(2,6-di(4-heptyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) and INon (N,N'-bis(2,6-di(5-nonyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). The electronic and steric properties of each NHC were studied through the preparation of both nickel and palladium complexes. Finally the effect of these new ITent ligands in Pd-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura and Buchwald-Hartwig cross-couplings was investigated.

  13. Intermolecular crosslinking of fatty acyl chains in phospholipids: use of photoactivable carbene precursors.

    Gupta, C M; Radhakrishnan, R; Gerber, G E; Olsen, W L; Quay, S C; Khorana, H G


    Phospholipids containing photolysable carbene precursors (beta-trifluoro-alpha-diazopropionoxy and m-diazirinophenoxy groups) in omega-positions of sn-2 fatty acyl chains were prepared. Photolysis of their vesicles produced crosslinked products in 40-60% yields. Crosslinking was mostly intermolecular and occurred by carbene insertion into the C-H bonds of a second fatty acyl chain. Crosslinking products were characterized by (i) their gel permeation behavior, (ii) analysis of products formed by base-catalyzed transesterification, (iii) degradation with phospholipases A2 and C, (iv) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and (v) use of mixtures of phospholipids carrying the carbene precursors and a phospholipid containing radioactively labeled fatty acyl groups. Nitrenes generated from the aliphatic or aromatic azido groups in phospholipids were unsatisfactory for forming crosslinks by insertion in C-H bonds. PMID:288050

  14. Fullerene–Carbene Lewis Acid–Base Adducts

    Li, Huaping


    The reaction between a bulky N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and C60 leads to the formation of a thermally stable zwitterionic Lewis acid-base adduct that is connected via a C-C single bond. Low-energy absorption bands with weak oscillator strengths similar to those of n-doped fullerenes were observed for the product, consistent with a net transfer of electron density to the C60 core. Corroborating information was obtained using UV photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that the adduct has an ionization potential ∼1.5 eV lower than that of C60. Density functional theory calculations showed that the C-C bond is polarized, with a total charge of +0.84e located on the NHC framework and -0.84e delocalized on the C 60 cage. The combination of reactivity, characterization, and theoretical studies demonstrates that fullerenes can behave as Lewis acids that react with C-based Lewis bases and that the overall process describes n-doping via C-C bond formation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Singlet-triplet gaps in substituted carbenes predicted from block-correlated coupled cluster method


    The block correlated coupled cluster (BCCC) method, with the complete active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) reference function, has been applied to investigating the singlet-triplet gaps in several substituted carbenes including four halocarbenes (CHCl, CF2, CCl2, and CBr2) and two hydroxycar-benes (CHOH and C(OH)2). A comparison of our results with the experimental data and other theoretical estimates shows that the present approach can provide quantitative descriptions for all the studied carbenes. It is demonstrated that the CAS-BCCC method is a promising theoretical tool for calculating the electronic structures of diradicals.

  16. Tungsten(VI) Carbyne/Bis(carbene) Tautomerization Enabled by N-Donor SBA15 Surface Ligands: A Solid-State NMR and DFT Study

    Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa


    Designing supported well-defined bis(carbene) complexes remains a key challenge in heterogeneous catalysis. The reaction of W(CtBu)(CH(2)tBu)(3) with amine-modified mesoporous SBA15 silica, which has vicinal silanol/silylamine pairs [(SiOH)(SiNH2)], leads to [(SiNH2-)(SiO-)W(CHtBu)(CH(2)tBu)(2)] and [(SiNH2-)(SiO-)W(=CHtBu)(2)(CH(2)tBu). Variable temperature, H-1-H-1 2D double-quantum, H-1-C-13 HETCOR, and HETCOR with spin diffusion solid-state NMR spectroscopy demonstrate tautomerization between the alkyl alkylidyne and the bis(alkylidene) on the SBA15 surface. Such equilibrium is possible through the coordination of W to the surface [(Si-OH)(Si-NH2)] groups, which act as a [N,O] pincer ligand. DFT calculations provide a rationalization for the surface-complex tautomerization and support the experimental results. This direct observation of such a process shows the strong similarity between molecular mechanisms in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. In propane metathesis (at 150 degrees C), the tungsten bis(carbene) tautomer is favorable, with a turnover number (TON) of 262. It is the highest TON among all the tungsten alkyl-supported catalysts.

  17. Co-III-Carbene Radical Approach to Substituted 1H-Indenes

    Das, B.G.; Chirila, A.; Tromp, M.; Reek, J.N.H.; de Bruin, B.


    A new strategy for the catalytic synthesis of substituted 1H-indenes via metalloradical activation of o-cinnamyl N-tosyl hydrazones is presented, taking advantage of the intrinsic reactivity of a Co-III carbene radical intermediate. The reaction uses readily available starting materials and is

  18. N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed internal redox reaction of alkynals: an efficient synthesis of allenoates.

    Zhao, Yu-Ming; Tam, Yik; Wang, Yu-Jie; Li, Zigang; Sun, Jianwei


    An efficient N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed internal redox reaction of alkynals that bear a γ leaving group has been developed. This process provides a new access to a range of allenoates in good yields. Preliminary results demonstrate that the enantioselective variant can also be achieved.

  19. Recent developments in gold(I) coordination chemistry: luminescence properties and bioimaging opportunities.

    Langdon-Jones, Emily E; Pope, Simon J A


    The fascinating biological activity of gold coordination compounds has led to the development of a wide range of complexes. The precise biological action of such species is often poorly understood and the ability to map gold distribution in cellular environments is key. This article discusses the recent progress in luminescent Au(I) complexes whilst considering their utility in bioimaging and therapeutics.

  20. The influence of anionic ligands on stereoisomerism of Ru carbenes and their importance to efficiency and selectivity of catalytic olefin metathesis reactions.

    Torker, Sebastian; Khan, R Kashif M; Hoveyda, Amir H


    Investigations detailed herein provide insight regarding the mechanism of stereochemical inversion of stereogenic-at-Ru carbene complexes through a nonolefin metathesis-based polytopal rearrangement pathway. Computational analyses (DFT) reveal that there are two key factors that generate sufficient energy barriers that are responsible for the possibility of isolation and characterization of high-energy, but kinetically stable, intermediates: (1) donor-donor interactions that involve the anionic ligands and the strongly electron donating carbene groups and (2) dipolar effects arising from the syn relationship between the anionic groups (iodide and phenoxide). We demonstrate that a Brønsted acid lowers barriers to facilitate isomerization, and that the positive influence of a proton source is the result of its ability to diminish the repulsive electronic interactions originating from the anionic ligands. The implications of the present studies regarding a more sophisticated knowledge of the role of anionic units on the efficiency of Ru-catalyzed olefin metathesis reactions are discussed. The electronic basis for the increased facility with which allylic alcohols participate in olefin metathesis processes will be presented as well. Finally, we illustrate how a better understanding of the role of anionic ligands has served as the basis for successful design of Ru-based Z-selective catalysts for alkene metathesis.

  1. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    White, Carter James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the η5- and the η1(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The 77Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of η1(S)-bound thiophenes, η1(S)-benzothiophene and η1(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the η1(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh3)Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O3SCF3 was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the η1(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  2. Diphenylcarbene Protected by Four ortho-Iodine Groups: An Unusually Persistent Triplet Carbene.

    Hirai, Katsuyuki; Bessho, Kana; Tsujita, Kosaku; Kitagawa, Toshikazu


    Diphenyldiazomethane with four iodine groups at the ortho positions and two tert-butyl groups at the para positions, i.e., bis(4-tert-butyl-2,6-diiodophenyl)diazomethane (1a-N₂), was synthesized as a sterically hindered triplet carbene precursor. Irradiation of 1a-N₂ in solution effectively generated the corresponding triplet diphenylcarbene ³1a, which was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy at low temperature, along with laser flash photolysis techniques at room temperature. The UV-vis spectrum of ³1a was obtained by irradiating 1a-N₂ in a 2-methyltetrahydrofuran matrix at 77 K. The ESR spectrum showed no triplet carbene signals, while a radical species was observed at the anticipated temperature of the decomposition of triplet carbene ³1a. Transient absorption bands ascribable to ³1a were observed by laser flash photolysis of 1a-N₂ in a degassed benzene solution and decayed very slowly with a second-order rate constant (2k/εl) of 5.5 × 10(-)³·s(-)¹. Steady-state irradiation of 1a-N₂ in degassed benzene afforded 9,10-diarylphenanthrene derivative 2a in a 31% yield. Triplet carbene ³1a was also trapped by either oxygen (kO2 = 6.5 × 10⁵ M(-)¹·s(-)¹) or 1,4-cyclohexadiene (kCHD = 1.5 M(-)¹·s(-)¹) to afford the corresponding ketone 1a-O or the diarylmethane 1a-H₂. The carbene was shown to be much less reactive than the triplet diphenylcarbene that is protected by two ortho-iodo and two ortho-bromo groups, ³1b.

  3. Thin films of molecular materials synthesized from fisher's carbene ferrocenyl: Film formation and electrical properties

    Sanchez-Vergara, M.E. [Coordinacion de Ingenieria Mecatronica. Escuela de Ingenieria, Universidad Anahuac del Norte. Avenida Lomas de la Anahuac s/n, Col. Lomas Anahuac, 52786, Huixquilucan (Mexico)], E-mail:; Ortiz, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. A. P. 70-360, 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Alvarez-Toledano, C.; Moreno, A. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Alvarez, J.R. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad de Mexico. Calle del Puente 222, Col. Ejidos de Huipulco, 14380, Mexico, DF (Mexico)


    The synthesis of materials from Fisher's carbene ferrocenyl of the elements chromium, molybdenum and tungsten was carried out. The Fisher's compounds that were synthesized included the following combinations of two different metallic atoms: iron with chromium, iron with molybdenum and iron with tungsten. The molecular solids' preparation was done in electro-synthesis cells with platinum electrodes. Thin films were prepared by vacuum thermal evaporation on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers. Pellets and thin films from these compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. The powder and thin films synthesized from these materials show the same intra-molecular bonds shown by infrared spectroscopy results, suggesting that thermal evaporation does not alter these bonds in spite of the thin films being amorphous, in contrast with other bimetallic complexes where material decomposition occurs. The differences in the conductivity values of the prepared films are very small, so they may be attributed to the different metallic ions employed in each case. The tungsten complex exhibits a higher conductivity than the molybdenum and chromium complexes at room temperature. Electrical conductivity values found for thin films are higher than for pellets made of the same molecular materials.

  4. Enantiopure C1-symmetric N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands from Desymmetrized meso-1,2-Diphenylethylenediamine: Application in Ruthenium-Catalyzed Olefin Metathesis

    Veronica Paradiso


    Full Text Available In order to design improved chiral ruthenium catalysts for asymmetric olefin metathesis, enantiomeric catalysts incorporating C1-symmetric N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHC ligands with syn-related substituents on the backbone were synthesized starting from meso-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. The absolute configuration of the enantiomers of the desymmetrized meso diamine was assigned by optical rotation analysis and in silico calculations, and was found to be maintained in their respective ruthenium catalysts by comparison of the relative electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra. The catalytic behaviour of the enantiomeric ruthenium complexes was investigated in model asymmetric metathesis transformations and compared to that of analogous complexes bearing C1-symmetric NHC ligands with an anti backbone. Modest enantioselectivities were registered and different catalyst properties depending on the nature of stereochemical relationship of substituents on the backbone were observed.

  5. Protic N-Heterocyclic Carbene Versus Pyrazole: Rigorous Comparison of Proton- and Electron-Donating Abilities in a Pincer-Type Framework.

    Toda, Tatsuro; Yoshinari, Akihiro; Ikariya, Takao; Kuwata, Shigeki


    Evaluation of the acidity of proton-responsive ligands such as protic N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) bearing an NH-wingtip provides a key to understanding the metal-ligand cooperation in enzymatic and artificial catalysis. Here, we design a CNN pincer-type ruthenium complex 2 bearing protic NHC and isoelectronic pyrazole units in a symmetrical skeleton, to compare their acidities and electron-donating abilities. The synthesis is achieved by direct C-H metalation of 2-(imidazol-1-yl)-6-(pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine with [RuCl2 (PPh3 )3 ]. (15) N-Labeling experiments confirm that deprotonation of 2 occurs first at the pyrazole side, indicating clearly that the protic pyrazole is more acidic than the NHC group. The electrochemical measurements as well as derivatization to carbonyl complexes demonstrate that the protic NHC is more electron-donating than pyrazole in both protonated and deprotonated forms.

  6. Non-covalent interactions at bis(pyrazole)silver(i) or -gold(i) cations.

    García-Pacios, Vanesa; Arroyo, Marta; Antón, Noelia; Miguel, Daniel; Villafañe, Fernando


    The reaction of AgBF(4) with two equivalents of pzH (pyrazole) or dmpzH (3,5-dimethylpyrazole) leads to [Ag(pzH)(2)]BF(4) or [Ag(dmpzH)(2)]BF(4). The reaction of [AuCl(tht)] with an equimolar amount of dmpzH in refluxing hexane leads to [Au(dmpzH)(2)][AuCl(2)]. Similar complexes [Au(dmpzH)(2)]A (A = BF(4) or NO(3)) are obtained from [AuCl(tht)], two equivalents of dmpzH, and AgBF(4) or AgNO(3). The complexes [Ag(dmpzH)(2)]BF(4) and [Au(dmpzH)(2)]A (A = [AuCl(2)], BF(4) or NO(3)) crystallize as ionic pairs where the NH groups of the pyrazoles are involved in short cation-anion interactions. The nitrate complex crystallizes as a dimer, where both molecules are supported by pi-stacking interactions between the pyrazole rings. The crystal structure of [Ag(pzH)(2)]BF(4) reveals a three dimensional array of cations and anions. In solution, [Ag(pzH)(2)]BF(4) and [Ag(dmpzH)(2)]BF(4) undergo intermolecular processes involving pyrazole decoordination, and behave as 1/1 electrolytes; whereas dimethylpyrazole gold complexes do not display any dynamic behavior, and show cation-anion association also in solution.

  7. Singlet-triplet gaps in substituted carbenes predicted from block-correlated coupled cluster method

    SHEN Jun; FANG Tao; LI Shuhua


    Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, ChinaThe block correlated coupled cluster (BCCC) method, with the complete active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) reference function, has been applied to investigating the singlet-triplet gaps in several substituted carbenes including four halocarbenes (CHCl, CF2, CCl2, and CBr2) and two hydroxycar-bones (CHOH and C(OH)2). A comparison of our results with the experimental data and other theoretical estimates shows that the present approach can provide quantitative descriptions for all the studied carbenes. It is demonstrated that the CAS-BCCC method is a promising theoretical tool for calculating the electronic structures of diradicals.

  8. A simple route to phosphamethine cyanines from S,N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Binder, Justin F; Corrente, Andrea M; Macdonald, Charles L B


    Although salts of thiazolium cations are known, many readily prepared iodide salts have eluded spectroscopic and structural characterization; herein, data for a variety of such salts are reported. It has been demonstrated that thiazolium cations can be deprotonated to generate S,N-heterocyclic carbenes and their "electron rich olefin" dimers, but use of the former has been largely overshadowed by that of the more common N-heterocyclic carbenes. We report herein that the deprotonation of thiazolium iodides and their subsequent reaction with a conveniently prepared triphosphenium precursor grants phosphamethine cyanine cations with solid-state geometry and electronic structure unlike those of NHC-stabilized cations. Protection of the phosphorus atom in such ions with elemental sulfur provides an air- and moisture-stable dithiophosphinium salt.

  9. Theoretical Study on the Mechanism of the Cycloaddition Reaction between Alkylidene Carbene and Ethylene

    LU,Xiu-Hui(卢秀慧); ZHAI,Li-Min(翟利民); WU,Wei-Rong(武卫荣)


    The mechanism of cycloaddition reaction between singlet alkylidene carbene and ethylene has been investigated with second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). By using 6-31G* basis , geometry optimization, vibrational analysis and energetics have been calculated for the involved stationary points on the potential energy surface. The results show that the title reaction has two major competition channels. An energy-rich intermediate (INT) is firstly formed between alkylidene carbene and ethylene through a barrier-free exothermic reaction of 63.62 kJ/mol, and the intermediate then isomerizes to a three-membered ring product (P1) and a four-memberd ring product (P2) via transition state TS1 and TS2, in which energy barriers are 47.00 and 51.02 kJ/mol, respectively. P1 is the main product.

  10. Recent advances in N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC-catalysed benzoin reactions

    Rajeev S. Menon


    Full Text Available N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs have emerged as a powerful class of organocatalysts that mediate a variety of organic transformations. The Benzoin reaction constitutes one of the earliest known carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions catalysed by NHCs. The rapid growth of NHC catalysis in general has resulted in the development of a variety of benzoin and benzoin-type reactions. An overview of such NHC-catalysed benzoin reactions is presented.

  11. Towards New Generations of Metathesis Metal-Carbene Pre-catalysts

    Allaert, Bart; Dieltiens, Nicolai; Stevens, Chris; Drozdzak, Renata; Dragutan, Ileana; Dragutan, Valerian; Verpoort, Francis

    : A short general introduction combined with some historical milestones in the field of olefin metathesis is presented followed by an overview of recent representatives of metal carbene initiators. This paper attempts to relief the many superb contributions and overwhelming work invested in intelligent design and innovative synthesis in this area. Despites of recent advances there is still a great interest in the generation of new, better performing, and more environment friendly metathesis.

  12. SNAr-Derived Decomposition By-products Involving Pentafluorophenyl Triazolium Carbenes.

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Glover, Garrett S; Oberg, Kevin M; Dalton, Derek M; Rovis, Tomislav


    Pentafluorophenyl triazolium carbenes, widely used in NHC-catalysis, can decompose by several mechanisms. Under high concentration conditions, the azolium may undergo a pentafluorophenyl exchange by a proposed SNAr mechanism to give an inactive salt. In the presence of appropriate substrates, cyclization on the ortho-position of the arene can occur, also by SNAr. These adducts provide a potential pathway for catalyst decomposition and serve as a caveat to the development of new reactions and catalysts.

  13. Reduction of the Work Function of Gold by N-Heterocyclic Carbenes

    Kim, Hye Kyung


    N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) bind strongly to gold and other metals. This work experimentally probes the effect of NHCs on the work function (WF) of gold for the first time, theoretically analyzes the origin of this effect, and examines the effectiveness of NHC-modified gold as an electron-injecting electrode. UV photoelectron spectroscopy shows the WF of planar gold is reduced by nearly 2 eV to values of 3.3–3.5 eV. This effect is seen for NHCs with various heterocyclic cores, and with either small or large N,N′-substituents. DFT calculations indicate the WF reduction results from both the interface dipole formed between the NHC and the gold and from the NHC molecular dipole. For N,N′-diisopropyl-NHCs, an important contributor to the former is charge transfer associated with coordination of the carbene carbon atom to gold. In contrast, the carbene carbon of N,N′-2,6-diisopropylphenyl-NHCs is not covalently bound to gold, resulting in a lower interface dipole; however, a larger molecular dipole partially compensates for this. Single-layer C60 diodes with NHC-modified gold as the bottom electrode demonstrate high rectification ratios and show that these electrodes can act as effective electron-injecting contacts, suggesting they may be useful for a variety of materials applications.

  14. Protonolysis and thermolysis reactions of functionalised NHC-carbene boranes and borates.

    Arnold, Polly L; Bell, Nicola L; Marr, Isobel H; She, Siyi; Hamilton, Jonathan; Fraser, Craig; Wang, Kai


    A set of β-ketoimidazolium and β-ketoimidazolinium salts of the general formula [R(1)C(O)CH2{CH[NCR(3)CR(3)N(R(2))]}]X (R(1) = (t)Bu, naphth; R(2) = (i)Pr, Mes, (t)Bu; R(3) = H, Me, (H)2; X = Cl, Br) show contrasting reactivity with superhydride bases MHBEt3; two are reduced to chiral β-alcohol carbene-boranes R(1)CH(OH)CH2{C(BEt3)[NCR(3)CR(3)N(R(2))]} 2 (R(1) = (t)Bu; R(2) = (i)Pr, Mes; R(3) = H), two with bulky R(2) substituents are reduced to chiral β-borate imidazolium salts [R(1)CH(OBEt3)CH2{CH[NCR(3)CR(3)N(R(2))]}]X 3 (R(1) = (t)Bu, naphth; R(2) = Mes, (t)Bu; R(3) = H, Me; X = Cl, Br), and the two saturated heterocycle derivatives remain unreduced but form carbene-borane adducts R(1)C(O)CH2{C(BEt3)[NCR(3)CR(3)N(R(2))]} 4 (R(1) = (t)Bu, naphth; R(2) = Mes; R(3) = (H)2). Heating solutions of the imidazolium borates 3 results in the elimination of ethane, in the first example of organic borates functioning as Brønsted bases and forming carbene boranes R(1)CH(OBEt2)CH2{C[NCR(3)CR(3)N(R(2))]} 5 (R(1) = naphth; R(2) = Mes; R(3) = Me). The 'abnormal' carbene borane of the form 2 R(1)CH(OH)CH2{CH[NC(BEt3)CR(3)N(R(2))]} (R(1) = (t)Bu; R(2) = (t)Bu; R(3) = H), is also accessible by thermolysis of 3, suggesting that the carbene-borane alcohol is a more thermodynamically stable combination than the zwitterionic imidazolium borate. High-temperature thermolysis also can result in complete cleavage of the alcohol arm, eliminating tert-butyloxirane and forming the B-N bound imidazolium borate 7. The strong dependence of reaction products on the steric and electronic properties of each imidazole precursor molecule is discussed.

  15. Synthesis of a Benzodiazepine-derived Rhodium NHC Complex by C-H Bond Activation

    Bergman, Roberg G.; Gribble, Jr., Michael W.; Ellman, Jonathan A.


    The synthesis and characterization of a Rh(I)-NHC complex generated by C-H activation of 1,4-benzodiazepine heterocycle are reported. This complex constitutes a rare example of a carbene tautomer of a 1,4-benzodiazepine aldimine stabilized by transition metal coordination and demonstrates the ability of the catalytically relevant RhCl(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2} fragment to induce NHC-forming tautomerization of heterocycles possessing a single carbene-stabilizing heteroatom. Implications for the synthesis of benzodiazepines and related pharmacophores via C-H functionalization are discussed.

  16. Reactivity of NHC Alane Adducts towards N-Heterocyclic Carbenes and Cyclic (Alkyl)(amino)carbenes: Ring Expansion, Ring Opening, and Al-H Bond Activation.

