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Sample records for goldfish

  1. Horizontal cells function normally in ethambutol-treated goldfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wietsma, J. J.; Kamermans, M.; Spekreijse, H.

    1995-01-01

    Ethambutol, a tuberculostatic drug, induces red-green colour vision defects in man and goldfish. The ethambutol-induced red-green colour vision defect in goldfish was argued to originate in the retina because after ethambutol application: (1) inhibitive interactions in red-green (double) opponent

  2. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

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    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  3. Neuropharmacology of vision in goldfish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ferrer, Carlos; Neumeyer, Christa

    2009-05-01

    The goldfish is one of the few animals exceptionally well analyzed in behavioral experiments and also in electrophysiological and neuroanatomical investigations of the retina. To get insight into the functional organization of the retina we studied color vision, motion detection and temporal resolution before and after intra-ocular injection of neuropharmaca with known effects on retinal neurons. Bicuculline, strychnine, curare, atropine, and dopamine D1- and D2-receptor antagonists were used. The results reviewed here indicate separate and parallel processing of L-cone contribution to different visual functions, and the influence of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, acetylcholine, glycine, and GABA) on motion vision, color vision, and temporal resolution.

  4. Reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties of music in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ono, Haruka; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigated whether music has reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties in goldfish. Experiment 1 examined the discriminative stimulus properties of music. The subjects were successfully trained to discriminate between two pieces of music--Toccata and Fugue in D minor (BWV 565) by J. S. Bach and The Rite of Spring by I. Stravinsky. Experiment 2 examined the reinforcing properties of sounds, including BWV 565 and The Rite of Spring. We developed an apparatus for measuring spontaneous sound preference in goldfish. Music or noise stimuli were presented depending on the subject's position in the aquarium, and the time spent in each area was measured. The results indicated that the goldfish did not show consistent preferences for music, although they showed significant avoidance of noise stimuli. These results suggest that music has discriminative but not reinforcing stimulus properties in goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Origin of Chinese goldfish and sequential loss of genetic diversity accompanies new breeds.

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    Shu-Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Goldfish, Carassius auratus, have experienced strong anthropogenic selection during their evolutionary history, generating a tremendous extent of morphological variation relative to that in native Carassius. To locate the geographic origin of goldfish, we analyzed nucleotide sequences from part of the control region (CR and the entire cytochrome b (Cytb mitochondrial DNA genes for 234 goldfish and a large series of native specimens. Four important morphological characteristics used in goldfish taxonomy-body shape, dorsal fin, eye shape, and tailfin-were selected for hypothesis-testing to identify those that better correspond to evolutionary history.Haplotypes of goldfish rooted in two sublineages (C5 and C6, which contained the haplotypes of native C. a. auratus from southern China. Values of F(ST and N(m revealed a close relationship between goldfish and native C. a. auratus from the lower Yangtze River. An extraordinary, stepwise loss of genetic diversity was detected from native fish to goldfish and from Grass-goldfish relative to other breeds. Significantly negative results for the tests of Tajima's D and Fu and Li's D* and F* were identified in goldfish, including the Grass breed. The results identified eye-shape as being the least informative character for grouping goldfish with respect to their evolutionary history. Fisher's exact test identified matrilineal constraints on domestication.Chinese goldfish have a matrilineal origin from native southern Chinese C. a. auratus, especially the lineages from the lower Yangtze River. Anthropogenic selection of the native Carassius eliminated aesthetically unappealing goldfish and this action appeared to be responsible for the stepwise decrease in genetic diversity of domesticated goldfish, a process similar to that reported for the domestication of pigs, rice, and maize. The three-breed taxonomy--Grass-goldfish, Egg-goldfish, and Wen-goldfish--better reflected the history of domestication.

  6. Glycinergic pathways in the goldfish retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc, R.E.; Lam, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Autoradiographic localization of high affinity [3H]glycine uptake in the retina of the goldfish has been used to study some anatomical and physiological properties of potentially glycinergic neurons. There are two classes of retinal cells exhibiting high affinity glycine uptake: Aa amacrine cells and I2 interplexiform cells. Aa amacrine cells constitute about 20% of the somas in the amacrine cell layer and send their dendrites to the middle of the inner plexiform layer. There they are both pre- and postsynaptic primarily to other amacrine cells. Photic modulation of glycine uptake indicates that they are probably red-hyperpolarizing/green-depolarizing neurons. I2 interplexiform cells are a newly discovered type of interplexiform cell; in the outer plexiform layer, they receive direct synaptic input from the somas of red-dominated GABAergic H1 horizontal cells and are apparently presynaptic to dendrites of unidentified types of horizontal cells. The connections of I2 interplexiform cells have not been successfully characterized in the inner plexiform layer. These findings extend our knowledge of neurochemically specific pathways in the cyprinid retina and indicate that glycine, like GABA, is a neurotransmitter primarily involved with circuits coding ''red'' information

  7. Occurrence of lymphoid cells in the intestine of the Goldfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1975-01-01

    The Goldfish intestine normally contains a large number of lymphocytes, many of them being present in the epithelial layer. After stimulation with antigen, the number of lymphoid cells does not increase, but the proportion of large pyroninophilic cells and plasma cells does. It seems therefore that

  8. Morphology of the intestine of the Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the structures of the intestine of the Goldfish is given. Several morphological techniques have been used. Special attention has been paid to those characteristics of this organ that may be of importance to physiologists working with the same material, with emphasis on cell-to-cell

  9. GABA sensitivity of spectrally classified horizontal cells in goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Kamermans, M.; Negishi, K.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the GABA sensitivity of horizontal cells in the isolated goldfish retina. After the glutamatergic input to the horizontal cells was blocked with DNQX, GABA depolarized the monophasic and biphasic horizontal cells. The pharmacology of these GABA-induced depolarizations was tested with the

  10. Modulating wavelength discrimination in goldfish with ethambutol and stimulus intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerdsma, T.; Kamermans, M.; Spekreijse, H.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelength discrimination in goldfish was measured behaviourally. Both acute application of ethambutol injected into the eye and chronic application by feeding the animals daily 25 mg ethambutol for 1 month had the same effect on wavelength discrimination in the range of 560-640 nm. This means that:

  11. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  12. Study of the immunological relatedness of goldfish MSH in an RIA for synthetic mammalian α MSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follenius, Ernest; Schmitt, Gabrielle; Meunier, Annie

    1980-01-01

    α MSH from the neuro-intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland of the goldfish displays a competitive behaviour in an RIA for synthetic α MSH. The inhibition curves from neuro-intermediate homogenates parallel the standard curve (P [fr

  13. Actin Filaments of Taste Buds in the Goldfish and Parrot

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko, SUZUKI

    1996-01-01

    The filaments in the apical region of the taste bud cells of both goldfish and parrot were examined by fluorescence histochemistry and electron microscopy. The apical cytoplasm of goldfish taste buds terminated in long, slender processes and microvilli, and contained thin and straight filaments composed of f-actin, as detected by fluorecein-labeled phalloidin binding. In the parrot, the apical cytoplasm of taste buds terminating in microvilli also showed phalloidin fluorescence. The result su...

  14. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Goldfish tolerate prolonged and severe hypoxia, thus representing a well-suited model to study the maintenance of cardiac function when O2 availability represents a limiting factor. Using a working heart preparation, we explored the role of the intracardiac nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- derived...... complemented by Western blotting analysis which revealed increased expressions of NOS and hypoxia inducible factor α(HIF-1α). In conclusion, we demonstrated that intracardiac NO/NOS enhances goldfish heart performance, remarkably expanding its hypoxic tolerance....

  15. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...... was registered, and virus could not be re-isolated from goldfish or carp bath-challenged with any of the isolates in the panel....

  16. Nitric oxide metabolites in goldfish under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie N.; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2010-01-01

    – and it is metabolized to nitrite and nitrate. Nitrite is used as a marker for NOS activity but it is also a NO donor that can be activated by various cellular proteins under hypoxic conditions. Here, we report the first systematic study of NO metabolites (nitrite, nitrate, S-nitroso, N-nitroso and Fe-nitrosyl compounds...... to and below the critical PO2] for two days caused large decreases in plasma nitrite and nitrate, which suggests reduced NOS activity and increased nitrite/nitrate utilization or loss. Tissue NO metabolites were largely maintained at their tissue-specific values under hypoxia, pointing at nitrite transfer from...... extracellular to intracellular compartments and cellular NO generation from nitrite. The data highlights the preference of goldfish to defend intracellular NO homeostasis during hypoxia....

  17. Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus

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    Mehmet Ates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs on goldfish (Carassius auratus were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfish with increasing exposure dose from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs. No significant accumulation in the muscle and brain of the fish was detected. Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of lipid oxidation was detected in the liver of the goldfish. Moreover, TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited growth of the goldfish. Although there was an increase (8.1% in the body weights of the goldfish for the control group, in the low and high exposure groups 1.8% increase and 19.7% decrease were measured, respectively. The results of this study contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and highlight the importance of characterization of NPs in understanding their behavior, uptake, and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.

  18. Cold acclimation increases mitochondrial oxidative capacity without inducing mitochondrial uncoupling in goldfish white skeletal muscle

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    Reinaldo Sousa Dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Goldfish have been used for cold acclimation studies, which have focused on changes in glycolytic and oxidative enzymes or alterations in lipid composition in skeletal muscle. Here we examine the effects of cold acclimation on the functional properties of isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers from goldfish white skeletal muscle, focusing on understanding the types of changes that occur in the mitochondrial respiratory states. We observed that cold acclimation promoted a significant increase in the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates. Western blot analysis showed that UCP3 was raised by ∼1.5-fold in cold-acclimated muscle mitochondria. Similarly, we also evidenced a rise in the adenine nucleotide translocase content in cold-acclimated muscle mitochondria compared to warm-acclimated mitochondria (0.96±0.05 vs 0.68±0.02 nmol carboxyatractyloside mg−1 protein. This was followed by a 2-fold increment in the citrate synthase activity, which suggests a higher mitochondrial content in cold-acclimated goldfish. Even with higher levels of UCP3 and ANT, the effects of activator (palmitate and inhibitors (carboxyatractyloside and GDP on mitochondrial parameters were similar in both warm- and cold-acclimated goldfish. Thus, we propose that cold acclimation in goldfish promotes an increase in functional oxidative capacity, with higher mitochondrial content without changes in the mitochondrial uncoupling pathways.

  19. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate disrupts pituitary and testicular hormonal functions to reduce sperm quality in mature goldfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golshan, M.; Hatef, A.; Socha, M.

    2015-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) interferes with male reproductive endocrine system in mammals, however its effects on fish reproduction are largely unknown. We evaluated sperm quality and investigated reproductive endocrine system in mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to nominal 1, 10......, and 100μg/L DEHP. To examine DEHP estrogenic activity, one group of goldfish was exposed to 17β-estradiol (5μg/L E2) for comparison. Following 30d of exposure, sperm production was decreased and suppressed in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish, respectively. Sperm motility and velocity were decreased...... in goldfish exposed to 100 and 10μg/L DEHP at 15s post-sperm activation, respectively. Compared to control, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels were decreased at 10 and 1μg/L DEHP at day 15 and 30, respectively. In E2 treated goldfish, 11-KT levels were decreased compared to control during the period...

  20. Effect of acetazolamide on the otolith growth of goldfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiya, Yasuo

    1977-01-01

    In order to clarify the involvement of a functional carbonic anhydrase (CA) system in the otolith formation of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, acetazolamide, a specific CA inhibitor, was injected intraperitoneally every 3 or 4 days, and its inhibitory effect on the otolith growth was examined by means of a tetracycline labelling technique. Calcium-45 deposition on the otolith was also examined after a single injection of the drug. Given in multiple doses of 50 mg per Kg of body weight, acetazolamide did not reduce the growth rate of the otolith on either dorsal or ventral side. With multiple doses of 100 mg, however, the dorsal growth was significantly depressed by 17%. The ventral growth was not affected. Similarly, calcium-45 deposition on the otolith was effectively reduced (39%) only when a dose of 100 mg was given. These results suggest that, if involved, the enzyme-catalyzed hydration or hydroxylation of CO 2 is not indispensable to the carbonate formation of the otolith. (auth.)

  1. Another New Solvable Many-Body Model of Goldfish Type

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    Francesco Calogero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new solvable many-body problem is identified. It is characterized by nonlinear Newtonian equations of motion (''acceleration equal force'' featuring one-body and two-body velocity-dependent forces ''of goldfish type'' which determine the motion ofan arbitrary number $N$ of unit-mass point-particles in a plane. The $N$ (generally complex values $z_{n}(t$ at time $t$ ofthe $N$ coordinates of these moving particles are given by the $N$eigenvalues of a time-dependent $Nimes N$ matrix $U(t$explicitly known in terms of the $2N$ initial data $z_{n}(0$and $dot{z}_{n}(0 $. This model comes in two dif/ferentvariants, one featuring 3 arbitrary coupling constants, the other only 2; for special values of these parameters all solutions are completely periodic with the same period independent of the initial data (''isochrony''; for other special values of these parameters this property holds up to corrections vanishing exponentially as $tightarrow infty$ (''asymptotic isochrony''. Other isochronous variants of these models are also reported. Alternative formulations, obtained by changing the dependent variables from the $N$ zeros of a monic polynomial of degree $N$ to its $N$ coefficients, are also exhibited. Some mathematical findings implied by some of these results - such as Diophantine properties of the zeros of certain polynomials - are outlined, but their analysis is postponed to a separate paper.

  2. The effects of salinity on growth of Goldfish, Carassius auratus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... weight gain, food intake and survival of goldfish and crucian carp were investigated for 20 days. Both ... There are various studies on the effects of these factors ..... have high salt in the blood and do not spend more energy.

  3. Regulation by orexin of feeding behaviour and locomotor activity in the goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamachi, T; Matsuda, K; Maruyama, K; Miura, T; Uchiyama, M; Funahashi, H; Sakurai, T; Shioda, S

    2006-04-01

    Orexin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviour and the sleep-wakefulness cycle in mammals. However, in spite of a growing body of knowledge concerning orexin in mammals, the orexin system and its function have not been well studied in lower vertebrates. In the present study, we first examined the effect of feeding status on the orexin-like immunoreactivity (orexin-LI) and the expression of orexin mRNA in the goldfish brain. The number of cells showing orexin-LI in the hypothalamus of goldfish brain showed a significant increase in fasted fish and a significant decrease in glucose-injected fish. The expression level of orexin mRNA in the brains of fasted fish increased compared to that of fed fish. We also examined the effect of an i.c.v. injection of orexin or an anti-orexin serum on food intake and locomotor activity in the goldfish. Administration of orexin by i.c.v. injection induced a significant increase of food intake and locomotor activity, whereas i.p. injection of glucose or i.c.v. injection of anti-orexin serum decreased food consumption. These results indicate that the orexin functions as an orexigenic factor in the goldfish brain.

  4. Localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joselevitch, Christina; Klooster, Jan; Kamermans, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    We studied the localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the goldfish outer plexiform layer by light-and electron-microscopical immunohistochemistry. The mGluR1alpha antibody labeled putative ON-type bipolar cell dendrites and horizontal cell processes in both rod spherules and

  5. Immunocytochemical localization of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbranden, C. A.; Yazulla, S.; Studholme, K. M.; Kamphuis, W.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina of vertebrates. Electrophysiological experiments in goldfish and salamander have shown that neuronal glutamate transporters play an important role in the clearance of glutamate from cone synaptic clefts. In this study, the localization

  6. Fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Italy

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    Lorenzoni M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus was studied in Lake Trasimeno by analysing the selectivity of the equipment that can be used to control this invasive species. Sampling was conducted monthly from February 2003 to January 2004 by means of electrofishing, fyke-nets and gill-nets of different-sized mesh (22, 25, 28, 35, 40, 50, 70 and 80 mm. The average value of the CPUEs of goldfish caught was 10175.48 g·10−2·m−2 for gill-nets, 246.97 g·h−1 for fyke-nets and 606.50 g·min−1 for electrofishing. The efficiency of electrofishing was not uniform in all periods of the year, the mean CPUEs being highest in spring, when specimens of reproductive age were preferentially caught. Gill-nets yielded abundant catches of goldfish in all seasons, and displayed good sampling efficiency even in winter. With regard to the selectivity of gill-nets, estimated optimum selection lengths for each mesh size were: 11.92 cm, 13.55 cm, 15.18 cm, 18.97 cm, 21.68 cm, 27.10 cm, 37.94 cm and 43.36 cm. The results of this research demonstrate that the various fishing techniques can be effectively combined with the aim of controlling the goldfish population in Lake Trasimeno.

  7. Activity of L-alpha-amino acids at the promiscuous goldfish odorant receptor 5.24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bolette; Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The goldfish odorant receptor 5.24 is a member of family C of G protein-coupled receptors and is closely related to the human receptor GPRC6A. Receptor 5.24 has previously been shown to have binding affinity for L-alpha-amino acids, especially the basic amino acids arginine and lysine. Here we...

  8. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control

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    Ai-Fen Yan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. By intraperitoneal (IP injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, cholecystokinin (CCK, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH and proopiomelanocortin (POMC in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model.

  9. Importation of CyHV-2-infected goldfish into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Haenen, Olga L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis in goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. However, the virus has also been detected in Prussian carp C. gibelio and crucian carp C. carassius from European and Asian countries. To prevent spread of

  10. Modulation of horizontal cell receptive fields in the light adapted goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Kamermans, M.; van den Aker, E. C.; Spekreijse, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the isolated goldfish retina, 700 nm background illumination increases the horizontal cell receptive field size, as measured with 565 nm slits of light, but decreases the receptive field size, when measured with 660 nm slits. These background-induced changes in receptive field size are absent

  11. Spectral sensitivity of the feedback signal from horizontal cells to cones in goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, D. A.; Kamermans, M.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    The spectral sensitivity of cones in isolated goldfish retina was determined with whole-cell recording techniques. Three spectral classes of cones were found with maximal sensitivities around 620 nm, 540 nm, and 460 nm. UV-cones were not found because our stimulator did not allow effective

  12. COLOUR QUALITY ENHANCED ON GOLDFISH JUVENILES THROUGH SHRIMP HEAD MEAL ENRICHED IN FEED

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    I Wayan Subamia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Goldfish (Carassius sp. is the ornamental fish which has been managed its culture by fish farmers. The objective of the research is to improve the colour quality of goldfish juveniles through enrichment of feed using shrimp head meal as source of carotenoid. The research was conducted at The Research and Development Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture, Depok, using completely randomized design with four treatments of shrimp head meal ratio, 0% (control, 5%, 10%, and 15% in feed, the feed formulation contained isoprotein (30%, and isolipid (15% and three replications of each treatment. Ten juveniles of Carassius sp. with body weight of (1.08±0.02 g stocked in aquarium with water volumes of 20 L. The growth and colour quality in qualitative standard using TCF (Toca Colour Finder were examined, while total carotenoid content on feed were measured by spectrophotometry method. The colour quality of goldfish were also measured at three of fins those were dorsal, ventral, and caudal. The result showed that no significant different on growth and survival rates among the treatments. Based on the present research, the optimal colour improvement to goldfish was by addition of 10% shrimp head meal in feed.

  13. Axonal transport of proteoglycans to the goldfish optic tectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripellino, J.A.; Elam, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The study addressed the question of whether 35 SO 4 labeled molecules that have been delivered to the goldfish optic nerve terminals by rapid axonal transport include soluble proteoglycans. For analysis, tectal homogenates were subfractionated into a soluble fraction (soluble after centrifugation at 105,000 g), a lysis fraction (soluble after treatment with hypotonic buffer followed by centrifugation at 105,000 g) and a final 105,000 g pellet fraction. The soluble fraction contained 25.7% of incorporated radioactivity and upon DEAE chromatography was resolved into a fraction of sulfated glycoproteins eluting at 0-0.32 M NaCl and containing 39.5% of total soluble label and a fraction eluting at 0.32-0.60 M NaCl containing 53.9% of soluble label. This latter fraction was included on columns of Sepharose CL-6B with or without 4 M guanidine and after pronase digestion was found to have 51% of its radioactivity contained in the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate and chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate in the ratio of 70% to 30%. Mobility of both intact proteoglycans and constituent GAGs on Sepharose CL-6B indicated a size distribution that is smaller than has been observed for proteoglycans and GAGs from cultured neuronal cell lines. Similar analysis of lysis fraction, containing 11.5% of incorporated 35 SO 4 , showed a mixture of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate containing proteoglycans, apparent free heparan sulfate and few, if any, sulfated glycoproteins. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that soluble proteoglycans are among the molecules axonally transported in the visual system

  14. Fin Type Variation of Lionhead Strain Goldfish (Carassius auratus Offspring

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    M. Syaifudin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available  Lionhead strain goldfish (Carassius auratus inheritance produce many variations in phenotype qualitative traits of their offspring that is not common with the parents. Lionhead is an ornamental freshwater fish, they do not have a dorsal fin, but it is a beauty finfish, is popular to the people and have a high economic value. Of the 846 offspring of lionhead is produced in this experiment, and 57,7% of them have dorsal fin (42,3% normal, 13,1% of them have anal fin which did not similar with their parents, 58,6% caudal fin of them did not have similar to their parents. It might be caused by incompletely segregation in meiosis and many gen responsible to certain phenotype trait. Another abnormalities such as no anal fin, blindness, stumped and no pigmen in their gill lamella also occurred. Key words: Inheritance, fin, phenotype, abnormality   ABSTRAK Ikan maskoki strain lionhead menghasilkan keturunan dengan fenotip yang sangat bervariasi dan berbeda dengan induknya. Ikan ini merupakan ikan hias air tawar yang tidak memiliki sirip punggung namun tetap memiliki keindahan, sehingga menjadi begitu populer di masyarakat dan memiliki nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Sebanyak 846 keturunan (anakan telah dihasilkan dalam percobaan ini, dan sebanyak 57,7% dari populasi tersebut memiliki sirip punggung (berarti 42,3% merupakan keturunan normal, 13,1% memiliki sirip dubur yang tidak mirip dengan induknya. Variasi keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini disebabkan oleh segregasi yang tidak sempurna dalam proses meiosis dan banyaknya gen yang terlibat dalam pembentukan penotip tertentu. Abnormalitas lainnya juga terjadi pada keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini, seperti tidak adanya sirip dubur, mata buta, tubuh pendek dan tidak adanya pigmen pada lemela insang Kata kunci: Keturunan, sirip, fenotip, abnormalitas  

  15. Molecular, cellular and physiological evidences for the anorexigenic actions of nesfatin-1 in goldfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Gonzalez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered anorexigen encoded in the precursor peptide, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2 in mammals. To date, nesfatin-1 has not been described in any non-mammalian species, although some information is available in the sequenced genomes of several species. Our objective was to characterize nesfatin-1 in fish.In the present study, we employed molecular, immunohistochemical, and physiological studies to characterize the structure, distribution, and appetite regulatory effects of nesfatin-1 in a non-mammalian vertebrate. A very high conservation in NUCB2 sequences, especially in the nesfatin-1 region was found in lower vertebrates. Abundant expression of NUCB2 mRNA was detected in several tissues including the brain and liver of goldfish. Nesfatin-1-like immunoreactive cells are present in the feeding regulatory nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the gastrointestinal tract of goldfish. Approximately 6-fold increase in NUCB2 mRNA levels was found in the liver after 7-day food-deprivation, and a similar increase was also found after short-term fasting. This points toward a possible liver specific role for NUCB2 in the control of metabolism during food-deprivation. Meanwhile, ∼2-fold increase at 1 and 3 h post-feeding and an ∼3-fold reduction after a 7-day food-deprivation was observed in NUCB2 mRNA in the goldfish hypothalamus. In vivo, a single intraperitoneal injection of the full-length native (goldfish; gf nesfatin-1 at a dose of 50 ng/g body weight induced a 23% reduction of food intake one hour post-injection in goldfish. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of gfnesfatin-1 at a dose of 5 ng/g body weight resulted in ∼50% reduction in food intake.Our results provide molecular, anatomical and functional evidences to support potential anorectic and metabolic roles for endogenous nesfatin-1 in goldfish. Collectively, we provide novel information on NUCB2 in non-mammals and an anorexigenic role for nesfatin-1 in

  16. Occurrence and intensity of parasites in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. from Guilan province fish ponds, north Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohi Javad Daghigh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this survey 109 specimens of goldfish (Carassius auratus were collected from Guilan fish ponds during 2012-13. After recording biometric characteristics, common parasitology methods were used. In the present study 11 parasite species were recovered from goldfish. Parasitofauna consisted of two protozoans: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp.; one digenean trematodes: Diplostomum spathaceum; six monogenean trematodes: Dactylogyrus vastator, Dactylogyrus formosus, Dactylogyrus baueri, Dactylogyrus anchoratus and Gyrodactylus sp.; one crustacean: copepodid stage of Lernaea cyprinacea and one nematodes larvae. All the monogeneans found during the current study are considered new locality records for goldfish in Guilan province, Iran. Mean intensity of infection and abundances of parasite species (with prevalences >10% among seasons were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test (KW, multiple comparisons and Conover-Inman test. Results have shown that monogeneans had the highest prevalence values (49.54% in goldfish in Guilan fish ponds.

  17. Attempt at cloning high-quality goldfish breed 'Ranchu' by fin-cultured cell nuclear transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito; Takai, Akinori; Ohta, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The viability of ornamental fish culture relies on the maintenance of high-quality breeds. To improve the profitability of culture operations we attempted to produce cloned fish from the somatic nucleus of the high-quality Japanese goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) breed 'Ranchu'. We transplanted the nucleus of a cultured fin-cell from an adult Ranchu into the non-enucleated egg of the original goldfish breed 'Wakin'. Of the 2323 eggs we treated, 802 underwent cleavage, 321 reached the blastula stage, and 51 reached the gastrula stage. Two of the gastrulas developed until the hatching stage. A considerable number of nuclear transplants retained only the donor nucleus. Some of these had only a 2n nucleus derived from the same donor fish. Our results provide insights into the process of somatic cell nuclear transplantation in teleosts, and the cloning of Ranchu.

  18. In vivo phosphorylation of axonal proteins in goldfish optic nerve during regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrivee, D.C.; Grafstein, B.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo phosphorylation of axonal proteins was investigated in normal and regenerating optic nerves of goldfish by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. By 6-24 h after intraocular injection of H/sub 3/(32)PO/sub 4/, approximately 20 optic nerve proteins ranging in size from 19 to 180 kilodaltons and in pI from 4.4 to 6.8 were seen to have incorporated radiolabel. Five of these proteins showed a robust increase in incorporation of phosphate during regeneration. Among the latter was an acidic (pI 4.5) 45-kilodalton protein, which has previously been shown to be conveyed by fast axonal transport and to increase dramatically in its rate of synthesis during regeneration of goldfish optic axons.

  19. Calogero's 'goldfish' is indeed a school of free particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nucci, M C [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2004-11-26

    A many-body system of N nonlinear ordinary differential equations of second order which is amenable to exact treatments (a 'goldfish') (Calogero 2001 The neatest many-body problem amenable to exact treatments (a 'goldfish'?) Physica D 152-153 78-84) is shown to be equivalent through an exact transformation to the equations of one-dimensional motion of (N-1) free particles (a school of free particles, indeed). The transformation is obtained by applying the reduction method and Lie group analysis as introduced in Nucci (1996 The complete Kepler group can be derived by Lie group analysis J. Math. Phys. 37 1772-5)

  20. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  1. Variation in myelin lipid composition induced by change in environmental temperature of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivonchick, D.P.; Roots, B.I.

    1976-04-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were acclimated to 5, 15, and 30/sup 0/C, and the lipid and protein composition of brain and spinal cord myelin was determined. Goldfish myelin contains less galactolipid, but more protein and phospholipid than mammalian and bird myelin. Phosphatidyl choline was the predominant phospholipid in both brain and spinal cord myelin. Fish myelin also showed a greater plasmalogen content with an average ethanolamine plasmalogen/total phosphatidyl ethanolamine ratio of 0.84. Total brain and myelin lipids, with the exception of plasmalogens, showed a resistance to change with thermal acclimation. Differences between brain and spinal cord myelin protein and phospholipids were not observed. It is suggested that temperature acclimation in poikilotherms may be used as a tool in the study of membrane adaptability.

  2. Study of goldfish (Carassius auratus) growth hormone structure-function relationship by domain swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y H; Cheng, C H K; Chan, K M

    2007-03-01

    Using goldfish as a model, the structure-function relationship of goldfish growth hormone was studied using the strategy of homologous domain swapping. Chimeric mutants were constructed by exchanging homologous regions between goldfish growth hormone (gfGH II) and goldfish prolactin (gfPRL) with their cloned complementary DNAs. Six mutants, with their domain-swapped, were generated to have different combinations of three target regions, including the helix a, helix d and the large section in between these helices (possess the helices b, c and other random coiled regions). After expression in E. coli and refolding, these mutants were characterized by using competitive receptor binding assay (RRA) and growth hormone responding promoter activation assay. The different activity profiles of mutants in Spi 2.1 gene promoter assays from that in RRA shows that, for gfGH, receptor binding dose not confer receptor signal activations. When either helices a or d of gfGH was maintained with other helices replaced by their gfPRL counterparts, both receptor binding and hence gene activation activities are reduced. In mutants with helices b and c in gfGH maintained, containing the gfGH middle section, and helices a and d swapped with gfPRL, the had reduced RRA activities but the promoter activation activities retained. In conclusion, as in the case of human GH, the gfGH molecule possesses two functional sites: one of them is composed of discontinuous epitopes located on the target regions of this study and is for receptor binding; another site is located on the middle section of the molecule that helices a and d are not involved, and it is for activation of GH receptor and intracellular signals.

  3. Dietary Aloe vera components' effects on cholesterol lowering and estrogenic responses in juvenile goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francesco A; Cocci, Paolo; Angeletti, Mauro; Felici, Alberto; Polzonetti-Magni, Alberta Maria; Mosconi, Gilberto

    2013-08-01

    Aloes are now considered a very interesting source of bioactive compounds among which phytosterols should play a major role. The present study is an attempt to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of Aloe vera associated with its impact on the reproductive status of juvenile goldfish. Therefore, the short- and long-term effects of feeding supplementary diet containing aloe components (20 mg aloe/g diet; 2%) on plasma lipids, plasma vitellogenin, and hepatic estrogen receptor α/β1 mRNA levels in goldfish were examined. Results of GC-MS for phytosterols show high abundance of β-sitosterol in freeze-dried powder of Aloe vera whole leaves. Moreover, a 2% aloe powder dietary supplement was not found estrogenic in juvenile goldfish after either 7- or 30-day treatment, but was consistent in plasma hypocholesterolemic effects following long-term exposure. The present data further support that plasma cholesterol modulation induced by phytosterols may not be related to estrogen-like activity.

  4. Acute toxicity of sodium chloride, pentachlorophenol, Guthion, and hexavalent chromium to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.; Siesennop, G.D.

    1976-02-01

    The 96-h LC50's for sodium chloride were 7650 and 7341 mg/liter, for pentachlorophenol 0.21 and 0.22 mg/liter, for Guthion 1.9 and 2.4 mg/liter, and for hexavalent chromium 48 and 120 mg/liter, for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), respectively. Threshold LC50's were reached in 6 days for sodium chloride (7650 and 7322 mg/liter for fathead minnows and goldfish, respectively), and pentachlorophenol (0.21 and 0.21 mg/liter), but were not attained in 11 days (termination of testing) with Guthion (0.76 and 0.80 mg/liter) and hexavalent chromium (18 and 33 mg/liter). With pentachlorophenol and Guthion goldfish were initially more resistant, but by termination there was no significant difference in LC50's between the two species. With hexavalent chromium the goldfish were more resistant throughout the 11-day test, and with sodium chloride goldfish were initially more resistant but at attainment of a threshold LC50 were less resistant. Use of toxicity curves for assessment of acute mortality permits interpretation not possible in 96-h tests where LC50's are computed at 24-h intervals.

  5. Goldfish neurokinin B: Cloning, tissue distribution, and potential role in regulating reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Zhou, Wenyi; Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Yun; Ye, Gang; Liu, Xiaochun; Peng, Chun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-09-15

    Neurokinin B (NKB) is a member of the tackykinin (TAC) family known to play a critical role in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction in mammals. However, its biological functions in teleosts are less clear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NKB in fish reproduction using goldfish as a model. Two transcripts, TAC3a and TAC3b, which encode several NKBs, including NKBa-13, NKBa-10, NKBb-13, and NKBb-11, were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NKBa-10 and NKBb-11 are closely related to mammalian NKB, while NKB-13s are more conserved in teleosts. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in various tissues showed that TAC3a and TAC3b mRNAs were mainly expressed in the brain. In situ hybridization further detected TAC3a and TAC3b mRNAs in several regions of the brain known to be involved in the regulation of reproduction and metabolism, as well as in the neurohypophysis of the pituitary. To investigate the potential role of NKBs in reproduction, goldfish were injected intraperitoneally with synthetic NKBa-13, -10, NKBb-13, or -11 peptides and the mRNA levels of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary gonadotropin subunits were measured. NKBa-13, -10, or NKBb-13, but not -11, significantly increased hypothalamic salmon GnRH and pituitary FSHβ and LHβ mRNA levels in both female and male goldfish. Finally, ovariectomy increased, while estradiol replacement reduced, TAC3a mRNA levels without affecting TAC3b expression in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that NKBa-13, -10, and NKBb-13 play a role in mediating the estrogen negative feedback regulation of gonadotropins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High abundance androgen receptor in goldfish brain: characteristics and seasonal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasmanik, M.; Callard, G.V.

    1988-01-01

    Testosterone (T) exerts its actions in brain directly via androgen receptors or, after aromatization to estradiol, via estrogen receptors. Brain aromatase activity in teleost fish is 100-1000 times greater than in mammals and would be expected to significantly reduce the quantity of androgen available for receptor binding. Experiments were carried out on the goldfish Carassius auratus to determine if androgen receptors are present in teleost brain and whether their physicochemical properties reflect elevated aromatase. Cytosolic and nuclear extracts were assayed with the use of [ 3 H]T and charcoal, Sephadex LH-20, or DNA-cellulose chromatography to separate bound and free steroids. Binding activity was saturable and had an equally high affinity for T and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Although mibolerone was a relatively weak competitor, the putative teleost androgen 11-ketotestosterone, methyltrienolone (R1881), estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were poor ligands. Characteristics that distinguish this receptor from a steroid-binding protein in goldfish serum are the presence of binding activity in both nuclear and cytosolic extracts, a low rate of ligand-receptor dissociation, electrophoretic mobility, sedimentation properties in low vs. high salt, and tissue distribution. DNA cellulose-adhering and nonadhering forms were detected, but these did not differ in other variables measured. Although goldfish androgen receptors resembled those of mammals in all important physicochemical characteristics, they were unusually abundant compared to levels in rat brain, but comparable to levels in prostate and other male sex hormone target organs. Moreover, there were seasonal variations in total receptors, with a peak at spawning (April) 4- to 5-fold higher than values in reproductively inactive fish

  7. Anti-androgen vinclozolin impairs sperm quality and steroidogenesis in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatef, Azadeh; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Milla, Sylvain; Křišťan, Jiří; Golshan, Mahdi; Fontaine, Pascal; Linhart, Otomar

    2012-10-15

    In mammals, vinclozolin (VZ) is known as anti-androgen, which causes male infertility via androgen receptor (AR) antagonism. In aquatic animals, the VZ effects on reproductive functions are largely unknown and results are somewhat contradictory. To understand VZ adverse effects on male reproduction, mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three nominal VZ concentrations (100, 400, and 800 μg/L) and alternations in gonadosomatic (GSI) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI), 17β-estradiol (E(2)), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and sperm quality were investigated compared to the solvent control. One group was exposed to E(2) (nominal concentration of 5 μg/L), an estrogenic compound, as a negative control. Following one month exposure, GSI and HSI were unchanged in all VZ treated groups compared to solvent control. Sperm volume, motility and velocity were reduced in fish exposed to 800 μg/L VZ. This was associated with the decrease in 11-KT level, suggesting direct VZ effects on testicular androgenesis and sperm functions. In goldfish exposed to 100 μg/L VZ, 11-KT was increased but E(2) remained unchanged. This is, probably, the main reason for unchanged sperm quality at 100 μg/L VZ. In goldfish exposed to E(2), GSI and 11-KT were decreased, E(2) was increased and no sperm was produced. The present study shows different dose-dependent VZ effects, which lead to impairment in sperm quality via disruption in steroidogenesis. In addition to VZ effects through competitive binding to AR, our data suggests potential effects of VZ by direct inhibition of 11-KT biosynthesis in fish as well as abnormalities in sperm morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternations in neuroendocrine and endocrine regulation of reproduction in male goldfish (Carassius auratus) following an acute and chronic exposure to vinclozolin, in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Mahdi; Hatef, Azadeh; Zare, Ava; Socha, Magdalena; Milla, Sylvain; Gosiewski, Grzegorz; Fontaine, Pascal; Sokołowska-Mikołajczyk, Mirosława; Habibi, Hamid R; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi

    2014-10-01

    The fungicide vinclozolin (VZ) is in use globally and known to disrupt reproductive function in male. The present study tested the hypothesis that VZ disrupts testicular function in goldfish (Carassius auratus) by affecting brain-pituitary-testis axis. Goldfish were exposed to 100, 400 and 800 μg/L VZ and 5 μg/L 17β-estradiol (E2) for comparison. In VZ treated goldfish, 11-ketotesteosterone (11-KT) secretion was changed depending on dose and duration period of treatment. Following 7 days of exposure, 11-KT was decreased in goldfish exposed to 800 μg/L VZ, while it was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 μg/L VZ after 30 days of exposure. Circulating E2 level was unchanged in VZ treated goldfish, however the E2/11-KT ratio was increased in a concentration-related manner. In E2 treated goldfish, circulatory 11-KT and E2 levels were decreased and increased, respectively, which resulted in an increase in the E2/11-KT ratio. Exposure to VZ at 100 μg/L caused a significant increase in the circulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) after 30 days. In E2 treated fish circulatory LH was decreased, significantly. Transcripts of genes encoding gonadotropin-releasing hormone and androgen receptor in the brain, and those of genes encoding LH and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors, StAR, CYP17, and 3β-HSD in the testis changed in VZ-treated goldfish depending on concentration and period of treatment. mRNA of genes encoding vitellogenin and estrogen receptor in the liver and cytochrome P450 aromatase in the brain were increased in E2-treated goldfish. The results suggest that VZ-induced changes in 11-KT were due to disruption in brain-pituitary-testis axis and provide integrated characterization of VZ-related reproductive disorders in male fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of zinc ex vivo on taurine uptake in goldfish retinal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nusetti, Sonia; Urbina, Mary; Lima, Lucimey

    2010-01-01

    Background Taurine and zinc exert neurotrophic effects in the central nervous system. Current studies demonstrate that Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters, similar to that of taurine, are modulated by micromolar concentrations of zinc. This study examined the effect of zinc sulfate ex vivo on [3H]taurine transport in goldfish retina. Methods Isolated cells were incubated in Ringer with zinc (0.1?100 ?M). Taurine transport was done with 50 nM [3H]taurine or by isotopic dilution wit...

  10. Comparison of the radiosensitivity of three goldfish cell lines using short term endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1984-06-01

    The induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks after ..gamma..-irradiation in three goldfish (Carassius auratus) cell lines with different sensitivities to the lethal effect of ..gamma..-rays has been studied by the DNA strand separation method using hydroxylapatite chromatography. The induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks was similar in all cell lines. There was also little difference in the degree of inhibition of DNA synthesis immediately after irradiation. However, the rank orders of the durations of division delay and the radiosensitivities of the three cell lines were the same.

  11. Dietary vitamin E on the reproductive performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harton Arfah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted to examine the different dose of vitamin E in the diet on female broodstock reproduction performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. This research consisted of four treatments with three replications. The use of vitamin E doses was 0, 125, 250, and 375 mg/kg. The vitamin E was dissolved in vegetable oil and mixed with albumen as a binder in feed. The vitamin E was sprayed at feed and was air dried. Female broodstock of the fantail goldfishes were reared for 40 days. The result showed that 375 mg/kg treatment performed the highest quality of reproduction. Egg diameter, gonadosomatic index, fecundity, and germinal vesicle breakdown of fish which are treated by 375 mg/kg vitamin E were respectively 0.92±0.05 mm, 8.86±4.62%, 56.00±29.18%, and 67.35±17.67% higher than control. Thus, 375 mg/kg of dietary vitamin E suplementating was a best dose to improve female broodstock productivity of the fantail goldfish Keywords: female broodstock, fantail goldfish, vitamin E, reproduction quality  ABSTRAK Penelitian dilakukan untuk menguji suplementasi vitamin E dengan dosis berbeda dicampur ke dalam pakan komersial terhadap produktivitas induk betina ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus. Penelitian ini menggunakan empat perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis vitamin E yang diberikan, yaitu 0, 125, 250, dan 375 mg/kg pakan. Vitamin E dilarutkan dalam minyak nabati dan dicampur dengan putih telur sebagai perekat pada pakan. Vitamin E disemprotkan ke pakan dan dikeringanginkan. Induk betina ikan komet pascasalin dengan bobot 72,78±19,47 g diberi perlakuan selama 40 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk betina ikan komet yang diberi suplementasi vitamin E sebanyak 375 mg/kg dalam pakan memiliki diameter telur 0,92±0,05 mm, gonadosomatic index 8,86±4,62%, fekunditas 56,00±29,18 butir/g ikan, dan germinal vesicle breakdown 67,35±17,67% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Dengan demikian

  12. Two novel classes of solvable many-body problems of goldfish type with constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Gomez-Ullate, D [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-05-18

    Two novel classes of many-body models with nonlinear interactions 'of goldfish type' are introduced. They are solvable provided the initial data satisfy a single constraint (in one case; in the other, two constraints), i.e., for such initial data the solution of their initial-value problem can be achieved via algebraic operations, such as finding the eigenvalues of given matrices or equivalently the zeros of known polynomials. Entirely isochronous versions of some of these models are also exhibited, i.e., versions of these models whose nonsingular solutions are all completely periodic with the same period.

  13. Many branches, one root: First evidence for a monophyly of the morphologically highly diverse goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rylková, K.; Kalous, L.; Šlechtová, Vendula; Bohlen, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 302, 1-2 (2010), s. 36-41 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Goldfish * Carassius auratus * Phylogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.044, year: 2010

  14. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m"2). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H_2O_2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H_2O_2) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  15. Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-08-01

    Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis.

  16. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young, E-mail: choic@kmou.ac.kr

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  17. Expression and localization of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the goldfish retina--an in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbranden, C. A.; Kamphuis, W.; Nunes Cardozo, B.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    The expression and distribution of AMPA, kainate and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits was studied in the goldfish retina. For the immunocytochemical localization of the AMPA receptor antisera against GluR2, GluR2/3 and GluR4 were used, and for in situ hybridization rat specific probes for GluR1 and

  18. Gill histopathology of goldfish exposed to oil sands processed-waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.; Lee, L.E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Large volumes of processed wastewater are generated through the oil extraction process at Alberta's Athabasca oil sand deposit. These wastewaters are very toxic to aquatic biota because they are high in salinity and consist of napthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, goldfish were caged in 3 different experimental ponds in order to evaluate the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives for process-affected waters. The first pond was a control pond, while the other 2 ponds consisted of known and varying chemicals. The fish were exposed to the ponds for 19 days. Those in the pond with elevated levels of napthenic acids and high salinity exhibited severe gill histopathological changes. Alterations included epithelial hyperplasia resulting in severe lamellar fusion, chloride cell hyperplasia, and lamellar edema, all of which were believed to be defense responses of the fish. Additional severe gill alterations were also observed that may indicate the direct negative effects of oil sands processed-water on fish. Exposed goldfish also showed signs of necrosis and degenerative changes resulting in desquamation of the epithelial surfaces of the gill, which are symptoms seen in free-range exposure of yellow perch, a native fish species, at the same sites and exposure times

  19. Gill histopathology of goldfish exposed to oil sands processed-waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Lee, L.E.J. [Wilfred Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    Large volumes of processed wastewater are generated through the oil extraction process at Alberta's Athabasca oil sand deposit. These wastewaters are very toxic to aquatic biota because they are high in salinity and consist of napthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, goldfish were caged in 3 different experimental ponds in order to evaluate the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives for process-affected waters. The first pond was a control pond, while the other 2 ponds consisted of known and varying chemicals. The fish were exposed to the ponds for 19 days. Those in the pond with elevated levels of napthenic acids and high salinity exhibited severe gill histopathological changes. Alterations included epithelial hyperplasia resulting in severe lamellar fusion, chloride cell hyperplasia, and lamellar edema, all of which were believed to be defense responses of the fish. Additional severe gill alterations were also observed that may indicate the direct negative effects of oil sands processed-water on fish. Exposed goldfish also showed signs of necrosis and degenerative changes resulting in desquamation of the epithelial surfaces of the gill, which are symptoms seen in free-range exposure of yellow perch, a native fish species, at the same sites and exposure times.

  20. Metabolic profiling of goldfish (Carassius auratis) after long-term glyphosate-based herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Ling-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Wei; Fu, Yong-Hong; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, He; Wang, Jun-Song

    2017-07-01

    Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured. Long-term glyphosate exposure caused disorders of blood biochemical indexes and renal tissue injury in goldfish. Metabolomics analysis combined with correlation network analysis uncovered significant perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleosides metabolism in glyphosate dosed fish, which provide new clues to the toxicity of glyphosate. This integrated metabolomics approach showed its applicability in discovering the toxic mechanisms of pesticides, which provided new strategy for the assessment of the environmental risk of herbicides to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Argon laser-induced damage in the goldfish (C. auratus) retina following whole-body hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Michael A.; Lund, David J.; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Dahlberg, Ann M.; Cowan, Beth L.; Lester, Paul; Odom, Daniel G.

    1990-07-01

    The heat shock response is a phenomenon common to all cells and is characterized by an increase in the rate of synthesis of intracellular heat shock proteins (HSPs) . The response occurs following rapid transient increases in terrerature sufficient to cause stress but not cell death. HSPs appear to perform protective functions that raise the cell''s tolerance to diverse noxious stimuli. Thus we postulated that we could limit laser-induced retinal darriage through induction of the heat shock -response. Corrmon goldfish (C. auratus) made hyperthermic by immersion in 35C water for 15 minutes and radiolabeled with [355]methionine showed retinal liSPs with apparent molecular weights of 110 90 70 and 35 kilodaltons. To test the protective effects of HSPs against laser injury goldfish were made hyperthermic and 4 and 24 hr later their retinas were irradiated with argon laser light (51 4 . 5 nm spot size at the cornea 3. 0 mm irradiance 125 mW/cm2) . NonhyperLhermic animals served as controls. Following 24 hr of recovery fish were terminated and retinas fixed for histology. Fundus photographs were taken irrunediately after laser exposure . Lesion diameters were measured from fundus photographs and evaluated statistically. The mean retinal lesion diameters of fish not subjected to hyperthermJ. a laser exposed 4 hr post hyperLhermia and laser exposed 24 hr post hyperthermia were 10. 25 1. 4 SD 8. 82 2. 1 SD and 6. 78

  2. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  3. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  4. Scale brightness of common goldfish on diet supplemented with seaweed Sargassum sp. and pumpkin Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfina Manda Astari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The common goldfish Carassius auratus auratus is an ornamental freshwater fish species with  high market value. The market value of ornamental fish can be determined through some parameters, one of them is brightness of the fish scales. Brightness level may be enhanced by supplementing plant powder containing carotenoid into fish diet. The purpose of this research was to examine the scale brightness level of common goldfish fed diet supplemented with Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder, and to determine the dose of those powders that allows higher brightness level of scale.  The feed of common goldfish was supplemented with either Sargassum sp. or pumpkin powder at the doses of 10, 20 and 30%, and without supplementation as control. Fishes were reared for 75 days and fed diet at feeding rate of 5% biomass daily. The results of ANOVA test showed that the Sargassum sp. and pumpkin mill addition on food significantly improved of scales brightness of  common goldfish. Increasing supplementation levels of Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder increased brightness level of scale. The highest improvement in brightness was the fish that fed by 30% concentration of Sargassum sp. flour with the value scale of brightness was 2.67 and the total number of 2,890.67 chromatophore cells. The results suggest that Sargassum sp. powder is better to improve the brightness level of common goldfish scale. Keywords: Carassius auratus auratus, Sargassum sp., Cucurbita moschata, carotenoid, brightness  ABSTRAK Ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus merupakan salah satu spesies ikan hias air tawar yang memiliki nilai jual tinggi. Nilai jual ikan hias dapat ditentukan melalui beberapa parameter, salah satunya yaitu kecerahan sisik ikan. Kecerahan sisik ikan dapat ditingkatkan melalui pemberian pakan yang diperkaya karotenoid. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji tingkat kecerahan warna sisik ikan komet setelah diberi pakan dengan tambahan tepung Sargassum sp. dan

  5. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the transcription of CYP3A cDNA, activity of acetylcholinesterase, and oxidative stress response of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junguo; Liu, Yang; Niu, Daichun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the widely used organophosphate pesticide in agriculture throughout the world. It has been found that CPF is relatively safe to human but highly toxic to fish. In this study, acute toxicity of CPF on goldfish was determined and then the transcription of goldfish cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A was evaluated after 96 h of CPF exposure at concentrations of 15.3 [1/10 50% lethal concentration (LC50 )] or 51 μg L(-1) (1/3 LC50 ) of CPF. Meanwhile, the enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver or brain of goldfish were also determined. The results of acute toxicity testing showed that the 96-h LC50 of CPF to the goldfish was 153 μg L(-1) . Moreover, a length sequence of 1243 bp CYP3A cDNA encoding for 413 amino acids from goldfish liver was cloned. Polymerase chain reaction results reveal that CPF exposure downregulates CYP 3A transcription in goldfish liver, suggesting that goldfish CYP 3A may be not involved in CPF bioactivation. Finally, the results of biochemical assays indicate that 96 h of CPF exposure remarkably inhibits AChE activity in fish liver or brain, alters hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, decreases brain T-AOC, and causes lipid peroxidation in fish liver. These results suggest that oxidative stress might be involved in CPF toxicity on goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Formulation of a fish feed for goldfish with natural astaxanthin extracted from shrimp waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeratunge, W K O V; Perera, B G K

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid, which exhibits many important biological activities including a high degree of antioxidant capacity (AOC) and antibacterial activity, hence has a significant applicability in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. An attempt was made towards optimization of astaxanthin extraction conditions using three different extraction conditions and a solvent series, from uncooked, cooked and acid-treated shrimp waste, which is a readily available and cheap source of the pigment. The astaxanthin extracts were analyzed by comparing their UV-visible absorbance spectra and thin layer chromatograms with a standard astaxanthin sample. The percentage of astaxanthin in each crude sample was determined using the Beer-Lambert law. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the disk diffusion assay were used to investigate the antioxidant capacities and antibacterial activities of extracted astaxanthin samples respectively. The extracted astaxanthin was incorporated into fish feeds to test its ability to enhance the skin color of goldfish. The best astaxanthin percentage of 68 % was observed with the acetone:ethyl acetate (1:1) solvent system facilitated by maceration of cooked and acid treated shrimp, whereas the best crude yield of 33 % was found to be in the acetone extract of the acid-treated shrimp sample. The highest AOC of 65 µg pyrogallol equivalents/mg was observed for the EtOAc extract obtained by maceration of acid-treated shrimp waste. The highest AOC by sonication and soxhlet extraction methods were also obtained with the EtOAc solvent. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against four selected bacterial strains. The newly formulated astaxanthin enriched fish feed was economical and indicated a significant improvement of the skin color and healthiness of goldfish compared to the control feeds. Biologically active astaxanthin can be successfully extracted from shrimp waste in higher percentages. The extraction technique and the

  7. Effects of UV-C irradiation on development of goldfish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian; Dai Guifu; Zhang Fengqiu; Lu Lei

    2005-01-01

    Goldfish embryos at five different developmental stages, from fertilized eggs to heat beating stage, were irradiated by UV rays, and hatching rate, darkly pigmented eye rate and abnormal embryo rate of the irradiated embryos were investigated. Being subjected to very low amount (≤3 min.) of the UV irradiation, the embryos earlier than gastrula stage showed hormesis. However, the embryos at gastrula or heart beating stage were very sensitive to UV irradiation, showing just damage effect, which was very strong even at very low amount of the UV irradiation. The results also showed that development of the gastrula embryos irradiated by the UV rays stopped before darkly pigmented eye state, whereas embryos irradiated at heart beating stage by the UV rays could develop to the darkly pigmented eye stage, though they could not hatch out. (authors)

  8. Retention of retinal axon collateral is responsible for induced ipsilateral retinotectal projections in adult goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S C; Tsai, C

    1991-01-01

    In normal goldfish, optic axons innervate only the contralateral optic tectum. When one eye was enucleated and the optic nerve of the other eye crushed, the regenerating optic axons innervated both optic tecta. We studied the presence of bilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells by double retrograde cell labeling methods using Nuclear Yellow and True Blue dyes. About 10% of the retinal ganglion cells were double labeled and these cells were found throughout the retina. In addition, HRP application to the ipsilateral tectum revealed retrogradely-labeled retinal ganglion cells of all morphological types. These results suggest that induced ipsilateral projections are formed by regenerating axon collaterals and that all cell types are involved in the generation of normal mirror image typography.

  9. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tarkhani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus. Methods: To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight using ANOVA. Results: Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes.

  10. Effect of temperature on the concentration of plasma gonadotropine and spermatogenesis of the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, C.; Billard, R.; Breton, B.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoreactive plasma gonadotropin (c-GtH) were measured for goldfish kept at conditions of temperature held constant or increasing between 10 and 30/sup 0/C, between February and July. At temperatures of 17/sup 0/C or above the levels of plasma c-GtH were significantly (P < 0.005) higher during April and May than at 10/sup 0/C. In April the pituitary concentration of c-GtH was maximum for fish held at 17/sup 0/C or above and the minimum for fish held below 17/sup 0/C, but in June the situation was reversed. A study of the gonads showed that spermatogenesis is faster at 17--24/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C, but at 30/sup 0/C spermatogenic activity was inhibited.

  11. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  12. Effects of carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron on acetylcholinesterase activity in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaud, S; Toutant, J P; Saglio, P

    2000-10-01

    Juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three widely used pesticides; carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and molecular forms of AChE were first characterized in brain and skeletal muscle of unexposed fish. Skeletal muscle had higher AChE activity than brain (306 and 215 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively). In brain, four molecular forms of AChE were found: A12, G4, G2, and G1. In the muscle, three molecular forms were found A12, A8, and G2. AChE activity was then evaluated in both tissues of fish exposed to different concentration of pesticides (5, 50, and 500 microg/L) for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. In brain, AChE activity was significantly inhibited during all the periods of exposure in response to 50 microg/L (19-28%) and 500 microg/L (85-87%) carbofuran. Such effect was observed in the muscle only at 500 microg/L (86-92%). Carbofuran had no effect on the distribution of molecular forms. Significant inhibitions (9-12%) of brain AChE activity were also observed in response to diuron and nicosulfuron at 500 microg/L during all periods of exposure and for 50 microg/L nicosulfuron after 24 and 48 h. This study pointed out short-term effects of exposure to sublethal concentrations of the three pesticides, ranging among different chemical families, on brain and muscle AChE in goldfish. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Chondroitin sulfates do not impede axonal regeneration in goldfish spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akihito; Okada, Soichiro; Funakoshi, Kengo

    2017-10-15

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans produced in glial scar tissue are a major inhibitory factor for axonal regeneration after central nervous system injury in mammals. The inhibition is largely due to chondroitin sulfates, whose effects differ according to the sulfation pattern. In contrast to mammals, fish nerves spontaneously regenerate beyond the scar tissue after spinal cord injury, although the mechanisms that allow for axons to pass through the scar are unclear. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of two chondroitin sulfates with different sulfation variants at the lesion site in goldfish spinal cord. The intact spinal cord was immunoreactive for both chondroitin sulfate-A (CS-A) and chondroitin sulfate-C (CS-C), and CS-A immunoreactivity overlapped extensively with glial processes positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein. At 1week after inducing the spinal lesion, CS-A immunoreactivity was observed in the cell bodies and extracellular matrix, as well as in glial processes surrounding the lesion center. At 2weeks after the spinal lesion, regenerating axons entering the lesion center overtook the CS-A abundant area. In contrast, at 1week after lesion induction, CS-C immunoreactivity was significantly decreased, and at 2weeks after lesion induction, CS-C immunoreactivity was observed along the regenerating axons entering the lesion center. The present findings suggest that after spinal cord injury in goldfish, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are deposited in the extracellular matrix at the lesion site but do not form an impenetrable barrier to the growth of regenerating axons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Pax2 expression in the goldfish optic nerve head during retina regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The Pax2 transcription factor plays a crucial role in axon-guidance and astrocyte differentiation in the optic nerve head (ONH during vertebrate visual system development. However, little is known about its function during regeneration. The fish visual system is in continuous growth and can regenerate. Müller cells and astrocytes of the retina and ONH play an important role in these processes. We demonstrate that pax2a in goldfish is highly conserved and at least two pax2a transcripts are expressed in the optic nerve. Moreover, we show two different astrocyte populations in goldfish: Pax2(+ astrocytes located in the ONH and S100(+ astrocytes distributed throughout the retina and the ONH. After peripheral growth zone (PGZ cryolesion, both Pax2(+ and S100(+ astrocytes have different responses. At 7 days after injury the number of Pax2(+ cells is reduced and coincides with the absence of young axons. In contrast, there is an increase of S100(+ astrocytes in the retina surrounding the ONH and S100(+ processes in the ONH. At 15 days post injury, the PGZ starts to regenerate and the number of S100(+ astrocytes increases in this region. Moreover, the regenerating axons reach the ONH and the pax2a gene expression levels and the number of Pax2(+ cells increase. At the same time, S100(+/GFAP(+/GS(+ astrocytes located in the posterior ONH react strongly. In the course of the regeneration, Müller cell vitreal processes surrounding the ONH are primarily disorganized and later increase in number. During the whole regenerative process we detect a source of Pax2(+/PCNA(+ astrocytes surrounding the posterior ONH. We demonstrate that pax2a expression and the Pax2(+ astrocyte population in the ONH are modified during the PGZ regeneration, suggesting that they could play an important role in this process.

  15. Inhibition of non-neuronal cell proliferation in the goldfish visual pathway affects the regenerative capacity of the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, D.; Yerushalmi, A.; Schwartz, M.

    1983-01-01

    Proliferating cells associated with the visual pathway were found in the present study of affect the regenerative capacity of the goldfish retina following optic nerve injury. The contribution of these cells to the process of regeneration was investigated in the goldfish visual system by reducing their proliferation in the optic tract and tecta, using X-irradiation. The regenerative ability of the retina was then evaluated by the following parameters: sprouting from retinal explants, protein synthesis in the retina and accumulation of radiolabeled transported components in the tectum. X-irradiation of the visual system at an early stage of the regeneration process had a promoting effect whereas irradiation at a later stage resulted in a reduced capacity to regenerate. The results are discussed with respect to the possibility that proliferating cells, possibly glia, exert two contradictory contributions: an inhibitory effect at the site of injury, whereas distal to it, a supportive, perhaps trophic effect. (Auth.)

  16. Lethal and mutagenic effects of radiation and chemicals on cultured fish cells derived the erythrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Zoology)

    1983-01-01

    GEM 199 cells derived from an eryhtrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus), which had a high plating efficiency, were used to investigate the lethal and mutational effects of radiations (UV and ..gamma..-rays) and chemicals (4NQO and MNNG). The cells were more resistant to rays than mammalian cells and CAF-MM1 cells derived from the normal fin tissue of goldfish. They were also more resistant to UV-irradiation than CAF-MM1 cells. Photoreactivation after UV-irradiation was present in GEM 199 cells for both survival and mutation. The initial shoulder of the survival curve of UV-irradiated cells was reduced greatly by caffeine, suggesting a high activity of the post-replication repair. The spontaneous mutation frequency to ouabain resistance was 1-5x10/sup -6/ clones per viable cell. MNNG was effective in inducing ouabain-resistant mutation, while 4NQO and ..gamma..-rays did not induce mutation.

  17. Data on the density of xanthophores in a whole scale of goldfish acclimated to white or black background color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta Mizusawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Expression of genes for melanotropic peptides and their receptors for morphological color change in goldfish Carassius auratus” (Mizusawa et al., In press [1]. This article describes data on the density of xanthophores in the scales of goldfish acclimated to white or black background color. To determine the effects of acclimation history during long-term background color adaptation, fish were transferred from a white tank to a white or black tank and vice versa halfway through the acclimation process. To observe xanthophores, the iridophore layer was scraped from the scale and the pteridine/carotenoid pigments were aggregated. The number of xanthophores was calculated after image processing.

  18. Inhibition of non-neuronal cell proliferation in the goldfish visual pathway affects the regenerative capacity of the retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, D.; Yerushalmi, A.; Schwartz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel))

    1983-08-08

    Proliferating cells associated with the visual pathway were found in the present study of affect the regenerative capacity of the goldfish retina following optic nerve injury. The contribution of these cells to the process of regeneration was investigated in the goldfish visual system by reducing their proliferation in the optic tract and tecta, using X-irradiation. The regenerative ability of the retina was then evaluated by the following parameters: sprouting from retinal explants, protein synthesis in the retina and accumulation of radiolabeled transported components in the tectum. X-irradiation of the visual system at an early stage of the regeneration process had a promoting effect whereas irradiation at a later stage resulted in a reduced capacity to regenerate. The results are discussed with respect to the possibility that proliferating cells, possibly glia, exert two contradictory contributions: an inhibitory effect at the site of injury, whereas distal to it, a supportive, perhaps trophic effect.

  19. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat? for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Shivappa, Raghunath B.; Christian, Larry S.; Law, Jerry M.; Lewbart, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production i...

  20. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Minghui; Wang, Junsong; Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment

  1. General principles in motion vision: color blindness of object motion depends on pattern velocity in honeybee and goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojcev, Maja; Radtke, Nils; D'Amaro, Daniele; Dyer, Adrian G; Neumeyer, Christa

    2011-07-01

    Visual systems can undergo striking adaptations to specific visual environments during evolution, but they can also be very "conservative." This seems to be the case in motion vision, which is surprisingly similar in species as distant as honeybee and goldfish. In both visual systems, motion vision measured with the optomotor response is color blind and mediated by one photoreceptor type only. Here, we ask whether this is also the case if the moving stimulus is restricted to a small part of the visual field, and test what influence velocity may have on chromatic motion perception. Honeybees were trained to discriminate between clockwise- and counterclockwise-rotating sector disks. Six types of disk stimuli differing in green receptor contrast were tested using three different rotational velocities. When green receptor contrast was at a minimum, bees were able to discriminate rotation directions with all colored disks at slow velocities of 6 and 12 Hz contrast frequency but not with a relatively high velocity of 24 Hz. In the goldfish experiment, the animals were trained to detect a moving red or blue disk presented in a green surround. Discrimination ability between this stimulus and a homogenous green background was poor when the M-cone type was not or only slightly modulated considering high stimulus velocity (7 cm/s). However, discrimination was improved with slower stimulus velocities (4 and 2 cm/s). These behavioral results indicate that there is potentially an object motion system in both honeybee and goldfish, which is able to incorporate color information at relatively low velocities but is color blind with higher speed. We thus propose that both honeybees and goldfish have multiple subsystems of object motion, which include achromatic as well as chromatic processing.

  2. Relationship between nitric oxide- and calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways in growth hormone release from dispersed goldfish pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John P; Sawisky, Grant R; Davis, Philip J; Pemberton, Joshua G; Rieger, Aja M; Barreda, Daniel R

    2014-09-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) are two of the many intracellular signal transduction pathways mediating the control of growth hormone (GH) secretion from somatotropes by neuroendocrine factors. We have previously shown that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) elicits Ca(2+) signals in identified goldfish somatotropes. In this study, we examined the relationships between NO- and Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction mechanisms in GH secretion from primary cultures of dispersed goldfish pituitary cells. Morphologically identified goldfish somatotropes stained positively for an NO-sensitive dye indicating they may be a source of NO production. In 2h static incubation experiments, GH release responses to the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP) were attenuated by CoCl2, nifedipine, verapamil, TMB-8, BHQ, and KN62. In column perifusion experiments, the ability of SNP to induce GH release was impaired in the presence of TMB-8, BHQ, caffeine, and thapsigargin, but not ryanodine. Caffeine-elicited GH secretion was not affected by the NO scavenger PTIO. These results suggest that NO-stimulated GH release is dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) availability and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) store(s) that possess BHQ- and/or thapsigargin-inhibited sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases, as well as TMB-8- and/or caffeine-sensitive, but not ryanodine-sensitive, Ca(2+)-release channels. Calmodulin kinase-II also likely participates in NO-elicited GH secretion but caffeine-induced GH release is not upstream of NO production. These findings provide insights into how NO actions many integrate with Ca(2+)-dependent signalling mechanisms in goldfish somatotropes and how such interactions may participate in the GH-releasing actions of regulators that utilize both NO- and Ca(2+)-dependent transduction pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of experimentally induced infestations of Argulus sp. in goldfish and koi carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Shari K; Hill, Jeffrey E; Watson, Craig A; Yanong, Roy P E; Endris, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24-25 degrees C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number of fish lice attached to each fish at the start of the experiment was not determined; however, the total number of motile fish lice in each aquarium (on fish and in the water) was determined at the start and end of each experiment. Eight goldfish were fed the control diet (0 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) and eight were fed the medicated diet (50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for seven consecutive days. After treatment, fish louse infestation in controls was 20.5 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SE) lice per fish. No Argulus were found on fish in the treated group. In a separate experiment, 10 individually housed koi were each exposed to 128 Argulus. Five koi were fed the control diet and five were fed a low-dose medicated diet (5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 d. After treatment, fish louse infestation among the controls was 14.6 +/- 3.8 lice per koi. No Argulus were found on koi in the treated group. Hence, a 7-d regimen of oral emamectin benzoate controlled experimental infestation of Argulus when administered to goldfish at 50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1) and to koi at 5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1).

  4. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  5. Temperature selection of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitch. ) after heterogeneous temperature acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R.

    1977-01-01

    Goldfish and brook trout were acclimated heterogeneously to temperature by exposing the head and tail simultaneously to different temperatures. The temperature selection of heterogeneously acclimated fish was tested in a vertical temperature gradient and compared to that of homogeneously acclimated fish. All fish selected temperatures essentially corresponding to the state of acclimation of their head. It is concluded that the brain acts as the main control of temperature selection in fish.

  6. Zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Fan

    Full Text Available Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut of goldfish (Carassius auratus after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn(2+. And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L, bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn(2+, the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut, rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle. The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG increased significantly, and after Zn(2+ exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP were the main target for Zn(2+, while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn(2+ were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.

  7. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  8. Waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) mRNA levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimeault, C.; Trudeau, V.L.; Moon, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. We previously demonstrated that GEM bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of GEM (1.5 μg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to GEM acting as a peroxisome proliferator (PP). We also investigate the autoregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as a potential index of exposure. The three PPAR subtypes (α, β, and γ) were amplified from goldfish liver cDNA. Goldfish exposed to a concentration higher (1500 μg/l) than environmentally relevant for 14 and 28 days significantly reduce hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels (p < 0.001). Levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were unchanged. GEM exposure significantly induced the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p = 0.006) but not acyl-CoA oxidase or glutathione reductase. As GEM exposure failed to increase levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), we conclude that a sub-chronic exposure to GEM upregulates the antioxidant defense status of the goldfish as an adaptive response to this human pharmaceutical

  9. Structural and functional effects of acoustic exposure in goldfish: evidence for tonotopy in the teleost saccule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilley Ronald R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian and avian auditory hair cells display tonotopic mapping of frequency along the length of the cochlea and basilar papilla. It is not known whether the auditory hair cells of fishes possess a similar tonotopic organization in the saccule, which is thought to be the primary auditory receptor in teleosts. To investigate this question, we determined the location of hair cell damage in the saccules of goldfish (Carassius auratus following exposure to specific frequencies. Subjects were divided into six groups of six fish each (five treatment groups plus control. The treatment groups were each exposed to one of five tones: 100, 400, 800, 2000, and 4000 Hz at 176 dB re 1 μPa root mean squared (RMS for 48 hours. The saccules of each fish were dissected and labeled with phalloidin in order to visualize hair cell bundles. The hair cell bundles were counted at 19 specific locations in each saccule to determine the extent and location of hair cell damage. In addition to quantification of anatomical injury, hearing tests (using auditory evoked potentials were performed on each fish immediately following sound exposure. Threshold shifts were calculated by subtracting control thresholds from post-sound exposure thresholds. Results All sound-exposed fish exhibited significant hair cell and hearing loss following sound exposure. The location of hair cell loss varied along the length of the saccule in a graded manner with the frequency of sound exposure, with lower and higher frequencies damaging the more caudal and rostral regions of the saccule, respectively. Similarly, fish exposed to lower frequency tones exhibited greater threshold shifts at lower frequencies, while high-frequency tone exposure led to hearing loss at higher frequencies. In general, both hair cell and hearing loss declined as a function of increasing frequency of exposure tone, and there was a significant linear relationship between hair cell loss and hearing

  10. Fear conditioning-related changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell activities in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Masayuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear conditioning-induced changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus have been reported in rabbits. It has been suggested that synaptic long-term potentiation and the resulting increases in firing rates of Purkinje cells are related to the acquisition of conditioned fear in mammals. However, Purkinje cell activities during acquisition of conditioned fear have not been analysed, and changes in Purkinje cell activities throughout the development of conditioned fear have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we tracked Purkinje cell activities throughout a fear conditioning procedure and aimed to elucidate further how cerebellar circuits function during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. Methods Activities of single Purkinje cells in the corpus cerebelli were tracked throughout a classical fear conditioning procedure in goldfish. A delayed conditioning paradigm was used with cardiac deceleration as the conditioned response. Conditioning-related changes of Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus were examined. Results The majority of Purkinje cells sampled responded to the conditioned stimulus by either increasing or decreasing their firing rates before training. Although there were various types of conditioning-related changes in Purkinje cells, more than half of the cells showed suppressed activities in response to the conditioned stimulus after acquisition of conditioned fear. Purkinje cells that showed unconditioned stimulus-coupled complex-spike firings also exhibited conditioning-related suppression of simple-spike responses to the conditioned stimulus. A small number of Purkinje cells showed increased excitatory responses in the acquisition sessions. We found that the magnitudes of changes in the firing frequencies of some Purkinje cells in response to the conditioned stimulus correlated with the magnitudes of the conditioned

  11. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with [3H]-, the other with [14C]proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain

  12. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 μg/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of 45 Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in 45 Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled 45 Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer. (author)

  13. Tributyltin disrupts feeding and energy metabolism in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Sun, Ping; Yang, Fan; Kong, Tao; Zhang, Ruichen

    2016-06-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) can induce obesogen response. However, little is known about the adverse effects of TBT on food intake and energy metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 2.44 and 24.4 ng/L (1 and 10 ng/L as Sn), on feeding and energy metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus). After exposure for 54 d, TBT increased the weight gain and food intake in fish. The patterns of brain neuropeptide genes expression were in line with potential orexigenic effects, with increased expression of neuropeptide Y and apelin, and decreased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and corticotropin-releasing factor. Interestingly, the energy metabolism indicators (oxygen consumption, ammonia exertion and swimming activity) and the serum thyroid hormones were all significantly increased at the 2.44 ng/L TBT group in fish. However, no changes of energy metabolism indicators or a decrease of thyroid hormones was found at the 24.4 ng/L TBT group, which indicated a complex disrupting effect on metabolism of TBT. In short, TBT can alter feeding and energy metabolism in fish, which might promote the obesogenic responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid steroid influences on visually guided sexual behavior in male goldfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Louis-David; Bond, Julia; Thompson, Richmond R.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of steroid hormones to rapidly influence cell physiology through nongenomic mechanisms raises the possibility that these molecules may play a role in the dynamic regulation of social behavior, particularly in species in which social stimuli can rapidly influence circulating steroid levels. We therefore tested if testosterone (T), which increases in male goldfish in response to sexual stimuli, can rapidly influence approach responses towards females. Injections of T stimulated approach responses towards the visual cues of females 30–45 min after the injection but did not stimulate approach responses towards stimulus males or affect general activity, indicating that the effect is stimulus-specific and not a secondary consequence of increased arousal. Estradiol produced the same effect 30–45 min and even 10–25 min after administration, and treatment with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole blocked exogenous T’s behavioral effect, indicating that T’s rapid stimulation of visual approach responses depends on aromatization. We suggest that T surges induced by sexual stimuli, including preovulatory pheromones, rapidly prime males to mate by increasing sensitivity within visual pathways that guide approach responses towards females and/or by increasing the motivation to approach potential mates through actions within traditional limbic circuits. PMID:19751737

  15. Tracing of single fibers of the nervus terminalis in the goldfish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bartheld, C S; Meyer, D L

    1986-01-01

    Central projections of the nervus terminalis (n.t.) in the goldfish were investigated using cobalt- and horseradish peroxidase-tracing techniques. Single n.t. fibers were identified after unilateral application of cobalt chloride-lysine to the rostral olfactory bulb. The central course and branching patterns of individual n.t. fibers were studied in serial sections. Eight types of n.t. fibers are differentiated according to pathways and projection patterns. Projection areas of the n.t. include the contralateral olfactory bulb, the ipsilateral periventricular preoptic nucleus, both retinae, the caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus bilaterally, and the rostral optic tectum bilaterally. N.t. fibers cross to contralateral targets in the anterior commissure, the optic chiasma, the horizontal commissure, the posterior commissure, and possibly the habenular commissure. We propose criteria that differentiate central n.t. fibers from those of the classical secondary olfactory projections. Branching patterns of eight n.t. fiber types are described. Mesencephalic projections of the n.t. and of secondary olfactory fibers are compared and discussed with regard to prior reports on the olfactory system of teleosts. Further fiber types for which the association with the n.t. could not be established with certainty were traced to the torus longitudinalis, the torus semicircularis, and to the superior reticular nucleus on the ipsilateral side.

  16. Vagal gustatory reflex circuits for intraoral food sorting behavior in the goldfish: cellular organization and neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Ogura, Tatsuya; Finger, Thomas E

    2009-09-20

    The sense of taste is crucial in an animal's determination as to what is edible and what is not. This gustatory function is especially important in goldfish, who utilize a sophisticated oropharyngeal sorting mechanism to separate food from substrate material. The computational aspects of this detection are carried out by the medullary vagal lobe, which is a large, laminated structure combining elements of both the gustatory nucleus of the solitary tract and the nucleus ambiguus. The sensory layers of the vagal lobe are coupled to the motor layers via a simple reflex arc. Details of this reflex circuit were investigated with histology and calcium imaging. Biocytin injections into the motor layer labeled vagal reflex interneurons that have radially directed dendrites ramifying within the layers of primary afferent terminals. Axons of reflex interneurons extend radially inward to terminate onto both vagal motoneurons and small, GABAergic interneurons in the motor layer. Functional imaging shows increases in intracellular Ca++ of vagal motoneurons following electrical stimulation in the sensory layer. These responses were suppressed under Ca(++)-free conditions and by interruption of the axons bridging between the sensory and motor layers. Pharmacological experiments showed that glutamate acting via (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy- 5-ethylisoxazole-4-propioinc acid (AMPA)/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors mediate neurotransmission between reflex interneurons and vagal motoneurons. Thus, the vagal gustatory portion of the viscerosensory complex is linked to branchiomotor neurons of the pharynx via a glutamatergic interneuronal system.

  17. Vagal gustatory reflex circuits for intraoral food sorting behavior in the goldfish Cellular organization and neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Ogura, Tatsuya; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The sense of taste is crucial in an animal’s determination as to what is edible and what is not. This gustatory function is especially important in goldfish who utilize a sophisticated oropharyngeal sorting mechanism to separate food from substrate material. The computational aspects of this detection are carried out by the medullary vagal lobe which is a large, laminated structure combining elements of both the gustatory nucleus of the solitary tract and the nucleus ambiguus. The sensory layers of the vagal lobe are coupled to the motor layers via a simple reflex arc. Details of this reflex circuit were investigated with histology and calcium imaging. Biocytin injections into the motor layer labeled vagal reflex interneurons which have radially-directed dendrites ramifying within the layers of primary afferent terminals. Axons of reflex interneurons extend radially inward to terminate onto both vagal motoneurons and small, GABAergic interneurons in the motor layer. Functional imaging shows increases in intracellular Ca++ of vagal motoneurons following electrical stimulation in the sensory layer. These responses were suppressed under Ca++-free conditions and by interruption of the axons bridging between the sensory and motor layers. Pharmacological experiments showed that glutamate acting via (±)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-ethylisoxazole-4-propioinc acid (AMPA)/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors mediates neurotransmission between reflex interneurons and vagal motoneurons. Thus the vagal gustatory portion of the viscerosensory complex is linked to branchiomotor neurons of the pharynx via a glutamatergic interneuronal system. PMID:19598285

  18. Immediate response of the hemoglobin system of the goldfish, Carassius auratu, to temperature change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, A.H.; Rupert, R.

    1976-10-01

    Goldfish acclimated to 3 and 23/sup 0/C were characterized by two- and three-component hemoglobin systems, respectively. After acclimation to a diurnally cycling temperature regime (approximately 3 to approximately 23/sup 0/C), specimens sampled at approximately 23/sup 0/C and approximately 3/sup 0/C were identical in terms of hemoglobin system complexity with those held at equivalent constant temperatures. Abrupt transfer of fish acclimated at constant 23/sup 0/C to 3/sup 0/C, and vice versa, lead to appearance or disappearance of the minor component, G. l, within 3 h. In vitro cooling and warming of whole blood and hemolyzate samples indicated that hemoglobin system modification occurred under cell-free as well as cell-intact conditions. These observations suggest that previously observed quantitative variations in the hemoglobin systems of thermally acclimated teleosts may represent, in part at least, altered aggregation of preexisting subunits rather than de novo hemoglobin synthesis and raise the possibility that teleostean hemoglobin systems may possess a capacity for rapid, adaptative reorganization after environmental temperature variation.

  19. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo (Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries)

    1983-07-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 ..mu..g/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of /sup 45/Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in /sup 45/Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled /sup 45/Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer.

  20. Fluoxetine and diclofenac interaction on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of simultaneous use of fluoxetine (Flx, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and diclofenac (Dcf, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Treatments with different dosage of Flx including control, 0, 1, and 10  µg/g body weight (BW were injected in the fish with mean weight of 30.16 ± 8.57 g every other day in total of 5 times. Then fish were exposed to 3 different levels of Dcf including 0, 10, and 100 mg/l for 5 days. Injection of fluoxetine significantly decreased food intake and consequently body weight. After 5 days exposure to Dcf, the amount of food intake in the Dcf receiving treatments of 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l was significantly larger than that of 0 mg/l Dcf recieving treatment in both the Flx dosage groups of 1 μg/g BW and 10 μg/g BW. Our results indicated that Dcf inhibits behavioral change effects of Flx showing the complex effects of pharmaceuticals on fish.

  1. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M.

    1984-01-01

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation. (Auth.)

  2. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Neurobiology)

    1984-07-23

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation.

  3. The Mancozeb-containing carbamate fungicide tattoo induces mild oxidative stress in goldfish brain, liver, and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Husak, Viktor V; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-11-01

    Tattoo belongs to the group of carbamate fungicides and contains Mancozeb (ethylene(bis)dithiocarbamate) as its main constituent. The toxicity of Mancozeb to living organisms, particularly fish, is not resolved. This work investigated the effects of 96 h of exposure to 3, 5, or 10 mg L(-1) of Tattoo (corresponding to 0.9, 1.5, or 3 mg L(-1) of Mancozeb) on the levels of oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant enzyme system of brain, liver, and kidney of goldfish, Carassius auratus). In liver, Tattoo exposure resulted in increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 70%-79%, catalase by 23%-52% and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by 49%. The content of protein carbonyls (CP) in liver was also enhanced by 92%-125% indicating extensive damage to proteins. Similar increases in CP levels (by 98%-111%) accompanied by reduced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (by 13%-15%) was observed in kidney of fish exposed to Tattoo; however, SOD activity increased by 37% in this tissue after treatment with 10 mg L(-1) Tattoo. In brain, a rise in lipid peroxide level (by 29%) took place after exposure to 10 mg L(-1) Tattoo and was accompanied by elevation of high-molecular mass thiols (by 14%). Tattoo exposure also resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in glutathione reductase activity (by 26%-37%) in brain. The data collectively show that exposure of goldfish to 3-10 mg L(-1) of the carbamate fungicide Tattoo resulted in the development of mild oxidative stress and activation of antioxidant defense systems in goldfish tissues. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  4. Meta-type analysis of dopaminergic effects on gene expression in the neuroendocrine brain of female goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Popesku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA is a major neurotransmitter important for neuroendocrine control and recent studies have described genomic signalling pathways activated and inhibited by DA agonists and antagonists in the goldfish brain. Here we perform a meta-type analysis using microarray datasets from experiments conducted with female goldfish to characterize the gene expression responses that underlie dopaminergic signalling. Sexually mature, pre-spawning (GSI 4.5 ± 1.3% or sexually regressing ( GSI 3 ± 0.4% female goldfish (15-40 g injected intraperitoneally with either SKF 38393, LY 171555, SCH 23390, sulpiride, or a combination of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and α-methyl-p-tyrosine. Microarray meta-type analysis identified 268 genes in the telencephalon and hypothalamus as having reciprocal (i.e. opposite between agonism and antagonism/depletion fold change responses, suggesting that these transcripts are likely targets for DA-mediated regulation. Noteworthy genes included ependymin, vimentin, and aromatase, genes that support the significance of DA in neuronal plasticity and tissue remodelling. Sub-network enrichment analysis (SNEA was used to identify common gene regulators and binding proteins associated with the differentially expressed genes mediated by DA. SNEA analysis identified gene expression targets that were related to three major categories that included cell signalling (STAT3, SP1, SMAD, Jun/Fos, immune response (IL6, IL1β, TNFs, cytokine, NF-κB, and cell proliferation and growth (IGF1, TGFβ1. These gene networks are also known to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons’ disease, well-known to be associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons. This study identifies genes and networks that underlie DA signalling in the vertebrate CNS and provides targets that may be key neuroendocrine regulators. The results provide a foundation for future work on dopaminergic regulation of gene expression in fish

  5. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) as standard fish in bioassays and their reaction to potential reference toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1976-02-01

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were compared for their suitability as standard bioassay fish. Both species showed the same variability of bioassay results when tested with four toxicants. Fathead minnows are recommended on the basis of their small size and on their capability for use in complete life cycle tests. On the basis of minimum variability of bioassay results, sodium chloride was superior for use as a reference toxicant. Both sodium chloride and pentachlorophenol seemed capable of detecting abnormal fish. On the basis of seven listed criteria either sodium chloride or pentachlorophenol would be acceptable as a reference toxicant.

  6. Pseudo-immunolabelling with the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) due to the presence of endogenous biotin in retinal Müller cells of goldfish and salamander

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharjee, J.; Nunes Cardozo, B.; Kamphuis, W.; Kamermans, M.; Vrensen, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    Immunodetection techniques are dependent on enzyme-protein conjugates for the visualisation of antigen-antibody complexes. One of the most widely used is the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method. The present study demonstrates that direct treatment of goldfish and salamander retinal

  7. Acute Toxicity (LC50 96 Hours of Organophosphate Pesticide With Poksim Active Compound And Haematology And Histopathology Review Goldfish (Cyprinus carpio L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Setyorini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research has the objectives to determine LC50 96 hours value and observation toward hematology, gills and kidney histology of goldfish (Cyprinus carpio exposed to organophosphate pesticide with Poksim active compound (trade brand FOKKER 500 EC. Method used in this paper is experiment to determine LC50 96 hour value with probit analysis. Descriptive method was used for gills and kidney tissues microanatomy observation with hematoxilin eosin (HE coloring and hematology. Toxicity result of Fokker 500 EC pesticide toward goldfish obtained LC50 96 hours with 41,7 ppm. Histological result showed that increasing exposure doses in real test had caused increase gills and kidney tissues damage. Hematology observation result during research obtained that along with the increasing exposure doses of pesticide in the real test, acute toxicity test would caused reduction in total erythrocyte, leukocyte and hemoglobin of goldfish. Result also showed that Fokker pesticide usage was allowed until 1,8 ppm dose based on histology and hematology evaluation. Keywords: acute toxicity, goldfish, histology, hematology, pesticide

  8. Roles of nitric oxide, nitrite and myoglobin on myocardial efficiency in trout (Oncorthynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus): implications for hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Faggiano, Serena; Helbo, Signe

    2010-01-01

    The roles of nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS), nitrite and myoglobin (Mb) in the regulation of myocardial function during hypoxia were examined in trout and goldfish, a hypoxia-intolerant and hypoxia-tolerant species, respectively. We measured the effect of NOS inhibition, adrenaline and nitr......The roles of nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS), nitrite and myoglobin (Mb) in the regulation of myocardial function during hypoxia were examined in trout and goldfish, a hypoxia-intolerant and hypoxia-tolerant species, respectively. We measured the effect of NOS inhibition, adrenaline...... in both trout and goldfish myocardium, with trout showing a significant increase in the O2 utilization efficiency, i.e. the ratio of twitch force to O2 consumption, suggesting an increased anaerobic metabolism. NOS inhibition enhanced myocardial O2 consumption and decreased efficiency, indicating...... that mitochondrial respiration is under a tone of NOS-produced NO. When trout myocardial twitch force and O2 consumption are enhanced by adrenaline, this NO tone disappears. Consistent with its conversion to NO, nitrite reduced O2 consumption and increased myocardial efficiency in trout but not in goldfish...