    Schneider, Heidi; Hock, Andreas; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Radius, Udo


    The synthesis of mono-NHC alane adducts of the type (NHC)⋅AlH3 (NHC=Me2 Im (1), Me2 Im(Me) (2), iPr2 Im (3 and [D3 ]-3), iPr2 Im(Me) (4), Dipp2 Im (10); Im=imidazolin-2-ylidene, Dipp=2,6-diisopropylphenyl) and (NHC)⋅AliBu2 H (NHC=iPr2 Im (11), Dipp2 Im (12)) as well as their reactivity towards different types of carbenes is presented. Although the mono-NHC adducts remained stable at elevated temperatures, ring expansion occurred when (iPr2 Im)⋅AlH3 (3) was treated with a second equivalent of the carbene iPr2 Im to give (iPr2 Im)⋅AlH(RER-iPr2 ImH2 ) (6). In 6, {(iPr2 Im}AlH} is inserted into the NHC ring. In contrast, ring opening was observed with the sterically more demanding Dipp2 Im with the formation of (iPr2 Im)⋅AlH2 (ROR-Dipp2 ImH2 )H2 Al⋅(iPr2 Im) (9). In 9, two {(iPr2 Im)⋅AlH2 } moieties stabilize the ring-opened Dipp2 Im. If two hydridic sites are blocked, the adducts are stable with respect to further ring expansion or ring opening, as exemplified by the adducts (iPr2 Im)⋅AliBu2 H (11) and (Dipp2 Im)⋅AliBu2 H (12). The adducts (NHC)⋅AlH3 and (iPr2 Im)⋅AliBu2 H reacted with cAAC(Me) by insertion of the carbene carbon atom into the Al-H bond to give (NHC)⋅AlH2 /iBu2 (cAAC(Me) H) (13-18) instead of ligand substitution, ring-expansion, or ring-opened products. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Catalytic Behavior of 1-Ethyl-3-benyl-imidazolyl Tetranuclear N-Heterocyclic Carbene Silver Bromide

    WANG Zhi-Guo; SU Zhi-Xian; BIAN Qing-Quan; LIU Si-Man; LIU Ting


    The title complex [Ag(carbene)2]2[Ag2Br4] has been synthesized by the reaction of Ag2O with 1-ethyl-3-benyl-imidazolium bromide in DMSO at room temperature, and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It crystallizes in triclinic, space group P with a = 10.1597(10), b =11.0646(11), c = 13.0245(14) , α = 102.230(2), β = 90.606, γ = 113.9250(10)o, V = 1300.3(2) 3, Mr = 748.06, Z = 2, Dc = 1.911 g/cm3, μ(MoKα) = 4.60 mm-1 and F(000) = 728. The structure was refined to R = 0.0316 and wR = 0.0835 for 3744 observed reflections with I 〉 2σ(I). The title compound crystallizes as a centrosymmetric tetranuclear compound. One half of the molecule comprises the asymmetric unit of the structure. The Ag(1) atom is nearly linear or T-shaped when the Ag(1)-Ag(2) interaction is taken into consideration, which is bi-coordinated by two carbene carbon atoms. The Ag(2) atom adopts tetrahedral geometry. The catalytic behavior of the title complex has been investigated, and the results indicate it has a highly catalytic activation for L-lactide polymerization.

  18. N-Heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a powerful tool in organic synthesis

    Rob De Vreese


    Full Text Available The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones as valuable scaffolds in heterocyclic chemistry. This Commentary will briefly highlight the concept of N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a new and powerful methodology in organic chemistry.

  19. N-Heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a powerful tool in organic synthesis

    De Vreese, Rob


    Summary The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones as valuable scaffolds in heterocyclic chemistry. This Commentary will briefly highlight the concept of N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a new and powerful methodology in organic chemistry. PMID:22509208

  20. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalysed Diastereoselective Vinylogous Michael Addition Reaction of gamma-Substituted deconjugated Butenolides

    Guo, Hao


    An efficient N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalysed vinylogous Michael addition of deconjugated butenolides was developed. In the presence of 5 mol% of the NHC catalyst, both γ-alkyl and aryl-substituted deconjugated butenolides undergo vinylogous Michael addition with various α, β-unsaturated ketones, esters, or nitriles to afford γ,γ-disubstituted butenolides containing adjacent quaternary and tertiary carbon centers in good to excellent yields with excellent diastereoselectivities. In this process, the free carbene is assumed to act as a strong Brønsted base to promote the conjugate addition.

  1. Water-soluble IrIII N-heterocyclic carbene based catalysts for the reduction of CO2 to formate by transfer hydrogenation and the deuteration of aryl amines in water.

    Azua, Arturo; Sanz, Sergio; Peris, Eduardo


    Two new water-soluble [IrI(2)(AcO)(bis-NHC)] complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) incorporating a sulfonate functionality have been synthesized. The two complexes have been tested in the reduction of CO(2) with H(2) and iPrOH, and their activity has been compared with similar species without the sulfonate moiety. In both reactions, the complex with the two abnormally bound NHCs shows the best catalytic efficiencies, due to the higher σ-electron-donor character of the ligand. Remarkably, the activities obtained for the reduction of CO(2) under the transfer hydrogenation conditions are the best reported to date in terms of TON value (max. TON=2700). The two new complexes have also shown very good activity in the selective deuteration of arylamines, a process that is known to proceed through a chelate assisted N-directed process.

  2. Unusual NHC-Iridium(I) Complexes and Their Use in the Intramolecular Hydroamination of Unactivated Aminoalkenes

    Sipos, Gellért


    N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands with naphthyl side chains were employed for the synthesis of unsaturated, yet isolable [(NHC)Ir(cod)]+ (cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene) complexes. These compounds are stabilised by an interaction of the aromatic wingtip that leads to a sideways tilt of the NHC-Ir bond. Detailed studies show how the tilting of such N-heterocyclic carbenes affects the electronic shielding properties of the carbene carbon atom and how this is reflected by significant upfield shifts in the 13CNMR signals. When employed in the intramolecular hydroamination, these [(NHC)Ir(cod)]+ species show very high catalytic activity under mild reaction conditions. An enantiopure version of the catalyst system produces pyrrolidines with excellent enantioselectivities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis of cyclic carbonates from diols and CO2 catalyzed by carbenes.

    Bobbink, Felix D; Gruszka, Weronika; Hulla, Martin; Das, Shoubhik; Dyson, Paul J


    The synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and CO2 is a well-established reaction, whereas the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from diols and CO2 is considerably more challenging, and few efficient catalysts are available. Here, we describe heterocyclic carbene catalysts, including one derived from a cheap and efficient thiazolium salt, for this latter reaction. The reaction proceeds at atmospheric pressure in the presence of an alkyl halide and Cs2CO3. Reaction mechanisms for the transformations involved are also proposed.

  4. Enantioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Carbene Insertion into the N-H Bonds of Aromatic Heterocycles.

    Arredondo, Vanessa; Hiew, Stanley C; Gutman, Eugene S; Premachandra, Ilandari Dewage Udara Anulal; Van Vranken, David L


    C3-substituted indoles and carbazoles react with α-aryl-α-diazoesters under palladium catalysis to form α-(N-indolyl)-α-arylesters and α-(N-carbazolyl)-α-arylesters. The products result from insertion of a palladium-carbene ligand into the N-H bond of the aromatic N-heterocycles. Enantioselection was achieved using a chiral bis(oxazoline) ligand, in many cases with high enantioselectivity (up to 99 % ee). The method was applied to synthesize the core of a bioactive carbazole derivative in a concise manner.

  5. Electronic spectra of linear HC$_5$H and cumulene carbene H$_2$C$_5$

    Steglich, M; Maity, S; Nagy, A; Maier, J P


    The $1 ^3\\Sigma_u^- \\leftarrow X^3\\Sigma_g^-$ transition of linear HC$_5$H (A) has been observed in a neon matrix and gas phase. The assignment is based on mass-selective experiments, extrapolation of previous results of the longer HC$_{2n+1}$H homologues, and density functional and multi-state CASPT2 theoretical methods. Another band system starting at 303 nm in neon is assigned as the $1 ^1 A_1 \\leftarrow X ^1 A_1$ transition of the cumulene carbene pentatetraenylidene H$_2$C$_5$ (B).

  6. Mechanistic Investigation of the Ruthenium–N-Heterocyclic-Carbene-Catalyzed Amidation of Alcohols and Amines

    Makarov, Ilya; Fristrup, Peter; Madsen, Robert


    The mechanism of the ruthenium–N-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed formation of amides from alcohols and amines was investigated by experimental techniques (Hammett studies, kinetic isotope effects) and by a computational study by using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT/ M06...... by the characterization of a plausible catalytic cycle by using DFT/M06. Both cisdihydride and trans-dihydride intermediates were considered, but when the theoretical turnover frequencies (TOFs) were derived directly from the calculated DFT/M06 energies, we found that only the trans-dihydride pathway was in agreement...

  7. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed [2+2+2] Annulation of Allenoates with Trifluoromethylketones%N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed [2+2+2] Annulation of Allenoates with Trifluoromethylketones

    孙利辉; 王统; 叶松


    In contrast with the reported phosphine- and DABCO-catalyzed [3 + 2] and [2 +2] annulation of allenoates with trifluoromethylketone, the [2+2+2] annulation of allenoates and two molecules of trifluoromethylketone was found under the condition of N-heterocyclic carbene catalysis.

  8. N-Heterocyclic-Carbene-Catalysed Diastereoselective Vinylogous Mukaiyama/Michael Reaction of 2-(Trimethylsilyloxy)furan and Enones

    Wang, Ying


    N-heterocyclic carbenes have been utilised as highly efficient nucleophilic organocatalysts to mediate vinylogous Mukaiyama/Michael reactions of 2-(trimethylsilyloxy)furan with enones to afford γ-substituted butenolides in 44-99% yield with 3:1-32:1 diastereoselectivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Optimized Syntheses of Cyclopentadienyl Nickel Chloride Compounds Containing "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands for Short Laboratory Periods

    Cooke, Jason; Lightbody, Owen C.


    Experiments are described for the preparation of imidazolium chloride precursors to "N"-heterocyclic carbenes and their cyclopentadienyl nickel chloride derivatives. The syntheses have been optimized for second- and third-year undergraduate laboratories that have a maximum programmed length of three hours per week. The experiments are flexible and…

  10. Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed synthesis of saccharine-derived dihydropyridinones with cis-selectivity.

    Liang, Zhi-Qin; Wang, Dong-Ling; Zhang, Chun-Lin; Ye, Song


    The enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [2 + 4] cyclocondensation of α-chloroaldehydes and saccharine-derived 1-azadienes was developed, giving the corresponding saccharine-derived dihydropyridinones in good yields with exclusive cis-selectivities and excellent enantioselectivities.

  11. Surface Characterization and in situ Protein Adsorption Studies on Carbene-Modified Polymers.

    Nelson, Geoffrey W; Parker, Emily M; Singh, Kulveer; Blanford, Christopher F; Moloney, Mark G; Foord, John S


    Polystyrene thin films were functionalized using a facile two-step chemical protocol involving carbene insertion followed by azo-coupling, permitting the introduction of a range of chemical functional groups, including aniline, hexyl, amine, carboxyl, phenyl, phosphonate diester, and ethylene glycol. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the success of the two-step chemical modification with a grafting density of at least 1/10th of the typical loading density (10(14)-10(15)) of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). In situ, real-time quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) studies show that the dynamics of binding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) are different at each modified surface. Mass, viscoelastic, and kinetic data were analyzed, and compared to cheminformatic descriptors (i.e., c log P, polar surface area) typically used for drug discovery. Results show that functionalities may either resist or adsorb BSA, and uniquely influence its adsorption dynamics. It is concluded that carbene-based surface modification can usefully influence BSA binding dynamics in a manner consistent with, and more robust than, traditional systems based on SAM chemistry.

  12. Theoretical study on the mechanism of cycloaddition between dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone

    LU Xiuhui; WU Weirong; YU Haibin; XU Yuehua


    The mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction of singlet dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone has been studied by using second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation and density functional theory. The geometrical parameters, harmonic vibrational frequencies and energy of stationary points on the potential energy surface are calculated by MP2/6-31G* and B3LYP/6-31G* methods. The results show that path b of the cycloaddition reaction (1) would be the major reactive channel of the cycloaddition reaction between singlet dimethyl methylene carbene and acetone, which proceeds in two steps: i) The two reactants form an energy-rich intermediate (INT1b), which is an exothermic reaction of 23.3 kJ/mol with no energy barrier. ii) The intermediate INT1b isomerizes to a three-membered ring product (P1) via transition state TS1b with energy barrier of 22.2 kJ/mol. The reaction rate of this reaction and its competitive reactions do greatly differ, with excellent selectivity. In view of dynamics and thermodynamics, this reaction is suitable for occurring at 1 atm and temperature range of 300―800 K, in which the reaction will have not only the larger spontaneous tendency and equilibrium constant but also the faster reaction rate.

  13. Group 4 Transition-Metal Complexes of an Aniline–Carbene–Phenol Ligand

    Despagnet-Ayoub, Emmanuelle


    Attempts to install a tridentate aniline-NHC-phenol (NCO) ligand on titanium and zirconium led instead to complexes resulting from unexpected rearrangement pathways that illustrate common behavior in carbene-early- transition-metal chemistry. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Methylation of secondary amines with dialkyl carbonates and hydrosilanes catalysed by iron complexes.

    Zheng, Jianxia; Darcel, Christophe; Sortais, Jean-Baptiste


    Methylation of secondary amines was achieved using dimethyl carbonate or diethyl carbonate as the C1 source under the catalysis of well-defined half-sandwich iron complexes bearing an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand. The reaction proceeded under mild conditions in the presence of hydrosilanes as the reductants, and the amines were obtained with good to excellent isolated yields.

  15. A simple access to transition metal cyclopropenylidene complexes

    Bidal, Yannick Daniel; Lesieur, Mathieu; Melaimi, Mohand; Cordes, David Bradford; Slawin, Alexandra Martha Zoya; Bertrand, Guy; Cazin, Catherine S. J.


    The authors gratefully acknowledge the Royal Society (University Research Fellowship to CSJC) and the DOE (DE-FG02-13ER16370) for financial support. We report the first example of BAC–Cu complex (BAC = bis(diisopropylamino)cyclopropenylidene) and its use as a carbene-transfer reagent, allowing access to Au–, Pd–, Ir– and Rh–BAC compounds. Catalytic experiments show the high activity of the [CuCl(BAC)] complex in Click chemistry. Postprint Peer reviewed

  16. Antiproliferative effect of gold(I compound auranofin through inhibition of STAT3 and telomerase activity in MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer cells

    Nam-Hoon Kim


    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 andtelomerase are considered attractive targets for anticancertherapy. The in vitro anticancer activity of the gold(I compoundauranofin was investigated using MDA-MB 231 human breastcancer cells, in which STAT3 is constitutively active. In cellculture, auranofin inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner,and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, a scavenger of reactive oxygenspecies (ROS, markedly blocked the effect of auranofin.Incorporation of 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine into DNA andanchorage-independent cell growth on soft agar were decreasedby auranofin treatment. STAT3 phosphorylation and telomeraseactivity were also attenuated in cells exposed to auranofin, butNAC pretreatment restored STAT3 phosphorylation andtelomerase activity in these cells. These findings indicate thatauranofin exerts in vitro antitumor effects in MDA-MB 231 cellsand its activity involves inhibition of STAT3 and telomerase.Thus, auranofin shows potential as a novel anticancer drug thattargets STAT3 and telomerase. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(1: 59-64

  17. Variation of the Sterical Properties of the N-Heterocyclic Carbene Coligand in Thermally Triggerable Ruthenium-Based Olefin Metathesis Precatalysts/Initiators

    Pump, Eva


    A series of ruthenium complexes based on the κ(C,N)-(2-(benzo[h]quinolin-10-yl)methylidene ruthenium dichloride fragment featuring different neutral coligands L (L = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene (SIPr), 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene (SIMes), 1,3-bis(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene (SIXyl), and 1,3-bis(2-methylphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene (SITol)) was prepared, characterized, and tested in the thermally induced ring-opening metathesis polymerization of dicyclopentadiene. In addition, the corresponding tricyclohexylphosphine derivative was investigated for comparison. All compounds were isolated as their trans-dichloro isomers. NMR spectroscopic features as well as structural features are, particularly within the NHC-bearing complexes, very similar, but their polymerization activity at elevated temperatures is distinctly different. While the SIMes derivative shows the desired properties, i.e., latency at room temperature and pronounced polymerization activity at elevated temperature, all other preinitiators do not. The preinitiator featuring the SIPr coligand is the most latent one, needing temperatures > 140 °C to show moderate activity in the polymerization of dicyclopentadiene. Compounds bearing the smaller N-heterocyclic carbene congeners are stable and latent at room temperature, but decompose upon heating, diminishing the polymerization activity at elevated temperatures. Density functional calculations show that the SIMes derivative is the easiest to activate and yields the most stable 14-electron intermediate. Finally calculations reveal a distinct influence of the nature of the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand on the position of the equilibrium of cis- and trans-dichloro isomers of the complexes. While the SIPr and the SIMes derivatives prefer the cis-configuration, all other derivatives favor, at least in solvents with low dielectric constants, the trans

  18. A golden future in medicinal inorganic chemistry: the promise of anticancer gold organometallic compounds.

    Bertrand, Benoît; Casini, Angela


    From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold coordination compounds. In fact, several studies have proved that they can be used to develop highly efficient metal-based drugs with possible applications in the treatment of cancer. This Perspective summarizes the results obtained for different families of bioactive organometallic gold compounds including cyclometallated gold(iii) complexes with C,N-donor ligands, gold(I) and gold(I/III) N-heterocyclic (NHC) carbene complexes, as well as gold(I) alkynyl complexes, with promising anticancer effects. Most importantly, we will focus on recent developments in the field and discuss the potential of this class of organometallic compounds in relation to their versatile chemistry and innovative mechanisms of action.

  19. On the behaviour of biradicaloid [P(μ-NTer)]2 towards Lewis acids and bases.

    Hinz, Alexander; Schulz, Axel; Villinger, Alexander


    The well-known diphosphadiazane-1,3-diyl [P(μ-NTer)]2 (Ter = 2,6-bis(2,4,6-trimethyl-phenyl)-phenyl) was treated with Lewis bases such as N-heterocyclic carbenes and Lewis acids e.g. gold(i) chloride complexes. In the reaction with the Lewis base, fragmentation of the P2N2 framework was observed, yielding a salt of the type [(NHC)2P](+)[(TerN)2P](-) in a clean reaction. The reaction of [P(μ-NTer)]2 with gold(i) chloride afforded 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes. The dinuclear complex [(ClAu)2P(μ-NTer)2P] displays a bridging P atom between both gold centers, as has been observed for P based zwitterions.

  20. Complexity

    Gershenson, Carlos


    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  1. Ruthenium Carbene Mediated Metathesis of Oleate-Type Fatty Compounds

    Manie H. C. Vosloo


    Full Text Available The complexes RuCl2(PCy32(=CHPh, 1, and RuCl2(PCy3(H2IMes(=CHPh, 2, proved to be active catalysts for the self-metathesis of oleate-type fatty compounds containing the ester, hydroxyl, epoxy and carboxylic acid functional groups. At elevated reaction temperatures 2 showed a higher activity, stability and lower selectivity for primary metathesis products compared to 1. A profound influence of organic functional groups on catalyst activity and selectivity was found and from relative activities and selectivities 2 has proved to be more resistant to deactivation by polar functional groups and more inclined to promote double bond isomerisation than 1. The observed catalyst deactivation by oxygen-containing functional groups could be attributed to a phosphine displacement side reaction.

  2. Synthesis of cis - and trans-diisothiocyanato-bis(NHC) complexes of nickel(II) and applications in the Kumada-Corriu reaction

    Jothibasu, Ramasamy


    Metathetical reaction of AgSCN with a series of trans-dihalido-bis(carbene) nickel(II) complexes in CH3CN readily afforded the novel diisothiocyanato-bis(carbene) complexes [Ni(NCS)2(NHC)2] (trans-2a, NHC = 1,3-diisopropylbenzimidazolin-2-ylidene; trans-2b, NHC = 1,3-diisobutylbenzimidazolin-2-ylidene; trans-2c, NHC = 1,3- dibenzylbenzimidazolin-2-ylidene; cis-2d, NHC = 1,3-di(2-propenyl) benzimidazolin-2-ylidene; cis-2e, NHC = 1-propyl-3-methylbenzimidazolin-2- ylidene) as greenish-yellow powders in moderate to good yields. While dihalido-bis(carbene) Ni(II) complexes exclusively form trans-complexes, a trans-cis isomerization occurs upon halido-isothiocyanato exchange with complexes bearing less bulky carbene ligands, i.e., cis-2d/e. DFT calculations indicated that this isomerization can be attributed to a reduced energy difference between trans- and cis-isomers of diisothiocyanato complexes. All complexes have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. A catalytic study revealed that cis-complexes generally exhibit greater activities in the Kumada-Corriu coupling reaction. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Complex


    Schiff bases and their complex compounds have been studied for their .... establishing coordination of the N–(2 – hydroxybenzyl) - L - α - valine Schiff base ..... (1967); “Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic Compounds”, Willey, New.

  4. A stable dimer of SiS2 arranged between two carbene molecules.

    Mohapatra, Chandrajeet; Mondal, Kartik Chandra; Samuel, Prinson P; Keil, Helena; Niepötter, Benedikt; Herbst-Irmer, Regine; Stalke, Dietmar; Dutta, Sayan; Koley, Debasis; Roesky, Herbert W


    The Me-cAAC:-stabilized dimer of silicon disulfide (SiS2 ) has been isolated in the molecular form as (Me-cAAC:)2 Si2 S4 (2) at room temperature [Me-cAAC:=cyclic alkyl(amino) carbene]. Compound 2 has been synthesized from the reaction of (Me-cAAC:)2 Si2 with elemental sulfur in a 1:4 molar ratio under oxidative addition. This is the smallest molecular unit of silicon disulfide characterized by X-ray crystallography, electron ionization mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy. Structures with three sulfur atoms arranged around a silicon atom are known; however, 2 is the first structurally characterized silicon-sulfur compound containing one terminal and two bridging sulfur atoms at each silicon atom. Compound 2 shows no decomposition after storing for three months in an inert atmosphere at ambient temperature. The bonding of 2 has been further studied by theoretical calculations.

  5. Proton-transfer polymerization (HTP): converting methacrylates to polyesters by an N-heterocyclic carbene.

    Hong, Miao; Chen, Eugene Y-X


    A new polymerization termed proton (H)-transfer polymerization (HTP) has been developed to convert dimethacrylates to unsaturated polyesters. HTP is catalyzed by a selective N-heterocyclic carbene capable of promoting intermolecular Umpolung condensation through proton transfer and proceeds through the step-growth propagation cycles via enamine intermediates. The role of the added suitable phenol, which is critical for achieving an effective HTP, is twofold: shutting down the radically induced chain-growth addition polymerization under HTP conditions (typically at 80-120 °C) and facilitating proton transfer after each monomer enchainment. The resulting unsaturated polyesters have a high thermal stability and can be readily cross-linked to robust polyester materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Intramolecular C-N bond activation and ring-expansion reactions of N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Hemberger, Patrick; Bodi, Andras; Berthel, Johannes H J; Radius, Udo


    Intramolecular ring-expansion reactions (RER) of the N-heterocyclic carbene 1,3-dimethylimidazolin-2-ylidene were observed upon vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoexcitation. Similarly to RERs reported in the solvent phase, for the reaction of NHCs with main-group-element hydrides, hydrogen transfer to the NHC carbon atom is the crucial initial step. In an ionization-mediated protonation, 1,3-dimethylimidazolin-2-ylidene forms an imidazolium ion, which is the rate-limiting step on the pathway to two six-membered ring products, namely, methylpyrimidinium and -pyrazinium ions. To unravel the reaction path, we have used imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with VUV synchrotron radiation, as well as high-level composite method calculations. Similarities and differences between the mechanism in the gas phase and in the condensed phase are discussed.

  7. 2-Azidoimidazolium Ions Captured by N-Heterocyclic Carbenes: Azole-Substituted Triazatrimethine Cyanines

    Simone Haslinger


    Full Text Available 1,3-Disubstituted 2-azidoimidazolium salts (substituents = methyl, methoxy; anion = PF6 reacted with N-heterocyclic carbenes to yield yellow 2-(1-(azolinylidenetriazen-3-yl-1,3-R2-imidazolium salts (azole = 1,3-dimethylimidazole, 1,3-dimethoxyimidazole, 4-dimethylamino-1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole; R = methyl, methoxy; anion = PF6. Crystal structures of three cationic triazenes were determined. Numerous interionic C–H···F contacts were observed. Solvatochromism of the triazenes in polar solvents was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, involving the dipolarity π* and hydrogen-bond donor acidity α of the solvent. Cyclovoltammetry showed irreversible reduction of the cations to uncharged radicals. Thermoanalysis showed exothermal decomposition.

  8. Tuning and Quantifying Steric and Electronic Effects of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes

    Falivene, Laura


    This chapter states that the main handles for tuning steric and electronic effects are the substituents on N atoms, the nature of the C4-C5 bridge (either saturated or unsaturated), and the substituents on the C4 and C5 atoms. The initial intuition that steric properties of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) could be modulated and could impact catalytic behavior stimulated the development of steric descriptors to quantify the steric requirement of different NHCs and, possibly, to compare them with tertiary phosphines. NHCs can be classified as typically strong σ-basic/π-acid ligands, although they have been also shown to exhibit reasonable π-basic properties. This electronic modularity allows NHC ligands to adapt flexibly to different chemical environments represented by a transition metal and the other ligands. © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. All rights reserved.

  9. Tip-induced gating of molecular levels in carbene-based junctions

    Foti, Giuseppe; Vázquez, Héctor


    We study the conductance of N-heterocyclic carbene-based (NHC) molecules on gold by means of first-principles calculations based on density-functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s functions. We consider several tip structures and find a strong dependence of the position of the NHC molecular levels with the atomistic structure of the tip. The position of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) can change by almost 0.8 eV with tip shape. Through an analysis of the net charge transfer, electron redistribution and work function for each tip structure, we rationalize the LUMO shifts in terms of the sum of the work function and the maximum electrostatic potential arising from charge rearrangement. These differences in the LUMO position, effectively gating the molecular levels, result in large conductance variations. These findings open the way to modulating the conductance of NHC-based molecular circuits through the controlled design of the tip atomistic structure.

  10. Encoding complexity within supramolecular analogues of frustrated magnets

    Cairns, Andrew B.; Cliffe, Matthew J.; Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Daisenberger, Dominik; Tucker, Matthew G.; Coudert, François-Xavier; Goodwin, Andrew L.


    The solid phases of gold(I) and/or silver(I) cyanides are supramolecular assemblies of inorganic polymer chains in which the key structural degrees of freedom—namely, the relative vertical shifts of neighbouring chains—are mathematically equivalent to the phase angles of rotating planar (‘XY’) spins. Here, we show how the supramolecular interactions between chains can be tuned to mimic different magnetic interactions. In this way, the structures of gold(I) and/or silver(I) cyanides reflect the phase behaviour of triangular XY magnets. Complex magnetic states predicted for this family of magnets—including collective spin-vortices of relevance to data storage applications—are realized in the structural chemistry of these cyanide polymers. Our results demonstrate how chemically simple inorganic materials can behave as structural analogues of otherwise inaccessible ‘toy’ spin models and also how the theoretical understanding of those models allows control over collective (‘emergent’) phenomena in supramolecular systems.

  11. Quantum Mechanical Study of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Adsorption on Au Surfaces.

    Chang, Kuan; Chen, Jingguang G; Lu, Qi; Cheng, Mu-Jeng


    There is increasing interest in using N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as surface ligands to stabilize transition-metal nanoparticles (NPs) and to replace thiols for the preparation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold surfaces. This type of surface decoration is advantageous because it leads to improved catalytic activity of NPs and increased stability of SAM, as shown by recent experiments. In this work, we used quantum mechanics combined with periodic surface models to study the adsorption of NHCs on the Au(111) surface. We found that NHCs prefer to bind to the top site with adsorption energies (ΔEs) varying from 1.69 to 2.34 eV, depending on the type of NHC, and the inclusion of solvents in the calculations leads to insignificant variation in the calculated ΔEs. Three types of NHCs were found to bind to Au(111) more tightly and therefore should be better stabilizers than those commonly used. Importantly, by analyzing electronic structures using the Bader charge and energy decomposition analysis, we find that during adsorption NHC acts as an electron donor, transferring its electron density from the lone pair orbital at the carbene center to the empty d orbital of Au with negligible π-back-donation. This binding pattern is very different from that of CO, a ligand commonly used in organometallics, where both interactions are equally important. This leads to the identification of the protonation energies of NHCs as a descriptor for predicting ΔEs, providing a convenient method for computational high-throughput screening for better NHC-type surface ligands.

  12. Ligand Effects on the Hydrogenation of Biomass-Inspired Substrates with Bifunctional Ru, Ir, and Rh Complexes

    Jansen, E.; Jongbloed, L.S.; Tromp, D.S.; Lutz, M.; de Bruin, B.; Elsevier, C.J.


    We herein report on the application and structural investigation of a new set of complexes that contain bidentate N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and primary amine moieties of the type [M(arene)Cl(L)] [M=Ru, Ir, or Rh; arene=p-cymene or pentamethylcyclopentadienyl; L=1-(2-aminophenyl)-3-(n-alkyl)imid

  13. Chiral PEPPSI Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in Asymmetric Suzuki–Miyaura Coupling Reactions

    Benhamou, Laure


    PEPPSI complexes incorporating chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands based on 2,2-dimethyl-1-(o-substituted aryl)propan-1-amines were synthesized. Two complexes, with one saturated and one unsaturated NHC ligand, were structurally characterized. The chiral PEPPSI complexes were used in asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura reactions, giving atropisomeric biaryl products in modest to good enantiomeric ratios. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. π-face donation from the aromatic N-substituent of N-heterocyclic carbene ligands to metal and its role in catalysis

    Credendino, Raffaele


    In this work, we calculate the redox potential in a series of Ir and Ru complexes bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand presenting different Y groups in the para position of the aromatic N-substituent. The calculated redox potentials excellently correlate with the experimental ΔE 1/2 potentials, offering a handle to rationalize the experimental findings. Analysis of the HOMO of the complexes before oxidation suggests that electron-donating Y groups destabilize the metal centered HOMO. Energy decomposition of the metal-NHC interaction indicates that electron-donating Y groups reinforce this interaction in the oxidized complexes. Analysis of the electron density in the reduced and oxidized states of representative complexes indicates a clear donation from the C ipso of the N-substituents to an empty d orbital on the metal. In case of the Ru complexes, this mechanism involves the Ru-alkylidene moiety. All of these results suggest that electron-donating Y groups render the aromatic N-substituent able to donate more density to electron-deficient metals through the C ipso atom. This conclusion suggests that electron-donating Y groups could stabilize higher oxidation states during catalysis. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of differently donating Y groups in model reactions of Ru-catalyzed olefin metathesis and Pd-catalyzed C-C cross-coupling. Consistent with the experimental results, calculations indicate an easier reaction pathway if the N-substituent of the NHC ligand presents an electron-donating Y group. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Ionic Liquids as Carbene Catalyst Precursors in the One-Pot Four-Component Assembly of Oxo Triphenylhexanoates (OTHOs

    Anton Axelsson


    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs are a convenient and inexpensive source of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs. In this study, dialkyl imidazolium-based ILs are used as carbene precursors in a four-component synthesis of oxo triphenylhexanoates (OTHOs, where it was found that IL outperformed commonly used NHC precatalysts in terms of reaction efficiency. The reaction is highly stereoselective, delivering the anti-diastereomer (20:1 dr, and the OTHOs can be obtained in high-to-excellent yields. By virtue of the four-component reaction-setup, facile construction of the OTHO scaffold with a diverse set of functional groups (21 examples can be achieved. In the context of sustainability, the IL can be recovered and reused several times without affecting selectivity or yield. Moreover, most compounds can be isolated by precipitation and filtration, mitigating the use of solvent-demanding chromatography.

  16. DFT Study on Structural and Mechanical Properties of Single-walled Carbon and Boron Nitride Nanotubes Functionalized with Carbenes

    I.K. Petrushenko


    Full Text Available This paper presents quantum chemistry study on structural and mechanical properties of a series of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs functionalized with carbenes. At the PBE/SVP level, the obtained data on pristine nanotubes are in good accordance with the results of previous experimental and theoretical studies. The calculations show that carbenes functionalization, in general, distorts both SWNCTs and BNNTs frameworks, but there exists the difference between ‘axial’ and ‘circumferential’ functionalization. It turns out that in both cases elastic properties diminish with increasing concentration of adsorbents, however, the functionalized SWCNTs and BNNTs remain strong enough to be suitable for reinforcement of composites.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Tandem Carbene Migratory Insertion and Intramolecular Cyclization: Synthesis of Chromeno[4,3-b]chromene Compounds.

    Shang, Xue Song; Li, Nian Tai; Siyang, Hai Xiao; Liu, Pei Nian


    Chromeno[4,3-b]chromene is a ubiquitous structural motif found in various pharmaceuticals and biologically active compounds. A concise palladium-catalyzed reaction of vinyl iodides and salicyl N-tosylhydrazones has been achieved to afford a series of compounds containing the chromeno[4,3-b]chromene scaffold in moderate to high yield. This tandem reaction involves palladium(II) carbene migratory insertion and intramolecular cyclization assisted by an O nucleophile and tolerates various functional groups.

  18. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Vinylogous Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction of α-Keto Esters and α-Trifluoromethyl Ketones

    Du, Guang-Fen


    © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York · Synthesis 2016. N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction of ketones was developed. Under the catalysis of 5 mol% NHC, α-keto esters and α-trifluoromethyl ketones reacted with 2-(trimethysilyloxy)furan efficiently to produce γ-substituted butenolides containing adjacent quaternary and tertiary carbon centers in high yields with good diastereoselectivities.

  19. α-Imino Gold Carbenes from 1,2,4-Oxadiazoles: Atom-Economical Access to Fully Substituted 4-Aminoimidazoles.

    Zeng, Zhongyi; Jin, Hongming; Xie, Jin; Tian, Bing; Rudolph, Matthias; Rominger, Frank; Hashmi, A Stephen K


    A novel and atom-economical synthesis of fully substituted 4-aminoimidazoles via gold-catalyzed selective [3 + 2] annulation of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles with ynamides is reported. This protocol represents a new strategy to access α-imino gold carbenes, which corresponds to an unprecedented intermolecular transfer of N-acylimino nitrenes to ynamides. Moreover, the reaction proceeds with 100% atom economy, exhibits good functional group tolerance, and can be conducted in gram scale.

  20. Studies of the mechanism of the olefin metathesis reaction and the process of active site formation on photoreduced molybdenum-silicate catalysts. I. Mechanism of formation of molybdenum-carbene intermediates

    Elev, I.V.; Shelimov, B.N.; Kazanskii, V.B.


    The products of the initial stages of the reaction of ethylene and propylene with Mo/sup 4 +/ ions in photoreduced molybdenum-silicate olefin metathesis catalysts have been studied by mass spectroscopy. The reaction of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ with Mo/sup 4 +/ has been found to yield propylene, whereas interaction of C/sub 3/H/sub 6/ with Mo/sup 4 +/ gives a superequilibrium concentration of butenes and a small amount of pentenes. A significant kinetic isotope effect for the metathesis reaction was observed upon substitution of C/sub 3/H/sub 6/ by C/sub 3/D/sub 6/. The results can be interpreted in terms of a stepwise mechanism involving carbene intermediates, which are formed via isomerization of surface-bound ..pi..-complexes of olefins with Mo/sup 4 +/ ions as a result of intramolecular 1,2-H atom transfer.

  1. Unprecedented copper(I) bifluoride complexes: synthesis, characterization and reactivity.

    Vergote, Thomas; Nahra, Fady; Welle, Alexandre; Luhmer, Michel; Wouters, Johan; Mager, Nathalie; Riant, Olivier; Leyssens, Tom


    To be or not to bifluoride: Two synthetic pathways to unprecedented N-heterocyclic carbene copper(I) bifluoride complexes have been developed. Catalytic tests demonstrated that copper(I) bifluorides are very efficient catalysts, which do not require any additional activating agent. The first Cu-catalyzed diastereoselective allylation of (R)-N-tert-butanesulfinyl aldimines was also established. The method enables efficient, simple and general synthesis of enantiomerically enriched homoallylic amines at room temperature in high yields.

  2. Carbene Reactions

    Hoffmann, R. W.; Barth, W.; Carlsen, Lars


    The gas-phase thermolysis of the norbornadienespirodithiolane S-oxides (5) and (7) led to benzene, ethylene, and carbon disulphide as the major products, possibly involving carbon disulphide oxides as intermediates. Thermolyses of the related sulphones (9) or (14) led to completely different...

  3. Synthesis of isocoumarins through three-component couplings of arynes, terminal alkynes, and carbon dioxide catalyzed by an NHC-copper complex.

    Yoo, Woo-Jin; Nguyen, Thanh V Q; Kobayashi, Shū


    A copper-catalyzed multicomponent coupling reaction between in situ generated ortho-arynes, terminal alkynes, and carbon dioxide was developed to access isocoumarins in moderate to good yields. The key to this CO2-incorporating reaction was the use of a versatile N-heterocyclic carbene/copper complex that was able to catalyze multiple transformations within the three-component reaction.

  4. A Heteroleptic Ferrous Complex with Mesoionic Bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene) Ligands: Taming the MLCT Excited State of Iron(II)

    Liu, Yizhu; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Fredin, Lisa A.


    Strongly sigma-donating N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have revived research interest in the catalytic chemistry of iron, and are now also starting to bring the photochemistry and photophysics of this abundant element into a new era. In this work, a heteroleptic Fe-II complex (1) was synthesized ...

  5. Structural, photoluminescence, and theoretical DFT studies of gold(I) and silver(I) metallacycle dinuclear complexes of 1-methylbenzimidazolediphenyl phosphine (MBDP) ligand

    Jenkins, Darkus E.; Assefa, Zerihun


    The synthesis and structural characterization of the bridging ligand, 1-methyl benzimidazole diphenylphosphine (MBDP) and its coordination with Au(I) and Ag(I) metal ions is reported. Two ligands coordinate to the metal ions in head to tail fashion forming a metallacycle coordination consisting of strong M-M bonding interaction with Ausbnd Au = 2.808 and Agsbnd Ag = 3.017 Å. Linear coordination is observed for the gold, while the silver shows distorted tetrahedral arrangement. X-ray crystal data of [(MBDP)2Au2](CH3CN)(BF4)2 (2) crystallizes in the monoclinic system with the space group of P21/n with cell constants of a = 8.9993 (8) Å, b = 19.6166 (18) Å, c = 13.4484 (12) Å, β = 100.966 (2)°, R = 0.026, and Rw = 0.064. The structure of [(MBDP)2(CH3CN)4Ag2](BF4)2, (3) crystallizes in the P (-)1 space group and the unit cell is a = 10.5423 (10) Å, b = 10.7638 (10) Å, c = 12.3530 (12) Å; α = 88.592 (3)°, β = 73.097 (3)°, γ = 84.422 (3)°, V = 1334.8 (2) Å3 with Z = 1, R = 0.034 and Rw = 0.093. The coordinating ligand as well as both dinuclear compounds reported here are luminescent in the near UV region. As supported by the DFT theoretical work, the emission is suggested to be primarily ligand based π- π* transition.

  6. Fluoride, bifluoride and trifluoromethyl complexes of iridium(I) and rhodium(I).

    Truscott, Byron J; Nahra, Fady; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Cordes, David B; Nolan, Steven P


    Herein we report robust methods for the preparation and full characterisation of a range of Ir(I) and Rh(I) fluoride and bifluoride complexes using N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as ancillary ligands. The processes that link the fluoride and the bifluoride species are investigated and reports of the first Ir-bifluoride and Ir(I)-NHC and Rh(I)-NHC trifluoromethyl complexes are revealed.

  7. Synthesis of New Chiral Benzimidazolylidene–Rh Complexes and Their Application in Asymmetric Addition Reactions of Organoboronic Acids to Aldehydes

    Weiping He


    Full Text Available A series of novel chiral N-heterocyclic carbene rhodium complexes (NHC–Rh based on benzimidazole have been prepared, and all of the NHC–Rh complexes were fully characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry. These complexes could be used as catalysts for the asymmetric 1,2-addition of organoboronic acids to aldehydes, affording chiral diarylmethanols with high yields and moderate enantioselectivities.

  8. Insertion of O-H Bond of Rh(Ⅱ)-methylene Carbene into Alcohols: A Stepwise Mechanism More Plausible than a Concerted Mechanism


    The mechanisms of insertion of O-H bond of Rh( Ⅱ ) -methylene carbene into methanol and ethanol were studied by using B3LYP functional both in gas phase and in CH2Cl2. The formation of free alcoholic oxonium ylides is found to be impossible. Alcoholic oxonium ylide are formed as the intermediates before both the stepwise and the concerted transition states of insertion of O-H bond of Rh( Ⅱ ) -methylene carbene into methanol and ethanol. With regard to the mechanisms of insertion of O-H of Rh( Ⅱ ) -methylene carbene into alcohols, analysis of the energy barriers of the two mechanisms indicate that the stepwise mechanism is more plausible than the concerted mechanism.

  9. Intramolecular Insertions into Unactivated C(sp³)-H Bonds by Oxidatively Generated β-Diketone-α-Gold Carbenes: Synthesis of Cyclopentanones.

    Wang, Youliang; Zheng, Zhitong; Zhang, Liming


    Generation of reactive α-oxo gold carbene intermediates via gold-catalyzed oxidation of alkynes has become an increasing versatile strategy of replacing hazardous diazo carbonyl compounds with benign and readily available alkynes in the development of efficient synthetic methods. However, one of the hallmarks of metal carbene/carbenoid chemistry, i.e., insertion into an unactivated C(sp(3))-H bond, has not be realized. This study reveals for the first time that this highly valuable transformation can be readily realized intramolecularly by oxidatively generated β-diketone-α-gold carbenes using ynones as substrates. Substrate conformation control via the Thorpe-Ingold effect is the key design feature that enables generally good to excellent efficiencies, and synthetically versatile cyclopentanones including spiro-, bridged, and fused bicyclic ones can be readily accessed.

  10. Carbene supported dimer of heavier ketenimine analogue with p and si atoms.

    Roy, Sudipta; Dittrich, Birger; Mondal, Totan; Koley, Debasis; Stückl, A Claudia; Schwederski, Brigitte; Kaim, Wolfgang; John, Michael; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Linser, Rasmus; Roesky, Herbert W


    A cyclic alkyl(amino) carbene (cAAC) stabilized dimer [(cAAC)Si(P-Tip)]2 (2) (Tip = 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl) is reported. 2 can be considered as a dimer of the heavier ketenimine (R2C═C═N-R) analogue. The dark-red rod-shaped crystals of 2 were synthesized by reduction of the precursor, cAAC-dichlorosilylene-stabilized phosphinidene (cAAC)SiCl2→P-Tip with sodium napthalenide. The crystals of 2 are storable at room temperature for several months and stable up to 215 °C under an inert atmosphere. X-ray single-crystal diffraction revealed that 2 contains a cyclic nonplanar four-membered SiPSiP ring. Magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the singlet spin ground state of 2. Cyclic voltammetry of 2 showed a quasi-reversible one-electron reduction indicating the formation of the corresponding radical anion 2(•-), which was further characterized by EPR measurements in solution. The electronic structure and bonding of 2 and 2(•-) were studied by theoretical calculations. The experimentally obtained data are in good agreement with the calculated values.

  11. Theoretical study of N-heterocyclic carbenes-catalyzed cascade annulation of benzodienones and enals.

    Sun, Hui; Fang, Xinqiang; Chi, Yonggui Robin; Li, Guohui


    Growing attention in developing new N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-mediated reactions involving homoenolate intermediates has prompted our interest in exploring the mechanistic details of the related reactions. In this work, we carried out a detailed theoretical study for the NHC-catalyzed annulation reaction of cinnamaldehyde (A) and benzodi(enone) (B) in the presence of 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU). By performing density functional theory calculations, we show clearly the detailed reaction mechanism and rationalize the experimental observation. The reaction of A and B falls into two stages: the formation of homoenolate intermediate and the annulation of homoenolate with B. In the homoenolate formation stage, three possible paths are characterized. The pathway involving the DBU-assisted 1,2-proton transfer with a stepwise mechanism is kinetically more favorable, and the DBU-assisted C1 proton departure is the rate-determining step of the total reaction. The annulation of homoenolate with B involves four elementary steps. The conformational difference of homoenolate (cis and trans) leads to two slightly different reaction processes. In the total reaction, the process involving cis-conformation of A is kinetically more feasible. This can be clearly understood through the frontier molecular orbital analysis and the electronic inductive effect. The calculated results are expected to offer valuable information for further design and development of NHC-mediated reactions.

  12. Advances in the Knowledge of N-Heterocyclic Carbenes Properties. The Backing of the Electrochemical Investigation

    Marta Feroci


    Full Text Available In the last twenty years, N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs have acquired considerable popularity as ligands for transition metals, organocatalysts and in metal-free polymer synthesis. NHCs are generally derived from azolium based salts NHCH+X− by deprotonation or reduction (chemical or electrochemical of NHCH+. The extensive knowledge of the physicochemical properties of NHCH+/NHC system could help to select the conditions (scaffold of NHC, nature of the counter-ion X−, solvent, etc. to enhance the catalytic power of NHC in a synthesis. The electrochemical behavior of NHCH+/NHC system, in the absence and in the presence of solvent, was extensively discussed. The cathodic reduction of NHCH+ to NHC and the anodic oxidation of NHC, and the related effect of the scaffold, solvent, and electrodic material were emphasized. The electrochemical investigations allow acquiring further knowledge as regards the stability of NHC, the acidic and nucleophilic properties of NHCH+/NHC system, the reactivity of NHC versus carbon dioxide and the effect of the hydrogen bond on the catalytic efficiency of NHC. The question of the spontaneous or induced formation of NHC from particular ionic liquids was reconsidered via voltammetric analysis. The results suggested by the classical and the electrochemical methodologies were compared and discussed.

  13. CO2 capture in ionic liquid 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate: a concerted mechanism without carbene.