  9. Color- and motion-specific units in the tectum opticum of goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Morna; Behrend, Konstantin; Neumeyer, Christa

    2016-01-05

    Extracellular recordings were performed from 69 units at different depths between 50 and [Formula: see text]m below the surface of tectum opticum in goldfish. Using large field stimuli (86[Formula: see text] visual angle) of 21 colored HKS-papers we were able to record from 54 color-sensitive units. The colored papers were presented for 5[Formula: see text]s each. They were arranged in the sequence of the color circle in humans separated by gray of medium brightness. We found 22 units with best responses between orange, red and pink. About 12 of these red-sensitive units were of the opponent "red-ON/blue-green-OFF" type as found in retinal bipolar- and ganglion cells as well. Most of them were also activated or inhibited by black and/or white. Some units responded specifically to red either with activation or inhibition. 18 units were sensitive to blue and/or green, 10 of them to both colors and most of them to black as well. They were inhibited by red, and belonged to the opponent "blue-green-ON/red-OFF" type. Other units responded more selectively either to blue, to green or to purple. Two units were selectively sensitive to yellow. A total of 15 units were sensitive to motion, stimulated by an excentrically rotating black and white random dot pattern. Activity of these units was also large when a red-green random dot pattern of high L-cone contrast was used. Activity dropped to zero when the red-green pattern did not modulate the L-cones. Neither of these motion selective units responded to any color. The results directly show color-blindness of motion vision, and confirm the hypothesis of separate and parallel processing of "color" and "motion".

  10. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68±5.73 μg/g) followed by the liver (0.80±0.16 μg/g) and muscle (0.47±0.16 μg/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28±0.19 μg/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues

  11. Chloride currents in cones modify feedback from horizontal cells to cones in goldfish retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeman, Duco; Fahrenfort, Iris; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Steijaert, Marvin; ten Eikelder, Huub; Kamermans, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    In neuronal systems, excitation and inhibition must be well balanced to ensure reliable information transfer. The cone/horizontal cell (HC) interaction in the retina is an example of this. Because natural scenes encompass an enormous intensity range both in temporal and spatial domains, the balance between excitation and inhibition in the outer retina needs to be adaptable. How this is achieved is unknown. Using electrophysiological techniques in the isolated retina of the goldfish, it was found that opening Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels in recorded cones reduced the size of feedback responses measured in both cones and HCs. Furthermore, we show that cones express Cl− channels that are gated by GABA released from HCs. Similar to activation of ICl(Ca), opening of these GABA-gated Cl− channels reduced the size of light-induced feedback responses both in cones and HCs. Conversely, application of picrotoxin, a blocker of GABAA and GABAC receptors, had the opposite effect. In addition, reducing GABA release from HCs by blocking GABA transporters also led to an increase in the size of feedback. Because the independent manipulation of Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents in individual cones yielded results comparable to bath-applied GABA, it was concluded that activation of either Cl− current by itself is sufficient to reduce the size of HC feedback. However, additional effects of GABA on outer retinal processing cannot be excluded. These results can be accounted for by an ephaptic feedback model in which a cone Cl− current shunts the current flow in the synaptic cleft. The Ca2+-dependent Cl− current might be essential to set the initial balance between the feedforward and the feedback signals active in the cone HC synapse. It prevents that strong feedback from HCs to cones flood the cone with Ca2+. Modulation of the feedback strength by GABA might play a role during light/dark adaptation, adjusting the amount of negative feedback to the signal to noise ratio of the

  12. Radioummunoassay of steroids in serum and ovarian fluid during egg overripening in goldfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formacion, M.J.; Venkatesh, B.; Tan, C.H.; Lam, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in steroid hormone levels in the serum and ovarian fluid during egg overripening in goldfish were studied by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Ovulated eggs retained in the ovarian cavity became overripe at around 12h after ovulation based on loss of fertilizability with advanced degeneration by 24 hour. Blood and ovarian fluid (OF) were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 12, 187 and 24h after ovulation. Prior to RIA, serum steroids were extracted directly with redistilled diethyl ether. Because of limited availability, steroids were separated from the ovarian fluid by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both serum and ovarian fluid progesterone (P) showed a highly significant decline at 18h with a further decline at 24h. In the ovarian fluid, P levels were higher than in the serum. Serum 17 α, 20B-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20B-P) levels showed a progressive and more rapid decline, decreasing significantly at 12h with further decreases by 18h and 24h. Serum testosterone (T) increased significantly at 3h, remained high till 18h, and declined thereafter to the 0h level. for estradiol-17B (E 2 , levels there were no significant changes observed in the serum fluid, there were no significant difference between 6 and 24h. In the ovarian fluid, there were no significant changes in E 2 , T or 17,20B-P levels. The time course of changes in the levels of steroids in the serum and ovarian fluid (OF) did not strictly coincide with that of overripening based on egg viability. (author)

  13. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.J

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68{+-}5.73 {mu}g/g) followed by the liver (0.80{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g) and muscle (0.47{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28{+-}0.19 {mu}g/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues.

  14. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  15. Transcripts of genes encoding reproductive neuroendocrine hormones and androgen receptor in the brain and testis of goldfish exposed to vinclozolin, flutamide, testosterone, and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Mahdi; Habibi, Hamid R; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi

    2016-08-01

    Vinclozolin (VZ) is a pesticide that acts as an anti-androgen to impair reproduction in mammals. However, VZ-induced disruption of reproduction is largely unknown in fish. In the present study, we have established a combination exposure in which adult goldfish were exposed to VZ (30 and 100 μg/L), anti-androgen flutamide (Flu, 300 μg/L), and androgen testosterone (T, 1 μg/L) to better understand effects of VZ on reproductive endocrine system. mRNA levels of kisspeptin (kiss-1 and kiss-2) and its receptor (gpr54), salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh3) and androgen receptor (ar) in the mid-brain, and luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) in the testis were analyzed and compared with those of control following 10 days of exposure. kiss-1 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 µg/L VZ and to Flu, while kiss-2 mRNA level was increased following exposure to Flu and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. gpr54 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combination of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu and 100 µg/L VZ with T. gnrh3 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 µg/L VZ, to Flu, and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. The mid-brain ar mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. Testicular lhr mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combination of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu. These results suggest that VZ and Flu are capable of interfering with kisspeptin and GnRH systems to alter pituitary and testicular horonal functions in adult goldfish and the brain ar mediates VZ-induced disruption of androgen production.

  16. Secretoneurin A Directly Regulates the Proteome of Goldfish Radial Glial Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon F. Da Fonte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Radial glial cells (RGCs are the main macroglia in the teleost brain and have established roles in neurogenesis and neurosteroidogenesis. They are the only brain cell type expressing aromatase B (cyp19a1b, the enzyme that synthesizes estrogens from androgen precursors. There are few studies on the regulation of RGC functions, but our previous investigations demonstrated that dopamine stimulates cyp19a1b expression in goldfish RGCs, while secretoneurin A (SNa inhibits the expression of this enzyme. Here, we determine the range of proteins and cellular processes responsive to SNa treatments in these steroidogenic cells. The focus here is on SNa, because this peptide is derived from selective processing of secretogranin II in magnocellular cells embedded within the RGC-rich preoptic nucleus. Primary cultures of RGCs were treated (24 h with 10, 100, or 1,000 nM SNa. By using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation and a Hybrid Quadrupole Obritrap Mass Spectrometry system, a total of 1,363 unique proteins were identified in RGCs, and 609 proteins were significantly regulated by SNa at one or more concentrations. Proteins that showed differential expression with all three concentrations of SNa included H1 histone, glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor γ, vimentin A2, and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated protein. At 10, 100, and 1,000 nM SNa, there were 5, 195, and 489 proteins that were downregulated, respectively, whereas the number of upregulated proteins were 72, 44, and 51, respectively. Subnetwork enrichment analysis of differentially regulated proteins revealed that processes such as actin organization, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, apoptosis, mRNA processing, RNA splicing, translation, cell growth, and proliferation are regulated by SNa based on the proteomic response. Moreover, we observed that, at the low concentration of SNa, there was an increase in the abundance of

  17. Synthesis of Functionalized Fluorescent Silver Nanoparticles and their toxicological effect in aquatic environments (Goldfish) and HEPG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hugo; Oliveira, Elisabete; Garcia-Pardo, Javier; Diniz, Mário; Lorenzo, Julia; Rodriguez-González, Benito; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles, AgNPs, are widely used in our daily life, mostly due to their antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. However, their potential toxicity remains unclear. In order to unravel this issue, emissive AgNPs were first synthetized using an inexpensive photochemical method, and then their permeation was assessed in vivo in goldfish and in vitro in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). In addition, the oxidative stress caused by AgNPs was assessed in enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and in lipid peroxidation (LPO). This study demonstrates that the smallest sized AgNPs@3 promote the largest changes in gold fish livers, whereas AgNPs@1 were found to be toxic in HEPG2 cells depending on both the size and functionalized/stabilizer ligand.

  18. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland of the goldfish, Carassius auratus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, B.A. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC); Peter, R.E.

    1976-11-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photoperiod and temperature on prolactin release from the goldfish pituitary gland. Fish were acclimated to different photoperiods and temperatures, and also were subjected to a change in either of these two parameters after different acclimation conditions. Serum and pituitary samples were collected and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. In other experiments samples for prolactin analysis were taken every 3 h intermittently over a period of 3 days from fish that were acclimated to different photoperiod and temperature conditions. Longer photoperiods and higher temperatures caused pituitary prolactin release. Serum prolactin changed on a circadian rhythm and the rhythm was modified depending on the length of the photoperiod.

  19. Synthesis of Functionalized Fluorescent Silver Nanoparticles and their toxicological effect in aquatic environments (Goldfish and HEPG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Miguel Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles, AgNPs, are widely used in our daily life, mostly due to their antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. However, their potential toxicity remains unclear. In order to unravel this issue, emissive AgNPs were first synthetized using an inexpensive photochemical method, and then their permeation was assessed in vivo in goldfish and in vitro in human hepatoma cells (HepG2. In addition, the oxidative stress caused by AgNPs was assessed in enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT and in lipid peroxidation (LPO. This study demonstrates that the smallest sized AgNPs@3 promote the largest changes in gold fish livers, whereas AgNPs@1 were found to be toxic in HEPG2 cells depending on both the size and functionalized/stabilizer ligand.

  20. Myelin repair by Schwann cells in the regenerating goldfish visual pathway: regional patterns revealed by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nona, S.N.; Stafford, C.A.; Cronly-Dillon, J.R. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology); Duncan, A. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Anatomy); Scholes, J. (University Coll., London (United Kingdom))

    1994-07-01

    In the regenerating goldfish optic nerves, Schwann cells of unknown origin reliably infiltrate the lesion site forming a band of peripheral-type myelinating tissue by 1-2 months, sharply demarcated form the adjacent new CNS myelin. To investigate this effect, we have interfered with cell proliferation by locally X-irradiating the fish visual pathway 24 h after the lesion. As assayed by immunohistochemistry and EM, irradiation retards until 6 months formation of new myelin by Schwann cells at the lesion site, and virtually abolishes oligodendrocyte myelination distally, but has little or no effect on nerve fibre regrowth. Optic nerve astrocyte processes normally fail to re-infiltrate the lesion, but re-occupy it after irradiation, suggesting that they are normally excluded by early cell proliferation at this site. Moreover, scattered myelinating Schwann cells also appear in the oligodendrocyte-depleted distal optic nerve after irradiation, although only as far as the optic tract. (Author).

  1. Brain Mapping of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase in Goldfish (Carassius Auratus): Novel Roles for the Ghrelinergic System in Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén M; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Delgado, María J; Valenciano, Ana I

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme responsible for acylation of ghrelin, a gut-brain hormone with important roles in many physiological functions in vertebrates. Many aspects of GOAT remain to be elucidated, especially in fish, and particularly its anatomical distribution within the different brain areas has never been reported to date. The present study aimed to characterize the brain mapping of GOAT using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Results show that goat transcripts are expressed in different brain areas of the goldfish, with the highest levels in the vagal lobe. Using immunohistochemistry, we also report the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in different encephalic areas, including the telencephalon, some hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, optic tectum and cerebellum, although they are especially abundant in the hindbrain. Particularly, an important signal is observed in the vagal lobe and some fiber tracts of the brainstem, such as the medial longitudinal fasciculus, Mauthneri fasciculus, secondary gustatory tract and spinothalamic tract. Most of the forebrain areas where GOAT is detected, particularly the hypothalamic nuclei, also express the ghs-r1a ghrelin receptor and other appetite-regulating hormones (e.g., orexin and NPY), supporting the role of ghrelin as a modulator of food intake and energy balance in fish. Present results are the first report on the presence of GOAT in the brain using imaging techniques. The high presence of GOAT in the hindbrain is a novelty, and point to possible new functions for the ghrelinergic system in fish. Anat Rec, 299:748-758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Raghunath B; Christian, Larry S; Law, Jerry M; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat ® on slime production in goldfish ( Carassius auratus) and koi ( Cyprinus carpio ). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat ® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat ® , when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat ® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath B. Shivappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio. The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  4. Male-typical courtship, spawning behavior, and olfactory sensitivity are induced to different extents by androgens in the goldfish suggesting they are controlled by different neuroendocrine mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-06-01

    Male-typical reproductive behaviors vary greatly between different species of fishes with androgens playing a variety of roles that appear especially important in the gonochorist cypriniform fishes. The goldfish is an important model for the cypriniformes and while it is clear that male goldfish are fully feminized by prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α), it is not clear whether females will exhibit normal levels of male-typical reproductive behaviors as well as olfactory function when treated with androgens. To answer this question, we exposed sexually-regressed adult female goldfish to several types of androgen and monitored their tendencies to court (inspect females) and mate (spawn, or attempt to release gametes) while monitoring their olfactory sensitivity until changes in these attributes were maximized. Untreated adult males (intact) were included to determine the extent of masculinization. Treatments included the natural androgens, 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone (KT and T), administered via capsules (KT+T-implanted fish); the artificial androgen, methyltestosterone (MT), administered via capsules (MT-C); and MT administered in the fishes' water (MT-B). Male-typical olfactory sensitivity to a pheromone (15keto-PGF2α) increased in all androgen-treated groups and by week 6 was fully equivalent to that of males. Male-typical courtship behavior increased in all androgen-treated groups although slowly, and only MT-B females came to exhibit levels equivalent to those of males after 18weeks. In contrast, male-typical mating activity increased only slightly, with MT-B females reaching levels one-third that of males after 30weeks. We conclude that while androgens fully masculinize olfactory sensitivity and courtship behavior in goldfish, mating behavior is controlled by a different neuroendocrine mechanism(s) that has yet to be fully elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Smad Response Elements in the Promoter of Goldfish FSHβ Gene and Evidence for Their Mediation of Activin and GnRH Stimulation of FSHβ Expression

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    Man-Tat eLau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As an essential hormone regulating gonads in vertebrates, the biosynthesis and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH is controlled by a variety of endocrine and paracrine factors in both mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates. Activin was initially discovered in the ovary for its specific stimulation of FSH secretion by the pituitary cells. Our earlier studies in fish have shown that activin stimulates FSHβ but suppresses LHβ expression in both the goldfish and zebrafish. Further experiments showed that the regulation of FSHβ in fish occurred at the promoter level involving Smads, in particular Smad3. To further understand the mechanisms by which activin/Smad regulates FSHβ transcription, the present study was undertaken to analyze the promoter of goldfish FSHβ gene (fshb with the aim to identify potential cis-regulatory elements responsible for activin/Smad stimulation. Both serial deletion and site-directed mutagenesis were used, and the promoter activity was tested in the LβT2 cells, a murine gonadotroph cell line. The reporter constructs of goldfish FSHβ promoter-SEAP (secreted alkaline phosphatase were co-transfected with an expression plasmid for Smads (2 or 3 followed by measurement of SEAP activity in the medium. Two putative Smad responsive elements (SRE were identified in the promoter at distal and proximal regions, respectively. The distal site contained a consensus Smad binding element (SBE; AGAC, -1675/-1672 whereas the proximal site (GACCTTGA, -212/-205 was identical to an SF-1 binding site reported in humans, which was preceded by a sequence (AACACTGA highly conserved between fish and mammals. The proximal site also seemed to be involved in mediating stimulation of FSHβ expression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and its potential interaction with activin. In conclusion, we have identified two potential cis-regulatory elements in the promoter of goldfish FSHβ that are responsible for activin

  6. Size-relative Effectiveness of Clove Oil as an Anaesthetic for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 and Goldfish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

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    Costas Perdikaris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the size-relative effectiveness of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout and goldfish. In total, 128 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (two groups of 20-23 and 30-33 cm mean fork length and 160 goldfish (Carassius auratus (four size groups of 1.5-2.5, 5-7, 11-15 and 20-25 cm were anaesthetized at different clove oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for trouts and 75, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for goldfish. Rainbow trout exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli with shorter induction time as dosage increased (120.5 s, 64.4 s and 44.3 s, respectively. Goldfish exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli after induction time that varied with dosage used and body size of fish. The small fish (1.5-7 cm exhibited shorter induction time which ranged from 84.28 s at 75 mg·l-1 clove oil to 41.14 s at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. The larger fish had a longer induction time inversely related to the dosage. Recovery time was longer than induction time in both species. Both species recovered within 6 min after anaesthesia at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. Clove oil did not produce marked changes (P compared to the control. However, marked changes (P P > 0.05. For both fish species, clove oil was effective, producing minimum stress and zero mortalities, and can be recommended as an effective anaesthetic.

  7. The application of hCG, CPH and Ovopel in successful artificial reproduction of goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targońska, K; Kucharczyk, D

    2011-08-01

    Artificial reproduction of fish is one of the main goals of aquaculture production. The aim of this study is to optimize the method of goldfish reproduction under controlled conditions by comparing the effectiveness of carp pituitary homogenate (CPH), Ovopel and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), administered as a one-off dose and inducing two spawns in the same fish within a short time period. Goldfish spawners were stimulated with hCG, CPH and Ovopel, and the results were compared to the fish from the control group, comprised of unstimulated fish. In another experiment, spawn were induced twice within an interval of 21 days with the same group of fish. The best results in the first experiment in terms of the percentage of ovulating females and survival to the eyed-egg stage were achieved after administering hCG (100% and 88.7%, respectively). However, the highest fecundity was observed in fish stimulated with Ovopel (89,960 eggs/kg). It was shown in the second experiment that female goldfish produce higher weight of eggs during the first spawning, but the number of eggs/BW ratio was higher during the next reproduction process. Survival, both that of embryos to the eyed-egg stage and that of spawners, is higher during the first reproduction act. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  9. Influence of the diet on the microbial diversity of faecal and gastrointestinal contents in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and intestinal contents in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Zambonino-Infante, José Luiz; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Gatesoupe, François-Joël

    2011-11-01

    Fish intestinal microbiota changes with the diet and this effect is of particular interest considering the increasing substitution of fish meal by plant protein sources. The objective of this work was to study the effects of partial substitution of fish meal with lupin and rapeseed meals on gut microbiota of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Faecal, gastrointestinal and intestinal contents were characterized using culture-based and molecular methods. Vibrionaceae was high in faeces and in the intestine of sea bream, while a more diverse microbiota was retrieved from the stomach, where Bacillales and Flavobacteriaceae appeared to be influenced by the diet. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed a high diversity of the microbiota transiting in the sea bream digestive tract, with a shift between gastric and intestinal communities, especially in the group fed with lupin meal. The goldfish was different, with a predominance of Aeromonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens and Staphylococcus spp. among the aerotolerant-cultivable bacteria. The culture-independent methods revealed the presence of anaerobes like Cetobacterium somerae, and that of Vibrio spp., likely in a viable, but noncultivable state. There was a trend towards decreasing diversity in goldfish microbiota with the partial substitution by lupin, which seemed to inhibit some taxa. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. INCREASING NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF ARTIFICIAL FEED WITH WHOLE SPORE PROTEIN OF MYXOBOLUS KOI AS AN IMMUNOSTIMULTANT ON GOLDFISH (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusairi A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of goldfish in Indonesia in 2010-2013 has increased by 7.09%, the lowest average production increase compared with other main commodities such as shrimp, tilapia, catfish, and others. One of the primary causes of the low increase in production is the presence of disease and high price of feed in some central goldfish productions. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi on goldfish (Cyprinus carpio L. through feed to immune response, growth rate, feed efficiency and survival rate. This research was conducted with complete randomized design with 5 replications. This study used two types of treatment, control (100% artificial feed and artificial feed + immunostimulant (whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi + Boster® Progol adhesive spores. The results showed that whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi given to the feed as immunostimulant can cause response of the immune through the increase of monocytes and lymphocytes in white blood cells on days 7, 14 and 28 observations, daily growth rate of 5.55% compared without immunostimulant with the rate of 1.13%; feed efficiency of 36.57% compared with no immunostimulant, which is only 23.84%, and the treatment gives a 99% survival rate.

  11. Growth performance of pearl goldfish juvenile carassius auratus cultured in 3 ppt salinity with different exposure time of electric field

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    Kukuh Nirmala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrowth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile Carassius auratus relatively slow to reach market size which will take approximately three months. To accelerate its growth can be done by providing exposure of the fish to low-power electric fields (10 V via 3 ppt salinity water, with the goal of providing the close isoosmotic conditions, and also to streamline the flow of electricity from the electrodes to the body of the fish. This study aims to calculate the survival and growth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile of S sizes (2‒4 cm of body length which were maintained at 3 ppt salinity water and treated by different exposure time of electric field (zero, two, four, and six minutes before feeding with 10 volt electric power. Fish were cultured at a density of 2 fish/L in the (20×30×20 cm3 aquaria in volume of 6 L of water. Test fish had an average body length of 4.11±0.05 cm and the average body weight of 2.89±0.05 g. Exposure time of electric field were zero, two, four, and six minutes before the fish are fed, performed every day as much as three times i.e. morning, afternoon, and evening. The research design used was completely randomized design with four treatments, namely 0, 2, 4, and 6 (time for exposure is zero/control, two, four, and six minute with three replications. The results show test fishes exposed to 10 volt electrical field for zero, two, four, and six minutes, have no significant effect on survival rate (P>0.05. For growth performance, four minute exposure treatment gives the best results compared to controls (P<0.05, supported by an increase in the percentage of the ratio of gut length to body length of the fish and higher feed efficiency.Keywords: long exposure to the electric field, growth performance, pearl goldfishABSTRAKPertumbuhan benih ikan hias maskoki mutiara Carassius auratus relatif lambat, karena untuk mencapai ukuran jual memerlukan waktu sekitar tiga bulan. Untuk mempercepat pertumbuhannya dapat dilakukan dengan

  12. Cloning and characterization of GETS-1, a goldfish Ets family member that functions as a transcriptional repressor in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, D; Sapru, M K; Stewart, S; Plotkin, J; Libermann, T A; Wasylyk, B; Guan, K

    1998-10-15

    An Ets transcription factor family member, GETS-1, was cloned from a goldfish retina cDNA library. GETS-1 contains a conserved Ets DNA-binding domain at its N-terminus and is most similar to ternary complex factor (TCF) serum-response-factor protein-1a (SAP-1a). GETS-1 is expressed in many tissues, but is enriched in retina and brain. As with the TCFs SAP-1a and ets-related protein (ERP), overexpression of the GETS-1 promoter suppresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptor epsilon-subunit gene expression in cultured muscle cells. A consensus Ets binding site sequence in the promoter of the epsilon-subunit gene is required for GETS-1-mediated repression. GETS-1 repressor activity is abrogated by overexpression of an activated Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) or by mutation of Ser-405, a MAP kinase phosphorylation site in GETS-1. Fusion proteins created between GETS-1 and the Gal4 DNA-binding domain show that, like other TCFs, GETS-1 contains a C-terminal activation domain that is activated by a Ras/MAP kinase signalling cascade. Interestingly, mutation of Ser-405 located within this activation domain abrogated transcriptional activation of the fusion protein.

  13. Toxicity of hydrogen sulfide to goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) as influenced by temperature, oxygen, and bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Bioassays were conducted to test the effect of temperature and oxygen on H/sub 2/S toxicity to goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and to investigate some factors that influence bioassay results. Relation of H/sub 2/S toxicity to temperature is negatively logarithmic over the range of 6.5-25 C. The mean 96-hr TL50 at 6 C was 530 ..mu..g/liter and at 25 C was 4 ..mu..g/liter. At temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, most acute mortality from H/sub 2/S ended by 11 days and the 11-day TL50's at these temperatures were significantly different. In bioassays with and without prior oxygen acclimation, decreasing oxygen concentrations increased H/sub 2/S toxicity. In the former, mean TL50's were 62 and 48 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at oxygen concentrations of 6 and 1.5 mg/liter, respectively, and in the latter, 71 and 53 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at the same oxygen concentrations. Variability in bioassay results was not affected by test temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, and in most cases 1 week of temperature acclimation was adequate. Stocks of fish responded differently after 11 days of bioassay, although differences were not detected after 4 days of bioassay. 27 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Responses of Medullary Lateral Line Units of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus, to Amplitude-Modulated Sinusoidal Wave Stimuli

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    Ramadan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the responses of brainstem lateral line units in goldfish, Carassius auratus, to constant-amplitude and to amplitude-modulated sinusoidal water motions. If stimulated with constant-amplitude sinusoidal water motions, units responded with phasic (50% or with sustained (50% increases in dicharge rate. Based on isodisplacement curves, units preferred low (33 Hz, 12.5%, mid (50 Hz, 10% and 100 Hz, 30% or high (200 Hz, 47.5% frequencies. In most units, responses were weakly phase locked to the carrier frequency. However, at a carrier frequency of 50 Hz or 100 Hz, a substantial proportion of the units exhibited strong phase locking. If stimulated with amplitude-modulated water motions, units responded with a burst of discharge to each modulation cycle, that is, units phase locked to the amplitude modulation frequency. Response properties of brainstem units were in many respects comparable to those of midbrain units, suggesting that they emerge first in the lateral line brainstem.

  15. Effect of vibration on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities: Analysis of bone metabolism using goldfish scale as a model for bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N.; Kitamura, K.; Nemoto, T.; Shimizu, N.; Wada, S.; Kondo, T.; Tabata, M. J.; Sodeyama, F.; Ijiri, K.; Hattori, A.

    In osteoclastic activity during space flight as well as hind limb unloading by tail suspension, inconsistent results have been reported in an in vivo study. The bone matrix plays an important role in the response to physical stress. However, there is no suitable in vitro co-culture system of osteoblasts and osteoclasts including bone matrix. On the other hand, fish scale is a calcified tissue that contains osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and bone matrix, all of which are similar to those found in human bones. Recently, we developed a new in vitro model system using goldfish scale. This system can detect the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase as the respective markers and precisely analyze the co-relationship between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Using this system, we analyzed the bone metabolism under various degrees of acceleration (0.5-, 1-, 2-, 4-, and 6-G) by vibration with a G-load apparatus. After loading for 5 and 10 min, the scales were incubated for 6 and 24 h. The osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were then measured. The osteoblastic activities gradually increased corresponding to 1-G to 6-G acceleration. In addition, ER mRNA expression was the highest under 6-G acceleration. On the other hand, the osteoclastic activity decreased at 24 h of incubation under low acceleration (0.5- and 1-G). This change coincided with TRAP mRNA expression. Under 2-G acceleration, the strength of suppression in osteoclastic activity was the highest. The strength of the inhibitory action under 4- and 6-G acceleration was lower than that under 2-G acceleration. In our co-culture system, osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the scale sensitively responded to several degrees of acceleration. Therefore, we strongly believe that our in vitro co-culture system is useful for the analysis of bone metabolism under loading or unloading.

  16. Light-modulated release of RFamide-like neuropeptides from nervus terminalis axon terminals in the retina of goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A J; Stell, W K

    1997-03-01

    The nervus terminalis of teleosts, a cranial nerve anatomically associated with the olfactory system, projects to visual system targets including retina and optic tectum. It is known to contain gonadotropin-releasing hormone and RFamide-like peptides, but its function remains unknown. We have probed nervus terminalis function in goldfish by measuring peptide content in retina and tectum with a radioimmunoassay for A18Famide (neuropeptide AF; bovine morphine-modulating peptide). We found that retinal peptide content increased in the dark and decreased in the light, whereas tectal peptide content decreased in the dark and increased in the light. In addition, RFamide-like peptide content in the retina was transiently decreased by severing both olfactory tracts, increased in light-adapted eyes treated with a GABAergic agonist (isoguvacine), and decreased in dark-adapted eyes treated with GABAergic antagonists (bicuculline and picrotoxin). We also found that RFamide-like peptide release could be induced in dark-adapted isolated-superfused retinas by exposure to light or a high concentration (102.5 mM) of potassium ions. We interpret the increase and decrease in peptide content as reflecting a decrease and increase, respectively, in rate of peptide release. We propose that the release and accumulation of RFamide-like peptides in axon terminals of nervus terminalis processes in the retina are modulated primarily by neurons intrinsic to the retina and regulated by light. Peptide release appears to be inhibited tonically in the dark by GABA acting through GABAA receptors; light facilitates peptide release by disinhibition due to a reduction in GABA release. In addition, we propose that electrical signals originating outside the retina can override these intrinsic release-modulating influences.

  17. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  18. Glycine and GABAA receptors mediate tonic and phasic inhibitory processes that contribute to prepulse inhibition in the goldfish startle network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C.P. Curtin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepulse inhibition (PPI is understood as an inhibitory process that attenuates sensory flow during early stages (20-1000ms of information processing. Here, we applied in vivo electrophysiology and pharmacology to determine if prepulse inhibition (PPI is mediated by glycine receptors (GlyRs and/or GABAA receptors (GABAARs in the goldfish auditory startle circuit. Specifically, we used selective antagonists to dissect the contributions of target receptors on sound-evoked postsynaptic potentials (PSPs recorded in the neurons that initiate startle, the Mauthner-cells (M-cell. We found that strychnine, a GlyR antagonist, disrupted a fast-activated (5 ms and rapidly (< 50ms decaying (feed-forward inhibitory process that disrupts PPI at 20 ms prepulse/pulse inter-stimulus intervals (ISI. Additionally we observed increases of the evoked postsynaptic potential (PSP peak amplitude (+87.43 ± 21.53%; N=9 and duration (+204 ± 48.91%, N=9. In contrast, treatment with bicuculline, a GABAAR antagonist, caused a general reduction in PPI across all tested ISIs (20-500 ms, essentially eliminating PPI at ISIs from 20-100 ms. Bicuculline also increased PSP peak amplitude (+133.8 ± 10.3%, N=5 and PSP duration (+284.95 ± 65.64%, N=5. Treatment with either antagonist also tonically increased post-synaptic excitability in the M-cells, reflected by an increase in the magnitude of antidromically-evoked action potentials (APs by 15.07 ± 3.21%, N=7 and 16.23 ± 7.08%, N=5 for strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These results suggest that GABAARs and GlyRs are functionally segregated to short- and longer-lasting sound-evoked (phasic inhibitory processes that contribute to PPI, with the mediation of tonic inhibition by both receptor systems being critical for gain control within the M-cell startle circuit.

  19. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Pandey, P K; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay; Kumar, Kundan

    2013-02-01

    Modulation of the immune responses using active bio-ingredients as a possible prophylaxis measure has been novel prospect for aquaculture. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin EC 25% on non-specific immune responses in goldfish Carassius auratus and resistance against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental trial for effects of azadirachtin on immuno-haematoloical parameters in goldfish was conducted by feeding the various levels of azadirachtin as control T(0) (without azadirachtin), T(1) (0.1%), T(2) (0.2%), T(3) (0.4%), T(4) (0.8%) and T(5) (1.6%) for a period of 28 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 28 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (%) was recorded over 14 days post infection. Immuno-haematoloical (total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, NBT activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity, total immunoglobulin) and serum biochemical parameters (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood glucose) of fishes were examined at 14 and 28 days of feedings. Fish fed with azadirachtin, showed significantly (p 0.05) in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Azadirachtin at the concentration of 4 g kg(-1) showed significantly (p azadirachtin EC 25% (4 g kg(-1)) showed higher NBT activity, serum lysozyme, protein profiles, leukocyte counts and resistance against A. hydrophila infection and thus, can be used as a potential immunostimulant in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increase in telencephalic dopamine and cerebellar norepinephrine contents by hydrostatic pressure in goldfish: the possible involvement in hydrostatic pressure-related locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Taro; Takemura, Akihiro; Choi, Eunjung; Suda, Atsushi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Badruzzaman, Muhammad; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Fish are faced with a wide range of hydrostatic pressure (HP) in their natural habitats. Additionally, freshwater fish are occasionally exposed to rapid changes in HP due to heavy rainfall, flood and/or dam release. Accordingly, variations in HP are one of the most important environmental cues for fish. However, little information is available on how HP information is perceived and transmitted in the central nervous system of fish. The present study examined the effect of HP (water depth of 1.3 m) on the quantities of monoamines and their metabolites in the telencephalon, optic tectum, diencephalon, cerebellum (including partial mesencephalon) and vagal lobe (including medulla oblongata) of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using high-performance liquid chromatography. HP affected monoamine and metabolite contents in restricted brain regions, including the telencephalon, cerebellum and vagal lobe. In particular, HP significantly increased the levels of dopamine (DA) in the telencephalon at 15 min and that of norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum at 30 min. In addition, HP also significantly increased locomotor activity at 15 and 30 min after HP treatment. It is possible that HP indirectly induces locomotion in goldfish via telencephalic DA and cerebellar NE neuronal activity.

  2. Leptin Stimulates Prolactin mRNA Expression in the Goldfish Pituitary through a Combination of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MKK3/6/p38MAPK and MEK1/2/ERK1/2 Signalling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aifen; Chen, Yanfeng; Chen, Shuang; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Jirong; Yu, Hui; Liu, Lian; Liu, Fang; Hu, Chaoqun; Tang, Dongsheng; Chen, Ting

    2017-12-20

    Leptin actions at the pituitary level have been extensively investigated in mammalian species, but remain insufficiently characterized in lower vertebrates, especially in teleost fish. Prolactin (PRL) is a pituitary hormone of central importance to osmoregulation in fish. Using goldfish as a model, we examined the global and brain-pituitary distribution of a leptin receptor (lepR) and examined the relationship between expression of lepR and major pituitary hormones in different pituitary regions. The effects of recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII on PRL mRNA expression in the pituitary were further analysed, and the mechanisms underlying signal transduction for leptin-induced PRL expression were determined by pharmacological approaches. Our results showed that goldfish lepR is abundantly expressed in the brain-pituitary regions, with highly overlapping PRL transcripts within the pituitary. Recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII proteins could stimulate PRL mRNA expression in dose- and time-dependent manners in the goldfish pituitary, by both intraperitoneal injection and primary cell incubation approaches. Moreover, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MKK 3/6 /p 38 MAPK, and MEK 1/2 /ERK 1/2 -but not JAK2/STAT 1, 3 and 5 cascades-were involved in leptin-induced PRL mRNA expression in the goldfish pituitary.

  3. Toxicological responses on cytochrome P450 and metabolic transferases in liver of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to lead and paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Cui, Zhaojie; Wang, Xinlei; Wang, Xixin; Zhang, Su

    2018-04-30

    As the producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both lead (Pb) and paraquat (PQ) can generate serious oxidative stress in target organs which result in irreversible toxic effects on organisms. They can disturb the normal catalytic activities of many enzymes by means of different toxicity mechanism. The changed responses of enzymes are frequently used as the biomarkers for indicating the relationship between toxicological effects and exposure levels. In this work, goldfish was exposed to a series of test groups containing lead and paraquat in the range of 0.05-10mg/L, respectively. Four hepatic enzyme activities, including 7-ethoxyresorufinO-deethylase (EROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) were determined after 1, 7, 14, 28 days exposure. The results showed that the activities of EROD and BFCOD in fish were significantly inhibited in response to paraquat at all exposure levels during the whole experiment. Similarly, the inhibitory effects of lead exposure on BFCOD activity were found in our study, while different responses of lead on EROD were observed. There were no significant differences on EROD activity under lower concentrations of lead (less than 0.1mg/L) before 14 days until an obvious increase was occurred for the 0.5mg/L lead treatment group at day 14. Furthermore, lead showed stronger inhibition on GST activity than paraquat when the concentrations of the two toxicants were more than 0.5mg/L. However, the similar dose and time-dependent manners of UGT activity were found under lead and paraquat exposure. Our results indicated that higher exposure levels and longer accumulations caused inhibitory effects on the four enzymes regardless of lead or paraquat stress. In addition, the responses of phase I enzymes were more sensitive than that of phase II enzymes and they may be served as the acceptable biomarkers for evaluating the toxicity effects of both

  4. Initial sexual maturity and fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Perciformes: Cyprynidae under semi-controlled conditions

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    A.A Ortega-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the time of initial sexual maturity and the fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus under semi-controlled conditions. During the study the water temperature fluctuated from 21 to 30 ºC, the pH between 7 and 8, and the dissolved oxygen between 5.5 and 7 ppm. Sixty days old juvenile fish received prophylactic treatments of brackish water (15 ‰ and methylene blue baths (1 %, and they were fed with live Daphnia magna. The initial sexual maturity occurred between 225 and 233 days of captivity. Mean absolute fecundity was 2 347 (± 302.2 SD ova per gonad, and mean relative fecundity was 63.44 eggs/g fish weight. Gonadosomatic index was between 7.5 and 9.0. Our data will allow ornamental fish producers to calculate the time of initial maturity and fecundity for this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1113-1116. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.Estudiamos el tiempo inicial de madurez sexual y la fecundidad del pez dorado Carassius auratus en condiciones semi-controladas. Durante el estudio la temperatura del gua varió de 21 a 30 ºC, el pH entre 7 y 8, y el oxígeno disuelto entre 5.5 y 7 ppm. Jóvenes de 60 días de edad recibieron tratamiento profiláctico con agua salobre (15 ‰, y baños de azul de metileno (1 %. Se les alimentó con Daphnia magna. La madurez sexual inicial fue tras 225 a 233 días en cautiverio. La fecundidad absoluta media fue de 2 347 (±302.2 DS óvulos por gónada y la fecundidad relativa fue de 63.44 óvulos/g del peso del pez. El índice gonadosomático se calculó entre 7.5 and 9.0.

  5. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus.

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    Aída Sánchez-Bretaño

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation

  6. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol

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    MacLatchy Deborah L

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit. The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control by intra-peritoneal Silastic® implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p

  7. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Low concentrations (ng/L-μg/L) of emerging micropollutant contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents affect the possibility to reuse these waters. Many of those micropollutants elicit endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms resulting in an alteration of the endocrine system. A potential candidate for tertiary municipal wastewater treatment of these micropollutants is ultraviolet (UV)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an advanced oxidation process (AOP) which was currently applied to treat the secondary effluent of the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant (GBWWTP) in Edmonton, AB, Canada. A new approach is presented to predict the fluence-based degradation rate constants (kf') of environmentally occurring micropollutants including carbamazepine [(0.87-1.39) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ] and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) [(0.60-0.91) × 10(-3) cm(2)/mJ for 2,4-D] in a medium pressure (MP) UV/H2O2 system based on a previous bench-scale investigation. Rather than using removal rates, this approach can be used to estimate the performance of the MP UV/H2O2 process for degrading trace contaminants of concern found in municipal wastewater. In addition to the ability to track contaminant removal/degradation, evaluation of the MP UV/H2O2 process was also accomplished by identifying critical ecotoxicological endpoints (i.e., estrogenicity) of the treated wastewater. Using quantitative PCR, mRNA levels of estrogen-responsive (ER) genes ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1, ERβ2 and NPR as well as two aromatase encoding genes (CYP19a and CYP19b) in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were measured during exposure to the GBWWTP effluent before and after MP UV/H2O2 treatment (a fluence of 1000 mJ/cm(2) and 20 mg/L of H2O2) in spring, summer and fall. Elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes in goldfish exposed to UV/H2O2 treated effluent (a 7-day exposure) suggested that the UV/H2O2 process may induce acute estrogenic disruption to goldfish principally because

  8. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  9. Uptake and release kinetics of 134Cs by goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137Cs by zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in controlled aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Reddy, S.J.; Kelber, O.; Urich, K.; Denschlag, H.O.