    Yan, Fangyong; Dhumal, Nilesh R; Kim, Hyung J


    Ionic liquids (ILs) provide a promising medium for CO2 capture. Recently, the family of ILs comprising imidazolium-based cations and acetate anions, such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMI(+)OAc(-)), has been found to react with CO2 and form carboxylate compounds. N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) is widely assumed to be responsible by directly reacting with CO2 though NHC has not been detected in these ILs. Herein, a computational analysis of CO2 capture in EMI(+)OAc(-) is presented. Quantum chemistry calculations predict that NHC is unstable in a polar environment, suggesting that NHC is not formed in EMI(+)OAc(-). Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that an EMI(+) ion "activated" by the approach of a CO2 molecule can donate its acidic proton to a neighboring OAc(-) anion and form a carboxylate compound with the CO2 molecule. Analysis of this termolecular process indicates that the EMI(+)-to-OAc(-) proton transfer and the formation of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-2-carboxylate occur essentially concurrently. Based on these findings, a novel concerted mechanism that does not involve NHC is proposed for CO2 capture.

  14. Soluble Platinum Nanoparticles Ligated by Long-Chain N-Heterocyclic Carbenes as Catalysts.

    Martínez-Prieto, Luis M; Rakers, Lena; López-Vinasco, Angela M; Cano, Israel; Coppel, Yannick; Philippot, Karine; Glorius, Frank; Chaudret, Bruno; van Leeuwen, Piet W N M


    Soluble platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) ligated by two different long-chain N-heterocyclic carbenes (LC-IPr and LC-IMe) were synthesized and fully characterized by TEM, high-resolution TEM, wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and solution NMR. The surface chemistry of these NPs (Pt@LC-IPr and Pt@LC-IMe) was investigated by FT-IR and solid state NMR using CO as a probe molecule. A clear influence of the bulkiness of the N-substituents on the size, surface state, and catalytic activity of these Pt NPs was observed. While Pt@LC-IMe showed no activity in the hydroboration of phenylacetylene, Pt@LC-IPr revealed good selectivity for the trans-isomer, which may be supported by a homogeneous species. This is the first example of hydroboration of acetylenes catalyzed by non-supported Pt NPs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Mechanistic investigation of the ruthenium-N-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed amidation of amines with alcohols.

    Makarov, Ilya S; Fristrup, Peter; Madsen, Robert


    The mechanism of the ruthenium-N-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed formation of amides from alcohols and amines was investigated by experimental techniques (Hammett studies, kinetic isotope effects) and by a computational study with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT/M06). The Hammett study indicated that a small positive charge builds-up at the benzylic position in the transition state of the turnover-limiting step. The kinetic isotope effect was determined to be 2.29(±0.15), which suggests that the breakage of the C-H bond is not the rate-limiting step, but that it is one of several slow steps in the catalytic cycle. Rapid scrambling of hydrogen and deuterium at the α position of the alcohol was observed with deuterium-labeled substrates, which implies that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The experimental results were supported by the characterization of a plausible catalytic cycle by using DFT/M06. Both cis-dihydride and trans-dihydride intermediates were considered, but when the theoretical turnover frequencies (TOFs) were derived directly from the calculated DFT/M06 energies, we found that only the trans-dihydride pathway was in agreement with the experimentally determined TOFs. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Production of propylene from 1-butene on highly active "bi-functional single active site" catalyst: Tungsten carbene-hydride supported on alumina

    Mazoyer, Etienne


    1-Butene is transformed in a continuous flow reactor over tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1, giving a promising yield into propylene at 150 °C and different pressures. Tungsten carbene-hydride single active site operates as a "bi-functional catalyst" through 1-butene isomerization on W-hydride and 1-butene/2-butenes cross-metathesis on W-carbene. This active moiety is generated in situ at the initiation steps by insertion of 1-butene on tungsten hydrides precursor W-H/Al2O3, 1 followed by α-H and β-H abstraction. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Selenolate gold complexes with aurophilic Au(I)-Au(I) and Au(I)-Au(III) interactions.

    Canales, Silvia; Crespo, Olga; Gimeno, M Concepción; Jones, Peter G; Laguna, Antonio


    The gold(I) selenolate compound [Au(2)(SePh)(2)(mu-dppf)] (dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) has been prepared by reaction of [Au(2)Cl(2)(mu-dppf)] with PhSeSiMe(3) in a molar ratio 1:2. This complex reacts with gold(I) or gold(III) derivatives to give polynuclear gold(I)-gold(I) or gold(I)-gold(III) complexes of the type [Au(4)(mu-SePh)(2)(PPh(3))(2)(mu-dppf)](OTf)(2), [Au(3)(C(6)F(5))(3)(mu-SePh)(2)(mu-dppf)], or [Au(4)(C(6)F(5))(6)(mu-SePh)(2)(mu-dppf)], with bridging selenolate ligands. The reaction of [Au(2)(SePh)(2)(mu-dppf)] with 1 equiv of AgOTf leads to the formation of the insoluble Ag(SePh) and the compound [Au(2)(mu-SePh)(mu-dppf)]OTf. The complexes [Au(4)(C(6)F(5))(6)(mu-SePh)(2)(mu-dppf)] and [Au(2)(mu-SePh)(mu-dppf)]OTf (two different solvates) have been characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and show the presence of weak gold(I)-gold(III) interactions in the former and intra- and intermolecular gold(I)-gold(I) inter-actions in the later.

  18. Synthesis, Structural Analysis and Antimicrobial Activities of Novel Water Soluble Ionic Liquids Derived from N-Heterocyclic Carbene Salts

    Ahmet Kunduracıoğlu


    Full Text Available Six N-heterocyclic Carbene based Ionic Liquids (ILs have been synthesized by conventional methods. The ILs were spectroscopically characterized by NMR and FT-IR techniques. Their in vitro antimicrobial activities were determined towards gram-positive and gram-negative bacterias and yeast strains using minimum inhibition concentration (MIC assay. The best inhibition performances were obtained with compound 1 due to its more hydrophilic nature compared with the others. It exhibited 1 mg L–1 MIC value against to the most bacteria while the others showed 4 mg L–1. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  19. Origin of stereoselectivity in a chiral N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed desymmetrization of substituted cyclohexyl 1,3-diketones.

    Reddi, Yernaidu; Sunoj, Raghavan B


    The mechanism and stereoselectivity in a chiral N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed desymmetrization of a 1,3-diketone is established by using density functional theory computations. The Breslow intermediate formation is identified to involve Hunig's base-assisted proton transfer. The relative energies of stereoselectivity-determining intramolecular aldol cyclization transition states reveal that in the most preferred mode the re-face of enolate adds to the si-face of carbonyl leading to a tricyclic lactone with a configuration (2aS,4aS,8'S) in excellent agreement with previous experimental reports.

  20. Mechanism and Stereoselectivity in an Asymmetric N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond Activation Reaction.

    Pareek, Monika; Sunoj, Raghavan B


    The mechanism and origin of stereoinduction in a chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyzed C-C bond activation of cyclobutenone has been established using B3LYP-D3 density functional theory computations. The activation of cyclobutenone as an NHC-bound vinyl enolate and subsequent reaction with the electrophilic sulfonyl imine leads to the lactam product. The most preferred stereocontrolling transition state exhibits a number of noncovalent interactions rendering additional stabilization. The computed enantio- and diastereoselectivities are in good agreement with the previous experimental observations.

  1. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Capture by Cytochrome P450 3A4.

    Jennings, Gareth K; Ritchie, Caroline M; Shock, Lisa S; Lyons, Charles E; Hackett, John C


    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the dominant P450 enzyme involved in human drug metabolism, and its inhibition may result in adverse interactions or, conversely, favorably reduce the systemic elimination rates of poorly bioavailable drugs. Herein we describe a spectroscopic investigation of the interaction of CYP3A4 with N-methylritonavir, an analog of ritonavir, widely used as a pharmacoenhancer. In contrast to ritonavir, the binding affinity of N-methylritonavir for CYP3A4 is pH-dependent. At pH UV-visible spectroscopy binding studies with molecular fragments narrows the source of this pH dependence to its N-methylthiazolium fragment. The C2 proton of this group is acidic, and variable-pH resonance Raman spectroscopy tentatively assigns it a pKa of 7.4. Hence, this fragment of N-methylritonavir is expected to be readily deprotonated under physiologic conditions to yield a thiazol-2-ylidene, which is an N-heterocyclic carbene that has high-affinity for and is presumed to be subsequently captured by the heme iron. This mechanism is supported by time-dependent density functional theory with an active site model that accurately reproduces distinguishing features of the experimental UV-visible spectra of N-methylritonavir bound to CYP3A4. Finally, density functional theory calculations support that this novel interaction is as strong as the tightest-binding azaheterocycles found in P450 inhibitors and could offer new avenues for inhibitor development. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Efficient synthetic protocols for the preparation of common N-heterocyclic carbene precursors

    Morgan Hans


    Full Text Available The one-pot condensation of glyoxal, two equivalents of cyclohexylamine, and paraformaldehyde in the presence of aqueous HBF4 provided a straightforward access to 1,3-dicyclohexylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (ICy·HBF4. 1,3-Dibenzylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IBn·HBF4 was obtained along the same lines. To synthesize 1,3-diarylmidazolium salts, it was necessary to isolate the intermediate N,N'-diarylethylenediimines prior to their cyclization. Although this additional step required more time and reagents, it led to a much more efficient overall process. It also proved very convenient to carry out the synthesis of imidazolinium salts in parallel to their imidazolium counterparts via the reduction of the diimines into diammonium salts. The critical assembly of the C2 precarbenic unit was best achieved with paraformaldehyde and chlorotrimethylsilane in the case of imidazolium derivatives, whereas the use of triethyl orthoformate under microwave irradiation was most appropriate for the fast and efficient synthesis of imidazolinium salts. This strategy was applied to the synthesis of six common N-heterocyclic carbene precursors, namely, 1,3-dimesitylimidazolium chloride (IMes·HCl, 1,3-dimesitylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IMes·HBF4, 1,3-dimesitylimidazolinium chloride (SIMes·HCl, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenylimidazolium chloride (IDip·HCl or IPr·HCl, 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenylimidazolinium chloride (SIDip·HCl or SIPr·HCl, and 1,3-bis(2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl-4-methylphenylimidazolium chloride (IDip*·HCl or IPr*·HCl.

  3. Dinuclear thiazolylidene copper complex as highly active catalyst for azid–alkyne cycloadditions

    Schöffler, Anne L; Makarem, Ata; Rominger, Frank


    Summary A dinuclear N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) copper complex efficiently catalyzes azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) “click” reactions. The ancillary ligand comprises two 4,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazol-2-ylidene units and an ethylene linker. The three-step preparation of the complex from commercially available starting compounds is more straightforward and cost-efficient than that of the previously described 1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene derivatives. Kinetic experiments revealed its high catalytic CuAAC activity in organic solvents at room temperature. The activity increases upon addition of acetic acid, particularly for more acidic alkyne substrates. The modular catalyst design renders possible the exchange of N-heterocyclic carbene, linker, sacrificial ligand, and counter ion. PMID:27559407

  4. Dinuclear thiazolylidene copper complex as highly active catalyst for azid–alkyne cycloadditions

    Anne L. Schöffler


    Full Text Available A dinuclear N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC copper complex efficiently catalyzes azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC “click” reactions. The ancillary ligand comprises two 4,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazol-2-ylidene units and an ethylene linker. The three-step preparation of the complex from commercially available starting compounds is more straightforward and cost-efficient than that of the previously described 1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene derivatives. Kinetic experiments revealed its high catalytic CuAAC activity in organic solvents at room temperature. The activity increases upon addition of acetic acid, particularly for more acidic alkyne substrates. The modular catalyst design renders possible the exchange of N-heterocyclic carbene, linker, sacrificial ligand, and counter ion.

  5. Rapid access to spirocylic oxindoles: application of asymmetric N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [3 + 3] cycloaddition of imines to oxindole-derived enals.

    Xie, Danbo; Yang, Limin; Lin, Youqiang; Zhang, Zhiming; Chen, Dongdong; Zeng, Xiaofei; Zhong, Guofu


    A chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed [3 + 3] cycloaddition reaction of imines and oxindole-derived enals was developed for rapid access to spirocylic oxindoles. In most cases, the desired spirocylic oxindole products were obtained in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities with less than 1 h of reaction time.

  6. "N"-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Reaction of Chalcone and Cinnamaldehyde to Give 1,3,4-Triphenylcyclopentene Using Organocatalysis to Form a Homoenolate Equivalent

    Snider, Barry B.


    In this experiment, students carry out a modern organocatalytic reaction using IMes·HCl and NaOH to catalyze the formation of 1,3,4-triphenylcyclopentene from cinnamaldehyde and chalcone in water. Deprotonation of IMes·HCl with NaOH forms the "N"-heterocyclic carbene IMes that reacts with cinnamaldehyde to form a homoenolate equivalent…

  7. Electronic Structure and Excited-State Dynamics of an Arduengo-Type Carbene and its Imidazolone Oxidation Product.

    Schmitt, Hans-Christian; Flock, Marco; Welz, Eileen; Engels, Bernd; Schneider, Heidi; Radius, Udo; Fischer, Ingo


    We describe an investigation of the excited-state dynamics of isolated 1,3-di-tert-butyl-imidazoline-2-ylidene (tBu2 Im, C11 H20 N2 , m/z=180), an Arduengo-type carbene, by time- and frequency-resolved photoionization using a picosecond laser system. The energies of several singlet and triplet excited states were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The S1 state of the carbene deactivates on a 100 ps time scale possibly by intersystem crossing. In the experiments we observed an additional signal at m/z=196, that was assigned to the oxidation product 1,3-di-tert-butyl-imidazolone, tBu2 ImO. It shows a well-resolved resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectrum with an origin located at 36951 cm(-1) . Several low-lying vibrational bands could be assigned, with a lifetime that depends strongly on the excitation energy. At the origin the lifetime is longer than 3 ns, but drops to 49 ps at higher excess energies. To confirm formation of the imidazolone we also performed experiments on benzimidazolone (BzImO) for comparison. Apart from a redshift for BzImO the spectra of the two compounds are very similar. The TD-DFT values display a very good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Organic functionalization of the Si (100) and Ge (100) surfaces by cycloadditions of carbenes and nitrenes: a theoretical prediction.

    Xu, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Fan; Li, Jun-Qian


    By means of density functional theory (B3LYP/6-31G*) coupled with effective cluster models, we predict that the well-known cycloaddition reactions of carbenes and nitrenes to alkenes in organic chemistry can be employed as a new type of surface reaction to organically functionalize the Si (100) and Ge (100) surfaces at low temperature. The well-established abundance of carbenes and nitrenes addition chemistry in organic chemistry provides versatile flexibility of functionalizing the surfaces of Si (100) and Ge (100), which can potentially impart new organic functionalities to the semiconductors surface for novel applications in a diversity of fields. Our predictions strongly advance the concept of using organic reactions to modify the solid surface in a controlled manner and quite intriguing chemistry can lie in the material featuring the analogous bonding motif. In further perspective, implications for other theoretical work, regarding disilenes, digermenes, silenes, and germenes that all feature the bonding motif similar to alkenes, are also discussed.

  9. Stereoselective Michael Addition of Glycine Anions to Chiral Fischer Alkenylcarbene Complexes. Asymmetric Synthesis of beta-Substituted Glutamic Acids.

    Ezquerra, Jesús; Pedregal, Concepción; Merino, Isabel; Flórez, Josefa; Barluenga, José; García-Granda, Santiago; Llorca, María-Amparo


    The reaction of lithium enolates of achiral N-protected glycine esters with chiral alkoxyalkenylcarbene complexes of chromium provided the corresponding Michael adducts with either high anti or syn selectivity depending on the nature of the nitrogen protecting group, and high diastereofacial selectivity when carbene complexes containing the (-)-8-phenylmenthyloxy group were employed. Subsequent oxidation of the metal-carbene moiety followed by deprotection of the amine group and hydrolysis of both carboxylic esters afforded enantiomerically enriched 3-substituted glutamic acids of natural as well as unnatural stereochemistry. Alternatively, when the deprotection step was performed previously to the oxidation, cyclic aminocarbene complexes were formed, which finally led to optically active 3-substituted pyroglutamic acids.

  10. Synthesis, structural characterization and thermal properties of copper and silver silyl complexes.

    Sgro, Michael J; Piers, Warren E; Romero, Patricio E


    The synthesis of copper and silver silyl complexes containing either N-heterocyclic carbenes or nitrogen donors is described. Alterations made to both the neutral donor ligands as well as the silyl group provided access to a number of different compounds. Many of the complexes synthesized were studied in the solid state and the effect of the donor ligand on the final structure of the complexes was examined. The thermal properties of the complexes were explored using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and sublimations. Some of the complexes synthesized were demonstrated to be promising volatile metal precursors.

  11. Synthesis of iridium and rhodium complexes with new chiral phosphine-NHC ligands based on 1,1'-binaphthyl framework and their application in asymmetric hydrogenation.

    Gu, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Qin; Shi, Min


    The first series of chiral phosphine-imidazole carbene ligands based on a 1,1'-binaphthyl framework were synthesized from (R)-2-amine-2'-(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl (1) in a four-step pathway. After deprotonation of these phosphine-imidazolium salts with LiO(t)Bu, and subsequent complexation with [Ir(COD)Cl]2 and anion exchange with NaBArF, phosphine-carbene chelated iridium complexes (R)-6a and (R)-6b were obtained. Their structures have been characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. The NHC-phosphine rhodium complex (R)-6c has been also obtained by a similar synthetic method. These iridium complexes have been applied to catalyze the asymmetric hydrogenation of alkenes to give the corresponding products in moderate to excellent conversion (up to 99%) and moderate enantioselectivities under mild conditions (up to 61% ee).

  12. Design and synthesis of ruthenium(II) OCO pincer type NHC complexes and their catalytic role towards the synthesis of amides

    Muthukumaran Nirmala; Periasamy Viswanathamurthi


    The present contribution describes the synthesis and characterization of a family of robust ruthenium complexes, supported by a tridentate pincer ligand of the type bis-phenolate--heterocyclic carbene [Bu(OCO)2−] (NHC). Ruthenium(II) complexes (1-3) bearing bis-phenolate--heterocyclic carbene ligand were synthesized in good yields by the reaction of imidazolinium proligand (HL) with metal precursors [RuHCl(CO)(EPh3)2(B)] (E = P or As; B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py) by transmetalation from the corresponding silver carbene complex. All the Ru(II)-NHC complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic methods as well as ESI mass spectrometry. Based on the spectral results, an octahedral geometry was assigned for all the complexes. The tridentate nature of the Bu(OCO)2− ligand as well as some level of steric protection provided by the Bu groups may rationalize the excellent stability of the Ru-Ccarbene bond in the present systems. Moreover, for the explorations of catalytic potential of the synthesized compounds, all the three [Ru-NHC] complexes (1-3) were tested as catalysts for amidation of alcohols with amines. Notably, the complex 1 was found to be very efficient and versatile catalyst towards amidation of a wide range of alcohols with amines.

  13. Synthesis, Structure and Catalytic Activity of NHC-AgICarboxylate Complexes

    Wong, Valerie H. L.


    A general synthetic route was used to prepare 15 new N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)–AgI complexes bearing anionic carboxylate ligands [Ag(NHC)(O2CR)], including a homologous series of complexes of sterically flexible ITent ligands, which permit a systematic spectroscopic and theoretical study of the structural and electronic features of these compounds. The complexes displayed a significant ligand-accelerated effect in the intramolecular cyclisation of propargylic amides to oxazolidines. The substrate scope is highly complementary to that previously achieved by NHC–Au and pyridyl–AgI complexes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  14. Half-sandwich iron(ii) complexes with protic acyclic diaminocarbene ligands: synthesis, deprotonation and metalation reactions.

    Ruiz, Javier; García, Lucía; Vivanco, Marilín; Sol, Daniel; García-Granda, Santiago


    A variety of half-sandwich iron(ii) complexes with diprotic acyclic diaminocarbene ligands (pADCs) have been obtained by reaction of the cationic complexes [Fe(Cp)(CO)2(CNR)](+) and [Fe(Cp)(CO)(CNR)2](+) with methylamine, and their acid-base behaviour was studied, revealing an easy reversible deprotonation reaction of both N-H moieties of the carbene ligands. The deprotonation process is frequently followed by a nucleophilic attack of the nitrogen atom on a vicinal carbonyl or isocyanide ligand, affording the corresponding metallacycles. Metalation of one or two N-H groups of the pADC ligands can be accomplished by reaction of the carbene complexes with either [AuCl(PPh3)] or [Ru(p-cym)Cl2]2 in the presence of KOH or LiHMDS as deprotonating agents. A number of Fe(ii)/Au(i) and Fe(ii)/Ru(ii) heterometallic complexes have been prepared in this way, some of them formally containing unique metalla-N-heterocyclic carbene ligands.

  15. Synthesis and NMR study of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC precursors derived from Tröger’s Base



    Full Text Available Since the discovery of olefin metathesis reactions, various catalysts have been developed but those based on Ruthenium and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC ligands are particularly more efficient. Herein, we report a synthesis of NHC precursors derived from the Tröger’s base and its analogues which can be used in the synthesis of the new kind of metathesis catalysts. The NHC derived from the Tröger’s base present a particular chirality that could affect stereoselectivity of catalysis, and the form “V” of these ligands implies that the aromatic substituents point totally outside the coordination sphere of the metal, where would be no steric hindrance unlike what happens with the usual NHC.

  16. Pd(II) immobilized on mesoporous silica by N-heterocyclic carbene ionic liquids and catalysis for hydrogenation.

    Liu, Gang; Hou, Minqiang; Wu, Tianbin; Jiang, Tao; Fan, Honglei; Yang, Guanying; Han, Buxing


    In this work we synthesized Pd(II) immobilized on mesoporous silica by N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ionic liquids (ILs) with different alkyl chain lengths. The catalysts were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), low-angle X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen sorption. The catalysts were used for the hydrogenation of alkenes and allyl alcohol. The results indicated that the catalysts were very active, selective, and stable. The selectivity for the hydrogenation of allyl alcohol to 1-propanol increased with the increase of the alkyl chain length of the ILs. The effect of supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) on the hydrogenation of allyl alcohol was also studied, and it was demonstrated that scCO(2) could enhance the selectivity of the reaction considerably. The XPS study showed that the valence of Pd(II) remained unchanged under hydrogenation conditions.

  17. Guidelines To Select the N-Heterocyclic Carbene for the Organopolymerization of Monomers with a Polar Group

    Falivene, Laura


    We report on the DFT stability of zwitterion and spirocycle adducts of five polar monomers with nine N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC), covering the most typical classes of monomers and NHCs used in organopolymerization. Results indicate that the relative stability of the two adducts is dominated by the singlet-triplet energy gap of the free NHC, with low energy gaps favoring the spirocycle adduct, while high energy gaps favor the zwitterionic adduct. This basic structure/property relationship can be tuned by the hindrance of the NHC and the nature of the monomer. In addition to rationalize existing systems, the 45 NHC/monomer combinations we examined can be used as a guideline to predict the behavior of a new NHC/monomer combination.

  18. Simple direct formation of self-assembled N-heterocyclic carbene monolayers on gold and their application in biosensing

    Crudden, Cathleen M.; Horton, J. Hugh; Narouz, Mina R.; Li, Zhijun; Smith, Christene A.; Munro, Kim; Baddeley, Christopher J.; Larrea, Christian R.; Drevniok, Benedict; Thanabalasingam, Bheeshmon; McLean, Alastair B.; Zenkina, Olena V.; Ebralidze, Iraklii I.; She, Zhe; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard; Mosey, Nicholas J.; Saunders, Lisa N.; Yagi, Akiko


    The formation of organic films on gold employing N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has been previously shown to be a useful strategy for generating stable organic films. However, NHCs or NHC precursors typically require inert atmosphere and harsh conditions for their generation and use. Herein we describe the use of benzimidazolium hydrogen carbonates as bench stable solid precursors for the preparation of NHC films in solution or by vapour-phase deposition from the solid state. The ability to prepare these films by vapour-phase deposition permitted the analysis of the films by a variety of surface science techniques, resulting in the first measurement of NHC desorption energy (158+/-10 kJ mol-1) and confirmation that the NHC sits upright on the surface. The use of these films in surface plasmon resonance-type biosensing is described, where they provide specific advantages versus traditional thiol-based films.

  19. The MOF-driven synthesis of supported palladium clusters with catalytic activity for carbene-mediated chemistry

    Fortea-Pérez, Francisco R.; Mon, Marta; Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Boronat, Mercedes; Leyva-Pérez, Antonio; Corma, Avelino; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Osadchii, Dmitrii; Gascon, Jorge; Armentano, Donatella; Pardo, Emilio


    The development of catalysts able to assist industrially important chemical processes is a topic of high importance. In view of the catalytic capabilities of small metal clusters, research efforts are being focused on the synthesis of novel catalysts bearing such active sites. Here we report a heterogeneous catalyst consisting of Pd4 clusters with mixed-valence 0/+1 oxidation states, stabilized and homogeneously organized within the walls of a metal-organic framework (MOF). The resulting solid catalyst outperforms state-of-the-art metal catalysts in carbene-mediated reactions of diazoacetates, with high yields (>90%) and turnover numbers (up to 100,000). In addition, the MOF-supported Pd4 clusters retain their catalytic activity in repeated batch and flow reactions (>20 cycles). Our findings demonstrate how this synthetic approach may now instruct the future design of heterogeneous catalysts with advantageous reaction capabilities for other important processes.

  20. 25 years of N-heterocyclic carbenes: activation of both main-group element-element bonds and NHCs themselves.

    Würtemberger-Pietsch, Sabrina; Radius, Udo; Marder, Todd B


    N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) are widely used ligands and reagents in modern inorganic synthesis as well as in homogeneous catalysis and organocatalysis. However, NHCs are not always innocent bystanders. In the last few years, more and more examples were reported of reactions of NHCs with main-group elements which resulted in modification of the NHC. Many of these reactions lead to ring expansion and the formation of six-membered heterocyclic rings involving insertion of the heteroatom into the C-N bond and migration of hydrides, phenyl groups or boron-containing fragments. Furthermore, a few related NHC rearrangements were observed some decades ago. In this Perspective, we summarise the history of NHC ring expansion reactions from the 1960s till the present.

  1. The reductive P-P coupling of primary and secondary phosphines mediated by N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Schneider, Heidi; Schmidt, David; Radius, Udo


    The dehydrogenative coupling of primary and secondary phosphines with the N-heterocyclic carbene iPr2Im (1,3-di-isopropyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene) has been reported. The dehydrogenation of R2PH affords diphosphines R2P-PR2. The reaction of iPr2Im with ArPH2 leads to the formation of NHC phosphinidene adducts iPr2Im[double bond, length as m-dash]PAr and cyclic oligophosphines P4Ar4, P5Ar5 and P6Ar6, depending on the stoichiometry used. The NHC acts in these reactions as a phosphine activator and hydrogen acceptor.

  2. Grubbs–Hoveyda type catalysts bearing a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene for biphasic olefin metathesis reactions in ionic liquids

    Maximilian Koy


    Full Text Available The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2(=CH–2-(2-PrO-C6H42+ (OTf−2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2’,6’-dimethyl-4’-trimethylammoniumphenyl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf− = CF3SO3− based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene and the ionic liquid (IL 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM+][BF4−]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  3. Nitrenium ions and trivalent boron ligands as analogues of N-heterocyclic carbenes in olefin metathesis: a computational study.

    Pazio, A; Woźniak, K; Grela, K; Trzaskowski, B


    We used the density functional theory to evaluate the suitability of nitrenium ions and trivalent boron ligands as analogues of N-heterocyclic carbenes in ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts. We demonstrate that these analogues induce only minor structural changes in Hoveyda-Grubbs-like precatalysts, but have major impact on precatalyst initiation. Nitrenium ion-modified precatalysts are characterized by a weak Ru-N bond resulting in a relatively strong Ru-O bond and large free energy barriers for initiation, making them good candidates for efficient latent Ru-based catalysts. On the other hand the trivalent boron ligand, bearing a formal -1 charge, binds strongly to the ruthenium ion, weakening the Ru-O bond and facilitating its dissociation, to promote fast reaction initiation. We show that the calculated bond dissociation energy of the Ru-C/N/B bond may serve as an accurate indicator of the Ru-O bond strength and the rate of metathesis initiation.

  4. Cationic Silica-Supported N-Heterocyclic Carbene Tungsten Oxo Alkylidene Sites: Highly Active and Stable Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis.

    Pucino, Margherita; Mougel, Victor; Schowner, Roman; Fedorov, Alexey; Buchmeiser, Michael R; Copéret, Christophe


    Designing supported alkene metathesis catalysts with high activity and stability is still a challenge, despite significant advances in the last years. Described herein is the combination of strong σ-donating N-heterocyclic carbene ligands with weak σ-donating surface silanolates and cationic tungsten sites leading to highly active and stable alkene metathesis catalysts. These well-defined silica-supported catalysts, [(≡SiO)W(=O)(=CHCMe2 Ph)(IMes)(OTf)] and [(≡SiO)W(=O)(=CHCMe2 Ph)(IMes)(+) ][B(Ar(F) )4 (-) ] [IMes=1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene, B(Ar(F) )4 =B(3,5-(CF3 )2 C6 H3 )4 ] catalyze alkene metathesis, and the cationic species display unprecedented activity for a broad range of substrates, especially for terminal olefins with turnover numbers above 1.2 million for propene.

  5. Grubbs–Hoveyda type catalysts bearing a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene for biphasic olefin metathesis reactions in ionic liquids

    Koy, Maximilian; Altmann, Hagen J; Autenrieth, Benjamin; Frey, Wolfgang


    Summary The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2)(=CH–2-(2-PrO)-C6H4))2+ (OTf−)2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2’,6’-dimethyl-4’-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf− = CF3SO3 −) based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene) and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM+][BF4 −]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. PMID:26664582

  6. Grubbs-Hoveyda type catalysts bearing a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene for biphasic olefin metathesis reactions in ionic liquids.

    Koy, Maximilian; Altmann, Hagen J; Autenrieth, Benjamin; Frey, Wolfgang; Buchmeiser, Michael R


    The novel dicationic metathesis catalyst [(RuCl2(H2ITapMe2)(=CH-2-(2-PrO)-C6H4))(2+) (OTf(-))2] (Ru-2, H2ITapMe2 = 1,3-bis(2',6'-dimethyl-4'-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene, OTf(-) = CF3SO3 (-)) based on a dicationic N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand was prepared. The reactivity was tested in ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) under biphasic conditions using a nonpolar organic solvent (toluene) and the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BDMIM(+)][BF4 (-)]. The structure of Ru-2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis.

  7. A Green Approach to the Synthesis of α-Amino Phosphonate in Water Medium: Carbene Insertion into the N-H Bond by Cu(I) Catalyst.

    Ramakrishna, Kankanala; Thomas, Jisha Mary; Sivasankar, Chinnappan


    Synthesis of amino phosphonates is more important owing to their significant applications in the biological systems. There are few methods already known in the literature to make these molecules; however, known methods have their own disadvantages. In this regard, synthesis of different kinds of amino phosphonates have been achieved via phosphonate substituted carbene insertion into the N-H bond of aniline catalyzed by readily available copper salt under mild reaction conditions in water. In order to find an efficient catalyst for carbene insertion reaction in neat water, a large number of transition metal catalysts were screened, and we found that the [Cu(CH3CN)4]ClO4 was the best catalyst under employed reaction conditions. Using this environmentally benign methodology (copper catalyzed reaction in water), a large number of biologically important amino phosphonates have been synthesized, isolated (37 examples), and characterized using standard analytical and spectroscopic techniques.

  8. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids from Primary Alcohols and Hydroxide Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Santilli, Carola; Makarov, Ilya; Fristrup, Peter


    reaction is most likely involved in this case. The kinetic isotope effect was determined to be 0.67 using 1-butanol as the substrate. A plausible catalytic cycle was characterized by DFT/B3LYP-D3 and involved coordination of the alcohol to the metal, β-hydride elimination, hydroxide attack...... on the coordinated aldehyde, and a second β-hydride elimination to furnish the carboxylate....

  9. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Catalyzed [4+2] Annulation of Enals via a Double Vinylogous Michael Addition: Asymmetric Synthesis of 3,5-Diaryl Cyclohexenones.

    Chen, Xiang-Yu; Liu, Qiang; Chauhan, Pankaj; Li, Sun; Peuronen, Anssi; Rissanen, Kari; Jafari, Ehsan; Enders, Dieter


    A strategy for the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of 3,5-diaryl substituted cyclohexenones has been developed via oxidative [4+2] annulation of enals and alkenylisoxazoles. It is the first example of using NHC organocatalysis in a double vinylogous Michael type reaction, a challenging but highly desirable topic. This unprecedented protocol affords good yields as well as high to excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. An Electronic Rationale for Observed Initiation Rates in Ruthenium-Mediated Olefin Metathesis: Charge Donation in Phosphine And N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands

    Getty, K.; Delgado-Jaime, M.U.; Kennepohl, P.


    Ru K-edge XAS data indicate that second generation ruthenium-based olefin metathesis precatalysts (L = N-heterocyclic carbene) possess a more electron-deficient metal center than in the corresponding first generation species (L = tricyclohexylphosphine). This surprising effect is also observed from DFT calculations and provides a simple rationale for the slow phosphine dissociation kinetics previously noted for second-generation metathesis precatalysts.

  11. Investigation on reactivity of non-classical carbenes with sterically hindered Lewis acid, B(C6F5)3 under inert and open conditions

    Arunabha Thakur; Pavan K Vardhanapu; Gonela Vijaykumar; Sushil Ranjan Bhatta


    Reactions of B(C6F5)3 with abnormal N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC), L1 and cyclic (alkyl)(amino) carbene (AAC), L2 in the presence of moisture as well as in its absence, have been investigated in toluene. Reaction of NHC with 1 equivalent of B(C6F5)3 under inert condition produced classical Lewis acid-base adduct, [L1.B(C6F5)3], 1. Further, probing the same reaction with cyclic (alkyl)(amino) carbene (AAC), having different electronic property, led to the isolation of [L2.B(C6F5)3], 2 under inert condition. Interestingly, reaction of NHC or AAC with 1 equivalent of B(C6F5)3 in the presence of moisture resulted in water splitting leading to the formation of [L1-H][(OH)B(C6F5)3], 3 and [L2-H][(OH)B(C6F5)3, 4. All these compounds (1-4) were characterized in solution by 1H, 13C, 19F and 11B NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, the solid-state structures were unambiguously established by crystallographic analysis of compounds 1-4.

  12. A DFT Study on Selected Physical Organic Aspects of the Fischer Carbene Intermediates [(M(CO4(C(OMeMe

    Tareq Irshaidat


    Full Text Available Fischer carbenes are important starting materials for C-C bond formation via coupling reactions between carbene and wide variety of substituted alkenes or alkynes. This DFT study shed light on unique fundamental organic/organometallic aspects for the C(OMeMe carbene in the free form and in case of bonding with M(CO4 (M= Cr, Mo, W. The data illustrate that the structures of the title intermediates include a unique structure stabilizing intramolecular M…C-H interaction (agostic interaction. This conclusion was made based on calculated NMR data (for carbon and hydrogen, structural parameters, energy calculations of conformers (C-C conformation, selected IR stretching frequencies (C-O, C-C, and C-H, and atomic charges. The agostic interaction is most efficient in case of chromium and in general is described as an overlap between the σ-bond electron pair of C-H with an empty d-orbital of the metal. These characterized examples are new addition to the orbital interaction theory.

  13. Metallacumulenes and carbide complexes. Final performance report

    Selegue, J.P.


    We investigated many aspects of transition metal complexes of carbon-rich ligands, including cumulated transition metal carbene complexes of the types vinylidene (M=C=CR{sub 2})(M = Fe, Ru, Os, Mo, W), allenylidene (M=C=C=CR{sub 2}), and butatrienylidene (M=C=C=CR{sub 2}), as well as ``naked`` carbon ligands C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}. In the last 3 years, we began to put some effort into studying the fullerenes. Finally, we investigated initial aspects of the coordination chemistry of thiophenes, from the perspectives of (1) modeling the transition- metal-catalyzed hydrodesulfurization of fossil fuels and (2) development of metal-doped, polythiophene-based polymers.

  14. Synthesis and structures of cyclic gold complexes containing diphosphine ligands and luminescent properties of the high nuclearity species.

    Bhargava, Suresh; Kitadai, Kunihiko; Masashi, Takahashi; Drumm, Daniel W; Russo, Salvy P; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah; Lee, Terence Kwok-Ming; Wagler, Jörg; Mirzadeh, Nedaossadat


    A mixture of cyclic gold(I) complexes [Au(2)(μ-cis-dppen)(2)]X(2) (X = OTf 1, PF(6)3) and [Au(cis-dppen)(2)]X (X = OTf 2, PF(6)4) is obtained from the reaction of [Au(tht)(2)]X (tht = tetrahydrothiophene) with one equivalent of cis-dppen [dppen = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylene]. The analogous reaction with trans-dppen or dppa [dppa = bis(diphenylphosphino)acetylene] affords the cyclic trinuclear [Au(3)(μ-trans-dppen)(3)]X(3) (X = OTf 11, PF(6)12) and tetranuclear [Au(4)(μ-dppa)(4)]X(4) (X = OTf 13, PF(6)14, ClO(4)15) gold complexes, respectively. Recrystallization of 15 from CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH yielded a crystal of the octanuclear gold cluster [Au(8)Cl(2)(μ-dppa)(4)](ClO(4))(2)16. Attempts to prepare dicationic binuclear gold(II) species from the reaction of a mixture of 3 and 4 with halogens gave a mixture of products, the components of which confirmed to be acyclic binuclear gold(I) [Au(2)X(2)(cis-dppen)] (X = I 5, Br 7) and cyclic mononuclear gold(III) [AuX(2)(cis-dppen)]PF(6) (X = I 6, Br 8) complexes. Complexes 11-14 reveal weak emission in butyronitrile glass at 77 K, but they are non-emissive at room temperature. Ab initio modelling was performed to determine the charge state of the gold atoms involved. Extensive structural comparisons were made to experimental data to benchmark these calculations and rationalize the conformations.

  15. Flash kinetics in liquefied noble gases: Studies of alkane activation and ligand dynamics at rhodium carbonyl centers, and a search for xenon-carbene adducts

    Yeston, Jake Simon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    A general introduction is given to place the subsequent chapters in context for the nonspecialist. Results are presented from a low temperature infrared (IR) flash kinetic study of C-H bond activation via photoinduced reaction of Cp*Rh(CO)2 (1) with linear and cyclic alkanes in liquid krypton and liquid xenon solution. No reaction was observed with methane; for all other hydrocarbons studied, the rate law supports fragmentation of the overall reaction into an alkane binding step followed by an oxidative addition step. For the binding step, larger alkanes within each series (linear and cyclic) interact more strongly than smaller alkanes with the Rh center. The second step, oxidative addition of the C-H bond across Rh, exhibits very little variance in the series of linear alkanes, while in the cyclic series the rate decreases with increasing alkane size. Results are presented from an IR flash kinetic study of the photoinduced chemistry of Tp*Rh(CO)2 (5; Tp* = hydridotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borato) in liquid xenon solution at –50 °C. IR spectra of the solution taken 2 μs after 308 nm photolysis exhibit two transient bands at 1972-1980 cm-1 and 1992-2000 cm-1, respectively. These bands were assigned to (η3-Tp*)Rh(CO)•Xe and (η2-Tp*)Rh(CO)•Xe solvates on the basis of companion studies using Bp*Rh(CO)2 (9; Bp* = dihydridobis(3,5-dimethyl pyrazolyl)borato). Preliminary kinetic data for reaction of 5 with cyclohexane in xenon solution indicate that both transient bands still appear and that their rates of decay correlate with formation of the product Tp*Rh(CO)(C6H11)(H). The preparation and reactivity of the new complex Bp*Rh(CO)(pyridine) (11) are described. The complex reacts with CH3I to yield the novel Rh carbene hydride complex HB(Me2pz)2Rh(H)(I)(C5H5N)(C(O)Me) (12), resulting from formal addition of CH

  16. From the N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Alcohols to the Controlled Polymerization of (Meth)acrylates.

    Ottou, Winnie Nzahou; Bourichon, Damien; Vignolle, Joan; Wirotius, Anne-Laure; Robert, Fredéric; Landais, Yannick; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Miqueu, Karinne; Taton, Daniel


    Among various N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) tested, only 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (NHC(tBu) ) proved to selectively promote the catalytic conjugate addition of alcohols onto (meth)acrylate substrates. This rather rare example of NHC-catalyzed 1,4-addition of alcohols was investigated as a simple means to trigger the polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate (MMA and MA, respectively). Well-defined α-alkoxy poly(methyl (meth)acrylate) (PM(M)A) chains, the molar masses of which could be controlled by the initial [(meth)acrylate]0/[ROH]0 molar ratio, were ultimately obtained in N,N-dimethylformamide at 25 °C. A hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-OH) macro-initiator was also employed to directly access PEO-b-PMMA amphiphilic block copolymers. Investigations into the reaction mechanism by DFT calculations revealed the occurrence of two competitive concerted pathways, involving either the activation of the alcohol or that of the monomer by NHC(tBu) .

  17. Mechanistic Insights into the Organopolymerization of N-Methyl N-Carboxyanhydrides Mediated by N-Heterocyclic Carbenes

    Falivene, Laura


    We report on a DFT investigation of initiation, propagation, and termination in the organopolymerization of N-methyl N-carboxyanhydrides toward cyclic poly(N-substituted glycine)s, promoted by N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC). Calculations support the experimentally based hypothesis of two competing initiation pathways. The first leading to formation of a zwitterionic adduct by nucleophilic addition of the NHC to one of the carbonyl groups of monomer. The second via acid–base reactivity, starting with the NHC promoted abstraction of a proton from the methylene group of the monomer, leading to an ion-pair-type adduct, followed by nucleophilic attack of the adduct to a new monomer molecule. Chain elongation can proceed from both the initiation adducts via nucleophilic attack of the carbamate chain-end to a new monomer molecule via concerted elimination of CO2 from the carbamate chain-end. Energy barriers along all the considered termination pathways are remarkably higher that the energy barrier along the chain elongation pathways, consistent with the quasi-living experimental behavior. Analysis of the competing termination pathways suggests that the cyclic species determined via MALDI-TOF MS experiments consists of a zwitterionic species deriving from nucleophilic attack of the N atom of the carbamate chain-end to the C═O group bound to the NHC moiety.

  18. Cationic Tungsten(VI) Penta-Methyl Complex: Synthesis, Characterization and its Application in Olefin Metathesis Reaction

    Dey, Raju


    Tungsten-hexa-methyl readily reacts with B(C6F5)3 in dichloromethane and generates the corresponding well-defined cationic tungsten-penta-methyl complex which was identified precisely by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-13C NMR correlation spectroscopy. Unlike WMe6, this cationic complex has low energy barrier to form tungsten carbene intermediate, which was further supported by the fact that WMe6 alone has no activity in olefin metathesis reaction whereas the cationic complex shows catalytic activity for self-metathesis of 1-octene.

  19. Cationic Tungsten(VI Penta-Methyl Complex: Synthesis, Characterization and its Application in Olefin Metathesis Reaction

    Dey Raju


    Full Text Available Tungsten-hexa-methyl readily reacts with B(C6F53 in dichloromethane and generates the corresponding well-defined cationic tungsten-penta-methyl complex which was identified precisely by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 1H-13C NMR correlation spectroscopy. Unlike WMe6, this cationic complex has low energy barrier to form tungsten carbene intermediate, which was further supported by the fact that WMe6 alone has no activity in olefin metathesis reaction whereas the cationic complex shows catalytic activity for self-metathesis of 1-octene.

  20. A Ruthenium(III)-Oxyl Complex Bearing Strong Radical Character.

    Shimoyama, Yoshihiro; Ishizuka, Tomoya; Kotani, Hiroaki; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Mieda, Kaoru; Ogura, Takashi; Okajima, Toshihiro; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Kojima, Takahiko


    Proton-coupled electron-transfer oxidation of a Ru(II) -OH2 complex, having an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, gives a Ru(III) -O(.) species, which has an electronically equivalent structure of the Ru(IV) =O species, in an acidic aqueous solution. The Ru(III) -O(.) complex was characterized by spectroscopic methods and DFT calculations. The oxidation state of the Ru center was shown to be close to +3; the Ru-O bond showed a lower-energy Raman scattering at 732 cm(-1) and the Ru-O bond length was estimated to be 1.77(1) Å. The Ru(III) -O(.) complex exhibits high reactivity in substrate oxidation under catalytic conditions; particularly, benzaldehyde and the derivatives are oxidized to the corresponding benzoic acid through C-H abstraction from the formyl group by the Ru(III) -O(.) complex bearing a strong radical character as the active species.

  1. Group 11 N-heterocyclic carbenes : synthesis, characterisation and catalytic applications

    Lazreg, Faïma


    As part of a worldwide effort to develop efficient catalysts for use in organic chemistry and in the synthesis of highly valuable molecules, work performed during the course of my stay in St Andrews has focused on the design and synthesis of new group 11 metal complexes for their applications in catalysis. The aim of this work was to develop new, active and stable, easy to synthesise group 11 complexes and investigate their catalytic activity as well as to try to understand the...

  2. Creation of Optically Pure Crystals from a Meso-Type Gold(I) Metalloligand with d- and l-Amino Acids: A Coordination Trick.

    Itai, Takuma; Kojima, Tatsuhiro; Kuwamura, Naoto; Konno, Takumi


    A unique example of a coordination system that creates optically pure crystals from a meso compound with d- and l-amino acids is reported. The 1:1 reaction of a newly prepared meso digold(I) complex, [Au2 (dcpe)(d-Hpen)(l-Hpen)] ([H2 1]), with Co(OAc)2 under aerobic conditions yielded a cationic Au(I)2 Co(III) trinuclear complex, [Au2 Co(dcpe)(d-pen)(l-pen)](+) [2](+) , in which [1](2-) acts as a hexadentate-N2 ,O2 ,S2 metalloligand to a Co(III) center. Similar reactions with M(OAc)2 (M=Ni and Zn) produced analogous but neutral Au(I)2 M(II) complexes, [Au2 M(dcpe)(d-pen)(l-pen)] ([3M ]). Complexes [2](+) and [3M ] are chiral (C vs. A) at the octahedral Co(III) and M(II) centers due to the arrangement of the N2 ,O2 ,S2 donor set. In addition, through spontaneous resolution, [3M ] gave optically pure C-[3M ] and A-[3M ] crystals, showing the creation of homochirality from meso-[1](2-) and achiral M(2+) through crystallization. Such a phenomenon was not observed for [2](+) , which gave a racemic compound containing both C-[2](+) and A-[2](+) . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Theoretical investigations of the reactivities of four-membered N-heterocyclic carbene analogues of the group 13 elements.