    1994-01-01

    The uptake and release kinetics of 134 Cs by Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137 Cs by Zebra Fish (Brachydanio rerio) from aquatic media of different ionic compositions and temperature was studied in controlled laboratory conditions. The accumulation of radiocesium in the case of Brachydanio rerio is observed to be strongly dependent on the potassium ion concentration of the aquatic medium, but in the case of Carassius auratus this dependence is quite weak. The biological half-lives of the cesium isotopes incorporated into the fish investigated in the present work vary from 19 to 80 days and are influenced by the temperature and the ionic composition of the aquatic medium. (author) 19 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  10. Concentration of anesthetic for long-term exposure and the effects of inter-suture distance in the goldfish Carassius auratus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.802 Concentration of anesthetic for long-term exposure and the effects of inter-suture distance in the goldfish Carassius auratus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.802

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    Eduardo Shimoda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the minimum concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol for long-term exposure and evaluate the effect of inter-suture distance on wound healing in the goldfish Carassius auratus. Twenty adult goldfish (standard length = 12.4 ± 1.1 cm; weight = 58.7 ± 17.2 g were anesthetized in 2-phenoxiethanol at 1.2‰ and placed in an anesthesia delivery system at the following concentrations of 2-phenoxiethanol: 0.0 (control; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4‰, and the duration of sedation was measured. Fifteen days later, fishes were anesthetized using the same procedure, and a 36 mm incision was performed in the ventro-lateral region. The incision was sutured using a simple-interrupted pattern with 3, 6 or 9 mm as inter-suture distances. Results demonstrated that 2-phenoxiethanol at 0.4‰ maintain the sedation for surgical procedures up to 60 minutes, and 9 mm as inter-suture distance optimized the wound healing in goldfish.This study aimed to determine the minimum concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol for long-term exposure and evaluate the effect of inter-suture distance on wound healing in the goldfish Carassius auratus. Twenty adult goldfish (standard length = 12.4 ± 1.1 cm; weight = 58.7 ± 17.2 g were anesthetized in 2-phenoxiethanol at 1.2‰ and placed in an anesthesia delivery system at the following concentrations of 2-phenoxiethanol: 0.0 (control; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4‰, and the duration of sedation was measured. Fifteen days later, fishes were anesthetized using the same procedure, and a 36 mm incision was performed in the ventro-lateral region. The incision was sutured using a simple-interrupted pattern with 3, 6 or 9 mm as inter-suture distances. Results demonstrated that 2-phenoxiethanol at 0.4‰ maintain the sedation for surgical procedures up to 60 minutes, and 9 mm as inter-suture distance optimized the wound healing in goldfish.

  11. The study of the peptide composition of the supernatants from mealworm Tenebrio molitor larvae and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation

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    А. К. Гулевский

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-mass distribution of peptides from supernatants, obtained from the tissues of larvae Tenebrio molitor and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation, has been determined by chromatography. The results showed that peptide spectrum of the supernatants from larvae T. molitor and C. auratus varied during cold acclimation. The supernatants from non-acclimated larvae of T. molitor and deacclimated fish possessed the highest number of peptide fractions. Furthermore, the cold-acclimated larvae of T. molitor had the peptide fractions of the low molecular weight (ca. 5.4×102 ÷22.6×102 Da, and non-acclimated insects had the peptides of the high molecular weight (ca. 46.8×102÷66×102 Da. Next, the organ-specific changes of the peptide composition of the goldfish during winter deacclimation have been revealed. Specifically, the low molecular weight peptides (ca. (14.1 ± 0.3×102 and (6.75 ± 0.25×102 Da, have been detected in the C. auratus muscles, and both the high (ca. (67.83 ± 0.21×102 ( ca. 64.16 ± 0.26×102 Da and low (ca. (34.1 ± 1.0×102 and (14.29 ± 0.15×102 Da molecular weight peptides have been detected in the liver. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the peptide spectra from supernatants of the T. molitor and C. auratus during cold acclimation could be one of the mechanisms of their natural adaptation to low temperatures.

  12. Parasitological and histological analysis of a new species of the genus Thalohanellus and description of a myxozoan parasite (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida from cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L.

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    Mandira Saha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An ornamental fish parasitological survey of West Bengal, India during the year 2014–16 revealed that goldfish, Carassius auratus, was the most susceptible species for myxozoan infestation. This communication revealed the presence of two myxosporean species belonging to the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. Although myxozoan infestation has been determined by isolating small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia up to 0.5–2.5 mm were filled with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. M. ichkeulensis and one new species T. dipaki n. sp. have been isolated infecting the ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus for the first time in India. In the present study, new host, and new locality for M. ichkeulensis have been reported. The description of M. ichkeulensis is being considered as a first report from India. Spore of T. dipaki n. sp. measures uniquely 13.99 ± 0.60 × 9.82 ± 0.60 μm in size, having a one globular pyriform polar capsule measuring 7.45 ± 0.62 × 5.91 ± 0.39 μm. The severity of newly isolated myxozoan infestation has also been assessed by the histopathological changes of fins of the hostfish. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observation along with its severity of infestation, comparison of same and closely related species has been incorporated to identify the new species. The paper deals with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic descriptions of new and known myxozoan species along with new host, locality records and incidence of infestation.

  13. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  14. Monocrotophos pesticide decreases the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine and alters the expression of genes associated with the thyroidal axis in female goldfish (Carassius auratus.

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    Xiaona Zhang

    Full Text Available Our recent study showed that monocrotophos (MCP pesticide disrupted the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis in male goldfish (Carassius auratus; however, the effects of MCP on the thyroid system in female goldfish are remain unclear. In the present study, plasma thyroid hormone (TH and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels were evaluated in female goldfish exposed to 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L of 40% MCP-based pesticide for 21 days in a semi-static exposure system. Expression profiles of HPT axis-responsive genes, including transthyretin (ttr, deiodinases (d1, d2, and d3, tshβ, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh, were determined. The results indicated that MCP decreased the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (TT3 and the ratio of TT3 to total 3,3',5,5'-l-thyroxine (TT4, and induced alternative expression of TH-related genes. Exposure to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide resulted in the up-regulation of ttr mRNA. The reduction of plasma TT3 levels was partly attributed to an increase in the metabolism of T3 in the liver, as revealed by the highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels in the MCP treatment groups, and the expression of hepatic d3 showed a negative correlation with the plasma TT3/TT4 levels in females. Moreover, the plasma TSH levels were lower in females exposed to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide, whereas the up-regulation of tshβ mRNA levels was compensated by the decreased plasma TT3 levels. These results indicated that MCP had the potential to influence several pathways of HPT axis homeostasis in female goldfish.

  15. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerbik, P.; Mikolajczyk, T.; Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M.; Socha, M.; Chyb, J.; Epler, P.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g -1 of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g -1 ) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g -1 ) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g -1 did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g -1 ) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the

  16. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an

  17. Accumulation and Toxicity of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles through Waterborne and Dietary Exposure of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a tenfold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p≥0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p<0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. PMID:24860999

  18. Radioecological studies of [sup 137]Cs in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of [sup 137]Cs in goldfish, Carassium auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki (Saitama Institute of Public Health, Urawa (Japan)); Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1994-11-01

    Accumulation and excretion of [sup 137]Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in natural living fishes. The accumulation of [sup 137]Cs, expressed in concentration ratio (CR), in whole body of the fish showed a rapid increasing tendency during the rearing, and the CR value reached nearly 1 at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of [sup 137]Cs, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above for 7 days demonstrated a gradual decreasing tendency, and the retention rate resulted in nearly 71% at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, higher accumulation and higher excretion were found in the viscera and the gill than those in the muscle. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide for the viscera and the gill is more rapid than that for the muscle. (author).

  19. Ghrelin suppresses cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the intestine, and attenuates the anorectic effects of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Delgado, María Jesús; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry. Colocalization of ghrelin/GHS-R1a and CCK/PYY/GLP-1 was found primarily in the luminal border of the intestinal mucosa. In an intestinal explant culture, a significant decrease in prepro-cck, prepro-pyy and proglucagon transcript levels was observed after 60min of incubation with ghrelin, which was abolished by preincubation with the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (except for proglucagon). The protein expression of PYY and GLP-1 was also downregulated by ghrelin. Finally, intraperitoneal co-administration of CCK, PYY or GLP-1 with ghrelin results in no modification of food intake in goldfish. Overall, results of the present study show for the first time in fish that ghrelin exerts repressive effects on enteric anorexigens. It is likely that these interactions mediate the stimulatory effects of ghrelin on feeding and metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated CO_2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO_2 led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO_2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO_2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO_2 for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO_2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO_2 levels.

  1. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Du, Wenchao, E-mail: du@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Guo, Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO{sub 2} to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO{sub 2} for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO{sub 2} levels.

  2. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1996-06-01

    Accumulation and excretion Of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from radioactive diets (killifish, Oryzias latipes, meats accumulated {sup 137}Cs in the radioactive freshwater) or control diets (killifish meats mixed {sup 137}CsCl) were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in natural living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in concentration ratio, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency in proportion to the rearing time. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing by administration of non-radioactive commercial diets after the accumulation above for 7 days, demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and followed a gradual decreasing tendency (the biological half lives were about 1.5 days and 52 days, respectively). As for the tissues and organs, higher accumulation and higher excretion were found in the viscera than those in the muscle. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide for the viscera is more rapid than that for the muscle. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that the relative contribution by ingestion of the radioactive diets in the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in natural environmental fish was comparatively higher in comparison with uptake of the radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater. With regard to the difference between the radioactive diets and the control diets, the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in whole body of the fish from the radioactive diets was less than that from the control diets to rearing 5 days, but afterward was not different. The difference of the accumulation between these diets will be attributable to that of the metabolic turnover between these diets. (author)

  3. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP, as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes.

  4. Radioecological studies of {sup 90}Sr in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro [Association of Public Health Promotion, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of {sup 90}Sr in naturally living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in concentration ratio (CR) between fish and water, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency with the rearing time, and the CR value reached 5.4{+-}0.4 (mean{+-}standard error) at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above the 7 days demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and then a gradual decreasing tendency indicating the biological half lives about 4 days and 205 days, respectively. The retention rate resulted in nearly 75% of initial radioactivity, i.e. 25% of excretion, at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, the CR values of {sup 85}Sr reared in the radioactive freshwater for 7 days were 62.3 (vertebra: bone), 31.1 (scale), 12.5 (gill), 0.6 (viscera) and 0.4 (muscle). On the other hand, higher excretion was found in the viscera and the muscle than that in the bone, the scale and the gill. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide is different among these tissues and organs particularly characterizing higher accumulation and lower excretion in the vertebra (bone) and scale. (author)

  5. Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-β estradiol and nonylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soverchia, L.; Ruggeri, B.; Palermo, F.; Mosconi, G.; Cardinaletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Gatti, G.; Polzonetti-Magni, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17β and different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ERβ-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17β) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good 'sentinel' species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10 -7 M of estradiol-17β. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 deg. C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 deg. C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 deg. C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17β and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17β plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ERβ-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17β and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin rate through interaction with the ERβ-1 subtype. The

  6. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of Myxobolus indica n. sp. and a report of three Myxozoan (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida parasites of cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L. for the first time in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ornamental fish industry is an economically viable sector in India which suffers from different ectoparasitic infestations, including the myxozoan parasites. An icthyoparasitological survey of myxozoan infections in ornamental fish farms in India revealed the presence of four myxozoan parasites belonging to the family Myxobolidae, in the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. The myxozoan spores were small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal in size. The plasmodia measured 0.5–3.0 mm in diameter with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. During the survey the authors identified for the first time in India, three previously described species, namely, M. mehlhorni, T. nikolskii and T. batae; and one new species M. indica n. sp., all infecting the ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus. The present study thus reports a new host, and a new locality for T. batae and M. mehlhorni. The description of T. nikolskii is the first record found in India. The spore of M. indica n. sp. measures 5.8 ± 0.2 × 4.1 ± 0.5 μm in size, having two equal shaped pyriform polar capsules measuring 4.1 ± 0.4 × 2.7 ± 0.6 μm. The results from a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observations along with a comparison with closely related species were incorporated here. Molecular data is needed to complete the description of the new species.

  7. Efeito da densidade de estocagem do quinguio, Carassius auratus L., 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae, em suas fases iniciais de desenvolvimento Stocking density effect on goldfish, Carassius auratus L., 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae fry, during its initial development phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Rodrigues Schamber

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da densidade de estocagem sobre o desenvolvimento do quinguio, Carassius auratus (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae em suas fases iniciais. Foram utilizados 300 larvas (Lt = 7,00 mm, distribuídas em 20 aquários (12-L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0,50; 1,00; 1,50 e 2,00 larvas/L e cinco repetições. A alimentação utilizada foi à base de náuplios de Artemia sp. (fornecida de forma proporcional a densidade e ração com 40% de proteína bruta (fornecida à vontade. Observou-se aumento linear (p0,001 pelas diferentes densidades de estocagem utilizadas. Os valores dos parâmetros físico-químicos permaneceram nos níveis adequados para o cultivo de peixes, embora os valores de pH tenham apresentado redução linear (pThis experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of stocking density on the goldfish, Carassius auratus (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae development, during its initial phases. 300 fry (Lt.: 7.00 mm were distributed in 20 12-liter aquariums. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with four treatments (0.50; 1.00; 1.50 and 2.00 fry/liter and five replications. Food consisted of Artemia sp nauplii (supplied proportionally to density and rations with 40% raw protein, given ad libitum. While the biomass per aquarium linear increase (p0.001. On the other hand, quadract effect (p 0.001 by the different stocking densities. The physical-chemical parameters rates remained at adequate levels for fish culture, although pH values suffered linear decrease (pCarassius auratus fry culture can use such density during its initial development phases.

  8. Plâncton, Artemia sp, dieta artificial e suas combinações no desenvolvimento e sobrevivência do quinguio (Carassius auratus durante a larvicultura Plankton, Artemia sp, artificial diet and their combinations on the development and survival of goldfish (Carassius auratus during larviculture phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a influência do uso de diferentes alimentos sobre o desenvolvimento de larvas de quinguio (Carassius auratus, assim como determinar o melhor manejo alimentar. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. Utilizaram-se 20 aquários com capacidade para 10 L, sendo estocadas 20 larvas com 5,20 mm de comprimento por aquário. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: somente ração com 56,00% de proteína bruta (R; plâncton (PL; náuplios de Artemia sp (NA, ração + plâncton (R+PL e ração + náuplios de Artemia sp (R+NA, sendo seu fornecimento à vontade duas vezes ao dia. Houve mortalidade de todos os indivíduos submetidos ao tratamento R. O uso de NA e R+NA proporcionou taxas de sobrevivência superiores (p 0,05. Conclui-se que as diferentes fontes de alimento interferem no desempenho das larvas, sendo o manejo alimentar com o fornecimento de ração + náuplios de Artemia sp o mais adequado para a larvicultura do quinguioThe aim of this study was to verify the influence of different diets on the development of goldfish (Carassius auratus larvae and determine the best diet management during its larviculture phase. The experimental design was totally randomized with five treatments and four replicatess, using Tukey test for statistical analysis. Twenty 10L-aquariums were used, where twenty larvae with 5.20 mm length were stocked per aquarium. Quinguio larvae were fed daily ration of different diets: ration alone including 56.00% crude protein (R, plankton (PL, Artemia sp nauplii (AN, ration + plankton (R+PL and ration + Artemia sp nauplii (R+AN, ad libitum twice a day. Treatment R caused the death of all individuals. AN and R+AN diets provided a higher survival rate (p 0.05 was observed between the different treatments. Under the conditions of the present experiment, the results led to

  9. Evaluation of the Adult Goldfish Brain as a Model for the Study of Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-27

    embryo [34]. ESCs are able to differentiate into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, and they are...postnatal brain is their functional and anatomical destiny . Based on many reports investigating neurogenesis, the majority of newly produced cells...Homeodomain-bearing transcriptional factor. Expression is specific to early embryos and pluripotential stem cells. Key molecule involved in the

  10. Synthesis and anthelmintic activity of arctigenin derivatives against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Liu, Lei; Liu, Guang-Lu; Tu, Xiao; Wang, Gao-Xue; Ling, Fei

    2017-08-01

    To control the parasitic disease of Dactylogyrus intermedius, a series of new arctigenin derivatives were designed, synthesized and tested in our study. The anthelmintic activity of most of the derivatives ranged from 1 to 10mg/L. Compared to traditional drug praziquantel (EC 50 =2.69mg/L), ether derivatives 2g and 2h exhibited slightly higher anti-parasitic activity, with the EC 50 values of 2.48 and 1.52mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, the arctigenin-imidazole hybrids 4a and 4b also removed D. intermedius effectively, with the EC 50 values of 2.13 and 2.07mg/L, respectively. The structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that four carbon atoms length of linker and imidazole substitute group could significantly increase the anthelmintic activity, and reduced the toxicity. Through the scanning electron microscope observation, compounds 4a and 4b caused the D. intermedius tegumental damage such as intensive wrinkles, holes and nodular structures. Overall, the structural optimization analysis of arctigenin suggested that 4a and 4b can be used for preventing and controlling Dactylogyrus infections and considered as promising lead compounds for the development of commercial drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The nature of surround-induced depolarizing responses in goldfish cones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, D. A.; Spekreijse, H.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    Cones in the vertebrate retina project to horizontal and bipolar cells and the horizontal cells feedback negatively to cones. This organization forms the basis for the center/surround organization of the bipolar cells, a fundamental step in the visual signal processing. Although the surround

  12. Stabilization of gene expression and cell morphology after explant recycling during fin explant culture in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenais, Nathalie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Labbe, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    The development of fin primary cell cultures for in vitro cellular and physiological studies is hampered by slow cell outgrowth, low proliferation rate, poor viability, and sparse cell characterization. Here, we investigated whether the recycling of fresh explants after a first conventional culture could improve physiological stability and sustainability of the culture. The recycled explants were able to give a supplementary cell culture showing faster outgrowth, cleaner cell layers and higher net cell production. The cells exhibited a highly stabilized profile for marker gene expression including a low cytokeratin 49 (epithelial marker) and a high collagen 1a1 (mesenchymal marker) expression. Added to the cell spindle-shaped morphology, motility behavior, and actin organization, this suggests that the cells bore stable mesenchymal characteristics. This contrast with the time-evolving expression pattern observed in the control fresh explants during the first 2 weeks of culture: a sharp decrease in cytokeratin 49 expression was concomitant with a gradual increase in col1a1. We surmise that such loss of epithelial features for the benefit of mesenchymal ones was triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process or by way of a progressive population replacement process. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive characterization of this new primary culture model bearing mesenchymal features and whose stability over culture time makes those cells good candidates for cell reprogramming prior to nuclear transfer, in a context of fish genome preservation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential uptake and metabolism of nitrite in normoxic and hypoxic goldfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo; Hansen, Marie N.

    2011-01-01

    extracellular and intracellular compartments, revealing nitrosative stress with extensive nitros(yl)ation of thiols, amines and heme groups. The degree of nitrosative stress correlated with nitrite load. Nitrate levels increased in all compartments, reflecting that a significant fraction of the nitrite taken up...... was converted to non-toxic nitrate. The generation of methemoglobin and nitrosylhemoglobin (assessed by spectral deconvolution) was more pronounced during normoxic nitrite exposure than during hypoxic nitrite exposure, in agreement with the higher nitrite load in normoxic fish. However, at any given nitrite......Nitrite is a physiological important nitric oxide donor at low concentrations but becomes toxic at high concentrations, as develops in freshwater fish exposed to environmental nitrite. We hypothesized that nitrite uptake across the gills differs between normoxic and hypoxic fish and that nitrite...

  14. Stabilization of gene expression and cell morphology after explant recycling during fin explant culture in goldfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenais, Nathalie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Labbe, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The development of fin primary cell cultures for in vitro cellular and physiological studies is hampered by slow cell outgrowth, low proliferation rate, poor viability, and sparse cell characterization. Here, we investigated whether the recycling of fresh explants after a first conventional culture could improve physiological stability and sustainability of the culture. The recycled explants were able to give a supplementary cell culture showing faster outgrowth, cleaner cell layers and higher net cell production. The cells exhibited a highly stabilized profile for marker gene expression including a low cytokeratin 49 (epithelial marker) and a high collagen 1a1 (mesenchymal marker) expression. Added to the cell spindle-shaped morphology, motility behavior, and actin organization, this suggests that the cells bore stable mesenchymal characteristics. This contrast with the time-evolving expression pattern observed in the control fresh explants during the first 2 weeks of culture: a sharp decrease in cytokeratin 49 expression was concomitant with a gradual increase in col1a1. We surmise that such loss of epithelial features for the benefit of mesenchymal ones was triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process or by way of a progressive population replacement process. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive characterization of this new primary culture model bearing mesenchymal features and whose stability over culture time makes those cells good candidates for cell reprogramming prior to nuclear transfer, in a context of fish genome preservation. - Highlights: • Recycled fin explants outgrow cells bearing stable mesenchymal traits. • Cell production and quality is enhanced in the recycled explant culture system. • Fresh fin primary culture is highly variable and loose epithelial traits over time

  15. Stabilization of gene expression and cell morphology after explant recycling during fin explant culture in goldfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenais, Nathalie; Lareyre, Jean-Jacques; Le Bail, Pierre-Yves; Labbe, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.labbe@rennes.inra.fr

    2015-07-01

    The development of fin primary cell cultures for in vitro cellular and physiological studies is hampered by slow cell outgrowth, low proliferation rate, poor viability, and sparse cell characterization. Here, we investigated whether the recycling of fresh explants after a first conventional culture could improve physiological stability and sustainability of the culture. The recycled explants were able to give a supplementary cell culture showing faster outgrowth, cleaner cell layers and higher net cell production. The cells exhibited a highly stabilized profile for marker gene expression including a low cytokeratin 49 (epithelial marker) and a high collagen 1a1 (mesenchymal marker) expression. Added to the cell spindle-shaped morphology, motility behavior, and actin organization, this suggests that the cells bore stable mesenchymal characteristics. This contrast with the time-evolving expression pattern observed in the control fresh explants during the first 2 weeks of culture: a sharp decrease in cytokeratin 49 expression was concomitant with a gradual increase in col1a1. We surmise that such loss of epithelial features for the benefit of mesenchymal ones was triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process or by way of a progressive population replacement process. Overall, our findings provide a comprehensive characterization of this new primary culture model bearing mesenchymal features and whose stability over culture time makes those cells good candidates for cell reprogramming prior to nuclear transfer, in a context of fish genome preservation. - Highlights: • Recycled fin explants outgrow cells bearing stable mesenchymal traits. • Cell production and quality is enhanced in the recycled explant culture system. • Fresh fin primary culture is highly variable and loose epithelial traits over time.

  16. The role of organelle proteins in carotenoid droplet dispersion in goldfish xanthophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, B.Y.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, I report on the evidence for the possible role of two carotenoid droplet (CD) proteins in CD dispersion. In order to identify the target of the ATP analogue 8-N 3 ATP, CDs, one of the major components in permeabilized xanthophore residues, were isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and were tested for ATPase activity. An ATPase activity was found associated with CDs. Polypeptides analysis of the two subpopulations of 3 H-leucine labeled CDs by one dimensional and two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that there is more actin associated with HCD than with LCD, suggesting that the CD-ATPase may be an apparent actin activated ATPase. The properties of the CD-ATPase have been partially characterized with regard to its ionic requirement and the effects of known ATPase inhibitors and potential activators. Monoclonal antibodies were generated against CD proteins. The major monoclonal antibodies obtained are anti-p57s. The effects of these anti-p57s on dispersion of CDs in permeabilized xanthophores were determined and it was found that some inhibit CD dispersion while others do not

  17. Chloride currents in cones modify feedback from horizontal cells to cones in goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endeman, Duco; Fahrenfort, Iris; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Steijaert, Marvin; ten Eikelder, Huub; Kamermans, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    In neuronal systems, excitation and inhibition must be well balanced to ensure reliable information transfer. The cone/horizontal cell (HC) interaction in the retina is an example of this. Because natural scenes encompass an enormous intensity range both in temporal and spatial domains, the balance

  18. Annatto in diets Carassius auratus goldfish fingerlings: growth performance and skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of adding annatto as agent pigmentation on the staining characteristics of the skin, muscle and productive performance of Carassius auratus, reared in 0.15 m3 (dimensions 0.50 x 0.50 x 0.65 m hapas disposed within a circular masonry tank of 25 m3. We used 336 C. auratus fingerlings completely randomized design in 28 hapas with seven treatments and four replicates with 12 fish per unit. The addition of annatto levels were 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, 4.00 and 8.00%. Fish with an average initial weight of 1.12 ± 0.18 g and length of 4.31 ± 0.44 cm, were fed the 08, 11, 14 and 17 hours. The b * colorimetric characteristics (yellow showed significant at 96 and 141 days in the Hunter coordinate system with the addition of 2.0 and 1.0% annatto in the diet, respectively, and the coordinate system of CMYK and 96 days for C (cyan, and 141 days for the Y (yellow, with the addition of 8.0 to 2.0% annatto in the diet, respectively. We observed differences (P <0.05 average final weight, weight gain, feed conversion, daily growth rate and feed efficiency. It is recommended a diet containing 1.0% added annatto to C. auratus to better performance and 1.0 to 4.0% added annatto to intensified light fish skin.

  19. Multiple effects of fluorescent light on repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA lesions in cultured goldfish cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Nobuhiro; Mitani, Hiroshi; Shima, Akihiro

    1995-01-01

    It is known that fluorescent light illumination prior to UV irradiation (FL preillumination) of cultured fish cells increases photorepair (PR) ability. In the present study, it was found that FL preillumination also enhanced UV resistance of logarithmically growing cells in the dark. This enhancement of UV resistance differs from induction of PR because it was not suppressed by cyclohexamide (CH) and it occurred immediately after FL preillumination. The effects of FL preillumination on repair of UV-induced DNA lesions in the dark were examined by an endonuclease-sensitive site assay to measure the repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate the repair of (6-4) photoproducts. It was found that excision repair ability for (6-4) photoproducts in the genome overall was increased by FL preillumination. Moreover, a decrease in (6-4) photoproducts by FL illumination immediately after UV irradiation of the cells was found, the decrement being enhanced by FL preillumination with or without CH. (author)

  20. Multiple effects of fluorescent light on repair of ultraviolet-induced DNA lesions in cultured goldfish cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Nobuhiro; Mitani, Hiroshi; Shima, Akihiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Radiation Biology

    1995-01-01

    It is known that fluorescent light illumination prior to UV irradiation (FL preillumination) of cultured fish cells increases photorepair (PR) ability. In the present study, it was found that FL preillumination also enhanced UV resistance of logarithmically growing cells in the dark. This enhancement of UV resistance differs from induction of PR because it was not suppressed by cyclohexamide (CH) and it occurred immediately after FL preillumination. The effects of FL preillumination on repair of UV-induced DNA lesions in the dark were examined by an endonuclease-sensitive site assay to measure the repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate the repair of (6-4) photoproducts. It was found that excision repair ability for (6-4) photoproducts in the genome overall was increased by FL preillumination. Moreover, a decrease in (6-4) photoproducts by FL illumination immediately after UV irradiation of the cells was found, the decrement being enhanced by FL preillumination with or without CH. (author).

  1. The open- and closed-loop gain-characteristics of the cone/horizontal cell synapse in goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, D. A.; Spekreijse, H.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    Under constant light-adapted conditions, vision seems to be rather linear. However, the processes underlying the synaptic transmission between cones and second-order neurons (bipolar cells and horizontal cells) are highly nonlinear. In this paper, the gain-characteristics of the transmission from

  2. Modulation of rhodopsin gene expression and signaling mechanisms evoked by endothelins in goldfish and murine pigment cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J.D. Lopes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Endothelins (ETs and sarafotoxins (SRTXs belong to a family of vasoconstrictor peptides, which regulate pigment migration and/or production in vertebrate pigment cells. The teleost Carassius auratus erythrophoroma cell line, GEM-81, and Mus musculus B16 melanocytes express rhodopsin, as well as the ET receptors, ETB and ETA, respectively. Both cell lines are photoresponsive, and respond to light with a decreased proliferation rate. For B16, the doubling time of cells kept in 14-h light (14L:10-h darkness (10D was higher compared to 10L:14D, or to DD. The doubling time of cells kept in 10L:14D was also higher compared to DD. Using real-time PCR, we demonstrated that SRTX S6c (12-h treatment, 100 pM and 1 nM; 24-h treatment, 1 nM and ET-1 (12-h treatment, 10 and 100 pM; 24- and 48-h treatments, 100 pM increased rhodopsin mRNA levels in GEM-81 and B16 cells, respectively. This modulation involves protein kinase C (PKC and the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in GEM-81 cells, and phospholipase C, Ca2+, calmodulin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase, and PKC in B16 cells. Cells were kept under constant darkness throughout the gene expression experiments. These results show that rhodopsin mRNA levels can be modulated by SRTXs/ETs in vertebrate pigment cells. It is possible that SRTX S6c binding to the ETB receptors in GEM-81 cells, and ET-1 binding to ETA receptors in B16 melanocytes, although activating diverse intracellular signaling mechanisms, mobilize transcription factors such as c-Fos, c-Jun, c-Myc, and neural retina leucine zipper protein. These activated transcription factors may be involved in the positive regulation of rhodopsin mRNA levels in these cell lines.

  3. The effect of the addition of cow brain powder in commercial feed on the gonadal maturity of comet goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Y.; Subhan, U.; Rosidah; Iskandar; Zidni, I.; Abdillah, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research was to analysis the effect of addition bovine’s brain meal in artificial feed on gonad maturity and to find out the best time of gonad maturity in comet fish.This research was conducted at Fourth Building Hatchery Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Padjadjaran University on November 2014 until Januari 2015. Freeze drying of bovine brain was conducted at Research Center Inter University Bandung Institute of Technology. The research was using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments and three replications.The treatment were 20 mg/kg, 35 mg/kg, 50mg/kg and control. The parameters of this research are Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) and egg maturity level. Addition of bovine brain meal in feed with the dose of 50 mg/kg are giving the best result until 45 days of the care time against gonad maturity of comet fish with GSI result 12.93 %, egg maturity level ripe phase 21.115 and fecundity 1520 grain/g.

  4. Effect of adjusting kilovolt peak of the X-ray machine on radiographic-image quality in goldfish(Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nut Nuanmanee; Dilok Wongsathein; Rutch Khattiya; Atigan Thongtharb; Utumma Maghanemi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To find optimal kilovolt peak (kVp) for radiographic-image quality in Oranda fish with body width and depth ranging between 3-5 centimeters. Materials and Methods: 18 Oranda fish were divided into 6 groups (3 for each group). Body widths of fish in group 1, 2, and 3 were 3, 4, and 5 centimeters, respectively. Body depths of fish in group 4, 5, and 6 were 3, 4, and 5 centimeters, respectively. After the fish were anesthetized, the radiographic images of group 1, 2, and 3 were taken in lateral position with milliamperes (mA) at 50 mA and duration (sec) for 0.02, 0.05, and 0.05 sec, respectively. Kilovolt peak (kVp) was used in range from 40 to 58. In addition, the radiographic images of group 4, 5, and 6 were taken in dorsoventral position at 50 mA for 0.1 sec with varying kVp from 40 to 62. The quality of radiographic images was evaluated by 5 veterinarians and 5 radiologists. Results: The most appropriate kVp in lateral position with 3, 4 and 5 centimeters in body width were 44, 44, and 48, respectively. In addition, the most appropriate kVp in dorsoventral position with 3, 4, and 5 centimeters in body depth were 46, 48, and 50, respectively. Conclusion: The radiographic-image quality in Oranda fish was depended on the appropriated kVp

  5. 'Who's who' in renal sphaerosporids (Bivalvulida: Myxozoa) from common carp, Prussian carp and goldfish - molecular identification of cryptic species, blood stages and new members of Sphaerospora sensu stricto

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holzer, Astrid S.; Bartošová, Pavla; Pecková, Hana; Tyml, Tomáš; Atkinson, S.; Bartholomew, J.; Sipos, D.; Eszterbauer, E.; Dyková, Iva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 140, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 46-60 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Grant - others:Hungarian Scientifc Research Fund(HU) OTKA K75873 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Sphaerospora * Myxozoa * cyprinid * morphometry * cryptic speciation * ribosomal DNA * molecular identification * blood stages * multi-species infection Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2013

  6. PENGARUH VARIASI PERSENTASE EKSTRAK JANGKRIK (Gryllus sp Walk YANG BERBEDA TERHADAP TINGKAT SURVIVAL RATE BENIH IKAN MAS KOKI (Carrasius auratus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrifadah Elrifadah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study Aims to Determine the effect of different variations on survival seed cicada goldfish. The method used in this study is completely randomized design with 3 treatments (A = 3%, B = 5%, and C = 7% and three replications. From these results Obtained survival rate to 83.0% Obtained treatment A, B Obtained 88.33% and 80.0% Obtained C treatment. Then the results of analysis of variance accept the hypothesis Ho that the percentage variation of different cicada extract (3%, 5% and 7% did not Affect the survival rate of seedlings goldfish. During the last condition of water quality research support for seed viability parameters goldfish.

  7. Dynamics of photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria after gut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... carp and goldfish, whereas there was a significant stimulation of photosynthetic activity of diatom and green algae following the depressed cyanobacteria during cultivation. The mainly stimulated eukaryotic algae species were Fragilariaceae and Scenedesmus obliquus by microscopy.

  8. Involvement of brain gangliosides in temperature adaptation of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breer, H.; Rahmann, H.

    1976-10-01

    The ganglioside pattern of goldfish brain was investigated after adaptation (acclimatization, acclimation) to different temperatures. Adaptation at lower ambient temperature causes a higher proportion of polysialogangliosides to be formed in fish brain.

  9. Toxicity of peracetic acid to fish: Variation among species and impact of water chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, David L.; Meinelt, Thomas; Liu, Dibo

    2017-01-01

    , Ictalurus punctatus; golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas; goldfish, Carassius auratus; grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; sunshine bass, Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis; and walleye, Sander vitreus. Median lethal concentration...

  10. Radiosensitivity of primary cultured fish cells with different ploidy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Hiroshi; Egami, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Hiromu.

    1986-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of primary cultured goldfish cells (Carassius auratus) was investigated by colony formation assay. The radiosensitivity of cells from two varieties of goldfish, which show different sensitivity to lethal effect of ionizing radiation in vivo, was almost identical. Primary cultured cells from diploid, triploid and tetraploid fish retained their DNA content as measured by microfluorometry, and the nuclear size increases as ploidy increases. However, radiosensitivity was not related to ploidy. (author)

  11. Independently evolved upper jaw protrusion mechanisms show convergent hydrodynamic function in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Katie Lynn; Holzman, Roi; Hernandez, L Patricia; Wainwright, Peter C

    2012-05-01

    A protrusible upper jaw has independently evolved multiple times within teleosts and has been implicated in the success of two groups in particular: Acanthomorpha and Cypriniformes. We use digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to compare suction feeding flow dynamics in a representative of each of these clades: goldfish and bluegill. Using DPIV, we contrast the spatial pattern of flow, the temporal relationship between flow and head kinematics, and the contribution of jaw protrusion to the forces exerted on prey. As expected, the spatial patterns of flow were similar in the two species. However, goldfish were slower to reach maximal kinematic excursions, and were more flexible in the relative timing of jaw protrusion, other jaw movements and suction flows. Goldfish were also able to sustain flow speeds for a prolonged period of time as compared with bluegill, in part because goldfish generate lower peak flow speeds. In both species, jaw protrusion increased the force exerted on the prey. However, slower jaw protrusion in goldfish resulted in less augmentation of suction forces. This difference in force exerted on prey corresponds with differences in trophic niches and feeding behavior of the two species. The bluegill uses powerful suction to capture insect larvae whereas the goldfish uses winnowing to sort through detritus and sediment. The kinethmoid of goldfish may permit jaw protrusion that is independent of lower jaw movement, which could explain the ability of goldfish to decouple suction flows (due to buccal expansion) from upper jaw protrusion. Nevertheless, our results show that jaw protrusion allows both species to augment the force exerted on prey, suggesting that this is a fundamental benefit of jaw protrusion to suction feeders.

  12. Detection of vitellogenin incorporation into zebrafish oocytes by FITC fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi Hayato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large volumes of lymph can be collected from the eye-sacs of bubble-eye goldfish. We attempted to induce vitellogenin (Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of bubble-eye goldfish and develop a method for visualizing Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes using FITC-labeling. Methods Estrogen efficiently induced Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of goldfish. After FITC-labeled Vtg was prepared, it was injected into mature female zebrafish. Results Incorporation of FITC-labeled Vtg by zebrafish oocytes was detected in in vivo and in vitro experiments. The embryos obtained from zebrafish females injected with FITC-labeled Vtg emitted FITC fluorescence from the yolk sac and developed normally. Conclusion This method for achieving Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes could be useful in experiments related to the development and endocrinology of zebrafish oocytes.

  13. The host preference and impact of Argulus japonicus ectoparasite on cyprinids in Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismiyati; Wulansari, P. D.; Dewi, N. N.

    2018-04-01

    The most widely cultivated freshwater fish are from Familia Cyprinidae, among others goldfish (Carassius auratus), koi (Cyprinus carpio) and comet goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus). One of the constraints of freshwater fish cultivation is ectoparasite infestation Argulus japonicus. Financial losses have been experienced by some farmers, caused by these ectoparasitic infestaions. This study was aimed to determine the impact of ectoparasite Argulus japonicus infestation on host (freshwater ornamental fish from Familia Cyprinidae), in order to find a preventive solution to treatment on the host. The results showed that prevalence of infested fish by Argulus japonicus were 57 % goldfish, 31 % comet fish and 65 % koi. Changes of histopathology on host were congestion, baoning degeneration, epithelium erosion and inflammatory cell infiltration. The image of infected leukocytes infested by Argulus japonicus were 8.5 % of lymphocytes, 4.7 % neurophils, 3.9 % monocytes, 1.45 % eosinophils and 0,17% basophils.

  14. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order....... These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species...... of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish...

  15. Effect of storage media and time on fin explants culture in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of storage media and time was investigated on fin explants culture in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fin explants under sterile conditions were able to produce cells at different storage media and time. On the outgrowth of cells, fin explants stored for seven days before culturing showed significantly higher growth ...

  16. Functional coupling of glycolysis and phosphocreatine utilization in anoxic fish muscle. : An in vivo 31P NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waarde, A; Van den Thillart, G; Erkelens, Cees; Addink, A; Lugtenburg, J

    1990-01-01

    Three fish species with different strategies for anoxic survival (goldfish, tilapia, and common carp) were exposed to environmental anoxia (4, 3, and 1 h, respectively). The concentrations of high energy phosphate compounds and inorganic phosphate, besides the intracellular pH in the epaxial muscle

  17. Tempo and mode of recurrent polyploidization in the Carassius auratus species complex (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Gao, Y; Ma, W; Bi, X-y; Wang, S-y; Wang, J; Wang, Y-q; Chai, J; Du, R; Wu, S-f; Meyer, A; Zan, R-g; Xiao, H; Murphy, R W; Zhang, Y-p

    2014-04-01

    Polyploidization is an evolutionarily rare but important mechanism in both plants and animals because it increases genetic diversity. Goldfish of the Carassius auratus species complex can be tetraploids, hexaploids and octaploids. Polyploidization events have occurred repeatedly in goldfish, yet the extent of this phenomenon and its phyletic history are poorly understood. We explore the origin, tempo and frequency of polyploidization in Chinese and Japanese goldfish using both mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA sequences from up to 1202 individuals including the outgroup taxon, Cyprinus carpio. Analyses of de novo nuclear gene data resolve two clusters of alleles and the pattern supports the prior hypothesis of an ancient allotetraploidization for Carassius. Alleles shared by tetraploid and hexaploid individuals indicate recent autoploidizations within the C. auratus complex. Sympatric tetraploids and hexaploids share mtDNA haplotypes and these frequently occur independently within six well-supported lineages and sublineages on a small spatial scale. Gene flow estimates (Fst values) indicate that hexaploids differ only slightly from sympatric tetraploids, if at all. In contrast, allopatric populations of tetraploids and hexaploids differ from one another to a far greater extent. Gene flow between sampled localities appears to be limited. Coalescence-based time estimations for hexaploids reveal that the oldest lineage within any sampled locality is around one million years old, which is very young. Sympatric, recurrent autoploidization occurs in all sampled populations of the C. auratus complex. Goldfish experience polyploidization events more frequently than any other vertebrate.

  18. Environmental Statement for Proposed Continental Operations Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-17

    sq ft building. Commercial power will be used where available; otherwise gasoline or diesel powered motor-generator sets will be provided. The...80:620-630. Malar, T. and H. Kleerekoper, 1968. Observations on some effects of sound intensity on locomotor patterns of naive goldfish. Am. Zool., 8

  19. Author Details - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jun, JW. Vol 10, No 5 (2011) - Articles Molecular detection of Edwardsiella tarda with gyrB gene isolated from pirarucu, Arapaima gigas which is exhibited in an indoor private commercial aquarium. Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 24 (2012) - Articles Effect of storage media and time on fin explants culture in the goldfish, Carassius ...

  20. Cobalt ions inhibit negative feedback in the outer retina by blocking hemichannels on horizontal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahrenfort, I.; Sjoerdsma, T.; Ripps, H.; Kamermans, M.

    2004-01-01

    In goldfish, negative feedback from horizontal cells to cones shifts the activation function of the Ca2+ current of the cones to more negative potentials. This shift increases the amount of Ca2+ flowing into the cones, resulting in an increase in glutamate release. The increased glutamate release

  1. Filling the Memory Access Gap: A Case for On-Chip Magnetic Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    PCs, PDAs, and video camcorders, MEMS-based storage also provides a more robust and lower power solution. Unlike rotating storage, which cannot...goldfish. Just chew and swallow. like a chick in a porno . eww, miracle whip. Now give me the Coke. I think of my happy place, eww, melted tongue

  2. Differential labelling of retinal neurones by 3H-2-deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basinger, S.F.; Gordon, W.C.; Lam, D.M.K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of tritium-labelled 2-deoxyglucose in combination with plastic embedding is reported to produce stimulus dependent labelling at cellular level in the isolated goldfish retina. The results suggest that the use of tritium in place of the more usual 14 C labelled tracer is advantageous in studying the physiology and functional connections of retinal neurones. (U.K.)

  3. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...

  4. Labeling fish with an activable element through their diet. [samarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michibata, Hitoshi (Toyama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-10-01

    Stable samarium, one of the rare earth elements, was fed to medaka (Oryzias latipes) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). The concentration of samarium in the labeled fish was determined by neutron activation analysis. In O. latipes, samarium was detectable even 1 yr after the labeled diet was eaten. In C. auratus, samarium was retained in the fifth brachial arch, scales, and gills.

  5. Known regulators of nitric oxide synthase and arginase are agonists at the human G-protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bolette; Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2006-01-01

    receptor construct, h6A/5.24, containing the ligand-binding amino-terminal domain of the human GPRC6A and the seven-transmembrane domain and carboxy terminus of the homologous goldfish receptor 5.24. Based on knowledge that this chimera prefers basic L-alpha-amino acids such as arginine, lysine...