    Wu, Chi-Shiun; Su, Ming-Der


    The potential energy surfaces for the chemical reactions of four-membered N-heterocyclic group 13 heavy carbeneoid species have been studied using density functional theory (Becke, 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP)/Los Alamos National Laboratory 2-Double-Zeta (LANL2DZ)). Five four-membered group 13 heavy carbeneoid species, iPr2NC(NAr)2E:, where E ¼ B, Al, Ga, In, and Tl, have been chosen as model reactants in this work. Also, three kinds of chemical reactions, CAH bond insertion, alkene cycloaddition, and dimerization, have been used to study the chemical reactivities of these group 13 fourmembered N-heterocyclic carbeneoid species. In principle, our present theoretical work predicts that the larger the ffNEN bond angle of the four-membered group 13 iPr2NC(NAr)2E: species, the smaller the singlet–triplet splitting, the lower the activation barrier, and, in turn, the more rapid its chemical reactions to various chemical species. Moreover, our theoretical investigations suggest that the relative carbenic reactivity decreases in the following order: B > Al > Ga > In > Tl. That is, the heavier the group 13 atom (E), the more stable its fourmembered carbeneoid toward chemical reactions is. As a result, our computations predict that the four-membered heavy group 13 iPr2NC(NAr)2E: species (E ¼ Al, Ga, In, and Tl) should be both kinetically and thermodynamically stable, and can be readily synthesized and isolated at room temperature. Furthermore, the singlet–triplet energy splitting of the four-membered group 13 iPr2NC(NAr)2E: species, as described in the configuration mixing model attributed to the work of Pross and Shaik, can be used as a diagnostic tool to predict their reactivities. The results obtained allow a number of predictions to be made. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Precatalyst Site Isolated in the Core of a Star Polymer

    Bukhriakov, Konstantin


    An approach for supporting a Pd-NHC complex on a soluble star polymer with nanoscale dimensions is described. The resulting star polymer catalyst exhibits excellent activity in cross-coupling reactions, is stable in air and moisture, and is easily recoverable and recyclable. These properties are distinct and unattainable with the small-molecule version of the same catalyst. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  5. Fluoride, bifluoride and trifluoromethyl complexes of iridium(I) and rhodium(I)

    Truscott, Byron; Nahra, Fady; Slawin, Alexandra Martha Zoya; Cordes, David Bradford; Nolan, Steven Patrick


    The ERC (Advanced Researcher Award FUNCAT to SPN), the EPSRC and Sasol (Stipend to BJT) are gratefully acknowledged for support. Herein we report robust methods for the preparation and full characterisation of a range of Ir(I) and Rh(I) fluoride and bifluoride complexes using N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as ancillary ligands. The processes that link the fluoride and the bifluoride species are investigated and reports of the first Ir–bifluoride and Ir(I)–NHC and Rh(I)–NHC trifluoromethyl ...

  6. Ruthenium complexes with chiral tetradentate PNNP ligands: asymmetric catalysis from the viewpoint of inorganic chemistry.

    Mezzetti, Antonio


    This is a personal account of the application of ruthenium complexes containing chiral tetradentate ligands with a P(2)N(2) ligand set (PNNP) as catalyst precursors for enantioselective "atom transfer" reactions. Therewith are meant reactions that involve bond formation between a metal-coordinated molecule and a free reagent. The reactive fragment (e.g. carbene) is transferred either from the metal to the non-coordinated substrate (e.g. olefin) or from the free reagent (e.g. F(+)) to the metal-bound substrate (e.g.beta-ketoester), depending on the class of catalyst (monocationic, Class A; or dicationic, Class B). The monocationic five-coordinate species [RuCl(PNNP)](+) and the six-coordinate complexes [RuCl(L)(PNNP)](+) (L = Et(2)O, H(2)O) of Class A catalyse asymmetric epoxidation, cyclopropanation (carbene transfer from the metal to the free olefin), and imine aziridination. Alternatively, the dicationic complexes [Ru(L-L)(PNNP)](2+) (Class B), which contain substrates that act as neutral bidentate ligands L-L (e.g., beta-ketoesters), catalyse Michael addition, electrophilic fluorination, and hydroxylation reactions. Additionally, unsaturated beta-ketoesters form dicationic complexes of Class B that catalyse Diels-Alder reactions with acyclic dienes to produce tetrahydro-1-indanones and estrone derivatives. Excellent enantioselectivity has been achieved in several of the catalytic reactions mentioned above. The study of key reaction intermediates (both in the solid state and in solution) has revealed significant mechanistic aspects of the catalytic reactions.

  7. Unusual dimer formation of cyclometalated ruthenium NHC p-cymene complexes.

    Schleicher, David; Tronnier, Alexander; Leopold, Hendrik; Borrmann, Horst; Strassner, Thomas


    We present the synthesis and structural characterization of novel ruthenium complexes containing C^C* cyclometalated N-heterocyclic carbene ligands, η(6)-arene (p-cymene) ligands and one bridging chlorine ion. Complexes of the general formula [Ru(p-cymene)(C^C*)Cl] were prepared via a one-pot synthesis using in situ transmetalation from the correspondent silver NHC complexes. These complexes react with sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (NaBAr(F)4) to form dinuclear complexes of the general structure [Ru(p-cymene)(C^C*)-μ-Cl-(p-cymene)(C^C*)Ru](+)[BAr(F)4](-). Solid-state structures confirm that the pseudo-tetrahedral coordination around the metal center with the η(6)-ligand aligned perpendicularly to the C^C* ligand and the i-Pr group "atop" is retained in the bimetallic complexes.

  8. Gold(I)-catalyzed Claisen rearrangement of allenyl vinyl ethers: missing transition states revealed through evolution of aromaticity, Au(I) as an oxophilic Lewis acid, and lower energy barriers from a high energy complex.

    Vidhani, Dinesh V; Cran, John W; Krafft, Marie E; Manoharan, Mariappan; Alabugin, Igor V


    Curtin-Hammett analysis of four alternative mechanisms of the gold(I)-catalyzed [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangement of allenyl vinyl ethers by density functional theory calculations reveals that the lowest energy pathway (cation-accelerated oxonia Claisen rearrangement) originates from the second most stable of the four Au(I)-substrate complexes in which gold(I) coordinates to the lone pair of oxygen. This pathway proceeds via a dissociative transition state where the C-O bond cleavage precedes C1-C6 bond formation. The alternative Au(I) coordination at the vinyl π-system produces a more stable but less reactive complex. The two least stable modes of coordination at the allenyl π-system display reactivity that is intermediate between that of the Au(I)-oxygen and the Au(I)-vinyl ether complexes. The unusual electronic features of the four potential energy surfaces (PESs) associated with the four possible mechanisms were probed with intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations in conjunction with nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS(0)) evaluation of aromaticity of the transient structures. The development of aromatic character along the "6-endo" reaction path is modulated via Au-complexation to the extent where both the cyclic intermediate and the associated fragmentation transition state do not correspond to stationary points at the reaction potential energy surface. This analysis explains why the calculated PES for cyclization promoted by coordination of gold(I) to allenyl moiety lacks a discernible intermediate despite proceeding via a highly asynchronous transition state with characteristics of a stepwise "cyclization-mediated" process. Although reaction barriers can be strongly modified by aryl substituents of varying electronic demand, direct comparison of experimental and computational substituent effects is complicated by formation of Au-complexes with the Lewis-basic sites of the substrates.

  9. How does the addition of steric hindrance to a typical N-heterocyclic carbene ligand affect catalytic activity in olefin metathesis?

    Poater, Albert


    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to predict and rationalize the effect of the modification of the structure of the prototype 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. The modification consists in the substitution of the methyl groups of ortho isopropyl substituent with phenyl groups, and here we plan to describe how such significant changes affect the metal environment and therefore the related catalytic behaviour. Bearing in mind that there is a significant structural difference between both ligands in different olefin metathesis reactions, here by means of DFT we characterize where the NHC ligand plays a more active role and where it is a simple spectator, or at least its modification does not significantly change its catalytic role/performance. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. N-formylation and N-methylation of amines using metal-free N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts and CO2 as carbon source.

    Bobbink, Felix D; Das, Shoubhik; Dyson, Paul J


    N-formylation and N-methylation of amines are important reactions that are used to produce a wide range of key intermediates and compounds. This protocol describes the environmentally benign N-formylation and N-methylation of primary and secondary amines using carbon dioxide (CO2) as the carbon source, hydrosilanes as reductants and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as catalysts. Using CO2 as a reagent has the advantage of low cost and negligible toxicity. However, the catalyst is air-sensitive and must be generated fresh before use; consequently, the techniques used to prepare and manipulate the catalyst are described. The synthetic approach described in this protocol does not use any toxic reagents; using the appropriate catalyst, N-formylated or N-methylated products can be obtained with high selectivity. The overall time for catalyst preparation and for conducting several catalytic reactions in parallel is 15-48 h, depending on the nature of the substrates.

  11. DFT Study of Mechanism of Extraction Reaction Between Germylene Carbene (H2Ge=C:) and Its Derivatives and Ethylene Oxide

    Xiu-hui Lu; Xin Che; Yong-qing Li; Zhi-na Wang


    The mechanism of the oxide extraction reaction between singlet germylene carbene and its derivatives X2Ge=C: (X=H, F, C1, CH3) and ethylene oxide has been investigated with B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) method. The results show that this kind of reaction has similar mechanism, the shift of 2p lone electron pair of O in ethylene oxide to the 2p unoccupied orbital of C in X2Ge=C: gives a p→p donor-acceptor bond, thereby leading to the formation of intermediate. As the p→p donor-acceptor bond continues to strengthen, that is the C-O bond continues to shorten, the intermediate generates product (P+C2H4) via transition state. It is the substituent electronegativity that mainly affect the extraction reactions. When the substituent electronegativity is greater, the energy barrier is lower, and the reaction rate is greater.

  12. Proton-Transfer Polymerization by N-Heterocyclic Carbenes: Monomer and Catalyst Scopes and Mechanism for Converting Dimethacrylates into Unsaturated Polyesters

    Hong, Miao


    This contribution presents a full account of experimental and theoretical/computational investigations into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed proton-transfer polymerization (HTP) that converts common dimethacrylates (DMAs) containing no protic groups into unsaturated polyesters. This new HTP proceeds through the step-growth propagation cycles via enamine intermediates, consisting of the proposed conjugate addition–proton transfer–NHC release fundamental steps. This study examines the monomer and catalyst scopes as well as the fundamental steps involved in the overall HTP mechanism. DMAs having six different types of linkages connecting the two methacrylates have been polymerized into the corresponding unsaturated polyesters. The most intriguing unsaturated polyester of the series is that based on the biomass-derived furfuryl dimethacrylate, which showed a unique self-curing ability Four MeO– and Cl–substituted TPT (1,3,4-triphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylidene) derivatives as methanol insertion products, RxTPT(MeO/H) (R = MeO, Cl; x = 2, 3), and two free carbenes (catalysts), OMe2TPT and OMe3TPT, have been synthesized, while OMe2TPT(MeO/H) and OMe2TPT have also been structurally characterized. The structure/reactivity relationship study revealed that OMe2TPT, being both a strong nucleophile and a good leaving group, exhibits the highest HTP activity and also produced the polyester with the highest Mn, while the Cl–substituted TPT derivatives are least active and efficient. Computational studies have provided mechanistic insights into the tail-to-tail dimerization coupling step as a suitable model for the propagation cycle of the HTP. The extensive energy profile was mapped out and the experimentally observed unicity of the TPT-based catalysts was satisfactorily explained with the thermodynamic formation of key spirocyclic species.

  13. Structures and stabilities of group 13 adducts [(NHC)(EX3)] and [(NHC)2(E2X(n))] (E=B to In; X=H, Cl; n=4, 2, 0; NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) and the search for hydrogen storage systems: a theoretical study.

    Holzmann, Nicole; Stasch, Andreas; Jones, Cameron; Frenking, Gernot


    Quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory at the BP86/TZVPP level and ab initio calculations at the SCS-MP2/TZVPP level have been carried out for the group 13 complexes [(NHC)(EX(3))] and [(NHC)(2)(E(2)X(n))] (E=B to In; X=H, Cl; n=4, 2, 0; NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene). The monodentate Lewis acids EX(3) and the bidentate Lewis acids E(2) X(n) bind N-heterocyclic carbenes rather strongly in donor-acceptor complexes [(NHC)(EX(3))] and [(NHC)(2)(E(2)X(n))]. The equilibrium structures of the bidentate complexes depend on the electronic reference state of E(2)X(n), which may vary for different atoms E and X. All complexes [(NHC)(2)(E(2)X(4))] possess C(s) symmetry in which the NHC ligands bind in a trans conformation to the group 13 atoms E. The complexes [(NHC)(2)(E(2)H(2))] with E=B, Al, Ga have also C(s) symmetry with a trans arrangement of the NHC ligands and a planar CE(H)E(H)C moiety that has a E=E π bond. In contrast, the indium complex [(NHC)(2)(In(2) H(2))] has C(i) symmetry with pyramidal-coordinated In atoms in which the hydrogen atoms are twisted above and below the CInInC plane. The latter C(i) form is calculated for all chloride systems [(NHC)(2)(E(2)Cl(2))], but the boron complex [(NHC)(2)(B(2)Cl(2))] deviates only slightly from C(s) symmetry. The B(2) fragment in the linear coordinated complex [(NHC)(2)(B(2))] has a highly excited (3)(1)Σ(g)(-) reference state, which gives an effective B≡B triple bond with a very short interatomic distance. The heavier homologues [(NHC)(2)(E(2))] (E=Al to In) exhibit a anti-periplanar arrangement of the NHC ligands in which the E(2) fragments have a (1)(1) Δ(g) reference state and an E=E double bond. The calculated energies suggest that the dihydrogen release from the complexes [(NHC)(EH(3))] and [(NHC)(2)(E(2)H(n))] becomes energetically more favourable when atom E becomes heavier. The indium complexes should therefore be the best candidates of the investigated series for hydrogen-storage systems

  14. Exploring new generations of ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts: The reactivity of a bis-ylidene ruthenium complex by DFT

    Poater, Albert


    Density functional theory calculations were used to predict the behaviour of a potential novel architecture of olefin metathesis catalysts, in which one of the neutral ligands of classical Ru-based catalysts, e.g. a phosphine or an N-heterocyclic carbene, is replaced by an alkylidene group. Introduction of a second alkylidene ligand favors dissociation of the remaining phosphine and the overall energy profile for the metathesis using ethylene as the probe substrate reveals that the proposed bis-alkylidene complexes might match the requirements of a good performing olefin metathesis catalyst. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Synthesis, Structure, and Photophysical Properties of Two Four-Coordinate Cu(I)-NHC Complexes with Efficient Delayed Fluorescence.

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Caijun; Wang, Weizhou; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming; Zhang, Xiaohong


    Two luminescent cationic heteroleptic four-coordinate Cu(I) complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene ligand and diphosphine ligand were successfully prepared and characterized. These complexes adopt typical distorted tetrahedral configuration and have high stability in solid state. Quantum chemical calculations show carbene units have contributions to both highest occupied molecular orbitals and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of these Cu(I)-NHC complexes, the lowest-lying singlet and triplet excitations (S0 → S1 and S0 → T1) of [Cu(Pyim)(POP)](PF6) are dominated by metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transition, while the S0 → S1 and S0 → T1 excitations of [Cu(Qbim)(POP)](PF6) are mainly MLCT and ligand-centered transitions, respectively. These Cu(I)-NHC complexes show efficient long-lifetime emissions (λem = 520 nm, τ = 79.8 μs, Φ = 0.56 for [Cu(Pyim)(POP)](PF6), λem = 570 nm, τ = 31.97 μs (78.99%) and 252.2 μs (21.01%), Φ = 0.35 for [Cu(Qbim)(POP)](PF6)) in solid state at room temperature, which are confirmed as delayed fluorescence by investigating the emissions at 77 K.

  16. Induction of immunogenic cell death by chemotherapeutic platinum complexes.

    Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Ong, Wendy Wei Fang; Ang, Wee Han


    There is compelling evidence suggesting that the immune-modulating effects of many conventional chemotherapeutics, including platinum-based agents, play a crucial role in achieving clinical response. One way in which chemotherapeutics can engage a tumor-specific immune response is by triggering an immunogenic mode of tumor cell death (ICD), which then acts as an "anticancer vaccine". In spite of being a mainstay of chemotherapy, there has not been a systematic attempt to screen both existing and upcoming Pt agents for their ICD ability. A library of chemotherapeutically active Pt agents was evaluated in an in vitro phagocytosis assay, and no correlation between cytotoxicity and phagocytosis was observed. A Pt(II) N-heterocyclic carbene complex was found to display the characteristic hallmarks of a type II ICD inducer, namely focused oxidative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, calreticulin exposure, and both HMGB1 and ATP release, and thus identified as the first small-molecule immuno-chemotherapeutic agent.

  17. Ruthenium(II) Complexes Containing Lutidine-Derived Pincer CNC Ligands: Synthesis, Structure, and Catalytic Hydrogenation of C-N bonds.

    Hernández-Juárez, Martín; López-Serrano, Joaquín; Lara, Patricia; Morales-Cerón, Judith P; Vaquero, Mónica; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Salazar, Verónica; Suárez, Andrés


    A series of Ru complexes containing lutidine-derived pincer CNC ligands have been prepared by transmetalation with the corresponding silver-carbene derivatives. Characterization of these derivatives shows both mer and fac coordination of the CNC ligands depending on the wingtips of the N-heterocyclic carbene fragments. In the presence of tBuOK, the Ru-CNC complexes are active in the hydrogenation of a series of imines. In addition, these complexes catalyze the reversible hydrogenation of phenantridine. Detailed NMR spectroscopic studies have shown the capability of the CNC ligand to be deprotonated and get involved in ligand-assisted activation of dihydrogen. More interestingly, upon deprotonation, the Ru-CNC complex 5 e(BF4 ) is able to add aldimines to the metal-ligand framework to yield an amido complex. Finally, investigation of the mechanism of the hydrogenation of imines has been carried out by means of DFT calculations. The calculated mechanism involves outer-sphere stepwise hydrogen transfer to the C-N bond assisted either by the pincer ligand or a second coordinated H2 molecule.

  18. Synthesis and properties of mononuclear group 10 alkoxy-biscarbene complexes.

    López-Alberca, María P; Mancheño, María J; Fernández, Israel; Gómez-Gallego, Mar; Sierra, Miguel A; Torres, Rosario


    The synthesis, isolation, and complete characterization (NMR and X-Ray diffraction techniques) of stable mononuclear (palladium and platinum) alkoxy-biscarbene complexes is reported. These compounds are easily accessible through stoichiometric transmetalation reactions from Fischer alkoxy-chromium(0) carbene complexes. By a combination of experimental (UV/Vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry) and computational methods (DFT), the structure, bonding situation, and the electronic and redox properties of these complexes are studied. Although they have structures quite similar, their electronic properties strongly depend on the metal and also on the substitution in the aromatic rings in the aniline moieties. Electron-withdrawing groups stabilize the HOMO causing the shifting of the oxidation waves to lower anodic potentials in the corresponding cyclic voltammograms.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and luminescence studies of gold(I–NHC amide complexes

    Adrián Gómez-Suárez


    Full Text Available A flexible, efficient and straightforward methodology for the synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbene gold(I–amide complexes is reported. Reaction of the versatile building block [Au(OH(IPr] (1 (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenylimidazol-2-ylidene with a series of commercially available (heteroaromatic amines leads to the synthesis of several [Au(NRR’(IPr] complexes in good yields and with water as the sole byproduct. Interestingly, these complexes present luminescence properties. UV–vis and fluorescence measurements have allowed the identification of their excitation and emission wavelengths (λmax. These studies revealed that by selecting the appropriate amine ligand the emission can be easily tuned to achieve a variety of colors, from violet to green.

  20. Metal complexes with oxygen-functionalized NHC ligands: synthesis and applications.

    Hameury, Sophie; de Frémont, Pierre; Braunstein, Pierre


    Ligand design has met with considerable success with both categories of hybrid ligands, which are characterized by chemically different donor groups, and of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs). Their spectacular development and diversity are attracting worldwide interest and offers almost unlimited diversity and potential in e.g. coordination/organometallic main group and transition metal chemistry, catalysis, medicinal chemistry and materials science. This review aims at providing a comprehensive update on a specific class of ligands that has enjoyed much attention in the past few years, at the intersection between the two categories mentioned above, that of hybrid NHC ligands in which the functionality associated with the carbene donor is of the oxygen-donor type. For each type of oxygen-donor present in such chelating (Section 1) or bridging (Section 2) hybrid ligands, we will examine the synthesis, structures and reactivity of their metal complexes and their applications, with a special focus on homogeneous catalysis (Section 3). Thus, hydrogenation, C-H bond activation, C-C, C-N, C-O bond formation, hydrolysis of silanes, oligomerization, polymerization, metathesis, hydrosilylation, C-C bond cleavage, acceptorless dehydrogenation, dehalogenation/hydrogen transfer, oxidation and reduction reactions will be successively presented in a tabular manner, to facilitate an overview and a rapid identification of the relevant publications describing which metals associated with a given oxygen functionality are most suitable. The literature coverage includes the year 2015.

  1. Rhodium, iridium and nickel complexes with a 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene tris-MIC ligand. Study of the electronic properties and catalytic activities

    Carmen Mejuto


    Full Text Available The coordination versatility of a 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene-tris-mesoionic carbene ligand is illustrated by the preparation of complexes with three different metals: rhodium, iridium and nickel. The rhodium and iridium complexes contained the [MCl(COD] fragments, while the nickel compound contained [NiCpCl]. The preparation of the tris-MIC (MIC = mesoionic carbene complex with three [IrCl(CO2] fragments, allowed the estimation of the Tolman electronic parameter (TEP for the ligand, which was compared with the TEP value for a related 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene-tris-NHC ligand. The electronic properties of the tris-MIC ligand were studied by cyclic voltammetry measurements. In all cases, the tris-MIC ligand showed a stronger electron-donating character than the corresponding NHC-based ligands. The catalytic activity of the tri-rhodium complex was tested in the addition reaction of arylboronic acids to α,β-unsaturated ketones.

  2. Reactivity of Me-pma RhI and IrI Complexes upon Deprotonation and Their Application in Catalytic Carbene Carbonylation Reactions

    Tang, Zhou; Tejel, Cristina; Martinez De Sarasa Buchaca, Marc; Lutz, Martin; Van Der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; De Bruin, Bas


    Dehydrogenative oxidation of amines is a relevant process in metal-mediated catalysis, with the amines being either substrates or ligands. Transformation of amine- into imine-type ligands in the coordination sphere of a transition metal can be an important catalyst activation process. The behaviour

  3. Reactivity of Me-pma Rh-I and Ir-I Complexes upon Deprotonation and Their Application in Catalytic Carbene Carbonylation Reactions

    Tang, Z.; Tejel, C.; de Sarasa Buchaca, M.A.; Lutz, M.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; de Bruin, B.


    Dehydrogenative oxidation of amines is a relevant process in metal-mediated catalysis, with the amines being either substrates or ligands. Transformation of amine- into imine-type ligands in the coordination sphere of a transition metal can be an important catalyst activation process. The behaviour

  4. Alkali-Metal-Mediated Magnesiations of an N-Heterocyclic Carbene: Normal, Abnormal, and "Paranormal" Reactivity in a Single Tritopic Molecule.

    Martínez-Martínez, Antonio J; Fuentes, M Ángeles; Hernán-Gómez, Alberto; Hevia, Eva; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; O'Hara, Charles T


    Herein the sodium alkylmagnesium amide [Na4Mg2(TMP)6(nBu)2] (TMP=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide), a template base as its deprotonating action is dictated primarily by its 12 atom ring structure, is studied with the common N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) IPr [1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]. Remarkably, magnesiation of IPr occurs at the para-position of an aryl substituent, sodiation occurs at the abnormal C4 position, and a dative bond occurs between normal C2 and sodium, all within a 20 atom ring structure accommodating two IPr(2-). Studies with different K/Mg and Na/Mg bimetallic bases led to two other magnesiated NHC structures containing two or three IPr(-) monoanions bound to Mg through abnormal C4 sites. Synergistic in that magnesiation can only work through alkali-metal mediation, these reactions add magnesium to the small cartel of metals capable of directly metalating a NHC.

  5. Insights into the Competing Mechanisms and Origin of Enantioselectivity for N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Reaction of Aldehyde with Enamide

    Qiao, Yan; Chen, Xinhuan; Wei, Donghui; Chang, Junbiao


    Hydroacylation reactions and aza-benzoin reactions have attracted considerable attention from experimental chemists. Recently, Wang et al. reported an interesting reaction of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-catalyzed addition of aldehyde to enamide, in which both hydroacylation and aza-benzoin reactions may be involved. Thus, understanding the competing relationship between them is of great interest. Now, density functional theory (DFT) investigation was performed to elucidate this issue. Our results reveal that enamide can tautomerize to its imine isomer with the assistance of HCO3‑. The addition of NHC to aldehydes formed Breslow intermediate, which can go through cross-coupling with enamide via hydroacylation reaction or its imine isomer via aza-benzoin reaction. The aza-benzoin reaction requires relatively lower free energy barrier than the hydroacylation reaction. The more polar characteristic of C=N group in the imine isomers, and the more advantageous stereoelectronic effect in the carbon-carbon bond forming transition states in aza-benzoin pathway were identified to determine that the imine isomer can react with the Breslow intermediate more easily. Furthermore, the origin of enantioselectivities for the reaction was explored and reasonably explained by structural analyses on key transition states. The work should provide valuable insights for rational design of switchable NHC-catalyzed hydroacylation and aza-benzoin reactions with high stereoselectivity.

  6. N-heterocyclic carbene-assisted, bis(phosphine)nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings of diarylborinic acids with aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates.

    Ke, Haihua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Zou, Gang


    Efficient bis(phosphine)nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings of diarylborinic acids with aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates have been effected with an assistance of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) generated in situ from N,N'-dialkylimidazoliums, e.g., N-butyl-N'-methylimidazolium bromide ([Bmim]Br), in toluene using K3PO4·3H2O as base. In contrast to bis(NHC)nickel-catalyzed conventional Suzuki coupling of arylboronic acids, mono(NHC)bis(phosphine)nickel species generated in situ from Ni(PPh3)2Cl2/[Bmim]Br displayed high catalytic activities in the cross-couplings of diarylborinic acids. The structural influences from diarylborinic acids were found to be rather small, while electronic factors from aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates affected the couplings remarkably. The couplings of electronically activated aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates could be efficiently effected with 1.5 mol % NiCl2(PPh3)2/[Bmim]Br as catalyst precursor to give the biaryl products in excellent yields, while 3-5 mol % loadings had to be used for the couplings of non- and deactivated ones. A small ortho-substitutent on the aromatic ring of aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates was tolerable. Applicability of the nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings in practical synthesis of fine chemicals has been demonstrated in process development for a third-generation topical retinoid, Adapalene.

  7. Different behavior of nitrenes and carbenes on photolysis and thermolysis: formation of azirine, ylidic cumulene, and cyclic ketenimine and the rearrangement of 6-phenanthridylcarbene to 9-phenanthrylnitrene.

    Kvaskoff, David; Bednarek, Pawel; George, Lisa; Pankajakshan, Sreekumar; Wentrup, Curt


    Flash vacuum thermolysis (FVT) of 9-azidophenanthrene 8, 6-(5-tetrazolyl)phenanthridine 18, and [1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-f]phenanthridine 19 yields 9-cyanofluorene 12 as the principal product and 4-cyanofluorene as a minor product. In all cases, when the product is condensed at or below 77 K, the seven-membered ring ketenimine 24 is detectable by IR spectroscopy (1932 cm(-1)) up to 200 K. Photolysis of Ar matrix isolated 8 at lambda = 308 or 313 nm generates at first the azirine 26, rapidly followed by the ylidic cumulene 27. The latter reverts to azirine 26 at lambda > 405 nm, and the azirine reverts to the ylidic cumulene at 313 nm. Nitrene 9 is observed by ESR spectroscopy following FVT of either azide 8, tetrazole 18, or triazole 19 with Ar matrix isolation of the products. Nitrene 9 and carbene 21 are observed by ESR spectroscopy in the Ar matrix photolyses of azide 8 and triazole 19, respectively.

  8. Aryl-NHC-group 13 trimethyl complexes: structural, stability and bonding insights

    Wu, Melissa M.


    Treatment of aromatic N-substituted N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) with trimethyl-gallium and -indium yielded the new Lewis acid-base adducts, IMes·GaMe3 (1), SIMes·GaMe3 (2), IPr·GaMe3 (3), SIPr·GaMe3 (4), IMes·InMe3 (5), SIMes·InMe3 (6), IPr·InMe3 (7), and SIPr·InMe3 (8), with all complexes being identified by X-ray diffraction, IR, and multinuclear NMR analyses. Complex stability was found to be largely dependent on the nature of the constituent NHC ligands. Percent buried volume (%VBur) and topographic steric map analyses were employed to quantify and elucidate the observed trends. Additionally, a detailed bond snapping energy (BSE) decomposition analysis focusing on both steric and orbital interactions of the M-NHC bond (M = Al, Ga and In) has been performed.

  9. Ruthenium-catalyzed olefin metathesis accelerated by the steric effect of the backbone substituent in cyclic (alkyl)(amino) carbenes.

    Zhang, Jun; Song, Shangfei; Wang, Xiao; Jiao, Jiajun; Shi, Min


    Three ruthenium complexes bearing backbone-monosubstituted CAACs were prepared and displayed dramatic improvement in catalytic efficiency not only in RCM reaction but also in the ethenolysis of methyl oleate, compared to those bearing backbone-disubstituted CAACs.

  10. Dinuclear NHC-palladium complexes containing phosphine spacers: synthesis, X-ray structures and their catalytic activities towards the Hiyama coupling reaction.

    Yang, Jin; Li, Pinhua; Zhang, Yicheng; Wang, Lei


    Six dinuclear N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) palladium complexes, [PdCl2(IMes)]2(μ-dppe) (1), [PdCl2(IPr)]2(μ-dppe) (2), [PdCl2(IMes)]2(μ-dppb) (3), [PdCl2(IPr)]2(μ-dppb) (4), [PdCl2(IMes)]2(μ-dpph) (5), and [PdCl2(IPr)]2(μ-dpph) (6) [IMes = N,N'-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; IPr = N,N'-bis-(2,6-di(iso-propyl)phenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; dppe = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane, dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane; and dpph = 1,6-bis(diphenylphosphino)hexane], have been synthesized through bridge-cleavage reactions of chloro-bridged dimeric compounds, [Pd(μ-Cl)(Cl)(NHC)]2, with the corresponding diphosphine ligands. The obtained compounds were fully characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and (31)P NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR, elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Moreover, further explorations of the catalytic potential of the dinuclear carbene palladium complexes as catalysts for the Pd-catalyzed transformations have been performed under microwave irradiation conditions, and the complexes exhibited moderate to good catalytic activity in the Hiyama coupling reaction of trimethoxyphenylsilane with aryl chlorides.

  11. 吡啶氮桥联三唑卡宾反应性质及其Pd(Ⅱ)-配合物催化杂芳环与芳基溴的α-烷基化反应研究%Study on Reactivity of Pyrido-annulated Triazol-3-ylidenes and Its Application of Pd(Ⅱ)Complex in α-Arylation of Caffeines with Aryl Bromide

    马亚军; 严彪; 郭政科; 赵明涛; 韩海飞; 程芬芬; 葛靖国; 王金龙; 张岗虎


    The triazolium carbene 2 and the pyrido-annulated triazolium carbene enetetramine 4 were synthesized from the pyrido-annulated triazolium salt 1 by deproton under strong base NaH and weak base K2CO3.The reaction performances of the carbene 2 and its enetetramine 4 with electrophilic reagents had also been studied, and the X-ray single-crystal analysis of the product N-ehthyl-N-(pyridine-1-yl)formohy-drazide 3 was studied.Reaction condition effect was tested.The Pd(Ⅱ) complex of the triazolium carbene 2 turned out to be a powerful catalyst in direct α-arylation of caffeines with aryl bromide, which was comparable with or even superior to other well-established triazolylidenes already in the literature.%报道了吡啶氮桥联的双环三唑鎓盐1在NaH,K2CO3为碱的条件下脱去质子,分别形成三唑卡宾2和吡啶氮桥联三唑卡宾二聚体4,研究了2和4与亲电试剂的反应性质,2与水的反应产物Ⅳ-乙基-N'-吡啶基甲醛肼3经单晶衍射结构分析.考察了配体1的卡宾-Pd(Ⅱ)配合物催化咖啡因与芳基溴的α-芳基化反应,在优化催化反应条件下,比较了不同三唑鎓盐之间的催化活性.结果表明,三唑鎓盐1表现出优良的催化活性.

  12. Synthesis of Novel N-heterocyclic Carbene Precursor Salts of Chiral Tetrahydropyrimidinium%新型手性四氢嘧啶氮杂环卡宾前体盐的合成

    赵迎春; 李杰; 张利; 徐亮


    A series of novel chiral 3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts, the precursor of N-heterocyclic carbene ligands, were desinged and synthesized from (IS,3S)-1,3-diphenyl-1 ,3-propanediamine. The structures were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HR-MS.%以1,3-二苯基-l,3-二胺为原料,设计并合成了一系列新的手性四氢嘧啶氮杂环卡宾前体盐,其结构经1H NMR,13C NMR和HR-MS表征.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of new N-heterocyclic carbene ligands: 1,3-Bis(acetamide)imidazol-3-ium bromide and 3-(acetamide)-1-(3-aminopropyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium bromide

    Turkyilmaz, Murat; Uluçam, Gühergül; Aktaş, Şaban; Okan, S. Erol


    Two new pincer type N-heterocyclic carbene ligands were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by FTIR, NMR (1H, 13C) GC-MS and elemental analyses. They were also both modelled by DFT calculations as the crystal structure of 1,3-bis(acetamide)imidazol-3-ium bromide was determined by XRD which is an orthorhombic system with space group P21212. The structural analyses in gas phase were realized by comparing the experimental NMR and IR spectra with those of the theoretical calculations. In vitro biological activities of the molecules were determined and found that one of them exhibits significant cytotoxic activity.

  14. Binding of molecular oxygen by an artificial heme analogue: investigation on the formation of an Fe–tetracarbene superoxo complex

    Anneser, Markus R.


    The dioxygen reactivity of a cyclic iron(II) tetra–NHC-complex (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbene) is investigated. Divergent oxidation behavior is observed depending on the choice of the solvent (acetonitrile or acetone). In the first case, exposure to molecular oxygen leads to an oxygen free Fe(III) whereas in the latter case an oxide bridged Fe(III) dimer is formed. In acetone, an Fe(III)-superoxide can be trapped, isolated and characterized as intermediate at low temperatures. An Fe(III)–O–Fe(III) dimer is formed from the Fe(III) superoxide in acetone upon warming and the molecular structure has been revealed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It is shown that the oxidation of the Fe(II) complex in both solvents is a reversible process. For the regeneration of the initial Fe(II) complex both organic and inorganic reducing agents can be used.

  15. Making oxidation potentials predictable: Coordination of additives applied to the electronic fine tuning of an iron(II) complex

    Haslinger, Stefan


    This work examines the impact of axially coordinating additives on the electronic structure of a bioinspired octahedral low-spin iron(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (Fe-NHC) complex. Bearing two labile trans-acetonitrile ligands, the Fe-NHC complex, which is also an excellent oxidation catalyst, is prone to axial ligand exchange. Phosphine- and pyridine-based additives are used for substitution of the acetonitrile ligands. On the basis of the resulting defined complexes, predictability of the oxidation potentials is demonstrated, based on a correlation between cyclic voltammetry experiments and density functional theory calculated molecular orbital energies. Fundamental insights into changes of the electronic properties upon axial ligand exchange and the impact on related attributes will finally lead to target-oriented manipulation of the electronic properties and consequently to the effective tuning of the reactivity of bioinspired systems.

  16. Synthesis of precursors to and spectroscopic characterization of highly unsaturated carbenes and diradicals and development and implementation of a web-based stereochemistry tutorial

    Burrmann, Nicola Jean

    A variety of substituted diynols, diynals, and diynones have been prepared en route to the synthesis of precursors to dialkynyl carbenes (R1--C≡C--C--C≡C--R 2). In light of the unique reactivity associated with these simple systems, several strategies were required to assemble the carbon backbones (Chapter I). Tosylhydrazone and trisylhydrazone precursors to 2-diazo-3-pentyne ( 1), 2-diazo-3-butyne (2), and Idiazo-2-butyne ( 3) were synthesized and then converted into their respective diazo compounds. Various attempts to study these diazo compounds using matrix isolation IR and EPR spectroscopy were made and proved to be unsuccessful. Computations were done to characterize the C5H6 potential energy surface, as well as to determine the IR vibrational frequencies of the isomers on this surface (Chapter 2). A web-based Stereochemistry Tutorial that details the core definitions and structural representations relevant to organic stereochemistry was designed and implemented into several introductory-level organic chemistry classes. This tutorial also allows for students to select their preferred structural representation and method for making stereochemical comparisons between molecules. The tutorial was evaluated, either qualitatively, quantitatively, or both, by students in three different introductory organic chemistry courses at the University of Wisconsin---Madison. The data show that students did use a variety of different methods for making stereochemical comparisons between molecules, and that prior exposure to lectures on stereochemistry by the course professor strongly influenced these choices. Furthermore, the level of improvement in stereochemical knowledge as a result of using only the tutorial was comparable to, or higher than, that achieved by students who were only exposed to lectures by the course professor, regardless of the method chosen for making stereochemical comparisons between molecules (Chapter 3)

  17. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Silica Material Derived from a Monosilylated Grubbs-Hoveyda Ruthenium Carbene as a Recyclable Metathesis Catalyst

    Michel Wong Chi Man


    Full Text Available The synthesis of a monosilylated Grubbs-Hoveyda ruthenium alkylidene complex is described, as well as the preparation and characterization of the corresponding material by sol-gel cogelification with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and the assay of this recyclable supported catalyst in ring-closing diene and enyne metathesis reactions under thermal and microwave conditions.

  18. DNA-Accelerated Catalysis of Carbene-Transfer Reactions by a DNA/Cationic Iron Porphyrin Hybrid

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Oelerich, Jens; Ségaud, Nathalie; Roelfes, Gerard


    A novel DNA-based hybrid catalyst comprised of salmon testes DNA and an iron(III) complex of a cationic meso-tetrakis(N-alkylpyridyl)porphyrin was developed. When the N-methyl substituents were placed at the ortho position with respect to the porphyrin ring, high reactivity in catalytic

  19. Chiral Sulfur Functional Groups as Definers of the Chirality at the Metal in Ir- and Rh-Half Sandwich Complexes: A Combined CD-X-ray Study.

    Sierra, Miguel A; de la Torre, Maria C; Fernandez de la Pradilla, Roberto; Viso, Alma; Frutos, Maria; Avello, Marta G; Velado, Marina; Gornitzka, Heinz; Hemmert, Catherine


    Mesoionic carbenes (MIC) derived from triazolium salts containing chiral sulfoxide or sulfoximine functional groups lead to enantiopure chiral-at-metal Ir(III) and Rh(III) half-sandwich complexes, through the sequence MIC complexation-C-H aromatic activation. The process is efficient and totally diastereoselective in the formation of enantiopure five membered metallacycles. The use of the enantiomers of the sulfur chiral groups allows to prepare complexes having opposite configurations at the metal. Complete retention of the configuration at the metal center is observed during the formation of cationic Ir(III) complexes and upon insertion of alkynes into the Ir(III)-C bond, as demonstrated by a combined Circular Dichroism (CD)-X-ray study. These results point to vicinal assisted SN-like processes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Singlet-triplet energy differences in divalent five membered cyclic conjugated Arduengo-type carbenes XC2HN2M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb; X = F, Cl, Br, and I)

    Vessally, Esmail; Dehbandi, Behnam; Ahmadi, Elaheh


    Singlet-triplet energy differences in Arduengo-type carbenes XC2HN2C compared and contrasted with their sila, germa, stana and plumba analogues; at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Free Gibbs energy differences between triplet (t) and singlet (s) states (Δ G(t-s)) change in the following order: plumbylenes > stannylenes > germylenes > silylenes > carbenes. The singlet states in XC2HN2C are generally more stable when the electron withdrawing groups such as-F was used at β-position. However, the singlet states in XC2N2HM (M = Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) are generally more stable when the withdrawing groups such as-F was placed. The puckering energy is investigated for each the singlet and triplet states. The DFT calculations found the linear correlation to size of the group 14 divalent element (M), the ∠N-M-N angle, and the Δ(LUMO-HOMO) of XC2HN2M.

  1. Synthesis and Structures of [LCu(I)(SSi(i)Pr3)] (L = triphos, carbene) and Related Compounds.

    Ferrara, Skylar J; Wang, Bo; Haas, Elaine; Wright LeBlanc, Karry; Mague, Joel T; Donahue, James P


    The mononuclear Cu(I) complexes [LCu(I)(SSi(i)Pr3)] (L = 1,1,1-tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane (triphos), 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (IMes)) have been prepared by ligand displacement from [LCu(I)Cl] with (i)Pr3SiS(-). Both compounds are colorless, diamagnetic species and have been characterized structurally by X-ray crystallography. The compounds [(IMes)Cu(η(1)κ(S)-SC(O)CH3)] and [(triphos)Cu(η(1)κ(S)-SC(S)OCH3)] have been prepared in the context of synthesis aimed at [LCu(η(1)κ(S)-SCOS)] and [LCu(η(1)κ(S)-SCS2)] complexes, which are intended as synthons toward an analogue of the Mo(μ-OSCO)Cu intermediate proposed as occurring in the catalytic cycle of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH).

  2. Palladium-catalyzed heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides in aqueous media using tetrahydropyrimidinium salts as carbene ligands.

    Yaşar, Sedat; Ozcan, Emine Ozge; Gürbüz, Nevin; Cetinkaya, Bekir; Ozdemir, Ismail


    An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX) and Pd(OAc)2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reaction of Aryl Bromides in Aqueous Media Using Tetrahydropyrimidinium Salts as Carbene Ligands

    İsmail Özdemir


    Full Text Available An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX and Pd(OAc2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.

  4. Gold Functionalized Platinum M12L24-Nanospheres and Their Application in Cyclization Reactions

    Leenders, S.H.A.M.; Dürr, M.; Ivanović-Burmazović, I.; Reek, J.N.H.


    Nanospheres can be formed by combining 24 bispyridinyl building blocks with a palladium or platinum precursor. These spheres can be functionalized on the inside with a gold(I) chloride complex leading to a high local concentration of gold(I) complexes. The high local concentration makes the neutral

  5. Ultrasmall NHC-coated gold nanoparticles obtained through solvent free thermolysis of organometallic Au(i) complexes.

    Crespo, Julián; Guari, Yannick; Ibarra, Alfonso; Larionova, Joulia; Lasanta, Tania; Laurencin, Danielle; López-de-Luzuriaga, José M; Monge, Miguel; Olmos, M Elena; Richeter, Sébastien


    Ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (Au UNPs) represent a unique class of nanomaterials making them very attractive for certain applications. Herein, we developed an organometallic approach to the synthesis of Au UNPs stabilized with the C18H37-NHC ligand by the solvent free thermolysis of [RMIM][Au(C6F5)2] () or [Au(C6F5)(RNHC)] () (with R = C18H37-), by controlling the reactivity of pentafluorophenyl ligands as deprotonating or reductive elimination agents; Au UNPs can be achieved by solvent free thermolysis. Pentafluorophenyl Au(i) complexes and are synthesized from the corresponding ionic and neutral precursors. The presence of long alkyl chain imidazolium or carbene species in the complexes makes them to behave as isotropic liquids at moderate temperatures. The use of multinuclear NMR allows the description of the mechanism of formation of the UNPs as well as the surface state of the UNPs.

  6. Remarkable catalytic activity of dinitrogen-bridged dimolybdenum complexes bearing NHC-based PCP-pincer ligands toward nitrogen fixation

    Eizawa, Aya; Arashiba, Kazuya; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Kuriyama, Shogo; Matsuo, Yuki; Nakajima, Kazunari; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki


    Intensive efforts for the transformation of dinitrogen using transition metal-dinitrogen complexes as catalysts under mild reaction conditions have been made. However, limited systems have succeeded in the catalytic formation of ammonia. Here we show that newly designed and prepared dinitrogen-bridged dimolybdenum complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene- and phosphine-based PCP-pincer ligands [{Mo(N2)2(PCP)}2(μ-N2)] (1) work as so far the most effective catalysts towards the formation of ammonia from dinitrogen under ambient reaction conditions, where up to 230 equiv. of ammonia are produced based on the catalyst. DFT calculations on 1 reveal that the PCP-pincer ligand serves as not only a strong σ-donor but also a π-acceptor. These electronic properties are responsible for a solid connection between the molybdenum centre and the pincer ligand, leading to the enhanced catalytic activity for nitrogen fixation.

  7. Dehydrocoupling reactions of dimethylamine-borane by Pt(II) complexes: a new mechanism involving deprotonation of boronium cations.

    Roselló-Merino, Marta; López-Serrano, Joaquín; Conejero, Salvador


    Coordinatively unsaturated Pt(II) complex [Pt(I(t)Bu')(I(t)Bu)](+) stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands dehydrogenates N,N-dimethylamineborane through a mechanism that involves hydride abstraction, assisted by an amine, to yield a platinum-hydride complex [PtH(I(t)Bu')(I(t)Bu)] with concomitant formation of the boronium cation [(NHMe2)2BH2](+). This latter species is very likely in equilibrium with the THF stabilized borenium cation [(NHMe2)(THF)BH2](+), bearing an acidic NH group that is able to protonate the platinum hydride [PtH(I(t)Bu')(I(t)Bu)] releasing H2, the amino borane H2B-NMe2 and regenerating the catalytic [Pt](+) species.