  6. Chronic effects of low levels of hydrogen sulfide on freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.L. Jr.; Oseid, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine acute toxicity of H/sub 2/S to brook trout, bluegill, fathead minnow, goldfish and amphipod. The sensitivity of various life history stages are compared and acute toxicity is related to no-effect levels of H/sub 2/S based on long-term tests. 12 references, 7 tables.

  7. Identification and characterisation of an androgen receptor from zebrafish Danio rerio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Andersen, Ole; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2007-01-01

    ) and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Binding assays with zfAR demonstrated high affinity, saturable, single class binding site, with the characteristics of an androgen receptor. Saturation experiments along with subsequent Scatchard analysis determined that the Kd of the zfAR for 3H-testosterone was 2 n...

  8. Deorphanization of GPRC6A: a promiscuous L-alpha-amino acid receptor with preference for basic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Hansen, Kasper B; Balsgaard, Anders

    2005-01-01

    with the signal transducing transmembrane and C terminus of the homologous goldfish 5.24 receptor allowed us to overcome these obstacles. Homology modeling of the hGPRC6A ATD based on the crystal structure of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 predicted interaction with alpha-amino acids...

  9. Molecular detection of Aeromonas hydrophila in the aquarium gold fish and cultured rainbow trout in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    firouz Fadaeifard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophilia   is the etiologic agent of motile aeromonas septicaemia, one of the most important bacterial diseases of fresh and marine water fishes. The aim of the present study was detection of A. hydrophilia in the aquarium goldfish and cultured rainbow trout in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary province.  In this study 50 goldfish from aquarium fish shops and 60 rainbow trouts suspected of having the disease from 6 farms (10 fish in each farm were randomly collected. The average weight in goldfish and rainbow trout samples were 3-5 g and 10-20 g, respectively. Sampling was performed from kidney and liver, and inoculated into blood agar and incubated at 22°C for 24 hours. Pure colonies which are grown on the mediums were tested by catalase, oxidase and gram staining, then those of gram-negative, catalase and oxidase positive were diagnosed, and cultured on Shotts-Rimler medium (as selective medium for A. hydrophila. These mediums were incubated at 22 °C for 24-48 h. The typical colonies were tested by using oligonucleotide primers of lip gene by PCR method. In light of molecular analysis of all specimens, 9 and 6 isolates from rainbow trout and gold fishes were identified as A. hydrophila respectively. Due to the detection of A. hydrophila in both cultured rainbow trout and aquarium goldfish, the bacteria can lead to septicemia with mortality if the health management principles are not observed in fish farming.

  10. Molecular cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of GPRC6A, a novel family C G-protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2004-01-01

    with a significant homology to the human calcium-sensing receptor (CaR, 34% aa sequence identity), the taste receptor 1 (T1R1, 28%), and the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1, 24%), places GPRC6A in family C of the GPCRs. Interestingly, GPRC6A bears the highest resemblance with an odorant goldfish 5...

  11. Genetic Variations in the Human G Protein-coupled Receptor Class C, Group 6, Member A (GPRC6A) Control Cell Surface Expression and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Stine; Have, Christian Theil; Underwood, Christina Rye

    2017-01-01

    -expressed murine and goldfish orthologs. The latter orthologs are Gq-coupled and lead to intracellular accumulation of inositol phosphates and calcium release. In the present study we cloned the bonobo chimpanzee GPRC6A receptor, which is 99% identical to the human receptor, and show that it is cell surface...

  12. Uptake of γ-emitting radionuclides by aquatic biota exposed to contaminated water before and after passage through the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Watson, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three experimental systems were designed to investigate the differential accumulation of radionuclides by biota from low-level aqueous effluents after passage through the ground. One system received river water (control), one received dilute low-level radioactive effluents (trench), and the third received the low-level effluents after it had percolated through about 260 m or porous gravel (springs). Biota studied included filamentous green algae, clams (Corbicula), goldfish (Carassius auratus), carp (Cyprinus carpio), and Veronica. Trophic level differences in accumulation of the various radionuclides from the diluted trench water were not consistent but generally followed the pattern algae > goldfish > molluscs > carp. Cobalt-60 was accumulated to the highest level of any radionuclide, and accumulation levels at the three sites were directly related to the concentration of 60 Co in the water. Manganese-54, 59 Fe, and 106 Ru were also accumulated to measurable levels in biota at the springs site indicating their bioavailability after passage through the ground

  13. Regulation of feeding behavior and psychomotor activity by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei eMatsuda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide belonging to a family of neuropeptides that includes urocortins, urotensin I and sauvagine in vertebrates. CRH and urocortin act as anorexigenic factors for satiety regulation in fish. In a goldfish model, intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of CRH has been shown to affect not only food intake, but also locomotor and psychomotor activities. In particular, CRH elicits anxiety-like behavior as an anxiogenic neuropeptide in goldfish, as is the case in rodents. This paper reviews current knowledge of CRH and its related peptides derived from studies of teleost fish, as representative non-mammals, focusing particularly on the role of the CRH system, and examines its significance from a comparative viewpoint.

  14. Anatomical adaptations for peripheral oxygen transport at high and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow (aerobic) muscle from striped bass and goldfish held for eight weeks at seasonal extremes of 5 and 25°C had a higher C:F in cold vs. warm animals. ... However, extensive hypertrophy at 4°C meant that the size of the capillary bed was maximal at 11°C, corresponding to the point of highest muscle blood flow and ...

  15. Colour intensity in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) as influenced by dietary microalgae addition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, A.; Sales, J.; Sergejevova, Magda; Kozák, P.; Masojídek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2013), s. 193-199 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/09/0656; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : GOLDFISH CARASSIUS-AURATUS * HAEMATOCOCCUS-PLUVIALIS * ASTAXANTHIN Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2013

  16. American River Watershed Investigation, California. Volume 7. Appendix S. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus C,U,F Brown towhee Pipilo fuscus C,U,F Rufous-crowned sparrow Aimophila ruficeps C,R Chipping sparrow Spizella passerina C,R...pipistrelle Pipistrellus hesperus Widespread in ma habitat Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Widespread in ma habitat Townsends big-caved bat Plecotus...occidentalis * Carp Qjprjnus ca rv i *Goldfish Carassius auratus Sacramento blackfish Orthodon microlepidotus Hardhead Mylopharodon conocephalus

  17. Yoshiki Hotta and the dawn of zebrafish molecular neurogenetics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashijima, Shin-Ichi; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2012-03-01

    Abstract: After coming back to Japan to work in the Department of Physics at the University of Tokyo, Yoshiki Hotta spent a year or so on searching for behavioral mutants of goldfish. Although this endeavor did not succeed, he remained an adamant supporter of the development of zebrafish research in Japan. Here we review how his support helped zebrafish neurogenetics in Japan gain a unique position in the world research community.

  18. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes of ploidy and sexuality status of "Carassius auratus" populations in the drainage area of the River Dyje (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš; Lusk, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 165-171 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Carassius auratus * goldfish * ploidy status Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. To Manage Of Lubuk Larangan AS A Environmental Wisdom In Salambue Village Panyabungan Kota Subdistrict Mandailing Natal Regency North Sumatra Province

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Rikiyan Qadri; Bathara, Lamun; ', Kusai

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted in December 2014 in Salambue village Panyabungan Kota subdistrict. This research was aimed to know the history of lubuk larangan, how to manage lubuk larangan, and describing the advantages of lubuk larangan. It began in 1982 based on togetherness agreement. Managing were by Hatobangon, village functionary and local citizen was 37 peoples, donate voluntarily each one Rp 50.000, - for purchasing Goldfish seed (Cyprinus caprio) and Garing fish (Tor soro), steakingout...

  1. Opportunity of integrated production of "Ceratophyllum demersum" in a nutrition trial with "Carassius auratus"

    OpenAIRE

    Santana García, Gustavo Julián

    2016-01-01

    [EN]The integrated culture of fish and plant in a recirculated system is called aquaponics, where a mutual benefit have been demonstrated for the cocultured species. Today this practice is still not well known for the most studied consumed freshwater species, and almost nothing has been done for aquarium species. The objective of present work was to study the opportunity of growing one of the most selled aquarium plant coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) in a coculture with the goldfish (Carass...

  2. Aquatic studies of Gable Mountain Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.

    1974-12-01

    Studies of the biotic and abiotic components of the Gable Mountain Pond (HAPO cooling water disposal pond) ecosystem were undertaken to determine if there was a potential problem for off-site transfer of radioactivity to man originating with the aquatic food web. Most of the 137 Cs in the pond is associated with the sediments which are probably the main source of 137 Cs for uptake by the biota. Generally, highest concentrations of 137 Cs and other radioisotopes were found in the upper two inches of sediments in the northwest end of the pond and in the deeper areas along the long-axis of the pond. Native goldfish had maximum and average 137 Cs concentrations of about 340 and 170 pCi/g dry wt, respectively. Algae, macrophytes, and detritus comprised the main food items of the goldfish, and the 137 Cs levels in the plants were usually higher than the 137 Cs concentration in the fish. The 137 Cs concentrations of wild experimental ducks restricted to Gable Mountain Pond were approximately the same as resident coots, but significantly higher than transient wild ducks. Neither the goldfish nor the waterfowl inhabiting the pond attained concentrations of 137 Cs exceeding acceptable limits. Sediment, however, could be a source of high concentrations of radioactivity or radioactive contamination concern if the concentration of radiocontaminants increased and/or the pond dries up, and the contaminated sediments become windborne. (U.S.)

  3. Development of technology for washed minced fish production from low-profit objects of fishing in the Volga-Caspian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatova M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objects of the study are as follows: rudd and goldfish, samples of food minced made of them without washing, after single and double washings. To study the organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters the conventional methods of the fishing industry have been used. At the LLC "Astrakhan fisheries" two experimental batches of minced rudd and goldfish with double washing by water using a food additive "Omfresh plus" have been made in the amount of 1.0 % by weight of the meat. The yield of washed minced food from rudd is 41.4 %, from silver carp – 41.0 %. Some decrease in water content, water-holding capacity and formalin-titratable nitrogen in minced fish after each washing step has been established. Studying the organoleptic characteristics has shown that the frozen minced briquettes are cuboids, have clean surface with the presence of minor irregularities, colour – light gray, dense texture. On physical and chemical parameters the food washed mince correspond to GOST R 55505–2013 "Frozen food fish forcemeat. Specifications". Water content is 79–82 %, sodium chloride – 0,17–0,35 %, and water-holding capacity – at over 50 %. The proven technology of manufacturing washed minced from goldfish and rudd can be put into production for the purpose of deep processing of unprofitable species of the Volga-Caspian Basin and getting washed minced food and culinary products based on it.

  4. An approach for obtaining integrable Hamiltonians from Poisson-commuting polynomial families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyvraz, F.

    2017-07-01

    We discuss a general approach permitting the identification of a broad class of sets of Poisson-commuting Hamiltonians, which are integrable in the sense of Liouville. It is shown that all such Hamiltonians can be solved explicitly by a separation of variables ansatz. The method leads in particular to a proof that the so-called "goldfish" Hamiltonian is maximally superintegrable and leads to an elementary identification of a full set of integrals of motion. The Hamiltonians in involution with the "goldfish" Hamiltonian are also explicitly integrated. New integrable Hamiltonians are identified, among which some have the property of being isochronous, that is, all their orbits have the same period. Finally, a peculiar structure is identified in the Poisson brackets between the elementary symmetric functions and the set of Hamiltonians commuting with the "goldfish" Hamiltonian: these can be expressed as products between elementary symmetric functions and Hamiltonians. The structure displays an invariance property with respect to one element and has both a symmetry and a closure property. The meaning of this structure is not altogether clear to the author, but it turns out to be a powerful tool.

  5. The prevalence of parasites in ornamental fish from fish market in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R. R.; Desrita; Fadhilla, A.

    2018-02-01

    Parasites still become the major problem in ornamental fish as the fast grown of its trading in Indonesia. Parasites causes diseases in ornamental fish hence followed by death and reducing its appearence. In this study, the prevalence of parasites in 100 apparently healthy ornamental fishes namely Guppy (Poecilia reticulate) and Goldfish (Carrasius auratus) were determined. The method of this research used was survey in local fish market in Medan from March to May 2017 The aim of this study was to determine the parasite that infects aquarium fishes and find out its prevalence. For this purpose, ornamental fishes were examined for parasites from their skin, fin, gill and intestine using wet mount method under a light microscope. The survey result showed that parasites that infect Guppy and Goldfish were Monogenea (Dactylogyrus sp and Gyrodactylus sp) in their skin and gill, Protozoa (piscinodinium sp) in their gill and Nematoda (Capillaria sp) in abdominal cavity. Prevalence rate of parasites that attack Guppy in Medan is Dactylogyrus sp (8%), Gyrodactylus sp (14 %), Piscinodinium sp (6%) and Capillaria sp (8%). Then, prevalence rate of Capilaria sp that attack Goldfish is 4%. The conclusion of this work revealed that the prevalence rate of ectoparasite and endoparasites in ornamental fishes in Medan had the low rate as well as there was no pathological findings is observed. However, these parasites could be a harmful parasitic diseases in case there is the changes in aquarium environment and improper fish handling.

  6. Gold Nanoparticles for the Detection of DNA Adducts as Biomarkers of Exposure to Acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larguinho, Miguel Angelo Rodrigues

    The main objective of this thesis was the development of a gold nanoparticle-based methodology for detection of DNA adducts as biomarkers, to try and overcome existing drawbacks in currently employed techniques. For this objective to be achieved, the experimental work was divided in three components: sample preparation, method of detection and development of a model for exposure to acrylamide. Different techniques were employed and combined for de-complexation and purification of DNA samples (including ultrasonic energy, nuclease digestion and chromatography), resulting in a complete protocol for sample treatment, prior to detection. The detection of alkylated nucleotides using gold nanoparticles was performed by two distinct methodologies: mass spectrometry and colorimetric detection. In mass spectrometry, gold nanoparticles were employed for laser desorption/ionisation instead of the organic matrix. Identification of nucleotides was possible by fingerprint, however no specific mass signals were denoted when using gold nanoparticles to analyse biological samples. An alternate method using the colorimetric properties of gold nanoparticles was employed for detection. This method inspired in the non-cross-linking assay allowed the identification of glycidamide-guanine adducts and DNA adducts generated in vitro. For the development of a model of exposure, two different aquatic organisms were studies: a goldfish and a mussel. Organisms were exposed to waterborne acrylamide, after which mortality was recorded and effect concentrations were estimated. In goldfish, both genotoxicity and metabolic alterations were assessed and revealed dose-effect relationships of acrylamide. Histopathological alterations were verified primarily in pancreatic cells, but also in hepatocytes. Mussels showed higher effect concentrations than goldfish. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, biotransformation and neurotoxicity were analysed after prolonged exposure, showing mild oxidative stress in

  7. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J.; Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 β-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish

  8. Defining global neuroendocrine gene expression patterns associated with reproductive seasonality in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many vertebrates, including the goldfish, exhibit seasonal reproductive rhythms, which are a result of interactions between external environmental stimuli and internal endocrine systems in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. While it is long believed that differential expression of neuroendocrine genes contributes to establishing seasonal reproductive rhythms, no systems-level investigation has yet been conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, by analyzing multiple female goldfish brain microarray datasets, we have characterized global gene expression patterns for a seasonal cycle. A core set of genes (873 genes in the hypothalamus were identified to be differentially expressed between May, August and December, which correspond to physiologically distinct stages that are sexually mature (prespawning, sexual regression, and early gonadal redevelopment, respectively. Expression changes of these genes are also shared by another brain region, the telencephalon, as revealed by multivariate analysis. More importantly, by examining one dataset obtained from fish in October who were kept under long-daylength photoperiod (16 h typical of the springtime breeding season (May, we observed that the expression of identified genes appears regulated by photoperiod, a major factor controlling vertebrate reproductive cyclicity. Gene ontology analysis revealed that hormone genes and genes functionally involved in G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway and transmission of nerve impulses are significantly enriched in an expression pattern, whose transition is located between prespawning and sexually regressed stages. The existence of seasonal expression patterns was verified for several genes including isotocin, ependymin II, GABA(A gamma2 receptor, calmodulin, and aromatase b by independent samplings of goldfish brains from six seasonal time points and real-time PCR assays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using both

  9. Ecological behavior of plutonium and americium in a freshwater pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, R.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Garland, T.R.; Weimer, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    A plutonium (Pu) processing waste pond on the Hanford Reservation has been studied since mid-1973 to characterize the pond's limnology and determine the ecological behavior of transuranics in this ecosystem. This ultra-eutrophic pond has a water inflow rate of 10 m 3 /min, of which 95% leaves the pond by percolation. Macrophytes (mainly Potamogeton), algae (mainly Cladophora), benthic invertebrates (mainly dipteran and odonate larvae, hemipterans, amphipods and gastropods) and goldfish are the major biotic components of the system. Sediments appear to be the principal repository of Pu and Am, having mean concentrations for 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu and 241 Am of 112, 121 and 71 pCi/g (dry), respectively. Mean ratios of isotopes in the sediments are 0.85 for 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu, and 0.49 for 241 Am to 239 240 Pu. Algal floc (decomposing algal material) is the major concentrator of Pu and Am in the pond having mean concentrations of 238 Pu of 986 pCi/g, for 239 240 Pu of 615 pCi/g, and for 241 Am of 256 pCi/g. Watercress (Rorippa) had Pu levels about equal to those of the sediments, while dragonfly larvae (Libellula) and snails (Lymnaea) along with watercress had Am levels approximating those of the sediments. The remaining biota had Pu and Am levels which were generally well below those of the sediments.Preliminary in situ experiments indicate that goldfish reach an equilibrium level for Pu of about 15 pCi/g within a few days of exposure to the pond, after which they may remain active in the pond for many months without further accumulation. Experimental goldfish established ratios of 238 Pu to 239 240 Pu and 241 Am to 239 240 Pu that were similar to all other pond biota within 2 weeks of pond residence, suggesting a common source of biologically available Pu and Am

  10. Presence of a predator image in potential breeding sites and oviposition responses of a dengue vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Suradi, Nur Farrahana Binti; Hakim, Hafijah; Abang, Fatimah; Aliasan, Nur Ezzati; Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Majid, Abdul Hafiz A; Fadzly, Nik; Vargas, Ronald E Morales; Morales, Noppawan P; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-12-01

    In dengue vector control, attempts to minimize or replace the use of pesticides have mostly involved use of predators, but success has been severely impeded by difficulties associated with financial and environmental costs, predator mass production, and persistence in target habitats. Visual deterrents have been used successfully to control animal pests, in some cases in an effort to replace pesticide use. Despite evidence that visual signals are crucial in site choice for egg deposition by dengue vectors, and that female mosquitoes respond to artificial predation, the role of predator intimidation as it affects the oviposition behavior of dengue vectors remains largely unexplored. Here, we examined the oviposition responses of Aedes aegypti exposed to various mosquito predator pictures. Gravid females were presented with equal opportunities to oviposit in two cups with predator images [Toxorhynchites splendens-TXI, Goldfish (Carassius auratus)-small (SFI) and large (LFI) and Tx. splendens+Goldfish-TXFI] and two others without pictures. Differences in egg deposition were examined between sites with and without these images. When given a chance to oviposit in cups with and without TXI, Ae. aegypti females were similarly attracted to both sites. When provided an opportunity to oviposit in cups displaying pictures of fish (SFI or LFI) and blank cups, egg deposition rates were much lower in the fish picture sites. Females showed a preference for blank cups over TXFI for egg deposition. They also equally avoided cups with pictures of fish, regardless of the size of the picture. Our results indicate that the presence of images of goldfish and their association with Tx. larvae significantly reduced egg deposition by Ae. aegypti, and this was not the case with the predatory larvae alone. The observations that the images of natural predators can repel gravid females of a dengue vector provide novel possibilities to develop effective and inexpensive alternative tools to

  11. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 {beta}-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish.

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Chemical Defense Bioscience Review (5th) Held at Columbia, Maryland on 29-31 May 1985. Appendix 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Increases Sensitivity to Stress in Rats ........... . A-1373 Dr. G.J. Kant Atropine and 2- PAN Elicit Stress-Induced Convulsions in Mice...RAMIFY IN STRATA 2 AND 4 OF THE INNER PLEXIFORM LAYER AS DO CHOLINERGIC CELLS OF RABBIT, RAT, PIG, CHICKEN , AND GOLDFISH. 3. CELLS IN THE POSITION OF...A " A// 60 -/ A ’A 200 10 . ). >. w c cm It co ~ 0.1 1 10 10 Survival Tirne-(Hours)0 COMPRISN OF RiorwFmiCAi PECOX/ FRY ri IRVFq FfOR FORFRRAIi (FILLED

  13. Plutonium in aquatic biota of the Great Miami River Watershed, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayman, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.; Edgington, D.N.

    1974-01-01

    Methods for collection and preparation of biological samples are described. Radiochemical analysis for 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu was performed on an alga, Cladophora sp., a vascular plant, Potamogeton sp., goldfish, carp, and other fishes. Results showed that concentration of Pu by algae and macrophytes was 10 2 to 10 3 that of fish, excluding the gastrointestinal tract and its contents. An average of 80 percent of 238 Pu in carp was associated with the gastrointestinal tract and contents. The levels of 238 Pu in Cladophora were a function of the distance from the release site

  14. Cell-free soluble-phase radioimmunoassay for Thy-1 antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalev, A.; Zuckerman, F. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel))

    1983-12-01

    A cell-free, soluble-phase, radioimmunoassay has been developed for Thy-1 antigen. The method is based on immunoprecipitation of radiolabelled Thy-1 molecules with specific antibodies, antiimmunoglobulin serum and polyethyleneglycol (PEG). The method can be used with convenience to screen for the presence of Thy-1 in various fluids as well as on cell surfaces for qualitative or quantitative purposes. Presence of antibodies or autoantibodies against Thy-1 can also be detected specifically. Evidence that the dog, carp, hamster and goldfish carry Thy-1-like molecules on neuronal (brain) cells is demonstrated by this method.

  15. Research advances on flotillins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proteins of flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 were originally discovered in axon regeneration of goldfish retinal ganglion cells. They are generally used as marker proteins of lipid rafts and considered to be scaffolding proteins of lipid microdomains. Although they are ubiquitously expressed and well-conserved from fly to man, their exact functions remain controversial. In this review, we summarize the structure of flotillins and some functions of them, such as regulating axon regeneration, endocytosis, T cell activation, insulin signaling, membrane protein recruitment, roles in the progression of some diseases and so on.

  16. Influence of broodstock age on reproductive performance in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Melotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L. is a very important species in the ornamental fish culture. This fish, in relation to the variety of its colour patterns is very appreciated and it can obtain an higher market price compared to the common goldfish. In the last ten years, breeding goals have increasingly focused their attention to the morphological characteristics (Cherfas et al., 1992 and numerous research works were carried out on pigmentation and viability of different colour phenotypes (Jackson et al., 2000. More recently, several studies were set up in order to produce diploid gynogenotes and triploids (Rothbard et al., 1999...

  17. PERSEPSI DAN ASPIRASI MASYARAKAT TERHADAP PENGEMBANGAN KAWASAN MINAPOLITAN BUNTOK SEBERANG KECAMATAN DUSUN SELATAN KABUPATEN BARITO SELATAN PROVINSI KALIMANTAN TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leliana Leliana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to 1 know the public perception of the development area minapolitan Buntok Seberang, 2 explore the factors that influence people's perception of regional development minapolitan Buntok Seberang such as education, employment, income, length of residence, counseling, and the death of goldfish; 3 explore the community's aspirations for regional development activities minapolitan Buntok Seberang. This research uses survey methods, focused on the heads of households (families who has cages (karamba  in Barito River, where the carp are maintained by experienced mass death, are 4 (four villages/rural, that is Hilir Sper, Buntok Kota, Baru and Teluk Telaga which is part of the plan minapolitan. Proportionate number of respondents who were sampled as many as 65 the heads of households with 37 families in the data distribution of Hilir Sper, 19 households in the Buntok Kota, 6 families in Baru and 3 households in Teluk Telaga. The results showed that the public perception of the development of the region is positive minapolitan Buntok Seberang or beneficial to society. People's perceptions are influenced by factors of education, employment, income, length of residence / attempt and death of a goldfish. Aspirations of the people against the development of the area minapolitan Buntok Seberang the need for help production facilities (saprodi fishery, handling marketing, capital assistance, guidance / counseling on a regular basis as well as the support from the local fishery cooperatives / agencies.

  18. Chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwood, J.W.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Allen, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    Chromium concentrations of several fish species (bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) goldfish (Carassius auratus), and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)) from White Oak Lake (WOL), a small impoundment which formerly received cooling water blowdown containing high Cr(VI) concentrations, were measured to determine levels of tissue accumulation. Chromium concentrations in the muscle and/or whole body (excluding G.I. tract) of some species in some years were found to be negatively correlated with total fish weight. Results suggest that Cr levels in muscle and whole body of most species analyzed from WOL and from Melton Hill Reservoir, an uncontaminated impoundment, may be inversely related to fish weight. Muscle and wholebody Cr concentrations were not significantly different from each other in bluegill or largemouth bass. With the exception of goldfish collected in 1969, between species comparisons of chromium levles in WOL fish within years showed no statistically significant differences, indicating that there was not trophic level effect on Cr accumulation in tissues of the species examined.There was also no significant difference in Cr concentration in muscle of bluegill and largemouth bass from WOL and Melton Hill Reservoir, indicating that these species either effectively regulate their Cr absorption or that the elevated Cr levels in WOL were in a form that is unavailable for absorption into tissues.

  19. Chromium levels in fish from a lake chronically contaminated with chromates from cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elwood, J.W.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Allen, C.P.

    1980-01-01

    Chromium concentrations of several fish species (bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) goldfish (Carassius auratus), and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)) from White Oak Lake (WOL), a small impoundment which formerly received cooling water blowdown containing high Cr(VI) concentrations, were measured to determine levels of tissue accumulation. Chromium concentrations in the muscle and/or whole body (excluding G.I. tract) of some species in some years were found to be negatively correlated with total fish weight. Results suggest that Cr levels in muscle and whole body of most species analyzed from WOL and from Melton Hill Reservoir, an uncontaminated impoundment, may be inversely related to fish weight. Muscle and wholebody Cr concentrations were not significantly different from each other in bluegill or largemouth bass. With the exception of goldfish collected in 1969, between species comparisons of chromium levels in WOL fish within years showed no statistically significant differences, indicating that there was not trophic level effect on Cr accumulation in tissues of the species examined. There was also no significant difference in Cr concentration in muscle of bluegill and largemouth bass from WOL and Melton Hill Reservoir, indicating that these species either effectively regulate their Cr absorption or that the elevated Cr levels in WOL were in a form that is unavailable for absorption into tissues.

  20. Transferrin-derived synthetic peptide induces highly conserved pro-inflammatory responses of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, George; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2009-02-01

    We examined the induction of macrophage pro-inflammatory responses by transferrin-derived synthetic peptide originally identified following digestion of transferrin from different species (murine, bovine, human N-lobe and goldfish) using elastase. The mass spectrometry analysis of elastase-digested murine transferrin identified a 31 amino acid peptide located in the N2 sub-domain of the transferrin N-lobe, that we named TMAP. TMAP was synthetically produced and shown to induce a number of pro-inflammatory genes by quantitative PCR. TMAP induced chemotaxis, a potent nitric oxide response, and TNF-alpha secretion in different macrophage populations; P338D1 macrophage-like cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and goldfish macrophages. The treatment of BMDM cultures with TMAP stimulated the production of nine cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, MCP-5, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 gamma, MIP-2, GCSF, KC, VEGF, and RANTES) that was measured using cytokine antibody array and confirmed by Western blot. Our results indicate that transferrin-derived peptide, TMAP, is an immunomodulating molecule capable of inducing pro-inflammatory responses in lower and higher vertebrates.

  1. Dopamine D1 receptor activation regulates the expression of the estrogen synthesis gene aromatase B in radial glial cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eXing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radial glial cells (RGCs are abundant stem-like non-neuronal progenitors that are important for adult neurogenesis and brain repair, yet little is known about their regulation by neurotransmitters. Here we provide evidence for neuronal-glial interactions via a novel role for dopamine to stimulate RGC function. Goldfish were chosen as the model organism due to the abundance of RGCs and regenerative abilities of the adult central nervous system. A close anatomical relationship was observed between tyrosine hydroxylase-positive catecholaminergic cell bodies and axons and dopamine-D1 receptor expressing RGCs along the ventricular surface of telencephalon, a site of active neurogenesis. A primary cell culture model was established and immunofluorescence analysis indicates that in vitro RGCs from female goldfish retain their major characteristics in vivo, including expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and brain lipid binding protein. The estrogen synthesis enzyme aromatase B is exclusively found in RGCs, but this is lost as cells differentiate to neurons and other glial types in adult teleost brain. Pharmacological experiments using the cultured RGCs established that specific activation of dopamine D1 receptors up-regulates aromatase B mRNA through a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent molecular mechanism. These data indicate that dopamine enhances the steroidogenic function of this neuronal progenitor cell.

  2. (/sup 3/H)-muscimol, (/sup 3/H)-nipecotic acid and (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine as autoradiographic markers for GABA neurotransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agardh, E.; Ehinger, B. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ophthalmology)

    1982-01-01

    Retinas from rabbit, goldfish and guinea-pig were exposed to (/sup 3/H) GABA, (/sup 3/H)-muscimol, (/sup 3/H)-nipecotic acid and (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine either by intravitreal injection in vivo or by incubations in a balanced salt solution and the distribution of radioactivity was then studied with autoradiography. All substances labelled a similar set of presumed amacrine cells. Incubating at 0/sup 0/C, in 10/sup -5/ M ouabain, or in 10/sup -3/ M GABA inhibited the labelling by (/sup 3/H)-muscimol whereas bicuculline (10/sup -4/ M), and glycine (10/sup -3/ M) were less efficient blockers. The result is interpreted as a neuronal uptake of (/sup 3/H)-muscimol rather than as a GABA receptor binding. All the substances except (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine also labelled glia to such a degree that neuronal labelling was often disguised in rabbits and goldfish. Glial labelling by muscimol was less pronounced in guinea-pig. (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine (tested only in rabbits) gave a strong labelling of cells with the distribution of GABA neurons and only little glial labelling.

  3. Fish mouths as engineering structures for vortical cross-step filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, S. Laurie; Roberts, Erin; Lineburg, Jillian; Brooks, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    Suspension-feeding fishes such as goldfish and whale sharks retain prey without clogging their oral filters, whereas clogging is a major expense in industrial crossflow filtration of beer, dairy foods and biotechnology products. Fishes' abilities to retain particles that are smaller than the pore size of the gill-raker filter, including extraction of particles despite large holes in the filter, also remain unexplained. Here we show that unexplored combinations of engineering structures (backward-facing steps forming d-type ribs on the porous surface of a cone) cause fluid dynamic phenomena distinct from current biological and industrial filter operations. This vortical cross-step filtration model prevents clogging and explains the transport of tiny concentrated particles to the oesophagus using a hydrodynamic tongue. Mass transfer caused by vortices along d-type ribs in crossflow is applicable to filter-feeding duck beak lamellae and whale baleen plates, as well as the fluid mechanics of ventilation at fish gill filaments.

  4. Research on copying system of dynamic multiplex holographic stereograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaiping; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Tong

    2003-05-01

    The most important advantage of holographic stereograms over conventional hologram is that they can produce 3D images at any desired scale with movement, holographers in many countries involved in the studies towards it. We began our works in the early 80's and accomplished two research projects automatic system for making synthetic holograms and multiplex synthetic rainbow holograms, Based on these works, a large scale holographic stereogram of an animated goldfish was made by us for practical advertisement. In order to meet the needs of the market, a copying system for making multiplex holographic stereograms, and a special kind of silver halide holographic film developed by us recently. The characteristic of the copying system and the property of the special silver-halide emulsion are introduced in this paper.

  5. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans in Atlantic coast striped bass and in selected Hudson River fish, waterfowl and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, P; Hilker, D; Meyer, C; Aldous, K; Shane, L; Donnelly, R; Smith, R; Sloan, R; Skinner, L; Horn, E

    1884-01-01

    In striped bass samples from the lower Hudson River and its estuary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was found at concentrations from 16 to 120 pg/g (ppt). Striped bass from two other locations (Rhode Island coastal waters and Chesapeake Bay, Maryland) had <5 ppt, 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), was found in striped bass from all three locations with concentrations varying from 6 ppt in Chesapeake Bay to 78 ppt in the Hudson River. Results from a limited number of non-migratory fish (carp and goldfish) and sediments suggest that the upper Hudson River is not a source for 2,3,7,8-TCDD/2,3,7,8-TCDF contamination of striped bass. 26 references, 3 tables.

  6. A photon-driven micromotor can direct nerve fibre growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Nieminen, Timo A.; Mohanty, Samarendra; Miotke, Jill; Meyer, Ronald L.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Berns, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Axonal path-finding is important in the development of the nervous system, nerve repair and nerve regeneration. The behaviour of the growth cone at the tip of the growing axon determines the direction of axonal growth and migration. We have developed an optical-based system to control the direction of growth of individual axons (nerve fibres) using laser-driven spinning birefringent spheres. One or two optical traps position birefringent beads adjacent to growth cones of cultured goldfish retinal ganglion cell axons. Circularly polarized light with angular momentum causes the trapped bead to spin. This creates a localized microfluidic flow generating an estimated 0.17 pN shear force against the growth cone that turns in response to the shear. The direction of axonal growth can be precisely manipulated by changing the rotation direction and position of this optically driven micromotor. A physical model estimating the shear force density on the axon is described.

  7. Data for amino acid alignment of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors with other gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences, and the ligand selectivity of Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains structure and pharmacological characteristics of melanocortin receptors (MCRs related to research published in “Characterization of melanocortin receptors from stingray Dasyatis akajei, a cartilaginous fish” (Takahashi et al., 2016 [1]. The amino acid sequences of the stingray, D. akajei, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R were aligned with the corresponding melanocortin receptor sequences from the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, the dogfish, Squalus acanthias, the goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the mouse, Mus musculus. These alignments provide the basis for phylogenetic analysis of these gnathostome melanocortin receptor sequences. In addition, the Japanese stingray melanocortin receptors were separately expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, and stimulated with stingray ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH, and β-endorphin. The dose response curves reveal the order of ligand selectivity for each stingray MCR.

  8. Rapid and coordinated processing of global motion images by local clusters of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tachibana, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Even when the body is stationary, the whole retinal image is always in motion by fixational eye movements and saccades that move the eye between fixation points. Accumulating evidence indicates that the brain is equipped with specific mechanisms for compensating for the global motion induced by these eye movements. However, it is not yet fully understood how the retina processes global motion images during eye movements. Here we show that global motion images evoke novel coordinated firing in retinal ganglion cells (GCs). We simultaneously recorded the firing of GCs in the goldfish isolated retina using a multi-electrode array, and classified each GC based on the temporal profile of its receptive field (RF). A moving target that accompanied the global motion (simulating a saccade following a period of fixational eye movements) modulated the RF properties and evoked synchronized and correlated firing among local clusters of the specific GCs. Our findings provide a novel concept for retinal information processing during eye movements.

  9. Method for aquatic multiple species toxicant testing: acute toxicity of 10 chemicals to 5 vertebrates and 2 invertebrates. [Pimephales promelas; Carassius auratus; Ictalurus punctatus; Lepomis macrochirus; Salmo gairdneri; Orconectes immunis; Aplexa hypnorum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, G.L.; Holcombe, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed to simultaneously ascertain 96 h LC/sub 50/ values for seven freshwater species in a single flow through test with measured concentrations. It allows interspecific comparisons, easy determination of the most sensitive species, and cuts cost of labor, materials and chemical analysis for measured concentration tests. Species tested included fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, goldfish Carassius auratus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, crayfish Orconectes immunis and snails Aplexa hypnorum. Compounds tested were pentachlorophenol, 2-chloroethanol, 2,4-pentanedione, hexachloroethane, ..cap alpha..-bromo-2',5'-dimethoxyacetophenone, benzaldehyde, 1,3-dichloro-4,6-dinitro-benzene, dursban, sevin and cadmium chloride. The LC/sub 50/ values from these multiple species tests compared favourably with those determined using single species tests at this laboratory, usually within 20%.

  10. LDH ACTIVITY IN COPPER INTOXICATION OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO GILLS AND INTESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA TEODORESCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathological effects of two sublethal concentrations (100 μg/l and 250 μg/l of copper (CuSO4x5H2O on goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio were studied for 7,14 and 21 days. The specific activity of LDH in gills and intestine, two target organs that uptake the metal from the water were assayed. In gills at 100 μg Cu2+/l the specific activity of LDH was gradually decreasing, while in the intestine, after 7 days of exposure, the enzymatic activity was distinct significantly increased. LDH activity demonstrated a hypoxic condition and a stimulation of glycolysis. In the both organs ,the 250 μg Cu2+/l concentration generated a decrease of LDH specific activity after 7 days followed by an increase of this after 14 and 21 days of exposure. Histologically, the modifications are, generally, directly correlated with the toxicant dose and exposure time.

  11. Continuous flow bioassay method to evaluate the effects of outboard motor exhausts and selected aromatic toxicants on fish. [Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenniman, G. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago); Hartung, R.; Weber, W.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A continuous flow bioassay system was designed to measure the effects of outboard motor exhaust (OME) emissions and selected volatile and evaporative aromatic toxicants on goldfish (Carassius auratus). Continuous flow bioassays were run for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 720 h to determine lethal concentrations for 50 percent of individuals (LC 50's) for leaded OME, non-leaded OME, toluene, xylene, and 1,3,5 trimethylbenzene, the three individual compounds having been identified as significant aromatic components of OME. The 96 h LC-50's for these substances were found to be 171, 168, 23, 17, and 13 ppm, respectively. The values of 171 and 168 ppm for the two OME's are given in terms of gallons of fuel burned per million gallons of water. The continuous flow bioassay method was demonstrated to be a more reliable indicator of the effects of OME pollutants on aquatic organisms than is the static bioassay method.

  12. Physiological and ecological factors influencing the radiocaesium contamination of fish species from Kiev reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulikov, A.O. [A.N. Severtzov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-23

    The monitoring of {sup 137}Cs contamination of fish from the northern part of the Kiev reservoir between 1987 and 1992 indicated systematic differences in the long-term average contamination levels of different species, which are closely related to their trophic levels. The average contamination of the predatory species: perch (Perca fluviatilis) and pike (Esox lucius) were roughly factors of 6.3 and 4.4 respectively, higher than those of the nonpredatory species: bream (Abramis brama), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophothalmus). For tench (Tinca tinca) and goldfish (Carassius sp.), this factor is 2. The solution of the caesium balance equation in fish obtained for equilibrium conditions, which is applicable to the long-term contamination, provides some explanations for these accumulation differences between the species with respect to influences by different ecological and physiological factors.

  13. A New Class of Solvable Many-Body Problems

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    Francesco Calogero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new class of solvable N-body problems is identified. They describe N unit-mass point particles whose time-evolution, generally taking place in the complex plane, is characterized by Newtonian equations of motion ''of goldfish type'' (acceleration equal force, with specific velocity-dependent one-body and two-body forces featuring several arbitrary coupling constants. The corresponding initial-value problems are solved by finding the eigenvalues of a time-dependent N×N matrix U(t explicitly defined in terms of the initial positions and velocities of the N particles. Some of these models are asymptotically isochronous, i.e. in the remote future they become completely periodic with a period T independent of the initial data (up to exponentially vanishing corrections. Alternative formulations of these models, obtained by changing the dependent variables from the N zeros of a monic polynomial of degree N to its N coefficients, are also exhibited.

  14. Antibodies to dopamine: radioimmunological study of specificity in relation to immunocytochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffard, M.; Kah, O.; Onteniente, B.; Seguela, P.; Le Moal, M.; Delaage, M.

    1984-06-01

    Two classes of anti-3,4- dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) antibodies were raised in rabbits using dopamine conjugated to albumin either via formaldehyde or via glutaraldehyde. Each was usable for immunohistochemical detection of dopamine neurons provided that the tissue was fixed by the homologous cross-linking agent. However, anti-dopamine-glutaraldehyde antibodies turned out to be of more general use because of the better fixative properties of glutaraldehyde which fixed dopamine in rat and in teleost, whereas formaldehyde only worked in lower vertebrates (such as goldfish) and not in rat brain. The specificity of anti-dopamine-glutaraldehyde antibodies was firmly established by competition experiments in equilibrium dialysis, using an immunoreactive tritiated derivative synthesized by coupling dopamine to N-alpha-acetyl-L-lysine N-methylamide via glutaraldehyde. Specificity studies in vitro and immunohistological results demonstrating the specific staining of dopaminergic neurons were found to correlate well.

  15. Development of a strontium chronic effects benchmark for aquatic life in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Cathy A; Lawrence, Gary S; Elphick, James R; Chapman, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    There are no national water-quality guidelines for strontium for the protection of freshwater aquatic life in North America or elsewhere. Available data on the acute and chronic toxicity of strontium to freshwater aquatic life were compiled and reviewed. Acute toxicity was reported to occur at concentrations ranging from 75 mg/L to 15 000 mg/L. The majority of chronic effects occurred at concentrations above 11 mg/L; however, calculation of a representative benchmark was confounded by results from 4 studies indicating that chronic effects occurred at lower concentrations than all other studies, in 2 cases below background concentrations reported for US and European streams. Two of these studies, including 1 reporting effects below background concentrations, were repeated and found not to be reproducible; chronic effects occurred at considerably higher strontium concentrations than in the original studies. Studies with narrow-mouthed toad and goldfish were not repeated; both studies reported chronic effects below background concentrations, and both studies had been conducted by the authors of 1 of the 2 studies that were repeated and shown to be nonreproducible. Studies by these authors (3 of the 4 confounding studies), conducted over 30 yr ago, lacked detail in reporting of methods and results. It is thus likely that repeating the toad and goldfish studies would also have resulted in a higher strontium effects concentration. A strontium chronic effects benchmark of 10.7 mg/L that incorporates the results of additional testing summarized in the present study is proposed for freshwater environments. © 2014 SETAC.

  16. Crafting socialist embryology: dialectics, aquaculture and the diverging discipline in Maoist China, 1950-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijing

    2017-11-07

    In the 1950s, embryology in socialist China underwent a series of changes that adjusted the disciplinary apparatus to suit socialism and the national goal of self-reliance. As the Communist state called on scientists to learn from the Soviets, embryologists' comprehensive view on heredity, which did not contradict Trofim Lysenko (1898-1976)'s doctrines, provided a space for them to advance their discipline. Leading scientists, often trained abroad in the tradition of experimental embryology, rode on the tides of Maoist ideology and repositioned their research. Some of their creative realignment of previous research questions, materials, and traditions to Marxist philosophy and agricultural objectives generated productive programs. In particular, Tong Dizhou (1902-1979) translated Engels's dialectics of nature into a research question about cytoplasmic inheritance. His continuing investigation on it led to the first goldfish "clone" through a nuclear transplantation experiment; Zhu Xi and his associates transferred a goldfish model in embryology into studies on improving carp aquaculture, leading to a rare success in the Great Leap Forward of 1958. These directions for embryology continued well into the 1960s. At a time when global embryology was diversifying and began to be molecularized, eventually forming "developmental biology," socialist embryology took shape in China with a different set of epistemic and practical commitments. The history of its development challenges and enriches our understanding of the concrete process of change in one discipline under Mao, showing ways in which scientists creatively adapted state-sanctioned ideologies and visions to do productive work outside the framework of molecular biology during the Cold War.

  17. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 suppresses food intake in the zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eNishiguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, of which several structural variants exist. A molecular form known as GnRH2 ([His5 Trp7 Tyr8]GnRH, also known as chicken GnRH II is widely distributed in vertebrates except for rodents, and has recently been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior in goldfish. However, the influence of GnRH2 on feeding behavior in other fish has not yet been studied. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the role of GnRH2 in the regulation of feeding behavior in a zebrafish model, and examined its involvement in food intake after intracerebroventricular (ICV administration. ICV injection of GnRH2 at 0.1 and 1 pmol/g body weight (BW induced a marked decrease of food consumption in a dose-dependent manner during 30 min after feeding. Cumulative food intake was significantly decreased by ICV injection of GnRH2 at 1 pmol/g BW during the 30-min post-treatment observation period. The anorexigenic action of GnRH2 was completely blocked by treatment with the GnRH type I receptor antagonist Antide at 50 pmol/g BW. We also examined the effect of feeding condition on the expression level of the GnRH2 transcript in the hypothalamus. Levels of GnRH2 mRNA obtained from fish that had been provided excess food for 7 days were higher than those in fish that had been fed normally. These results suggest that, in zebrafish, GnRH2 acts as an anorexigenic factor, as is the case in goldfish.

  18. Lumiestrone is photochemically derived from estrone and may be released to the environment without detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vance L Trudeau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals are adversely affecting the reproductive health and metabolic status of aquatic vertebrates. Estrone is often the dominant natural estrogen in urban sewage, yet little is known about its environmental fate and biological effects. Increased use of UV-B radiation for effluent treatments, and exposure of effluents to sunlight in holding ponds led us to examine the effects of environmentally relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the photodegradation potential of estrone. Surprisingly, UV-B mediated degradation leads to the photoproduction of lumiestrone, a little known 13α-epimer form of estrone. We show for the first time that lumiestrone possesses novel biological activity. In vivo treatment with estrone stimulated estrogen receptor (ER α mRNA production in the male goldfish liver, whereas lumiestrone was without effect, suggesting a total loss of estrogenicity. In contrast, results from in vitro estrogen receptor-dependent reporter gene assays indicate that lumiestrone showed relatively higher estrogenic potency with the zebrafish ERβ2 than zfERα, suggesting that it may act through an ERβ-selectivity. Lumiestrone also activated human ERs. Microarray analysis of male goldfish liver following in vivo treatments showed that lumiestrone respectively up- and down-regulated 20 and 69 mRNAs, which was indicative of metabolic upsets and endocrine activities. As a photodegradation product from a common estrogen of both human and farm animal origin, lumiestrone is present in sewage effluent, is produced from estrone upon exposure to natural sunlight and should be considered as a new environmental contaminant.

  19. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

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    Seyedeh F. Afzali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  20. Isolation and characterisation of mRNA encoding the salmon- and chicken-II type gonadotrophin-releasing hormones in the teleost fish Rutilus rutilus (Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penlington, M C; Williams, M A; Sumpter, J P; Rand-Weaver, M; Hoole, D; Arme, C

    1997-12-01

    The complementary DNAs (cDNA) encoding the [Trp7,Leu8]-gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (salmon-type GnRH; sGnRH:GeneBank accession no. u60667) and the [His5,Trp7,Tyr8]-GnRH (chicken-II-type GnRH; cGnRH-II: GeneBank accession no. u60668) precursor in the roach (Rutilus rutilus) were isolated and sequenced following reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs consisted of 439 and 628 bp, and included open reading frames of 282 and 255 bp respectively. The structures of the encoded peptides were the same as GnRHs previously identified in other vertebrates. The sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs, including the non-coding regions, had 88.6 and 79.9% identity respectively, to those identified in goldfish (Carassius auratus). However, significant similarity was not observed between the non-coding regions of the GnRH cDNAs of Cyprinidae and other fish. The presumed third exon, encoding partial sGnRH associated peptide (GAP) of roach, demonstrated significant nucleotide and amino acid similarity with the appropriate regions in the goldfish, but not with other species, and this may indicate functional differences of GAP between different families of fish. cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs from roach had relatively high nucleotide similarity across this GnRH variant. Cladistic analysis classified the sGnRH and cGnRH-II precursor cDNAs into three and two groups respectively. However, the divergence between nucleotide sequences within the sGnRH variant was greater than those encoding the cGnRH-II precursors. Consistent with the consensus developed from previous studies, Northern blot analysis demonstrated that expression of sGnRH and cGnRH-II was restricted to the olfactory bulbs and midbrain of roach respectively. This work forms the basis for further study on the mechanisms by which the tapeworm, Ligula intestinalis, interacts with the pituitary-gonadal axis of its fish host.

  1. Enzymatic complex in diets for gold fish fingerlings (Carassius auratusComplexo enzimático na dieta de alevinos de kinguio (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcângelo Augusto Signor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the enzymatic complex supplementation in diets for goldfish fingerlings (Carassius auratus, 240 fish weighing initially 1,36 ± 0,02g, randomly distributed in 20 tanks with 150L, in four treatments and five replications, with twelve fish in each experimental unit were used. The fish were fed at 8:00 and 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 and 5:00 p.m. with diets containing different inclusion levels (0; 0,033; 0,066 e 0,099% of enzymatic complex (amilase, protease, celulase, lipase, ?-glucanase and phytase, and formulated with 32,36% of digestible protein and 3.023kcal of digestible energy kg-1. There were no differences observed (P>0,05 in the mean final weight, weight gain, total length, standard length, survival and carcass composition. However, the fish apparent feed conversion was impaired by the supplementation of enzymatic complex with 0,099% in diet. The use of enzymatic complex does not provides benefits in the productive performance for goldfish fingerlings. Objetivando avaliar a suplementação de complexo enzimático em dietas de alevinos de kinguios (Carassius auratus, foram utilizados 240 peixes com peso inicial de 1,36 ± 0,02g, distribuídos aleatoriamente, em 20 tanques de 150L, em quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, com 12 peixes em cada unidade experimental. Os peixes foram arraçoados as 8h, 11h, 14h e 17h, com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de inclusão (0; 0,033; 0,066 e 0,099% de complexo enzimático (amilase, protease, celulase, lipase, b-glucanase e fitase, e formuladas para conter 32,36% de proteína digestível e 3.023kcal de energia digestível kg-1. Não foram observadas diferenças no peso final, ganho de peso, comprimento total, comprimento padrão, sobrevivência e composição de carcaça. No entanto, a conversão alimentar aparente dos peixes alimentados com rações contendo 0,099% do complexo enzimático foi inferior em relação aos alimentados com as demais dietas. Conclui-se que a utiliza

  2. How well are you teaching one of the most important biological concepts for humankind? A call to action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Scott A.; Fife, Deanna A.; Bonar, John S.

    2016-01-01

    We represent several generations of biology educators – with teaching experiences beginning in the 1940s and continuing to the present, from elementary school to graduate-level programs. We find the vast array of subjects that biology teachers can now cover both thrilling and mind-boggling. Depending on the grade level, units exist that focus on neurobiology, forensics, DNA analysis, biotechnology, marine biology, and a host of other topics.Although science teachers cover a potpourri of advanced topics, we must ask ourselves – no matter our biology-teaching responsibilities – how well we are teaching carrying capacity, one of the most fundamental biological concepts for our society, knowledge of which becomes more important every day. As biology teachers, most of you know that carrying capacity is defined as the maximum population an environment can sustain, given the amounts of food, habitat, and other resources available. Every environment – from your goldfish bowl to the local forest to planet Earth – can only sustain a set number (weight) of a particular species, based on available resources and space. Currently, most science classes teach …

  3. Methyltestosterone-induced changes in electro-olfactogram responses and courtship behaviors of cyprinids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Pachkowski, Melanie D; Stacey, Norm E

    2010-01-01

    In the tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii; family Cyprinidae), we previously found that increased olfactory sensitivity to a female prostaglandin pheromone could induce sexual behavior display in juvenile fish treated with androgens. Here, we determined if this phenomenon is widespread among cyprinid fishes by adding 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) to aquaria containing juveniles of 4 cyprinid species (tinfoil barbs; redtail sharkminnows, Epalzeorhynchos bicolor; goldfish, Carassius auratus; zebrafish, Danio rerio) and then using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings and behavioral assays to determine if androgen treatment enhances pheromone detection and male sex behaviors. In all 4 cyprinids, MT treatment increased the magnitudes and sensitivities of EOG response to prostaglandins and, consistent with our initial study on tinfoil barbs, did not affect EOG responses to the free and conjugated steroid to which each species is most sensitive. In zebrafish, EOG responses to prostaglandins were similar in MT-treated juveniles and adult males, whereas responses of control (ethanol exposed) fish were similar to those of adult females. Finally, as previously observed in tinfoil barbs, MT treatment of juvenile redtail sharkminnows increased courtship behaviors (nuzzling and quivering) with a stimulus fish. We conclude that androgen-induced increase in olfactory responsiveness to pheromonal prostaglandins is common among the family Cyprinidae. This phenomenon will help us unravel the development of sexually dimorphic olfactory-mediated behavior.

  4. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Villada, Carlos; Donoso, Yezid

    2016-03-25

    Communications from remote areas that may be of interest is still a problem. Many innovative projects applied to remote sites face communications difficulties. The GOLDFISH project was an EU-funded project for river pollution monitoring in developing countries. It had several sensor clusters, with floating WiFi antennas, deployed along a downstream river's course. Sensor clusters sent messages to a Gateway installed on the riverbank. This gateway sent the messages, through a backhaul technology, to an Internet server where data was aggregated over a map. The communication challenge in this scenario was produced by the antennas' movement and network backhaul availability. Since the antennas were floating on the river, communications could be disrupted at any time. Also, 2G/3G availability near the river was not constant. For non-real-time applications, we propose a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN)-based solution where all nodes have persistent storage capabilities and DTN protocols to be able to wait minutes or hours to transmit. A mechanical backhaul will periodically visit the river bank where the gateway is installed and it will automatically collect sensor data to be carried to an Internet-covered spot. The proposed forwarding protocol delivers around 98% of the messages for this scenario, performing better than other well-known DTN routing protocols.

  5. Is vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7) associated with an increased incidence of hip fracture? An explanation for the calcium paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Suzuki, Nobuo; Kitamura, Kei-Ichiro; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Itomura, Miho; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2016-06-01

    High calcium intake may increase hip fracture (HF) incidence. This phenomenon, known as the calcium paradox, might be explained by vaccenic acid (18:1t n-7, VA), the highly specific trans fatty acid (TFA) present in dairy products. First, we ecologically investigated the relationship between 18:1 TFA intake and HF incidence using data from 12 to 13 European countries collected before 2000; then we measured the effects of VA and elaidic acid (18:1t n-9, EA) on osteoblasts from goldfish scales (tissues very similar to mammalian bone), with alkaline phosphatase as a marker; and finally we measured the effect of VA on mRNA expression in the scales for the major bone proteins type I collagen and osteocalcin. HF incidence was significantly correlated with 18:1 TFA intake in men (r=0.57) and women (r=0.65). Incubation with 1μmol/L VA and EA for 48h significantly decreased alkaline phosphatase activity by 25% and 21%, respectively. Incubation of scales with 10μmol/L VA for 48h significantly decreased mRNA expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin (by about 50%). In conclusion, VA may be causatively related to HF and could explain the calcium paradox. It may be prudent to reduce 18:1 TFA intake, irrespective of trans positions, to prevent HF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two different gene loci related to the spatial patterning of brain ventricle in vertebrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Minna; LI Bingxia; TONG Ying; ZHAO Shufang; LUO Chen

    2007-01-01

    Observations on living embryonic brains and the microstructure of brain ventricle of goldfish revealed that there are two brain ventricle phenotypes in gynogenetic haploid embryos. One phenotype is as normal as that of the control inbreeding diploid embryos,which has normal differentiated forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Another phenotype is obviously abnormal, the brain patterning is irregular, and no distinct brain ventricle can be observed. The ratio of haploid embryos with normal brain pattern to that with abnormal brain pattern is 1:3. This ratio indicates that there are two gene loci involved in the spatial patterning of the brain ventricle. Since the possibility that deleterious recessive mutant alleles exist on both of the two gene loci had been excluded in this experiment, the phenotype represented the expressional state rather than the genotype of these two genes. Therefore, the ratio of 1∶ 3 suggests that the expressing probability for each copy of the two genes is 50%, and the regulatory mechanism of the expression is based on two sets of chromosomes, controlled by the rule of the diploid-dependent regulatory mechanism.

  7. Self-organized criticality and color vision: A guide to water-protein landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2013-02-01

    We focus here on the scaling properties of small interspecies differences between red cone opsin transmembrane proteins, using a hydropathic elastic roughening tool previously applied to the rhodopsin rod transmembrane proteins. This tool is based on a non-Euclidean hydropathic metric realistically rooted in the atomic coordinates of 5526 protein segments, which thereby encapsulates universal non-Euclidean long-range differential geometrical features of water films enveloping globular proteins in the Protein Data Bank. Whereas the rhodopsin blue rod water films are smoothest in humans, the red cone opsins’ water films are optimized for smoothness in cats and elephants, consistent with protein species landscapes that evolve differently in different contexts. We also analyze red cone opsins in the chromatophore-containing family of chameleons, snakes, zebrafish and goldfish, where short- and long-range (BLAST and hydropathic) amino acid (aa) correlations are found with values as large as 97%-99%. We use hydropathic aa optimization to estimate the maximum number Nmax of color shades that the human eye can discriminate, and obtain 106

  8. Total mercury and mercury species in birds and fish in an aquatic ecosystem in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houserova, Pavlina; Kuban, Vlastimil; Kracmar, Stanislav; Sitko, Jilji

    2007-01-01

    Total mercury and mercury species (methylmercury-MeHg, inorganic mercury - Hg 2+ ) were determined in the aquatic ecosystem Zahlinice (Czech Republic). Four tissues (muscle, intestines, liver and kidney) of three bird species - cormorant, great crested grebe and Eurasian buzzard, muscle tissues of common carp, grass carp, northern pike, goldfish, common tench, perch and rudd, aquatic plants (reed mace and common reed), sediments and water were analysed. Relative contents of MeHg (of total Hg) were in the range from 71% to 94% and from 15% up to 62% in the muscle and intestines and in liver, respectively, for all birds. Statistically significant differences were found between contents of MeHg in liver tissues of young and adult cormorant populations (F 4.6 = 56.71, P -5 ). Relative contents of MeHg in muscle tissues of fishes were in the range from 65.1% to 87.9% of total Hg. - The distribution of the mercury species among the organs of the individual birds is discussed

  9. Total mercury and mercury species in birds and fish in an aquatic ecosystem in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houserova, Pavlina [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuban, Vlastimil [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: kuban@mendelu.cz; Kracmar, Stanislav [Department of Animal Nutrition, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Sitko, Jilji [Commenius Museum, Moravian Ornithological Station, Horni nam. 1, Prerov CZ-751 52 (Czech Republic)

    2007-01-15

    Total mercury and mercury species (methylmercury-MeHg, inorganic mercury - Hg{sup 2+}) were determined in the aquatic ecosystem Zahlinice (Czech Republic). Four tissues (muscle, intestines, liver and kidney) of three bird species - cormorant, great crested grebe and Eurasian buzzard, muscle tissues of common carp, grass carp, northern pike, goldfish, common tench, perch and rudd, aquatic plants (reed mace and common reed), sediments and water were analysed. Relative contents of MeHg (of total Hg) were in the range from 71% to 94% and from 15% up to 62% in the muscle and intestines and in liver, respectively, for all birds. Statistically significant differences were found between contents of MeHg in liver tissues of young and adult cormorant populations (F {sub 4.6} = 56.71, P < 10{sup -5}). Relative contents of MeHg in muscle tissues of fishes were in the range from 65.1% to 87.9% of total Hg. - The distribution of the mercury species among the organs of the individual birds is discussed.

  10. Optimal foraging of little egrets and their prey in a foraging game in a patchy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M W; Abramsky, Z; Kotler, B P; Rosenzweig, M L; Alteshtein, O; Vasserman, G

    2013-03-01

    We explored the behavioral game between a predator, the little egret (Egretta garzetta), and a prey, the common goldfish (Carassius auratus), in a laboratory theater containing three fish pools. We tested the hypotheses that the egrets maximize their total capture success by responding to the fish's antipredatory behavior and that the behaviors of both players respond adaptively to the density distribution of fish among the pools. One experiment presented egrets with 15 fish per pool. The second experiment used a heterogeneous environment: pools 1, 2, and 3 had 10, 15, and 20 fish, respectively. Within each pool, fish could move between a safe, covered microhabitat and a risky, open microhabitat. Only the risky habitat had food, so fish were trading off food and safety by allocating the time spent in the two habitats. Egrets spent more total time in pools with more fish and returned to them sooner. Egrets maximized the number of fish they captured by following the matching rule of the ideal free distribution. The fish used the risky but productive habitat 65% of the time during experiments without egrets, but only 9% during experiments with 15 fish and egrets present somewhere in the theater. In addition, with egrets present, fish fine-tuned their behavior by reducing their use of the risky habitat as the egrets increased the frequency of their visits.

  11. Radioecological studies of 137Cs in limnological ecosystems. Biochemical states of 137Cs accumulated in killifish (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio.

    1997-01-01

    Biochemical states of 137 Cs accumulated in killifish's (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, examined in our preceding report. Most of 137 Cs radioactivity in the killifish's raw meat accumulated this radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater, were found in the non-protein nitrogenous compound (NPNC) fraction (>92%), also in the killifish's control raw meat mixed with 137 Cs, the difference between both meat samples was not clear. As the results of gel filtration profiles on Sephadex G-25 for the NPNC fraction of these meats, each only one radioactive peak was shown, also similar to 137 CsCl solution. Moreover, these peaks appeared at the same position. On the other hand, the peak positions absorbed at OD 280nm in the samples were different from those of each radioactive peak. It was so suggested that 137 Cs accumulated in the killifish's meat was shown not to be binding to protein's composition. Furthermore, as the results on thin-layer chromatography, ion-exchange resin chromatography and reaction with 137 Cs in samples and ammonium phosphomolybdate, 137 Cs in the NPNC fraction of the killifish's meat was not almost different from those of each control and 137 CsCl solution. (author)

  12. Biological effects of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this project is to study the thermal effects on proliferation activity in the intestinal epithelium of the goldfish acclimated at different temperatures (stationary state). The cell division occurs only at certain phases of the circadian cycle when the proliferative activity is synchronized or trained by an environmental factor such as light-dark cycle. Another aspect of the project is the study of the biological effects, non-stochastic, on cell kinetics in animals chronically exposed to low dose rates or tritium and gamma rays from 60 CO, used as a standard radiation. The influence on the accumulated dose per cell and cycle cell in function of the duration of the cell cycle at different acclimation temperatures should be considered. To calculate the risk of tritium contamination from nuclear power plants (radiation exposure), the organic tissue-bond is of decisive importance due to the long turnover of the organic tissue-bond in organisms favouring transport of tritium to other organisms of the ecosystem and to man. (author)

  13. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  14. Molecular evolution of myoglobin in the Tibetan Plateau endemic schizothoracine fish (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) and tissue-specific expression changes under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Delin; Chao, Yan; Zhao, Yongli; Xia, Mingzhe; Wu, Rongrong

    2018-04-01

    Myoglobin (Mb) is an oxygen-binding hemoprotein that was once thought to be exclusively expressed in oxidative myocytes of skeletal and cardiac muscle where it serves in oxygen storage and facilitates intracellular oxygen diffusion. In this study, we cloned the coding sequence of the Mb gene from four species, representing three groups, of the schizothoracine fish endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), then conducted molecular evolution analyses. We also investigated tissue expression patterns of Mb and the expression response to moderate and severe hypoxia at the mRNA and protein levels in a representative of the highly specialized schizothoracine fish species, Schizopygopsis pylzovi. Molecular evolution analyses showed that Mb from the highly specialized schizothoracine fish have undergone positive selection and one positively selected residue (81L) was identified, which is located in the F helix, close to or in contact with the heme. We present tentative evidence that the Mb duplication event occurred in the ancestor of the schizothoracine and Cyprininae fish (common carp and goldfish), and that the Mb2 paralog was subsequently lost in the schizothoracine fish. In S. pylzovi, Mb mRNA is expressed in various tissues with the exception of the intestine and gill, but all such tissues, including the liver, muscle, kidney, brain, eye, and skin, expressed very low levels of Mb mRNA (Tibetan Plateau fish.

  15. How does the presence of a conspecific individual change the behavioral game that a predator plays with its prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Reut; Abramsky, Zvika; Kotler, Burt P; Altstein, Ofir; Rosenzweig, Michael L

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral games predators play among themselves may have profound effects on behavioral games predators play with their prey. We studied the behavioral game between predators and prey within the framework of social foraging among predators. We tested how conspecific interactions among predators (little egret) change the predator-prey behavioral game and foraging success. To do so, we examined foraging behavior of egrets alone and in pairs (male and female) in a specially designed aviary consisting of three equally spaced pools with identical initial prey (comet goldfish) densities. Each pool was comprised of a risky microhabitat, rich with food, and a safe microhabitat with no food, forcing the fish to trade off food and safety. When faced with two versus one egret, we found that fish significantly reduced activity in the risky habitat. Egrets in pairs suffered reduced foraging success (negative intraspecific density dependence) and responded to fish behavior and to their conspecific by changing their visiting regime at the different pools-having shorter, more frequent visits. The time egret spent on each visit allowed them to match their long-term capture success rate across the environment to their capture success rate in the pool, which satisfies one aspect of optimality. Overall, egrets in pairs allocated more time for foraging and changed their foraging tactics to focus more on fish under cover and fish 'peeping' out from their shelter. These results suggest that both prey and predator show behavioral flexibility and can adjust to changing conditions as needed in this foraging game.

  16. An emerging role for gasotransmitters in the control of breathing and ionic regulation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Steve; Kumai, Y; Porteus, C S; Tzaneva, V; Kwong, R W M

    2016-02-01

    Three gases comprising nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide, collectively are termed gasotransmitters. The gasotransmitters control several physiological functions in fish by acting as intracellular signaling molecules. Hydrogen sulphide, first implicated in vasomotor control in fish, plays a critical role in oxygen chemoreception owing to its production and downstream effects within the oxygen chemosensory cells, the neuroepithelial cells. Indeed, there is emerging evidence that hydrogen sulphide may contribute to oxygen sensing in both fish and mammals by promoting membrane depolarization of the chemosensory cells. Unlike hydrogen sulphide which stimulates breathing in zebrafish, carbon monoxide inhibits ventilation in goldfish and zebrafish whereas nitric oxide stimulates breathing in zebrafish larvae while inhibiting breathing in adults. Gasotransmitters also modulate ionic uptake in zebrafish. Though nothing is known about the role of CO, reduced activities of branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and H(+)-ATPase activities in the presence of NO donors suggest an inhibitory role of NO in fish osmoregulation. Hydrogen sulphide inhibits Na(+) uptake in zebrafish larvae and contributes to lowering Na(+) uptake capacity in fish acclimated to Na(+)-enriched water whereas it stimulates Ca(2+) uptake in larvae exposed to Ca(2+)-poor water.

  17. Novel pentapeptide, PALAL, derived from a bony fish elicits contraction of the muscle in starfish Patiria pectinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Hye-Jin; Kim, Chan-Hee; Oh, Hye Young; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-10-01

    A bioactive peptide mimicking peptide-signaling molecules has been isolated from the skin extract of fish Channa argus which caused contraction of the apical muscle of a starfish Patiria pectinifera, a deuterostomian invertebrate. The primary structure of the isolated pentapeptide comprises amino acid sequence of H-Pro-Ala-Leu-Ala-Leu-OH (PALAL) with a molecular mass of 483.7 Da. Pharmacological activity of PALAL, dosage ranging from 10 -9 to 10 -5 M, revealed concentration-dependent contraction of the apical muscles of P. pectinifera and Asterias amurensis. However, PALAL was not active on the intestinal smooth muscle of the goldfish Carassius auratus and has presumably other physiological roles in fish skin. Investigation of structure-activity relationship using truncated and substituted analogs of PALAL demonstrated that H-Ala-Leu-Ala-Leu-OH was necessary and should be sufficient to constrict apical muscle of P. pectinifera. Furthermore, the second alanine residue was required to display the activity, and the fifth leucine residue was responsible for its potency. Comparison with PALAL's primary structure with those of other known bioactive peptides from fish and starfish revealed that PALAL does not have any significant homology. Consequently, PALAL is a bioactive peptide that elicits a muscle contraction in starfish, and the isolation of PALAL may lead to develop other bioactive peptides sharing its similar sequence and/or activity. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A description of the nearshore fish communities in the Huron-Erie Corridor using multiple gear types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, James T.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Thomas, Mike V.; Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a critical habitat for many fish species throughout their life cycles. Once home to one of the largest wetland complexes in the Great Lakes, coastal wetlands in the Huron–Erie Corridor (HEC) have decreased dramatically since the early 1900s. We characterized the nearshore fish communities at three different wetland complexes in the HEC using electrofishing, seines, and fyke nets. Species richness was highest in the Detroit River (63), followed by the St. Clair Delta (56), and Western Lake Erie (47). The nearshore fish communities in the Detroit River and St. Clair Delta consisted primarily of shiners, bluntnose minnow, centrarchids, and brook silverside, while the Western Lake Erie sites consisted of high proportions of non-native taxa including common carp, gizzard shad, goldfish, and white perch. Species richness estimates using individual-based rarefaction curves were higher when using electrofishing data compared to fyke nets or seine hauls at each wetland. Twelve fish species were captured exclusively during electrofishing assessments, while one species was captured exclusively in fyke nets, and none exclusively during seine hauls. Western Lake Erie wetlands were more indicative of degraded systems with lower species richness, lower proportion of turbidity intolerant species, and increased abundance of non-native taxa. This work highlights the importance of coastal wetlands in the HEC by capturing 69 different fish species utilizing these wetlands to fulfill life history requirements and provides insight when selecting gears to sample nearshore littoral areas.

  19. Loss of photoreactivation in UV-irradiated cultured fish cells under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Y.; Kator, K.; Egami, N.

    1982-01-01

    CAF-MM1 cells derived from a goldfish have photoreactivability for the damage induced by ultraviolet light. When UV-irradiated cells were incubated in the dark at 26 0 C, the longest interval in which photoreactivation (PR) was observed, measured by colony formation technique, was about 30h after the UV irradiation. However, if the cells were incubated at 20 0 C, the effective time was prolonged. Since each time appeared to correspond to the doubling time of the cells at each temperature, the loss of photoreactivability is suggested to be closely related to cell growth or progression of cell cycle. The loss of PR was not observed in the cells held in confluence up to 48h after UV irradiation. Photoreactivating enzyme in growing CAF-MM1 cells incubated in the dark for 24h after UV irradiation was shown to be active, so that it is not possible that the cause of the loss of PR is change in the activity of photoreactivating enzyme. (author)

  20. PROSPEK USAHA PEMBENIHAN IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio L PADA UNIT PEMBENIH RAKYAT (UPR DI KELURAHAN MENTAOS KECAMATAN BANJARBARU UTARA KOTA BANJARBARU PROPINSI KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Puspitasari

    2016-06-01

    The  research  show the  profit  achieved  in  the  seeding  gold  fish  (Cyprinus carpio, L business in Mentaos Village is by average Rp.13.754.922,00/year, Break Even Point (BEP by minimum selling price is Rp.86,94 per head and producing by minimum of 200.701 head year.  Based on the feasibility of the business it is found that R/C Ratio of the fish hatchery operations in a single  season production is 2,17(R/C>1, mean while Payback Period (PP is 0,244 year or 2 month 29 days, the demand of goldfish (Cyprinus carpio L is bigger than the supply (D>S,  it means the production still cannot fulfil the market demand and the marketing channels which allows the fish farmers to sell their  product directly to the last consumer which become  the most efficiency way

  1. Piracetam and fish orientation during parabolic aircraft flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R. B.; Salinas, G. A.; Homick, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Goldfish were flown in parabolic Keplerian trajectories in a KC-135 aircraft to assay both the effectiveness of piracetam as an antimotion sickness drug and the effectiveness of state-dependent training during periods of oscillating gravity levels. Single-frame analyses of infrared films were performed for two classes of responses - role rates in hypogravity or hypogravity orienting responses (LGR) and climbing responses in hypergravity or hypergravity orienting responses (HGR). In Experiment I, preflight training with the vestibular stressor facilitated suppression of LGR by the 10th parabola. An inverse correlation was found between the magnitudes of LGR and HGR. Piracetam was not effective in a state-dependent design, but the drug did significantly increase HGR when injected into trained fish shortly before flight. In Experiment II, injections of saline, piracetam, and modifiers of gamma-aminobutyric acid - aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and isonicotinic acid did not modify LGR. AOAA did significantly increase HGR. Thus, the preflight training has a beneficial effect in reducing disorientation in the fish in weightlessness, but the drugs employed were ineffective.

  2. The evolution of the cognitive map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lucia F

    2003-01-01

    The hippocampal formation of mammals and birds mediates spatial orientation behaviors consistent with a map-like representation, which allows the navigator to construct a new route across unfamiliar terrain. This cognitive map thus appears to underlie long-distance navigation. Its mediation by the hippocampal formation and its presence in birds and mammals suggests that at least one function of the ancestral medial pallium was spatial navigation. Recent studies of the goldfish and certain reptile species have shown that the medial pallium homologue in these species can also play an important role in spatial orientation. It is not yet clear, however, whether one type of cognitive map is found in these groups or indeed in all vertebrates. To answer this question, we need a more precise definition of the map. The recently proposed parallel map theory of hippocampal function provides a new perspective on this question, by unpacking the mammalian cognitive map into two dissociable mapping processes, mediated by different hippocampal subfields. If the cognitive map of non-mammals is constructed in a similar manner, the parallel map theory may facilitate the analysis of homologies, both in behavior and in the function of medial pallium subareas. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Koi herpesvirus represents a third cyprinid herpesvirus (CyHV-3) in the family Herpesviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltzek, Thomas B; Kelley, Garry O; Stone, David M; Way, Keith; Hanson, Larry; Fukuda, Hideo; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Davison, Andrew J; Hedrick, Ronald P

    2005-06-01

    The sequences of four complete genes were analysed in order to determine the relatedness of koi herpesvirus (KHV) to three fish viruses in the family Herpesviridae: carp pox herpesvirus (Cyprinid herpesvirus 1, CyHV-1), haematopoietic necrosis herpesvirus of goldfish (Cyprinid herpesvirus 2, CyHV-2) and channel catfish virus (Ictalurid herpesvirus 1, IcHV-1). The genes were predicted to encode a helicase, an intercapsomeric triplex protein, the DNA polymerase and the major capsid protein. The results showed that KHV is related closely to CyHV-1 and CyHV-2, and that the three cyprinid viruses are related, albeit more distantly, to IcHV-1. Twelve KHV isolates from four diverse geographical areas yielded identical sequences for a region of the DNA polymerase gene. These findings, with previously published morphological and biological data, indicate that KHV should join the group of related lower-vertebrate viruses in the family Herpesviridae under the formal designation Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).

  4. Molecular characterisation and prevalence of a new genotype of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijuan; Luo, Yangzhi; Gao, Zexia; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Xianghai; Nie, Huihui; Zhang, Junmei; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa

    2015-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2, species Cyprinid herpesvirus 2) has been confirmed as a causative agent of the acute haematopoietic necrosis disease outbreak in farmed goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch). In this study, we present the genomic characteristics of a variant CyHV-2 strain (SY-C1) isolated from farmed gibel carp in mainland China and its comparative genomics analysis with the CyHV-2 reference strain ST-J1. Overall, the full-length genome of SY-C1 shares 98.8% homology with that of ST-J1. Sequence comparisons between SY-C1 and ST-J1 indicate that the variations include single-nucleotide mutations, insertions, deletions, and rearrangements, which suggested that SY-C1 is different from ST-J1 and represents a new genotype. Therefore, we propose that the identified CyHV-2 can be divided into 2 different genotypes and be named China genotype (C genotype) and Japan genotype (J genotype) according to their isolation loci. Furthermore, epidemiological surveys indicate that the dominant genotype of CyHV-2 circulating in mainland China is closer to the China genotype than the Japan genotype.

  5. Cloning of zebrafish activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) cDNA and mRNA expression of ActRIIB in embryos and adult tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R R; Bally-Cuif, L; Lee, S E; Gong, Z; Ni, X; Hew, C L; Peng, C

    1999-07-20

    A full-length cDNA encoding for activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB) was cloned from zebrafish embryos. It encodes a protein with 509 amino acids consisting of a signal peptide, an extracellular ligand binding domain, a single transmembrane region, and an intracellular kinase domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. The extracellular domain shows 74-91% sequence identity to human, bovine, mouse, rat, chicken, Xenopus and goldfish activin type IIB receptors, while the transmembrane region and the kinase domain show 67-78% and 82-88% identity to these known activin IIB receptors, respectively. In adult zebrafish, ActRIIB mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in the gonads, as well as in non-reproductive tissues, including the brain, heart and muscle. In situ hybridization on ovarian sections further localized ActRIIB mRNA to cytoplasm of oocytes at different stages of development. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization, ActRIIB mRNA was found to be expressed at all stages of embryogenesis examined, including the sphere, shield, tail bud, and 6-7 somite. These results provide the first evidence that ActRIIB mRNA is widely distributed in fish embryonic and adult tissues. Cloning of zebrafish ActRIIB demonstrates that this receptor is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution and provides a basis for further studies on the role of activin in reproduction and development in lower vertebrates.

  6. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velásquez-Villada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Communications from remote areas that may be of interest is still a problem. Many innovative projects applied to remote sites face communications difficulties. The GOLDFISH project was an EU-funded project for river pollution monitoring in developing countries. It had several sensor clusters, with floating WiFi antennas, deployed along a downstream river’s course. Sensor clusters sent messages to a Gateway installed on the riverbank. This gateway sent the messages, through a backhaul technology, to an Internet server where data was aggregated over a map. The communication challenge in this scenario was produced by the antennas’ movement and network backhaul availability. Since the antennas were floating on the river, communications could be disrupted at any time. Also, 2G/3G availability near the river was not constant. For non-real-time applications, we propose a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN-based solution where all nodes have persistent storage capabilities and DTN protocols to be able to wait minutes or hours to transmit. A mechanical backhaul will periodically visit the river bank where the gateway is installed and it will automatically collect sensor data to be carried to an Internet-covered spot. The proposed forwarding protocol delivers around 98% of the messages for this scenario, performing better than other well-known DTN routing protocols.

  7. Tumor necrosis factor alpha of teleosts: in silico characterization and homology modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngoc Tuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- is known to be crucial in many biological activities of organisms. In this study, physicochemical properties and modeling of TNF- protein of fish was analyzed using in silico approach. TNF- proteins selected from fish species, including grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, zebra fish (Danio rerio, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, goldfish (Carassius auratus, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were used in this study. Physicochemical characteristics with molecular weight, theoretical isoelectric point, extinction coefficient, aliphatic index, instability index, total number of negatively charged residues and positively charged residues, and grand average of hydropathicity were computed. All proteins were classified as transmembrane proteins. The “transmembrane region” and “TNF” domain were identified from protein sequences. The function prediction of proteins was also performed. Alpha helices and random coils were dominating in the secondary structure of the proteins. Three-dimensional structures were predicted and verified as good structures for the investigation of TNF- of fish by online server validation.

  8. Prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus Metacercariae in Ornamental Fish from Chiang Mai, Thailand, with Molecular Approach Using ITS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlop, Atcharaphan; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Prattapong, Pongphol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Chontananarth, Thapana; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae was investigated in ornamental fish purchased from a pet shop in Chiang Mai, Thailand, including Carassius auratus (goldfish), Cyprinus carpio (Koi), Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin Molly), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), and Puntigrus tetrazona (Tiger barb). The parasite species was identified by the morphology of worms as well as by a molecular approach using ITS2. The results showed that 50 (33.3%) of 150 fish examined were infected with the metacercariae. The highest prevalence was found in C. auratus (83.3%), and the highest intensity was noted in C. carpio (70.8 metacercariae/fish). The most important morphological character was the presence of 32-34 circumoral spines on the oral sucker. The phylogenetic studies using the rRNA ITS2 region revealed that all the specimens of C. formosanus in this study were grouped together with C. formosanus in GenBank database. This is the first report on ornamental fish, C. carpio, P. latipinna, D. rerio, and P. tetrazona, taking the role of second intermediate hosts of C. formosanus in Thailand. Prevention and control of metacercarial infection in ornamental fish is urgently needed.

  9. Evaluation of autoradiographs and images of biological objects with the electronically operating image analyzer 'Densitron II'. II. Determination of the specific and total radioactivity of single cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, J; Korn, U; Freyer, K; Ermisch, A [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biowissenschaften; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1976-01-01

    Using the TV image analyzer Densitron, transparencies and areas can be measured by the grey value discrimination method equidensitometry. The time, necessary for one measurement, is approximately 1 min, the standard deviations do not exceed 2%. Microscopical objects such as single cells can be analyzed by this method. Photo-blackings and areas have been measured in autoradiographs of goldfish brain-sections after injection of /sup 3/H-phenylalanine. As a parallel, blacking and area calibration curves were obtained which allowed a conversion of the relative values into absolute ones. Using this conversion method, neurons of different brain regions were in the range from 104 to 1476..mu..m/sup 2/ in area and from 4.17 to 14.43..mu..Ci . cm/sup -3/ in specific radioactivity. The standard deviations of the absolute values were 6 and 4.5%, respectively. On the basis of these and additional values (thickness of section, number of sections per cell), calculations of the total radioactivity of a cell section or the whole cell can be made.

  10. Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, A P; Obiekezie, A; Kloas, W; Knopf, K

    2004-03-01

    The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with M. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with C. papaya extract. There was a 90% reduction in numbers of I. multifiliis on fish after treatment in baths of each plant extract at 200 mg l(-1 )compared to untreated controls. Consequently, parasite-induced fish mortality was reduced significantly. A complete interruption of trophont recruitment was achieved by immersion in the M. pruriens extract. In vitro tests led to a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in 150 mg/l M. pruriens extract, and in 200 mg/l of C. papaya extract after 6 h. Although the active constituents of the medicinal plant extracts are still unknown, we have demonstrated that they have potential for effective control of I. multifiliis.

  11. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  12. Histopathological changes induced by malathion in the gills of bluegill Lepomis macrochirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmonds, C.; Dutta, H.M. (Kent State Univ., OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Malathion is a widely used broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide. Its wide use provides many occasions for its entry into aquatic environments. The presence of this chemical in the aquatic environment would adversely affect many non-target species like fish. About 50 to 90% of the absorbed malathion can be eliminated in one to three days by the fish. About 25% of malathion remained in river water after 2 wk, and 10% remained after 4 wk from the time of its entry. Respiratory distress is one of the early symptoms of pesticide poisoning. These toxicants appear to cause a loss of adhesion between the epithelial cells and the underlying pillar cell system, accompanied by a collapse of the structural integrity of the secondary lamellae. Gills are important in respiration as well as osmoregulation of the fish. Therefore it was decided to study the effects of malathion on the gills of bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Bluegills were selected for this study due to the following reasons: (1) Bluegills are more sensitive to malathion when compared to fathead minnows and goldfish. (2) They are important both as edible and game fish. (3) They are easily available and easy to maintain in the laboratory.

  13. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) are associated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage in fish cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, James F.; Davies, Simon J.; Dodd, Nicholas J.F.; Jha, Awadhesh N.

    2008-01-01

    TiO 2 nanoparticles ( 2 nanoparticles on goldfish skin cells (GFSk-S1), either alone or in combination with UVA. Whilst neutral red retention (NRR) assay (a measure of lysosomal membrane integrity) was used to evaluate cell viability, a modified Comet assay using bacterial lesion-specific repair endonucleases (Endo-III, Fpg) was employed to specifically target oxidative DNA damage. Additionally, electron spin resonance (ESR) studies with different spin traps were carried out for qualitative analysis of free radical generation. For cell viability, TiO 2 alone (0.1-1000 μg ml -1 ) had little effect whereas co-exposure with UVA (0.5-2.0 kJ m -2 ) caused a significant dose-dependent decrease which was dependent on both the concentration of TiO 2 and the dose of UVA administered. For the Comet assay, doses of 1, 10 and 100 μg ml -1 in the absence of UVA caused elevated levels of Fpg-sensitive sites, indicating the oxidation of purine DNA bases (i.e. guanine) by TiO 2 . UVA irradiation of TiO 2 -treated cells caused further increases in DNA damage. ESR studies revealed that the observed toxic effects of nanoparticulate TiO 2 were most likely due to hydroxyl radical (·OH) formation

  14. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet light-induced damage in cultured fish cells as revealed by increased colony forming ability and decreased content of pyrimidine dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, A.; Ikenaga, M.; Egami, N.

    1981-01-01

    Cultured cells derived from a goldfish were irradiated with 254 nm ultraviolet light. Cell survival and splitting of pyrimidine dimers after photoreactivation treatment with white fluorescent lamps were examined by colony forming ability and by a direct dimer assay, respectively. When UV-irradiated (5 J/m 2 ) cells were illuminated by photoreactivating light, cell survival was enhanced up to a factor of 9(40 min) followed by a decline after prolonged exposures. Exposure of UV-irradiated (15 J/m 2 ) cells to radiation from white fluorescent lamps reduced the amounts of thymine-containing dimers in a photoreactivating fluence dependent manner, up to about 60% reduction at 120 min exposure. Keeping UV-irradiated cells in the dark for up to 120 min did not affect either cell survival or the amount of pyrimidine dimers in DNA, indicating that there were not detectable levels of a dark-repair system in the cells under our conditions. Correlation between photoreactivation of colony forming ability and photoreactivation of the pyrimidine dimers was demonstrated, at least at relatively low fluences of photoreactivating light. (author)

  15. Enhancement of photorepair of ultraviolet-damage by preillumination with fluorescent light in cultured fish cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuhira, Shinji; Mitani, Hiroshi; Shima, Akihiro (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1991-02-01

    Fluorescent light (FL) illumination of RBCF-1 cells derived from a goldfish, prior to 254 nm UV-irradiation enhanced their ability to photorepair. Cells were illuminated with FL for 1 h (29 W/m{sup 2}) and incubated for 8 h in the dark before being irradiated with 10 J/m{sup 2} UV. The surviving fraction of FL-treated cells after UV-irradiation rose about 7-fold (from 3 to 20%) by 20 min photorepair treatment with the same FL source, and 4-fold (from 1.6 to 6%) in the FL non-treated cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that FL treatment did not affect the distribution of cell cycle phase at the time of UV-irradiation (8 h after FL treatment). Pyrimidine dimers induced by UV were measured by the use of UV endonuclease of micrococcus luteus and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis. Initial yields of dimers after exposure to 10 J/m{sup 2} UV were almost the same (about 0.11 dimer/kb) between FL treated and non-treated cells. After 20 min photorepair treatment, {similar to} 70% of dimers were removed in the FL treated samples, while < 20% were removed in the non FL-treated ones. (author).

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of Thymidin Kinase Gene Koi HerpesVirus (KHV in Some Freshwater Fish Aquaculture Centers in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Rianto Wahidi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Koi Herpesvirus ( KHV is a virus that infects goldfish and koi that resulted in mass death and cause economic and social losses. The use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique to detect KHV was done  in nila and gurame. Proof that KHV could infect nila and gurame KHV following genetic variation in each definitive host and spreading area have not been done. Based on these problems, this research was conducted to study the genetic variability and genetic relationships between KHV isolates in some freshwater fish as the definitive host koi, komet , koki, nila and gurame that exist in the area of East Java. The results showed that clinically the gills were pale and hemorrage the end of the tail fin. Electrophoresis results showed that all samples from  KHV infected  koi, koki, komet, nila and gurame  were all  positive but the sequencing results for tilapia and carp could not be further identified using the BLAST program. Genetically,  koi fish, koki and komet isolates were identical to GenBank isolates code KHV-GZ11 and Indo_0K02SS.

  17. Fungal Infections in Some Economically Important Freshwater Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal*, Uzma Sheikh and Rabia Mughal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate fungal infections in four species of carps including goldfish, Carassius (C. auratus L.; silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys (H. molitrix Richardsons; rahu, Labeo (L. rohita Hamilton and Ctenopharyngodon (C. idella Valenciennes. Nine specimens of each species were studied for the presence of fungal infections. Infected fishes showed clinical signs such as fungal growth on skin, fins, eyes, eroded fins and scales, hemorrhages on body surface and abdominal distension. The specimens from infected organs of fish were inoculated on each, malt extract, Sabouraud dextrose and potato dextrose agars. The fungal colonies of white, black, green, grey and brown colors were observed in the agar plates. Slides were prepared and stained with 0.05% Trypan blue in lactophenol. C. auratus showed the highest infection rate (44.4% followed by H. molitrix and L. rohita (11.1% each. Five fungal species viz. Aspergillus (33.3%, Penicillium (22.2%, Alternaria (27.7%, Blastomyces spp (11.1% and Rhizopus (5.5% were isolated. Posterior part of the fish had significantly (P=0.05 higher (62.5% infection as compared to anterior part (37.5%. The caudal fin with 31.25% infection was the single most affected area. This study showed that most of the fungi isolated from fishes are considered as normal mycoflora, yet many fungi can cause natural infections in ponds and aquarium.

  18. Effect of fish on water quality and nutrients cycle from an outdoor pond experiment; Sakana no suishitsu, busshitsu junkan ni oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, T.; Matsushige, K.; Aizaki, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Park, J.; Goma, R. [Tokyo University of Fisheries, Tokyo (Japan); Kong, D. [Korea National Institute of Environmental Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-11-10

    The influences of fish (goldfish) on water quality and nutrients cycle (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) were investigated during 39 days in the summer of 1993, using six outdoor experimental ponds (36 m{sup 3}) with the same water residence times and nutrient inputs. Blue-been algae dominated the ponds with fish. Compared with ponds without fish, the ponds with high densities of fish had standing stocks of zooplankton and macrozoobenthos nearly one order of magnitude lower, about twice the concentrations of chlorophyll a and twice the rate of primary production. Settling rates of particulate substances in the high density ponds were nearly half those observed in ponds with no fish. The processes of sedimentation and exchange with air played important roles in the nutrient budgets as well as the in- and outflows and the changes in nutrient standing stocks. The high concentrations of chlorophyll a in the fish ponds were attributed in part to the lower zooplankton grazing pressure and in part to the higher nutrient concentrations due to lower settling rates and rapid nutrient recycling between biomass and dissolved components. 28 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Occurrence of parasites of the genus Eustrongylides spp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae in fish caught in Trasimeno lake, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Eustrongylides spp. is considered a freshwater fish zoonotic nematode. In the present study, the prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. in six edible fish (European perch - Perca fluviatilis, goldfish - Carassius auratus, largemouth black bass - Micropterus salmoides, tench- Tinca tinca, carp - Cyprinus carpio and sand smelt - Atherina boyeri of Trasimeno lake was surveyed. The investigations were conducted from October 2014 to September 2015 and 384 specimens per species for each season were caught in Trasimeno lake and examined for the presence of larvae in the abdominal cavity and muscle. The presence of nematodes in the abdominal cavity and musculature was revealed in three fish species. The prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. infection was 6.84, 1.89 and 0.13% in perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt, respectively. The number of parasites per fish was only one in largemouth black bass and sand smelt and ranged from one up to three in perch. This study states that the European perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt of Trasimeno lake are infected with zoonotic parasites; therefore, food business operators have to take appropriate measures to guarantee the health of consumers.

  20. The scope and structure of the production and catch of fish in Serbia in the period from 2006. to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish represents a significant source of animal proteins in the diet of people in a large part of the world. The market in Serbia is supplied from its own production (carp and trout fish ponds and catch from open waters. However, the largest part of the fish on the market is imported. Average area under carp fish ponds from 2006. to 2012. was 8,417 hektars, and under trout fish ponds was 49,900 square meters. Average annual production of carp fish species in this period was 7,228 tons, and of trout was 923 tons. In open waters of Serbia, the catch (from both professional and sport fishing is averagely 3,745 tons of fish. The biggest catch of fish in open waters refers to goldfish, then carp and bream, while lower catch refers to white bighead. The objective of this investigation was to determine the scope and structure of fish catch and production in Serbia from 2006. to 2012. The data on fish catch and production were taken from Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31011

  1. Evaluation of erythrocyte delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase activity as a short-term indicator in fish of a harmful exposure to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P.V.; Blunt, B.R.; Spry, D.J.; Austen, K.

    1977-04-01

    The activity of erythrocyte delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) of fish is easily measured under a variety of experimental conditions. Exposure of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and pumpkinseeds (Lepomis gibbosus) to lead consistently inhibited ALA-D within 2 wks at concentrations as low as 10, 90, 470, and 90 ..mu..g/l, respectively. In rainbow and brook trout these concentrations were closely related to the published minimum effective concentrations causing sublethal harm. There was a significant linear relationship between ALA-D activity and log of blood lead concentration, between ALA-D activity and log of lead in water, and between blood lead and lead in water. Near lethal exposures to cadmium, copper, zinc, and mercury did not significantly inhibit ALA-D activity. Recovery of ALA-D activity of rainbow trout after transfer from 120 ..mu..g/l lead to clean water occurred in 8 wk. This enzyme provides fast, consistent, specific, and sensitive estimates of lead concentrations causing sublethal harm to fish and may help to relate sources of lead to degree of exposure of fish populations in the field.

  2. Role of pH on the acute toxicity of sulfite in water. [Carassius auratus; Leistes reticulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.

    1976-01-01

    The toxicity of sulfite to fish decreases with increasing pH value, because the HSO/sub 3//sup -/ ion is more toxic than the SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion. An effective sulfite concentration S/sub eff/ which is proportional to the toxicity on fish is expressed by the following equation: S/sub eff/ = (HSO/sub 3//sup -/) + f(SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/), where f is a coefficient which expresses the change of toxicity of sulfite depending on the pH of the water, and varies for each species of fish. For goldfish, owing to the very small toxic contribution of SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion (f = 0.07), the pH dependence of the toxicity of sulfite on pH was so strong that sulfite seemed almost non-toxic in basic solution. However, f for guppy is somewhat larger (f = 0.20) so that the toxicity of sulfite weakly depends on the pH value of water.

  3. Potensi Fitoplankton sebagai Sumber Daya Pakan pada Pemeliharaan Larva Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio di BBPBAT Sukabumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Widiana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main problem encountered in producing larvae  is the larvae  that got low due to high mortality. One attempt to overcome this problem is the use of phytoplankton as natural feed. The purpose of this study is to determine phytoplankton community structure and potential as a resource phytoplankton feed on larval rearing carp. The research was conducted in April 2012. The results showed that the phytoplankton found in the larval rearing pond goldfish are Class Bacillariophyceae (1 genera, Chlorophyceae (13 genera, and Cyanophyceae (7 genera. Phytoplankton Chlorophyceae group is a group that has the highest abundance of larval rearing carp pond. Diversity index of phytoplankton in pond carp larvae ranged from 0.65 to 1.64 (Low Diversity. Based on the preponderance index carp larvae utilize phytoplankton as natural feed by selecting the class Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceaea in early growth until the time nursery a preponderance index value respectively 87.76% and 12.23%.

  4. p53 dependent apoptotic cell death induces embryonic malformation in Carassius auratus under chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Banerjee Sawant

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD, leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD, ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05 embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos.

  5. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Martins

    Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  6. Loss of photoreactivation in UV-irradiated cultured fish cells under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mano, Y.; Kator, K.; Egami, N. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1982-05-01

    CAF-MM1 cells derived from a goldfish have photoreactivability for the damage induced by ultraviolet light. When UV-irradiated cells were incubated in the dark at 26/sup 0/C, the longest interval in which photoreactivation (PR) was observed, measured by colony formation technique, was about 30h after the UV irradiation. However, if the cells were incubated at 20/sup 0/C, the effective time was prolonged. Since each time appeared to correspond to the doubling time of the cells at each temperature, the loss of photoreactivability is suggested to be closely related to cell growth or progression of cell cycle. The loss of PR was not observed in the cells held in confluence up to 48h after UV irradiation. Photoreactivating enzyme in growing CAF-MM1 cells incubated in the dark for 24h after UV irradiation was shown to be active, so that it is not possible that the cause of the loss of PR is change in the activity of photoreactivating enzyme.

  7. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet light-induced damage in cultured fish cells as revealed by increased colony forming ability and decreased content of pyrimidine dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, A. (Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)); Ikenaga, M. (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Nikaido, O.; Takebe, H. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Egami, N. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-03-01

    Cultured cells derived from a goldfish were irradiated with 254 nm ultraviolet light. Cell survival and splitting of pyrimidine dimers after photoreactivation treatment with white fluorescent lamps were examined by colony forming ability and by a direct dimer assay, respectively. When UV-irradiated (5 J/m/sup 2/) cells were illuminated by photoreactivating light, cell survival was enhanced up to a factor of 9(40 min) followed by a decline after prolonged exposures. Exposure of UV-irradiated (15 J/m/sup 2/) cells to radiation from white fluorescent lamps reduced the amounts of thymine-containing dimers in a photoreactivating fluence dependent manner, up to about 60% reduction at 120 min exposure. Keeping UV-irradiated cells in the dark for up to 120 min did not affect either cell survival or the amount of pyrimidine dimers in DNA, indicating that there were not detectable levels of a dark-repair system in the cells under our conditions. Correlation between photoreactivation of colony forming ability and photoreactivation of the pyrimidine dimers was demonstrated, at least at relatively low fluences of photoreactivating light.

  8. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. Biochemical states of {sup 137}Cs accumulated in killifish (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Institute of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1997-07-01

    Biochemical states of {sup 137}Cs accumulated in killifish`s (Medaka, Oryzias latipes) meat were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, examined in our preceding report. Most of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in the killifish`s raw meat accumulated this radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater, were found in the non-protein nitrogenous compound (NPNC) fraction (>92%), also in the killifish`s control raw meat mixed with {sup 137}Cs, the difference between both meat samples was not clear. As the results of gel filtration profiles on Sephadex G-25 for the NPNC fraction of these meats, each only one radioactive peak was shown, also similar to {sup 137}CsCl solution. Moreover, these peaks appeared at the same position. On the other hand, the peak positions absorbed at OD{sub 280nm} in the samples were different from those of each radioactive peak. It was so suggested that {sup 137}Cs accumulated in the killifish`s meat was shown not to be binding to protein`s composition. Furthermore, as the results on thin-layer chromatography, ion-exchange resin chromatography and reaction with {sup 137}Cs in samples and ammonium phosphomolybdate, {sup 137}Cs in the NPNC fraction of the killifish`s meat was not almost different from those of each control and {sup 137}CsCl solution. (author)

  9. Comparative analysis of vertebrate EIF2AK2 (PKR genes and assignment of the equine gene to ECA15q24–q25 and the bovine gene to BTA11q12–q15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharkikh Andrey A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The structures of the canine, rabbit, bovine and equine EIF2AK2 genes were determined. Each of these genes has a 5' non-coding exon as well as 15 coding exons. All of the canine, bovine and equine EIF2AK2 introns have consensus donor and acceptor splice sites. In the equine EIF2AK2 gene, a unique single nucleotide polymorphism that encoded a Tyr329Cys substitution was detected. Regulatory elements predicted in the promoter region were conserved in ungulates, primates, rodents, Afrotheria (elephant and Insectifora (shrew. Western clawed frog and fugu EIF2AK2 gene sequences were detected in the USCS Genome Browser and compared to those of other vertebrate EIF2AK2 genes. A comparison of EIF2AK2 protein domains in vertebrates indicates that the kinase catalytic domains were evolutionarily more conserved than the nucleic acid-binding motifs. Nucleotide substitution rates were uniform among the vertebrate sequences with the exception of the zebrafish and goldfish EIF2AK2 genes, which showed substitution rates about 20% higher than those of other vertebrates. FISH was used to physically assign the horse and cattle genes to chromosome locations, ECA15q24–q25 and BTA11q12–15, respectively. Comparative mapping data confirmed conservation of synteny between ungulates, humans and rodents.

  10. Highly effective photonic cue for repulsive axonal guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J Black

    Full Text Available In vivo nerve repair requires not only the ability to regenerate damaged axons, but most importantly, the ability to guide developing or regenerating axons along paths that will result in functional connections. Furthermore, basic studies in neuroscience and neuro-electronic interface design require the ability to construct in vitro neural circuitry. Both these applications require the development of a noninvasive, highly effective tool for axonal growth-cone guidance. To date, a myriad of technologies have been introduced based on chemical, electrical, mechanical, and hybrid approaches (such as electro-chemical, optofluidic flow and photo-chemical methods. These methods are either lacking in desired spatial and temporal selectivity or require the introduction of invasive external factors. Within the last fifteen years however, several attractive guidance cues have been developed using purely light based cues to achieve axonal guidance. Here, we report a novel, purely optical repulsive guidance technique that uses low power, near infrared light, and demonstrates the guidance of primary goldfish retinal ganglion cell axons through turns of up to 120 degrees and over distances of ∼90 µm.

  11. Building blocks of temporal filters in retinal synapses.

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    Bongsoo Suh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensory systems must be able to extract features of a stimulus to detect and represent properties of the world. Because sensory signals are constantly changing, a critical aspect of this transformation relates to the timing of signals and the ability to filter those signals to select dynamic properties, such as visual motion. At first assessment, one might think that the primary biophysical properties that construct a temporal filter would be dynamic mechanisms such as molecular concentration or membrane electrical properties. However, in the current issue of PLOS Biology, Baden et al. identify a mechanism of temporal filtering in the zebrafish and goldfish retina that is not dynamic but is in fact a structural building block-the physical size of a synapse itself. The authors observe that small, bipolar cell synaptic terminals are fast and highly adaptive, whereas large ones are slower and adapt less. Using a computational model, they conclude that the volume of the synaptic terminal influences the calcium concentration and the number of available vesicles. These results indicate that the size of the presynaptic terminal is an independent control for the dynamics of a synapse and may reveal aspects of synaptic function that can be inferred from anatomical structure.

  12. Performance of Very Small Robotic Fish Equipped with CMOS Camera

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    Yang Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Underwater robots are often used to investigate marine animals. Ideally, such robots should be in the shape of fish so that they can easily go unnoticed by aquatic animals. In addition, lacking a screw propeller, a robotic fish would be less likely to become entangled in algae and other plants. However, although such robots have been developed, their swimming speed is significantly lower than that of real fish. Since to carry out a survey of actual fish a robotic fish would be required to follow them, it is necessary to improve the performance of the propulsion system. In the present study, a small robotic fish (SAPPA was manufactured and its propulsive performance was evaluated. SAPPA was developed to swim in bodies of freshwater such as rivers, and was equipped with a small CMOS camera with a wide-angle lens in order to photograph live fish. The maximum swimming speed of the robot was determined to be 111 mm/s, and its turning radius was 125 mm. Its power consumption was as low as 1.82 W. During trials, SAPPA succeeded in recognizing a goldfish and capturing an image of it using its CMOS camera.

  13. The origin and migration of primordial germ cells in sturgeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiju Saito

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs arise elsewhere in the embryo and migrate into developing gonadal ridges during embryonic development. In several model animals, formation and migration patterns of PGCs have been studied, and it is known that these patterns vary. Sturgeons (genus Acipenser have great potential for comparative and evolutionary studies of development. Sturgeons belong to the super class Actinoptergii, and their developmental pattern is similar to that of amphibians, although their phylogenetic position is an out-group to teleost fishes. Here, we reveal an injection technique for sturgeon eggs allowing visualization of germplasm and PGCs. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the PGCs are generated at the vegetal pole of the egg and they migrate on the yolky cell mass toward the gonadal ridge. We also provide evidence showing that PGCs are specified by inheritance of maternally supplied germplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the migratory mechanism is well-conserved between sturgeon and other remotely related teleosts, such as goldfish, by a single PGCs transplantation (SPT assay. The mode of PGCs specification in sturgeon is similar to that of anurans, but the migration pattern resembles that of teleosts.

  14. MEMPELAJARI FISIOLOGI PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DENGAN TEHNIK RADIOISOTOP (Study in the Physiology of Environment Pollution Using Radiotracer Method

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    Razak Achmad Hamzah

    2011-11-01

    . Comparison of malathion concentration  in tissues of fish fed with contaminated water plants (Hydrilla verticillata with tissues of fish fed with Water spinach  (the first aquarium filled with water + Hydrilla verticillata + 30 tails of goldfish + radioisotope 14C Malathion ; second aquarium filled with water + Water spinach + 30 tails of goldfish + 14C malathion radioisotope.  3. Comparison of malathion absorption size in tissues of   rats  fed with contaminated water plants (Water spinach  with in tissues of   rats  fed with  tissues of fish. (Part of contaminated fish tissues and Water spinach were  pseudo wet ashing for  4 hours and then given to 30 mice respective. Malathion levels were then analyzed by using Liquid Scintillation Counter (Liquid scintillation Spectrometer, LSC-753 (Aloka. The result of all treatments was compared using the Student t-test. The results showed that: 1. Hydrilla verticillata was more efficient compared to the Water hyacinth and Water spinach in absorbing the insecticide malathion residues in water.  2.Malathion concentration in the tissues of fish fed Hydrilla verticillata was higher than the tissue of fish fed Water spinach.  3.Mammals (mice who consumed contaminated meat will have concentrate Malathion in their bodies more than the rats that ate vegetables (water spinach contaminated

  15. A stochastic locomotor control model for the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, K B; Matis, J H; Kleerekoper, H

    1978-06-12

    The locomotor behavior of the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) is characterized by 17 variables (frequency and ratios of left, right, and total turns; their radians; straight paths (steps); distance travelled; and velocity) Within each of these variables there is an internal time dependency the structure of which was elaborated together with an improved statistical model predicting their behavior within 90% confidence limits. The model allows for the sensitive detection of subtle locomotor response to sensory stimulation as values of variables may exceed the established confidence limits within minutes after onset of the stimulus. The locomotor activity is well described by an autoregression time series model and can be predicted by only seven variables. Six of these form two independently operating clusters. The first one consists of: the number of right turns, the distance travelled and the mean velocity; the second one of: the mean size of right turns, of left turns, and of all turns. The same clustering is obtained independently by a cluster analysis of cross-sections of the seven time series. It is apparent that, among a total of 17 locomotor variables, seven behave as individually independent agents, presumably controlled by seven separate and independent centers. The output of each center can only be predicted by its own behavior. In spite of the individual of the seven variables, their internal structure is similar in important aspects which may result from control by a common command center. The shark locomotor model differs in important aspects from the previously constructed for the goldfish. The interdependence of the locomotor variables in both species may be related to the control mechanisms postulated by von Holst for the coordination of rhythmic fin movements in fishes. A locomotor control model for the nurse shark is proposed.

  16. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations

  17. RIP2 Is a Critical Regulator for NLRs Signaling and MHC Antigen Presentation but Not for MAPK and PI3K/Akt Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao Man; Chen, Wen Qin; Hu, Yi Wei; Cao, Lu; Nie, Pin; Chang, Ming Xian

    2018-01-01

    RIP2 is an adaptor protein which is essential for the activation of NF-κB and NOD1- and NOD2-dependent signaling. Although NOD-RIP2 axis conservatively existed in the teleost, the function of RIP2 was only reported in zebrafish, goldfish, and rainbow trout in vitro . Very little is known about the role and mechanisms of piscine NOD-RIP2 axis in vivo . Our previous study showed the protective role of zebrafish NOD1 in larval survival through CD44a-mediated activation of PI3K-Akt signaling. In this study, we examined whether RIP2 was required for larval survival with or without pathogen infection, and determined the signaling pathways modulated by RIP2. Based on our previous report and the present study, our data demonstrated that NOD1-RIP2 axis was important for larval survival in the early ontogenesis. Similar to NOD1, RIP2 deficiency significantly affected immune system processes. The significantly enriched pathways were mainly involved in immune system, such as "Antigen processing and presentation" and "NOD-like receptor signaling pathway" and so on. Furthermore, both transcriptome analysis and qRT-PCR revealed that RIP2 was a critical regulator for expression of NLRs (NOD-like receptors) and those genes involved in MHC antigen presentation. Different from NOD1, the present study showed that NOD1, but not RIP2 deficiency significantly impaired protein levels of MAPK pathways. Although RIP2 deficiency also significantly impaired the expression of CD44a, the downstream signaling of CD44a-Lck-PI3K-Akt pathway remained unchanged. Collectively, our works highlight the similarity and discrepancy of NOD1 and RIP2 in the regulation of immune signaling pathways in the zebrafish early ontogenesis, and confirm the crucial role of RIP2 in NLRs signaling and MHC antigen presentation, but not for MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  18. The use of environmental DNA in invasive species surveillance of the Great Lakes commercial bait trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Lucas R; Jerde, Christopher L; Budny, Michelle L; Mahon, Andrew R

    2015-04-01

    Over 180 non-native species have been introduced in the Laurentian Great Lakes region, many posing threats to native species and ecosystem functioning. One potential pathway for introductions is the commercial bait trade; unknowing or unconcerned anglers commonly release unused bait into aquatic systems. Previous surveillance efforts of this pathway relied on visual inspection of bait stocks in retail shops, which can be time and cost prohibitive and requires a trained individual that can rapidly and accurately identify cryptic species. Environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance, a molecular tool that has been used for surveillance in aquatic environments, can be used to efficiently detect species at low abundances. We collected and analyzed 576 eDNA samples from 525 retail bait shops throughout the Laurentian Great Lake states. We used eDNA techniques to screen samples for multiple aquatic invasive species (AIS) that could be transported in the bait trade, including bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus), Eurasian rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Twenty-seven samples were positive for at least one target species (4.7% of samples), and all target species were found at least once, except bighead carp. Despite current regulations, the bait trade remains a potential pathway for invasive species introductions in the Great Lakes region. Alterations to existing management strategies regarding the collection, transportation, and use of live bait are warranted, including new and updated regulations, to prevent future introductions of invasive species in the Great Lakes via the bait trade. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Similar hormone-rich peptides from thyroglobulins of five vertebrate classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, P.S.; Dunn, J.T.; Kaiser, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Thyroglobulins (Tgs) were purified from five species (rat, chicken, turtle, frog, and goldfish), each representing a different vertebrate class. On reduction with mercaptoethanol, each Tg produced five major iodopeptides, designated A-E, with ranges of estimated molecular mass, in kilodaltons (K), as follows: A, more than 300K; B, 210-280K; C, 30-42K; D, 19-28K; and E, 10-23K. Of these, the two smallest, D and E, had 40-80% of their iodine as iodothyronine, compared with 15-20% for the parent Tgs. They contained 25-63% of Tg's total iodothyronines but only a few percent of its peptide material. Calculations from amino acid analyses and iodine contents showed approximately 1 mol each of D and E/mol 660,000 dalton Tg. In comparisons of amino acid compositions by cluster analysis, iodopeptides D and E resembled each other and their counterparts in other species more than they resembled their parent Tgs. Also, the Tgs from different species were more similar to each other and to iodopeptides D and E than to nonthyroidal proteins randomly selected from the literature. 125 was injected into rats and turtles, and compared its distribution among the iodopeptides to that of 127 I. These dual isotope experiments showed that as Tg was iodinated in vivo, iodopeptide B decreased both in molecular size and in its share of Tg's iodine, while the sum of iodopeptides D and E increased, indicating that B may be the precursor of D and E. In vivo iodination of rat Tg with 125 I for different periods of time suggested that iodopeptide E and its iodothyronines are derived from a larger portion of the Tg molecule, perhaps iodopeptide B. The amount of 125 I in iodopeptide D also increased with time

  20. Effectiveness of FISK, an invasiveness screening tool for non-native freshwater fishes, to perform risk identification assessments in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, David; Ribeiro, Filipe; Leunda, Pedro M; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Copp, Gordon H

    2013-08-01

    Risk assessments are crucial for identifying and mitigating impacts from biological invasions. The Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) is a risk identification (screening) tool for freshwater fishes consisting of two subject areas: biogeography/history and biology/ecology. According to the outcomes, species can be classified under particular risk categories. The aim of this study was to apply FISK to the Iberian Peninsula, a Mediterranean climate region highly important for freshwater fish conservation due to a high level of endemism. In total, 89 fish species were assessed by three independent assessors. Results from receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that FISK can discriminate reliably between noninvasive and invasive fishes for Iberia, with a threshold of 20.25, similar to those obtained in several regions around the world. Based on mean scores, no species was categorized as "low risk," 50 species as "medium risk," 17 as "moderately high risk," 11 as "high risk," and 11 as "very high risk." The highest scoring species was goldfish Carassius auratus. Mean certainty in response was above the category "mostly certain," ranging from tinfoil barb Barbonymus schwanenfeldii with the lowest certainty to eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki with the highest level. Pair-wise comparison showed significant differences between one assessor and the other two on mean certainty, with these two assessors showing a high coincidence rate for the species categorization. Overall, the results suggest that FISK is a useful and viable tool for assessing risks posed by non-native fish in the Iberian Peninsula and contributes to a "watch list" in this region. © 2013 Crown copyright This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  1. Soundscapes and the sense of hearing of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Richard

    2009-03-01

    Underwater soundscapes have probably played an important role in the adaptation of ears and auditory systems of fishes throughout evolutionary time, and for all species. These sounds probably contain important information about the environment and about most objects and events that confront the receiving fish so that appropriate behavior is possible. For example, the sounds from reefs appear to be used by at least some fishes for their orientation and migration. These sorts of environmental sounds should be considered much like "acoustic daylight," that continuously bathes all environments and contain information that all organisms can potentially use to form a sort of image of the environment. At present, however, we are generally ignorant of the nature of ambient sound fields impinging on fishes, and the adaptive value of processing these fields to resolve the multiple sources of sound. Our field has focused almost exclusively on the adaptive value of processing species-specific communication sounds, and has not considered the informational value of ambient "noise." Since all fishes can detect and process acoustic particle motion, including the directional characteristics of this motion, underwater sound fields are potentially more complex and information-rich than terrestrial acoustic environments. The capacities of one fish species (goldfish) to receive and make use of such sound source information have been demonstrated (sound source segregation and auditory scene analysis), and it is suggested that all vertebrate species have this capacity. A call is made to better understand underwater soundscapes, and the associated behaviors they determine in fishes. © 2009 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  2. Perceptions among university students in Seville (Spain of the rabbit as livestock and as a companion animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rabbit has various utilities and roles, mainly as a meat-producing animal, game species, companion animal, laboratory animal or pest. Among these roles, rabbit breeding for meat has traditionally prevailed in the Mediterranean countries. However, in recent decades the practice of keeping this species as a companion animal has been on the rise; a factor that could be changing public perception of the rabbit. A survey of 492 university students from Seville, Andalusia, Spain, was conducted to determine young people’s perceptions of the rabbit as livestock and as a companion species. The rabbit received the lowest score when regarded as livestock compared to the pig, cow, goat, sheep and hen. Regarding companion animals, young Spanish people preferred the dog and cat, respectively. The rabbit and the hamster were rated at the same level as a pet, while the budgerigar was rated lower than these two mammals by women and higher by men. The goldfish occupied the last position among the pet species in the women’s perceptions. With regard to the perception of various rabbit breeds and varieties when evaluated as pets, it was found that the pet Lop Dwarf, Netherland Dwarf, Angora and Lionhead breeds were rated higher than a typical meat breed (New Zealand White and than the wild rabbit. The gender of the young people surveyed influenced their perception of the rabbit. Women rated the rabbit lower as livestock while they rated it higher as a pet, also rating the pet rabbit breeds higher than men did. It is proposed that, in keeping with the rabbit’s attributes related to its cuteness, conceptually linked with pets, young Andalusian people’s perception of the rabbit is ambivalent and this perception might partly be shifting from perceiving it as livestock to regarding it as a pet.

  3. The thermal regime and species composition of fish and invertebrates in Kelly Warm Spring, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David; Farag, Aida

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the thermal regime and relative abundance of native and nonnative fish and invertebrates within Kelly Warm Spring and Savage Ditch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Water temperatures within the system remained relatively warm year-round with mean temperatures >20 °C near the spring source and >5 °C approximately 2 km downstream of the source. A total of 7 nonnative species were collected: Convict/Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum), Green Swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii), Tadpole Madtom (Noturus gyrinus), Guppy (Poecilia reticulata), Goldfish (Carassius auratus), red-rimmed melania snail (Melanoides tuberculata), and American bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus). Nonnative fish (Zebra Cichlids and Green Swordtails), red-rimmed melania snails, and bullfrog tadpoles dominated the upper 2 km of the system. Abundance estimates of the Zebra Cichlid exceeded 12,000 fish/km immediately downstream of the spring source. Relative abundance of native species increased movingdownstream as water temperatures attenuated with distance from the thermally warmed spring source; however, nonnative species were captured 4 km downstream from the spring. Fish diseases were prevalent in both native and nonnative fish from the Kelly Warm Spring pond. Clinostomum marginatum, a trematode parasite, was found in native species samples, and the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum was present in samples from nonnative species. Diphyllobothrium dendriticum is rare in Wyoming. Salmonella spp. were also found in some samples of nonnative species. These bacteria are associated with aquarium fish and aquaculture and are generally not found in the wild.

  4. Cobalt Chloride Treatment Used to Ablate the Lateral Line System Also Impairs the Olfactory System in Three Freshwater Fishes.

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    Julie M Butler

    Full Text Available Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection. Cobalt chloride is commonly used to chemically ablate lateral line neuromasts, thereby eliminating water-movement cues to test for mechanosensory-mediated behavioral functions. However, cobalt acts as a nonspecific calcium channel antagonist and could potentially disrupt function of all superficially located sensory receptor cells, including those for chemosensing. Here, we examined whether CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfaction in three freshwater fishes, the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, goldfish Carassius auratus, and the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. To examine the impact of CoCl2 on the activity of peripheral receptors, we quantified DASPEI fluorescence intensity of the olfactory epithelium from fish exposed to control and CoCl2 solutions. In addition, we examined brain activation in olfactory processing regions of A. burtoni immersed in either control or cobalt solutions. All three species exposed to CoCl2 had decreased DASPEI staining of the olfactory epithelium, and in A. burtoni, cobalt treatment caused reduced neural activation in olfactory processing regions of the brain. To our knowledge this is the first empirical evidence demonstrating that the same CoCl2 treatment used to ablate the lateral line system also impairs olfactory function. These data have important implications for the use of

  5. Appetite-Controlling Endocrine Systems in Teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Gomes, Ana S.; Murashita, Koji; Angotzi, Rita; Jönsson, Elisabeth; Volkoff, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian studies have shaped our understanding of the endocrine control of appetite and body weight in vertebrates and provided the basic vertebrate model that involves central (brain) and peripheral signaling pathways as well as environmental cues. The hypothalamus has a crucial function in the control of food intake, but other parts of the brain are also involved. The description of a range of key neuropeptides and hormones as well as more details of their specific roles in appetite control continues to be in progress. Endocrine signals are based on hormones that can be divided into two groups: those that induce (orexigenic), and those that inhibit (anorexigenic) appetite and food consumption. Peripheral signals originate in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, adipose tissue, and other tissues and reach the hypothalamus through both endocrine and neuroendocrine actions. While many mammalian-like endocrine appetite-controlling networks and mechanisms have been described for some key model teleosts, mainly zebrafish and goldfish, very little knowledge exists on these systems in fishes as a group. Fishes represent over 30,000 species, and there is a large variability in their ecological niches and habitats as well as life history adaptations, transitions between life stages and feeding behaviors. In the context of food intake and appetite control, common adaptations to extended periods of starvation or periods of abundant food availability are of particular interest. This review summarizes the recent findings on endocrine appetite-controlling systems in fish, highlights their impact on growth and survival, and discusses the perspectives in this research field to shed light on the intriguing adaptations that exist in fish and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:28458653

  6. Metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses in the freshwater fish Carassius auratus in response to single and combined exposure to cadmium and hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Liansheng

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • Cd and OH-MWCNTs have a synergistic effect on Carassius auratus. • OH-MWCNTs significantly increased Cd accumulation in liver after 12 d exposure. • Co-exposure to Cd and OH-MWCNTs evoked severe hepatic oxidative stress. - Abstract: The effects of cadmium, hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and their mixture on metal accumulation and antioxidant defenses were studied using the goldfish Carassius auratus as the test organism. The fish were exposed to 0.1 mg/L Cd, 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs, or 0.1 mg/L Cd + 0.5 mg/L OH-MWCNTs for 3 and 12 days. Then, the Cd concentration was determined in the gill, liver and muscle. Moreover, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase), glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were also measured. A continuous accumulation of Cd was observed throughout the experimental period. Cd accumulation in tissues occurred in the following order: gill > liver > muscle at 3 days and liver > gill > muscle at 12 days. The concentrations of Cd in the livers of fish exposed to the combination of Cd + OH-MWCNTs were significantly higher than those in fish exposed to either single chemical after 12 d of exposure. Meanwhile, the mixture evoked severe oxidative stress in the exposed fish, as indicated by significant inhibition of SOD, CAT and GPx activity, a remarkable decrease in GSH level, and simultaneous elevation of MDA content. These results suggested that the effect of the combined factors on metal accumulation and oxidative stress biomarkers was more obvious than that of single factors at longer exposure durations.

  7. Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  8. The effects of happiness and sadness on Children's snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2018-04-01

    Children appear to engage in emotional eating (i.e., eating in response to negative and positive emotions), but existing research has predominantly relied on parent-report and child-report, which may not necessarily reflect children's actual emotional eating behaviors. This study examined the effects of happiness and sadness on children's observed snack consumption and examined whether child characteristics (i.e., weight, gender, and age) interact with mood to predict snack consumption. To elicit mood, children (N = 91; M ages  = 6.8 years; 48 boys) were randomly assigned to one of the three mood induction conditions (happy, sad, or neutral); children's snack consumption was observed and measured after mood induction. Findings showed that children in the sad condition consumed more energy from chocolate, followed by children in the happy condition, and then the neutral condition. However, the reverse pattern was observed for goldfish crackers: children in the neutral condition consumed more energy from this savory snack than children in the happy condition, followed by children in sad condition. Child weight status and gender did not interact with mood to predict snack consumption. Child age did interact with mood: older children consumed more chocolates in the sad condition compared to younger children. Child age was not related to snack consumption in the happy and neutral conditions. This study suggests that emotional eating in response to positive and negative emotions is evident during early childhood, but that this is behavior is developing during this period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intramembrane cavitation as a unifying mechanism for ultrasound-induced bioeffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovitski, Boris; Frenkel, Victor; Shoham, Shy; Kimmel, Eitan

    2011-02-22

    The purpose of this study was to develop a unified model capable of explaining the mechanisms of interaction of ultrasound and biological tissue at both the diagnostic nonthermal, noncavitational (cavitational (>100 mW · cm(-2)) spatial peak temporal average intensity levels. The cellular-level model (termed "bilayer sonophore") combines the physics of bubble dynamics with cell biomechanics to determine the dynamic behavior of the two lipid bilayer membrane leaflets. The existence of such a unified model could potentially pave the way to a number of controlled ultrasound-assisted applications, including CNS modulation and blood-brain barrier permeabilization. The model predicts that the cellular membrane is intrinsically capable of absorbing mechanical energy from the ultrasound field and transforming it into expansions and contractions of the intramembrane space. It further predicts that the maximum area strain is proportional to the acoustic pressure amplitude and inversely proportional to the square root of the frequency (ε A,max ∝ P(A)(0.8f - 0.5) and is intensified by proximity to free surfaces, the presence of nearby microbubbles in free medium, and the flexibility of the surrounding tissue. Model predictions were experimentally supported using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of multilayered live-cell goldfish epidermis exposed in vivo to continuous wave (CW) ultrasound at cavitational (1 MHz) and noncavitational (3 MHz) conditions. Our results support the hypothesis that ultrasonically induced bilayer membrane motion, which does not require preexistence of air voids in the tissue, may account for a variety of bioeffects and could elucidate mechanisms of ultrasound interaction with biological tissue that are currently not fully understood.

  10. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Different Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Gan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmission in complex animals depends on a choir of functionally distinct synapses releasing neurotransmitters in a highly coordinated manner. During synaptic signaling, vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents. The rate of vesicle fusion is high and can exceed the rate at which synaptic vesicles can be re-supplied by distant sources. Thus, local compensatory endocytosis is needed to replenish the synaptic vesicle pools. Over the last four decades, various experimental methods and model systems have been used to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic vesicle cycle. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is thought to be the predominant mechanism for synaptic vesicle recycling. However, recent studies suggest significant contribution from other modes of endocytosis, including fast compensatory endocytosis, activity-dependent bulk endocytosis, ultrafast endocytosis, as well as kiss-and-run. Currently, it is not clear whether a universal model of vesicle recycling exist for all types of synapses. It is possible that each synapse type employs a particular mode of endocytosis. Alternatively, multiple modes of endocytosis operate at the same synapse, and the synapse toggles between different modes depending on its activity level. Here we compile review and research articles based on well-characterized model systems: frog neuromuscular junctions, C. elegans neuromuscular junctions, Drosophila neuromuscular junctions, lamprey reticulospinal giant axons, goldfish retinal ribbon synapses, the calyx of Held, and rodent hippocampal synapses. We will compare these systems in terms of their known modes and kinetics of synaptic vesicle endocytosis, as well as the underlying molecular machineries. We will also provide the future development of this field.

  11. Lake and sea populations of Mysis relicta (Crustacea, Mysida with different visual-pigment absorbance spectra use the same A1 chromophore.

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    Nikolai Belikov

    Full Text Available Glacial-relict species of the genus Mysis (opossum shrimps inhabiting both fresh-water lakes and brackish sea waters in northern Europe show a consistent lake/sea dichotomy in eye spectral sensitivity. The absorbance peak (λmax recorded by microspectrophotometry in isolated rhabdoms is invariably 20-30 nm red-shifted in "lake" compared with "sea" populations. The dichotomy holds across species, major opsin lineages and light environments. Chromophore exchange from A1 to A2 (retinal → 3,4-didehydroretinal is a well-known mechanism for red-shifting visual pigments depending on environmental conditions or stages of life history, present not only in fishes and amphibians, but in some crustaceans as well. We tested the hypothesis that the lake/sea dichotomy in Mysis is due to the use of different chromophores, focussing on two populations of M. relicta from, respectively, a Finnish lake and the Baltic Sea. They are genetically very similar, having been separated for less than 10 kyr, and their rhabdoms show a typical lake/sea difference in λmax (554 nm vs. 529 nm. Gene sequencing has revealed no differences translating into amino acid substitutions in the transmembrane parts of their opsins. We determined the chromophore identity (A1 or A2 in the eyes of these two populations by HPLC, using as standards pure chromophores A1 and A2 as well as extracts from bovine (A1 and goldfish (A2 retinas. We found that the visual-pigment chromophore in both populations is A1 exclusively. Thus the spectral difference between these two populations of M. relicta is not due to the use of different chromophores. We argue that this conclusion is likely to hold for all populations of M. relicta as well as its European sibling species.

  12. A general approach to transform a lake model for one radionuclide (radiocesium) to another (radiostrontium) and critical model tests using data for four Ural lakes contaminated by the fallout from the Kyshtym accident in 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakanson, Lars E-mail: lars.hakanson@natgeog.uu.se; Sazykina, Tatiana G.; Kryshev, Ivan I

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents results of a model test carried out within the framework of the COMETES project (EU). The aim of the work was to change the structure of the MOIRA lake model for radiocesium so that it can be applied more generally for, in principle, all types of radionuclides and heavy metals. This general lake model is used within the MOIRA decision support system (DSS; MOIRA and COMETES are acronyms for EU-projects). The model is based on a set of differential equations and a specific modelling structure. It incorporates all important fluxes to, from and within lakes in a general manner. Yet the model is driven by a minimum of variables accessible from standard maps and monitoring programs. The model can be separated into two parts, a general part with equations applicable for all types of water pollutants and a substance-specific part. This model has previously been validated for {sup 137}Cs from many lakes covering a wide domain and yielded excellent predictive power. The alterations discussed in this work are meant to be general and radiostrontium is used as a typical element. Radiostrontium is known to be more mobile than radiocesium and all abiotic parts of the model handling fixation and mobility have been altered. The new model for {sup 90}Sr has been critically tested using data from four lakes heavily contaminated with {sup 90}Sr from the Kyshtym accident in the Southern Urals, Russia, using empirical data from a period from 1958 to 1995 for {sup 90}Sr in fish (here goldfish), water and sediments.

  13. Hydroxyl radicals ({center_dot}OH) are associated with titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage in fish cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, James F.; Davies, Simon J.; Dodd, Nicholas J.F. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jha, Awadhesh N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.jha@plymouth.ac.uk

    2008-04-02

    TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (<100 nm diameter) have been reported to cause oxidative stress related effects, including inflammation, cytotoxicity and genomic instability, either alone or in the presence of UVA irradiation in mammalian studies. Despite the fact that the aquatic environment is often the ultimate recipient of all contaminants there is a paucity of data pertaining to the potential detrimental effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. Therefore, these investigations aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on goldfish skin cells (GFSk-S1), either alone or in combination with UVA. Whilst neutral red retention (NRR) assay (a measure of lysosomal membrane integrity) was used to evaluate cell viability, a modified Comet assay using bacterial lesion-specific repair endonucleases (Endo-III, Fpg) was employed to specifically target oxidative DNA damage. Additionally, electron spin resonance (ESR) studies with different spin traps were carried out for qualitative analysis of free radical generation. For cell viability, TiO{sub 2} alone (0.1-1000 {mu}g ml{sup -1}) had little effect whereas co-exposure with UVA (0.5-2.0 kJ m{sup -2}) caused a significant dose-dependent decrease which was dependent on both the concentration of TiO{sub 2} and the dose of UVA administered. For the Comet assay, doses of 1, 10 and 100 {mu}g ml{sup -1} in the absence of UVA caused elevated levels of Fpg-sensitive sites, indicating the oxidation of purine DNA bases (i.e. guanine) by TiO{sub 2}. UVA irradiation of TiO{sub 2}-treated cells caused further increases in DNA damage. ESR studies revealed that the observed toxic effects of nanoparticulate TiO{sub 2} were most likely due to hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) formation.

  14. The reasons for successful spreading of the fishes from the genus Carassius

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    Lukáš Kalous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishes of the genus Carassius are widespread throughout home Eurasia but also other continents (Kottelat and Feryhof, 2007. They represent important aquaculture fishes and include the world's most important pet fish, the goldfish (Rylková et al., 2010. On the other hand they are also the most successful invasive pests with a considerable ecological impact at many places (Ribeiro et al., 2015; Copp et al., 2005. High similarities in morphological taxa definitions and occurrence of species complexes have brought lot of confusion in their taxonomy, biogeography and introduction history (Kalous et al., 2012. We present a historical overview and outline past and present reasons that have led to their successful spreading. Our findings are based on phylogenetic, historical and social-economic data. Europe is inhabited by at least five mtDNA lineages of the genus Carassius, which correspond to four taxa and one undescribed species. In Europe there occur: Carassius carassius, feral populations of Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Carassius langsdorfii and Carassius sp.. C. auratus and C. langsdorfii are not native to Europe C. carassius is native to Eastern, Central and Northern Europe (Kalous et al., 2012. The populations of C. gibelio in Eastern and Central Europe should be considered a result of natural postglacial range expansion but the whole Europe was also colonized by introduced Carassius biotypes of various genome combinations from East Asia in the 20th century (Rylková et al., 2013. The spreading of non-native fishes of the genus Carassius has been caused mainly by human activities comprising pet trade, aquaculture and recreational fisheries (Kalous et al., 2013; Kalous et al., 2015.

  15. PEMBERIAN TOTAL FENOL TERIPANG PASIR (Holothuria scabra UNTUK MENINGKATKAN LEUKOSIT DAN DIFERENSIAL LEUKOSIT IKAN MAS (Cyprinus carpio YANG DIINFEKSI BAKTERI Aeromonas Hydrophila

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    Achmad Suhermanto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fishery commodities are most likely to be increased production of carp (Cyprinus carpio. Intensification of cultivation which raises new problems with fish disease outbreaks caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. Providing of immunostimulatory bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers (Holothuria scabra can enhance non-specific immune responses in the goldfish as a mechanism of defense against disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the role and optimal dose of total phenols sea cucumber in enhancing non-specific immune response seen from the hematology parameters Extraction of bioactive components from sea cucumber prepared by using methanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate solvent (v/v. Identification of total phenols in ethyl acetate fraction performed using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and infrared. Total phenol produced was tested on carp with intraperitonial injection, the concentration of 0.09, 0.18 and 0.27 mg phenol/kg fish. Challenge test was done by using the Aeromonas hydrophila (107 cells/ml through the immersion method. The observations included hematological parameters and total plasma proteins.The observations of hematological parameters that Leukocytes, Neutrophils pre-and post-infection were significantly increased. Lymphocyte pre infection was increased significantly and post-bacterial infection was decreased significantly. Eosinophils, Monocytes pre-and post-bacterial infection were not differ significantly between treatment. The use of phenolic compounds at 0.09 mg / kg can be increase of non-specific immune response in carp (Cyprinus carpio. Key Words : Total phenol, Aeromonas hydrophila, Cyprinus carpio, nonspecific immune response 

  16. An integrated approach combining chemical analysis and an in vivo bioassay to assess the estrogenic potency of a municipal solid waste landfill leachate in Qingdao.

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    Yufeng Gong

    Full Text Available Various adverse effects related to landfill leachate have made leachates an important issue in past decades, and it has been demonstrated that landfill leachate is an important source of environmental estrogens. In this study, we employed chemical analysis of some already evaluated estrogenic substances, in combination with a bioassay using several specific biomarkers (e.g., plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids, enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and gonadosomatic index to evaluate the estrogenic activities in outlets from different stages of the leachate treatment process. The results indicated that 5 environmental estrogens (4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A, di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate were detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the concentrations in leachate samples were 6153 ng/L, 3642 ng/L, 2139 ng/L, 5900 ng/L, and 9422 ng/L, respectively. Leachate (1∶200 diluted induced the synthesis of plasma vitellogenin and led to decreased enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and gonadosomatic index in male goldfish (Carassius auratus after a 28-day exposure, while increased circulating 17β-estradiol level was also observed in males exposed to treated effluent. Although the target EEs were partially removed with removal rates varying from 87.2% to 99.77% by the "membrane bioreactor+reverse osmosis+aeration zeolite biofilter" treatment process, the treated effluent is still estrogenic to fish. The method combined chemical techniques with the responses of test organisms allowing us to identify the group of estrogen-like chemicals so that we were able to evaluate the overall estrogenic effects of a complex mixture, avoiding false negative assessments.

  17. Rapid dopaminergic modulation of the fish hypothalamic transcriptome and proteome.

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    Jason T Popesku

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA is a major neurotransmitter playing an important role in the regulation of vertebrate reproduction. We developed a novel method for the comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data obtained from in vivo experiments designed to study the neuroendocrine actions of DA.Female goldfish were injected (i.p. with DA agonists (D1-specific; SKF 38393, or D2-specific; LY 171555 and sacrificed after 5 h. Serum LH levels were reduced by 57% and 75% by SKF 38393 and LY 171555, respectively, indicating that the treatments produced physiologically relevant responses in vivo. Bioinformatic strategies and a ray-finned fish database were established for microarray and iTRAQ proteomic analysis of the hypothalamus, revealing a total of 3088 mRNAs and 42 proteins as being differentially regulated by the treatments. Twenty one proteins and mRNAs corresponding to these proteins appeared on both lists. Many of the mRNAs and proteins affected by the treatments were grouped into the Gene Ontology categorizations of protein complex, signal transduction, response to stimulus, and regulation of cellular processes. There was a 57% and 14% directional agreement between the differentially-regulated mRNAs and proteins for SKF 38393 and LY 171555, respectively.The results demonstrate the applicability of advanced high-throughput genomic and proteomic analyses in an amendable well-studied teleost model species whose genome has yet to be sequenced. We demonstrate that DA rapidly regulates multiple hypothalamic pathways and processes that are also known to be involved in pathologies of the central nervous system.

  18. Pharmacological analysis of the activation and receptor properties of the tonic GABA(CR current in retinal bipolar cell terminals.

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    Stefanie M Jones

    Full Text Available GABAergic inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS can occur via rapid, transient postsynaptic currents and via a tonic increase in membrane conductance, mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A receptors (GABA(ARs respectively. Retinal bipolar cells (BCs exhibit a tonic current mediated by GABA(CRs in their axon terminal, in addition to synaptic GABA(AR and GABA(CR currents, which strongly regulate BC output. The tonic GABA(CR current in BC terminals (BCTs is not dependent on vesicular GABA release, but properties such as the alternative source of GABA and the identity of the GABA(CRs remain unknown. Following a recent report that tonic GABA release from cerebellar glial cells is mediated by Bestrophin 1 anion channels, we have investigated their role in non-vesicular GABA release in the retina. Using patch-clamp recordings from BCTs in goldfish retinal slices, we find that the tonic GABA(CR current is not reduced by the anion channel inhibitors NPPB or flufenamic acid but is reduced by DIDS, which decreases the tonic current without directly affecting GABA(CRs. All three drugs also exhibit non-specific effects including inhibition of GABA transporters. GABA(CR ρ subunits can form homomeric and heteromeric receptors that differ in their properties, but BC GABA(CRs are thought to be ρ1-ρ2 heteromers. To investigate whether GABA(CRs mediating tonic and synaptic currents may differ in their subunit composition, as is the case for GABA(ARs, we have examined the effects of two antagonists that show partial ρ subunit selectivity: picrotoxin and cyclothiazide. Tonic and synaptic GABA(CR currents were differentially affected by both drugs, suggesting that a population of homomeric ρ1 receptors contributes to the tonic current. These results extend our understanding of the multiple forms of GABAergic inhibition that exist in the CNS and contribute to visual signal processing in the retina.

  19. Diplomonad flagellates of some ornamental fish cultured in Thailand

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    Boonkob Viriyapongsutee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study on diplomonad flagellates infection in some ornamental fishes in the family cichlidae i.e., angelfish(Pterophyllum scalare, oscar (Astronotus ocellatus, blue mbuna (Labeotropheus fuelleborni and the family osphronemidaei.e., Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens revealed that this parasite infected three out of four ornamental fish species,angelfish, oscar and blue mbuna. The highest infection was recorded in angelfish (90% followed by oscar (75.4% and bluembuna (61%, respectively. Identification of diplomonad flagellates from angelfish by means of morphological studies underlight and electron microscopes indicated that the parasite was Spironucleus vortens. The 14–days LD50 of S. vortens inangelfish was 2.99x103 cells. Histopathological changes of infected angelfish revealed granulomatous liver, numerousnumbers of melanomacrophage in the spleen and inflammation of the intestine. Susceptibility study of S. vortens to goldfish(Carassius auratus, guppy (Poecilia reticulata and platy (Xiphophorus maculatus indicated that they were resistant toartificial infection. In vitro examination of the growth inhibition assay of S. vortens indicated that dimetridazole and metronidazolewere effective in inhibiting parasite growth after 48 hrs exposure at concentrations of >4.0 μg/ml and >6.0 μg/ml,respectively. Magnesium sulfate at a concentration of >60 mg/ml inhibited the parasite growth after 72 hrs exposure. In vivoexamination of the dimetridazole efficiency on S. vortens infection indicated that dimetridazole at 4.0 μg/ml provided thehighest efficiency which could be used for treatment of spironucleosis in angelfish.

  20. Restore Harlem River's Water Quality to Swimmable/Fishable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharged untreated sewage into the Harlem River during rainstorms, elevated nutrient and bacteria levels. The river is not safe for swimming, fishing or boating during wet weather conditions. We had collected water samples from CSOs discharge point, analyzed ammonia (NH3-N), phosphate (PO43-), fecal coliform, E.Coli., enteroccus, and polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCBs). On tropical storm Arthur, we had collected CSOs: DO reduced during heavy thunderstorm dropped down from 4 to 2.9 mg/L (49 to 35%); fecal coliform was 5 million MPN/100ml, E.Coli. was 1000-2000 MPN/100ml, enterococcus was 2000-2500 MPN/100ml, turbidity was 882 FAU, ammonia was 2.725 mg/L. Nutrient and bacteria exceeded EPA regulated levels significantly (ammonia: 0.23mg/L; fecal coliform: 200 MPN/100ml, E.Coli.: 126 MPN/100ml, enterococcus: 104 MPN/100ml; turbidity: 0.25-5.25 FAU, DO: 4mg/L). Water sampling of CSOs during heavy rainstorm on 4/30/14 showed turbidity reached 112 FAU, ammonia was 0.839 mg/L, fecal coliform: 5 million MPN/100ml, E.Coli.: 500 MPN/100ml and enterococcus: 10,000 MPN/100ml. CSO collection on June 5, 2014 during morning rainstorm showed ammonia was 2.273 mg/L, turbidity was 37 FAU. New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) suggested women under 50 & children under 15 do not eat fish such as blue crab meat, carb or lobster tomalley, channel catfish, gizzard shad, white catfish, Atlantic needlefish, bluefish, carp, goldfish, rainbow smelt, striped bass, white perch because chemical concerns (PCBs, cadmium, dioxin). Fish caught in the Harlem River was banned from commercial. Swimming in the river was not safe due to high pathogen levels. CSOs reduction, such as green roof, green wall, and wetland could help reduce stormwater runoff and CSOs. Water quality improvement and ecology restoration will help achieve the goal of swimmable and fishable in the Harlem River.

  1. Collective epithelial cell sheet adhesion and migration on polyelectrolyte multilayers with uniform and gradients of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Jessica S.; Schlenoff, Joseph B.; Keller, Thomas C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMUs) are tunable thin films that could serve as coatings for biomedical implants. PEMUs built layer by layer with the polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) modified with a photosensitive 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) benzophenone (PAABp) group and the polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) are mechanically tunable by UV irradiation, which forms covalent bonds between the layers and increases PEMU stiffness. PAH-terminated PEMUs (PAH-PEMUs) that were uncrosslinked, UV-crosslinked to a uniform stiffness, or UV-crosslinked with an edge mask or through a neutral density optical gradient filter to form continuous compliance gradients were used to investigate how differences in PEMU stiffness affect the adhesion and migration of epithelial cell sheets from scales of the fish Poecilia sphenops (Black Molly) and Carassius auratus (Comet Goldfish). During the progressive collective cell migration, the edge cells (also known as ‘leader’ cells) in the sheets on softer uncrosslinked PEMUs and less crosslinked regions of the gradient formed more actin filaments and vinculin-containing adherens junctions and focal adhesions than formed in the sheet cells on stiffer PEMUs or glass. During sheet migration, the ratio of edge cell to internal cell (also known as ‘follower’ cells) motilities were greater on the softer PEMUs than on the stiffer PEMUs or glass, causing tension to develop across the sheet and periods of retraction, during which the edge cells lost adhesion to the substrate and regions of the sheet retracted toward the more adherent internal cell region. These retraction events were inhibited by the myosin II inhibitor Blebbistatin, which reduced the motility velocity ratios to those for sheets on the stiffer PEMUs. Blebbistatin also caused disassembly of actin filaments, reorganization of focal adhesions, increased cell spreading at the leading edge, as well as loss of edge cell-cell connections in epithelial cell sheets on all

  2. Review: evolution of GnIH and related peptides structure and function in the chordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the Japanese quail in 2000 was the first to demonstrate the existence of a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release. We now know that GnIH regulates reproduction by inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release via action on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system and the gonadotrope in various vertebrates. GnIH peptides identified in birds and mammals have a common LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif at the C-terminus and inhibit pituitary gonadotropin secretion. However, the function and structure of GnIH peptides are diverse in fish. Goldfish GnIHs possessing a C-terminal LPXRF-amide motif have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on gonadotropin synthesis or release. The C-terminal sequence of grass puffer and medaka GnIHs are MPQRF-amide. To investigate the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its ancestral structure and function, we searched for GnIH in agnathans, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates. We identified GnIH precursor gene and mature GnIH peptides with C-terminal QPQRF-amide or RPQRF-amide from the brain of sea lamprey. Lamprey GnIH fibers were in close proximity to GnRH-III neurons. Further, one of lamprey GnIHs stimulated the expression of lamprey GnRH-III peptide in the hypothalamus and gonadotropic hormone β mRNA expression in the pituitary. We further identified the ancestral form of GnIH, which had a C-terminal RPQRF-amide, and its receptors in amphioxus, the most basal chordate species. The amphioxus GnIH inhibited cAMP signaling in vitro. In sum, the original forms of GnIH may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. GnIH peptides may have had various C-terminal structures slightly different from LPXRF-amide in basal chordates, which had stimulatory and/or inhibitory functions on reproduction. The C-terminal LPXRF-amide structure and its inhibitory function on reproduction may be selected in later-evolved vertebrates, such as birds and mammals.

  3. Collective epithelial cell sheet adhesion and migration on polyelectrolyte multilayers with uniform and gradients of compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jessica S. [Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Schlenoff, Joseph B. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Keller, Thomas C.S., E-mail: tkeller@bio.fsu.edu [Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMUs) are tunable thin films that could serve as coatings for biomedical implants. PEMUs built layer by layer with the polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) modified with a photosensitive 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) benzophenone (PAABp) group and the polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) are mechanically tunable by UV irradiation, which forms covalent bonds between the layers and increases PEMU stiffness. PAH-terminated PEMUs (PAH-PEMUs) that were uncrosslinked, UV-crosslinked to a uniform stiffness, or UV-crosslinked with an edge mask or through a neutral density optical gradient filter to form continuous compliance gradients were used to investigate how differences in PEMU stiffness affect the adhesion and migration of epithelial cell sheets from scales of the fish Poecilia sphenops (Black Molly) and Carassius auratus (Comet Goldfish). During the progressive collective cell migration, the edge cells (also known as ‘leader’ cells) in the sheets on softer uncrosslinked PEMUs and less crosslinked regions of the gradient formed more actin filaments and vinculin-containing adherens junctions and focal adhesions than formed in the sheet cells on stiffer PEMUs or glass. During sheet migration, the ratio of edge cell to internal cell (also known as ‘follower’ cells) motilities were greater on the softer PEMUs than on the stiffer PEMUs or glass, causing tension to develop across the sheet and periods of retraction, during which the edge cells lost adhesion to the substrate and regions of the sheet retracted toward the more adherent internal cell region. These retraction events were inhibited by the myosin II inhibitor Blebbistatin, which reduced the motility velocity ratios to those for sheets on the stiffer PEMUs. Blebbistatin also caused disassembly of actin filaments, reorganization of focal adhesions, increased cell spreading at the leading edge, as well as loss of edge cell-cell connections in epithelial cell sheets on all

  4. Profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the Japanese flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiya, Noriko; Amano, Masafumi; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Yamanome, Takeshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    Profiles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in the Japanese flounder were examined by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) and immunohistochemistry. A TR-FIA for alpha-MSH was newly developed, and its levels in the pituitary gland and plasma of Japanese flounder reared in a white or black tank for 5 months were compared. A competitive assay using two antibodies was performed among secondary antibodies in the solid phase, alpha-MSH antibodies, samples, and europium-labeled Des-Ac-alpha-MSH. The sensitivity of the assay, defined as twice the standard deviation at a zero dose, was 0.98 ng/ml (49 pg/well). The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of the assay were 8.8% (n=8) and 17.3% (n=5), respectively, at about 50% binding. Cross-reactivities of Des-Ac-alpha-MSH and Di-Ac-alpha-MSH were about 100%. Cross-reactivities of adrenocorticotropic hormone, salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH), and chicken GnRH-II were less than 0.2%, and that of melanin-concentrating hormone was less than 2.0% at 50% binding. Displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus extract, pituitary gland extract, and plasma extract of Japanese flounder with the assay buffer were parallel to the alpha-MSH standard curve. Moreover, displacement curves of serially twofold-diluted hypothalamus and/or pituitary gland extract of masu salmon, goldfish, red seabream, Japanese eel, tiger puffer, and barfin flounder with the assay buffer were also parallel to the alpha-MSH standard. In Japanese flounder, total immunoreactive (ir)-alpha-MSH levels in the pituitary gland were lower in the black tank, whereas those in the plasma tended to be higher in the black tank, suggesting that the synthesis and release of alpha-MSH are higher in the black tank. alpha-MSH-ir cells were detected in the pars intermedia and a small part of the pars distalis of the pituitary gland. alpha-MSH-ir cell bodies were located in the basal hypothalamus and alpha

  5. UV and hydrogen peroxide treatment restores changes in innate immunity caused by exposure of fish to reuse water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvinder; Havixbeck, Jeffrey J; Smith, Matthew K; Shu, Zengquan; Tierney, Keith B; Barreda, Daniel R; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2015-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the innate immunity of goldfish exposed to reuse water, and UV/H2O2-treated reuse water, using a real-time flow-through exposure system. The reuse water generated by ultrafiltration of finished wastewater from the municipal wastewater treatment plant was analyzed for the presence of a panel of 20 herbicides/fungicides and 46 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP). There was a seasonal variation in the profile and concentrations of xenobiotics in reuse water with lowest levels occurring in the summer. The innate immunity parameters assessed were cytokine (IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-10, TNFα2), and cytokine receptor (TNFR1, TNFR2, IFNGR1, IFNGR2) gene expression, and phagocytosis of kidney leukocyte subpopulations. Assessment of innate immunity parameters was done after acute (7 days) and sub chronic (30 and 60 days) exposure to reuse water, UV/H2O2-treated reuse water, and activated carbon-treated reuse water (ACT; control), during spring, summer and fall of 2012. Temporal (acute versus sub chronic) as well as seasonal differences in innate immunity of fish exposed to reuse water were observed. The acute exposure of fish to reuse water caused significant down-regulation in cytokine gene expression in different organs of fish (kidney, spleen, liver) and phagocytic ability of different kidney leukocyte subpopulations. The immune gene expression and phagocytosis of kidney leukocytes of fish returned to ACT control levels after sub chronic exposure suggesting that fish have habituated to the reuse water exposure. The changes in gene expression after acute exposure were related to variations in the profile of xenobiotics in reuse water during different seasons. The efficiency of xenobiotic removal using UV/H2O2 ranged between 1.6 and 100% indicating that treatment of reuse water using high dose UV/H2O2 was only partially effective in removing the xenobiotics, as assessed by both chemical analyses and measurement of innate immune

  6. The origin and evolution of the surfactant system in fish: insights into the evolution of lungs and swim bladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher B; Orgeig, Sandra; Sullivan, Lucy C; Ling, Nicholas; Bennett, Michael B; Schürch, Samuel; Val, Adalberto Luis; Brauner, Colin J

    2004-01-01

    Several times throughout their radiation fish have evolved either lungs or swim bladders as gas-holding structures. Lungs and swim bladders have different ontogenetic origins and can be used either for buoyancy or as an accessory respiratory organ. Therefore, the presence of air-filled bladders or lungs in different groups of fishes is an example of convergent evolution. We propose that air breathing could not occur without the presence of a surfactant system and suggest that this system may have originated in epithelial cells lining the pharynx. Here we present new data on the surfactant system in swim bladders of three teleost fish (the air-breathing pirarucu Arapaima gigas and tarpon Megalops cyprinoides and the non-air-breathing New Zealand snapper Pagrus auratus). We determined the presence of surfactant using biochemical, biophysical, and morphological analyses and determined homology using immunohistochemical analysis of the surfactant proteins (SPs). We relate the presence and structure of the surfactant system to those previously described in the swim bladders of another teleost, the goldfish, and those of the air-breathing organs of the other members of the Osteichthyes, the more primitive air-breathing Actinopterygii and the Sarcopterygii. Snapper and tarpon swim bladders are lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelial cells, respectively, containing membrane-bound lamellar bodies. Phosphatidylcholine dominates the phospholipid (PL) profile of lavage material from all fish analyzed to date. The presence of the characteristic surfactant lipids in pirarucu and tarpon, lamellar bodies in tarpon and snapper, SP-B in tarpon and pirarucu lavage, and SPs (A, B, and D) in swim bladder tissue of the tarpon provide strong evidence that the surfactant system of teleosts is homologous with that of other fish and of tetrapods. This study is the first demonstration of the presence of SP-D in the air-breathing organs of nonmammalian species and SP-B in actinopterygian

  7. Differential tissue distribution, developmental programming, estrogen regulation and promoter characteristics of cyp19 genes in teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, G V; Tchoudakova, A V; Kishida, M; Wood, E

    2001-12-01

    Teleost fish are characterized by exceptionally high levels of brain estrogen biosynthesis when compared to the brains of other vertebrates or to the ovaries of the same fish. Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) have utility as complementary models for understanding the molecular basis and functional significance of exaggerated neural estrogen biosynthesis. Multiple cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) cDNAs that derive from separate gene loci (cyp19a and cyp19b) are differentially expressed in brain (P450aromB>A) and ovary (P450aromA>B) and have a different developmental program (B>A) and response to estrogen upregulation (B only). As measured by increased P450aromB mRNA, a functional estrogen response system is first detected 24-48 h post-fertilization (hpf), consistent with the onset of estrogen receptor (ER) expression (alpha, beta, and gamma). The 5'-flanking region of the cyp19b gene has a TATA box, two estrogen response elements (EREs), an ERE half-site (ERE1/2), a nerve growth factor inducible-B protein (NGFI-B)/Nur77 responsive element (NBRE) binding site, and a sequence identical to the zebrafish GATA-2 gene neural specific enhancer. The cyp19a promoter region has TATA and CAAT boxes, a steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) binding site, and two aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/AhR nuclear translocator factor (ARNT) binding motifs. Both genes have multiple potential SRY/SOX binding sites (16 and 8 in cyp19b and cyp19a, respectively). Luciferase reporters have basal promoter activity in GH3 cells, but differences (a>b) are opposite to fish pituitary (b>a). When microinjected into fertilized zebrafish eggs, a cyp19b promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter (but not cyp19a) is expressed in neurons of 30-48 hpf embryos, most prominently in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their projections to optic tectum. Further studies are required to identify functionally relevant cis-elements and cellular factors, and to determine the

  8. Promoter characteristics of two cyp19 genes differentially expressed in the brain and ovary of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoudakova, A; Kishida, M; Wood, E; Callard, G V

    2001-11-01

    Teleost fish are characterized by exceptionally high levels of neural estrogen biosynthesis when compared with the brains of other vertebrates or to the ovaries of the same fish. Two P450arom mRNAs which derive from separate gene loci (cyp19a and cyp19b) are differentially expressed in brain (b>a) and ovary (a>b) and have a different developmental program (b>a) and estrogen upregulation (b only). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genomic walking strategy was used to isolate the 5'-flanking regions of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) cyp19 genes. Sequence analysis of the cyp19b gene approximately 1.8 kb upstream of the transcription start site revealed a TATA box at nucleotide (nt) -30, two estrogen responsive elements (EREs; nt -351 and -211) and a consensus binding site (NBRE) for nerve growth factor inducible-B protein (NGFI-B/Nur77) at -286, which includes another ERE half-site. Also present were a sequence at nt -399 (CCCTCCT) required for neural specificity of the zebrafish GATA-2 gene, and 16 copies of an SRY/SOX binding motif. The 5'-flanking region ( approximately 1.0 kb) of the cyp19a gene had TATA (nt -48) and CAAT (nt -71) boxes, a steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) binding site (nt -265), eight copies of the SRY/SOX motif, and two copies of a recognition site for binding the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)/AhR nuclear translocator factor (ARNT) heterodimer. Both genes had elements previously identified in the brain specific exon I promoter of the mouse aromatase gene. Cyp19a- and -b/luciferase constructs showed basal promoter activity in aromatase-expressing rodent pituitary (GH3) cells, but differences (a>b) did not reflect expression in fish pituitary in vivo (b>a), implying a lack of appropriate cell factors. Consistent with the onset of cyp19b expression in zebrafish embryos, microinjection of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter plasmid into fertilized eggs revealed labeling in neural tissues at 30-48 h post-fertilization (hpf), most

  9. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

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    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  10. Review: Evolution of GnIH structure and function

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    Tomohiro eOsugi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH in the Japanese quail in 2000 was the first to demonstrate the existence of a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release. We now know that GnIH regulates reproduction by inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release via action on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH system and the gonadotrope in various vertebrates. GnIH peptides identified in birds and mammals have a common LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q motif at the C-terminus and inhibits pituitary gonadotropin secretion. However, the function and structure of GnIH peptides were diverse in fish. Goldfish GnIHs possessing a C-terminal LPXRF-amide motif had both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on gonadotropin synthesis or release. The C-terminal sequence of grass puffer and medaka GnIHs were MPQRF-amide. To investigate the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its ancestral structure and function, we searched for GnIH in agnathans, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates. We identified GnIH precursor gene and mature GnIH peptides with C-terminal QPQRF-amide or RPQRF-amide from the brain of sea lamprey. Lamprey GnIH fibers were in close proximity to GnRH-III neurons. Further, one of lamprey GnIHs stimulated the expression of lamprey GnRH-III peptide in the hypothalamus and gonadotropic hormone β mRNA expression in the pituitary. We further identified the ancestral form of GnIH, which had a C-terminal RPQRF-amide, and its receptors in amphioxus, the most basal chordate species. The amphioxus GnIH inhibited cAMP signaling in vitro. In sum, the original forms of GnIH may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. GnIH peptides may have had various C-terminal structures slightly different from LPXRF-amide in basal chordates, which had stimulatory and/or inhibitory functions on reproduction. The C-terminal LPXRF-amide structure and its inhibitory function on reproduction may be selected in later-evolved vertebrates, such as

  11. Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR of fishes and amphibians: Varying the number of double-stranded RNA binding domains and lineage-specific duplications

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    Dever Thomas E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Double-stranded (ds RNA, generated during viral infection, binds and activates the mammalian anti-viral protein kinase PKR, which phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2α leading to the general inhibition of protein synthesis. Although PKR-like activity has been described in fish cells, the responsible enzymes eluded molecular characterization until the recent discovery of goldfish and zebrafish PKZ, which contain Z-DNA-binding domains instead of dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs. Fish and amphibian PKR genes have not been described so far. Results Here we report the cloning and identification of 13 PKR genes from 8 teleost fish and amphibian species, including zebrafish, demonstrating the coexistence of PKR and PKZ in this latter species. Analyses of their genomic organization revealed up to three tandemly arrayed PKR genes, which are arranged in head-to-tail orientation. At least five duplications occurred independently in fish and amphibian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the kinase domains of fish PKR genes are more closely related to those of fish PKZ than to the PKR kinase domains of other vertebrate species. The duplication leading to fish PKR and PKZ genes occurred early during teleost fish evolution after the divergence of the tetrapod lineage. While two dsRBDs are found in mammalian and amphibian PKR, one, two or three dsRBDs are present in fish PKR. In zebrafish, both PKR and PKZ were strongly upregulated after immunostimulation with some tissue-specific expression differences. Using genetic and biochemical assays we demonstrate that both zebrafish PKR and PKZ can phosphorylate eIF2α in yeast. Conclusion Considering the important role for PKR in host defense against viruses, the independent duplication and fixation of PKR genes in different lineages probably provided selective advantages by leading to the recognition of an extended spectrum of viral nucleic acid structures, including both ds

  12. Virtual garden computer program for use in exploring the elements of biodiversity people want in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwartz, Assaf; Cheval, Helene; Simon, Laurent; Julliard, Romain

    2013-08-01

    Urban ecology is emerging as an integrative science that explores the interactions of people and biodiversity in cities. Interdisciplinary research requires the creation of new tools that allow the investigation of relations between people and biodiversity. It has been established that access to green spaces or nature benefits city dwellers, but the role of species diversity in providing psychological benefits remains poorly studied. We developed a user-friendly 3-dimensional computer program (Virtual Garden [www.tinyurl.com/3DVirtualGarden]) that allows people to design their own public or private green spaces with 95 biotic and abiotic features. Virtual Garden allows researchers to explore what elements of biodiversity people would like to have in their nearby green spaces while accounting for other functions that people value in urban green spaces. In 2011, 732 participants used our Virtual Garden program to design their ideal small public garden. On average gardens contained 5 different animals, 8 flowers, and 5 woody plant species. Although the mathematical distribution of flower and woody plant richness (i.e., number of species per garden) appeared to be similar to what would be expected by random selection of features, 30% of participants did not place any animal species in their gardens. Among those who placed animals in their gardens, 94% selected colorful species (e.g., ladybug [Coccinella septempunctata], Great Tit [Parus major], and goldfish), 53% selected herptiles or large mammals, and 67% selected non-native species. Older participants with a higher level of education and participants with a greater concern for nature designed gardens with relatively higher species richness and more native species. If cities are to be planned for the mutual benefit of people and biodiversity and to provide people meaningful experiences with urban nature, it is important to investigate people's relations with biodiversity further. Virtual Garden offers a standardized

  13. The wisdom of the deep south of Thailand: Case study on utilization of herbal medicine to treat domestic animal diseases by traditional doctors in Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat

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    Poh-etae A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This survey research was conducted to investigate the wisdom of the Deep South of Thailand: case study on utilization of herbal medicine to treat domestic animal diseases by traditional doctors in Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat. A purposive sampling method was applied in selecting 133 subjects from 33 districts of these provinces. The interview design was checked by experts for content validity index and adjusted after testing on 13 non-target men. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed using percentage and groups split by symptoms.The results showed that most traditional doctors (68.4% were males; 52.6% were 41-60 years old and 39.1% were more than 61 years of age. 60.2% of the subjects were Muslims; 73.7% of them were agri- culturalists; 63.2% of them had the income ranging from 3,001-6,000 baht/month. Most of the subjects (77.4% had only primary education, and 15.0% finished high school level. Only 6.0% practised traditional medicine as their main occupation and most of them (94.0% did not practise traditional medicine as their main occupation. Most traditional doctors (91.0% had experience in using medicinal herbs for animal treatment; 30.0% citing that herbal medicine was easy to find in local areas; 26.8% citing that it was cheap. For domestic animal utilization of herbal medicine, cats (54.1%, were first on the list of non-ruminants, chickens (62.9% came first among poultry, cattle (50.7% came first among ruminants and decorative fish e.g. goldfish (50.0% were commonest among aquatic animals. The single herbal medicine used to treat domestic animal diseases by traditional doctors were reported as follows: to chase away insects, citronella grass or tobacco (3.0% was used; to treat diarrhea, Tinospora crispa (2.3% was used; to treat antitussives, lemon grass or Andrographis paniculata (2.3% was used; as an expectorant, curcuma rhizomes (2.3% was used; to treat pus from worms, Phyllanthus reticularud or Cassytha filiformis (2.3% was

  14. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    veteran member of the East Bay Regional Park District, Hal MacLean, we realized that almost every lake goes through periods of slight eutrophication. Actually, this phenomenon of waxing and waning of nutrient levels is something many species have grown accustomed too. It's just the extreme cases where the water is actively being polluted by a nearby point source that cause so much damage. Overall, despite outward appearances, the lake is relatively healthy. It boasts high biodiversity in and around the lake, housing such species as dragonflies, eucalyptus, bald eagles, halibut, bass, and even tiny silver goldfish. It fluctuates in oxygen and nutrient content just like any other lake, but for now, it isn't cause for too much concern. It's a beloved element of the Castro Valley community and we hope it will remain so for many generations to come.

  15. PERSEPSI DAN POLA KEBIASAAN MASYARAKAT KAITANNYA DENGAN MASALAH MALARIA DI DAERAH SIHEPENG KABUPATEN TAPANULI SELATAN PROVINSI SUMATERA UTARA

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    Kasnodihardjo Kasnodihardjo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the South Tapanuli, North of Sumatera, there is place that was an endemy of malaria by historical. The variety of malaria paracit in this place called Plasmodium falciparum and P. Vivax which kind of the vector is Anopheles sundaicus. In 1992 was reported that happen of out breaks of malaria. The rising of out breaks of malaria were happened because fishpond is not keep properly then  become breeding place of A.sundaicus. The situation like that caused the incident of malaria. Beside that physical and biological environment and community behavior was assumed influence toward rising of out breaks of malaria in the South Tapanuli. If there is no efforts to preventive and controled malaria, therfore the out breaks of malaria will can happen again. Therefore to anticipate the situation like this, was conducted the epidemiology study which including some aspects, such as social and cultural aspect. The data of social and cultural aspect include knowledge/perception, ettitude and community behavior which is relation with transmision of malariaThe data was collected by interview use questionaire. Beside observation toward community behavior and places which assumed  complete the data concerning of society habits which pressumable is closed by malaria infection and places for malaria infected vektor mosquito multiplyed. The total respondents is 495, consist of 270 respondents from Batang Angkola district and 225 respondents from Siabu distict. The mayority respondents is woman and moslem whose graduated from elementary school. Generally, the main job of respondents was farmer and only a few were trader and civil servant or employee in private company. The traders ussuallly have made their transactions in traditional market and the others have a coffe shop in the street of the night. Most of the citizen to take care goldfish. The generally respondents is homogenous but few of them are imigrants and just arrived in that place. The majority of

  16. The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae

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    Lilian González-Segura

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the common carp. Eight injections of reserpine alone, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/ml/kg of body weight and at intervals of 48 hours, caused an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells. The dose 0.5 mg/ml/kg, presented an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 382% and 123%, respectively, above the control group. The dose 1.0 mg/ml/kg, showed an enhanced number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 704% and 152%, respectively. With the dose 1.5 mg/ml/kg increase in number (171% and volume (106% of gonadotrophic cells was lower. The gonads of the experimental groups had an abundance of advanced states of spermatogenesis. Our results show that eight intraperitoneal injections of reserpine were responsible for an increase in gonadodrophic cell, number and volumeLa secreción de gonadotropinas (GtHs en pez dorado y carpas, es estimulada por la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH e inhibida por la dopamina. Trabajos previos con antidopaminérgicos demostraron ser efectivos para estimular la espermiación y ovulación, en varias especies de teleósteos. La reserpina, una sustancia que desaparece catecolaminas, se ha probado con éxito para estimular la espermiación en la carpa común. En este trabajo, reportamos los efectos de la reserpina en el número y volúmen de células gonadotropas en la carpa común. Se aplicaron ocho inyecciones de reserpina a dosis de 0.5, 1.0, y 1.5 mg/ml/kg de peso corporal, a intervalos de 48 horas

  17. Obituary: Daniel E. Harris (1934 - 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Massaro, Francesco; Cheung, Teddy

    Radio Observatory in Penticton, Canada. He finally returned to the U.S. in 1980 and spent the next 35 years at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. One of Dan's most memorable attributes was his cheerful enjoyment of life. Dan was the life of the party; he was joyful, open and friendly. Dan enjoyed good food, drinks, and conversations with friends and strangers alike. Dan belonged to a time prior to big egos when scientific discoveries seemed to be made by the curious, adventurous, and non-conformists. Dan's free spirit manifested itself in his publications. Dan was a rigorous scientist who was not afraid of writing his papers with a hint of good humour. When presenting new radio measurements Dan went for "descriptive names" to describe radio maps2 such as the "original," the "goldfish," the "double," the "beaver," the "bean." At a recent IAU symposium held in the Galápagos Islands, where many of his colleagues and friends gathered to celebrate his 80th birthday, Dan's talk was entitled: "Slugs and Snails and Puppy Dog Tails: jets from an unconventional angle." As Dan worked with observatories outside the university system he was not officially a faculty member, but he mentored and collaborated with many younger researchers. This younger crowd that with sadness write these lines, always looked up to Dan as a role model in life as well as science, and will most of all miss his steadfast support. He was always ready to share his experience, expertise, and data. Even after leaving his full-time position with Chandra, Dan never retired. He kept working part-time at the SAO where he continued his research and was awarded competitive grants, telescope time, published, and led collaborations. Dan also worked for peace causes throughout his life. Dan joined the tax resistance movement during the Vietnam war, a movement of hundreds of thousands of Americans who refused to pay a portion of their income tax to the government in order to

  18. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    same conditions as in lasers. However, the emission that is amplified in this case is not visible light as in lasers, but rather microwave radiation [3]. They are therefore known under the name masers or Microwave Amplified Stimulated Emission Radiators. This radiation is not visible to the human eye or optical astronomical detectors, but must be captured with astronomical radio telescopes. Later, silicon-monoxide (SiO) masers were discovered in which the molecules that amplify the microwave emission are made up of equal proportions of silicon (Si) and oxygen (O). The discovery of the first extra-galactic SiO maser In May 1995, new state-of-the-art receivers were installed on the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) , a radio dish measuring 15 metres across at the ESO La Silla Observatory in Chile. The great technical improvement of the receivers and the excellent quality of this observing site and of the telescope itself make it one of the world's most powerful instruments for this type of research. And indeed, immediately after the installation of the new receivers, the first observations bore fruit. The astronomers decided to look with the telescope at the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a satellite galaxy to the Milky Way galaxy in which we live. On a dark night in the Southern Hemisphere, one can easily spot the LMC with the naked eye as a little `cloud', seen in the direction of the southern constellation of Doradus (The Goldfish). Although much smaller than the Milky Way, it still contains many millions of stars. The astronomers chose to observe the largest known star in the LMC and they registered its microwave radiation for no less than 26 hours. Most of the observing was done during daytime, which is possible with this type of instrument: at microwave wavelengths, the sky appears dark even during the day. The astronomers were delighted to see the star shining at microwave wavelengths, cf. ESO Press Photo 16/96. The measured wavelength leaves no doubt that