  8. Catalytic Enantioselective Olefin Metathesis in Natural Product Synthesis. Chiral Metal-Based Complexes that Deliver High Enantioselectivity and More

    Malcolmson, Steven J.; Meek, Simon J.; Zhugralin, Adil R.


    Chiral olefin metathesis catalysts enable chemists to access enantiomerically enriched small molecules with high efficiency; synthesis schemes involving such complexes can be substantially more concise than those that would involve enantiomerically pure substrates and achiral Mo alkylidenes or Ru-based carbenes. The scope of research towards design and development of chiral catalysts is not limited to discovery of complexes that are merely the chiral versions of the related achiral variants. A chiral olefin metathesis catalyst, in addition to furnishing products of high enantiomeric purity, can offer levels of efficiency, product selectivity and/or olefin stereoselectivity that are unavailable through the achiral variants. Such positive attributes of chiral catalysts (whether utilized in racemic or enantiomerically enriched form) should be considered as general, applicable to other classes of transformations. PMID:19967680

  9. Recent advances in C(sp3)–H bond functionalization via metal–carbene insertions

    Wang, Bo; Qiu, Di; Zhang, Yan


    Summary The recent development of intermolecular C–H insertion in the application of C(sp3)–H bond functionalizations, especially for light alkanes, is reviewed. The challenging problem of regioselectivity in C–H bond insertions has been tackled by the use of sterically bulky metal catalysts, such as metal porphyrins and silver(I) complexes. In some cases, high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity have been achieved in the C–H bond insertion of small alkanes. This review highlights the most recent accomplishments in this field. PMID:27340470

  10. Recent advances in C(sp3–H bond functionalization via metal–carbene insertions

    Bo Wang


    Full Text Available The recent development of intermolecular C–H insertion in the application of C(sp3–H bond functionalizations, especially for light alkanes, is reviewed. The challenging problem of regioselectivity in C–H bond insertions has been tackled by the use of sterically bulky metal catalysts, such as metal porphyrins and silver(I complexes. In some cases, high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity have been achieved in the C–H bond insertion of small alkanes. This review highlights the most recent accomplishments in this field.

  11. Synthesis and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of Second-Generation Dendronized Poly(ether Monomers Initiated by Ruthenium Carbenes

    Guzmán Pablo E.


    Full Text Available The Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP of second-generation dendronized monomers is described. Using the highly active and fast-initiating third-generation ruthenium complex [(H2IMes(pyr2Cl2RuCHPh], moderate to high molecular weight polymers (430-2230 kDa are efficiently synthesized with low dispersities (Ð = 1.01-1.17. This study highlights the power of the metathesis approach toward polymer synthesis in a context where monomer structure can significantly impede polymerization.

  12. Regioselective Allene Hydrosilylation Catalyzed by NHC Complexes of Nickel and Palladium

    Miller, Zachary D.; Li, Wei; Belderrain, Tomás R.; Montgomery, John


    Regioselective methods for allene hydrosilylation have been developed, with regioselectivity being governed primarily by choice of metal. Alkenylsilanes are produced via nickel catalysis with larger N-heterocyclic carbene ligands, and allylsilanes are produced via palladium catalysis with smaller N-heterocyclic carbene ligands. These complementary methods allow either regioisomeric product to be obtained with exceptional regiocontrol. PMID:24079389

  13. Ruthenium carbenes supported on mesoporous silicas as highly active and selective hybrid catalysts for olefin metathesis reactions under continuous flow.

    Bru, Miriam; Dehn, Richard; Teles, J Henrique; Deuerlein, Stephan; Danz, Manuel; Müller, Imke B; Limbach, Michael


    In the search for a highly active and selective heterogenized metathesis catalyst, we systematically varied the pore geometry and size of various silica-based mesoporous (i.e., MCM-41, MCM-48, and SBA-15) and microporous (ZSM-5 and MWW) versus macroporous materials (D11-10 and Aerosil 200), besides other process parameters (temperature, dilution, and mean residence time). The activity and, especially, selectivity of such "linker-free" supports for ruthenium metathesis catalysts were evaluated in the cyclodimerization of cis-cyclooctene to form 1,9-cyclohexadecadiene, a valuable intermediate in the flavor and fragrance industry. The optimized material showed not only exceptionally high selectivity to the valuable product, but also turned out to be a truly heterogeneous catalyst with superior activity relative to the unsupported homogeneous complex.

  14. Organocatalytic conjugate-addition polymerization of linear and cyclic acrylic monomers by N-heterocyclic carbenes: Mechanisms of chain initiation, propagation, and termination

    Zhang, Yuetao


    This contribution presents a full account of experimental and theoretical/computational investigations into the mechanisms of chain initiation, propagation, and termination of the recently discovered N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-mediated organocatalytic conjugate-addition polymerization of acrylic monomers. The current study specifically focuses on three commonly used NHCs of vastly different nucleophilicity, 1,3-di-tert-butylimidazolin-2-ylidene (ItBu), 1,3- dimesitylimidazolin-2-ylidene (IMes), and 1,3,4-triphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4- triazol-5-ylidene (TPT), and two representative acrylic monomers, the linear methyl methacrylate (MMA) and its cyclic analog, biomass-derived renewable γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MMBL). For MMA, there exhibits an exquisite selectivity of the NHC structure for the three types of reactions it promotes: enamine formation (single-monomer addition) by IMes, dimerization (tail-to-tail) by TPT, and polymerization by ItBu. For MMBL, all three NHCs promote no dimerization but polymerization, with the polymerization activity being highly sensitive to the NHC structure and the solvent polarity. Thus, ItBu is the most active catalyst of the series and converts quantitatively 1000-3000 equiv of MMBL in 1 min or 10 000 equiv in 5 min at room temperature to MMBL-based bioplastics with a narrow range of molecular weights of Mn = 70-85 kg/mol, regardless of the [MMBL]/[ItBu] ratio employed. The ItBu-catalyzed MMBL polymerization reaches an exceptionally high turnover frequency up to 122 s -1 and a high initiator efficiency value up to 1600%. Unique chain-termination mechanisms have been revealed, accounting for the production of relative high-molecular-weight linear polymers and the catalytic nature of this NHC-mediated conjugate-addition polymerization. Computational studies have provided mechanistic insights into reactivity and selectivity between two competing pathways for each NHC-monomer zwitterionic adduct, namely enamine

  15. Insights into the catalytic activity of [Pd(NHC)(cin)Cl] (NHC = IPr, IPrCl, IPrBr) complexes in the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction

    Nolan, Steven Patrick


    The influence of C4,5-halogenation on palladium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes and their activity in the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction have been investigated. Two [Pd(NHC)(cin)Cl] complexes bearing IPrCl and IPrBr ligands were synthesized. After determining electronic and steric properties of these ligands, their properties were compared to those of [Pd(IPr)(cin)Cl]. The three palladium complexes were studied using DFT calculations to delineate their behaviour in the activation step leading to the putative 12-electron active catalyst. Experimentally, their catalytic activity in the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction involving a wide range of coupling partners (30 entries) at low catalyst loading was studied.

  16. Carney Complex

    ... Types of Cancer > Carney Complex Request Permissions Carney Complex Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is Carney complex? Carney complex is a hereditary condition associated with: ...

  17. Coordinatively unsaturated ruthenium complexes as efficient alkyneazide cycloaddition catalysts

    Lamberti, Marina


    The performance of 16-electron ruthenium complexes with the general formula Cp*Ru(L)X (in which L = phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene ligand; X = Cl or OCH2CF3) was explored in azidealkyne cycloaddition reactions that afford the 1,2,3- triazole products. The scope of the Cp*Ru(PiPr 3)Cl precatalyst was investigated for terminal alkynes leading to new 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in high yields. Mechanistic studies were conducted and revealed a number of proposed intermediates. Cp*Ru- (PiPr3)(2-HCCPh)Cl was observed and characterized by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR at temperatures between 273 and 213 K. A rare example of N,N-κ2-phosphazide complex, Cp*Ru(κ2- iPr3PN3Bn)Cl, was fully characterized, and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure was obtained. DFT calculations describe a complete map of the catalytic reactivity with phenylacetylene and/or benzylazide. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Nanostructured Thin Films Obtained from Fischer Aminocarbene Complexes

    Rosa E. Lazo-Jiménez


    Full Text Available The synthesis of four amphiphilic organometallic complexes with the general formula RC = M(CO5NH(CH215CH3, where R is a ferrocenyl 2(a-b or a phenyl 4(a-b group as a donor moiety and a Fischer carbene of chromium (0 or tungsten (0 as an acceptor group, are reported. These four push-pull systems formed Langmuir (L monolayers at the air-water interface, which were characterized by isotherms of surface pressure versus molecular area and compression/expansion cycles (hysteresis curves; Brewster angle microscopic images were also obtained. By using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB method, molecular monolayers were transferred onto glass substrates forming Z-type multilayers. LB films were characterized through ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Results indicated that films obtained from 2b complex [(Ferrocenyl(hexadecylaminemethylidene] pentacarbonyl tungsten (0 are the most stable and homogeneous; due to their properties, these materials may be incorporated into organic electronic devices.

  19. Complex Beauty

    Franceschet, Massimo


    Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...

  20. Gold-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,7-enyne esters to structurally diverse cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl ketones.

    Rao, Weidong; Sally; Koh, Ming Joo; Chan, Philip Wai Hong


    A synthetic method that relies on gold(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,7-enyne esters to prepare highly functionalized cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl ketone derivatives in good to excellent yields and as a single regio-, diastereo-, and enantiomer is described. By taking advantage of the distinctive differences in the electronic and steric properties between an NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) and phosphine ligand in the respective gold(I) complexes, a divergence in product selectivity was observed. In the presence of [PhCNAuIPr](+)SbF6(-) (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidine) as the catalyst, tandem 1,3-acyloxy migration/6-exo-trig cyclization/1,5-acyl migration of the substrate was found to selectively occur to give the δ-diketone-substituted 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine adduct. In contrast, reactions with the gold(I) phosphine complex [MeCNAu(JohnPhos)](+)SbF6(-) (JohnPhos = (1,1'-biphenyl-2-yl)-di-tert-butylphosphine) as the catalyst was discovered to result in preferential 1,3-acyloxy migration/6-exo-trig cyclization/hydrolysis of the 1,7-enyne ester and formation of the cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl ketone derivative. The utility of this piperidine forming strategy as a synthetic tool that makes use of 1,7-enyne esters was exemplified by its application to the synthesis of an enantiopure analogue of the bioactive 2,3,4,4a,5,9b-hexahydroindeno[1,2-c]pyridine family of compounds.

  1. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno


    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  2. Complexity explained

    Erdi, Peter


    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  3. Platinum(II) and platinum(IV) complexes stabilized by abnormal/mesoionic C4-bound dicarbenes.

    Khlebnikov, Vsevolod; Heckenroth, Marion; Müller-Bunz, Helge; Albrecht, Martin


    Platinum(II) complexes comprising abnormal diimidazolylidene ligands were synthesized from cis-PtMe(2)(DMSO)(2) using microwave-assisted double C-H bond activation. NMR analysis revealed an unusual solvolysis process, induced by coordinating solvents such as DMSO and MeCN, which has not been observed in related normal dicarbene complexes. NMR and IR spectroscopy and crystallographic analysis of the mono-substituted DMSO complex indicate a sulfur-bonding of the DMSO ligand to the platinum(II) center. Analysis of the DMSO exchange kinetics provided for the first time a quantitative measure of the trans effect of abnormal carbene ligands. The kinetic exchange rate in these bidentate abnormal dicarbene complexes is 0.050(±2) s(-1) and thus similar to analogous platinum(II) complexes containing phenylpyridine, yet significantly slower than that induced by pyridylidene pyridine. Reaction of the dicarbene platinum(II) complexes with PhICl(2), Br(2) and I(2) afforded the corresponding platinum(IV) complexes. Linkage isomerism of the Pt(IV)-bound DMSO was observed when the bromination reaction was performed in DMSO solution. Moreover, solvolysis was less pronounced in the platinum(IV) complexes than in the corresponding platinum(II) analogues.

  4. Novel synthetic route to molybdenum hydrido-thiocarbamoyl and hydrosulfido-carbyne complexes by reactions of trans-Mo(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} with N,N-dimethylthioformamide

    Luo, X.L.; Kubas, G.J.; Burns, C.J.; Butcher, R.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    The reactions of bis(dinitrogen)molybdenum complexes trans-Mo(N{sub 2}){sub 2}(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} (R = Ph, Et) with N,N-dimethylthioformamide (HC(S)NMe{sub 2}) in refluxing benzene under argon give the molybdenum hydrido-thiocarbamoyl complexes MoH({eta}{sup 2}-C(S)NMe{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} (R = Ph (1a), Et (1b)). On heating at 125{degree}C in toluene solutions, compounds 1a and 1b rearrange to form the molybdenum hydrosulfido-aminocarbyne complexes trans-Mo(SH)-(=CNMe{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} (R = Ph (2a), Et (2b)). A mechanism is proposed for this thermal rearrangement which involves migration of the hydride ligand from molybdenum to the sulfur atom of the thiocarbamoyl ligand to give the 16-electron Fischer carbene intermediate Mo-(=C(SH)NMe{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PC{sub 2}H{sub 4}PR{sub 2}){sub 2}, followed by migration of the hydrosulfido group from the carbene carbon to molybdenum. The molecular structures of compounds 1a and 2a have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. 30 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Bucolic Complexes

    Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian


    In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...

  6. Highly nucleophilic acetylide, vinyl, and vinylidene complexes. Final progress report, 1 January 1991--31 March 1994

    Geoffroy, G.L.


    In the course of this research the authors found that the anionic alkynyl complex [Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 3}]{sup {minus}} can be generated in situ by the addition of two equivalents of n-BuLi to a solution of the carbene complex Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{double_bond}C(OMe)CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}. It was also found that the highly nucleophilic propynyl complex [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-Me]{sup {minus}} reacts with a variety of aldehydes and ketones in the presence of BF{sub 3}{center_dot}Et{sub 2}O to give, after quenching with MeOH, a series of cationic vinylcarbyne complexes of the general form [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{triple_bond}C-C(Me){double_bond}C(R)(R{prime})]BF{sub 4}. The cationic alkylidyne complexes [Cp(CO){sub 2}M{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 2}R]{sup +} [M = Re, R = H, M = Mn, R = H, Me, Ph] have been found to undergo facile deprotonation to give the corresponding neutral vinylidene complexes Cp(CO){sub 2}M{double_bond}C{double_bond}C(H)R. The authors have also investigated reactions relevant to the halide promoted Fe and Ru catalyzed carbonylation of nitroaromatics. The final part of this work has involved investigations of metal-oxo complexes.

  7. Neutral zero-valent s-block complexes with strong multiple bonding

    Arrowsmith, Merle; Braunschweig, Holger; Celik, Mehmet Ali; Dellermann, Theresa; Dewhurst, Rian D.; Ewing, William C.; Hammond, Kai; Kramer, Thomas; Krummenacher, Ivo; Mies, Jan; Radacki, Krzysztof; Schuster, Julia K.


    The metals of the s block of the periodic table are well known to be exceptional electron donors, and the vast majority of their molecular complexes therefore contain these metals in their fully oxidized form. Low-valent main-group compounds have recently become desirable synthetic targets owing to their interesting reactivities, sometimes on a par with those of transition-metal complexes. In this work, we used stabilizing cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene ligands to isolate and characterize the first neutral compounds that contain a zero-valent s-block metal, beryllium. These brightly coloured complexes display very short beryllium-carbon bond lengths and linear beryllium coordination geometries, indicative of strong multiple Be-C bonding. Structural, spectroscopic and theoretical results show that the complexes adopt a closed-shell singlet configuration with a Be(0) metal centre. The surprising stability of the molecule can be ascribed to an unusually strong three-centre two-electron π bond across the C-Be-C unit.

  8. Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes

    Du, Guodong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    -, bis-alkoxo, and chelating diolato complexes, depending on the identity of diols and the stoichiometry employed. It was also found that tin porphyrin complexes promoted the oxidative cleavage of vicinal diols and the oxidation of α-ketols to α-diketones with dioxygen. In extending the chemistry of metalloporphyrins and analogous complexes, a series of chiral tetraaza macrocyclic ligands and metal complexes were designed and synthesized. Examination of iron(II) complexes showed that they were efficient catalysts for the cyclopropanation of styrene by diazo reagents. Good yields and high diastereoselectivity were obtained with modest enantioselectivity. A rationalization of the stereoselectivity was presented on the basis of structural factors in a carbene intermediate.

  9. Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes

    Guodong Du


    products, including mono-, bis-alkoxo, and chelating diolato complexes, depending on the identity of diols and the stoichiometry employed. It was also found that tin porphyrin complexes promoted the oxidative cleavage of vicinal diols and the oxidation of {alpha}-ketols to {alpha}-diketones with dioxygen. In extending the chemistry of metalloporphyrins and analogous complexes, a series of chiral tetraaza macrocyclic ligands and metal complexes were designed and synthesized. Examination of iron(II) complexes showed that they were efficient catalysts for the cyclopropanation of styrene by diazo reagents. Good yields and high diastereoselectivity were obtained with modest enantioselectivity. A rationalization of the stereoselectivity was presented on the basis of structural factors in a carbene intermediate.

  10. An electronic structure theory investigation of the physical chemistry of the intermolecular complexes of cyclopropenylidene with hydrogen halides.

    Varadwaj, Pradeep R; Varadwaj, Arpita; Peslherbe, Gilles H


    The proton accepting and donating abilities of cyclopropenylidene (c-C(3)H(2)) on its complexation with hydrogen halides H-X (X = F, Cl, Br) are analyzed using density-functional theory with three functionals (PBE0, B3LYP, and B3LYP-D) and benchmarked against second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) theory. Standard signatures including, inter alia, dipole moment enhancement, charge transfer from the carbenic lone pair to the antibonding σ*(H-X) orbital, and H-X bond elongation are examined to ascertain the presence of hydrogen bonding in these complexes. The latter property is found to be accompanied with a pronounced red shift in the bond stretching frequency and with a substantial increase in the infrared intensity of the band on complex formation. The MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ c-C(3)H(2)···H-F complex potential energy surface turns out to be an asymmetric deep single well, while asymmetric double wells are found for the c-C(3)H(2)···H-Cl and c-C(3)H(2)···H-Br complexes, with an energy barrier of 4.1 kcal mol(-1) for proton transfer along the hydrogen bond in the latter complex. Hydrogen-bond energy decomposition, with the reduced variational space self-consistent field approach, indicates that there are large polarization and charge-transfer interactions between the interacting partners in c-C(3)H(2)···H-Br compared to the other two complexes. The C···H bonds are found to be predominantly ionic with partial covalent character, unveiled by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The present results reveal that the c-C(3)H(2) carbene divalent carbon can act as a proton acceptor and is responsible for the formation of hydrogen bonds in the complexes investigated. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  12. Alkane metathesis with the tantalum methylidene [(≡SiO)Ta(=CH2)Me2]/[(≡SiO)2Ta(=CH2)Me] generated from well-defined surface organometallic complex [(≡SiO)TaVMe4

    Chen, Yin


    By grafting TaMe5 on Aerosil700, a stable, well-defined, silica-supported tetramethyl tantalum(V) complex, [(≡SiO)TaMe4], is obtained on the silica surface. After thermal treatment at 150 °C, the complex is transformed into two surface tantalum methylidenes, [(≡SiO)2Ta(=CH2)Me] and [(≡SiO)Ta(=CH2)Me2], which are active in alkane metathesis and comparable to the previously reported [(≡SiO)2TaHx]. Here we present the first experimental study to isolate and identify a surface tantalum carbene as the intermediate in alkane metathesis. A systematic experimental study reveals a new reasonable pathway for this reaction.

  13. Complexity Plots

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan


    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Insights into Stereoselective Aminomethylation Reaction of α,β-Unsaturated Aldehyde with N,O-Acetal via N-Heterocyclic Carbene and Brønsted Acid/Base Cooperative Organocatalysis.

    Wang, Yang; Tang, Mingsheng; Wang, Yanyan; Wei, Donghui


    A theoretical investigation has been performed to interrogate the mechanism and stereoselectivities of aminomethylation reaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehyde with N,O-acetal, which is initiated by N-heterocyclic carbene and Brønsted acid (BA). The calculated results disclose that the reaction contains several steps, i.e., formation of the actual catalysts NHC and Brønsted acid Et3N·H(+) coupled with activation of C-O bond of N,O-acetal, nucleophilic attack of NHC on α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, formation of Breslow intermediate, β-protonation for the formation of enolate intermediate, nucleophilic addition on the Re/Si face to enolate by the activated iminium cation, esterification coupled with regeneration of Et3N·H(+), and dissociation of NHC from product. Addition on the prochiral face of enolate should be the stereocontrolling step, in which the chiral α-carbon is formed. Furthermore, NBO, GRI, and FMO analyses have been performed to explore the roles of catalysts and origin of stereoselectivity. Surprisingly, the added Brønsted base (BB) Et3N plays an indispensable role in the esterification process, indicating the reaction proceeds under NHC-BA/BB multicatalysis rather than NHC-BA dual catalysis proposed in the experiment. This theoretical work provides a case on the exploration of the special roles of the multicatalysts in NHC chemistry, which is valuable for rational design on new cooperative organocatalysis.

  15. N-heterocyclic carbene-induced zwitterionic ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide and direct synthesis of alpha,omega-difunctionalized poly(ethylene oxide)s and poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) block copolymers.

    Raynaud, Jean; Absalon, Christelle; Gnanou, Yves; Taton, Daniel


    An N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC), namely, 1,3-bis-(diisopropyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (1), was demonstrated to bring about the metal-free ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide at 50 degrees C in dimethyl sulfoxide, in absence of any other reagents. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) of polydispersities ethylene oxide to form a zwitterionic species, namely 1,3-bis-(diisopropyl)imidazol-2-ylidinium alkoxide, that further propagates by a zwitterionic ring-opening polymerization (ZROP) mechanism. Through an appropriate choice of terminating agent NuH or NuSiMe(3) at the completion of the polymerization, a variety of end-functionalized PEO chains could be generated. In particular, alpha,omega-bis(hydroxy)-telechelic PEO, alpha-benzyl,omega-hydroxy, and alpha-azido,omega-hydroxy-difunctionalized PEOs were synthesized by NHC (1)-initiated ZROP, using H(2)O, PhCH(2)OH, and N(3)SiMe(3) as terminating agent, respectively. Characterization of these alpha,omega-difunctionalized PEOs by techniques such as (1)H NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF spectrometry, and size exclusion chromatography confirmed the quantitative introduction of functional groups at both alpha and omega positions of the PEO chains and the formation of very narrow molar mass polymers. Finally, the synthesis of a poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) diblock copolymer by sequential ZROP of the corresponding monomers was successfully achieved using (1) as organic initiator without isolation of the PEO block intermediate.

  16. Engaging complexity

    Gys M. Loubser


    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  17. Computational Complexity

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado


    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  18. Complex narratives

    Simons, J.


    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives, puz

  19. Complex odontoma.

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S


    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  20. Simplifying complexity

    Leemput, van de I.A.


    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior