WorldWideScience

Sample records for goldfish motion detection

  1. General principles in motion vision: color blindness of object motion depends on pattern velocity in honeybee and goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojcev, Maja; Radtke, Nils; D'Amaro, Daniele; Dyer, Adrian G; Neumeyer, Christa

    2011-07-01

    Visual systems can undergo striking adaptations to specific visual environments during evolution, but they can also be very "conservative." This seems to be the case in motion vision, which is surprisingly similar in species as distant as honeybee and goldfish. In both visual systems, motion vision measured with the optomotor response is color blind and mediated by one photoreceptor type only. Here, we ask whether this is also the case if the moving stimulus is restricted to a small part of the visual field, and test what influence velocity may have on chromatic motion perception. Honeybees were trained to discriminate between clockwise- and counterclockwise-rotating sector disks. Six types of disk stimuli differing in green receptor contrast were tested using three different rotational velocities. When green receptor contrast was at a minimum, bees were able to discriminate rotation directions with all colored disks at slow velocities of 6 and 12 Hz contrast frequency but not with a relatively high velocity of 24 Hz. In the goldfish experiment, the animals were trained to detect a moving red or blue disk presented in a green surround. Discrimination ability between this stimulus and a homogenous green background was poor when the M-cone type was not or only slightly modulated considering high stimulus velocity (7 cm/s). However, discrimination was improved with slower stimulus velocities (4 and 2 cm/s). These behavioral results indicate that there is potentially an object motion system in both honeybee and goldfish, which is able to incorporate color information at relatively low velocities but is color blind with higher speed. We thus propose that both honeybees and goldfish have multiple subsystems of object motion, which include achromatic as well as chromatic processing.

  2. Color- and motion-specific units in the tectum opticum of goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Morna; Behrend, Konstantin; Neumeyer, Christa

    2016-01-05

    Extracellular recordings were performed from 69 units at different depths between 50 and [Formula: see text]m below the surface of tectum opticum in goldfish. Using large field stimuli (86[Formula: see text] visual angle) of 21 colored HKS-papers we were able to record from 54 color-sensitive units. The colored papers were presented for 5[Formula: see text]s each. They were arranged in the sequence of the color circle in humans separated by gray of medium brightness. We found 22 units with best responses between orange, red and pink. About 12 of these red-sensitive units were of the opponent "red-ON/blue-green-OFF" type as found in retinal bipolar- and ganglion cells as well. Most of them were also activated or inhibited by black and/or white. Some units responded specifically to red either with activation or inhibition. 18 units were sensitive to blue and/or green, 10 of them to both colors and most of them to black as well. They were inhibited by red, and belonged to the opponent "blue-green-ON/red-OFF" type. Other units responded more selectively either to blue, to green or to purple. Two units were selectively sensitive to yellow. A total of 15 units were sensitive to motion, stimulated by an excentrically rotating black and white random dot pattern. Activity of these units was also large when a red-green random dot pattern of high L-cone contrast was used. Activity dropped to zero when the red-green pattern did not modulate the L-cones. Neither of these motion selective units responded to any color. The results directly show color-blindness of motion vision, and confirm the hypothesis of separate and parallel processing of "color" and "motion".

  3. Neuropharmacology of vision in goldfish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ferrer, Carlos; Neumeyer, Christa

    2009-05-01

    The goldfish is one of the few animals exceptionally well analyzed in behavioral experiments and also in electrophysiological and neuroanatomical investigations of the retina. To get insight into the functional organization of the retina we studied color vision, motion detection and temporal resolution before and after intra-ocular injection of neuropharmaca with known effects on retinal neurons. Bicuculline, strychnine, curare, atropine, and dopamine D1- and D2-receptor antagonists were used. The results reviewed here indicate separate and parallel processing of L-cone contribution to different visual functions, and the influence of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, acetylcholine, glycine, and GABA) on motion vision, color vision, and temporal resolution.

  4. Spatial filtering precedes motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M J

    1992-01-23

    When we perceive motion on a television or cinema screen, there must be some process that allows us to track moving objects over time: if not, the result would be a conflicting mass of motion signals in all directions. A possible mechanism, suggested by studies of motion displacement in spatially random patterns, is that low-level motion detectors have a limited spatial range, which ensures that they tend to be stimulated over time by the same object. This model predicts that the direction of displacement of random patterns cannot be detected reliably above a critical absolute displacement value (Dmax) that is independent of the size or density of elements in the display. It has been inferred that Dmax is a measure of the size of motion detectors in the visual pathway. Other studies, however, have shown that Dmax increases with element size, in which case the most likely interpretation is that Dmax depends on the probability of false matches between pattern elements following a displacement. These conflicting accounts are reconciled here by showing that Dmax is indeed determined by the spacing between the elements in the pattern, but only after fine detail has been removed by a physiological prefiltering stage: the filter required to explain the data has a similar size to the receptive field of neurons in the primate magnocellular pathway. The model explains why Dmax can be increased by removing high spatial frequencies from random patterns, and simplifies our view of early motion detection.

  5. Origin of Chinese goldfish and sequential loss of genetic diversity accompanies new breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Goldfish, Carassius auratus, have experienced strong anthropogenic selection during their evolutionary history, generating a tremendous extent of morphological variation relative to that in native Carassius. To locate the geographic origin of goldfish, we analyzed nucleotide sequences from part of the control region (CR and the entire cytochrome b (Cytb mitochondrial DNA genes for 234 goldfish and a large series of native specimens. Four important morphological characteristics used in goldfish taxonomy-body shape, dorsal fin, eye shape, and tailfin-were selected for hypothesis-testing to identify those that better correspond to evolutionary history.Haplotypes of goldfish rooted in two sublineages (C5 and C6, which contained the haplotypes of native C. a. auratus from southern China. Values of F(ST and N(m revealed a close relationship between goldfish and native C. a. auratus from the lower Yangtze River. An extraordinary, stepwise loss of genetic diversity was detected from native fish to goldfish and from Grass-goldfish relative to other breeds. Significantly negative results for the tests of Tajima's D and Fu and Li's D* and F* were identified in goldfish, including the Grass breed. The results identified eye-shape as being the least informative character for grouping goldfish with respect to their evolutionary history. Fisher's exact test identified matrilineal constraints on domestication.Chinese goldfish have a matrilineal origin from native southern Chinese C. a. auratus, especially the lineages from the lower Yangtze River. Anthropogenic selection of the native Carassius eliminated aesthetically unappealing goldfish and this action appeared to be responsible for the stepwise decrease in genetic diversity of domesticated goldfish, a process similar to that reported for the domestication of pigs, rice, and maize. The three-breed taxonomy--Grass-goldfish, Egg-goldfish, and Wen-goldfish--better reflected the history of domestication.

  6. Indexing Motion Detection Data for Surveillance Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Søren Juhl; Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We show how to compactly index video data to support fast motion detection queries. A query specifies a time interval T, a area A in the video and two thresholds v and p. The answer to a query is a list of timestamps in T where ≥ p% of A has changed by ≥ v values. Our results show that by building...... a small index, we can support queries with a speedup of two to three orders of magnitude compared to motion detection without an index. For high resolution video, the index size is about 20% of the compressed video size....

  7. Video motion detection for physical security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matter, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Physical security specialists have been attracted to the concept of video motion detection for several years. Claimed potential advantages included additional benefit from existing video surveillance systems, automatic detection, improved performance compared to human observers, and cost-effectiveness. In recent years, significant advances in image-processing dedicated hardware and image analysis algorithms and software have accelerated the successful application of video motion detection systems to a variety of physical security applications. Early video motion detectors (VMDs) were useful for interior applications of volumetric sensing. Success depended on having a relatively well-controlled environment. Attempts to use these systems outdoors frequently resulted in an unacceptable number of nuisance alarms. Currently, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing several advanced systems that employ image-processing techniques for a broader set of safeguards and security applications. The Target Cueing and Tracking System (TCATS), the Video Imaging System for Detection, Tracking, and Assessment (VISDTA), the Linear Infrared Scanning Array (LISA); the Mobile Intrusion Detection and Assessment System (MIDAS), and the Visual Artificially Intelligent Surveillance (VAIS) systems are described briefly

  8. Parallel Molecular Distributed Detection With Brownian Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Uri; Koh, Min-Sung

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores the in vivo distributed detection of an undesired biological agent's (BAs) biomarkers by a group of biological sized nanomachines in an aqueous medium under drift. The term distributed, indicates that the system information relative to the BAs presence is dispersed across the collection of nanomachines, where each nanomachine possesses limited communication, computation, and movement capabilities. Using Brownian motion with drift, a probabilistic detection and optimal data fusion framework, coined molecular distributed detection, will be introduced that combines theory from both molecular communication and distributed detection. Using the optimal data fusion framework as a guide, simulation indicates that a sub-optimal fusion method exists, allowing for a significant reduction in implementation complexity while retaining BA detection accuracy.

  9. Actin Filaments of Taste Buds in the Goldfish and Parrot

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko, SUZUKI

    1996-01-01

    The filaments in the apical region of the taste bud cells of both goldfish and parrot were examined by fluorescence histochemistry and electron microscopy. The apical cytoplasm of goldfish taste buds terminated in long, slender processes and microvilli, and contained thin and straight filaments composed of f-actin, as detected by fluorecein-labeled phalloidin binding. In the parrot, the apical cytoplasm of taste buds terminating in microvilli also showed phalloidin fluorescence. The result su...

  10. ACPR upgrade fuel motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.G.; Stalker, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    Coded aperture imaging techniques are being applied to the problem of fuel motion detection in core disruptive safety experiments in the LMFBR. The upgraded Sandia Annular Core Pulse Reactor will be used for fuel motion studies, and a system is now being developed to image fuel motion through a slot in the core in l- and 7-pin experiments. The γ-rays emitted by the fuel will be modulated by a coded aperture and will form a pseudohologram on a scintillator. This shadowgram will be lens coupled first to an optical image intensifier, and then to a rotating prism framing camera. The goal is to obtain quality images of fuel with approximately 1 mm spatial resolution at about 10 4 frames/sec. Some of the feasibility milestones which have been reached thus far are the following: (1) A fuel pin shaped 252 Cf fission gamma ray source has been imaged through 1.27 cm of steel (simulating reactor containment). (2) A 252 Cf source has been imaged through 1.27 cm of steel with x-ray image intensifier amplification. (3) Collimation and shielding tests indicate that at ACPR it should be possible to obtain adequate signal to noise at the detector when the fuel is observed through a slot in the core

  11. Smoke detection using GLCM, wavelet, and motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuwan, Teerasak; Ruchanurucks, Miti

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a supervised smoke detection method that uses local and global features. This framework integrates and extends notions of many previous works to generate a new comprehensive method. First chrominance detection is used to screen areas that are suspected to be smoke. For these areas, local features are then extracted. The features are among homogeneity of GLCM and energy of wavelet. Then, global feature of motion of the smoke-color areas are extracted using a space-time analysis scheme. Finally these features are used to train an artificial intelligent. Here we use neural network, experiment compares importance of each feature. Hence, we can really know which features among those used by many previous works are really useful. The proposed method outperforms many of the current methods in the sense of correctness, and it does so in a reasonable computation time. It even has less limitation than conventional smoke sensors when used in open space. Best method for the experimental results is to use all the mentioned features as expected, to insure which is the best experiment result can be achieved. The achieved with high accuracy of result expected output is high value of true positive and low value of false positive. And show that our algorithm has good robustness for smoke detection.

  12. Frame based Motion Detection for real-time Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Brajesh Patel; Neelam Patel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a series of algorithm has been formed to track the feature of motion detection under surveillance system. In the proposed work a pixel variant plays a vital role in detection of moving object of a particular clip. If there is a little bit motion in a frame then it is detected very easily by calculating pixel variance. This algorithm detects the zero variation only when there is no motion in a real-time video sequence. It is simple and easier for motion detection in the fames of ...

  13. COMPARISON OF BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION, SOBEL, ADAPTIVE MOTION DETECTION, FRAME DIFFERENCES, AND ACCUMULATIVE DIFFERENCES IMAGES ON MOTION DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Incam Ramadhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, digital image processing is not only used to recognize motionless objects, but also used to recognize motions objects on video. One use of moving object recognition on video is to detect motion, which implementation can be used on security cameras. Various methods used to detect motion have been developed so that in this research compared some motion detection methods, namely Background Substraction, Adaptive Motion Detection, Sobel, Frame Differences and Accumulative Differences Images (ADI. Each method has a different level of accuracy. In the background substraction method, the result obtained 86.1% accuracy in the room and 88.3% outdoors. In the sobel method the result of motion detection depends on the lighting conditions of the room being supervised. When the room is in bright condition, the accuracy of the system decreases and when the room is dark, the accuracy of the system increases with an accuracy of 80%. In the adaptive motion detection method, motion can be detected with a condition in camera visibility there is no object that is easy to move. In the frame difference method, testing on RBG image using average computation with threshold of 35 gives the best value. In the ADI method, the result of accuracy in motion detection reached 95.12%.

  14. Evaluation of the RACON 15000 microwave motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was performed on the RACON 15000 motion detection system. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine sensor detection patterns and to quantitate the effects of intruder velocity. System susceptibility to fluorescent lights, oscillatory motion, and environmental factors was also examined

  15. A Motion-Adaptive Deinterlacer via Hybrid Motion Detection and Edge-Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Yuan Lin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel motion-adaptive deinterlacing algorithm with edge-pattern recognition and hybrid motion detection is introduced. The great variety of video contents makes the processing of assorted motion, edges, textures, and the combination of them very difficult with a single algorithm. The edge-pattern recognition algorithm introduced in this paper exhibits the flexibility in processing both textures and edges which need to be separately accomplished by line average and edge-based line average before. Moreover, predicting the neighboring pixels for pattern analysis and interpolation further enhances the adaptability of the edge-pattern recognition unit when motion detection is incorporated. Our hybrid motion detection features accurate detection of fast and slow motion in interlaced video and also the motion with edges. Using only three fields for detection also renders higher temporal correlation for interpolation. The better performance of our deinterlacing algorithm with higher content-adaptability and less memory cost than the state-of-the-art 4-field motion detection algorithms can be seen from the subjective and objective experimental results of the CIF and PAL video sequences.

  16. A Motion-Adaptive Deinterlacer via Hybrid Motion Detection and Edge-Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hsin-Te

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel motion-adaptive deinterlacing algorithm with edge-pattern recognition and hybrid motion detection is introduced. The great variety of video contents makes the processing of assorted motion, edges, textures, and the combination of them very difficult with a single algorithm. The edge-pattern recognition algorithm introduced in this paper exhibits the flexibility in processing both textures and edges which need to be separately accomplished by line average and edge-based line average before. Moreover, predicting the neighboring pixels for pattern analysis and interpolation further enhances the adaptability of the edge-pattern recognition unit when motion detection is incorporated. Our hybrid motion detection features accurate detection of fast and slow motion in interlaced video and also the motion with edges. Using only three fields for detection also renders higher temporal correlation for interpolation. The better performance of our deinterlacing algorithm with higher content-adaptability and less memory cost than the state-of-the-art 4-field motion detection algorithms can be seen from the subjective and objective experimental results of the CIF and PAL video sequences.

  17. Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer's leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player's swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. PMID:23752563

  18. Trained neurons-based motion detection in optical camera communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teli, Shivani; Cahyadi, Willy Anugrah; Chung, Yeon Ho

    2018-04-01

    A concept of trained neurons-based motion detection (TNMD) in optical camera communications (OCC) is proposed. The proposed TNMD is based on neurons present in a neural network that perform repetitive analysis in order to provide efficient and reliable motion detection in OCC. This efficient motion detection can be considered another functionality of OCC in addition to two traditional functionalities of illumination and communication. To verify the proposed TNMD, the experiments were conducted in an indoor static downlink OCC, where a mobile phone front camera is employed as the receiver and an 8 × 8 red, green, and blue (RGB) light-emitting diode array as the transmitter. The motion is detected by observing the user's finger movement in the form of centroid through the OCC link via a camera. Unlike conventional trained neurons approaches, the proposed TNMD is trained not with motion itself but with centroid data samples, thus providing more accurate detection and far less complex detection algorithm. The experiment results demonstrate that the TNMD can detect all considered motions accurately with acceptable bit error rate (BER) performances at a transmission distance of up to 175 cm. In addition, while the TNMD is performed, a maximum data rate of 3.759 kbps over the OCC link is obtained. The OCC with the proposed TNMD combined can be considered an efficient indoor OCC system that provides illumination, communication, and motion detection in a convenient smart home environment.

  19. Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs on goldfish (Carassius auratus were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfish with increasing exposure dose from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs. No significant accumulation in the muscle and brain of the fish was detected. Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of lipid oxidation was detected in the liver of the goldfish. Moreover, TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited growth of the goldfish. Although there was an increase (8.1% in the body weights of the goldfish for the control group, in the low and high exposure groups 1.8% increase and 19.7% decrease were measured, respectively. The results of this study contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and highlight the importance of characterization of NPs in understanding their behavior, uptake, and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.

  20. Evaluation of the AN/GSS-20 motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was performed on the AN/GSS-20 motion detection system. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine sensor detection patterns and to quantitate the effects of intruder velocity. System susceptibility to environmental factors was also examined

  1. Importation of CyHV-2-infected goldfish into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Haenen, Olga L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis in goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. However, the virus has also been detected in Prussian carp C. gibelio and crucian carp C. carassius from European and Asian countries. To prevent spread of

  2. Motion detection system with GPU acceleration for stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Takuya; Ogawa, Koichi; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Usui, Keisuke; Kunieda, Etsuo; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is a non-invasive method for the treatment of tumors that employs a narrow, high-energy X-ray beam. In this form of therapy, the target region is intensively irradiated with the narrow beam, and any unexpected patient motion may therefore lead to undesirable irradiation of neighboring normal tissues and organs. To overcome this problem, we propose a contactless motion detection system with three USB cameras for use in stereotactic radiosurgery of the head and neck. In our system, the three cameras monitor images of the patient's nose and ears, and patient motion is detected using a template-matching method. If patient motion is detected, the system alerts the radiologist to turn off the beam. We reduced the effects of variations in the lighting in the irradiation room by employing USB cameras sensitive to infrared light. To detect movement in the acquired images, we use a template-matching method that is realized with general-purpose computing-on-graphics processing units. In this paper, we present an outline of our proposed motion detection system based on monitoring of images of the patient acquired with infrared USB cameras and a template-matching method. The performance of the system was evaluated under the same conditions as those used in actual radiation therapy of the head and neck. (author)

  3. Adapting Parameterized Motions using Iterative Learning and Online Collision Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Johan Sund; Sørensen, Lars Carøe; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2018-01-01

    utilizing Gaussian Process learning. This allows for motion parameters to be optimized using real world trials which incorporate all uncertainties inherent in the assembly process without requiring advanced robot and sensor setups. The result is a simple and straightforward system which helps the user...... automatically find robust and uncertainty-tolerant motions. We present experiments for an assembly case showing both detection and learning in the real world and how these combine to a robust robot system....

  4. Optical motion detection using image partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, K.R.; Stalker, K.T.; McCarthy, A.E.

    1976-08-01

    An optical system for surveillance or intrusion detection, based upon image partitioning, is proposed. The scene of interest is imaged onto a checkerboard pattern of transmissive and reflective areas and the transmitted and reflected light components are measured by detectors. Changes in the scene disturb the light balance and can cause an alarm indication. Several system configurations are proposed. Measurements and computer simulations are used to determine the operating characteristics of the several configurations. Depth of focus problems at the patterned reflector is the primary concern. Noise considerations determine the theoretical limitation of system performance and are analyzed in some detail. Indications are that, under good scene radiance conditions, a change in the scene of approximately one part in 10 3 is detectable with a signal-to-noise ratio sufficient for a false alarm rate of one every few months

  5. Visual motion detection and habitat preference in Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, David S; Leal, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    The perception of visual stimuli has been a major area of inquiry in sensory ecology, and much of this work has focused on coloration. However, for visually oriented organisms, the process of visual motion detection is often equally crucial to survival and reproduction. Despite the importance of motion detection to many organisms' daily activities, the degree of interspecific variation in the perception of visual motion remains largely unexplored. Furthermore, the factors driving this potential variation (e.g., ecology or evolutionary history) along with the effects of such variation on behavior are unknown. We used a behavioral assay under laboratory conditions to quantify the visual motion detection systems of three species of Puerto Rican Anolis lizard that prefer distinct structural habitat types. We then compared our results to data previously collected for anoles from Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Central America. Our findings indicate that general visual motion detection parameters are similar across species, regardless of habitat preference or evolutionary history. We argue that these conserved sensory properties may drive the evolution of visual communication behavior in this clade.

  6. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-08

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval.

  7. Semi-automatic detection and correction of body organ motion, particularly cardiac motion in SPECT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, J.C.; Caceres, F.; Vargas, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Detect patient motion during SPECT imaging. Material and Method: SPECT study is carried out on a patient's body organ, such as the heart, and frame of image data are thereby acquired. The image data in these frames are subjected to a series of mappings and computations, from which frame containing a significant quantity of organ motion can be identified. Quantification of motion occurs by shifting some of the mapped data within a predetermined range, and selecting that data shift which minimizes the magnitude of a motion sensitive mathematical function. The sensitive mathematical function is constructed from all set of image frames using the pixel data within a region covering the body organ. Using cine display of planar image data, the operator defines the working region by marking two points, which define two horizontal lines covering the area of the body organ. This is the only operator intervention. The mathematical function integrates pixel data from all set of image frames and therefore does not use derivatives which may cause distortion in noisy data. Moreover, as a global function, this method is superior than that using frame-to-frame cross-correlation function to identify motion between adjacent frames. Using standard image processing software, the method was implemented computationally. Ten SPECT studies with movement (Sestamibi cardiac studies and 99m-ECD brain SPECT studies) were selected plus two others with no movement. The acquisition SPECT protocol for the cardiac study was as follow: Step and shoot mode, non-circular orbit, 64 stops 20s each, 64x64x16 matrix and LEHR colimator. For the brain SPECT, 128 stops over 360 0 were used. Artificial vertical displacements (±1-2 pixels) over several frames were introduced in those studies with no movement to simulate patient motion. Results: The method was successfully tested in all cases and was capable to recognize SPECT studies with no body motion as well as those with body motion (both from the

  8. Novel instrumentation to detect sliding and erratic bed load motion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ilgner, HJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available stationary beds on thick-walled pipes within a minute, only the 2 mm-thin spool pieces were able to detect erratic bed motions due to the sensors’ fast response capability. This required additional features to focus the sensing area directly onto the pipe...

  9. Human detection and motion analysis at security points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, I. Burak; Lv, Tiehan; Wolf, Wayne H.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a real-time video surveillance system for the recognition of specific human activities. Specifically, the proposed automatic motion analysis is used as an on-line alarm system to detect abnormal situations in a campus environment. A smart multi-camera system developed at Princeton University is extended for use in smart environments in which the camera detects the presence of multiple persons as well as their gestures and their interaction in real-time.

  10. Goldfish Leptin-AI and Leptin-AII: Function and Central Mechanism in Feeding Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Fen Yan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, leptin is a peripheral satiety factor that inhibits feeding by regulating a variety of appetite-related hormones in the brain. However, most of the previous studies examining leptin in fish feeding were performed with mammalian leptins, which share very low sequence homologies with fish leptins. To elucidate the function and mechanism of endogenous fish leptins in feeding regulation, recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII were expressed in methylotrophic yeast and purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. By intraperitoneal (IP injection, both leptin-AI and leptin-AII were shown to inhibit the feeding behavior and to reduce the food consumption of goldfish in 2 h. In addition, co-treatment of leptin-AI or leptin-AII could block the feeding behavior and reduce the food consumption induced by neuropeptide Y (NPY injection. High levels of leptin receptor (lepR mRNA were detected in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum of the goldfish brain. The appetite inhibitory effects of leptins were mediated by downregulating the mRNA levels of orexigenic NPY, agouti-related peptide (AgRP and orexin and upregulating the mRNA levels of anorexigenic cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, cholecystokinin (CCK, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH and proopiomelanocortin (POMC in different areas of the goldfish brain. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights into the functions and mechanisms of leptins in appetite control in a fish model.

  11. Evaluation of feature detection algorithms for structure from motion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available technique with an application to stereo vision,” in International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, April 1981. [17] C.Tomasi and T.Kanade, “Detection and tracking of point fetaures,” Carnegie Mellon, Tech. Rep., April 1991. [18] P. Torr... Algorithms for Structure from Motion Natasha Govender Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems CSIR Pretoria Email: ngovender@csir.co.za Abstract—Structure from motion is a widely-used technique in computer vision to perform 3D reconstruction. The 3D...

  12. Motion Detection in Ultrasound Image-Sequences Using Tensor Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inba, Masafumi; Yanagida, Hirotaka; Tamura, Yasutaka

    2008-05-01

    Motion detection in ultrasound image sequences using tensor voting is described. We have been developing an ultrasound imaging system adopting a combination of coded excitation and synthetic aperture focusing techniques. In our method, frame rate of the system at distance of 150 mm reaches 5000 frame/s. Sparse array and short duration coded ultrasound signals are used for high-speed data acquisition. However, many artifacts appear in the reconstructed image sequences because of the incompleteness of the transmitted code. To reduce the artifacts, we have examined the application of tensor voting to the imaging method which adopts both coded excitation and synthetic aperture techniques. In this study, the basis of applying tensor voting and the motion detection method to ultrasound images is derived. It was confirmed that velocity detection and feature enhancement are possible using tensor voting in the time and space of simulated ultrasound three-dimensional image sequences.

  13. Cellular neural networks for motion estimation and obstacle detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Feiden

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstacle detection is an important part of Video Processing because it is indispensable for a collision prevention of autonomously navigating moving objects. For example, vehicles driving without human guidance need a robust prediction of potential obstacles, like other vehicles or pedestrians. Most of the common approaches of obstacle detection so far use analytical and statistical methods like motion estimation or generation of maps. In the first part of this contribution a statistical algorithm for obstacle detection in monocular video sequences is presented. The proposed procedure is based on a motion estimation and a planar world model which is appropriate to traffic scenes. The different processing steps of the statistical procedure are a feature extraction, a subsequent displacement vector estimation and a robust estimation of the motion parameters. Since the proposed procedure is composed of several processing steps, the error propagation of the successive steps often leads to inaccurate results. In the second part of this contribution it is demonstrated, that the above mentioned problems can be efficiently overcome by using Cellular Neural Networks (CNN. It will be shown, that a direct obstacle detection algorithm can be easily performed, based only on CNN processing of the input images. Beside the enormous computing power of programmable CNN based devices, the proposed method is also very robust in comparison to the statistical method, because is shows much less sensibility to noisy inputs. Using the proposed approach of obstacle detection in planar worlds, a real time processing of large input images has been made possible.

  14. Group-based Motion Detection for Energy-Efficient Localisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Cotillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term outdoor localization remains challenging due to the high energy profiles of GPS modules. Duty cycling the GPS module combined with inertial sensors can improve energy consumption. However, inertial sensors that are kept active all the time can also drain mobile node batteries. This paper proposes duty cycling strategies for inertial sensors to maintain a target position accuracy and node lifetime. We present a method for duty cycling motion sensors according to features of movement events, and evaluate its energy and accuracy profile for an empirical data trace of cattle movement. We further introduce the concept of group-based duty cycling, where nodes that cluster together can share the burden of motion detection to reduce their duty cycles. Our evaluation shows that both variants of motion sensor duty cycling yield up to 78% improvement in overall node power consumption, and that the group-based method yields an additional 20% power reduction during periods of low mobility.

  15. On-Line Detection and Segmentation of Sports Motions Using a Wearable Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosuk Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In sports motion analysis, observation is a prerequisite for understanding the quality of motions. This paper introduces a novel approach to detect and segment sports motions using a wearable sensor for supporting systematic observation. The main goal is, for convenient analysis, to automatically provide motion data, which are temporally classified according to the phase definition. For explicit segmentation, a motion model is defined as a sequence of sub-motions with boundary states. A sequence classifier based on deep neural networks is designed to detect sports motions from continuous sensor inputs. The evaluation on two types of motions (soccer kicking and two-handed ball throwing verifies that the proposed method is successful for the accurate detection and segmentation of sports motions. By developing a sports motion analysis system using the motion model and the sequence classifier, we show that the proposed method is useful for observation of sports motions by automatically providing relevant motion data for analysis.

  16. On-Line Detection and Segmentation of Sports Motions Using a Wearable Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woosuk; Kim, Myunggyu

    2018-03-19

    In sports motion analysis, observation is a prerequisite for understanding the quality of motions. This paper introduces a novel approach to detect and segment sports motions using a wearable sensor for supporting systematic observation. The main goal is, for convenient analysis, to automatically provide motion data, which are temporally classified according to the phase definition. For explicit segmentation, a motion model is defined as a sequence of sub-motions with boundary states. A sequence classifier based on deep neural networks is designed to detect sports motions from continuous sensor inputs. The evaluation on two types of motions (soccer kicking and two-handed ball throwing) verifies that the proposed method is successful for the accurate detection and segmentation of sports motions. By developing a sports motion analysis system using the motion model and the sequence classifier, we show that the proposed method is useful for observation of sports motions by automatically providing relevant motion data for analysis.

  17. Calogero's 'goldfish' is indeed a school of free particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nucci, M C [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2004-11-26

    A many-body system of N nonlinear ordinary differential equations of second order which is amenable to exact treatments (a 'goldfish') (Calogero 2001 The neatest many-body problem amenable to exact treatments (a 'goldfish'?) Physica D 152-153 78-84) is shown to be equivalent through an exact transformation to the equations of one-dimensional motion of (N-1) free particles (a school of free particles, indeed). The transformation is obtained by applying the reduction method and Lie group analysis as introduced in Nucci (1996 The complete Kepler group can be derived by Lie group analysis J. Math. Phys. 37 1772-5)

  18. Molecular, cellular and physiological evidences for the anorexigenic actions of nesfatin-1 in goldfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Gonzalez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesfatin-1 is a recently discovered anorexigen encoded in the precursor peptide, nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2 in mammals. To date, nesfatin-1 has not been described in any non-mammalian species, although some information is available in the sequenced genomes of several species. Our objective was to characterize nesfatin-1 in fish.In the present study, we employed molecular, immunohistochemical, and physiological studies to characterize the structure, distribution, and appetite regulatory effects of nesfatin-1 in a non-mammalian vertebrate. A very high conservation in NUCB2 sequences, especially in the nesfatin-1 region was found in lower vertebrates. Abundant expression of NUCB2 mRNA was detected in several tissues including the brain and liver of goldfish. Nesfatin-1-like immunoreactive cells are present in the feeding regulatory nucleus of the hypothalamus and in the gastrointestinal tract of goldfish. Approximately 6-fold increase in NUCB2 mRNA levels was found in the liver after 7-day food-deprivation, and a similar increase was also found after short-term fasting. This points toward a possible liver specific role for NUCB2 in the control of metabolism during food-deprivation. Meanwhile, ∼2-fold increase at 1 and 3 h post-feeding and an ∼3-fold reduction after a 7-day food-deprivation was observed in NUCB2 mRNA in the goldfish hypothalamus. In vivo, a single intraperitoneal injection of the full-length native (goldfish; gf nesfatin-1 at a dose of 50 ng/g body weight induced a 23% reduction of food intake one hour post-injection in goldfish. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of gfnesfatin-1 at a dose of 5 ng/g body weight resulted in ∼50% reduction in food intake.Our results provide molecular, anatomical and functional evidences to support potential anorectic and metabolic roles for endogenous nesfatin-1 in goldfish. Collectively, we provide novel information on NUCB2 in non-mammals and an anorexigenic role for nesfatin-1 in

  19. Motion Pattern Extraction and Event Detection for Automatic Visual Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benabbas Yassine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient analysis of human behavior in video surveillance scenes is a very challenging problem. Most traditional approaches fail when applied in real conditions and contexts like amounts of persons, appearance ambiguity, and occlusion. In this work, we propose to deal with this problem by modeling the global motion information obtained from optical flow vectors. The obtained direction and magnitude models learn the dominant motion orientations and magnitudes at each spatial location of the scene and are used to detect the major motion patterns. The applied region-based segmentation algorithm groups local blocks that share the same motion direction and speed and allows a subregion of the scene to appear in different patterns. The second part of the approach consists in the detection of events related to groups of people which are merge, split, walk, run, local dispersion, and evacuation by analyzing the instantaneous optical flow vectors and comparing the learned models. The approach is validated and experimented on standard datasets of the computer vision community. The qualitative and quantitative results are discussed.

  20. Detecting Lateral Motion using Light’s Orbital Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetic, Neda; Milione, Giovanni; Ip, Ezra; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Interrogating an object with a light beam and analyzing the scattered light can reveal kinematic information about the object, which is vital for applications ranging from autonomous vehicles to gesture recognition and virtual reality. We show that by analyzing the change in the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a tilted light beam eclipsed by a moving object, lateral motion of the object can be detected in an arbitrary direction using a single light beam and without object image reconstruction. We observe OAM spectral asymmetry that corresponds to the lateral motion direction along an arbitrary axis perpendicular to the plane containing the light beam and OAM measurement axes. These findings extend OAM-based remote sensing to detection of non-rotational qualities of objects and may also have extensions to other electromagnetic wave regimes, including radio and sound. PMID:26493681

  1. Detecting Lateral Motion using Light's Orbital Angular Momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetic, Neda; Milione, Giovanni; Ip, Ezra; Wang, Ting

    2015-10-23

    Interrogating an object with a light beam and analyzing the scattered light can reveal kinematic information about the object, which is vital for applications ranging from autonomous vehicles to gesture recognition and virtual reality. We show that by analyzing the change in the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a tilted light beam eclipsed by a moving object, lateral motion of the object can be detected in an arbitrary direction using a single light beam and without object image reconstruction. We observe OAM spectral asymmetry that corresponds to the lateral motion direction along an arbitrary axis perpendicular to the plane containing the light beam and OAM measurement axes. These findings extend OAM-based remote sensing to detection of non-rotational qualities of objects and may also have extensions to other electromagnetic wave regimes, including radio and sound.

  2. Motion Detection Implementation on a Game Using Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Putra Gozali

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of advanced gaming technology, we can play the game with so many tools or platforms such as console games, PC games, mobile games and handheld games. The disadvantage of those games is the difficulty to connect additional sensors to the PC computer. Large power requirements will also be a constraint. Besides, the size of the PC could be a weakness that makes it difficult to carry and play anytime. Raspberry is a small computer that can be added with motion detection sensors. By using the raspberry, the researchers managed to create a game "Crows Adventure" that uses motion detection sensor as the controller. Some of the sensors used in the game is UDS Sensor ( Ultrasonic Sensor disctance and touch sensors are applied to smarthphone to control the game. This allows the use of sensors in making more varied games by using raspberry devices.

  3. Exterior field evaluation of new generation video motion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advancements in video motion detection (VMD) system design and technology have resulted in several new commercial VMD systems. Considerable interest in the new VMD systems has been generated because the systems are advertised to work effectively in exterior applications. Previous VMD systems, when used in an exterior environment, tended to have very high nuisance alarm rates due to weather conditions, wildlife activity and lighting variations. The new VMD systems advertise more advanced processing of the incoming video signal which is aimed at rejecting exterior environmental nuisance alarm sources while maintaining a high detection capability. This paper discusses the results of field testing, in an exterior environment, of two new VMD systems

  4. Multi-scale structural similarity index for motion detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdel-Salam Nasr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The most recent approach for measuring the image quality is the structural similarity index (SSI. This paper presents a novel algorithm based on the multi-scale structural similarity index for motion detection (MS-SSIM in videos. The MS-SSIM approach is based on modeling of image luminance, contrast and structure at multiple scales. The MS-SSIM has resulted in much better performance than the single scale SSI approach but at the cost of relatively lower processing speed. The major advantages of the presented algorithm are both: the higher detection accuracy and the quasi real-time processing speed.

  5. Improved Motion Estimation Using Early Zero-Block Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate the early zero-block detection technique into the UMHexagonS algorithm, which has already been adopted in H.264/AVC JM reference software, to speed up the motion estimation process. A nearly sufficient condition is derived for early zero-block detection. Although the conventional early zero-block detection method can achieve significant improvement in computation reduction, the PSNR loss, to whatever extent, is not negligible especially for high quantization parameter (QP or low bit-rate coding. This paper modifies the UMHexagonS algorithm with the early zero-block detection technique to improve its coding performance. The experimental results reveal that the improved UMHexagonS algorithm greatly reduces computation while maintaining very high coding efficiency.

  6. Present status of fuel motion detection by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Makoto; Ara, Katsuyuki; Nakata, Hirokatsu.

    1978-05-01

    In reactor safety research, it is important to know transient fuel behavior under accidental conditions. Transient histories such as temperature and axial expansion of fuel and cladding and internal pressure of fuel rod are thus measured in experiments simulating accidents. If fuel motion could then be observed during and after fuel failure, this would greatly make for fuel behavior research. The present status is reviewed of fuel motion detections by radiations such as neutron, γ-ray and X-ray, including the principle and system. A neutron hodoscope among them is used already with practical results in in-reactor safety experiments of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. So, this is described in detail and its conceptual design as applied to the NSRR is presented. (auth.)

  7. Horizontal cells function normally in ethambutol-treated goldfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wietsma, J. J.; Kamermans, M.; Spekreijse, H.

    1995-01-01

    Ethambutol, a tuberculostatic drug, induces red-green colour vision defects in man and goldfish. The ethambutol-induced red-green colour vision defect in goldfish was argued to originate in the retina because after ethambutol application: (1) inhibitive interactions in red-green (double) opponent

  8. Motion Detection Implementation on a Game Using Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan Putra Gozali

    2017-01-01

    Along with the development of advanced gaming technology, we can play the game with so many tools or platforms such as console games, PC games, mobile games and handheld games. The disadvantage of those games is the difficulty to connect additional sensors to the PC computer. Large power requirements will also be a constraint. Besides, the size of the PC could be a weakness that makes it difficult to carry and play anytime. Raspberry is a small computer that can be added with motion detection...

  9. Coded aperture imaging system for nuclear fuel motion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalker, K.T.; Kelly, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    A Coded Aperature Imaging System (CAIS) has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to image the motion of nuclear fuel rods undergoing tests simulating accident conditions within a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The tests require that the motion of the test fuel be monitored while it is immersed in a liquid sodium coolant precluding the use of normal optical means of imaging. However, using the fission gamma rays emitted by the fuel itself and coded aperture techniques, images with 1.5 mm radial and 5 mm axial resolution have been attained. Using an electro-optical detection system coupled to a high speed motion picture camera a time resolution of one millisecond can be achieved. This paper will discuss the application of coded aperture imaging to the problem, including the design of the one-dimensional Fresnel zone plate apertures used and the special problems arising from the reactor environment and use of high energy gamma ray photons to form the coded image. Also to be discussed will be the reconstruction techniques employed and the effect of various noise sources on system performance. Finally, some experimental results obtained using the system will be presented

  10. Respiratory liver motion tracking during transcatheter procedures using guidewire detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanegas Orozco, Maria-Carolina; Gorges, Sebastien; Pescatore, Jeremie

    2008-01-01

    Transcatheter chemoembolization of liver tumors is performed under X-ray fluoroscopic image guidance. This is a difficult procedure because the vessels of the liver are constantly moving due to respiration and they are not visible in the X-ray image unless a contrast medium is injected. In order to help the interventional radiologist during the treatment, we propose to superimpose on to the fluoroscopic image a pre-acquired contrast-enhanced 2D or 3D image while accounting for liver motion. Our approach proposes to track the guidewire from frame to frame. Our proposed method can be split into two steps. First the guidewire is automatically detected; then the motion between two frames is estimated using a robust ICP (iterative closest point) algorithm. We have tested our method on simulated X-ray fluoroscopic images of a moving guidewire and applied it on 4 clinical sequences. Simulation demonstrated that the mean precision of our method is inferior to 1 mm. On clinical data, preliminary results demonstrated that this method allows for respiratory motion compensation of liver vessels with a mean accuracy inferior to 3 mm. (orig.)

  11. Another New Solvable Many-Body Model of Goldfish Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calogero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new solvable many-body problem is identified. It is characterized by nonlinear Newtonian equations of motion (''acceleration equal force'' featuring one-body and two-body velocity-dependent forces ''of goldfish type'' which determine the motion ofan arbitrary number $N$ of unit-mass point-particles in a plane. The $N$ (generally complex values $z_{n}(t$ at time $t$ ofthe $N$ coordinates of these moving particles are given by the $N$eigenvalues of a time-dependent $Nimes N$ matrix $U(t$explicitly known in terms of the $2N$ initial data $z_{n}(0$and $dot{z}_{n}(0 $. This model comes in two dif/ferentvariants, one featuring 3 arbitrary coupling constants, the other only 2; for special values of these parameters all solutions are completely periodic with the same period independent of the initial data (''isochrony''; for other special values of these parameters this property holds up to corrections vanishing exponentially as $tightarrow infty$ (''asymptotic isochrony''. Other isochronous variants of these models are also reported. Alternative formulations, obtained by changing the dependent variables from the $N$ zeros of a monic polynomial of degree $N$ to its $N$ coefficients, are also exhibited. Some mathematical findings implied by some of these results - such as Diophantine properties of the zeros of certain polynomials - are outlined, but their analysis is postponed to a separate paper.

  12. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  13. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m"2). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H_2O_2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H_2O_2) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  14. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young, E-mail: choic@kmou.ac.kr

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  15. FPGA-Based Real-Time Motion Detection for Automated Video Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Design of automated video surveillance systems is one of the exigent missions in computer vision community because of their ability to automatically select frames of interest in incoming video streams based on motion detection. This research paper focuses on the real-time hardware implementation of a motion detection algorithm for such vision based automated surveillance systems. A dedicated VLSI architecture has been proposed and designed for clustering-based motion detection scheme. The working prototype of a complete standalone automated video surveillance system, including input camera interface, designed motion detection VLSI architecture, and output display interface, with real-time relevant motion detection capabilities, has been implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T FPGA platform. The prototyped system robustly detects the relevant motion in real-time in live PAL (720 × 576 resolution video streams directly coming from the camera.

  16. Development and Experimental Investigations of Motion Detection Module for Smart Lighting System

    OpenAIRE

    Matveev, I.; Siemens, E.; Yurchenko, Aleksey Vasilievich; Kuznetsov, D.

    2016-01-01

    This work considers motion sensors as parts of the smart lighting system on basis of Beaglebone microcomputer. Detection system is designed for the smart lighting system. Experimental investigations of the detection system were made with different motion sensors. Based on the results comparative analysis was performed and optimal conditions for the detection system operation were found.

  17. Reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties of music in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ono, Haruka; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigated whether music has reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties in goldfish. Experiment 1 examined the discriminative stimulus properties of music. The subjects were successfully trained to discriminate between two pieces of music--Toccata and Fugue in D minor (BWV 565) by J. S. Bach and The Rite of Spring by I. Stravinsky. Experiment 2 examined the reinforcing properties of sounds, including BWV 565 and The Rite of Spring. We developed an apparatus for measuring spontaneous sound preference in goldfish. Music or noise stimuli were presented depending on the subject's position in the aquarium, and the time spent in each area was measured. The results indicated that the goldfish did not show consistent preferences for music, although they showed significant avoidance of noise stimuli. These results suggest that music has discriminative but not reinforcing stimulus properties in goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Coded aperture material motion detection system for the ACPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McArthur, D.A.; Kelly, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    Single LMFBR fuel pins are being irradiated in Sandia's Annular Core Pulsed Reactor (ACPR). In these experiments single fuel pins have been driven well into the melt and vaporization regions in transients with pulse widths of about 5 ms. The ACPR is being upgraded so that it can be used to irradiate bundles of seven LMFBR fuel pins. The coded aperture material motion detection system described is being developed for this upgraded ACPR, and has for its design goals 1 mm transverse resolution (i.e., in the axial and radial directions), depth resolution of a few cm, and time resolution of 0.1 ms. The target date for development of this system is fall 1977. The paper briefly reviews the properties of coded aperture imaging, describes one possible system for the ACPR upgrade, discusses experiments which have been performed to investigate the feasibility of such a system, and describes briefly the further work required to develop such a system. The type of coded aperture to be used has not yet been fixed, but a one-dimensional section of a Fresnel zone plate appears at this time to have significant advantages

  19. Motion detection and correction for dynamic 15O-water myocardial perfusion PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naum, Alexandru; Laaksonen, Marko S.; Oikonen, Vesa; Teraes, Mika; Jaervisalo, Mikko J.; Knuuti, Juhani; Tuunanen, Helena; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kemppainen, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    Patient motion during dynamic PET studies is a well-documented source of errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of frame-to-frame motion in dynamic 15 O-water myocardial perfusion PET studies, to test the efficacy of motion correction methods and to study whether implementation of motion correction would have an impact on the perfusion results. We developed a motion detection procedure using external radioactive skin markers and frame-to-frame alignment. To evaluate motion, marker coordinates inside the field of view were determined in each frame for each study. The highest number of frames with identical spatial coordinates during the study were defined as ''non-moved''. Movement was considered present if even one marker changed position, by one pixel/frame compared with reference, in one axis, and such frames were defined as ''moved''. We tested manual, in-house-developed motion correction software and an automatic motion correction using a rigid body point model implemented in MIPAV (Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualisation) software. After motion correction, remaining motion was re-analysed. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) values were calculated for both non-corrected and motion-corrected datasets. At rest, patient motion was found in 18% of the frames, but during pharmacological stress the fraction increased to 45% and during physical exercise it rose to 80%. Both motion correction algorithms significantly decreased (p<0.006) the number of moved frames and the amplitude of motion (p<0.04). Motion correction significantly increased MBF results during bicycle exercise (p<0.02). At rest or during adenosine infusion, the motion correction had no significant effects on MBF values. Significant motion is a common phenomenon in dynamic cardiac studies during adenosine infusion but especially during exercise. Applying motion correction for the data acquired during exercise clearly changed the MBF results, indicating that motion

  20. Evaluation of the Johnson AG-1007-7 (G-7) microwave motion detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was performed on the Johnson Model AG-1007-7 motion detection system. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine sensor detection patterns and to quantitate the effects of intruder velocity. System susceptibility to fluorescent lights, oscillatory motion, and environmental factors was also examined.

  1. Fusion of optical flow based motion pattern analysis and silhouette classification for person tracking and detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, J.W.H.; Lebert, E.; Burghouts, G.J.; Zon, K. van; Den Uyl, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to detect persons in video by combining optical flow based motion analysis and silhouette based recognition. A new fast optical flow computation method is described, and its application in a motion based analysis framework unifying human tracking and detection is

  2. Evaluation of the Johnson AG-1007-7 (G-7) microwave motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of tests was performed on the Johnson Model AG-1007-7 motion detection system. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine sensor detection patterns and to quantitate the effects of intruder velocity. System susceptibility to fluorescent lights, oscillatory motion, and environmental factors was also examined

  3. Evaluation of the peak MA-6600L microwave motion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    A series of tests was performed on the Peak MA-6600L motion detection system. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine sensor detection patterns and to quantitate the effects of intruder velocity. System susceptibility to fluorescent lights, oscillatory motion, and environmental factors was also examined

  4. VLBA Detects Earth's Motion Around the Milky Way's Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    It takes our Solar System more than 200 million years to orbit the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, 26,000 light-years away. Despite that tremendously long time span, astronomers using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) powerful Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have shown they can detect this orbital motion in ten days! In addition, they have made a new and more accurate determination of just how long it takes us to circle our Galaxy -- 226 million years. "Not only is this a tremendous technical achievement, but it also has allowed us to greatly strengthen the scientific case for a supermassive black hole at the Galaxy's center -- definitely ruling out a multiple-star system," said Mark Reid of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Reid, along with Anthony Readhead and Rene Vermuelen of Caltech and Robert Treuhaft of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, announced their discovery at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. The scientists used the continent-wide VLBA, part of the NSF's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), to observe a radio-wave-emitting object called Sagittarius A* (pronounced "A-star"), that has been thought to mark the exact center of the Milky Way since its discovery more than two decades ago. They were able to measure its position on the sky within nearly one ten-thousandth of a second of arc -- a precision 600,000 times greater than that of the human eye and more than 500 times greater than that of the Hubble Space Telescope. With this precision, the astronomers were able to detect the slight apparent shift in position of Sagittarius A* compared to the positions of much more-distant quasars behind it. That apparent shift was caused by the motion of the Solar System around the Galaxy's center. "From these measurements, we estimate that we are moving at about 135 miles per second in our orbit around the center of the Milky Way," Reid said. "Even though it takes more than 200 million years for us to

  5. Detection of visual events along the apparent motion trace in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lia Lira Olivier; Muckli, Lars; de Millas, Walter; Lautenschlager, Marion; Heinz, Andreas; Kathmann, Norbert; Sterzer, Philipp

    2012-07-30

    Dysfunctional prediction in sensory processing has been suggested as a possible causal mechanism in the development of delusions in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies in healthy subjects have shown that while the perception of apparent motion can mask visual events along the illusory motion trace, such motion masking is reduced when events are spatio-temporally compatible with the illusion, and, therefore, predictable. Here we tested the hypothesis that this specific detection advantage for predictable target stimuli on the apparent motion trace is reduced in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Our data show that, although target detection along the illusory motion trace is generally impaired, both patients and healthy control participants detect predictable targets more often than unpredictable targets. Patients had a stronger motion masking effect when compared to controls. However, patients showed the same advantage in the detection of predictable targets as healthy control subjects. Our findings reveal stronger motion masking but intact prediction of visual events along the apparent motion trace in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and suggest that the sensory prediction mechanism underlying apparent motion is not impaired in paranoid schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Temporal interpolation alters motion in fMRI scans: Magnitudes and consequences for artifact detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Power

    Full Text Available Head motion can be estimated at any point of fMRI image processing. Processing steps involving temporal interpolation (e.g., slice time correction or outlier replacement often precede motion estimation in the literature. From first principles it can be anticipated that temporal interpolation will alter head motion in a scan. Here we demonstrate this effect and its consequences in five large fMRI datasets. Estimated head motion was reduced by 10-50% or more following temporal interpolation, and reductions were often visible to the naked eye. Such reductions make the data seem to be of improved quality. Such reductions also degrade the sensitivity of analyses aimed at detecting motion-related artifact and can cause a dataset with artifact to falsely appear artifact-free. These reduced motion estimates will be particularly problematic for studies needing estimates of motion in time, such as studies of dynamics. Based on these findings, it is sensible to obtain motion estimates prior to any image processing (regardless of subsequent processing steps and the actual timing of motion correction procedures, which need not be changed. We also find that outlier replacement procedures change signals almost entirely during times of motion and therefore have notable similarities to motion-targeting censoring strategies (which withhold or replace signals entirely during times of motion.

  7. Memory Efficient VLSI Implementation of Real-Time Motion Detection System Using FPGA Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Motion detection is the heart of a potentially complex automated video surveillance system, intended to be used as a standalone system. Therefore, in addition to being accurate and robust, a successful motion detection technique must also be economical in the use of computational resources on selected FPGA development platform. This is because many other complex algorithms of an automated video surveillance system also run on the same platform. Keeping this key requirement as main focus, a memory efficient VLSI architecture for real-time motion detection and its implementation on FPGA platform is presented in this paper. This is accomplished by proposing a new memory efficient motion detection scheme and designing its VLSI architecture. The complete real-time motion detection system using the proposed memory efficient architecture along with proper input/output interfaces is implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T FPGA development platform and is capable of operating at 154.55 MHz clock frequency. Memory requirement of the proposed architecture is reduced by 41% compared to the standard clustering based motion detection architecture. The new memory efficient system robustly and automatically detects motion in real-world scenarios (both for the static backgrounds and the pseudo-stationary backgrounds in real-time for standard PAL (720 × 576 size color video.

  8. Using Motion Tracking to Detect Spontaneous Movements in Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    We study the characteristics of infants’ spontaneous movements, based on data obtained from a markerless motion tracking system. From the pose data, the set of features are generated from the raw joint-angles of the infants and different classifiers are trained and evaluated using annotated data...

  9. Goldfish neurokinin B: Cloning, tissue distribution, and potential role in regulating reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Zhou, Wenyi; Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Yun; Ye, Gang; Liu, Xiaochun; Peng, Chun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-09-15

    Neurokinin B (NKB) is a member of the tackykinin (TAC) family known to play a critical role in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction in mammals. However, its biological functions in teleosts are less clear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of NKB in fish reproduction using goldfish as a model. Two transcripts, TAC3a and TAC3b, which encode several NKBs, including NKBa-13, NKBa-10, NKBb-13, and NKBb-11, were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NKBa-10 and NKBb-11 are closely related to mammalian NKB, while NKB-13s are more conserved in teleosts. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in various tissues showed that TAC3a and TAC3b mRNAs were mainly expressed in the brain. In situ hybridization further detected TAC3a and TAC3b mRNAs in several regions of the brain known to be involved in the regulation of reproduction and metabolism, as well as in the neurohypophysis of the pituitary. To investigate the potential role of NKBs in reproduction, goldfish were injected intraperitoneally with synthetic NKBa-13, -10, NKBb-13, or -11 peptides and the mRNA levels of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary gonadotropin subunits were measured. NKBa-13, -10, or NKBb-13, but not -11, significantly increased hypothalamic salmon GnRH and pituitary FSHβ and LHβ mRNA levels in both female and male goldfish. Finally, ovariectomy increased, while estradiol replacement reduced, TAC3a mRNA levels without affecting TAC3b expression in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that NKBa-13, -10, and NKBb-13 play a role in mediating the estrogen negative feedback regulation of gonadotropins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High abundance androgen receptor in goldfish brain: characteristics and seasonal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasmanik, M.; Callard, G.V.

    1988-01-01

    Testosterone (T) exerts its actions in brain directly via androgen receptors or, after aromatization to estradiol, via estrogen receptors. Brain aromatase activity in teleost fish is 100-1000 times greater than in mammals and would be expected to significantly reduce the quantity of androgen available for receptor binding. Experiments were carried out on the goldfish Carassius auratus to determine if androgen receptors are present in teleost brain and whether their physicochemical properties reflect elevated aromatase. Cytosolic and nuclear extracts were assayed with the use of [ 3 H]T and charcoal, Sephadex LH-20, or DNA-cellulose chromatography to separate bound and free steroids. Binding activity was saturable and had an equally high affinity for T and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Although mibolerone was a relatively weak competitor, the putative teleost androgen 11-ketotestosterone, methyltrienolone (R1881), estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were poor ligands. Characteristics that distinguish this receptor from a steroid-binding protein in goldfish serum are the presence of binding activity in both nuclear and cytosolic extracts, a low rate of ligand-receptor dissociation, electrophoretic mobility, sedimentation properties in low vs. high salt, and tissue distribution. DNA cellulose-adhering and nonadhering forms were detected, but these did not differ in other variables measured. Although goldfish androgen receptors resembled those of mammals in all important physicochemical characteristics, they were unusually abundant compared to levels in rat brain, but comparable to levels in prostate and other male sex hormone target organs. Moreover, there were seasonal variations in total receptors, with a peak at spawning (April) 4- to 5-fold higher than values in reproductively inactive fish

  11. Glycinergic pathways in the goldfish retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc, R.E.; Lam, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Autoradiographic localization of high affinity [3H]glycine uptake in the retina of the goldfish has been used to study some anatomical and physiological properties of potentially glycinergic neurons. There are two classes of retinal cells exhibiting high affinity glycine uptake: Aa amacrine cells and I2 interplexiform cells. Aa amacrine cells constitute about 20% of the somas in the amacrine cell layer and send their dendrites to the middle of the inner plexiform layer. There they are both pre- and postsynaptic primarily to other amacrine cells. Photic modulation of glycine uptake indicates that they are probably red-hyperpolarizing/green-depolarizing neurons. I2 interplexiform cells are a newly discovered type of interplexiform cell; in the outer plexiform layer, they receive direct synaptic input from the somas of red-dominated GABAergic H1 horizontal cells and are apparently presynaptic to dendrites of unidentified types of horizontal cells. The connections of I2 interplexiform cells have not been successfully characterized in the inner plexiform layer. These findings extend our knowledge of neurochemically specific pathways in the cyprinid retina and indicate that glycine, like GABA, is a neurotransmitter primarily involved with circuits coding ''red'' information

  12. Flash x-radiography for material motion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choate, L.M.; Buckalew, W.H.; Posey, L.D.

    1977-01-01

    A significant part of the experimental program dealing with the behavior of prototypic LMFBR fuel pin bundles under mild to severe power transients is that of the observation of fuel/cladding/coolant motion. The feasibility of using electron beam flash x-radiography as a diagnostic tool for safety test facilities is presently under evaluation. A summary of the objectives and approach of the flash x-radiography program is presented

  13. Segmentation Based Video Steganalysis to Detect Motion Vector Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a steganalytic approach against video steganography which modifies motion vector (MV in content adaptive manner. Current video steganalytic schemes extract features from fixed-length frames of the whole video and do not take advantage of the content diversity. Consequently, the effectiveness of the steganalytic feature is influenced by video content and the problem of cover source mismatch also affects the steganalytic performance. The goal of this paper is to propose a steganalytic method which can suppress the differences of statistical characteristics caused by video content. The given video is segmented to subsequences according to block’s motion in every frame. The steganalytic features extracted from each category of subsequences with close motion intensity are used to build one classifier. The final steganalytic result can be obtained by fusing the results of weighted classifiers. The experimental results have demonstrated that our method can effectively improve the performance of video steganalysis, especially for videos of low bitrate and low embedding ratio.

  14. Detection of cardiac wall motion defects with combined amplitude/phase analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Bonow, R.O.; Pace, L.; Brunetti, A.; Larson, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Fourier phase images have been used with some success to detect and quantify left ventricular (LV) wall motion defects. In abnormal regions of the LV, wall motion asynchronies often cause the time activity curve (TAC) to be shifted in phase. Such regional shifts are detected by analysis of the distribution function of phase values over the LV. However, not all wall motion defects result in detectable regional phase abnormalities. Such abnormalities may cause a reduction in the magnitude of contraction (and hence TAC amplitude) without any appreciable change in TAC shape(and hence phase). In an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the Fourier phase method for the detection of wall motion defects the authors analyzed the distribution function of Fourier amplitude as well as phase. 26 individuals with normal cardiac function and no history of cardiac disease served as controls. The goal was to detect and quantify wall motion as compared to the consensus of 3 independent observers viewing the scintigraphic cines. 26 subjects with coronary artery disease and mild wall motion defects (22 with normal EF) were studied ate rest. They found that analysis of the skew of thew amplitude distribution function improved the sensitivity for the detection of wall motion abnormalities at rest in the group from 65% to 85% (17/26 detected by phase alone, 22/26 by combined phase and amplitude analysis) while retaining a 0 false positive rate in the normal group. The authors conclude that analysis of Fourier amplitude distribution functions can significantly increase the sensitivity of phase imaging for detection of wall motion abnormalities

  15. Solitary Waves of Ice Loss Detected in Greenland Crustal Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The annual cycle and secular trend of Greenland mass loading are well recorded in measurements of solid Earth deformation. While bedrock vertical displacements are in phase with loading as inferred from space observations, horizontal motions have received almost no attention. The horizontal bedrock displacements can potentially track the spatiotemporal detail of mass changes with great fidelity. Our analysis of Greenland crustal motion data reveals that a significant excitation of horizontal amplitudes occurs during the intense Greenland melting. A suite of space geodetic observations and climate reanalysis data cannot explain these large horizontal displacements. We discover that solitary seasonal waves of substantial mass transport traveled through Rink Glacier in 2010 and 2012. We deduce that intense summer melting enhanced either basal lubrication or shear softening, or both, causing the glacier to thin dynamically. The newly routed upstream sublglacial water was likely to be both retarded and inefficient, thus providing a causal mechanism for the prolonged ice transport to continue well into the winter months. As the climate continues to produce increasingly warmer spring and summer, amplified seasonal waves of mass transport may become ever more present in years of future observations. Increased frequency of amplified seasonal mass transport may ultimately strengthen the Greenland's dynamic ice mass loss, a component of the balance that will have important ramifications for sea level rise. This animation shows a solitary wave passing through Rink Glacier, Greenland, in 2012, recorded by the motion of a GPS station (circle with arrow). Darker blue colors within the flow indicate mass loss, red colors show mass gain. The star marks the center of the wave. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

  16. WiFi-Based Real-Time Calibration-Free Passive Human Motion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyi Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of WLAN technology, wireless device-free passive human detection becomes a newly-developing technique and holds more potential to worldwide and ubiquitous smart applications. Recently, indoor fine-grained device-free passive human motion detection based on the PHY layer information is rapidly developed. Previous wireless device-free passive human detection systems either rely on deploying specialized systems with dense transmitter-receiver links or elaborate off-line training process, which blocks rapid deployment and weakens system robustness. In the paper, we explore to research a novel fine-grained real-time calibration-free device-free passive human motion via physical layer information, which is independent of indoor scenarios and needs no prior-calibration and normal profile. We investigate sensitivities of amplitude and phase to human motion, and discover that phase feature is more sensitive to human motion, especially to slow human motion. Aiming at lightweight and robust device-free passive human motion detection, we develop two novel and practical schemes: short-term averaged variance ratio (SVR and long-term averaged variance ratio (LVR. We realize system design with commercial WiFi devices and evaluate it in typical multipath-rich indoor scenarios. As demonstrated in the experiments, our approach can achieve a high detection rate and low false positive rate.

  17. WiFi-Based Real-Time Calibration-Free Passive Human Motion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liangyi; Yang, Wu; Man, Dapeng; Dong, Guozhong; Yu, Miao; Lv, Jiguang

    2015-12-21

    With the rapid development of WLAN technology, wireless device-free passive human detection becomes a newly-developing technique and holds more potential to worldwide and ubiquitous smart applications. Recently, indoor fine-grained device-free passive human motion detection based on the PHY layer information is rapidly developed. Previous wireless device-free passive human detection systems either rely on deploying specialized systems with dense transmitter-receiver links or elaborate off-line training process, which blocks rapid deployment and weakens system robustness. In the paper, we explore to research a novel fine-grained real-time calibration-free device-free passive human motion via physical layer information, which is independent of indoor scenarios and needs no prior-calibration and normal profile. We investigate sensitivities of amplitude and phase to human motion, and discover that phase feature is more sensitive to human motion, especially to slow human motion. Aiming at lightweight and robust device-free passive human motion detection, we develop two novel and practical schemes: short-term averaged variance ratio (SVR) and long-term averaged variance ratio (LVR). We realize system design with commercial WiFi devices and evaluate it in typical multipath-rich indoor scenarios. As demonstrated in the experiments, our approach can achieve a high detection rate and low false positive rate.

  18. WiFi-Based Real-Time Calibration-Free Passive Human Motion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liangyi; Yang, Wu; Man, Dapeng; Dong, Guozhong; Yu, Miao; Lv, Jiguang

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of WLAN technology, wireless device-free passive human detection becomes a newly-developing technique and holds more potential to worldwide and ubiquitous smart applications. Recently, indoor fine-grained device-free passive human motion detection based on the PHY layer information is rapidly developed. Previous wireless device-free passive human detection systems either rely on deploying specialized systems with dense transmitter-receiver links or elaborate off-line training process, which blocks rapid deployment and weakens system robustness. In the paper, we explore to research a novel fine-grained real-time calibration-free device-free passive human motion via physical layer information, which is independent of indoor scenarios and needs no prior-calibration and normal profile. We investigate sensitivities of amplitude and phase to human motion, and discover that phase feature is more sensitive to human motion, especially to slow human motion. Aiming at lightweight and robust device-free passive human motion detection, we develop two novel and practical schemes: short-term averaged variance ratio (SVR) and long-term averaged variance ratio (LVR). We realize system design with commercial WiFi devices and evaluate it in typical multipath-rich indoor scenarios. As demonstrated in the experiments, our approach can achieve a high detection rate and low false positive rate. PMID:26703612

  19. Astrometric detectability of systems with unseen companions: effects of the Earth orbital motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevich, Alexey G.

    2018-06-01

    The astrometric detection of an unseen companion is based on an analysis of the apparent motion of its host star around the system's barycentre. Systems with an orbital period close to 1 yr may escape detection if the orbital motion of their host stars is observationally indistinguishable from the effects of parallax. Additionally, an astrometric solution may produce a biased parallax estimation for such systems. We examine the effects of the orbital motion of the Earth on astrometric detectability in terms of a correlation between the Earth's orbital position and the position of the star relative to its system barycentre. The χ2 statistic for parallax estimation is calculated analytically, leading to expressions that relate the decrease in detectability and accompanying parallax bias to the position correlation function. The impact of the Earth's motion critically depends on the exoplanet's orbital period, diminishing rapidly as the period deviates from 1 yr. Selection effects against 1-yr-period systems is, therefore, expected. Statistical estimation shows that the corresponding loss of sensitivity results in a typical 10 per cent increase in the detection threshold. Consideration of eccentric orbits shows that the Earth's motion has no effect on detectability for e≳ 0.5. The dependence of the detectability on other parameters, such as orbital phases and inclination of the orbital plane to the ecliptic, are smooth and monotonic because they are described by simple trigonometric functions.

  20. Occurrence of lymphoid cells in the intestine of the Goldfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1975-01-01

    The Goldfish intestine normally contains a large number of lymphocytes, many of them being present in the epithelial layer. After stimulation with antigen, the number of lymphoid cells does not increase, but the proportion of large pyroninophilic cells and plasma cells does. It seems therefore that

  1. Morphology of the intestine of the Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the structures of the intestine of the Goldfish is given. Several morphological techniques have been used. Special attention has been paid to those characteristics of this organ that may be of importance to physiologists working with the same material, with emphasis on cell-to-cell

  2. GABA sensitivity of spectrally classified horizontal cells in goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Kamermans, M.; Negishi, K.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the GABA sensitivity of horizontal cells in the isolated goldfish retina. After the glutamatergic input to the horizontal cells was blocked with DNQX, GABA depolarized the monophasic and biphasic horizontal cells. The pharmacology of these GABA-induced depolarizations was tested with the

  3. Modulating wavelength discrimination in goldfish with ethambutol and stimulus intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerdsma, T.; Kamermans, M.; Spekreijse, H.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelength discrimination in goldfish was measured behaviourally. Both acute application of ethambutol injected into the eye and chronic application by feeding the animals daily 25 mg ethambutol for 1 month had the same effect on wavelength discrimination in the range of 560-640 nm. This means that:

  4. Sensitive detection of nanomechanical motion using piezoresistive signal downmixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargatin, I.; Myers, E.B.; Arlett, J.; Gudlewski, B.; Roukes, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a method of measuring rf-range resonance properties of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) with integrated piezoresistive strain detectors serving as signal downmixers. The technique takes advantage of the high strain sensitivity of semiconductor-based piezoresistors, while overcoming the problem of rf signal attenuation due to a high source impedance. Our technique also greatly reduces the effect of the cross-talk between the detector and actuator circuits. We achieve thermomechanical noise detection of cantilever resonance modes up to 71 MHz at room temperature, demonstrating that downmixed piezoresistive signal detection is a viable high-sensitivity method of displacement detection in high-frequency NEMS

  5. Wide area surveillance real-time motion detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book describes a system for visual surveillance using intelligent cameras. The camera uses robust techniques for detecting and tracking moving objects. The real time capture of the objects is then stored int he database. The tracking data stored in the database is analysed to study the camera view, detect and track objects, and study object behavior. These set of models provide a robust framework for coordinating the tracking of objects between overlapping and non-overlapping cameras, and recording the activity of objects detected by the system.

  6. Footpoint detection and mass-motion in chromospheric filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Aparna; Hardersen, P. S.; Martin, S. F.

    2013-07-01

    A quiescent region on the Sun containing three filaments is used to study the properties of mass motion. This study determines if the footpoints or end-points of the filaments are the locations from where mass gets injected into the filaments. Several hypotheses have been put forth in the past to determine how a filament acquires mass. Trapping of coronal mass in the filament channel due to condensation (Martin, 1996) and injection of mass into the filaments during magnetic reconnection (Priest, et al., 1995) are some of the speculations. This study looks for indications for injection of mass via chromospheric footpoints. The data consists of blue (Hα-0.5 Å) and red (Hα+0.5 Å) wing high resolution Hα images of the W29N37 region of the Sun taken on Oct 30, 2010, from 1200 - 1600 UT. The Dutch Open Telescope was used to obtain the data. The images are aligned and animated to see Doppler motion in the fibrils. Smaller fibrils merge to form longer ones; barbs appear and disappear in one of the long filaments and is seen moving along the length of the filament. A region with no typical filament-like absorption feature is observed to be continuously receiving mass. Fibrils appear to be converging from opposite sides along what appears to be a neutral line; mass motion is seen in these fibrils as well. An eruption occurs in a region of fibrils lumped together at the end of the first hour (1300 UT) followed by plage brightening at 1430 UT near one of the filament regions. Helioviewer (Panasenco, et al., 2011) is used for aligning the images; GIMP is used for precision alignment and animation. Each frame in the sequence is studied carefully to note changes in the filament regions. The footpoints of the filaments are determined by the changes observed in the position of the filament ‘legs’ in each frame. Variations in the magnetic polarity corresponding to changes observed in the chromosphere are analyzed using HMI magnetograms. Bright and dark points on the

  7. Harmonic pulsed excitation and motion detection of a vibrating reflective target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2008-01-01

    Elasticity imaging is an emerging medical imaging modality. Methods involving acoustic radiation force excitation and pulse-echo ultrasound motion detection have been investigated to assess the mechanical response of tissue. In this work new methods for dynamic radiation force excitation and motion detection are presented. The theory and model for harmonic motion detection of a vibrating reflective target are presented. The model incorporates processing of radio frequency data acquired using pulse-echo ultrasound to measure harmonic motion with amplitudes ranging from 100 to 10,000 nm. A numerical study was performed to assess the effects of different parameters on the accuracy and precision of displacement amplitude and phase estimation and showed how estimation errors could be minimized. Harmonic pulsed excitation is introduced as a multifrequency radiation force excitation method that utilizes ultrasound tonebursts repeated at a rate f(r). The radiation force, consisting of frequency components at multiples of f(r), is generated using 3.0 MHz ultrasound, and motion detection is performed simultaneously with 9.0 MHz pulse-echo ultrasound. A parameterized experimental analysis showed that displacement can be measured with small errors for motion with amplitudes as low as 100 nm. The parameterized numerical and experimental analyses provide insight into how to optimize acquisition parameters to minimize measurement errors.

  8. Smoke regions extraction based on two steps segmentation and motion detection in early fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wenlin; Wu, Kaizhi; Yu, Zirong; Chen, Lijuan

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at the early problems of video-based smoke detection in fire video, this paper proposes a method to extract smoke suspected regions by combining two steps segmentation and motion characteristics. Early smoldering smoke can be seen as gray or gray-white regions. In the first stage, regions of interests (ROIs) with smoke are obtained by using two step segmentation methods. Then, suspected smoke regions are detected by combining the two step segmentation and motion detection. Finally, morphological processing is used for smoke regions extracting. The Otsu algorithm is used as segmentation method and the ViBe algorithm is used to detect the motion of smoke. The proposed method was tested on 6 test videos with smoke. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method over visual observation.

  9. Detection of cyclic-fold bifurcation in electrostatic MEMS transducers by motion-induced current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangtak; Khater, Mahmoud; Effa, David; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a new detection method of cyclic-fold bifurcations in electrostatic MEMS transducers based on a variant of the harmonic detection of resonance method. The electrostatic transducer is driven by an unbiased harmonic signal at half its natural frequency, ω a   =  1/2 ω o . The response of the transducer consists of static displacement and a series of harmonics at 2 ω a , 4 ω a , and so on. Its motion-induced current is shifted by the excitation frequency, ω a , to appear at 3 ω a , 5 ω a , and higher odd harmonics, providing higher sensitivity to the measurement of harmonic motions. With this method, we successfully detected the variation in the location of the cyclic-fold bifurcation of an encapsulated electrostatic MEMS transducer. We also detected a regime of tapping mode motions subsequent to the bifurcation.

  10. Detection of cyclic-fold bifurcation in electrostatic MEMS transducers by motion-induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangtak; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Khater, Mahmoud; Effa, David; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new detection method of cyclic-fold bifurcations in electrostatic MEMS transducers based on a variant of the harmonic detection of resonance method. The electrostatic transducer is driven by an unbiased harmonic signal at half its natural frequency, ω a   =  1/2  ω o . The response of the transducer consists of static displacement and a series of harmonics at 2  ω a , 4  ω a , and so on. Its motion-induced current is shifted by the excitation frequency, ω a , to appear at 3  ω a , 5  ω a , and higher odd harmonics, providing higher sensitivity to the measurement of harmonic motions. With this method, we successfully detected the variation in the location of the cyclic-fold bifurcation of an encapsulated electrostatic MEMS transducer. We also detected a regime of tapping mode motions subsequent to the bifurcation. (paper)

  11. New Monitoring System to Detect a Radioactive Material in Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudergui, Karim; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Coulon, Romain; Corre, Gwenole; Normand, Stephane

    2013-06-01

    Illegal radioactive material transportation detection, by terrorist for example, is problematic in urban public transportation. Academics and industrials systems include Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) to detect radioactive matters transported in vehicles or carried by pedestrians. However, today's RPMs are not able to efficiently detect a radioactive material in movement. Due to count statistic and gamma background, false alarms may be triggered or at the contrary a radioactive material not detected. The statistical false alarm rate has to be as low as possible in order to limit useless intervention especially in urban mass transportation. The real-time approach depicted in this paper consists in using a time correlated detection technique in association with a sensor network. It is based on several low-cost and large area plastic scintillators and a digital signal processing designed for signal reconstruction from the sensor network. The number of sensors used in the network can be adapted to fit with applications requirements or cost. The reconstructed signal is improved by comparing other approaches. This allows us to increase the device speed that has to be scanned while decreasing the risk of false alarm. In the framework of a project called SECUR-ED Secured Urban Transportation - European Demonstration, this prototype system will be used during an experiment in the Milan urban mass transportation. (authors)

  12. S4-1: Motion Detection Based on Recurrent Network Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Krekelberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The detection of a sequence of events requires memory. The detection of visual motion is a well-studied example; there the memory allows the comparison of current with earlier visual input. This comparison results in an estimate of direction and speed of motion. The dominant model of motion detection in primates—the motion energy model—assumes that this memory resides in subclasses of cells with slower temporal dynamics. It is not clear, however, how such slow dynamics could arise. We used extracellularly recorded responses of neurons in the macaque middle temporal area to train an artificial neural network with recurrent connectivity. The trained network successfully reproduced the population response, and had many properties also found in the visual cortex (e.g., Gabor-like receptive fields, a hierarchy of simple and complex cells, motion opponency. When probed with reverse-correlation methods, the network's response was very similar to that of a feed-forward motion energy model, even though recurrent feedback is an essential part of its architecture. These findings show that a strongly recurrent network can masquerade as a feed-forward network. Moreover, they suggest a conceptually novel role for recurrent network connectivity: the creation of flexible temporal delays to implement short term memory and compute velocity.

  13. Moving object detection using dynamic motion modelling from UAV aerial images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, A F M Saifuddin; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Mahayuddin, Zainal Rasyid

    2014-01-01

    Motion analysis based moving object detection from UAV aerial image is still an unsolved issue due to inconsideration of proper motion estimation. Existing moving object detection approaches from UAV aerial images did not deal with motion based pixel intensity measurement to detect moving object robustly. Besides current research on moving object detection from UAV aerial images mostly depends on either frame difference or segmentation approach separately. There are two main purposes for this research: firstly to develop a new motion model called DMM (dynamic motion model) and secondly to apply the proposed segmentation approach SUED (segmentation using edge based dilation) using frame difference embedded together with DMM model. The proposed DMM model provides effective search windows based on the highest pixel intensity to segment only specific area for moving object rather than searching the whole area of the frame using SUED. At each stage of the proposed scheme, experimental fusion of the DMM and SUED produces extracted moving objects faithfully. Experimental result reveals that the proposed DMM and SUED have successfully demonstrated the validity of the proposed methodology.

  14. Improved Pulse Detection from Head Motions Using DCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    . To measure it, physicians traditionally, either sense the pulsations of some blood vessels or install some sensors on the body. In either case, there is a need for a physical contact between the sensor and the body to obtain the heartbeat rate. This might not be always feasible, for example, for applications......The heart pulsation sends out the blood throughout the body. The rate in which the heart performs this vital task, heartbeat rate, is of curial importance to the body. Therefore, measuring heartbeat rate, a.k.a. pulse detection, is very important in many applications, especially the medical ones...

  15. Fast compressed domain motion detection in H.264 video streams for video surveillance applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szczerba, Krzysztof; Forchhammer, Søren; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to fast motion detection in H.264/MPEG-4 advanced video coding (AVC) compressed video streams for IP video surveillance systems. The goal is to develop algorithms which may be useful in a real-life industrial perspective by facilitating the processing of large...... on motion vectors embedded in the video stream without requiring a full decoding and reconstruction of video frames. To improve the robustness to noise, a confidence measure based on temporal and spatial clues is introduced to increase the probability of correct detection. The algorithm was tested on indoor...

  16. Vibration-based damage detection in wind turbine blades using Phase-based Motion Estimation and motion magnification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafi, Aral; Mao, Zhu; Niezrecki, Christopher; Poozesh, Peyman

    2018-05-01

    Vibration-based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques are among the most common approaches for structural damage identification. The presence of damage in structures may be identified by monitoring the changes in dynamic behavior subject to external loading, and is typically performed by using experimental modal analysis (EMA) or operational modal analysis (OMA). These tools for SHM normally require a limited number of physically attached transducers (e.g. accelerometers) in order to record the response of the structure for further analysis. Signal conditioners, wires, wireless receivers and a data acquisition system (DAQ) are also typical components of traditional sensing systems used in vibration-based SHM. However, instrumentation of lightweight structures with contact sensors such as accelerometers may induce mass-loading effects, and for large-scale structures, the instrumentation is labor intensive and time consuming. Achieving high spatial measurement resolution for a large-scale structure is not always feasible while working with traditional contact sensors, and there is also the potential for a lack of reliability associated with fixed contact sensors in outliving the life-span of the host structure. Among the state-of-the-art non-contact measurements, digital video cameras are able to rapidly collect high-density spatial information from structures remotely. In this paper, the subtle motions from recorded video (i.e. a sequence of images) are extracted by means of Phase-based Motion Estimation (PME) and the extracted information is used to conduct damage identification on a 2.3-m long Skystream® wind turbine blade (WTB). The PME and phased-based motion magnification approach estimates the structural motion from the captured sequence of images for both a baseline and damaged test cases on a wind turbine blade. Operational deflection shapes of the test articles are also quantified and compared for the baseline and damaged states. In addition

  17. Smart Sensor-Based Motion Detection System for Hand Movement Training in Open Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyao; Byrns, Simon; Cheng, Irene; Zheng, Bin; Basu, Anup

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a smart sensor-based motion detection technique for objective measurement and assessment of surgical dexterity among users at different experience levels. The goal is to allow trainees to evaluate their performance based on a reference model shared through communication technology, e.g., the Internet, without the physical presence of an evaluating surgeon. While in the current implementation we used a Leap Motion Controller to obtain motion data for analysis, our technique can be applied to motion data captured by other smart sensors, e.g., OptiTrack. To differentiate motions captured from different participants, measurement and assessment in our approach are achieved using two strategies: (1) low level descriptive statistical analysis, and (2) Hidden Markov Model (HMM) classification. Based on our surgical knot tying task experiment, we can conclude that finger motions generated from users with different surgical dexterity, e.g., expert and novice performers, display differences in path length, number of movements and task completion time. In order to validate the discriminatory ability of HMM for classifying different movement patterns, a non-surgical task was included in our analysis. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach had 100 % accuracy in discriminating between expert and novice performances. Our proposed motion analysis technique applied to open surgical procedures is a promising step towards the development of objective computer-assisted assessment and training systems.

  18. Direction detection thresholds of passive self-motion in artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Matthias; Haller, Katia; Moser, Ivan; Hossner, Ernst-Joachim; Mast, Fred W

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we compared direction detection thresholds of passive self-motion in the dark between artistic gymnasts and controls. Twenty-four professional female artistic gymnasts (ranging from 7 to 20 years) and age-matched controls were seated on a motion platform and asked to discriminate the direction of angular (yaw, pitch, roll) and linear (leftward-rightward) motion. Gymnasts showed lower thresholds for the linear leftward-rightward motion. Interestingly, there was no difference for the angular motions. These results show that the outstanding self-motion abilities in artistic gymnasts are not related to an overall higher sensitivity in self-motion perception. With respect to vestibular processing, our results suggest that gymnastic expertise is exclusively linked to superior interpretation of otolith signals when no change in canal signals is present. In addition, thresholds were overall lower for the older (14-20 years) than for the younger (7-13 years) participants, indicating the maturation of vestibular sensitivity from childhood to adolescence.

  19. Communicative interactions improve visual detection of biological motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Manera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the context of interacting activities requiring close-body contact such as fighting or dancing, the actions of one agent can be used to predict the actions of the second agent. In the present study, we investigated whether interpersonal predictive coding extends to interactive activities--such as communicative interactions--in which no physical contingency is implied between the movements of the interacting individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants observed point-light displays of two agents (A and B performing separate actions. In the communicative condition, the action performed by agent B responded to a communicative gesture performed by agent A. In the individual condition, agent A's communicative action was substituted with a non-communicative action. Using a simultaneous masking detection task, we demonstrate that observing the communicative gesture performed by agent A enhanced visual discrimination of agent B. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our finding complements and extends previous evidence for interpersonal predictive coding, suggesting that the communicative gestures of one agent can serve as a predictor for the expected actions of the respondent, even if no physical contact between agents is implied.

  20. DETECTING AND CORRECTING MOTION BLUR FROM IMAGES SHOT WITH CHANNEL-DEPENDENT EXPOSURE TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lelégard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a pipeline developed to automatically detect and correct motion blur due to the airplane motion in aerial images provided by a digital camera system with channel-dependent exposure times. Blurred images show anisotropy in their Fourier Transform coefficients that can be detected and estimated to recover the characteristics of the motion blur. To disambiguate the anisotropy produced by a motion blur from the possible spectral anisotropy produced by some periodic patterns present in a sharp image, we consider the phase difference of the Fourier Transform of two channel shot with different exposure times (i.e. with different blur extensions. This is possible because of the deep correlation between the three visible channels ensures phase coherence of the Fourier Transform coefficients in sharp images. In this context, considering the phase difference constitutes both a good detector and estimator of the motion blur parameters. In order to improve on this estimation, the phase difference is performed on local windows in the image where the channels are more correlated. The main lobe of the phase difference, where the phase difference between two channels is close to zero actually imitates an ellipse which axis ratio discriminates blur and which orientation and minor axis give respectively the orientation and the blur kernel extension of the long exposure-time channels. However, this approach is not robust to the presence in the phase difference of minor lobes due to phase sign inversions in the Fourier transform of the motion blur. They are removed by considering the polar representation of the phase difference. Based on the blur detection step, blur correction is eventually performed using two different approaches depending on the blur extension size: using either a simple frequency-based fusion for small blur or a semi blind iterative method for larger blur. The higher computing costs of the latter method make it only

  1. Feasibility evaluation of a motion detection system with face images for stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Takuya; Ogawa, Koichi; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2011-01-01

    In stereotactic radiosurgery we can irradiate a targeted volume precisely with a narrow high-energy x-ray beam, and thus the motion of a targeted area may cause side effects to normal organs. This paper describes our motion detection system with three USB cameras. To reduce the effect of change in illuminance in a tracking area we used an infrared light and USB cameras that were sensitive to the infrared light. The motion detection of a patient was performed by tracking his/her ears and nose with three USB cameras, where pattern matching between a predefined template image for each view and acquired images was done by an exhaustive search method with a general-purpose computing on a graphics processing unit (GPGPU). The results of the experiments showed that the measurement accuracy of our system was less than 0.7 mm, amounting to less than half of that of our previous system.

  2. User-based motion sensing and fuzzy logic for automated fall detection in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boissy, Patrice; Choquette, Stéphane; Hamel, Mathieu

    2007-01-01

    , and reduce complications from falls. The performance of a 2-stage fall detection algorithm using impact magnitudes and changes in trunk angles derived from user-based motion sensors was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Ten healthy participants were instrumented on the front and side of the trunk with 3...... fall conditions with a success rate of 93% and a false-positive rate of 29% during nonfall conditions. Despite a slightly superior identification performance for the accelerometer located on the front of the trunk, no significant differences were found between the two motion sensor locations. Automated...... detection of fall events based on user-based motion sensing and fuzzy logic shows promising results. Additional rules and optimization of the algorithm will be needed to decrease the false-positive rate....

  3. The Maximum Cross-Correlation approach to detecting translational motions from sequential remote-sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J.; Lythe, M. B.

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents the principle of the Maximum Cross-Correlation (MCC) approach in detecting translational motions within dynamic fields from time-sequential remotely sensed images. A C program implementing the approach is presented and illustrated in a flowchart. The program is tested with a pair of sea-surface temperature images derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images near East Cape, New Zealand. Results show that the mean currents in the region have been detected satisfactorily with the approach.

  4. Wireless sensing without sensors—an experimental study of motion/intrusion detection using RF irregularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Pius W Q; Tan, Hwee-Pink; Seah, Winston K G; Yao, Zexi

    2010-01-01

    Motion and intrusion detection are often cited as wireless sensor network (WSN) applications with typical configurations comprising clusters of wireless nodes equipped with motion sensors to detect human motion. Currently, WSN performance is subjected to several constraints, namely radio irregularity and finite on-board computation/energy resources. Radio irregularity in radio frequency (RF) propagation rises to a higher level in the presence of human activity due to the absorption effect of the human body. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of monitoring RF transmission for the purpose of intrusion detection through experimentation. With empirical data obtained from the Crossbow TelosB platform in several different environments, the impact of human activity on the signal strength of RF signals in a WSN is evaluated. We then propose a novel approach to intrusion detection by turning a constraint in WSN, namely radio irregularity, into an advantage for the purpose of intrusion detection, using signal fluctuations to detect the presence of human activity within the WSN. Unlike RF fingerprinting, the 'intruders' here neither transmit nor receive any RF signals. By enabling existing wireless infrastructures to serve as intrusion detectors instead of deploying numerous costly sensors, this approach shows great promise for providing novel solutions

  5. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) as standard fish in bioassays and their reaction to potential reference toxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1976-02-01

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were compared for their suitability as standard bioassay fish. Both species showed the same variability of bioassay results when tested with four toxicants. Fathead minnows are recommended on the basis of their small size and on their capability for use in complete life cycle tests. On the basis of minimum variability of bioassay results, sodium chloride was superior for use as a reference toxicant. Both sodium chloride and pentachlorophenol seemed capable of detecting abnormal fish. On the basis of seven listed criteria either sodium chloride or pentachlorophenol would be acceptable as a reference toxicant.

  6. Reference geometry-based detection of (4D-)CT motion artifacts: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, René; Gauer, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Respiration-correlated computed tomography (4D or 3D+t CT) can be considered as standard of care in radiation therapy treatment planning for lung and liver lesions. The decision about an application of motion management devices and the estimation of patient-specific motion effects on the dose distribution relies on precise motion assessment in the planning 4D CT data { which is impeded in case of CT motion artifacts. The development of image-based/post-processing approaches to reduce motion artifacts would benefit from precise detection and localization of the artifacts. Simple slice-by-slice comparison of intensity values and threshold-based analysis of related metrics suffer from- depending on the threshold- high false-positive or -negative rates. In this work, we propose exploiting prior knowledge about `ideal' (= artifact free) reference geometries to stabilize metric-based artifact detection by transferring (multi-)atlas-based concepts to this specific task. Two variants are introduced and evaluated: (S1) analysis and comparison of warped atlas data obtained by repeated non-linear atlas-to-patient registration with different levels of regularization; (S2) direct analysis of vector field properties (divergence, curl magnitude) of the atlas-to-patient transformation. Feasibility of approaches (S1) and (S2) is evaluated by motion-phantom data and intra-subject experiments (four patients) as well as - adopting a multi-atlas strategy- inter-subject investigations (twelve patients involved). It is demonstrated that especially sorting/double structure artifacts can be precisely detected and localized by (S1). In contrast, (S2) suffers from high false positive rates.

  7. Motion Detection from Mobile Robots with Fuzzy Threshold Selection in Consecutive 2D Laser Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion detection and tracking is a relevant problem for mobile robots during navigation to avoid collisions in dynamic environments or in applications where service robots interact with humans. This paper presents a simple method to distinguish mobile obstacles from the environment that is based on applying fuzzy threshold selection to consecutive two-dimensional (2D laser scans previously matched with robot odometry. The proposed method has been tested with the Auriga-α mobile robot in indoors to estimate the motion of nearby pedestrians.

  8. Testing human sperm chemotaxis: how to detect biased motion in population assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Armon

    Full Text Available Biased motion of motile cells in a concentration gradient of a chemoattractant is frequently studied on the population level. This approach has been particularly employed in human sperm chemotactic assays, where the fraction of responsive cells is low and detection of biased motion depends on subtle differences. In these assays, statistical measures such as population odds ratios of swimming directions can be employed to infer chemotactic performance. Here, we report on an improved method to assess statistical significance of experimentally determined odds ratios and discuss the strong impact of data correlations that arise from the directional persistence of sperm swimming.

  9. Bio-inspired motion detection in an FPGA-based smart camera module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, T; Roechter, F; Moeller, R; Lindemann, J P

    2009-01-01

    Flying insects, despite their relatively coarse vision and tiny nervous system, are capable of carrying out elegant and fast aerial manoeuvres. Studies of the fly visual system have shown that this is accomplished by the integration of signals from a large number of elementary motion detectors (EMDs) in just a few global flow detector cells. We developed an FPGA-based smart camera module with more than 10 000 single EMDs, which is closely modelled after insect motion-detection circuits with respect to overall architecture, resolution and inter-receptor spacing. Input to the EMD array is provided by a CMOS camera with a high frame rate. Designed as an adaptable solution for different engineering applications and as a testbed for biological models, the EMD detector type and parameters such as the EMD time constants, the motion-detection directions and the angle between correlated receptors are reconfigurable online. This allows a flexible and simultaneous detection of complex motion fields such as translation, rotation and looming, such that various tasks, e.g., obstacle avoidance, height/distance control or speed regulation can be performed by the same compact device

  10. Detecting multiple moving objects in crowded environments with coherent motion regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Radke, Richard J.

    2013-06-11

    Coherent motion regions extend in time as well as space, enforcing consistency in detected objects over long time periods and making the algorithm robust to noisy or short point tracks. As a result of enforcing the constraint that selected coherent motion regions contain disjoint sets of tracks defined in a three-dimensional space including a time dimension. An algorithm operates directly on raw, unconditioned low-level feature point tracks, and minimizes a global measure of the coherent motion regions. At least one discrete moving object is identified in a time series of video images based on the trajectory similarity factors, which is a measure of a maximum distance between a pair of feature point tracks.

  11. Cloud detection, classification and motion estimation using geostationary satellite imagery for cloud cover forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escrig, H.; Batlles, F.J.; Alonso, J.; Baena, F.M.; Bosch, J.L.; Salbidegoitia, I.B.; Burgaleta, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    Considering that clouds are the greatest causes to solar radiation blocking, short term cloud forecasting can help power plant operation and therefore improve benefits. Cloud detection, classification and motion vector determination are key to forecasting sun obstruction by clouds. Geostationary satellites provide cloud information covering wide areas, allowing cloud forecast to be performed for several hours in advance. Herein, the methodology developed and tested in this study is based on multispectral tests and binary cross correlations followed by coherence and quality control tests over resulting motion vectors. Monthly synthetic surface albedo image and a method to reject erroneous correlation vectors were developed. Cloud classification in terms of opacity and height of cloud top is also performed. A whole-sky camera has been used for validation, showing over 85% of agreement between the camera and the satellite derived cloud cover, whereas error in motion vectors is below 15%. - Highlights: ► A methodology for detection, classification and movement of clouds is presented. ► METEOSAT satellite images are used to obtain a cloud mask. ► The prediction of cloudiness is estimated with 90% in overcast conditions. ► Results for partially covered sky conditions showed a 75% accuracy. ► Motion vectors are estimated from the clouds with a success probability of 86%

  12. [Development of an automated processing method to detect coronary motion for coronary magnetic resonance angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asou, Hiroya; Imada, N; Sato, T

    2010-06-20

    On coronary MR angiography (CMRA), cardiac motions worsen the image quality. To improve the image quality, detection of cardiac especially for individual coronary motion is very important. Usually, scan delay and duration were determined manually by the operator. We developed a new evaluation method to calculate static time of individual coronary artery. At first, coronary cine MRI was taken at the level of about 3 cm below the aortic valve (80 images/R-R). Chronological change of the signals were evaluated with Fourier transformation of each pixel of the images were done. Noise reduction with subtraction process and extraction process were done. To extract higher motion such as coronary arteries, morphological filter process and labeling process were added. Using these imaging processes, individual coronary motion was extracted and individual coronary static time was calculated automatically. We compared the images with ordinary manual method and new automated method in 10 healthy volunteers. Coronary static times were calculated with our method. Calculated coronary static time was shorter than that of ordinary manual method. And scan time became about 10% longer than that of ordinary method. Image qualities were improved in our method. Our automated detection method for coronary static time with chronological Fourier transformation has a potential to improve the image quality of CMRA and easy processing.

  13. Self-adapted and tunable graphene strain sensors for detecting both subtle and large human motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dan-Yang; Tian, He; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Liu, Ying; Pang, Yu; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-06-22

    Conventional strain sensors rarely have both a high gauge factor and a large strain range simultaneously, so they can only be used in specific situations where only a high sensitivity or a large strain range is required. However, for detecting human motions that include both subtle and large motions, these strain sensors can't meet the diverse demands simultaneously. Here, we come up with laser patterned graphene strain sensors with self-adapted and tunable performance for the first time. A series of strain sensors with either an ultrahigh gauge factor or a preferable strain range can be fabricated simultaneously via one-step laser patterning, and are suitable for detecting all human motions. The strain sensors have a GF of up to 457 with a strain range of 35%, or have a strain range of up to 100% with a GF of 268. Most importantly, the performance of the strain sensors can be easily tuned by adjusting the patterns of the graphene, so that the sensors can meet diverse demands in both subtle and large motion situations. The graphene strain sensors show significant potential in applications such as wearable electronics, health monitoring and intelligent robots. Furthermore, the facile, fast and low-cost fabrication method will make them possible and practical to be used for commercial applications in the future.

  14. Characterization of Pax2 expression in the goldfish optic nerve head during retina regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The Pax2 transcription factor plays a crucial role in axon-guidance and astrocyte differentiation in the optic nerve head (ONH during vertebrate visual system development. However, little is known about its function during regeneration. The fish visual system is in continuous growth and can regenerate. Müller cells and astrocytes of the retina and ONH play an important role in these processes. We demonstrate that pax2a in goldfish is highly conserved and at least two pax2a transcripts are expressed in the optic nerve. Moreover, we show two different astrocyte populations in goldfish: Pax2(+ astrocytes located in the ONH and S100(+ astrocytes distributed throughout the retina and the ONH. After peripheral growth zone (PGZ cryolesion, both Pax2(+ and S100(+ astrocytes have different responses. At 7 days after injury the number of Pax2(+ cells is reduced and coincides with the absence of young axons. In contrast, there is an increase of S100(+ astrocytes in the retina surrounding the ONH and S100(+ processes in the ONH. At 15 days post injury, the PGZ starts to regenerate and the number of S100(+ astrocytes increases in this region. Moreover, the regenerating axons reach the ONH and the pax2a gene expression levels and the number of Pax2(+ cells increase. At the same time, S100(+/GFAP(+/GS(+ astrocytes located in the posterior ONH react strongly. In the course of the regeneration, Müller cell vitreal processes surrounding the ONH are primarily disorganized and later increase in number. During the whole regenerative process we detect a source of Pax2(+/PCNA(+ astrocytes surrounding the posterior ONH. We demonstrate that pax2a expression and the Pax2(+ astrocyte population in the ONH are modified during the PGZ regeneration, suggesting that they could play an important role in this process.

  15. Real-time DSP implementation for MRF-based video motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontier, C; Luthon, F; Charras, J P

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the real time implementation of a simple and robust motion detection algorithm based on Markov random field (MRF) modeling, MRF-based algorithms often require a significant amount of computations. The intrinsic parallel property of MRF modeling has led most of implementations toward parallel machines and neural networks, but none of these approaches offers an efficient solution for real-world (i.e., industrial) applications. Here, an alternative implementation for the problem at hand is presented yielding a complete, efficient and autonomous real-time system for motion detection. This system is based on a hybrid architecture, associating pipeline modules with one asynchronous module to perform the whole process, from video acquisition to moving object masks visualization. A board prototype is presented and a processing rate of 15 images/s is achieved, showing the validity of the approach.

  16. Object Detection and Tracking using Modified Diamond Search Block Matching Motion Estimation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Samdurkar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking is one of the main fields within computer vision. Amongst various methods/ approaches for object detection and tracking, the background subtraction approach makes the detection of object easier. To the detected object, apply the proposed block matching algorithm for generating the motion vectors. The existing diamond search (DS and cross diamond search algorithms (CDS are studied and experiments are carried out on various standard video data sets and user defined data sets. Based on the study and analysis of these two existing algorithms a modified diamond search pattern (MDS algorithm is proposed using small diamond shape search pattern in initial step and large diamond shape (LDS in further steps for motion estimation. The initial search pattern consists of five points in small diamond shape pattern and gradually grows into a large diamond shape pattern, based on the point with minimum cost function. The algorithm ends with the small shape pattern at last. The proposed MDS algorithm finds the smaller motion vectors and fewer searching points than the existing DS and CDS algorithms. Further, object detection is carried out by using background subtraction approach and finally, MDS motion estimation algorithm is used for tracking the object in color video sequences. The experiments are carried out by using different video data sets containing a single object. The results are evaluated and compared by using the evaluation parameters like average searching points per frame and average computational time per frame. The experimental results show that the MDS performs better than DS and CDS on average search point and average computation time.

  17. Photoplethysmograph signal reconstruction based on a novel motion artifact detection-reduction approach. Part II: Motion and noise artifact removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehizadeh, S M A; Dao, Duy K; Chong, Jo Woon; McManus, David; Darling, Chad; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Chon, Ki H

    2014-11-01

    We introduce a new method to reconstruct motion and noise artifact (MNA) contaminated photoplethysmogram (PPG) data. A method to detect MNA corrupted data is provided in a companion paper. Our reconstruction algorithm is based on an iterative motion artifact removal (IMAR) approach, which utilizes the singular spectral analysis algorithm to remove MNA artifacts so that the most accurate estimates of uncorrupted heart rates (HRs) and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) values recorded by a pulse oximeter can be derived. Using both computer simulations and three different experimental data sets, we show that the proposed IMAR approach can reliably reconstruct MNA corrupted data segments, as the estimated HR and SpO2 values do not significantly deviate from the uncorrupted reference measurements. Comparison of the accuracy of reconstruction of the MNA corrupted data segments between our IMAR approach and the time-domain independent component analysis (TD-ICA) is made for all data sets as the latter method has been shown to provide good performance. For simulated data, there were no significant differences in the reconstructed HR and SpO2 values starting from 10 dB down to -15 dB for both white and colored noise contaminated PPG data using IMAR; for TD-ICA, significant differences were observed starting at 10 dB. Two experimental PPG data sets were created with contrived MNA by having subjects perform random forehead and rapid side-to-side finger movements show that; the performance of the IMAR approach on these data sets was quite accurate as non-significant differences in the reconstructed HR and SpO2 were found compared to non-contaminated reference values, in most subjects. In comparison, the accuracy of the TD-ICA was poor as there were significant differences in reconstructed HR and SpO2 values in most subjects. For non-contrived MNA corrupted PPG data, which were collected with subjects performing walking and stair climbing tasks, the IMAR significantly

  18. Assessment of the breath motion correction on the detectability of lesions in PET oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marache-Francisco, S.

    2012-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted by a tracer, which is introduced into the body. Three-dimensional images of tracer concentration within the body are then constructed by computer analysis. Respiratory motion in emission tomography leads to image blurring especially in the lower thorax and the upper abdomen, influencing this way the quantitative accuracy of PET measurements as well as leading to a loss of sensitivity in lesion detection. Although PET exams are getting shorter thanks to the improvement of scanner sensitivity, the current 2-3 minutes acquisitions per bed position are not yet compatible with patient breath-holding. Performing accurate respiratory motion correction without impairing the standard clinical protocol, i.e. without increasing the acquisition time, thus remains challenging. Different types of respiratory motion correction approaches have been proposed, mostly based on the use of non-rigid deformation fields either applied to the gated PET images or integrated during an iterative reconstruction algorithm. Evaluation of theses methods has been mainly focusing on the quantification and localization accuracy of small lesions, but their impact on the clinician detection performance during the diagnostic task has not been fully investigated yet. The purpose of this study is to address this question based on a computer assisted detection study. We evaluate the influence of two motion correction methods on the detection of small lesions in human oncology FDG PET images. This study is based on a series of realistic simulated whole-body FDG images based on the XCAT model. Detection performance is evaluated with a computer-aided detection system that we are developing for whole-body PET/CT images. Detection performances achieved with these two correction methods are compared with those

  19. A CCTV system with SMS alert (CMDSA): An implementation of pixel processing algorithm for motion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Ab; Abdullah, Nurul Azma; Hamid, Isredza Rahmi A.; Wen, Chuah Chai; Jelani, Mohamad Shafiqur Rahman Mohd

    2017-10-01

    Closed-Circuit TV (CCTV) system is one of the technologies in surveillance field to solve the problem of detection and monitoring by providing extra features such as email alert or motion detection. However, detecting and alerting the admin on CCTV system may complicate due to the complexity to integrate the main program with an external Application Programming Interface (API). In this study, pixel processing algorithm is applied due to its efficiency and SMS alert is added as an alternative solution for users who opted out email alert system or have no Internet connection. A CCTV system with SMS alert (CMDSA) was developed using evolutionary prototyping methodology. The system interface was implemented using Microsoft Visual Studio while the backend components, which are database and coding, were implemented on SQLite database and C# programming language, respectively. The main modules of CMDSA are motion detection, capturing and saving video, image processing and Short Message Service (SMS) alert functions. Subsequently, the system is able to reduce the processing time making the detection process become faster, reduce the space and memory used to run the program and alerting the system admin instantly.

  20. Analysis of Human's Motions Based on Local Mean Decomposition in Through-wall Radar Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Liu, Cai; Zeng, Zhaofa; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xuebing

    2016-04-01

    Observation of human motions through a wall is an important issue in security applications and search-and rescue. Radar has advantages in looking through walls where other sensors give low performance or cannot be used at all. Ultrawideband (UWB) radar has high spatial resolution as a result of employment of ultranarrow pulses. It has abilities to distinguish the closely positioned targets and provide time-lapse information of targets. Moreover, the UWB radar shows good performance in wall penetration when the inherently short pulses spread their energy over a broad frequency range. Human's motions show periodic features including respiration, swing arms and legs, fluctuations of the torso. Detection of human targets is based on the fact that there is always periodic motion due to breathing or other body movements like walking. The radar can gain the reflections from each human body parts and add the reflections at each time sample. The periodic movements will cause micro-Doppler modulation in the reflected radar signals. Time-frequency analysis methods are consider as the effective tools to analysis and extract micro-Doppler effects caused by the periodic movements in the reflected radar signal, such as short-time Fourier transform (STFT), wavelet transform (WT), and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT).The local mean decomposition (LMD), initially developed by Smith (2005), is to decomposed amplitude and frequency modulated signals into a small set of product functions (PFs), each of which is the product of an envelope signal and a frequency modulated signal from which a time-vary instantaneous phase and instantaneous frequency can be derived. As bypassing the Hilbert transform, the LMD has no demodulation error coming from window effect and involves no negative frequency without physical sense. Also, the instantaneous attributes obtained by LMD are more stable and precise than those obtained by the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) because LMD uses smoothed local

  1. Restoration of motion-blurred image based on border deformation detection: a traffic sign restoration model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development of motor vehicle Driver Assistance Systems (DAS, the safety problems associated with automatic driving have become a hot issue in Intelligent Transportation. The traffic sign is one of the most important tools used to reinforce traffic rules. However, traffic sign image degradation based on computer vision is unavoidable during the vehicle movement process. In order to quickly and accurately recognize traffic signs in motion-blurred images in DAS, a new image restoration algorithm based on border deformation detection in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. The border of a traffic sign is extracted using color information, and then the width of the border is measured in all directions. According to the width measured and the corresponding direction, both the motion direction and scale of the image can be confirmed, and this information can be used to restore the motion-blurred image. Finally, a gray mean grads (GMG ratio is presented to evaluate the image restoration quality. Compared to the traditional restoration approach which is based on the blind deconvolution method and Lucy-Richardson method, our method can greatly restore motion blurred images and improve the correct recognition rate. Our experiments show that the proposed method is able to restore traffic sign information accurately and efficiently.

  2. Detecting Biological Motion for Human–Robot Interaction: A Link between Perception and Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Vignolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental skills supporting safe and comfortable interaction between humans is their capability to understand intuitively each other’s actions and intentions. At the basis of this ability is a special-purpose visual processing that human brain has developed to comprehend human motion. Among the first “building blocks” enabling the bootstrapping of such visual processing is the ability to detect movements performed by biological agents in the scene, a skill mastered by human babies in the first days of their life. In this paper, we present a computational model based on the assumption that such visual ability must be based on local low-level visual motion features, which are independent of shape, such as the configuration of the body and perspective. Moreover, we implement it on the humanoid robot iCub, embedding it into a software architecture that leverages the regularities of biological motion also to control robot attention and oculomotor behaviors. In essence, we put forth a model in which the regularities of biological motion link perception and action enabling a robotic agent to follow a human-inspired sensory-motor behavior. We posit that this choice facilitates mutual understanding and goal prediction during collaboration, increasing the pleasantness and safety of the interaction.

  3. Detection of kinetic change points in piece-wise linear single molecule motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Flynn R.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Duderstadt, Karl E.

    2018-03-01

    Single-molecule approaches present a powerful way to obtain detailed kinetic information at the molecular level. However, the identification of small rate changes is often hindered by the considerable noise present in such single-molecule kinetic data. We present a general method to detect such kinetic change points in trajectories of motion of processive single molecules having Gaussian noise, with a minimum number of parameters and without the need of an assumed kinetic model beyond piece-wise linearity of motion. Kinetic change points are detected using a likelihood ratio test in which the probability of no change is compared to the probability of a change occurring, given the experimental noise. A predetermined confidence interval minimizes the occurrence of false detections. Applying the method recursively to all sub-regions of a single molecule trajectory ensures that all kinetic change points are located. The algorithm presented allows rigorous and quantitative determination of kinetic change points in noisy single molecule observations without the need for filtering or binning, which reduce temporal resolution and obscure dynamics. The statistical framework for the approach and implementation details are discussed. The detection power of the algorithm is assessed using simulations with both single kinetic changes and multiple kinetic changes that typically arise in observations of single-molecule DNA-replication reactions. Implementations of the algorithm are provided in ImageJ plugin format written in Java and in the Julia language for numeric computing, with accompanying Jupyter Notebooks to allow reproduction of the analysis presented here.

  4. Vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edionei Maico Fries

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is important to the proper development and functioning of the body, appearing in several metabolic functions. This experiment was conducted with aim evaluate to the vitamin A supplementation in diets for Goldfish Carassius auratus. The experimental was completely randomized with six treatments (0, 2.000, 4.000, 8.000, 16.000 and 32.000 IU of vitamin A kg-1 diet with four repetitions into 24 experimental cages, with capacity for 150 liters useful volume, made of mesh shading, installed inside a masonry circular tank with a capacity of 25 m3 of water. 192 fish with an average initial weight of 6.66±0.57 g and initial length of 7.30±0.33 cm, feed at 8h, 11h, 14h and 17h at satiety were used. Evaluated the effects on productive performance and intensity of yellow-red coloring of the skin of the fish were. The Linear Response Plateau analysis of weight gain and length total, feed conversion and daily growth rate versus vitamin A requirement estimate showed 2,624, 2,385 and 2,358, 4,381 and 2,866 IU of vitamin A per kg diet, respectively. The data indicated that this vitamin has little or no influence on the intensity of the skin color of the Goldfish.

  5. Using Temporal Covariance of Motion and Geometric Features via Boosting for Human Fall Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Farooq; Khan, Reamsha; Mahmood, Arif; Hassan, Malik Tahir; Jeon, And Moongu

    2018-06-12

    Fall induced damages are serious incidences for aged as well as young persons. A real-time automatic and accurate fall detection system can play a vital role in timely medication care which will ultimately help to decrease the damages and complications. In this paper, we propose a fast and more accurate real-time system which can detect people falling in videos captured by surveillance cameras. Novel temporal and spatial variance-based features are proposed which comprise the discriminatory motion, geometric orientation and location of the person. These features are used along with ensemble learning strategy of boosting with J48 and Adaboost classifiers. Experiments have been conducted on publicly available standard datasets including Multiple Cameras Fall ( with 2 classes and 3 classes ) and UR Fall Detection achieving percentage accuracies of 99.2, 99.25 and 99.0, respectively. Comparisons with nine state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on both datasets.

  6. Study of the immunological relatedness of goldfish MSH in an RIA for synthetic mammalian α MSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follenius, Ernest; Schmitt, Gabrielle; Meunier, Annie

    1980-01-01

    α MSH from the neuro-intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland of the goldfish displays a competitive behaviour in an RIA for synthetic α MSH. The inhibition curves from neuro-intermediate homogenates parallel the standard curve (P [fr

  7. Nitric oxide improves the hemodynamic performance of the hypoxic goldfish (Carassius auratus) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imbrogno, Sandra; Capria, C.; Tota, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Goldfish tolerate prolonged and severe hypoxia, thus representing a well-suited model to study the maintenance of cardiac function when O2 availability represents a limiting factor. Using a working heart preparation, we explored the role of the intracardiac nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- derived...... complemented by Western blotting analysis which revealed increased expressions of NOS and hypoxia inducible factor α(HIF-1α). In conclusion, we demonstrated that intracardiac NO/NOS enhances goldfish heart performance, remarkably expanding its hypoxic tolerance....

  8. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) were not susceptible to challenge with ranavirus under certain challenge conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Bang; Reschova, S.; Cinkova, K.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, were challenged with a panel of 8 different piscine and amphibian ranavirus isolates. Goldfish were exposed at a water temperature of 16 degrees C and 23 degrees C, and carp at 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. No significant mortality...... was registered, and virus could not be re-isolated from goldfish or carp bath-challenged with any of the isolates in the panel....

  9. Acute myocarditis with normal wall motion detected with 2D speckle tracking echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sturmberger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 26-year-old male with acute tonsillitis who was referred for coronary angiography because of chest pain, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and biphasic T waves. The patient had no cardiovascular risk factors. Echocardiography showed no wall motion abnormalities and no pericardial effusion. 2D speckle tracking revealed distinct decreased regional peak longitudinal systolic strain in the lateral and posterior walls. Ischemic disease was extremely unlikely in view of his young age, negative family history regarding coronary artery disease, and lack of regional wall motion abnormalities on the conventional 2D echocardiogram. Coronary angiography was deferred as myocarditis was suspected. To confirm the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance tomography (MRT was performed, showing subepicardial delayed hyperenhancement in the lateral and posterior walls correlating closely with the strain pattern obtained by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography. With a working diagnosis of acute myocarditis associated with acute tonsillitis, we prescribed antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The patient’s clinical signs resolved along with normalization of serum creatine kinase (CK levels, and the patient was discharged on the third day after admission. Learning points: • Acute myocarditis can mimic acute coronary syndromes. • Conventional 2D echocardiography lacks specific features for detection of subtle regional wall motion abnormalities. • 2D speckle tracking expands the scope of echocardiography in identifying myocardial dysfunction derived from edema in acute myocarditis.

  10. Quantification of vocal fold motion using echography: application to recurrent nerve paralysis detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mike-Ely; Lefort, Muriel; Bergeret-Cassagne, Héloïse; Hachi, Siham; Li, Ang; Russ, Gilles; Lazard, Diane; Menegaux, Fabrice; Leenhardt, Laurence; Trésallet, Christophe; Frouin, Frédérique

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent nerve paralysis (RP) is one of the most frequent complications of thyroid surgery. It reduces vocal fold mobility. Nasal endoscopy, a mini-invasive procedure, is the conventional way to detect RP. We suggest a new approach based on laryngeal ultrasound and a specific data analysis was designed to help with the automated detection of RP. Ten subjects were enrolled for this feasibility study: four controls, three patients with RP and three patients without RP according to nasal endoscopy. The ultrasound protocol was based on a ten seconds B-mode acquisition in a coronal plane during normal breathing. Image processing included three steps: 1) automated detection of two consecutive closing and opening images, corresponding to extreme positions of vocal folds in the sequence of B-mode images, using principal component analysis of the image sequence; 2) positioning of three landmarks and robust tracking of these points using a multi-pyramidal refined optical flow approach; 3) estimation of quantitative parameters indicating left and right fractions of mobility, and motion symmetry. Results provided by automated image processing were compared to those obtained by an expert. Detection of extreme images was accurate; tracking of landmarks was reliable in 80% of cases. Motion symmetry indices showed similar values for controls and patients without RP. Fraction of mobility was reduced in cases of RP. Thus, our CAD system helped in the detection of RP. Laryngeal ultrasound combined with appropriate image processing helped in the diagnosis of recurrent nerve paralysis and could be proposed as a first-line method.

  11. [Study on Vis/NIR spectra detecting system for watermelons and quality predicting in motion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Qing; Ying, Yi-Bin; Xu, Hui-Rong; Lu, Hui-Shan; Xie, Li-Juan

    2009-06-01

    To make Vis/NIR diffuse transmittance technique applied to quality prediction for watermelon in motion, the dynamic spectra detecting system was rebuilt. Spectra detecting experiments were conducted and the effects of noises caused by motion on spectra were analyzed. Then the least--square filtering method and Norris differential filtering method were adopted to eliminate the effects of noise on spectra smoothing, and statistical models between the spectra and soluble solids content were developed using partial least square method. The performance of different models was assessed in terms of correlation coefficients (r) of validation set of samples, root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP). Calibration and prediction results indicated that Norris differential method was an effective method to smooth spectra and improve calibration and prediction results, especially, with r of 0.895, RMSEC of 0.549, and RMSEP of 0.760 for the calibration and prediction result of the first derivative spectra.

  12. A Finite State Machine Approach to Algorithmic Lateral Inhibition for Real-Time Motion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. López

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have explored the relationship between recurrent neural networks and finite state machines. Finite state machines constitute the best-characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The neurally-inspired lateral inhibition method, and its application to motion detection tasks, have been successfully implemented in recent years. In this paper, control knowledge of the algorithmic lateral inhibition (ALI method is described and applied by means of finite state machines, in which the state space is constituted from the set of distinguishable cases of accumulated charge in a local memory. The article describes an ALI implementation for a motion detection task. For the implementation, we have chosen to use one of the members of the 16-nm Kintex UltraScale+ family of Xilinx FPGAs. FPGAs provide the necessary accuracy, resolution, and precision to run neural algorithms alongside current sensor technologies. The results offered in this paper demonstrate that this implementation provides accurate object tracking performance on several datasets, obtaining a high F-score value (0.86 for the most complex sequence used. Moreover, it outperforms implementations of a complete ALI algorithm and a simplified version of the ALI algorithm—named “accumulative computation”—which was run about ten years ago, now reaching real-time processing times that were simply not achievable at that time for ALI.

  13. Nitric oxide metabolites in goldfish under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marie N.; Jensen, Frank Bo

    2010-01-01

    – and it is metabolized to nitrite and nitrate. Nitrite is used as a marker for NOS activity but it is also a NO donor that can be activated by various cellular proteins under hypoxic conditions. Here, we report the first systematic study of NO metabolites (nitrite, nitrate, S-nitroso, N-nitroso and Fe-nitrosyl compounds...... to and below the critical PO2] for two days caused large decreases in plasma nitrite and nitrate, which suggests reduced NOS activity and increased nitrite/nitrate utilization or loss. Tissue NO metabolites were largely maintained at their tissue-specific values under hypoxia, pointing at nitrite transfer from...... extracellular to intracellular compartments and cellular NO generation from nitrite. The data highlights the preference of goldfish to defend intracellular NO homeostasis during hypoxia....

  14. Real-time axial motion detection and correction for single photon emission computed tomography using a linear prediction filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, V.; Setayeshi, S.; Ghannadi-Maragheh, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm for real-time detection and complete correction of the patient motion effects during single photon emission computed tomography. The algorithm is based on a linear prediction filter (LPC). The new prediction of projection data algorithm (PPDA) detects most motions-such as those of the head, legs, and hands-using comparison of the predicted and measured frame data. When the data acquisition for a specific frame is completed, the accuracy of the acquired data is evaluated by the PPDA. If patient motion is detected, the scanning procedure is stopped. After the patient rests in his or her true position, data acquisition is repeated only for the corrupted frame and the scanning procedure is continued. Various experimental data were used to validate the motion detection algorithm; on the whole, the proposed method was tested with approximately 100 test cases. The PPDA shows promising results. Using the PPDA enables us to prevent the scanner from collecting disturbed data during the scan and replaces them with motion-free data by real-time rescanning for the corrupted frames. As a result, the effects of patient motion is corrected in real time. (author)

  15. Detection of motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography using the fundus enhancement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudig, U.; Skevas, C.; Scholz, F.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive artefacts due to major eye movements are detectable in optical coherence tomography images (OCT), but frequency and extent of small eye movements have not been studied. To investigate frequency and extent of irregularities in OCT imaging due to eye movements during the scanning process in OCT. A fundus enhancement system (FES) originally designed to improve retinal image quality in a conventional OCT device (Zeiss Stratus OCT) in order to integrate OCT images into fluorescence angiographies was used to record the scanning process and review OCT-scan acquisition in slow motion. A horizontal and a vertical single line scan of 5 mm length through the center of fixation were obtained in 40 eyes of 20 normal healthy subjects, all with a visual acuity of at least 20/20. Scans were investigated for loss of fixation and eye movements during the scanning process. Outcome measures were presence or absence of eye movements during the scanning process and mean deviation from the intended scan position, measured in millimeter. 7 of 20 patients showed no eye movements in both eyes. 4 of the remaining 13 patients showed eye movements only in one eye. In the eyes with detectable movements, the mean deviation from the intended scan position was 0.2 mm in the horizontal and 0.28 mm in the vertical scans. Fundus imaging in conventional systems can be enhanced to detect artifacts due to minimal eye movements during the scanning process. In this first series with normal healthy subjects, minimal eye movements were present in the over half of the investigations. Although the distances from the intended scan positions seem to be small in normal eyes, further investigations of the phenomenon are necessary. OCT is increasingly used as the primary tool for controlling therapy in macular diseases and the extent of motion artefacts is not known. (author) [de

  16. Responses of Medullary Lateral Line Units of the Goldfish, Carassius auratus, to Amplitude-Modulated Sinusoidal Wave Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the responses of brainstem lateral line units in goldfish, Carassius auratus, to constant-amplitude and to amplitude-modulated sinusoidal water motions. If stimulated with constant-amplitude sinusoidal water motions, units responded with phasic (50% or with sustained (50% increases in dicharge rate. Based on isodisplacement curves, units preferred low (33 Hz, 12.5%, mid (50 Hz, 10% and 100 Hz, 30% or high (200 Hz, 47.5% frequencies. In most units, responses were weakly phase locked to the carrier frequency. However, at a carrier frequency of 50 Hz or 100 Hz, a substantial proportion of the units exhibited strong phase locking. If stimulated with amplitude-modulated water motions, units responded with a burst of discharge to each modulation cycle, that is, units phase locked to the amplitude modulation frequency. Response properties of brainstem units were in many respects comparable to those of midbrain units, suggesting that they emerge first in the lateral line brainstem.

  17. An Approach to Sensorless Detection of Human Input Torque and Its Application to Power Assist Motion in Electric Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Yukiko; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    A wheelchair is an important apparatus of mobility for people with disability. Power-assist motion in an electric wheelchair is to expand the operator's field of activities. This paper describes force sensorless detection of human input torque. Reaction torque estimation observer calculates the total disturbance torque first. Then, the human input torque is extracted from the estimated disturbance. In power-assist motion, assist torque is synthesized according to the product of assist gain and the average torque of the right and left input torque. Finally, the proposed method is verified through the experiments of power-assist motion.

  18. Detecting free-mass common-mode motion induced by incident gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Michael Edmund; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Kazuaki

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we show that information on both the differential and common mode free-mass response to a gravitational wave can provide important information on discriminating the direction of the gravitational wave source and between different theories of gravitation. The conventional Michelson interferometer scheme only measures the differential free-mass response. By changing the orientation of the beam splitter, it is possible to configure the detector so it is sensitive to the common-mode of the free-mass motion. The proposed interferometer is an adaptation of the Fox-Smith interferometer. A major limitation to the new scheme is its enhanced sensitivity to laser frequency fluctuations over the conventional, and we propose a method of cancelling these fluctuations. The configuration could be used in parallel to the conventional differential detection scheme with a significant sensitivity and bandwidth.

  19. Design of Dual-Mode Local Oscillators Using CMOS Technology for Motion Detection Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Keum-Won; Lee, Jeong-Yun; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Baek, Donghyun

    2018-04-01

    Recently, studies have been actively carried out to implement motion detecting sensors by applying radar techniques. Doppler radar or frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar are mainly used, but each type has drawbacks. In Doppler radar, no signal is detected when the movement is stopped. Also, FMCW radar cannot function when the detection object is near the sensor. Therefore, by implementing a single continuous wave (CW) radar for operating in dual-mode, the disadvantages in each mode can be compensated for. In this paper, a dual mode local oscillator (LO) is proposed that makes a CW radar operate as a Doppler or FMCW radar. To make the dual-mode LO, a method that controls the division ratio of the phase locked loop (PLL) is used. To support both radar mode easily, the proposed LO is implemented by adding a frequency sweep generator (FSG) block to a fractional-N PLL. The operation mode of the LO is determined by according to whether this block is operating or not. Since most radar sensors are used in conjunction with microcontroller units (MCUs), the proposed architecture is capable of dual-mode operation by changing only the input control code. In addition, all components such as VCO, LDO, and loop filter are integrated into the chip, so complexity and interface issues can be solved when implementing radar sensors. Thus, the proposed dual-mode LO is suitable as a radar sensor.

  20. Design of Dual-Mode Local Oscillators Using CMOS Technology for Motion Detection Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Won Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, studies have been actively carried out to implement motion detecting sensors by applying radar techniques. Doppler radar or frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW radar are mainly used, but each type has drawbacks. In Doppler radar, no signal is detected when the movement is stopped. Also, FMCW radar cannot function when the detection object is near the sensor. Therefore, by implementing a single continuous wave (CW radar for operating in dual-mode, the disadvantages in each mode can be compensated for. In this paper, a dual mode local oscillator (LO is proposed that makes a CW radar operate as a Doppler or FMCW radar. To make the dual-mode LO, a method that controls the division ratio of the phase locked loop (PLL is used. To support both radar mode easily, the proposed LO is implemented by adding a frequency sweep generator (FSG block to a fractional-N PLL. The operation mode of the LO is determined by according to whether this block is operating or not. Since most radar sensors are used in conjunction with microcontroller units (MCUs, the proposed architecture is capable of dual-mode operation by changing only the input control code. In addition, all components such as VCO, LDO, and loop filter are integrated into the chip, so complexity and interface issues can be solved when implementing radar sensors. Thus, the proposed dual-mode LO is suitable as a radar sensor.

  1. Vagal gustatory reflex circuits for intraoral food sorting behavior in the goldfish: cellular organization and neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Ogura, Tatsuya; Finger, Thomas E

    2009-09-20

    The sense of taste is crucial in an animal's determination as to what is edible and what is not. This gustatory function is especially important in goldfish, who utilize a sophisticated oropharyngeal sorting mechanism to separate food from substrate material. The computational aspects of this detection are carried out by the medullary vagal lobe, which is a large, laminated structure combining elements of both the gustatory nucleus of the solitary tract and the nucleus ambiguus. The sensory layers of the vagal lobe are coupled to the motor layers via a simple reflex arc. Details of this reflex circuit were investigated with histology and calcium imaging. Biocytin injections into the motor layer labeled vagal reflex interneurons that have radially directed dendrites ramifying within the layers of primary afferent terminals. Axons of reflex interneurons extend radially inward to terminate onto both vagal motoneurons and small, GABAergic interneurons in the motor layer. Functional imaging shows increases in intracellular Ca++ of vagal motoneurons following electrical stimulation in the sensory layer. These responses were suppressed under Ca(++)-free conditions and by interruption of the axons bridging between the sensory and motor layers. Pharmacological experiments showed that glutamate acting via (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy- 5-ethylisoxazole-4-propioinc acid (AMPA)/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors mediate neurotransmission between reflex interneurons and vagal motoneurons. Thus, the vagal gustatory portion of the viscerosensory complex is linked to branchiomotor neurons of the pharynx via a glutamatergic interneuronal system.

  2. Vagal gustatory reflex circuits for intraoral food sorting behavior in the goldfish Cellular organization and neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Ogura, Tatsuya; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The sense of taste is crucial in an animal’s determination as to what is edible and what is not. This gustatory function is especially important in goldfish who utilize a sophisticated oropharyngeal sorting mechanism to separate food from substrate material. The computational aspects of this detection are carried out by the medullary vagal lobe which is a large, laminated structure combining elements of both the gustatory nucleus of the solitary tract and the nucleus ambiguus. The sensory layers of the vagal lobe are coupled to the motor layers via a simple reflex arc. Details of this reflex circuit were investigated with histology and calcium imaging. Biocytin injections into the motor layer labeled vagal reflex interneurons which have radially-directed dendrites ramifying within the layers of primary afferent terminals. Axons of reflex interneurons extend radially inward to terminate onto both vagal motoneurons and small, GABAergic interneurons in the motor layer. Functional imaging shows increases in intracellular Ca++ of vagal motoneurons following electrical stimulation in the sensory layer. These responses were suppressed under Ca++-free conditions and by interruption of the axons bridging between the sensory and motor layers. Pharmacological experiments showed that glutamate acting via (±)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-ethylisoxazole-4-propioinc acid (AMPA)/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors mediates neurotransmission between reflex interneurons and vagal motoneurons. Thus the vagal gustatory portion of the viscerosensory complex is linked to branchiomotor neurons of the pharynx via a glutamatergic interneuronal system. PMID:19598285

  3. Cold acclimation increases mitochondrial oxidative capacity without inducing mitochondrial uncoupling in goldfish white skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Sousa Dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Goldfish have been used for cold acclimation studies, which have focused on changes in glycolytic and oxidative enzymes or alterations in lipid composition in skeletal muscle. Here we examine the effects of cold acclimation on the functional properties of isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers from goldfish white skeletal muscle, focusing on understanding the types of changes that occur in the mitochondrial respiratory states. We observed that cold acclimation promoted a significant increase in the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates. Western blot analysis showed that UCP3 was raised by ∼1.5-fold in cold-acclimated muscle mitochondria. Similarly, we also evidenced a rise in the adenine nucleotide translocase content in cold-acclimated muscle mitochondria compared to warm-acclimated mitochondria (0.96±0.05 vs 0.68±0.02 nmol carboxyatractyloside mg−1 protein. This was followed by a 2-fold increment in the citrate synthase activity, which suggests a higher mitochondrial content in cold-acclimated goldfish. Even with higher levels of UCP3 and ANT, the effects of activator (palmitate and inhibitors (carboxyatractyloside and GDP on mitochondrial parameters were similar in both warm- and cold-acclimated goldfish. Thus, we propose that cold acclimation in goldfish promotes an increase in functional oxidative capacity, with higher mitochondrial content without changes in the mitochondrial uncoupling pathways.

  4. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate disrupts pituitary and testicular hormonal functions to reduce sperm quality in mature goldfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golshan, M.; Hatef, A.; Socha, M.

    2015-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) interferes with male reproductive endocrine system in mammals, however its effects on fish reproduction are largely unknown. We evaluated sperm quality and investigated reproductive endocrine system in mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to nominal 1, 10......, and 100μg/L DEHP. To examine DEHP estrogenic activity, one group of goldfish was exposed to 17β-estradiol (5μg/L E2) for comparison. Following 30d of exposure, sperm production was decreased and suppressed in DEHP and E2 treated goldfish, respectively. Sperm motility and velocity were decreased...... in goldfish exposed to 100 and 10μg/L DEHP at 15s post-sperm activation, respectively. Compared to control, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels were decreased at 10 and 1μg/L DEHP at day 15 and 30, respectively. In E2 treated goldfish, 11-KT levels were decreased compared to control during the period...

  5. Detection of motion and posture change using an IR-UWB radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nguyen; Javaid, Abdul Q; Weitnauer, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    Impulse radio ultra-wide band (IR-UWB) radar has recently emerged as a promising candidate for non-contact monitoring of respiration and heart rate. Different studies have reported various radar based algorithms for estimation of these physiological parameters. The radar can be placed under a subject's mattress as he lays stationary on his back or it can be attached to the ceiling directly above the subject's bed. However, advertent or inadvertent movement on part of the subject and different postures can affect the radar returned signal and also the accuracy of the estimated parameters from it. The detection and analysis of these postural changes can not only lead to improvement in estimation algorithms but also towards prevention of bed sores and ulcers in patients who require periodic posture changes. In this paper, we present an algorithm that detects and quantifies different types of motion events using an under-the-mattress IR-UWB radar. The algorithm also indicates a change in posture after a macro-movement event. Based on the findings of this paper, we anticipate that IR-UWB radar can be used for extracting posture related information in non-clinical enviroments for patients who are bed-ridden.

  6. Brain Mapping of Ghrelin O-Acyltransferase in Goldfish (Carassius Auratus): Novel Roles for the Ghrelinergic System in Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén M; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Delgado, María J; Valenciano, Ana I

    2016-06-01

    Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme responsible for acylation of ghrelin, a gut-brain hormone with important roles in many physiological functions in vertebrates. Many aspects of GOAT remain to be elucidated, especially in fish, and particularly its anatomical distribution within the different brain areas has never been reported to date. The present study aimed to characterize the brain mapping of GOAT using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in a teleost, the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Results show that goat transcripts are expressed in different brain areas of the goldfish, with the highest levels in the vagal lobe. Using immunohistochemistry, we also report the presence of GOAT immunoreactive cells in different encephalic areas, including the telencephalon, some hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, optic tectum and cerebellum, although they are especially abundant in the hindbrain. Particularly, an important signal is observed in the vagal lobe and some fiber tracts of the brainstem, such as the medial longitudinal fasciculus, Mauthneri fasciculus, secondary gustatory tract and spinothalamic tract. Most of the forebrain areas where GOAT is detected, particularly the hypothalamic nuclei, also express the ghs-r1a ghrelin receptor and other appetite-regulating hormones (e.g., orexin and NPY), supporting the role of ghrelin as a modulator of food intake and energy balance in fish. Present results are the first report on the presence of GOAT in the brain using imaging techniques. The high presence of GOAT in the hindbrain is a novelty, and point to possible new functions for the ghrelinergic system in fish. Anat Rec, 299:748-758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of acetazolamide on the otolith growth of goldfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiya, Yasuo

    1977-01-01

    In order to clarify the involvement of a functional carbonic anhydrase (CA) system in the otolith formation of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, acetazolamide, a specific CA inhibitor, was injected intraperitoneally every 3 or 4 days, and its inhibitory effect on the otolith growth was examined by means of a tetracycline labelling technique. Calcium-45 deposition on the otolith was also examined after a single injection of the drug. Given in multiple doses of 50 mg per Kg of body weight, acetazolamide did not reduce the growth rate of the otolith on either dorsal or ventral side. With multiple doses of 100 mg, however, the dorsal growth was significantly depressed by 17%. The ventral growth was not affected. Similarly, calcium-45 deposition on the otolith was effectively reduced (39%) only when a dose of 100 mg was given. These results suggest that, if involved, the enzyme-catalyzed hydration or hydroxylation of CO 2 is not indispensable to the carbonate formation of the otolith. (auth.)

  8. Motion and Form Coherence Detection in Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Relationship to Motor Control and 2:4 Digit Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Elizabeth; White, Sarah; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John; Hansen, Peter; Ramus, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorder and controls performed tasks of coherent motion and form detection, and motor control. Additionally, the ratio of the 2nd and 4th digits of these children, which is thought to be an indicator of foetal testosterone, was measured. Children in the experimental group were impaired at tasks of motor control,…

  9. Topographic changes detection through Structure-from-Motion in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Pradetto Sordo, Nicoletta; Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Terol Esparza, Enric; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the world, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as land-use changes on large scales and unsustainable farming practices (Boardman et al., 1990; Cerdà 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Tillage operations, combined with weather conditions, are recognized to primarily influence soil erosion rates. If, on one hand, tillage operations cause uniform changes based on the tool used, on the other, weather conditions, such as rainfalls, produce more random changes, less easily traceable (Snapir et al., 2014). Within this context, remote-sensing technologies can facilitate the detection and quantification of these topographic changes. In particular, a real opportunity and challenge is offered by the low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique, called 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), combined with the use of smartphones (Micheletti et al., 2014; Prosdocimi et al., 2015). This represents a significant advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner - TLS) (Tarolli, 2014). This work wants to test the Structure from Motion to obtain high-resolution topography for the detection of topographic changes in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes. Two case studies were selected: i) a tilled plot characterized by bare soil and affected by rill erosion located in the hilly countryside of Marche region (central Italy), and ii) a Mediterranean vineyard located within the province of Valencia (south eastern Spain) where rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Extensive photosets were obtained by using one standalone reflex digital camera and one smartphone built-in digital camera. Digital

  10. Reduction of Motion Artifacts and Improvement of R Peak Detecting Accuracy Using Adjacent Non-Intrusive ECG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minho Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-intrusive electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring has many advantages: easy to measure and apply in daily life. However, motion noise in the measured signal is the major problem of non-intrusive measurement. This paper proposes a method to reduce the noise and to detect the R peaks of ECG in a stable manner in a sitting arrangement using non-intrusive sensors. The method utilizes two capacitive ECG sensors (cECGs to measure ECG, and another two cECGs located adjacent to the sensors for ECG are added to obtain the information on motion. Then, active noise cancellation technique and the motion information are used to reduce motion noise. To verify the proposed method, ECG was measured indoors and during driving, and the accuracy of the detected R peaks was compared. After applying the method, the sum of sensitivity and positive predictivity increased 8.39% on average and 26.26% maximally in the data. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the motion noise was reduced and that more reliable R peak positions could be obtained by the proposed method. The robustness of the new ECG measurement method will elicit benefits to various health care systems that require noninvasive heart rate or heart rate variability measurements.

  11. TEM in situ cube-corner indentation analysis using ViBe motion detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, K. H.; Thomas, S.; Swenson, M. J.; Lu, Y.; Wharry, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) in situ mechanical testing is a promising method for understanding plasticity in shallow ion irradiated layers and other volume-limited materials. One of the simplest TEM in situ experiments is cube-corner indentation of a lamella, but the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the experiment is challenging, especially in engineering materials with complex microstructures. In this work, we: (a) develop MicroViBE, a motion detection and background subtraction-based post-processing approach, and (b) demonstrate the ability of MicroViBe, in combination with post-mortem TEM imaging, to carry out an unbiased qualitative interpretation of TEM indentation videos. We focus this work around a Fe-9%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy, irradiated with Fe2+ ions to 3 dpa at 500 °C. MicroViBe identifies changes in Laue contrast that are induced by the indentation; these changes accumulate throughout the mechanical loading to generate a "heatmap" of features in the original TEM video that change the most during the loading. Dislocation loops with b = ½ identified by post-mortem scanning TEM (STEM) imaging correspond to hotspots on the heatmap, whereas positions of dislocation loops with b = do not correspond to hotspots. Further, MicroViBe enables consistent, objective quantitative approximation of the b = ½ dislocation loop number density.

  12. Coupled structure-from-motion and 3D symmetry detection for urban facades

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2014-01-01

    Repeated structures are ubiquitous in urban facades. Such repetitions lead to ambiguity in establishing correspondences across sets of unordered images. A decoupled structure-from-motion reconstruction followed by symmetry detection often produces errors: outputs are either noisy and incomplete, or even worse, appear to be valid but actually have a wrong number of repeated elements.We present an optimization framework for extracting repeated elements in images of urban facades, while simultaneously calibrating the input images and recovering the 3D scene geometry using a graph-based global analysis. We evaluate the robustness of the proposed scheme on a range of challenging examples containing widespread repetitions and nondistinctive features. These image sets are common but cannot be handled well with state-of-the-art methods. We show that the recovered symmetry information along with the 3D geometry enables a range of novel image editing operations that maintain consistency across the images. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  13. The effects of salinity on growth of Goldfish, Carassius auratus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... weight gain, food intake and survival of goldfish and crucian carp were investigated for 20 days. Both ... There are various studies on the effects of these factors ..... have high salt in the blood and do not spend more energy.

  14. Regulation by orexin of feeding behaviour and locomotor activity in the goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamachi, T; Matsuda, K; Maruyama, K; Miura, T; Uchiyama, M; Funahashi, H; Sakurai, T; Shioda, S

    2006-04-01

    Orexin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviour and the sleep-wakefulness cycle in mammals. However, in spite of a growing body of knowledge concerning orexin in mammals, the orexin system and its function have not been well studied in lower vertebrates. In the present study, we first examined the effect of feeding status on the orexin-like immunoreactivity (orexin-LI) and the expression of orexin mRNA in the goldfish brain. The number of cells showing orexin-LI in the hypothalamus of goldfish brain showed a significant increase in fasted fish and a significant decrease in glucose-injected fish. The expression level of orexin mRNA in the brains of fasted fish increased compared to that of fed fish. We also examined the effect of an i.c.v. injection of orexin or an anti-orexin serum on food intake and locomotor activity in the goldfish. Administration of orexin by i.c.v. injection induced a significant increase of food intake and locomotor activity, whereas i.p. injection of glucose or i.c.v. injection of anti-orexin serum decreased food consumption. These results indicate that the orexin functions as an orexigenic factor in the goldfish brain.

  15. Localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joselevitch, Christina; Klooster, Jan; Kamermans, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    We studied the localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the goldfish outer plexiform layer by light-and electron-microscopical immunohistochemistry. The mGluR1alpha antibody labeled putative ON-type bipolar cell dendrites and horizontal cell processes in both rod spherules and

  16. Immunocytochemical localization of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbranden, C. A.; Yazulla, S.; Studholme, K. M.; Kamphuis, W.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina of vertebrates. Electrophysiological experiments in goldfish and salamander have shown that neuronal glutamate transporters play an important role in the clearance of glutamate from cone synaptic clefts. In this study, the localization

  17. Fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzoni M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus was studied in Lake Trasimeno by analysing the selectivity of the equipment that can be used to control this invasive species. Sampling was conducted monthly from February 2003 to January 2004 by means of electrofishing, fyke-nets and gill-nets of different-sized mesh (22, 25, 28, 35, 40, 50, 70 and 80 mm. The average value of the CPUEs of goldfish caught was 10175.48 g·10−2·m−2 for gill-nets, 246.97 g·h−1 for fyke-nets and 606.50 g·min−1 for electrofishing. The efficiency of electrofishing was not uniform in all periods of the year, the mean CPUEs being highest in spring, when specimens of reproductive age were preferentially caught. Gill-nets yielded abundant catches of goldfish in all seasons, and displayed good sampling efficiency even in winter. With regard to the selectivity of gill-nets, estimated optimum selection lengths for each mesh size were: 11.92 cm, 13.55 cm, 15.18 cm, 18.97 cm, 21.68 cm, 27.10 cm, 37.94 cm and 43.36 cm. The results of this research demonstrate that the various fishing techniques can be effectively combined with the aim of controlling the goldfish population in Lake Trasimeno.

  18. Activity of L-alpha-amino acids at the promiscuous goldfish odorant receptor 5.24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bolette; Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The goldfish odorant receptor 5.24 is a member of family C of G protein-coupled receptors and is closely related to the human receptor GPRC6A. Receptor 5.24 has previously been shown to have binding affinity for L-alpha-amino acids, especially the basic amino acids arginine and lysine. Here we...

  19. Modulation of horizontal cell receptive fields in the light adapted goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Kamermans, M.; van den Aker, E. C.; Spekreijse, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the isolated goldfish retina, 700 nm background illumination increases the horizontal cell receptive field size, as measured with 565 nm slits of light, but decreases the receptive field size, when measured with 660 nm slits. These background-induced changes in receptive field size are absent

  20. Spectral sensitivity of the feedback signal from horizontal cells to cones in goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, D. A.; Kamermans, M.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    The spectral sensitivity of cones in isolated goldfish retina was determined with whole-cell recording techniques. Three spectral classes of cones were found with maximal sensitivities around 620 nm, 540 nm, and 460 nm. UV-cones were not found because our stimulator did not allow effective

  1. COLOUR QUALITY ENHANCED ON GOLDFISH JUVENILES THROUGH SHRIMP HEAD MEAL ENRICHED IN FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Subamia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Goldfish (Carassius sp. is the ornamental fish which has been managed its culture by fish farmers. The objective of the research is to improve the colour quality of goldfish juveniles through enrichment of feed using shrimp head meal as source of carotenoid. The research was conducted at The Research and Development Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture, Depok, using completely randomized design with four treatments of shrimp head meal ratio, 0% (control, 5%, 10%, and 15% in feed, the feed formulation contained isoprotein (30%, and isolipid (15% and three replications of each treatment. Ten juveniles of Carassius sp. with body weight of (1.08±0.02 g stocked in aquarium with water volumes of 20 L. The growth and colour quality in qualitative standard using TCF (Toca Colour Finder were examined, while total carotenoid content on feed were measured by spectrophotometry method. The colour quality of goldfish were also measured at three of fins those were dorsal, ventral, and caudal. The result showed that no significant different on growth and survival rates among the treatments. Based on the present research, the optimal colour improvement to goldfish was by addition of 10% shrimp head meal in feed.

  2. Axonal transport of proteoglycans to the goldfish optic tectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripellino, J.A.; Elam, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The study addressed the question of whether 35 SO 4 labeled molecules that have been delivered to the goldfish optic nerve terminals by rapid axonal transport include soluble proteoglycans. For analysis, tectal homogenates were subfractionated into a soluble fraction (soluble after centrifugation at 105,000 g), a lysis fraction (soluble after treatment with hypotonic buffer followed by centrifugation at 105,000 g) and a final 105,000 g pellet fraction. The soluble fraction contained 25.7% of incorporated radioactivity and upon DEAE chromatography was resolved into a fraction of sulfated glycoproteins eluting at 0-0.32 M NaCl and containing 39.5% of total soluble label and a fraction eluting at 0.32-0.60 M NaCl containing 53.9% of soluble label. This latter fraction was included on columns of Sepharose CL-6B with or without 4 M guanidine and after pronase digestion was found to have 51% of its radioactivity contained in the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate and chondroitin (4 or 6) sulfate in the ratio of 70% to 30%. Mobility of both intact proteoglycans and constituent GAGs on Sepharose CL-6B indicated a size distribution that is smaller than has been observed for proteoglycans and GAGs from cultured neuronal cell lines. Similar analysis of lysis fraction, containing 11.5% of incorporated 35 SO 4 , showed a mixture of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate containing proteoglycans, apparent free heparan sulfate and few, if any, sulfated glycoproteins. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that soluble proteoglycans are among the molecules axonally transported in the visual system

  3. Fin Type Variation of Lionhead Strain Goldfish (Carassius auratus Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syaifudin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available  Lionhead strain goldfish (Carassius auratus inheritance produce many variations in phenotype qualitative traits of their offspring that is not common with the parents. Lionhead is an ornamental freshwater fish, they do not have a dorsal fin, but it is a beauty finfish, is popular to the people and have a high economic value. Of the 846 offspring of lionhead is produced in this experiment, and 57,7% of them have dorsal fin (42,3% normal, 13,1% of them have anal fin which did not similar with their parents, 58,6% caudal fin of them did not have similar to their parents. It might be caused by incompletely segregation in meiosis and many gen responsible to certain phenotype trait. Another abnormalities such as no anal fin, blindness, stumped and no pigmen in their gill lamella also occurred. Key words: Inheritance, fin, phenotype, abnormality   ABSTRAK Ikan maskoki strain lionhead menghasilkan keturunan dengan fenotip yang sangat bervariasi dan berbeda dengan induknya. Ikan ini merupakan ikan hias air tawar yang tidak memiliki sirip punggung namun tetap memiliki keindahan, sehingga menjadi begitu populer di masyarakat dan memiliki nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Sebanyak 846 keturunan (anakan telah dihasilkan dalam percobaan ini, dan sebanyak 57,7% dari populasi tersebut memiliki sirip punggung (berarti 42,3% merupakan keturunan normal, 13,1% memiliki sirip dubur yang tidak mirip dengan induknya. Variasi keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini disebabkan oleh segregasi yang tidak sempurna dalam proses meiosis dan banyaknya gen yang terlibat dalam pembentukan penotip tertentu. Abnormalitas lainnya juga terjadi pada keturunan ikan maskoki strain lionhead ini, seperti tidak adanya sirip dubur, mata buta, tubuh pendek dan tidak adanya pigmen pada lemela insang Kata kunci: Keturunan, sirip, fenotip, abnormalitas  

  4. A New Light-Speed Anisotropy Experiment: Absolute Motion and Gravitational Waves Detected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from a new experiment measuring the anisotropy of the one-way speed of EM waves in a coaxial cable, gives the speed of light as 300,000 +/- 400 (+/- 20 km/s in a measured direction RA=5.5 +/- 2 hrs, Dec=70 +/- 10 Deg S, is shown to be in excellent agreement with the results from seven previous anisotropy experiments, particularly those of Miller (1925/26, and even those of Michelson and Morley (1887. The Miller gas-mode interferometer results, and those from the RF coaxial cable experiments of Torr and Kolen (1983, De Witte (1991 and the new experiment all reveal the presence of gravitational waves, as indicated by the last +/- variations above, but of a kind different from those supposedly predicted by General Relativity. Miller repeated the Michelson-Morley 1887 gas-mode interferometer experiment and againdetected the anisotropy of the speed of light, primarily in the years 1925/1926 atop Mt.Wilson, California. The understanding of the operation of the Michelson interferometer in gas-mode was only achieved in 2002 and involved a calibration for the interferometer that necessarily involved Special Relativity effects and the refractive index of the gas in the light paths. The results demonstrate the reality of the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction as an observer independent relativistic effect. A common misunderstanding is that the anisotropy of the speed of light is necessarily in conflict with Special Relativity and Lorentz symmetry - this is explained. All eight experiments and theory show that we have both anisotropy of the speed of light and relativistic effects, and that a dynamical 3-space exists - that absolute motion through that space has been repeatedly observed since 1887. These developments completely change fundamental physics and our understanding of reality. Modern vacuum-mode Michelson interferometers, particularly the long baseline terrestrial versions, are, by design flaw, incapable of detecting the anisotropy effect and the

  5. Predictive error detection in pianists: A combined ERP and motion capture study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens eMaidhof

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Performing a piece of music involves the interplay of several cognitive and motor processes and requires extensive training to achieve a high skill level. However, even professional musicians commit errors occasionally. Previous event-related potential (ERP studies have investigated the neurophysiological correlates of pitch errors during piano performance, and reported pre-error negativity already occurring approximately 70-100 ms before the error had been committed and audible. It was assumed that this pre-error negativity reflects predictive control processes that compare predicted consequences with actual consequences of one’s own actions. However, in previous investigations, correct and incorrect pitch events were confounded by their different tempi. In addition, no data about the underlying movements were available. In the present study, we exploratively recorded the ERPs and 3D movement data of pianists’ fingers simultaneously while they performed fingering exercises from memory. Results showed a pre-error negativity for incorrect keystrokes when both correct and incorrect keystrokes were performed with comparable tempi. Interestingly, even correct notes immediately preceding erroneous keystrokes elicited a very similar negativity. In addition, we explored the possibility of computing ERPs time-locked to a kinematic landmark in the finger motion trajectories defined by when a finger makes initial contact with the key surface, that is, at the onset of tactile feedback. Results suggest that incorrect notes elicited a small difference after the onset of tactile feedback, whereas correct notes preceding incorrect ones elicited negativity before the onset of tactile feedback. The results tentatively suggest that tactile feedback plays an important role in error-monitoring during piano performance, because the comparison between predicted and actual sensory (tactile feedback may provide the information necessary for the detection of an

  6. A collaborative computing framework of cloud network and WBSN applied to fall detection and 3-D motion reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chin-Feng; Chen, Min; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Youn, Chan-Hyun; Chao, Han-Chieh

    2014-03-01

    As cloud computing and wireless body sensor network technologies become gradually developed, ubiquitous healthcare services prevent accidents instantly and effectively, as well as provides relevant information to reduce related processing time and cost. This study proposes a co-processing intermediary framework integrated cloud and wireless body sensor networks, which is mainly applied to fall detection and 3-D motion reconstruction. In this study, the main focuses includes distributed computing and resource allocation of processing sensing data over the computing architecture, network conditions and performance evaluation. Through this framework, the transmissions and computing time of sensing data are reduced to enhance overall performance for the services of fall events detection and 3-D motion reconstruction.

  7. Occurrence and intensity of parasites in goldfish (Carassius auratus L. from Guilan province fish ponds, north Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohi Javad Daghigh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this survey 109 specimens of goldfish (Carassius auratus were collected from Guilan fish ponds during 2012-13. After recording biometric characteristics, common parasitology methods were used. In the present study 11 parasite species were recovered from goldfish. Parasitofauna consisted of two protozoans: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp.; one digenean trematodes: Diplostomum spathaceum; six monogenean trematodes: Dactylogyrus vastator, Dactylogyrus formosus, Dactylogyrus baueri, Dactylogyrus anchoratus and Gyrodactylus sp.; one crustacean: copepodid stage of Lernaea cyprinacea and one nematodes larvae. All the monogeneans found during the current study are considered new locality records for goldfish in Guilan province, Iran. Mean intensity of infection and abundances of parasite species (with prevalences >10% among seasons were tested by the Kruskal-Wallis test (KW, multiple comparisons and Conover-Inman test. Results have shown that monogeneans had the highest prevalence values (49.54% in goldfish in Guilan fish ponds.

  8. In vivo retinal imaging for fixational eye motion detection using a high-speed digital micromirror device (DMD)-based ophthalmoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienola, Kari V; Damodaran, Mathi; Braaf, Boy; Vermeer, Koenraad A; de Boer, Johannes F

    2018-02-01

    Retinal motion detection with an accuracy of 0.77 arcmin corresponding to 3.7 µm on the retina is demonstrated with a novel digital micromirror device based ophthalmoscope. By generating a confocal image as a reference, eye motion could be measured from consecutively measured subsampled frames. The subsampled frames provide 7.7 millisecond snapshots of the retina without motion artifacts between the image points of the subsampled frame, distributed over the full field of view. An ophthalmoscope pattern projection speed of 130 Hz enabled a motion detection bandwidth of 65 Hz. A model eye with a scanning mirror was built to test the performance of the motion detection algorithm. Furthermore, an in vivo motion trace was obtained from a healthy volunteer. The obtained eye motion trace clearly shows the three main types of fixational eye movements. Lastly, the obtained eye motion trace was used to correct for the eye motion in consecutively obtained subsampled frames to produce an averaged confocal image correct for motion artefacts.

  9. Pilot study on real-time motion detection in UAS video data by human observer and image exploitation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Voit, Michael; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Real-time motion video analysis is a challenging and exhausting task for the human observer, particularly in safety and security critical domains. Hence, customized video analysis systems providing functions for the analysis of subtasks like motion detection or target tracking are welcome. While such automated algorithms relieve the human operators from performing basic subtasks, they impose additional interaction duties on them. Prior work shows that, e.g., for interaction with target tracking algorithms, a gaze-enhanced user interface is beneficial. In this contribution, we present an investigation on interaction with an independent motion detection (IDM) algorithm. Besides identifying an appropriate interaction technique for the user interface - again, we compare gaze-based and traditional mouse-based interaction - we focus on the benefit an IDM algorithm might provide for an UAS video analyst. In a pilot study, we exposed ten subjects to the task of moving target detection in UAS video data twice, once performing with automatic support, once performing without it. We compare the two conditions considering performance in terms of effectiveness (correct target selections). Additionally, we report perceived workload (measured using the NASA-TLX questionnaire) and user satisfaction (measured using the ISO 9241-411 questionnaire). The results show that a combination of gaze input and automated IDM algorithm provides valuable support for the human observer, increasing the number of correct target selections up to 62% and reducing workload at the same time.

  10. Use of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging to detect early changes in diabetic kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Yang, Biran; Peng, Yan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Luo, Jinwen; Du, Guoxin

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of the study was to examine differences in kidney intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) parameters in early-stage diabetic patients versus healthy controls. Nineteen type 2 diabetic patients (group A) with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) diabetic kidney changes was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Three radiologists independently measured the parameters derived from IVIM-DWI in the two groups by free-hand placing regions of interest, and the interclass coefficients (ICCs) were analyzed by SPSS.16.0 software. The f values of the kidneys were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in healthy volunteers. The D value of the kidneys was significantly lower in diabetic patients than in healthy volunteers. No significant differences in the D* values of the kidneys were observed between diabetic patients and healthy volunteers. The D values of the right kidneys were significantly higher than those of the left kidneys in both groups. The results of the receiver operating characteristic analysis were as follows: left kidney-f value AUC = 0.650 (cutoff point ≥ 27.49%) and D value AUC = 0.752 (cutoff point ≤ 1.68 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s); and right kidney-f value AUC = 0.650 (cutoff point ≥ 28.24%) and D value AUC = 0.752 (cutoff point ≤ 1.81 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s). The diagnostic performance of the D* value was very low (AUC  0.05). The ICCs of the f value and D value were between 0.637 and 0.827. The ICC of the D* value was less than 0.3. The results of our study suggest that changes in kidneys detected by IVIM-DWI may serve as indicators of early diabetic kidney disease.

  11. Lane Detection in Video-Based Intelligent Transportation Monitoring via Fast Extracting and Clustering of Vehicle Motion Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane detection is a crucial process in video-based transportation monitoring system. This paper proposes a novel method to detect the lane center via rapid extraction and high accuracy clustering of vehicle motion trajectories. First, we use the activity map to realize automatically the extraction of road region, the calibration of dynamic camera, and the setting of three virtual detecting lines. Secondly, the three virtual detecting lines and a local background model with traffic flow feedback are used to extract and group vehicle feature points in unit of vehicle. Then, the feature point groups are described accurately by edge weighted dynamic graph and modified by a motion-similarity Kalman filter during the sparse feature point tracking. After obtaining the vehicle trajectories, a rough k-means incremental clustering with Hausdorff distance is designed to realize the rapid online extraction of lane center with high accuracy. The use of rough set reduces effectively the accuracy decrease, which results from the trajectories that run irregularly. Experimental results prove that the proposed method can detect lane center position efficiently, the affected time of subsequent tasks can be reduced obviously, and the safety of traffic surveillance systems can be enhanced significantly.

  12. Impact of respiratory motion correction and spatial resolution on lesion detection in PET: a simulation study based on real MR dynamic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycarpou, Irene; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; King, Andrew P.; Marsden, Paul K.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of respiratory motion correction and spatial resolution on lesion detectability in PET as a function of lesion size and tracer uptake. Real respiratory signals describing different breathing types are combined with a motion model formed from real dynamic MR data to simulate multiple dynamic PET datasets acquired from a continuously moving subject. Lung and liver lesions were simulated with diameters ranging from 6 to 12 mm and lesion to background ratio ranging from 3:1 to 6:1. Projection data for 6 and 3 mm PET scanner resolution were generated using analytic simulations and reconstructed without and with motion correction. Motion correction was achieved using motion compensated image reconstruction. The detectability performance was quantified by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis obtained using a channelized Hotelling observer and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated as the figure of merit. The results indicate that respiratory motion limits the detectability of lung and liver lesions, depending on the variation of the breathing cycle length and amplitude. Patients with large quiescent periods had a greater AUC than patients with regular breathing cycles and patients with long-term variability in respiratory cycle or higher motion amplitude. In addition, small (less than 10 mm diameter) or low contrast (3:1) lesions showed the greatest improvement in AUC as a result of applying motion correction. In particular, after applying motion correction the AUC is improved by up to 42% with current PET resolution (i.e. 6 mm) and up to 51% for higher PET resolution (i.e. 3 mm). Finally, the benefit of increasing the scanner resolution is small unless motion correction is applied. This investigation indicates high impact of respiratory motion correction on lesion detectability in PET and highlights the importance of motion correction in order to benefit from the increased resolution of future

  13. Impact of respiratory motion correction and spatial resolution on lesion detection in PET: a simulation study based on real MR dynamic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycarpou, Irene; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; King, Andrew P; Marsden, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of respiratory motion correction and spatial resolution on lesion detectability in PET as a function of lesion size and tracer uptake. Real respiratory signals describing different breathing types are combined with a motion model formed from real dynamic MR data to simulate multiple dynamic PET datasets acquired from a continuously moving subject. Lung and liver lesions were simulated with diameters ranging from 6 to 12 mm and lesion to background ratio ranging from 3:1 to 6:1. Projection data for 6 and 3 mm PET scanner resolution were generated using analytic simulations and reconstructed without and with motion correction. Motion correction was achieved using motion compensated image reconstruction. The detectability performance was quantified by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis obtained using a channelized Hotelling observer and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated as the figure of merit. The results indicate that respiratory motion limits the detectability of lung and liver lesions, depending on the variation of the breathing cycle length and amplitude. Patients with large quiescent periods had a greater AUC than patients with regular breathing cycles and patients with long-term variability in respiratory cycle or higher motion amplitude. In addition, small (less than 10 mm diameter) or low contrast (3:1) lesions showed the greatest improvement in AUC as a result of applying motion correction. In particular, after applying motion correction the AUC is improved by up to 42% with current PET resolution (i.e. 6 mm) and up to 51% for higher PET resolution (i.e. 3 mm). Finally, the benefit of increasing the scanner resolution is small unless motion correction is applied. This investigation indicates high impact of respiratory motion correction on lesion detectability in PET and highlights the importance of motion correction in order to benefit from the increased resolution of future

  14. Motion-compensated optical coherence tomography using envelope-based surface detection and Kalman-based prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsch, Kristina; Lee, Soohyun; Bose, Sanjukta N.; Kang, Jin U.

    2018-02-01

    We present an optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system that effectively compensates unwanted axial motion with micron-scale accuracy. The OCT system is based on a swept-source (SS) engine (1060-nm center wavelength, 100-nm full-width sweeping bandwidth, and 100-kHz repetition rate), with axial and lateral resolutions of about 4.5 and 8.5 microns respectively. The SS-OCT system incorporates a distance sensing method utilizing an envelope-based surface detection algorithm. The algorithm locates the target surface from the B-scans, taking into account not just the first or highest peak but the entire signature of sequential A-scans. Subsequently, a Kalman filter is applied as predictor to make up for system latencies, before sending the calculated position information to control a linear motor, adjusting and maintaining a fixed system-target distance. To test system performance, the motioncorrection algorithm was compared to earlier, more basic peak-based surface detection methods and to performing no motion compensation. Results demonstrate increased robustness and reproducibility, particularly noticeable in multilayered tissues, while utilizing the novel technique. Implementing such motion compensation into clinical OCT systems may thus improve the reliability of objective and quantitative information that can be extracted from OCT measurements.

  15. A Failure Detection Strategy for Intrafraction Prostate Motion Monitoring With On-Board Imagers for Fixed-Gantry IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wu; Luxton, Gary; Xing Lei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop methods to monitor prostate intrafraction motion during fixed-gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy using MV treatment beam imaging together with minimal kV imaging for a failure detection strategy that ensures prompt detection when target displacement exceeds a preset threshold. Methods and Materials: Real-time two-dimensional (2D) marker position in the MV image plane was obtained by analyzing cine-MV images. The marker's in-line movement, and thus its time-varying three-dimensional (3D) position, was estimated by combining the 2D projection data with a previously established correlative relationship between the directional components of prostate motion. A confirmation request for more accurate localization using MV-kV triangulation was triggered when the estimated prostate displacement based on the cine-MV data was greater than 3 mm. An interventional action alert followed on positive MV-kV confirmation. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method, simulation studies of conventional-fraction intensity-modulated radiotherapy sessions were done using 536 Calypso-measured prostate trajectories from 17 radiotherapy patients. Results: A technique for intrafraction prostate motion management has been developed. The technique, using 'freely available' cine-MV images and minimum on-board kV imaging (on average 2.5 images/fraction), successfully limited 3D prostate movement to within a range of 3 mm relative to the MV beam for 99.4% of the total treatment time. On average, only approximately one intervention/fraction was needed to achieve this level of accuracy. Conclusion: Instead of seeking to accurately and continuously localize the prostate target as existing motion tracking systems do, the present technique effectively uses cine-MV data to provide a clinically valuable way to minimize kV usage, while maintaining high targeting accuracy.

  16. Detection of collective motions in dielectric spectra and the meaning of the generalized Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigmatullin, Raoul R.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the reduction property of dielectric spectra associated with the power-law function [∼(jωτ) ±ν ] that appears in the frequency domain, one can develop an effective procedure for detection of different reduced motions (described by the corresponding power-law exponents) in temperature domain. If the power-law exponent ν is related to characteristic relaxation time τ by the relationship ν=ν 0 ln(τ/τ s )/ln(τ/τ 0 ) (here τ s , τ 0 are the characteristic times characterizing a movement over fractal cluster that is defined in Ref. [Ya.E. Ryabov, Yu. Feldman, J. Chem. Phys. 116 (2002) 8610]) and the simple temperature dependence of τ(T)=τ A exp(E/T) obeys the traditional Arrhenius relationship, then one can prove that any extreme point figuring in the complex permittivity ε(jω) spectra (characterized by the values [ω m , y(ω m )]) obeys the generalized Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. This important statement confirms the existence of the 'universal' response (UR) (discovered and classified by Jonscher in frequency domain) and opens new possibilities in the detection of the 'hidden' collective motions in temperature region for self-similar (heterogeneous) systems. It gives also the extended interpretation of the VFT equation and allows one to differentiate collective motions passing through an extreme point. This differentiation, in turn, allows one to select the proper fitting function containing one or two (at least) relaxation times for the fitting of the complex permittivity function ε(jω) in the limited frequency domain. This conclusion can allow for the classification of dielectric spectroscopy as the spectroscopy of the reduced (collective) motions, which are described by different power-law exponents on the mesoscale region. The verification of this approach on available DS data (poly(ethylene glycol)-based-single-ion conductors) completely confirms the basic statements of this theory and opens new possibilities in general

  17. Attempt at cloning high-quality goldfish breed 'Ranchu' by fin-cultured cell nuclear transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito; Takai, Akinori; Ohta, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The viability of ornamental fish culture relies on the maintenance of high-quality breeds. To improve the profitability of culture operations we attempted to produce cloned fish from the somatic nucleus of the high-quality Japanese goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) breed 'Ranchu'. We transplanted the nucleus of a cultured fin-cell from an adult Ranchu into the non-enucleated egg of the original goldfish breed 'Wakin'. Of the 2323 eggs we treated, 802 underwent cleavage, 321 reached the blastula stage, and 51 reached the gastrula stage. Two of the gastrulas developed until the hatching stage. A considerable number of nuclear transplants retained only the donor nucleus. Some of these had only a 2n nucleus derived from the same donor fish. Our results provide insights into the process of somatic cell nuclear transplantation in teleosts, and the cloning of Ranchu.

  18. In vivo phosphorylation of axonal proteins in goldfish optic nerve during regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrivee, D.C.; Grafstein, B.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo phosphorylation of axonal proteins was investigated in normal and regenerating optic nerves of goldfish by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. By 6-24 h after intraocular injection of H/sub 3/(32)PO/sub 4/, approximately 20 optic nerve proteins ranging in size from 19 to 180 kilodaltons and in pI from 4.4 to 6.8 were seen to have incorporated radiolabel. Five of these proteins showed a robust increase in incorporation of phosphate during regeneration. Among the latter was an acidic (pI 4.5) 45-kilodalton protein, which has previously been shown to be conveyed by fast axonal transport and to increase dramatically in its rate of synthesis during regeneration of goldfish optic axons.

  19. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  20. Variation in myelin lipid composition induced by change in environmental temperature of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivonchick, D.P.; Roots, B.I.

    1976-04-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) were acclimated to 5, 15, and 30/sup 0/C, and the lipid and protein composition of brain and spinal cord myelin was determined. Goldfish myelin contains less galactolipid, but more protein and phospholipid than mammalian and bird myelin. Phosphatidyl choline was the predominant phospholipid in both brain and spinal cord myelin. Fish myelin also showed a greater plasmalogen content with an average ethanolamine plasmalogen/total phosphatidyl ethanolamine ratio of 0.84. Total brain and myelin lipids, with the exception of plasmalogens, showed a resistance to change with thermal acclimation. Differences between brain and spinal cord myelin protein and phospholipids were not observed. It is suggested that temperature acclimation in poikilotherms may be used as a tool in the study of membrane adaptability.

  1. Study of goldfish (Carassius auratus) growth hormone structure-function relationship by domain swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y H; Cheng, C H K; Chan, K M

    2007-03-01

    Using goldfish as a model, the structure-function relationship of goldfish growth hormone was studied using the strategy of homologous domain swapping. Chimeric mutants were constructed by exchanging homologous regions between goldfish growth hormone (gfGH II) and goldfish prolactin (gfPRL) with their cloned complementary DNAs. Six mutants, with their domain-swapped, were generated to have different combinations of three target regions, including the helix a, helix d and the large section in between these helices (possess the helices b, c and other random coiled regions). After expression in E. coli and refolding, these mutants were characterized by using competitive receptor binding assay (RRA) and growth hormone responding promoter activation assay. The different activity profiles of mutants in Spi 2.1 gene promoter assays from that in RRA shows that, for gfGH, receptor binding dose not confer receptor signal activations. When either helices a or d of gfGH was maintained with other helices replaced by their gfPRL counterparts, both receptor binding and hence gene activation activities are reduced. In mutants with helices b and c in gfGH maintained, containing the gfGH middle section, and helices a and d swapped with gfPRL, the had reduced RRA activities but the promoter activation activities retained. In conclusion, as in the case of human GH, the gfGH molecule possesses two functional sites: one of them is composed of discontinuous epitopes located on the target regions of this study and is for receptor binding; another site is located on the middle section of the molecule that helices a and d are not involved, and it is for activation of GH receptor and intracellular signals.

  2. A Study on the Model of Detecting the Variation of Geomagnetic Intensity Based on an Adapted Motion Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By simulating the geomagnetic fields and analyzing thevariation of intensities, this paper presents a model for calculating the objective function ofan Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUVgeomagnetic navigation task. By investigating the biologically inspired strategies, the AUV successfullyreachesthe destination duringgeomagnetic navigation without using the priori geomagnetic map. Similar to the pattern of a flatworm, the proposed algorithm relies on a motion pattern to trigger a local searching strategy by detecting the real-time geomagnetic intensity. An adapted strategy is then implemented, which is biased on the specific target. The results show thereliabilityandeffectivenessofthe proposed algorithm.

  3. RGO-coated elastic fibres as wearable strain sensors for full-scale detection of human motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Qing; Wang, Qi; Zang, Siyao; Mao, Guoming; Zhang, Jinnan; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we chose highly-elastic fabric fibres as the functional carrier and then simply coated the fibres with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using plasma treatment, dip coating and hydrothermal reduction steps, finally making a wearable strain sensor. As a result, the full-scale detection of human motions, ranging from bending joints to the pulse beat, has been achieved by these sensors. Moreover, high sensitivity, good stability and excellent repeatability were realized. The good sensing performances and economical fabrication process of this wearable strain sensor have strengthened our confidence in practical applications in smart clothing, smart fabrics, healthcare, and entertainment fields.

  4. Detection of motion artifact patterns in photoplethysmographic signals based on time and period domain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couceiro, R; Carvalho, P; Paiva, R P; Henriques, J; Muehlsteff, J

    2014-01-01

    The presence of motion artifacts in photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals is one of the major obstacles in the extraction of reliable cardiovascular parameters in continuous monitoring applications. In the current paper we present an algorithm for motion artifact detection based on the analysis of the variations in the time and the period domain characteristics of the PPG signal. The extracted features are ranked using a normalized mutual information feature selection algorithm and the best features are used in a support vector machine classification model to distinguish between clean and corrupted sections of the PPG signal. The proposed method has been tested in healthy and cardiovascular diseased volunteers, considering 11 different motion artifact sources. The results achieved by the current algorithm (sensitivity—SE: 84.3%, specificity—SP: 91.5% and accuracy—ACC: 88.5%) show that the current methodology is able to identify both corrupted and clean PPG sections with high accuracy in both healthy (ACC: 87.5%) and cardiovascular diseases (ACC: 89.5%) context. (paper)

  5. Dietary Aloe vera components' effects on cholesterol lowering and estrogenic responses in juvenile goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francesco A; Cocci, Paolo; Angeletti, Mauro; Felici, Alberto; Polzonetti-Magni, Alberta Maria; Mosconi, Gilberto

    2013-08-01

    Aloes are now considered a very interesting source of bioactive compounds among which phytosterols should play a major role. The present study is an attempt to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of Aloe vera associated with its impact on the reproductive status of juvenile goldfish. Therefore, the short- and long-term effects of feeding supplementary diet containing aloe components (20 mg aloe/g diet; 2%) on plasma lipids, plasma vitellogenin, and hepatic estrogen receptor α/β1 mRNA levels in goldfish were examined. Results of GC-MS for phytosterols show high abundance of β-sitosterol in freeze-dried powder of Aloe vera whole leaves. Moreover, a 2% aloe powder dietary supplement was not found estrogenic in juvenile goldfish after either 7- or 30-day treatment, but was consistent in plasma hypocholesterolemic effects following long-term exposure. The present data further support that plasma cholesterol modulation induced by phytosterols may not be related to estrogen-like activity.

  6. Toxicity of hydrogen sulfide to goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) as influenced by temperature, oxygen, and bioassay techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Bioassays were conducted to test the effect of temperature and oxygen on H/sub 2/S toxicity to goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and to investigate some factors that influence bioassay results. Relation of H/sub 2/S toxicity to temperature is negatively logarithmic over the range of 6.5-25 C. The mean 96-hr TL50 at 6 C was 530 ..mu..g/liter and at 25 C was 4 ..mu..g/liter. At temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, most acute mortality from H/sub 2/S ended by 11 days and the 11-day TL50's at these temperatures were significantly different. In bioassays with and without prior oxygen acclimation, decreasing oxygen concentrations increased H/sub 2/S toxicity. In the former, mean TL50's were 62 and 48 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at oxygen concentrations of 6 and 1.5 mg/liter, respectively, and in the latter, 71 and 53 ..mu..g/liter H/sub 2/S at the same oxygen concentrations. Variability in bioassay results was not affected by test temperatures of 14, 20, and 26 C, and in most cases 1 week of temperature acclimation was adequate. Stocks of fish responded differently after 11 days of bioassay, although differences were not detected after 4 days of bioassay. 27 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Comparison of Quantitative Wall Motion Analysis and Strain For Detection Of Coronary Stenosis With Three-Dimensional Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Katherine M.; Clark, Alexander P.; Goodman, Norman C.; Glover, David K.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantitative analysis of wall motion from three-dimensional (3D) dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) could provide additional diagnostic information not available from qualitative analysis. In this study we compare the effectiveness of 3D fractional shortening (3DFS), a measure of wall motion computed from 3D echocardiography (3DE), to strain and strain rate measured with sonomicrometry for detecting critical stenoses during DSE. Methods Eleven open-chest dogs underwent DSE both with and without a critical stenosis. 3DFS was measured from 3DE images acquired at peak stress. 3DFS was normalized by subtracting average 3DFS during control peak stress (Δ3DFS). Strains in the perfusion defect (PD) were measured from sonomicrometry, and PD size and location were measured with microspheres. Results A Δ3DFS abnormality indicated the presence of a critical stenosis with high sensitivity and specificity (88% and 100%, respectively), and Δ3DFS abnormality size correlated with PD size (R2=0.54). The sensitivity and specificity for Δ3DFS was similar to that for area strain (88%, 100%) and circumferential strain and strain rate (88%, 92% and 88%, 86%, respectively), while longitudinal strain and strain rate were less specific. Δ3DFS correlated significantly with both coronary flow reserve (R2=0.71) and PD size (R2=0.97), while area strain correlated with PD size only (R2=0.67), and other measures were not significantly correlated with flow reserve or PD size. Conclusion Quantitative wall motion analysis using Δ3DFS is effective for detecting critical stenoses during DSE, performing similarly to 3D strain, and provides potentially useful information on the size and location of a perfusion defect. PMID:24815588

  8. The Right Hemisphere Planum Temporale Supports Enhanced Visual Motion Detection Ability in Deaf People: Evidence from Cortical Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    After sensory loss, the deprived cortex can reorganize to process information from the remaining modalities, a phenomenon known as cross-modal reorganization. In blind people this cross-modal processing supports compensatory behavioural enhancements in the nondeprived modalities. Deaf people also show some compensatory visual enhancements, but a direct relationship between these abilities and cross-modally reorganized auditory cortex has only been established in an animal model, the congenitally deaf cat, and not in humans. Using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured cortical thickness in the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus and sulcus, the middle temporal area MT+, and the calcarine sulcus, in early-deaf persons. We tested for a correlation between this measure and visual motion detection thresholds, a visual function where deaf people show enhancements as compared to hearing. We found that the cortical thickness of a region in the right hemisphere planum temporale, typically an auditory region, was greater in deaf individuals with better visual motion detection thresholds. This same region has previously been implicated in functional imaging studies as important for functional reorganization. The structure-behaviour correlation observed here demonstrates this area's involvement in compensatory vision and indicates an anatomical correlate, increased cortical thickness, of cross-modal plasticity.

  9. Acute toxicity of sodium chloride, pentachlorophenol, Guthion, and hexavalent chromium to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, I.R.; Smith, L.L. Jr.; Siesennop, G.D.

    1976-02-01

    The 96-h LC50's for sodium chloride were 7650 and 7341 mg/liter, for pentachlorophenol 0.21 and 0.22 mg/liter, for Guthion 1.9 and 2.4 mg/liter, and for hexavalent chromium 48 and 120 mg/liter, for fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), respectively. Threshold LC50's were reached in 6 days for sodium chloride (7650 and 7322 mg/liter for fathead minnows and goldfish, respectively), and pentachlorophenol (0.21 and 0.21 mg/liter), but were not attained in 11 days (termination of testing) with Guthion (0.76 and 0.80 mg/liter) and hexavalent chromium (18 and 33 mg/liter). With pentachlorophenol and Guthion goldfish were initially more resistant, but by termination there was no significant difference in LC50's between the two species. With hexavalent chromium the goldfish were more resistant throughout the 11-day test, and with sodium chloride goldfish were initially more resistant but at attainment of a threshold LC50 were less resistant. Use of toxicity curves for assessment of acute mortality permits interpretation not possible in 96-h tests where LC50's are computed at 24-h intervals.

  10. The study of the peptide composition of the supernatants from mealworm Tenebrio molitor larvae and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Гулевский

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular-mass distribution of peptides from supernatants, obtained from the tissues of larvae Tenebrio molitor and goldfish Carassius auratus during cold acclimation, has been determined by chromatography. The results showed that peptide spectrum of the supernatants from larvae T. molitor and C. auratus varied during cold acclimation. The supernatants from non-acclimated larvae of T. molitor and deacclimated fish possessed the highest number of peptide fractions. Furthermore, the cold-acclimated larvae of T. molitor had the peptide fractions of the low molecular weight (ca. 5.4×102 ÷22.6×102 Da, and non-acclimated insects had the peptides of the high molecular weight (ca. 46.8×102÷66×102 Da. Next, the organ-specific changes of the peptide composition of the goldfish during winter deacclimation have been revealed. Specifically, the low molecular weight peptides (ca. (14.1 ± 0.3×102 and (6.75 ± 0.25×102 Da, have been detected in the C. auratus muscles, and both the high (ca. (67.83 ± 0.21×102 ( ca. 64.16 ± 0.26×102 Da and low (ca. (34.1 ± 1.0×102 and (14.29 ± 0.15×102 Da molecular weight peptides have been detected in the liver. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the peptide spectra from supernatants of the T. molitor and C. auratus during cold acclimation could be one of the mechanisms of their natural adaptation to low temperatures.

  11. Detection of respiratory tumour motion using intrinsic list mode-driven gating in positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büther, Florian; Ernst, Iris; Dawood, Mohammad; Kraxner, Peter; Schäfers, Michael; Schober, Otmar; Schäfers, Klaus P

    2010-12-01

    Respiratory motion of organs during PET scans is known to degrade PET image quality, potentially resulting in blurred images, attenuation artefacts and erroneous tracer quantification. List mode-based gating has been shown to reduce these pitfalls in cardiac PET. This study evaluates these intrinsic gating methods for tumour PET scans. A total of 34 patients with liver or lung tumours (14 liver tumours and 27 lung tumours in all) underwent a 15-min single-bed list mode PET scan of the tumour region. Of these, 15 patients (8 liver and 11 lung tumours in total) were monitored by a video camera registering a marker on the patient's abdomen, thus capturing the respiratory motion for PET gating (video method). Further gating information was deduced by dividing the list mode stream into 200-ms frames, determining the number of coincidences (sensitivity method) and computing the axial centre of mass of the measured count rates in the same frames (centre of mass method). Additionally, these list mode-based methods were evaluated using only coincidences originating from the tumour region by segmenting the tumour in sinogram space (segmented sensitivity/centre of mass method). Measured displacement of the tumours between end-expiration and end-inspiration and the increase in apparent uptake in the gated images served as a measure for the exactness of gating. To estimate the accuracy, a thorax phantom study with moved activity sources simulating small tumours was also performed. All methods resolved the respiratory motion with varying success. The best results were seen in the segmented centre of mass method, on average leading to larger displacements and uptake values than the other methods. The simple centre of mass method performed worse in terms of displacements due to activities moving into the field of view during the respiratory cycle. Both sensitivity- and video-based methods lead to similar results. List mode-driven PET gating, especially the segmented centre of mass

  12. LROC Investigation of Three Strategies for Reducing the Impact of Respiratory Motion on the Detection of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules in SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyczynski, Mark S.; Gifford, Howard C.; Dey, Joyoni; Lehovich, Andre; McNamara, Joseph E.; Segars, W. Paul; King, Michael A.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of three motion reducing strategies in diminishing the degrading impact of respiratory motion on the detection of small solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) in single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging in comparison to a standard clinical acquisition and the ideal case of imaging in the absence of respiratory motion. To do this nonuniform rational B-spline cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantoms based on human-volunteer CT studies were generated spanning the respiratory cycle for a normal background distribution of Tc-99 m NeoTect. Similarly, spherical phantoms of 1.0-cm diameter were generated to model small SPN for each of the 150 uniquely located sites within the lungs whose respiratory motion was based on the motion of normal structures in the volunteer CT studies. The SIMIND Monte Carlo program was used to produce SPECT projection data from these. Normal and single-lesion containing SPECT projection sets with a clinically realistic Poisson noise level were created for the cases of 1) the end-expiration (EE) frame with all counts, 2) respiration-averaged motion with all counts, 3) one fourth of the 32 frames centered around EE (Quarter Binning), 4) one half of the 32 frames centered around EE (Half Binning), and 5) eight temporally binned frames spanning the respiratory cycle. Each of the sets of combined projection data were reconstructed with RBI-EM with system spatial-resolution compensation (RC). Based on the known motion for each of the 150 different lesions, the reconstructed volumes of respiratory bins were shifted so as to superimpose the locations of the SPN onto that in the first bin (Reconstruct and Shift). Five human observers performed localization receiver operating characteristics (LROC) studies of SPN detection. The observer results were analyzed for statistical significance differences in SPN detection accuracy among the three correction strategies, the standard

  13. Near real-time shadow detection and removal in aerial motion imagery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme F.; Carneiro, Grace B.; Doth, Ricardo; Amaral, Leonardo A.; Azevedo, Dario F. G. de

    2018-06-01

    This work presents a method to automatically detect and remove shadows in urban aerial images and its application in an aerospace remote monitoring system requiring near real-time processing. Our detection method generates shadow masks and is accelerated by GPU programming. To obtain the shadow masks, we converted images from RGB to CIELCh model, calculated a modified Specthem ratio, and applied multilevel thresholding. Morphological operations were used to reduce shadow mask noise. The shadow masks are used in the process of removing shadows from the original images using the illumination ratio of the shadow/non-shadow regions. We obtained shadow detection accuracy of around 93% and shadow removal results comparable to the state-of-the-art while maintaining execution time under real-time constraints.

  14. Fluid motion and solute distribution around sinking aggregates II : Implications for remote detection by colonizing zooplankters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2001-01-01

    Marine snow aggregates are colonized by copepods, and encounter rates inferred from observed abundances of colonizers are high. We examined the potential for hydromechanical and chemical remote detection. The fluid disturbance generated by a sinking aggregate was described by solving the Navier......-Stokes' equation for a sinking sphere at Reynolds numbers typical of marine snow (up to 20). Fluid deformation rate, the component of the flow that can be perceived by copepods, attenuates rapidly, and detection distances estimated from knowledge of the hydromechanical sensitivity in copepods are insufficient...... to account for the observed abundances of colonizers. We next solved the advection-diffusion equation to describe the chemical trail left by a leaking and sinking aggregate. The plume is long and slender and may be detected by a horizontally cruising copepod. From the model of the plume and literature- based...

  15. Robust moving ship detection using context-based motion analysis and occlusion handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; Zinger, S.; Wijnhoven, R.G.J.; With, de P.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an original moving ship detection approach in video surveillance systems, especially con- centrating on occlusion problems among ships and vegetation using context information. Firstly, an over- segmentation is performed to divide and classify by SVM (Support Vector Machine)

  16. Overview of motion and presence detection systems used in smart lighting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Goponenko, A. S.; Matveev, I. G.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes stages of design of smart lighting systems. Advantages and disadvantages of detectors used in smart lighting systems are stressed with the purpose of further development of these systems. Ambient factors, which affect the detection system, were analyzed and consequent conservation measures were proposed.

  17. Gravity Cues Embedded in the Kinematics of Human Motion Are Detected in Form-from-Motion Areas of the Visual System and in Motor-Related Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, Fabien; Chabeauti, Pierre-Yves; Menant, Jasmine; Anton, Jean-Luc J J; Schmitz, Christina; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the cortical areas engaged in the perception of graviceptive information embedded in biological motion (BM). To this end, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the cortical areas active during the observation of human movements performed under normogravity and microgravity (parabolic flight). Movements were defined by motion cues alone using point-light displays. We found that gravity modulated the activation of a restricted set of regions of the network subtending BM perception, including form-from-motion areas of the visual system (kinetic occipital region, lingual gyrus, cuneus) and motor-related areas (primary motor and somatosensory cortices). These findings suggest that compliance of observed movements with normal gravity was carried out by mapping them onto the observer's motor system and by extracting their overall form from local motion of the moving light points. We propose that judgment on graviceptive information embedded in BM can be established based on motor resonance and visual familiarity mechanisms and not necessarily by accessing the internal model of gravitational motion stored in the vestibular cortex.

  18. ON THE DETECTABILITY OF A PREDICTED MESOLENSING EVENT ASSOCIATED WITH THE HIGH PROPER MOTION STAR VB 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lépine, Sébastien; DiStefano, Rosanne

    2012-01-01

    Extrapolation of the astrometric motion of the nearby low-mass star VB 10 indicates that sometime in late 2011 December or during the first 2-3 months of 2012, the star will make a close approach to a background point source. Based on astrometric uncertainties, we estimate a 1 in 2 chance that the distance of closest approach ρ min will be less than 100 mas, a 1 in 5 chance that ρ min min J planet on a moderately wide (≈0.18 AU–0.84 AU) orbit, there is a chance (1% to more than 10%, depending on the distance of closest approach and orbital period and inclination) that a passage of the planet closer to the background source will result in a secondary event of higher magnification. The detection of secondary events could be made possible with a several-times-per-night multi-site monitoring campaign.

  19. Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (MISA) system - A new approach towards seizure detection based on full body motion measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sándor; Wolf, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Many epilepsy patients cannot call for help during a seizure, because they are unconscious or because of the affection of their motor system or speech function. This can lead to injuries, medical complications and at worst death. An alarm system setting off at seizure onset could help to avoid...... hazards. Today no reliable alarm systems are available. A Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (MISA) system based on full body motion data seems as a good approach towards detection of epileptic seizures. The system is the first to provide a full body description for epilepsy applications. Three...... test subjects were used for this pilot project. Each subject simulated 15 seizures and in addition performed some predefined normal activities, during a 4-hour monitoring with electromyography (EMG), accelerometer, magnetometer and gyroscope (AMG), electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG...

  20. Microcomputer-based instrument for the detection and analysis of precession motion in a gas centrifuge machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, S.S.

    1986-03-01

    The Centrifuge Precession Analyzer (CPA) is a microcomputer-based instrument which detects precession motion in a gas centrifuge machine and calculates the amplitude and frequency of precession. The CPA consists of a printed circuit board which contains signal-conditioning circuitry and a 24-bit counter and an INTEL iSBC 80-/24 single-board computer. Precession motion is detected by monitoring a signal generated by a variable reluctance pick-up coil in the top of the centrifuge machine. This signal is called a Fidler signal. The initial Fidler signal triggers a counter which is clocked by a high-precision, 20.000000-MHz, temperature-controlled, crystal oscillator. The contents of the counter are read by the computer, and the counter reset after every ten Fidler signals. The speed of the centrifuge machine and the amplitude and frequency of precession are calculated, and the results are displayed on a liquid crystal display on the front panel of the CPA. The thesis contains results from data generated by a Fidler signal simulator and data taken when the centrifuge was operated under three test conditions: (1) nitrogen gas during drive-up, steady state, and drive-down, (2) xenon gas during slip test, steady state, and the addition of gas, and (3) no gas during steady state. The qualitative results were consistent with experience with centrifuge machines UF 6 in that the amplitude of precession increased and the frequency of precession decreased during drive-up, drive-down and the slip check. The magnitude of the amplitude and frequency of precession were proportional to the molecular weight of the gases in steady state

  1. Microcomputer-based instrument for the detection and analysis of precession motion in a gas centrifuge machine. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, S.S.

    1986-03-01

    The Centrifuge Procession Analyzer (CPA) is a microcomputer-based instrument which detects precession motion in a gas centrifuge machine and calculates the amplitude and frequency of precession. The CPA consists of a printed circuit board which contains signal-conditioning circuitry and a 24-bit counter and an INTEL iSBC 80/24 single/board computer. Pression motion is detected by monitoring a signal generated by a variable reluctance pick-up coil in the top of the centrifuge machine. This signal is called a Fidler signal. The initial Fidler signal triggers a counter which is clocked by a high-precision, 20.000000-MHz, temperature-controlled, crystal oscillator. The contents of the counter are read by the computer and the counter reset after every ten Fidler signals. The speed of the centrifuge machine and the amplitude and frequency of precession are calculated and the results are displayed on a liquid crystal display on the front panel of the CPA. The report contains results from data generated by a Fidler signal simulator and data taken when the centrifuge was operated under three test conditions: (1) nitrogen gas during drive-up, steady state, and drive-down; (2) xenon gas during slip test, steady state, and the addition of gas; and (3) no gas during steady state. The qualitative results were consistent with experience with centrifuge machines using UF 6 in that the amplitude of precession increased and the frequency of precession decreased during drive-up, drive-down and the slip check. The magnitude of the amplitude and frequency of precession were proportional to the molecular weight of the gases in steady state

  2. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for municipal reuse water: Assessing micropollutant degradation and estrogenic impacts on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zengquan; Singh, Arvinder; Klamerth, Nikolaus; McPhedran, Kerry; Bolton, James R; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    of the possible formation of various oxidation by-products. However, prolonged exposure of goldfish (60 days) in UV/H2O2 treated effluent showed a restoration trend of ER gene expressions, especially in the summer. Collectively, our findings provide valuable indications regarding the long-term in vivo assessment of the MP UV/H2O2 process for removing/degrading endocrine disrupting compounds detected in the municipal wastewater effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of vitellogenin incorporation into zebrafish oocytes by FITC fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi Hayato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large volumes of lymph can be collected from the eye-sacs of bubble-eye goldfish. We attempted to induce vitellogenin (Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of bubble-eye goldfish and develop a method for visualizing Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes using FITC-labeling. Methods Estrogen efficiently induced Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of goldfish. After FITC-labeled Vtg was prepared, it was injected into mature female zebrafish. Results Incorporation of FITC-labeled Vtg by zebrafish oocytes was detected in in vivo and in vitro experiments. The embryos obtained from zebrafish females injected with FITC-labeled Vtg emitted FITC fluorescence from the yolk sac and developed normally. Conclusion This method for achieving Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes could be useful in experiments related to the development and endocrinology of zebrafish oocytes.

  4. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-04

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  5. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  6. Anti-androgen vinclozolin impairs sperm quality and steroidogenesis in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatef, Azadeh; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Milla, Sylvain; Křišťan, Jiří; Golshan, Mahdi; Fontaine, Pascal; Linhart, Otomar

    2012-10-15

    In mammals, vinclozolin (VZ) is known as anti-androgen, which causes male infertility via androgen receptor (AR) antagonism. In aquatic animals, the VZ effects on reproductive functions are largely unknown and results are somewhat contradictory. To understand VZ adverse effects on male reproduction, mature goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three nominal VZ concentrations (100, 400, and 800 μg/L) and alternations in gonadosomatic (GSI) and hepatosomatic indices (HSI), 17β-estradiol (E(2)), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and sperm quality were investigated compared to the solvent control. One group was exposed to E(2) (nominal concentration of 5 μg/L), an estrogenic compound, as a negative control. Following one month exposure, GSI and HSI were unchanged in all VZ treated groups compared to solvent control. Sperm volume, motility and velocity were reduced in fish exposed to 800 μg/L VZ. This was associated with the decrease in 11-KT level, suggesting direct VZ effects on testicular androgenesis and sperm functions. In goldfish exposed to 100 μg/L VZ, 11-KT was increased but E(2) remained unchanged. This is, probably, the main reason for unchanged sperm quality at 100 μg/L VZ. In goldfish exposed to E(2), GSI and 11-KT were decreased, E(2) was increased and no sperm was produced. The present study shows different dose-dependent VZ effects, which lead to impairment in sperm quality via disruption in steroidogenesis. In addition to VZ effects through competitive binding to AR, our data suggests potential effects of VZ by direct inhibition of 11-KT biosynthesis in fish as well as abnormalities in sperm morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Seawater Polluted with Highly Concentrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Suppresses Osteoblastic Activity in the Scales of Goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Sato, Masayuki; Nassar, Hossam F; Abdel-Gawad, Fagr Kh; Bassem, Samah M; Yachiguchi, Koji; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Endo, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Urata, Makoto; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Shimasaki, Youhei; Oshima, Yuji; Hong, Chun-Sang; Makino, Fumiya; Tang, Ning; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2016-08-01

    We have developed an original in vitro bioassay using teleost scale, that has osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and bone matrix as each marker: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for osteoblasts and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) for osteoclasts. Using this scale in vitro bioassay, we examined the effects of seawater polluted with highly concentrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities in the present study. Polluted seawater was collected from two sites (the Alexandria site on the Mediterranean Sea and the Suez Canal site on the Red Sea). Total levels of PAHs in the seawater from the Alexandria and Suez Canal sites were 1364.59 and 992.56 ng/l, respectively. We were able to detect NPAHs in both seawater samples. Total levels of NPAHs were detected in the seawater of the Alexandria site (12.749 ng/l) and the Suez Canal site (3.914 ng/l). Each sample of polluted seawater was added to culture medium at dilution rates of 50, 100, and 500, and incubated with the goldfish scales for 6 hrs. Thereafter, ALP and TRAP activities were measured. ALP activity was significantly suppressed by both polluted seawater samples diluted at least 500 times, but TRAP activity did not change. In addition, mRNA expressions of osteoblastic markers (ALP, osteocalcin, and the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand) decreased significantly, as did the ALP enzyme activity. In fact, ALP activity decreased on treatment with PAHs and NPAHs. We conclude that seawater polluted with highly concentrated PAHs and NPAHs influences bone metabolism in teleosts.

  8. Alternations in neuroendocrine and endocrine regulation of reproduction in male goldfish (Carassius auratus) following an acute and chronic exposure to vinclozolin, in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Mahdi; Hatef, Azadeh; Zare, Ava; Socha, Magdalena; Milla, Sylvain; Gosiewski, Grzegorz; Fontaine, Pascal; Sokołowska-Mikołajczyk, Mirosława; Habibi, Hamid R; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi

    2014-10-01

    The fungicide vinclozolin (VZ) is in use globally and known to disrupt reproductive function in male. The present study tested the hypothesis that VZ disrupts testicular function in goldfish (Carassius auratus) by affecting brain-pituitary-testis axis. Goldfish were exposed to 100, 400 and 800 μg/L VZ and 5 μg/L 17β-estradiol (E2) for comparison. In VZ treated goldfish, 11-ketotesteosterone (11-KT) secretion was changed depending on dose and duration period of treatment. Following 7 days of exposure, 11-KT was decreased in goldfish exposed to 800 μg/L VZ, while it was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 μg/L VZ after 30 days of exposure. Circulating E2 level was unchanged in VZ treated goldfish, however the E2/11-KT ratio was increased in a concentration-related manner. In E2 treated goldfish, circulatory 11-KT and E2 levels were decreased and increased, respectively, which resulted in an increase in the E2/11-KT ratio. Exposure to VZ at 100 μg/L caused a significant increase in the circulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) after 30 days. In E2 treated fish circulatory LH was decreased, significantly. Transcripts of genes encoding gonadotropin-releasing hormone and androgen receptor in the brain, and those of genes encoding LH and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors, StAR, CYP17, and 3β-HSD in the testis changed in VZ-treated goldfish depending on concentration and period of treatment. mRNA of genes encoding vitellogenin and estrogen receptor in the liver and cytochrome P450 aromatase in the brain were increased in E2-treated goldfish. The results suggest that VZ-induced changes in 11-KT were due to disruption in brain-pituitary-testis axis and provide integrated characterization of VZ-related reproductive disorders in male fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of zinc ex vivo on taurine uptake in goldfish retinal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nusetti, Sonia; Urbina, Mary; Lima, Lucimey

    2010-01-01

    Background Taurine and zinc exert neurotrophic effects in the central nervous system. Current studies demonstrate that Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters, similar to that of taurine, are modulated by micromolar concentrations of zinc. This study examined the effect of zinc sulfate ex vivo on [3H]taurine transport in goldfish retina. Methods Isolated cells were incubated in Ringer with zinc (0.1?100 ?M). Taurine transport was done with 50 nM [3H]taurine or by isotopic dilution wit...

  10. Comparison of the radiosensitivity of three goldfish cell lines using short term endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1984-06-01

    The induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks after ..gamma..-irradiation in three goldfish (Carassius auratus) cell lines with different sensitivities to the lethal effect of ..gamma..-rays has been studied by the DNA strand separation method using hydroxylapatite chromatography. The induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks was similar in all cell lines. There was also little difference in the degree of inhibition of DNA synthesis immediately after irradiation. However, the rank orders of the durations of division delay and the radiosensitivities of the three cell lines were the same.

  11. Dietary vitamin E on the reproductive performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harton Arfah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted to examine the different dose of vitamin E in the diet on female broodstock reproduction performance of the fantail goldfish Carassius auratus auratus. This research consisted of four treatments with three replications. The use of vitamin E doses was 0, 125, 250, and 375 mg/kg. The vitamin E was dissolved in vegetable oil and mixed with albumen as a binder in feed. The vitamin E was sprayed at feed and was air dried. Female broodstock of the fantail goldfishes were reared for 40 days. The result showed that 375 mg/kg treatment performed the highest quality of reproduction. Egg diameter, gonadosomatic index, fecundity, and germinal vesicle breakdown of fish which are treated by 375 mg/kg vitamin E were respectively 0.92±0.05 mm, 8.86±4.62%, 56.00±29.18%, and 67.35±17.67% higher than control. Thus, 375 mg/kg of dietary vitamin E suplementating was a best dose to improve female broodstock productivity of the fantail goldfish Keywords: female broodstock, fantail goldfish, vitamin E, reproduction quality  ABSTRAK Penelitian dilakukan untuk menguji suplementasi vitamin E dengan dosis berbeda dicampur ke dalam pakan komersial terhadap produktivitas induk betina ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus. Penelitian ini menggunakan empat perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan. Dosis vitamin E yang diberikan, yaitu 0, 125, 250, dan 375 mg/kg pakan. Vitamin E dilarutkan dalam minyak nabati dan dicampur dengan putih telur sebagai perekat pada pakan. Vitamin E disemprotkan ke pakan dan dikeringanginkan. Induk betina ikan komet pascasalin dengan bobot 72,78±19,47 g diberi perlakuan selama 40 hari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa induk betina ikan komet yang diberi suplementasi vitamin E sebanyak 375 mg/kg dalam pakan memiliki diameter telur 0,92±0,05 mm, gonadosomatic index 8,86±4,62%, fekunditas 56,00±29,18 butir/g ikan, dan germinal vesicle breakdown 67,35±17,67% yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol. Dengan demikian

  12. Two novel classes of solvable many-body problems of goldfish type with constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Gomez-Ullate, D [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-05-18

    Two novel classes of many-body models with nonlinear interactions 'of goldfish type' are introduced. They are solvable provided the initial data satisfy a single constraint (in one case; in the other, two constraints), i.e., for such initial data the solution of their initial-value problem can be achieved via algebraic operations, such as finding the eigenvalues of given matrices or equivalently the zeros of known polynomials. Entirely isochronous versions of some of these models are also exhibited, i.e., versions of these models whose nonsingular solutions are all completely periodic with the same period.

  13. An FPGA-Based Omnidirectional Vision Sensor for Motion Detection on Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Y. Mori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development of an integrated hardware/software sensor system for moving object detection and distance calculation, based on background subtraction algorithm. The sensor comprises a catadioptric system composed by a camera and a convex mirror that reflects the environment to the camera from all directions, obtaining a panoramic view. The sensor is used as an omnidirectional vision system, allowing for localization and navigation tasks of mobile robots. Several image processing operations such as filtering, segmentation and morphology have been included in the processing architecture. For achieving distance measurement, an algorithm to determine the center of mass of a detected object was implemented. The overall architecture has been mapped onto a commercial low-cost FPGA device, using a hardware/software co-design approach, which comprises a Nios II embedded microprocessor and specific image processing blocks, which have been implemented in hardware. The background subtraction algorithm was also used to calibrate the system, allowing for accurate results. Synthesis results show that the system can achieve a throughput of 26.6 processed frames per second and the performance analysis pointed out that the overall architecture achieves a speedup factor of 13.78 in comparison with a PC-based solution running on the real-time operating system xPC Target.

  14. CoLiTec software - detection of the near-zero apparent motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlamov, Sergii V.; Savanevych, Vadym E.; Briukhovetskyi, Olexandr B.; Pohorelov, Artem V.

    2017-06-01

    In this article we described CoLiTec software for full automated frames processing. CoLiTec software allows processing the Big Data of observation results as well as processing of data that is continuously formed during observation. The scope of solving tasks includes frames brightness equalization, moving objects detection, astrometry, photometry, etc. Along with the high efficiency of Big Data processing CoLiTec software also ensures high accuracy of data measurements. A comparative analysis of the functional characteristics and positional accuracy was performed between CoLiTec and Astrometrica software. The benefits of CoLiTec used with wide field and low quality frames were observed. The efficiency of the CoLiTec software was proved by about 700.000 observations and over 1.500 preliminary discoveries.

  15. Motion Component Supported Boosted Classifier for CAR Detection in Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuermer, S.; Leitloff, J.; Reinartz, P.; Stilla, U.

    2011-04-01

    Research of automatic vehicle detection in aerial images has been done with a lot of innovation and constantly rising success for years. However information was mostly taken from a single image only. Our aim is using the additional information which is offered by the temporal component, precisely the difference of the previous and the consecutive image. On closer viewing the moving objects are mainly vehicles and therefore we provide a method which is able to limit the search space of the detector to changed areas. The actual detector is generated of HoG features which are composed and linearly weighted by AdaBoost. Finally the method is tested on a motorway section including an exit and congested traffic near Munich, Germany.

  16. Joint level-set and spatio-temporal motion detection for cell segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukari, Fatima; Makrogiannis, Sokratis

    2016-08-10

    Cell segmentation is a critical step for quantification and monitoring of cell cycle progression, cell migration, and growth control to investigate cellular immune response, embryonic development, tumorigenesis, and drug effects on live cells in time-lapse microscopy images. In this study, we propose a joint spatio-temporal diffusion and region-based level-set optimization approach for moving cell segmentation. Moving regions are initially detected in each set of three consecutive sequence images by numerically solving a system of coupled spatio-temporal partial differential equations. In order to standardize intensities of each frame, we apply a histogram transformation approach to match the pixel intensities of each processed frame with an intensity distribution model learned from all frames of the sequence during the training stage. After the spatio-temporal diffusion stage is completed, we compute the edge map by nonparametric density estimation using Parzen kernels. This process is followed by watershed-based segmentation and moving cell detection. We use this result as an initial level-set function to evolve the cell boundaries, refine the delineation, and optimize the final segmentation result. We applied this method to several datasets of fluorescence microscopy images with varying levels of difficulty with respect to cell density, resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio. We compared the results with those produced by Chan and Vese segmentation, a temporally linked level-set technique, and nonlinear diffusion-based segmentation. We validated all segmentation techniques against reference masks provided by the international Cell Tracking Challenge consortium. The proposed approach delineated cells with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 89 % over a variety of simulated and real fluorescent image sequences. It yielded average improvements of 11 % in segmentation accuracy compared to both strictly spatial and temporally linked Chan

  17. Mobile video-to-audio transducer and motion detection for sensory substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime eAmbard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-auditory sensory substitution systems are augmented reality devices that translate a video stream into an audio stream in order to help the blind in daily tasks requiring visuo-spatial information. In this work, we present both a new mobile device and a transcoding method specifically designed to sonify moving objects. Frame differencing is used to extract spatial features from the video stream and two-dimensional spatial information is converted into audio cues using pitch, interaural time difference and interaural level difference. Using numerical methods, we attempt to reconstruct visuo-spatial information based on audio signals generated from various video stimuli. We show that despite a contrasted visual background and a highly lossy encoding method, the information in the audio signal is sufficient to allow object localization, object trajectory evaluation, object approach detection, and spatial separation of multiple objects. We also show that this type of audio signal can be interpreted by human users by asking ten subjects to discriminate trajectories based on generated audio signals.

  18. Many branches, one root: First evidence for a monophyly of the morphologically highly diverse goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rylková, K.; Kalous, L.; Šlechtová, Vendula; Bohlen, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 302, 1-2 (2010), s. 36-41 ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Goldfish * Carassius auratus * Phylogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.044, year: 2010

  19. Effect of azadirachtin on haematological and biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Kumar, Kundan; Pandey, P K; Kumar, Neeraj; Mallesh, B; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-08-01

    Argulosis hampers aquaculture production and alters the host physiology and growth. Azadirachtin is recognized as a potential antiparasitic agent against Argulus sp. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of different concentration of azadirachtin solution on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of Argulus-infested goldfish Carassius auratus. Ninety Argulus-infested goldfish were randomly divided into six equal groups. Fish of group 1-5 were treated with azadirachtin solution through bath of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively, and group 6 was exposed to 2% DMSO solution without azadirachtin and considered as negative control T0(-). Along with six treatment groups, a positive control T0(+) of healthy goldfish free from Argulus infestation was also maintained. Parasitic mortality was evaluated after 3 days of consecutive bath treatment. After 7 days of post-treatment, the blood and serum were drawn from each of the treatment groups and haematological and serum biochemical parameters were evaluated. Total leucocyte count (TLC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), blood glucose, total protein (TP), globulin, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were significantly (p azadirachtin have notable effects on activity of vital tissues function and physiology of the host. Argulus spp. from infested goldfish could be eliminated using bath treatment with solution of azadirachtin having concentration of 15 mg L(-1) and that also shifted haematological and serum biochemical parameters towards homeostasis.

  20. Expression and localization of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the goldfish retina--an in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbranden, C. A.; Kamphuis, W.; Nunes Cardozo, B.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    The expression and distribution of AMPA, kainate and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits was studied in the goldfish retina. For the immunocytochemical localization of the AMPA receptor antisera against GluR2, GluR2/3 and GluR4 were used, and for in situ hybridization rat specific probes for GluR1 and

  1. Gill histopathology of goldfish exposed to oil sands processed-waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.; Lee, L.E.J.

    2002-01-01

    Large volumes of processed wastewater are generated through the oil extraction process at Alberta's Athabasca oil sand deposit. These wastewaters are very toxic to aquatic biota because they are high in salinity and consist of napthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, goldfish were caged in 3 different experimental ponds in order to evaluate the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives for process-affected waters. The first pond was a control pond, while the other 2 ponds consisted of known and varying chemicals. The fish were exposed to the ponds for 19 days. Those in the pond with elevated levels of napthenic acids and high salinity exhibited severe gill histopathological changes. Alterations included epithelial hyperplasia resulting in severe lamellar fusion, chloride cell hyperplasia, and lamellar edema, all of which were believed to be defense responses of the fish. Additional severe gill alterations were also observed that may indicate the direct negative effects of oil sands processed-water on fish. Exposed goldfish also showed signs of necrosis and degenerative changes resulting in desquamation of the epithelial surfaces of the gill, which are symptoms seen in free-range exposure of yellow perch, a native fish species, at the same sites and exposure times

  2. Gill histopathology of goldfish exposed to oil sands processed-waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Lee, L.E.J. [Wilfred Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    Large volumes of processed wastewater are generated through the oil extraction process at Alberta's Athabasca oil sand deposit. These wastewaters are very toxic to aquatic biota because they are high in salinity and consist of napthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In this study, goldfish were caged in 3 different experimental ponds in order to evaluate the biological effects of aquatic reclamation alternatives for process-affected waters. The first pond was a control pond, while the other 2 ponds consisted of known and varying chemicals. The fish were exposed to the ponds for 19 days. Those in the pond with elevated levels of napthenic acids and high salinity exhibited severe gill histopathological changes. Alterations included epithelial hyperplasia resulting in severe lamellar fusion, chloride cell hyperplasia, and lamellar edema, all of which were believed to be defense responses of the fish. Additional severe gill alterations were also observed that may indicate the direct negative effects of oil sands processed-water on fish. Exposed goldfish also showed signs of necrosis and degenerative changes resulting in desquamation of the epithelial surfaces of the gill, which are symptoms seen in free-range exposure of yellow perch, a native fish species, at the same sites and exposure times.

  3. Metabolic profiling of goldfish (Carassius auratis) after long-term glyphosate-based herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hui; Ruan, Ling-Yu; Zhou, Jin-Wei; Fu, Yong-Hong; Jiang, Lei; Zhao, He; Wang, Jun-Song

    2017-07-01

    Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured. Long-term glyphosate exposure caused disorders of blood biochemical indexes and renal tissue injury in goldfish. Metabolomics analysis combined with correlation network analysis uncovered significant perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleosides metabolism in glyphosate dosed fish, which provide new clues to the toxicity of glyphosate. This integrated metabolomics approach showed its applicability in discovering the toxic mechanisms of pesticides, which provided new strategy for the assessment of the environmental risk of herbicides to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Argon laser-induced damage in the goldfish (C. auratus) retina following whole-body hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Michael A.; Lund, David J.; Schuschereba, Steven T.; Dahlberg, Ann M.; Cowan, Beth L.; Lester, Paul; Odom, Daniel G.

    1990-07-01

    The heat shock response is a phenomenon common to all cells and is characterized by an increase in the rate of synthesis of intracellular heat shock proteins (HSPs) . The response occurs following rapid transient increases in terrerature sufficient to cause stress but not cell death. HSPs appear to perform protective functions that raise the cell''s tolerance to diverse noxious stimuli. Thus we postulated that we could limit laser-induced retinal darriage through induction of the heat shock -response. Corrmon goldfish (C. auratus) made hyperthermic by immersion in 35C water for 15 minutes and radiolabeled with [355]methionine showed retinal liSPs with apparent molecular weights of 110 90 70 and 35 kilodaltons. To test the protective effects of HSPs against laser injury goldfish were made hyperthermic and 4 and 24 hr later their retinas were irradiated with argon laser light (51 4 . 5 nm spot size at the cornea 3. 0 mm irradiance 125 mW/cm2) . NonhyperLhermic animals served as controls. Following 24 hr of recovery fish were terminated and retinas fixed for histology. Fundus photographs were taken irrunediately after laser exposure . Lesion diameters were measured from fundus photographs and evaluated statistically. The mean retinal lesion diameters of fish not subjected to hyperthermJ. a laser exposed 4 hr post hyperLhermia and laser exposed 24 hr post hyperthermia were 10. 25 1. 4 SD 8. 82 2. 1 SD and 6. 78

  5. Characterization of actions of dopamine in the pituitary of the goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeljaniuk, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine receptor in the goldfish (Carassius auratus) pituitary and its involvement with inhibition of gonadotropin (GtH) and {alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) release was studied. In vitro dopamine, in a dose-related manner, inhibited spontaneous GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from superfused fragments of pars distalis (PD) and neurointermediate lob (NIL), respectively; dopamine also inhibited sGnRH-A stimulation of GtH release. Thyrotropin releasing-hormone (TRH), in a dose-related manner, stimulated {alpha}-MSH release from NIL fragments; dopamine inhibited TRH action. The stereoisomers of apomorphine were equivalent in inhibiting GtH and {alpha}-MSH release from fragments treated with releasing factors. Domperidone, in a dose-related manner, antagonized dopamine action. ({sup 3}H)-Spiperone was used to radiolabel the goldfish pituitary dopamine receptor in vitro. The binding of ({sup 3}H)-spiperone had the characteristics of a receptor: tissue specificity, dependence on tissue quantity, reversibility, saturability, displaceability, specificity of binding with various drugs and a correlation of binding with biological effects were demonstrated. This is a low-affinity, high-capacity receptor which does not show binding stereoselectivity for apomorphine; domperidone binds avidly to this receptor. The NIL contains significantly greater numbers of this receptor compared to the PD.

  6. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  7. Effect of vibration on osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities: Analysis of bone metabolism using goldfish scale as a model for bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N.; Kitamura, K.; Nemoto, T.; Shimizu, N.; Wada, S.; Kondo, T.; Tabata, M. J.; Sodeyama, F.; Ijiri, K.; Hattori, A.

    In osteoclastic activity during space flight as well as hind limb unloading by tail suspension, inconsistent results have been reported in an in vivo study. The bone matrix plays an important role in the response to physical stress. However, there is no suitable in vitro co-culture system of osteoblasts and osteoclasts including bone matrix. On the other hand, fish scale is a calcified tissue that contains osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and bone matrix, all of which are similar to those found in human bones. Recently, we developed a new in vitro model system using goldfish scale. This system can detect the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase as the respective markers and precisely analyze the co-relationship between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Using this system, we analyzed the bone metabolism under various degrees of acceleration (0.5-, 1-, 2-, 4-, and 6-G) by vibration with a G-load apparatus. After loading for 5 and 10 min, the scales were incubated for 6 and 24 h. The osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were then measured. The osteoblastic activities gradually increased corresponding to 1-G to 6-G acceleration. In addition, ER mRNA expression was the highest under 6-G acceleration. On the other hand, the osteoclastic activity decreased at 24 h of incubation under low acceleration (0.5- and 1-G). This change coincided with TRAP mRNA expression. Under 2-G acceleration, the strength of suppression in osteoclastic activity was the highest. The strength of the inhibitory action under 4- and 6-G acceleration was lower than that under 2-G acceleration. In our co-culture system, osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the scale sensitively responded to several degrees of acceleration. Therefore, we strongly believe that our in vitro co-culture system is useful for the analysis of bone metabolism under loading or unloading.

  8. Depth information in natural environments derived from optic flow by insect motion detection system: A model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eSchwegmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the depth structure of the environment is crucial for moving animals in many behavioral contexts, such as collision avoidance, targeting objects, or spatial navigation. An important source of depth information is motion parallax. This powerful cue is generated on the eyes during translatory self-motion with the retinal images of nearby objects moving faster than those of distant ones. To investigate how the visual motion pathway represents motion-based depth information we analyzed its responses to image sequences recorded in natural cluttered environments with a wide range of depth structures. The analysis was done on the basis of an experimentally validated model of the visual motion pathway of insects, with its core elements being correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs. It is the key result of our analysis that the absolute EMD responses, i.e. the motion energy profile, represent the contrast-weighted nearness of environmental structures during translatory self-motion at a roughly constant velocity. In other words, the output of the EMD array highlights contours of nearby objects. This conclusion is largely independent of the scale over which EMDs are spatially pooled and was corroborated by scrutinizing the motion energy profile after eliminating the depth structure from the natural image sequences. Hence, the well-established dependence of correlation-type EMDs on both velocity and textural properties of motion stimuli appears to be advantageous for representing behaviorally relevant information about the environment in a computationally parsimonious way.

  9. Scale brightness of common goldfish on diet supplemented with seaweed Sargassum sp. and pumpkin Cucurbita moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfina Manda Astari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The common goldfish Carassius auratus auratus is an ornamental freshwater fish species with  high market value. The market value of ornamental fish can be determined through some parameters, one of them is brightness of the fish scales. Brightness level may be enhanced by supplementing plant powder containing carotenoid into fish diet. The purpose of this research was to examine the scale brightness level of common goldfish fed diet supplemented with Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder, and to determine the dose of those powders that allows higher brightness level of scale.  The feed of common goldfish was supplemented with either Sargassum sp. or pumpkin powder at the doses of 10, 20 and 30%, and without supplementation as control. Fishes were reared for 75 days and fed diet at feeding rate of 5% biomass daily. The results of ANOVA test showed that the Sargassum sp. and pumpkin mill addition on food significantly improved of scales brightness of  common goldfish. Increasing supplementation levels of Sargassum sp. and pumpkin powder increased brightness level of scale. The highest improvement in brightness was the fish that fed by 30% concentration of Sargassum sp. flour with the value scale of brightness was 2.67 and the total number of 2,890.67 chromatophore cells. The results suggest that Sargassum sp. powder is better to improve the brightness level of common goldfish scale. Keywords: Carassius auratus auratus, Sargassum sp., Cucurbita moschata, carotenoid, brightness  ABSTRAK Ikan komet Carassius auratus auratus merupakan salah satu spesies ikan hias air tawar yang memiliki nilai jual tinggi. Nilai jual ikan hias dapat ditentukan melalui beberapa parameter, salah satunya yaitu kecerahan sisik ikan. Kecerahan sisik ikan dapat ditingkatkan melalui pemberian pakan yang diperkaya karotenoid. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menguji tingkat kecerahan warna sisik ikan komet setelah diberi pakan dengan tambahan tepung Sargassum sp. dan

  10. A comparison of accuracy and precision of 5 gait-event detection algorithms from motion capture in horses during over ground walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Boye, Jenny Katrine; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    and use robust and validated algorithms. It is the objective of this study to compare accuracy (bias) and precision (SD) for five published human and equine motion capture foot-on/off and stance phase detection algorithms during walk. Six horses were walked over 8 seamlessly embedded force plates...... of mass generally provides the most accurate and precise results in walk....

  11. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the transcription of CYP3A cDNA, activity of acetylcholinesterase, and oxidative stress response of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junguo; Liu, Yang; Niu, Daichun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the widely used organophosphate pesticide in agriculture throughout the world. It has been found that CPF is relatively safe to human but highly toxic to fish. In this study, acute toxicity of CPF on goldfish was determined and then the transcription of goldfish cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A was evaluated after 96 h of CPF exposure at concentrations of 15.3 [1/10 50% lethal concentration (LC50 )] or 51 μg L(-1) (1/3 LC50 ) of CPF. Meanwhile, the enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver or brain of goldfish were also determined. The results of acute toxicity testing showed that the 96-h LC50 of CPF to the goldfish was 153 μg L(-1) . Moreover, a length sequence of 1243 bp CYP3A cDNA encoding for 413 amino acids from goldfish liver was cloned. Polymerase chain reaction results reveal that CPF exposure downregulates CYP 3A transcription in goldfish liver, suggesting that goldfish CYP 3A may be not involved in CPF bioactivation. Finally, the results of biochemical assays indicate that 96 h of CPF exposure remarkably inhibits AChE activity in fish liver or brain, alters hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, decreases brain T-AOC, and causes lipid peroxidation in fish liver. These results suggest that oxidative stress might be involved in CPF toxicity on goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Formulation of a fish feed for goldfish with natural astaxanthin extracted from shrimp waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeratunge, W K O V; Perera, B G K

    2016-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid, which exhibits many important biological activities including a high degree of antioxidant capacity (AOC) and antibacterial activity, hence has a significant applicability in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. An attempt was made towards optimization of astaxanthin extraction conditions using three different extraction conditions and a solvent series, from uncooked, cooked and acid-treated shrimp waste, which is a readily available and cheap source of the pigment. The astaxanthin extracts were analyzed by comparing their UV-visible absorbance spectra and thin layer chromatograms with a standard astaxanthin sample. The percentage of astaxanthin in each crude sample was determined using the Beer-Lambert law. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the disk diffusion assay were used to investigate the antioxidant capacities and antibacterial activities of extracted astaxanthin samples respectively. The extracted astaxanthin was incorporated into fish feeds to test its ability to enhance the skin color of goldfish. The best astaxanthin percentage of 68 % was observed with the acetone:ethyl acetate (1:1) solvent system facilitated by maceration of cooked and acid treated shrimp, whereas the best crude yield of 33 % was found to be in the acetone extract of the acid-treated shrimp sample. The highest AOC of 65 µg pyrogallol equivalents/mg was observed for the EtOAc extract obtained by maceration of acid-treated shrimp waste. The highest AOC by sonication and soxhlet extraction methods were also obtained with the EtOAc solvent. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activity against four selected bacterial strains. The newly formulated astaxanthin enriched fish feed was economical and indicated a significant improvement of the skin color and healthiness of goldfish compared to the control feeds. Biologically active astaxanthin can be successfully extracted from shrimp waste in higher percentages. The extraction technique and the

  13. A Robust Motion Artifact Detection Algorithm for Accurate Detection of Heart Rates From Photoplethysmographic Signals Using Time-Frequency Spectral Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Duy; Salehizadeh, S M A; Noh, Yeonsik; Chong, Jo Woon; Cho, Chae Ho; McManus, Dave; Darling, Chad E; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Chon, Ki H

    2017-09-01

    Motion and noise artifacts (MNAs) impose limits on the usability of the photoplethysmogram (PPG), particularly in the context of ambulatory monitoring. MNAs can distort PPG, causing erroneous estimation of physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). In this study, we present a novel approach, "TifMA," based on using the time-frequency spectrum of PPG to first detect the MNA-corrupted data and next discard the nonusable part of the corrupted data. The term "nonusable" refers to segments of PPG data from which the HR signal cannot be recovered accurately. Two sequential classification procedures were included in the TifMA algorithm. The first classifier distinguishes between MNA-corrupted and MNA-free PPG data. Once a segment of data is deemed MNA-corrupted, the next classifier determines whether the HR can be recovered from the corrupted segment or not. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to build a decision boundary for the first classification task using data segments from a training dataset. Features from time-frequency spectra of PPG were extracted to build the detection model. Five datasets were considered for evaluating TifMA performance: (1) and (2) were laboratory-controlled PPG recordings from forehead and finger pulse oximeter sensors with subjects making random movements, (3) and (4) were actual patient PPG recordings from UMass Memorial Medical Center with random free movements and (5) was a laboratory-controlled PPG recording dataset measured at the forehead while the subjects ran on a treadmill. The first dataset was used to analyze the noise sensitivity of the algorithm. Datasets 2-4 were used to evaluate the MNA detection phase of the algorithm. The results from the first phase of the algorithm (MNA detection) were compared to results from three existing MNA detection algorithms: the Hjorth, kurtosis-Shannon entropy, and time-domain variability-SVM approaches. This last is an approach

  14. Part I. Fuel-motion diagnostics in support of fast-reactor safety experiments. Part II. Fission product detection system in support of fast reactor safety experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devolpi, A.; Doerner, R.C.; Fink, C.L.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Braid, T.H.; Boyar, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    In all destructive fast-reactor safety experiments at TREAT, fuel motion and cladding failure have been monitored by the fast-neutron/gamma-ray hodoscope, providing experimental results that are directly applicable to design, modeling, and validation in fast-reactor safety. Hodoscope contributions to the safety program can be considered to fall into several groupings: pre-failure fuel motion, cladding failure, post-failure fuel motion, steel blockages, pretest and posttest radiography, axial-power-profile variations, and power-coupling monitoring. High-quality results in fuel motion have been achieved, and motion sequences have been reconstructed in qualitative and quantitative visual forms. A collimated detection system has been used to observe fission products in the upper regions of a test loop in the TREAT reactor. Particular regions of the loop are targeted through any of five channels in a rotatable assembly in a horizontal hole through the biological shield. A well-type neutron detector, optimized for delayed neutrons, and two GeLi gamma ray spectrometers have been used in several experiments. Data are presented showing a time history of the transport of Dn emitters, of gamma spectra identifying volatile fission products deposited as aerosols, and of fission gas isotopes released from the coolant

  15. Detection of Side Chain Rearrangements Mediating the Motions of Transmembrane Helices in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Gaieb

    Full Text Available Structure and dynamics are essential elements of protein function. Protein structure is constantly fluctuating and undergoing conformational changes, which are captured by molecular dynamics (MD simulations. We introduce a computational framework that provides a compact representation of the dynamic conformational space of biomolecular simulations. This method presents a systematic approach designed to reduce the large MD simulation spatiotemporal datasets into a manageable set in order to guide our understanding of how protein mechanics emerge from side chain organization and dynamic reorganization. We focus on the detection of side chain interactions that undergo rearrangements mediating global domain motions and vice versa. Side chain rearrangements are extracted from side chain interactions that undergo well-defined abrupt and persistent changes in distance time series using Gaussian mixture models, whereas global domain motions are detected using dynamic cross-correlation. Both side chain rearrangements and global domain motions represent the dynamic components of the protein MD simulation, and are both mapped into a network where they are connected based on their degree of coupling. This method allows for the study of allosteric communication in proteins by mapping out the protein dynamics into an intramolecular network to reduce the large simulation data into a manageable set of communities composed of coupled side chain rearrangements and global domain motions. This computational framework is suitable for the study of tightly packed proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptors, and we present an application on a seven microseconds MD trajectory of CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7 bound to its ligand CCL21. Keywords: Molecular dynamics, Change-point detection, Side chain reorganization, Helical domain motion, Intramolecular network, Membrane proteins, GPCR, GPCR computational modeling, GPCR allostery

  16. Effects of UV-C irradiation on development of goldfish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian; Dai Guifu; Zhang Fengqiu; Lu Lei

    2005-01-01

    Goldfish embryos at five different developmental stages, from fertilized eggs to heat beating stage, were irradiated by UV rays, and hatching rate, darkly pigmented eye rate and abnormal embryo rate of the irradiated embryos were investigated. Being subjected to very low amount (≤3 min.) of the UV irradiation, the embryos earlier than gastrula stage showed hormesis. However, the embryos at gastrula or heart beating stage were very sensitive to UV irradiation, showing just damage effect, which was very strong even at very low amount of the UV irradiation. The results also showed that development of the gastrula embryos irradiated by the UV rays stopped before darkly pigmented eye state, whereas embryos irradiated at heart beating stage by the UV rays could develop to the darkly pigmented eye stage, though they could not hatch out. (authors)

  17. Retention of retinal axon collateral is responsible for induced ipsilateral retinotectal projections in adult goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S C; Tsai, C

    1991-01-01

    In normal goldfish, optic axons innervate only the contralateral optic tectum. When one eye was enucleated and the optic nerve of the other eye crushed, the regenerating optic axons innervated both optic tecta. We studied the presence of bilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells by double retrograde cell labeling methods using Nuclear Yellow and True Blue dyes. About 10% of the retinal ganglion cells were double labeled and these cells were found throughout the retina. In addition, HRP application to the ipsilateral tectum revealed retrogradely-labeled retinal ganglion cells of all morphological types. These results suggest that induced ipsilateral projections are formed by regenerating axon collaterals and that all cell types are involved in the generation of normal mirror image typography.

  18. Negative effect of 17-beta-estradiol on growth parameters of goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tarkhani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of 17-beta-estradiol on growth factors of goldfish (Carassius auratus. Methods: To perform the test, 17-beta-estradiol was given 3 months period to fish at different doses as followed: control group, Group 1: 10 mg/kg food, Group 2: 25 mg/kg food and Group 3: 50 mg/kg food. For this purpose, a solution of hormone in pure ethanol used to spray on food. Feeding was done 3 times daily as an appetite. Comparing the mean values measured for length and weight using ANOVA. Results: Indicated with increase length and weight, the effects of the hormone get more distinct, so that with increase concentration of hormone, reduce weight and length. Conclusions: Estradiol along with testosterone and progesterone regulates final stages of oocyte maturation and ovulation. Various studies have proven the different concentrations of this hormone has different effects on the growth of different fishes.

  19. Effect of temperature on the concentration of plasma gonadotropine and spermatogenesis of the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, C.; Billard, R.; Breton, B.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoreactive plasma gonadotropin (c-GtH) were measured for goldfish kept at conditions of temperature held constant or increasing between 10 and 30/sup 0/C, between February and July. At temperatures of 17/sup 0/C or above the levels of plasma c-GtH were significantly (P < 0.005) higher during April and May than at 10/sup 0/C. In April the pituitary concentration of c-GtH was maximum for fish held at 17/sup 0/C or above and the minimum for fish held below 17/sup 0/C, but in June the situation was reversed. A study of the gonads showed that spermatogenesis is faster at 17--24/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C, but at 30/sup 0/C spermatogenic activity was inhibited.

  20. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  1. Rapid and coordinated processing of global motion images by local clusters of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tachibana, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Even when the body is stationary, the whole retinal image is always in motion by fixational eye movements and saccades that move the eye between fixation points. Accumulating evidence indicates that the brain is equipped with specific mechanisms for compensating for the global motion induced by these eye movements. However, it is not yet fully understood how the retina processes global motion images during eye movements. Here we show that global motion images evoke novel coordinated firing in retinal ganglion cells (GCs). We simultaneously recorded the firing of GCs in the goldfish isolated retina using a multi-electrode array, and classified each GC based on the temporal profile of its receptive field (RF). A moving target that accompanied the global motion (simulating a saccade following a period of fixational eye movements) modulated the RF properties and evoked synchronized and correlated firing among local clusters of the specific GCs. Our findings provide a novel concept for retinal information processing during eye movements.

  2. Effects of carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron on acetylcholinesterase activity in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaud, S; Toutant, J P; Saglio, P

    2000-10-01

    Juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three widely used pesticides; carbofuran, diuron, and nicosulfuron. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and molecular forms of AChE were first characterized in brain and skeletal muscle of unexposed fish. Skeletal muscle had higher AChE activity than brain (306 and 215 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively). In brain, four molecular forms of AChE were found: A12, G4, G2, and G1. In the muscle, three molecular forms were found A12, A8, and G2. AChE activity was then evaluated in both tissues of fish exposed to different concentration of pesticides (5, 50, and 500 microg/L) for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. In brain, AChE activity was significantly inhibited during all the periods of exposure in response to 50 microg/L (19-28%) and 500 microg/L (85-87%) carbofuran. Such effect was observed in the muscle only at 500 microg/L (86-92%). Carbofuran had no effect on the distribution of molecular forms. Significant inhibitions (9-12%) of brain AChE activity were also observed in response to diuron and nicosulfuron at 500 microg/L during all periods of exposure and for 50 microg/L nicosulfuron after 24 and 48 h. This study pointed out short-term effects of exposure to sublethal concentrations of the three pesticides, ranging among different chemical families, on brain and muscle AChE in goldfish. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Chondroitin sulfates do not impede axonal regeneration in goldfish spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akihito; Okada, Soichiro; Funakoshi, Kengo

    2017-10-15

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans produced in glial scar tissue are a major inhibitory factor for axonal regeneration after central nervous system injury in mammals. The inhibition is largely due to chondroitin sulfates, whose effects differ according to the sulfation pattern. In contrast to mammals, fish nerves spontaneously regenerate beyond the scar tissue after spinal cord injury, although the mechanisms that allow for axons to pass through the scar are unclear. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of two chondroitin sulfates with different sulfation variants at the lesion site in goldfish spinal cord. The intact spinal cord was immunoreactive for both chondroitin sulfate-A (CS-A) and chondroitin sulfate-C (CS-C), and CS-A immunoreactivity overlapped extensively with glial processes positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein. At 1week after inducing the spinal lesion, CS-A immunoreactivity was observed in the cell bodies and extracellular matrix, as well as in glial processes surrounding the lesion center. At 2weeks after the spinal lesion, regenerating axons entering the lesion center overtook the CS-A abundant area. In contrast, at 1week after lesion induction, CS-C immunoreactivity was significantly decreased, and at 2weeks after lesion induction, CS-C immunoreactivity was observed along the regenerating axons entering the lesion center. The present findings suggest that after spinal cord injury in goldfish, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are deposited in the extracellular matrix at the lesion site but do not form an impenetrable barrier to the growth of regenerating axons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of non-neuronal cell proliferation in the goldfish visual pathway affects the regenerative capacity of the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, D.; Yerushalmi, A.; Schwartz, M.

    1983-01-01

    Proliferating cells associated with the visual pathway were found in the present study of affect the regenerative capacity of the goldfish retina following optic nerve injury. The contribution of these cells to the process of regeneration was investigated in the goldfish visual system by reducing their proliferation in the optic tract and tecta, using X-irradiation. The regenerative ability of the retina was then evaluated by the following parameters: sprouting from retinal explants, protein synthesis in the retina and accumulation of radiolabeled transported components in the tectum. X-irradiation of the visual system at an early stage of the regeneration process had a promoting effect whereas irradiation at a later stage resulted in a reduced capacity to regenerate. The results are discussed with respect to the possibility that proliferating cells, possibly glia, exert two contradictory contributions: an inhibitory effect at the site of injury, whereas distal to it, a supportive, perhaps trophic effect. (Auth.)

  5. Lethal and mutagenic effects of radiation and chemicals on cultured fish cells derived the erythrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitani, H. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Zoology)

    1983-01-01

    GEM 199 cells derived from an eryhtrophoroma of goldfish (Carassius auratus), which had a high plating efficiency, were used to investigate the lethal and mutational effects of radiations (UV and ..gamma..-rays) and chemicals (4NQO and MNNG). The cells were more resistant to rays than mammalian cells and CAF-MM1 cells derived from the normal fin tissue of goldfish. They were also more resistant to UV-irradiation than CAF-MM1 cells. Photoreactivation after UV-irradiation was present in GEM 199 cells for both survival and mutation. The initial shoulder of the survival curve of UV-irradiated cells was reduced greatly by caffeine, suggesting a high activity of the post-replication repair. The spontaneous mutation frequency to ouabain resistance was 1-5x10/sup -6/ clones per viable cell. MNNG was effective in inducing ouabain-resistant mutation, while 4NQO and ..gamma..-rays did not induce mutation.

  6. Data on the density of xanthophores in a whole scale of goldfish acclimated to white or black background color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta Mizusawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Expression of genes for melanotropic peptides and their receptors for morphological color change in goldfish Carassius auratus” (Mizusawa et al., In press [1]. This article describes data on the density of xanthophores in the scales of goldfish acclimated to white or black background color. To determine the effects of acclimation history during long-term background color adaptation, fish were transferred from a white tank to a white or black tank and vice versa halfway through the acclimation process. To observe xanthophores, the iridophore layer was scraped from the scale and the pteridine/carotenoid pigments were aggregated. The number of xanthophores was calculated after image processing.

  7. Inhibition of non-neuronal cell proliferation in the goldfish visual pathway affects the regenerative capacity of the retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, D.; Yerushalmi, A.; Schwartz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel))

    1983-08-08

    Proliferating cells associated with the visual pathway were found in the present study of affect the regenerative capacity of the goldfish retina following optic nerve injury. The contribution of these cells to the process of regeneration was investigated in the goldfish visual system by reducing their proliferation in the optic tract and tecta, using X-irradiation. The regenerative ability of the retina was then evaluated by the following parameters: sprouting from retinal explants, protein synthesis in the retina and accumulation of radiolabeled transported components in the tectum. X-irradiation of the visual system at an early stage of the regeneration process had a promoting effect whereas irradiation at a later stage resulted in a reduced capacity to regenerate. The results are discussed with respect to the possibility that proliferating cells, possibly glia, exert two contradictory contributions: an inhibitory effect at the site of injury, whereas distal to it, a supportive, perhaps trophic effect.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat? for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Shivappa, Raghunath B.; Christian, Larry S.; Law, Jerry M.; Lewbart, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production i...

  9. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Minghui; Wang, Junsong; Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua; Kong, Lingyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment

  10. Relationship between nitric oxide- and calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways in growth hormone release from dispersed goldfish pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John P; Sawisky, Grant R; Davis, Philip J; Pemberton, Joshua G; Rieger, Aja M; Barreda, Daniel R

    2014-09-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) are two of the many intracellular signal transduction pathways mediating the control of growth hormone (GH) secretion from somatotropes by neuroendocrine factors. We have previously shown that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) elicits Ca(2+) signals in identified goldfish somatotropes. In this study, we examined the relationships between NO- and Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction mechanisms in GH secretion from primary cultures of dispersed goldfish pituitary cells. Morphologically identified goldfish somatotropes stained positively for an NO-sensitive dye indicating they may be a source of NO production. In 2h static incubation experiments, GH release responses to the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP) were attenuated by CoCl2, nifedipine, verapamil, TMB-8, BHQ, and KN62. In column perifusion experiments, the ability of SNP to induce GH release was impaired in the presence of TMB-8, BHQ, caffeine, and thapsigargin, but not ryanodine. Caffeine-elicited GH secretion was not affected by the NO scavenger PTIO. These results suggest that NO-stimulated GH release is dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) availability and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) store(s) that possess BHQ- and/or thapsigargin-inhibited sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases, as well as TMB-8- and/or caffeine-sensitive, but not ryanodine-sensitive, Ca(2+)-release channels. Calmodulin kinase-II also likely participates in NO-elicited GH secretion but caffeine-induced GH release is not upstream of NO production. These findings provide insights into how NO actions many integrate with Ca(2+)-dependent signalling mechanisms in goldfish somatotropes and how such interactions may participate in the GH-releasing actions of regulators that utilize both NO- and Ca(2+)-dependent transduction pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate for the control of experimentally induced infestations of Argulus sp. in goldfish and koi carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Shari K; Hill, Jeffrey E; Watson, Craig A; Yanong, Roy P E; Endris, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24-25 degrees C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number of fish lice attached to each fish at the start of the experiment was not determined; however, the total number of motile fish lice in each aquarium (on fish and in the water) was determined at the start and end of each experiment. Eight goldfish were fed the control diet (0 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) and eight were fed the medicated diet (50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for seven consecutive days. After treatment, fish louse infestation in controls was 20.5 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SE) lice per fish. No Argulus were found on fish in the treated group. In a separate experiment, 10 individually housed koi were each exposed to 128 Argulus. Five koi were fed the control diet and five were fed a low-dose medicated diet (5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 d. After treatment, fish louse infestation among the controls was 14.6 +/- 3.8 lice per koi. No Argulus were found on koi in the treated group. Hence, a 7-d regimen of oral emamectin benzoate controlled experimental infestation of Argulus when administered to goldfish at 50 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1) and to koi at 5 microg x kg fish biomass(-1) x d(-1).

  12. NMR-based metabolomics approach to study the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Junsong, E-mail: wang.junsong@gmail.com [Center for Molecular Metabolism, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei Street, Nanjing 210094 (China); Lu, Zhaoguang; Wei, Dandan; Yang, Minghua [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China); Kong, Lingyi, E-mail: cpu_lykong@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •A goldfish model was established to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) exposure on multiple organs. •NMR based metabolomics approach were firstly used to provide a global view of the toxicity of LCT. •LCT induced neurotransmitters and osmoregulatory imbalances, oxidative stress, energy and amino acid metabolic disorders. •Glutamate–glutamine–GABA axis as a potential target for LCT toxicity was first found. -- Abstract: In this study, a {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) in goldfish (Carassius auratus). LCT showed tissue-specific damage to gill, heart, liver and kidney tissues of goldfish. NMR profiling combined with statistical methods such as orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) and two-dimensional statistical total correlation spectroscopy (2D-STOCSY) was developed to discern metabolite changes occurring after one week LCT exposure in brain, heart and kidney tissues of goldfish. LCT exposure influenced levels of many metabolites (e.g., leucine, isoleucine and valine in brain and kidney; lactate in brain, heart and kidney; alanine in brain and kidney; choline in brain, heart and kidney; taurine in brain, heart and kidney; N-acetylaspartate in brain; myo-inositol in brain; phosphocreatine in brain and heart; 2-oxoglutarate in brain; cis-aconitate in brain, and etc.), and broke the balance of neurotransmitters and osmoregulators, evoked oxidative stress, disturbed metabolisms of energy and amino acids. The implication of glutamate–glutamine–gamma-aminobutyric axis in LCT induced toxicity was demonstrated for the first time. Our findings demonstrated the applicability and potential of metabolomics approach for the elucidation of toxicological effects of pesticides and the underlying mechanisms, and the discovery of biomarkers for pesticide pollution in aquatic environment.

  13. Temperature selection of goldfish (Carassius auratus L. ) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitch. ) after heterogeneous temperature acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R.

    1977-01-01

    Goldfish and brook trout were acclimated heterogeneously to temperature by exposing the head and tail simultaneously to different temperatures. The temperature selection of heterogeneously acclimated fish was tested in a vertical temperature gradient and compared to that of homogeneously acclimated fish. All fish selected temperatures essentially corresponding to the state of acclimation of their head. It is concluded that the brain acts as the main control of temperature selection in fish.

  14. Zn subcellular distribution in liver of goldfish (carassius auratus with exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles and mechanism of hepatic detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Fan

    Full Text Available Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs have attracted increasing concerns because of their widespread use and toxic potential. In this study, Zn accumulations in different tissues (gills, liver, muscle, and gut of goldfish (Carassius auratus after exposure to ZnO NPs were studied in comparison with bulk ZnO and Zn(2+. And the technique of subcellular partitioning was firstly used on the liver of goldfish to study the hepatic accumulation of ZnO NPs. The results showed that at sublethal Zn concentration (2 mg/L, bioaccumulation in goldfish was tissue-specific and dependent on the exposure materials. Compared with Zn(2+, the particles of bulk ZnO and the ZnO NPs appeared to aggregate in the environmentally contacted tissues (gills and gut, rather than transport to the internal tissues (liver and muscle. The subcellular distributions of liver differed for the three exposure treatments. After ZnO NPs exposure, Zn percentage in metal-rich granule (MRG increased significantly, and after Zn(2+ exposure, it increased significantly in the organelles. Metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP were the main target for Zn(2+, while MRG played dominant role for ZnO NPs. The different results of subcellular distributions revealed that metal detoxification mechanisms of liver for ZnO NPs, bulk ZnO, and Zn(2+ were different. Overall, subcellular partitioning provided an interesting start to better understanding of the toxicity of nano- and conventional materials.

  15. Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in farmed in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Renata Serantoni Moyses

    Full Text Available Concomitant infections by several parasitic genera are rare, very debilitating and often lethal to fish reared under commercial breeding conditions. Were describe a multiple and concurrent parasite infestation in cultured goldfish Carassius auratus with skin damage (nodules and/or ulceration. Fish with skin lesions underwent necropsy, and the skin and gills were scraped and examined. Histopathological examination with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Giemsa stain, and an ultrastructure study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy were conducted. In the skin, we identified multiple-parasite infestations by Gyrodactylidae, Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Tetrahymena sp. and Ichthyobodo necator,associated with epithelial cell hyperplasia and epidermal sloughing. Although no gross lesions were observed, were identified a large number of parasites in the gills (Epistylis sp., Piscinoodinium sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Apiosoma sp., Hexamitasp. and cysts of a trematode digenean. The observed trematodes were not identified. The associated microscopic lesions were epithelial hypertrophic and hyperplasic and exhibited fusion of secondary lamellae and epithelial cell detachment. This is the first description of a protozoan Vorticella sp. parasitizing goldfish in Brazil. Multiple ectoparasitism by protozoa and Platyhelminthes, with or without apparent tissue damage, can be fatal for goldfish raised on farms with poor management.

  16. An Assessment of a Low-Cost Visual Tracking System (VTS) to Detect and Compensate for Patient Motion During SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Joseph E.; Bruyant, Philippe; Johnson, Karen; Feng, Bing; Lehovich, Andre; Gu, Songxiang; Gennert, Michael A.; King, Michael A.

    2008-06-01

    Patient motion is inevitable in SPECT and PET due to the lengthy period of time patients are imaged and patient motion can degrade diagnostic accuracy. The goal of our studies is to perfect a methodology for tracking and correcting patient motion when it occurs. In this paper we report on enhancements to the calibration, camera stability, accuracy of motion tracking, and temporal synchronization of a low-cost visual tracking system (VTS) we are developing. The purpose of the VTS is to track the motion of retro-reflective markers on stretchy bands wrapped about the chest and abdomen of patients. We have improved the accuracy of 3D spatial calibration by using a MATLAB optical camera calibration package with a planar calibration pattern. This allowed us to determine the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters for stereo-imaging with our CCD cameras. Locations in the VTS coordinate system are transformed to the SPECT coordinate system by a VTS/SPECT mapping using a phantom of 7 retro-reflective spheres each filled with a drop of Tc99m. We switched from pan, tilt and zoom (PTZ) network cameras to fixed network cameras to reduce the amount of camera drift. The improved stability was verified by tracking the positions of fixed retro-reflective markers on a wall. The ability of our VTS to track movement, on average, with sub-millimeter and sub-degree accuracy was established with the 7-sphere phantom for 1 cm vertical and axial steps as well as for an arbitrary rotation and translation. The difference in the time of optical image acquisition as decoded from the image headers relative to synchronization signals sent to the SPECT system was used to establish temporal synchrony between optical and list-mode SPECT acquisition. Two experiments showed better than 100 ms agreement between VTS and SPECT observed motion for three axial translations. We were able to track 3 reflective markers on an anthropomorphic phantom with a precision that allowed us to correct motion such that no

  17. Waterborne gemfibrozil challenges the hepatic antioxidant defense system and down-regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARβ) mRNA levels in male goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimeault, C.; Trudeau, V.L.; Moon, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    The lipid regulator gemfibrozil (GEM) is one of many human pharmaceuticals found in the aquatic environment. We previously demonstrated that GEM bioconcentrates in blood and reduces plasma testosterone levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In this study, we address the potential of an environmentally relevant waterborne concentration of GEM (1.5 μg/l) to induce oxidative stress in goldfish liver and whether this may be linked to GEM acting as a peroxisome proliferator (PP). We also investigate the autoregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as a potential index of exposure. The three PPAR subtypes (α, β, and γ) were amplified from goldfish liver cDNA. Goldfish exposed to a concentration higher (1500 μg/l) than environmentally relevant for 14 and 28 days significantly reduce hepatic PPARβ mRNA levels (p < 0.001). Levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were unchanged. GEM exposure significantly induced the antioxidant defense enzymes catalase (p < 0.001), glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.001) and glutathione-S-transferase (p = 0.006) but not acyl-CoA oxidase or glutathione reductase. As GEM exposure failed to increase levels of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), we conclude that a sub-chronic exposure to GEM upregulates the antioxidant defense status of the goldfish as an adaptive response to this human pharmaceutical

  18. Detection and compensation of organ/lesion motion using 4D-PET/CT respiratory gated acquisition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettinardi, Valentino; Picchio, Maria; Di Muzio, Nadia; Gianolli, Luigi; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Messa, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the degradation effects produced by respiratory organ and lesion motion on PET/CT images and to define the role of respiratory gated (RG) 4D-PET/CT techniques to compensate for such effects. Methods: Based on the literature and on our own experience, technical recommendations and clinical indications for the use of RG 4D PET/CT have been outlined. Results: RG 4D-PET/CT techniques require a state of the art PET/CT scanner, a respiratory monitoring system and dedicated acquisition and processing protocols. Patient training is particularly important to obtain a regular breathing pattern. An adequate number of phases has to be selected to balance motion compensation and statistical noise. RG 4D PET/CT motion free images may be clinically useful for tumour tissue characterization, monitoring patient treatment and target definition in radiation therapy planning. Conclusions: RG 4D PET/CT is a valuable tool to improve image quality and quantitative accuracy and to assess and measure organ and lesion motion for radiotherapy planning.

  19. New algorithms for motion error detection of numerical control machine tool by laser tracking measurement on the basis of GPS principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jindong; Chen, Peng; Deng, Yufen; Guo, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    As a three-dimensional measuring instrument, the laser tracker is widely used in industrial measurement. To avoid the influence of angle measurement error on the overall measurement accuracy, the multi-station and time-sharing measurement with a laser tracker is introduced on the basis of the global positioning system (GPS) principle in this paper. For the proposed method, how to accurately determine the coordinates of each measuring point by using a large amount of measured data is a critical issue. Taking detecting motion error of a numerical control machine tool, for example, the corresponding measurement algorithms are investigated thoroughly. By establishing the mathematical model of detecting motion error of a machine tool with this method, the analytical algorithm concerning on base station calibration and measuring point determination is deduced without selecting the initial iterative value in calculation. However, when the motion area of the machine tool is in a 2D plane, the coefficient matrix of base station calibration is singular, which generates a distortion result. In order to overcome the limitation of the original algorithm, an improved analytical algorithm is also derived. Meanwhile, the calibration accuracy of the base station with the improved algorithm is compared with that with the original analytical algorithm and some iterative algorithms, such as the Gauss-Newton algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The experiment further verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the improved algorithm. In addition, the different motion areas of the machine tool have certain influence on the calibration accuracy of the base station, and the corresponding influence of measurement error on the calibration result of the base station depending on the condition number of coefficient matrix are analyzed.

  20. Structural and functional effects of acoustic exposure in goldfish: evidence for tonotopy in the teleost saccule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilley Ronald R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian and avian auditory hair cells display tonotopic mapping of frequency along the length of the cochlea and basilar papilla. It is not known whether the auditory hair cells of fishes possess a similar tonotopic organization in the saccule, which is thought to be the primary auditory receptor in teleosts. To investigate this question, we determined the location of hair cell damage in the saccules of goldfish (Carassius auratus following exposure to specific frequencies. Subjects were divided into six groups of six fish each (five treatment groups plus control. The treatment groups were each exposed to one of five tones: 100, 400, 800, 2000, and 4000 Hz at 176 dB re 1 μPa root mean squared (RMS for 48 hours. The saccules of each fish were dissected and labeled with phalloidin in order to visualize hair cell bundles. The hair cell bundles were counted at 19 specific locations in each saccule to determine the extent and location of hair cell damage. In addition to quantification of anatomical injury, hearing tests (using auditory evoked potentials were performed on each fish immediately following sound exposure. Threshold shifts were calculated by subtracting control thresholds from post-sound exposure thresholds. Results All sound-exposed fish exhibited significant hair cell and hearing loss following sound exposure. The location of hair cell loss varied along the length of the saccule in a graded manner with the frequency of sound exposure, with lower and higher frequencies damaging the more caudal and rostral regions of the saccule, respectively. Similarly, fish exposed to lower frequency tones exhibited greater threshold shifts at lower frequencies, while high-frequency tone exposure led to hearing loss at higher frequencies. In general, both hair cell and hearing loss declined as a function of increasing frequency of exposure tone, and there was a significant linear relationship between hair cell loss and hearing

  1. Fear conditioning-related changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell activities in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Masayuki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear conditioning-induced changes in cerebellar Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus have been reported in rabbits. It has been suggested that synaptic long-term potentiation and the resulting increases in firing rates of Purkinje cells are related to the acquisition of conditioned fear in mammals. However, Purkinje cell activities during acquisition of conditioned fear have not been analysed, and changes in Purkinje cell activities throughout the development of conditioned fear have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we tracked Purkinje cell activities throughout a fear conditioning procedure and aimed to elucidate further how cerebellar circuits function during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. Methods Activities of single Purkinje cells in the corpus cerebelli were tracked throughout a classical fear conditioning procedure in goldfish. A delayed conditioning paradigm was used with cardiac deceleration as the conditioned response. Conditioning-related changes of Purkinje cell responses to a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus were examined. Results The majority of Purkinje cells sampled responded to the conditioned stimulus by either increasing or decreasing their firing rates before training. Although there were various types of conditioning-related changes in Purkinje cells, more than half of the cells showed suppressed activities in response to the conditioned stimulus after acquisition of conditioned fear. Purkinje cells that showed unconditioned stimulus-coupled complex-spike firings also exhibited conditioning-related suppression of simple-spike responses to the conditioned stimulus. A small number of Purkinje cells showed increased excitatory responses in the acquisition sessions. We found that the magnitudes of changes in the firing frequencies of some Purkinje cells in response to the conditioned stimulus correlated with the magnitudes of the conditioned

  2. Multifunctional devices based on SnO2@rGO-coated fibers for human motion monitoring, ethanol detection, and photo response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Qing; Wang, Qi; Zang, Siyao; Chai, Zhaoer; Zhang, Jinnan; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we developed a multifunctional device based on SnO2@rGO-coated fibers utilizing plasma treatment, dip coating, and microwave irradiation in sequence, and finally realized highly sensitive human motion monitoring, relatively good ethanol detection, and an obvious photo response. Moreover, the high level of comfort and compactness derived from highly elastic and comfortable fabrics contributes to the long-term availability and test accuracy. As an attempt at multifunctional integration of smart clothing, this work provides an attractive and relatively practical research direction.

  3. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with [3H]-, the other with [14C]proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain

  4. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 μg/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of 45 Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in 45 Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled 45 Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer. (author)

  5. Tributyltin disrupts feeding and energy metabolism in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Sun, Ping; Yang, Fan; Kong, Tao; Zhang, Ruichen

    2016-06-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) can induce obesogen response. However, little is known about the adverse effects of TBT on food intake and energy metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 2.44 and 24.4 ng/L (1 and 10 ng/L as Sn), on feeding and energy metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus). After exposure for 54 d, TBT increased the weight gain and food intake in fish. The patterns of brain neuropeptide genes expression were in line with potential orexigenic effects, with increased expression of neuropeptide Y and apelin, and decreased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and corticotropin-releasing factor. Interestingly, the energy metabolism indicators (oxygen consumption, ammonia exertion and swimming activity) and the serum thyroid hormones were all significantly increased at the 2.44 ng/L TBT group in fish. However, no changes of energy metabolism indicators or a decrease of thyroid hormones was found at the 24.4 ng/L TBT group, which indicated a complex disrupting effect on metabolism of TBT. In short, TBT can alter feeding and energy metabolism in fish, which might promote the obesogenic responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid steroid influences on visually guided sexual behavior in male goldfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Louis-David; Bond, Julia; Thompson, Richmond R.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of steroid hormones to rapidly influence cell physiology through nongenomic mechanisms raises the possibility that these molecules may play a role in the dynamic regulation of social behavior, particularly in species in which social stimuli can rapidly influence circulating steroid levels. We therefore tested if testosterone (T), which increases in male goldfish in response to sexual stimuli, can rapidly influence approach responses towards females. Injections of T stimulated approach responses towards the visual cues of females 30–45 min after the injection but did not stimulate approach responses towards stimulus males or affect general activity, indicating that the effect is stimulus-specific and not a secondary consequence of increased arousal. Estradiol produced the same effect 30–45 min and even 10–25 min after administration, and treatment with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole blocked exogenous T’s behavioral effect, indicating that T’s rapid stimulation of visual approach responses depends on aromatization. We suggest that T surges induced by sexual stimuli, including preovulatory pheromones, rapidly prime males to mate by increasing sensitivity within visual pathways that guide approach responses towards females and/or by increasing the motivation to approach potential mates through actions within traditional limbic circuits. PMID:19751737

  7. Tracing of single fibers of the nervus terminalis in the goldfish brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bartheld, C S; Meyer, D L

    1986-01-01

    Central projections of the nervus terminalis (n.t.) in the goldfish were investigated using cobalt- and horseradish peroxidase-tracing techniques. Single n.t. fibers were identified after unilateral application of cobalt chloride-lysine to the rostral olfactory bulb. The central course and branching patterns of individual n.t. fibers were studied in serial sections. Eight types of n.t. fibers are differentiated according to pathways and projection patterns. Projection areas of the n.t. include the contralateral olfactory bulb, the ipsilateral periventricular preoptic nucleus, both retinae, the caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus bilaterally, and the rostral optic tectum bilaterally. N.t. fibers cross to contralateral targets in the anterior commissure, the optic chiasma, the horizontal commissure, the posterior commissure, and possibly the habenular commissure. We propose criteria that differentiate central n.t. fibers from those of the classical secondary olfactory projections. Branching patterns of eight n.t. fiber types are described. Mesencephalic projections of the n.t. and of secondary olfactory fibers are compared and discussed with regard to prior reports on the olfactory system of teleosts. Further fiber types for which the association with the n.t. could not be established with certainty were traced to the torus longitudinalis, the torus semicircularis, and to the superior reticular nucleus on the ipsilateral side.

  8. Immediate response of the hemoglobin system of the goldfish, Carassius auratu, to temperature change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, A.H.; Rupert, R.

    1976-10-01

    Goldfish acclimated to 3 and 23/sup 0/C were characterized by two- and three-component hemoglobin systems, respectively. After acclimation to a diurnally cycling temperature regime (approximately 3 to approximately 23/sup 0/C), specimens sampled at approximately 23/sup 0/C and approximately 3/sup 0/C were identical in terms of hemoglobin system complexity with those held at equivalent constant temperatures. Abrupt transfer of fish acclimated at constant 23/sup 0/C to 3/sup 0/C, and vice versa, lead to appearance or disappearance of the minor component, G. l, within 3 h. In vitro cooling and warming of whole blood and hemolyzate samples indicated that hemoglobin system modification occurred under cell-free as well as cell-intact conditions. These observations suggest that previously observed quantitative variations in the hemoglobin systems of thermally acclimated teleosts may represent, in part at least, altered aggregation of preexisting subunits rather than de novo hemoglobin synthesis and raise the possibility that teleostean hemoglobin systems may possess a capacity for rapid, adaptative reorganization after environmental temperature variation.

  9. Comparative aspects of calcium dynamics in calcified tissues in the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichii, Taro; Mugiya, Yasuo (Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries)

    1983-07-01

    The comparative nature of calcium physiology in bone, scales and otoliths was studied in young goldfish, Carassius auratus. Net calcium uptake by the fish was estimated to be 143 ..mu..g/g body weight/day. Of that, 79 % was distributed in bone, 13 % in scales, 3.5 % in otoliths and 4.5 % in soft tissues. Scales showed the highest incorporation of /sup 45/Ca per mg-tissue weight after 1 or 2 days in /sup 45/Ca-containing water; bone came second and otoliths last. However, 35 days after transfer to non-radioactive water, the order of descending radioactivity had changed to otoliths, bone and scales, reflecting different rates of calcium turnover. In bone, prelabeled /sup 45/Ca activity increased for the first 2 days after transfer and then decreased gradually (biological half-life, Tsub(0.5) = 94 days). In otoliths, prelabeled radioactivity consistently increased for 35 days. Scales showed two phases of calcium turnover. They lost about 33 % of their prelabeled radioactivity during the first 7 days (Tsub(0.5) = 10.5 days) in non-radioactive water, but thereafter the rate of decrease slowed down greatly (Tsub(0.5) = 210 days). These two phases of calcium turnover were found in the osseous layer (including calcium crystals in the fibrillary plate) of scales, indicating the presence of physiologically labile as well as stable forms of calcium in the layer.

  10. Fluoxetine and diclofenac interaction on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Navid Forsatkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the interaction of simultaneous use of fluoxetine (Flx, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and diclofenac (Dcf, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on food intake in goldfish, Carassius auratus. Treatments with different dosage of Flx including control, 0, 1, and 10  µg/g body weight (BW were injected in the fish with mean weight of 30.16 ± 8.57 g every other day in total of 5 times. Then fish were exposed to 3 different levels of Dcf including 0, 10, and 100 mg/l for 5 days. Injection of fluoxetine significantly decreased food intake and consequently body weight. After 5 days exposure to Dcf, the amount of food intake in the Dcf receiving treatments of 1 mg/l and 10 mg/l was significantly larger than that of 0 mg/l Dcf recieving treatment in both the Flx dosage groups of 1 μg/g BW and 10 μg/g BW. Our results indicated that Dcf inhibits behavioral change effects of Flx showing the complex effects of pharmaceuticals on fish.

  11. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M.

    1984-01-01

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation. (Auth.)

  12. Molecular events associated with increased regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells following X-irradiation: decreased level of axonal growth inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachailovich, I.; Schwartz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Neurobiology)

    1984-07-23

    In our previous work we established conditions to study the contribution of non-neuronal cells to the process of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. This issue has been studied successfully by adapting the use of X-irradiation to manipulate division of non-neuronal cells associated with the injured nerve. The regenerative capacity of the goldfish retinal ganglion cells was determined subsequent to the X-ray treatment. The authors present an analysis of the molecular events associated with regeneration and enhanced regenerative capacity which follows X-irradiation.

  13. Commercially available video motion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended

  14. Fast, accurate, and robust automatic marker detection for motion correction based on oblique kV or MV projection image pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagmolen, Pieter; Hermans, Jeroen; Maes, Frederik; Budiharto, Tom; Haustermans, Karin; Heuvel, Frank van den

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A robust and accurate method that allows the automatic detection of fiducial markers in MV and kV projection image pairs is proposed. The method allows to automatically correct for inter or intrafraction motion. Methods: Intratreatment MV projection images are acquired during each of five treatment beams of prostate cancer patients with four implanted fiducial markers. The projection images are first preprocessed using a series of marker enhancing filters. 2D candidate marker locations are generated for each of the filtered projection images and 3D candidate marker locations are reconstructed by pairing candidates in subsequent projection images. The correct marker positions are retrieved in 3D by the minimization of a cost function that combines 2D image intensity and 3D geometric or shape information for the entire marker configuration simultaneously. This optimization problem is solved using dynamic programming such that the globally optimal configuration for all markers is always found. Translational interfraction and intrafraction prostate motion and the required patient repositioning is assessed from the position of the centroid of the detected markers in different MV image pairs. The method was validated on a phantom using CT as ground-truth and on clinical data sets of 16 patients using manual marker annotations as ground-truth. Results: The entire setup was confirmed to be accurate to around 1 mm by the phantom measurements. The reproducibility of the manual marker selection was less than 3.5 pixels in the MV images. In patient images, markers were correctly identified in at least 99% of the cases for anterior projection images and 96% of the cases for oblique projection images. The average marker detection accuracy was 1.4±1.8 pixels in the projection images. The centroid of all four reconstructed marker positions in 3D was positioned within 2 mm of the ground-truth position in 99.73% of all cases. Detecting four markers in a pair of MV images

  15. The Mancozeb-containing carbamate fungicide tattoo induces mild oxidative stress in goldfish brain, liver, and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamaniuk, Tetiana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Husak, Viktor V; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-11-01

    Tattoo belongs to the group of carbamate fungicides and contains Mancozeb (ethylene(bis)dithiocarbamate) as its main constituent. The toxicity of Mancozeb to living organisms, particularly fish, is not resolved. This work investigated the effects of 96 h of exposure to 3, 5, or 10 mg L(-1) of Tattoo (corresponding to 0.9, 1.5, or 3 mg L(-1) of Mancozeb) on the levels of oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant enzyme system of brain, liver, and kidney of goldfish, Carassius auratus). In liver, Tattoo exposure resulted in increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 70%-79%, catalase by 23%-52% and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) by 49%. The content of protein carbonyls (CP) in liver was also enhanced by 92%-125% indicating extensive damage to proteins. Similar increases in CP levels (by 98%-111%) accompanied by reduced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (by 13%-15%) was observed in kidney of fish exposed to Tattoo; however, SOD activity increased by 37% in this tissue after treatment with 10 mg L(-1) Tattoo. In brain, a rise in lipid peroxide level (by 29%) took place after exposure to 10 mg L(-1) Tattoo and was accompanied by elevation of high-molecular mass thiols (by 14%). Tattoo exposure also resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in glutathione reductase activity (by 26%-37%) in brain. The data collectively show that exposure of goldfish to 3-10 mg L(-1) of the carbamate fungicide Tattoo resulted in the development of mild oxidative stress and activation of antioxidant defense systems in goldfish tissues. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  16. Meta-type analysis of dopaminergic effects on gene expression in the neuroendocrine brain of female goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason T Popesku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA is a major neurotransmitter important for neuroendocrine control and recent studies have described genomic signalling pathways activated and inhibited by DA agonists and antagonists in the goldfish brain. Here we perform a meta-type analysis using microarray datasets from experiments conducted with female goldfish to characterize the gene expression responses that underlie dopaminergic signalling. Sexually mature, pre-spawning (GSI 4.5 ± 1.3% or sexually regressing ( GSI 3 ± 0.4% female goldfish (15-40 g injected intraperitoneally with either SKF 38393, LY 171555, SCH 23390, sulpiride, or a combination of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and α-methyl-p-tyrosine. Microarray meta-type analysis identified 268 genes in the telencephalon and hypothalamus as having reciprocal (i.e. opposite between agonism and antagonism/depletion fold change responses, suggesting that these transcripts are likely targets for DA-mediated regulation. Noteworthy genes included ependymin, vimentin, and aromatase, genes that support the significance of DA in neuronal plasticity and tissue remodelling. Sub-network enrichment analysis (SNEA was used to identify common gene regulators and binding proteins associated with the differentially expressed genes mediated by DA. SNEA analysis identified gene expression targets that were related to three major categories that included cell signalling (STAT3, SP1, SMAD, Jun/Fos, immune response (IL6, IL1β, TNFs, cytokine, NF-κB, and cell proliferation and growth (IGF1, TGFβ1. These gene networks are also known to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons’ disease, well-known to be associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons. This study identifies genes and networks that underlie DA signalling in the vertebrate CNS and provides targets that may be key neuroendocrine regulators. The results provide a foundation for future work on dopaminergic regulation of gene expression in fish

  17. Serial thallium-201 myocardial imaging after dipyridamole infusion: diagnostic utility in detecting coronary stenoses and relationship to regional wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppo, J.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Newell, J.B.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    After a 4-minute i.v. dipyridamole infusion, 0.14 mg/kg/min, serial thallium-201 scans were obtained in 60 patients undergoing cardia catheterization. Forty patients had significant (greater than or equal to50% stenosis) coronary artery disease (CAD), and 20 patients had normal coronary arteries or trivial lesions. The images were graded qualitatively for thallium activity by three observers. Sensitivity was 93% (37 of 40) and specificity was 80% (16 of 20). The sensitivity and specificity of the thallium-201 study were not affected by the extent of CAD, the presence of Q waves, or propranolol therapy. Twenty-seven of 37 patients who had initial defects (73%) had complete thallium redistribution of one or more defects. Patient-by-patient anlaysis using a regression model of all patients showed that the fate of a segmental thallium defect predicted abnormal wall motion by angiography better than ECG Q waves. The presence of propranolol therapy or collaterals did not significantly affect the thallium redistribution results. It is concluded that qualitative interpretation by multiple observers of thallium images after dipyridamole infusion is a highly sensitive and specific test for CAD. After dipyridamole, as with exercise stress, the extent of thallium redistribution is related to the degree of myocardial wall motion abnormality

  18. Flexible and Compressible PEDOT:PSS@Melamine Conductive Sponge Prepared via One-Step Dip Coating as Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Human Motion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yichun; Yang, Jack; Tolle, Charles R; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2018-05-09

    Flexible and wearable pressure sensor may offer convenient, timely, and portable solutions to human motion detection, yet it is a challenge to develop cost-effective materials for pressure sensor with high compressibility and sensitivity. Herein, a cost-efficient and scalable approach is reported to prepare a highly flexible and compressible conductive sponge for piezoresistive pressure sensor. The conductive sponge, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)@melamine sponge (MS), is prepared by one-step dip coating the commercial melamine sponge (MS) in an aqueous dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Due to the interconnected porous structure of MS, the conductive PEDOT:PSS@MS has a high compressibility and a stable piezoresistive response at the compressive strain up to 80%, as well as good reproducibility over 1000 cycles. Thereafter, versatile pressure sensors fabricated using the conductive PEDOT:PSS@MS sponges are attached to the different parts of human body; the capabilities of these devices to detect a variety of human motions including speaking, finger bending, elbow bending, and walking are evaluated. Furthermore, prototype tactile sensory array based on these pressure sensors is demonstrated.

  19. Real-time monitoring for detection of retained surgical sponges and team motion in the surgical operation room using radio-frequency-identification (RFID) technology: a preclinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzfelder, Michael; Zywitza, Dorit; Jell, Thomas; Schneider, Armin; Gillen, Sonja; Friess, Helmut; Feussner, Hubertus

    2012-06-15

    Technical progress in the surgical operating room (OR) increases constantly, facilitating the development of intelligent OR systems functioning as "safety backup" in the background of surgery. Precondition is comprehensive data retrieval to identify imminent risky situations and inaugurate adequate security mechanisms. Radio-frequency-identification (RFID) technology may have the potential to meet these demands. We set up a pilot study investigating feasibility and appliance reliability of a stationary RFID system for real-time surgical sponge monitoring (passive tagged sponges, position monitoring: mayo-stand/abdominal situs/waste bucket) and OR team tracking (active transponders, position monitoring: right/left side of OR table). In vitro: 20/20 sponges (100%) were detected on the mayo-stand and within the OR-phantom, however, real-time detection accuracy declined to 7/20 (33%) when the tags were moved simultaneously. All retained sponges were detected correctly. In vivo (animal): 7-10/10 sterilized sponges (70%-100%) were detected correctly within the abdominal cavity. OR-team: detection accuracy within the OR (surveillance antenna) and on both sides of the OR table (sector antenna) was 100%. Mean detection time for position change (left to right side and contrariwise) was 30-60 s. No transponder failure was noted. This is the first combined RFID system that has been developed for stationary use in the surgical OR. Preclinical evaluation revealed a reliable sponge tracking and correct detection of retained textiles (passive RFID) but also demonstrated feasibility of comprehensive data acquisition of team motion (active RFID). However, detection accuracy needs to be further improved before implementation into the surgical OR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Automatic multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (MISA) system for detection of motor seizures from electromyographic data and motion data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sándor; Wolf, Peter

    2012-01-01

    measures of reconstructed sub-bands from the discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) and the wavelet packet transformation (WPT). Based on the extracted features all data segments were classified using a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm as simulated seizure or normal activity. A case study...... of the seizure from the patient showed that the simulated seizures were visually similar to the epileptic one. The multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (MISA) system showed high sensitivity, short detection latency and low false detection rate. The results showed superiority of the multi- modal detection...... system compared to the uni-modal one. The presented system has a promising potential for seizure detection based on multi-modal data....

  1. Multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (MISA) system--a new approach towards seizure detection based on full body motion measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor; Wolf, Peter; Terney, Daniella; Sams, Thomas; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2009-01-01

    Many epilepsy patients cannot call for help during a seizure, because they are unconscious or because of the affection of their motor system or speech function. This can lead to injuries, medical complications and at worst death. An alarm system setting off at seizure onset could help to avoid hazards. Today no reliable alarm systems are available. A Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (MISA) system based on full body motion data seems as a good approach towards detection of epileptic seizures. The system is the first to provide a full body description for epilepsy applications. Three test subjects were used for this pilot project. Each subject simulated 15 seizures and in addition performed some predefined normal activities, during a 4-hour monitoring with electromyography (EMG), accelerometer, magnetometer and gyroscope (AMG), electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG) and audio and video recording. The results showed that a non-subject specific MISA system developed on data from the modalities: accelerometer (ACM), gyroscope and EMG is able to detect 98% of the simulated seizures and at the same time mistakes only 4 of the normal movements for seizures. If the system is individualized (subject specific) it is able to detect all simulated seizures with a maximum of 1 false positive. Based on the results from the simulated seizures and normal movements the MISA system seems to be a promising approach to seizure detection.

  2. Pseudo-immunolabelling with the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) due to the presence of endogenous biotin in retinal Müller cells of goldfish and salamander

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharjee, J.; Nunes Cardozo, B.; Kamphuis, W.; Kamermans, M.; Vrensen, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    Immunodetection techniques are dependent on enzyme-protein conjugates for the visualisation of antigen-antibody complexes. One of the most widely used is the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method. The present study demonstrates that direct treatment of goldfish and salamander retinal

  3. Acute Toxicity (LC50 96 Hours of Organophosphate Pesticide With Poksim Active Compound And Haematology And Histopathology Review Goldfish (Cyprinus carpio L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Setyorini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research has the objectives to determine LC50 96 hours value and observation toward hematology, gills and kidney histology of goldfish (Cyprinus carpio exposed to organophosphate pesticide with Poksim active compound (trade brand FOKKER 500 EC. Method used in this paper is experiment to determine LC50 96 hour value with probit analysis. Descriptive method was used for gills and kidney tissues microanatomy observation with hematoxilin eosin (HE coloring and hematology. Toxicity result of Fokker 500 EC pesticide toward goldfish obtained LC50 96 hours with 41,7 ppm. Histological result showed that increasing exposure doses in real test had caused increase gills and kidney tissues damage. Hematology observation result during research obtained that along with the increasing exposure doses of pesticide in the real test, acute toxicity test would caused reduction in total erythrocyte, leukocyte and hemoglobin of goldfish. Result also showed that Fokker pesticide usage was allowed until 1,8 ppm dose based on histology and hematology evaluation. Keywords: acute toxicity, goldfish, histology, hematology, pesticide

  4. Roles of nitric oxide, nitrite and myoglobin on myocardial efficiency in trout (Oncorthynchus mykiss) and goldfish (Carassius auratus): implications for hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Faggiano, Serena; Helbo, Signe

    2010-01-01

    The roles of nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS), nitrite and myoglobin (Mb) in the regulation of myocardial function during hypoxia were examined in trout and goldfish, a hypoxia-intolerant and hypoxia-tolerant species, respectively. We measured the effect of NOS inhibition, adrenaline and nitr......The roles of nitric oxide synthase activity (NOS), nitrite and myoglobin (Mb) in the regulation of myocardial function during hypoxia were examined in trout and goldfish, a hypoxia-intolerant and hypoxia-tolerant species, respectively. We measured the effect of NOS inhibition, adrenaline...... in both trout and goldfish myocardium, with trout showing a significant increase in the O2 utilization efficiency, i.e. the ratio of twitch force to O2 consumption, suggesting an increased anaerobic metabolism. NOS inhibition enhanced myocardial O2 consumption and decreased efficiency, indicating...... that mitochondrial respiration is under a tone of NOS-produced NO. When trout myocardial twitch force and O2 consumption are enhanced by adrenaline, this NO tone disappears. Consistent with its conversion to NO, nitrite reduced O2 consumption and increased myocardial efficiency in trout but not in goldfish...

  5. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68±5.73 μg/g) followed by the liver (0.80±0.16 μg/g) and muscle (0.47±0.16 μg/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28±0.19 μg/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues

  6. Chloride currents in cones modify feedback from horizontal cells to cones in goldfish retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeman, Duco; Fahrenfort, Iris; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Steijaert, Marvin; ten Eikelder, Huub; Kamermans, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    In neuronal systems, excitation and inhibition must be well balanced to ensure reliable information transfer. The cone/horizontal cell (HC) interaction in the retina is an example of this. Because natural scenes encompass an enormous intensity range both in temporal and spatial domains, the balance between excitation and inhibition in the outer retina needs to be adaptable. How this is achieved is unknown. Using electrophysiological techniques in the isolated retina of the goldfish, it was found that opening Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels in recorded cones reduced the size of feedback responses measured in both cones and HCs. Furthermore, we show that cones express Cl− channels that are gated by GABA released from HCs. Similar to activation of ICl(Ca), opening of these GABA-gated Cl− channels reduced the size of light-induced feedback responses both in cones and HCs. Conversely, application of picrotoxin, a blocker of GABAA and GABAC receptors, had the opposite effect. In addition, reducing GABA release from HCs by blocking GABA transporters also led to an increase in the size of feedback. Because the independent manipulation of Ca2+-dependent Cl− currents in individual cones yielded results comparable to bath-applied GABA, it was concluded that activation of either Cl− current by itself is sufficient to reduce the size of HC feedback. However, additional effects of GABA on outer retinal processing cannot be excluded. These results can be accounted for by an ephaptic feedback model in which a cone Cl− current shunts the current flow in the synaptic cleft. The Ca2+-dependent Cl− current might be essential to set the initial balance between the feedforward and the feedback signals active in the cone HC synapse. It prevents that strong feedback from HCs to cones flood the cone with Ca2+. Modulation of the feedback strength by GABA might play a role during light/dark adaptation, adjusting the amount of negative feedback to the signal to noise ratio of the

  7. Radioummunoassay of steroids in serum and ovarian fluid during egg overripening in goldfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formacion, M.J.; Venkatesh, B.; Tan, C.H.; Lam, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in steroid hormone levels in the serum and ovarian fluid during egg overripening in goldfish were studied by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Ovulated eggs retained in the ovarian cavity became overripe at around 12h after ovulation based on loss of fertilizability with advanced degeneration by 24 hour. Blood and ovarian fluid (OF) were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 12, 187 and 24h after ovulation. Prior to RIA, serum steroids were extracted directly with redistilled diethyl ether. Because of limited availability, steroids were separated from the ovarian fluid by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both serum and ovarian fluid progesterone (P) showed a highly significant decline at 18h with a further decline at 24h. In the ovarian fluid, P levels were higher than in the serum. Serum 17 α, 20B-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20B-P) levels showed a progressive and more rapid decline, decreasing significantly at 12h with further decreases by 18h and 24h. Serum testosterone (T) increased significantly at 3h, remained high till 18h, and declined thereafter to the 0h level. for estradiol-17B (E 2 , levels there were no significant changes observed in the serum fluid, there were no significant difference between 6 and 24h. In the ovarian fluid, there were no significant changes in E 2 , T or 17,20B-P levels. The time course of changes in the levels of steroids in the serum and ovarian fluid (OF) did not strictly coincide with that of overripening based on egg viability. (author)

  8. Uptake and accumulation of mercury from dental amalgam in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.J

    2003-03-01

    Exposure of fish to concentrations of dental amalgam typically found in waste discharge leads to mercury accumulation in tissues. - In this study, the bioavailability and accumulation of mercury from external environmental exposure to mixed, cured, milled, sieved and proportioned dental amalgam was examined in the common goldfish, Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to dental amalgam (particle size range from <0.10 to 3.15 mm) in order to represent the particle size and distribution of that found within the typical dental office wastewater discharge stream. Experimental amalgam water loadings were 0 g/l, 0.5 g/l and 1 g/l in glass aquaria at 15 deg. C for 28 days. Fish tissues were sampled at 5 min and 28 days of exposure, and the liver, brain, muscle and whole body analyzed for total mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Mercury was found in several tissues examined and generally increased with exposure to higher amounts of dental amalgam. The highest levels were found in the whole body (17.68{+-}5.73 {mu}g/g) followed by the liver (0.80{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g) and muscle (0.47{+-}0.16 {mu}g/g). The lowest concentrations were seen in the brain (0.28{+-}0.19 {mu}g/g). Compared to controls, concentrations in the whole body, muscle and liver in fish exposed for 28 days to the highest concentration of amalgam were 200-, 233-, and 40-fold higher, respectively. This study shows that mercury from an environmental exposure to representative samples of dental amalgam typically found within the dental wastewater discharge stream is bioavailable to fish and may accumulate in internal tissues.

  9. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  10. Transcripts of genes encoding reproductive neuroendocrine hormones and androgen receptor in the brain and testis of goldfish exposed to vinclozolin, flutamide, testosterone, and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Mahdi; Habibi, Hamid R; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi

    2016-08-01

    Vinclozolin (VZ) is a pesticide that acts as an anti-androgen to impair reproduction in mammals. However, VZ-induced disruption of reproduction is largely unknown in fish. In the present study, we have established a combination exposure in which adult goldfish were exposed to VZ (30 and 100 μg/L), anti-androgen flutamide (Flu, 300 μg/L), and androgen testosterone (T, 1 μg/L) to better understand effects of VZ on reproductive endocrine system. mRNA levels of kisspeptin (kiss-1 and kiss-2) and its receptor (gpr54), salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh3) and androgen receptor (ar) in the mid-brain, and luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) in the testis were analyzed and compared with those of control following 10 days of exposure. kiss-1 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 µg/L VZ and to Flu, while kiss-2 mRNA level was increased following exposure to Flu and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. gpr54 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combination of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu and 100 µg/L VZ with T. gnrh3 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 µg/L VZ, to Flu, and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. The mid-brain ar mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. Testicular lhr mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combination of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu. These results suggest that VZ and Flu are capable of interfering with kisspeptin and GnRH systems to alter pituitary and testicular horonal functions in adult goldfish and the brain ar mediates VZ-induced disruption of androgen production.

  11. Sox10 Expression in Goldfish Retina and Optic Nerve Head in Controls and after the Application of Two Different Lesion Paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Parrilla

    Full Text Available The mammalian central nervous system (CNS is unable to regenerate. In contrast, the CNS of fish, including the visual system, is able to regenerate after damage. Moreover, the fish visual system grows continuously throughout the life of the animal, and it is therefore an excellent model to analyze processes of myelination and re-myelination after an injury. Here we analyze Sox10+ oligodendrocytes in the goldfish retina and optic nerve in controls and after two kinds of injuries: cryolesion of the peripheral growing zone and crushing of the optic nerve. We also analyze changes in a major component of myelin, myelin basic protein (MBP, as a marker for myelinated axons. Our results show that Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are located in the retinal nerve fiber layer and along the whole length of the optic nerve. MBP was found to occupy a similar location, although its loose appearance in the retina differed from the highly organized MBP+ axon bundles in the optic nerve. After optic nerve crushing, the number of Sox10+ cells decreased in the crushed area and in the optic nerve head. Consistent with this, myelination was highly reduced in both areas. In contrast, after cryolesion we did not find changes in the Sox10+ population, although we did detect some MBP- degenerating areas. We show that these modifications in Sox10+ oligodendrocytes are consistent with their role in oligodendrocyte identity, maintenance and survival, and we propose the optic nerve head as an excellent area for research aimed at better understanding of de- and remyelination processes.

  12. POSSIBLE DETECTION OF APPARENT SUPERLUMINAL INWARD MOTION IN MARKARIAN 421 AFTER THE GIANT X-RAY FLARE IN 2010 FEBRUARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinuma, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan); Kino, M.; Oyama, T. [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nagai, H. [ALMA-J Project, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Isobe, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautics, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Gabanyi, K. E. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Group for Physical Geodesy and Geodynamics, FOMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory Budapest, 1592 Budapest (Hungary); Hada, K. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Koyama, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Asada, K. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Fujisawa, K., E-mail: niinuma@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan)

    2012-11-10

    We report on the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) follow-up observations using the Japanese VLBI Network array at 22 GHz for the largest X-ray flare of TeV blazar Mrk 421 that occurred in 2010 mid-February. The total of five epochs of observations were performed at intervals of about 20 days between 2010 March 7 and May 31. No newborn component associated with the flare was seen directly in the total intensity images obtained by our multi-epoch VLBI observations. However, one jet component located at {approx}1 mas northwest from the core was able to be identified, and its proper motion can be measured as -1.66 {+-} 0.46 mas yr{sup -1}, which corresponds to an apparent velocity of -3.48 {+-} 0.97c. Here, this negative velocity indicates that the jet component was apparently moving toward the core. As the most plausible explanation, we discuss that the apparent negative velocity was possibly caused by the ejection of a new component, which could not be resolved with our observations. In this case, the obtained Doppler factor of the new component is around 10-20, which is consistent with the ones typically estimated by model fittings of spectral energy distribution for this source.

  13. A technique to reduce motion artifact for externally triggered cine-MRI(EC-MRI) based on detecting the onset of the articulated word with spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yasuhiro; Nishimoto, Hironori; Kochiyama, Takanori; Fujimoto, Ichiro; Mano, Hiroaki; Masaki, Shinobu; Murase, Kenya

    2012-01-01

    One issue in externally triggered cine-magnetic resonance imaging (EC-MRI) for the dynamic observation of speech organs is motion artifact in the phase-encoding direction caused by unstable repetitions of speech during data acquisition. We propose a technique to reduce such artifact by rearranging the k-space data used to reconstruct MR images based on the analysis of recorded speech sounds. We recorded the subject's speech sounds during EC-MRI and used post hoc acoustical processing to reduce scanning noise and detect the onset of each utterance based on analysis of the recorded sounds. We selected each line of k-space from several data acquisition sessions and rearranged them to reconstruct a new series of dynamic MR images according to the analyzed time of utterance onset. Comparative evaluation showed significant reduction in motion artifact signal in the dynamic MR images reconstructed by the proposed method. The quality of the reconstructed images was sufficient to observe the dynamic aspects of speech production mechanisms. (author)

  14. Molecular detection of Aeromonas hydrophila in the aquarium gold fish and cultured rainbow trout in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    firouz Fadaeifard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophilia   is the etiologic agent of motile aeromonas septicaemia, one of the most important bacterial diseases of fresh and marine water fishes. The aim of the present study was detection of A. hydrophilia in the aquarium goldfish and cultured rainbow trout in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary province.  In this study 50 goldfish from aquarium fish shops and 60 rainbow trouts suspected of having the disease from 6 farms (10 fish in each farm were randomly collected. The average weight in goldfish and rainbow trout samples were 3-5 g and 10-20 g, respectively. Sampling was performed from kidney and liver, and inoculated into blood agar and incubated at 22°C for 24 hours. Pure colonies which are grown on the mediums were tested by catalase, oxidase and gram staining, then those of gram-negative, catalase and oxidase positive were diagnosed, and cultured on Shotts-Rimler medium (as selective medium for A. hydrophila. These mediums were incubated at 22 °C for 24-48 h. The typical colonies were tested by using oligonucleotide primers of lip gene by PCR method. In light of molecular analysis of all specimens, 9 and 6 isolates from rainbow trout and gold fishes were identified as A. hydrophila respectively. Due to the detection of A. hydrophila in both cultured rainbow trout and aquarium goldfish, the bacteria can lead to septicemia with mortality if the health management principles are not observed in fish farming.

  15. Can echocardiographic particle image velocimetry correctly detect motion patterns as they occur in blood inside heart chambers? A validation study using moving phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinz Christian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To validate Echo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV Methods High fidelity string and rotating phantoms moving with different speed patterns were imaged with different high-end ultrasound systems at varying insonation angles and frame rates. Images were analyzed for velocity and direction and for complex motion patterns of blood flow with dedicated software. Post-processing was done with MATLAB-based tools (Dflow, JUV, University Leuven. Results Velocity estimation was accurate up to a velocity of 42 cm/s (r = 0.99, p  Conclusion Echo-PIV appears feasible. Velocity estimates are accurate, but the maximal detectable velocity depends strongly on acquisition parameters. Direction estimation works sufficiently, even at higher velocities. Echo-PIV appears to be a promising technical approach to investigate flow patterns by echocardiography.

  16. Speed and amplitude of lung tumor motion precisely detected in four-dimensional setup and in real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirato, Hiroki; Suzuki, Keishiro; Sharp, Gregory C.; Fujita, Katsuhisa R.T.; Onimaru, Rikiya; Fujino, Masaharu; Kato, Norio; Osaka, Yasuhiro; Kinoshita, Rumiko; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Onodera, Shunsuke; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    Background: To reduce the uncertainty of registration for lung tumors, we have developed a four-dimensional (4D) setup system using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. Methods and Materials: During treatment planning and daily setup in the treatment room, the trajectory of the internal fiducial marker was recorded for 1 to 2 min at the rate of 30 times per second by the real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. To maximize gating efficiency, the patient's position on the treatment couch was adjusted using the 4D setup system with fine on-line remote control of the treatment couch. Results: The trajectory of the marker detected in the 4D setup system was well visualized and used for daily setup. Various degrees of interfractional and intrafractional changes in the absolute amplitude and speed of the internal marker were detected. Readjustments were necessary during each treatment session, prompted by baseline shifting of the tumor position. Conclusion: The 4D setup system was shown to be useful for reducing the uncertainty of tumor motion and for increasing the efficiency of gated irradiation. Considering the interfractional and intrafractional changes in speed and amplitude detected in this study, intercepting radiotherapy is the safe and cost-effective method for 4D radiotherapy using real-time tracking technology

  17. Motion detection technology as a tool for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality training: a randomised crossover mannequin pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Federico; Frisoli, Antonio; Loconsole, Claudio; Bannò, Filippo; Tammaro, Gaetano; Imbriaco, Guglielmo; Marchetti, Luca; Cerchiari, Erga L

    2013-04-01

    Outcome after cardiac arrest is dependent on the quality of chest compressions (CC). A great number of devices have been developed to provide guidance during CPR. The present study evaluates a new CPR feedback system (Mini-VREM: Mini-Virtual Reality Enhanced Mannequin) designed to improve CC during training. Mini-VREM system consists of a Kinect(®) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) motion sensing device and specifically developed software to provide audio-visual feedback. Mini-VREM was connected to a commercially available mannequin (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway). Eighty trainees (healthcare professionals and lay people) volunteered in this randomised crossover pilot study. All subjects performed a 2 min CC trial, 1h pause and a second 2 min CC trial. The first group (FB/NFB, n=40) performed CC with Mini-VREM feedback (FB) followed by CC without feedback (NFB). The second group (NFB/FB, n=40) performed vice versa. Primary endpoints: adequate compression (compression rate between 100 and 120 min(-1) and compression depth between 50 and 60mm); compressions rate within 100-120 min(-1); compressions depth within 50-60mm. When compared to the performance without feedback, with Mini-VREM feedback compressions were more adequate (FB 35.78% vs. NFB 7.27%, p<0.001) and more compressions achieved target rate (FB 72.04% vs. 31.42%, p<0.001) and target depth (FB 47.34% vs. 24.87%, p=0.002). The participants perceived the system to be easy to use with effective feedback. The Mini-VREM system was able to improve significantly the CC performance by healthcare professionals and by lay people in a simulated CA scenario, in terms of compression rate and depth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Secretoneurin A Directly Regulates the Proteome of Goldfish Radial Glial Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon F. Da Fonte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Radial glial cells (RGCs are the main macroglia in the teleost brain and have established roles in neurogenesis and neurosteroidogenesis. They are the only brain cell type expressing aromatase B (cyp19a1b, the enzyme that synthesizes estrogens from androgen precursors. There are few studies on the regulation of RGC functions, but our previous investigations demonstrated that dopamine stimulates cyp19a1b expression in goldfish RGCs, while secretoneurin A (SNa inhibits the expression of this enzyme. Here, we determine the range of proteins and cellular processes responsive to SNa treatments in these steroidogenic cells. The focus here is on SNa, because this peptide is derived from selective processing of secretogranin II in magnocellular cells embedded within the RGC-rich preoptic nucleus. Primary cultures of RGCs were treated (24 h with 10, 100, or 1,000 nM SNa. By using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation and a Hybrid Quadrupole Obritrap Mass Spectrometry system, a total of 1,363 unique proteins were identified in RGCs, and 609 proteins were significantly regulated by SNa at one or more concentrations. Proteins that showed differential expression with all three concentrations of SNa included H1 histone, glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor γ, vimentin A2, and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated protein. At 10, 100, and 1,000 nM SNa, there were 5, 195, and 489 proteins that were downregulated, respectively, whereas the number of upregulated proteins were 72, 44, and 51, respectively. Subnetwork enrichment analysis of differentially regulated proteins revealed that processes such as actin organization, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, apoptosis, mRNA processing, RNA splicing, translation, cell growth, and proliferation are regulated by SNa based on the proteomic response. Moreover, we observed that, at the low concentration of SNa, there was an increase in the abundance of

  19. N-body modeling of globular clusters: detecting intermediate-mass black holes by non-equipartition in HST proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, Michele

    2010-09-01

    Intermediate Mass Black Holes {IMBHs} are objects of considerable astrophysical significance. They have been invoked as possible remnants of Population III stars, precursors of supermassive black holes, sources of ultra-luminous X-ray emission, and emitters of gravitational waves. The centers of globular clusters, where they may have formed through runaway collapse of massive stars, may be our best chance of detecting them. HST studies of velocity dispersions have provided tentative evidence, but the measurements are difficult and the results have been disputed. It is thus important to explore and develop additional indicators of the presence of an IMBH in these systems. In a Cycle 16 theory project we focused on the fingerprints of an IMBH derived from HST photometry. We showed that an IMBH leads to a detectable quenching of mass segregation. Analysis of HST-ACS data for NGC 2298 validated the method, and ruled out an IMBH of more than 300 solar masses. We propose here to extend the search for IMBH signatures from photometry to kinematics. The velocity dispersion of stars in collisionally relaxed stellar systems such as globular clusters scales with main sequence mass as sigma m^alpha. A value alpha = -0.5 corresponds to equipartition. Mass-dependent kinematics can now be measured from HST proper motion studies {e.g., alpha = -0.21 for Omega Cen}. Preliminary analysis shows that the value of alpha can be used as indicator of the presence of an IMBH. In fact, the quenching of mass segregation is a result of the degree of equipartition that the system attains. However, detailed numerical simulations are required to quantify this. Therefore we propose {a} to carry out a new, larger set of realistic N-body simulations of star clusters with IMBHs, primordial binaries and stellar evolution to predict in detail the expected kinematic signatures and {b} to compare these predictions to datasets that are {becoming} available. Considerable HST resources have been invested in

  20. Electrophysiological Correlates of the Threshold to Detection of Passive Motion: An Investigation in Professional Volleyball Athletes with and without Atrophy of the Infraspinatus Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, José Inácio; Cossich, Victor Rodrigues Amaral; Amaral, Marcus Vinicius; Monteiro, Martim T.; Cagy, Maurício; Motta, Geraldo; Velasques, Bruna; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to compare the electrophysiological correlates of the threshold to detection of passive motion (TTDPM) among three groups: healthy individuals (control group), professional volleyball athletes with atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle on the dominant side, and athletes with no shoulder pathologies. More specifically, the study aims at assessing the effects of infraspinatus muscle atrophy on the cortical representation of the TTDPM. A proprioception testing device (PTD) was used to measure the TTDPM. The device passively moved the shoulder and participants were instructed to respond as soon as movement was detected (TTDPM) by pressing a button switch. Response latency was established as the delay between the stimulus (movement) and the response (button press). Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activities were recorded simultaneously. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and subsequent post hoc tests indicated a significant difference in latency between the group of athletes without the atrophy when compared both to the group of athletes with the atrophy and to the control group. Furthermore, distinct patterns of cortical activity were observed in the three experimental groups. The results suggest that systematically trained motor abilities, as well as the atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle, change the cortical representation of the different stages of proprioceptive information processing and, ultimately, the cortical representation of the TTDPM. PMID:23484136

  1. Synthesis of Functionalized Fluorescent Silver Nanoparticles and their toxicological effect in aquatic environments (Goldfish) and HEPG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hugo; Oliveira, Elisabete; Garcia-Pardo, Javier; Diniz, Mário; Lorenzo, Julia; Rodriguez-González, Benito; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles, AgNPs, are widely used in our daily life, mostly due to their antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. However, their potential toxicity remains unclear. In order to unravel this issue, emissive AgNPs were first synthetized using an inexpensive photochemical method, and then their permeation was assessed in vivo in goldfish and in vitro in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). In addition, the oxidative stress caused by AgNPs was assessed in enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and in lipid peroxidation (LPO). This study demonstrates that the smallest sized AgNPs@3 promote the largest changes in gold fish livers, whereas AgNPs@1 were found to be toxic in HEPG2 cells depending on both the size and functionalized/stabilizer ligand.

  2. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland of the goldfish, Carassius auratus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, B.A. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC); Peter, R.E.

    1976-11-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photoperiod and temperature on prolactin release from the goldfish pituitary gland. Fish were acclimated to different photoperiods and temperatures, and also were subjected to a change in either of these two parameters after different acclimation conditions. Serum and pituitary samples were collected and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. In other experiments samples for prolactin analysis were taken every 3 h intermittently over a period of 3 days from fish that were acclimated to different photoperiod and temperature conditions. Longer photoperiods and higher temperatures caused pituitary prolactin release. Serum prolactin changed on a circadian rhythm and the rhythm was modified depending on the length of the photoperiod.

  3. Synthesis of Functionalized Fluorescent Silver Nanoparticles and their toxicological effect in aquatic environments (Goldfish and HEPG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Miguel Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles, AgNPs, are widely used in our daily life, mostly due to their antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal properties. However, their potential toxicity remains unclear. In order to unravel this issue, emissive AgNPs were first synthetized using an inexpensive photochemical method, and then their permeation was assessed in vivo in goldfish and in vitro in human hepatoma cells (HepG2. In addition, the oxidative stress caused by AgNPs was assessed in enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT and in lipid peroxidation (LPO. This study demonstrates that the smallest sized AgNPs@3 promote the largest changes in gold fish livers, whereas AgNPs@1 were found to be toxic in HEPG2 cells depending on both the size and functionalized/stabilizer ligand.

  4. Myelin repair by Schwann cells in the regenerating goldfish visual pathway: regional patterns revealed by X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nona, S.N.; Stafford, C.A.; Cronly-Dillon, J.R. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology); Duncan, A. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Anatomy); Scholes, J. (University Coll., London (United Kingdom))

    1994-07-01

    In the regenerating goldfish optic nerves, Schwann cells of unknown origin reliably infiltrate the lesion site forming a band of peripheral-type myelinating tissue by 1-2 months, sharply demarcated form the adjacent new CNS myelin. To investigate this effect, we have interfered with cell proliferation by locally X-irradiating the fish visual pathway 24 h after the lesion. As assayed by immunohistochemistry and EM, irradiation retards until 6 months formation of new myelin by Schwann cells at the lesion site, and virtually abolishes oligodendrocyte myelination distally, but has little or no effect on nerve fibre regrowth. Optic nerve astrocyte processes normally fail to re-infiltrate the lesion, but re-occupy it after irradiation, suggesting that they are normally excluded by early cell proliferation at this site. Moreover, scattered myelinating Schwann cells also appear in the oligodendrocyte-depleted distal optic nerve after irradiation, although only as far as the optic tract. (Author).

  5. Alpha motion based on a motion detector, but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the mechanism of alpha motion, the apparent motion of the Müller-Lyer figure's shaft that occurs when the arrowheads and arrow tails are alternately presented. The following facts were found: (a) reduced exposure duration decreased the amount of alpha motion, and this phenomenon was not explainable by the amount of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (b) the motion aftereffect occurred after adaptation to alpha motion; (c) occurrence of alpha motion became difficult when the temporal frequency increased, and this characteristic of alpha motion was similar to the characteristic of a motion detector that motion detection became difficult when the temporal frequency increased from the optimal frequency. These findings indicated that alpha motion occurs on the basis of a motion detector but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion, and that the mechanism of alpha motion is the same as that of general motion perception.

  6. Could quantitative longitudinal peak systolic strain help in the detection of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities in our daily echocardiographic practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyounes, Nadia; Lang, Sylvie; Gout, Olivier; Ancédy, Yann; Etienney, Arnaud; Cohen, Ariel

    2016-10-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography is the most commonly used tool for the detection of left ventricular wall motion (LVWM) abnormalities using "naked eye evaluation". This subjective and operator-dependent technique requires a high level of clinical training and experience. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE), which is less operator-dependent, has been proposed for this purpose. However, the role of on-line segmental longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPSS) values in the prediction of LVWM has not been fully evaluated. To test segmental LPSS for predicting LVWM abnormalities in routine echocardiography laboratory practice. LVWM was evaluated by an experienced cardiologist, during routine practice, in 620 patients; segmental LPSS values were then calculated. In this work, reflecting real life, 99.6% of segments were successfully tracked. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) segmental LPSS values for normal basal (n=3409), mid (n=3468) and apical (n=3466) segments were -16.7% (-16.9% to -16.5%), -18.2% (-18.3% to -18.0%) and -21.1% (-21.3% to -20.9%), respectively. Mean (95% CI) segmental LPSS values for hypokinetic basal (n=114), mid (n=116) and apical (n=90) segments were -7.7% (-9.0% to -6.3%), -10.1% (-11.1% to -9.0%) and -9.3% (-10.5% to -8.1%), respectively. Mean (95% CI) segmental LPSS values for akinetic basal (n=128), mid (n=95) and apical (n=91) segments were -6.6% (-8.0% to -5.1%), -6.1% (-7.7% to -4.6%) and -4.2% (-5.4% to -3.0%), respectively. LPSS allowed the differentiation between normal and abnormal segments at basal, mid and apical levels. An LPSS value≥-12% detected abnormal segmental motion with a sensitivity of 78% for basal, 70% for mid and 82% for apical segments. Segmental LPSS values may help to differentiate between normal and abnormal left ventricular segments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus) and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Raghunath B; Christian, Larry S; Law, Jerry M; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat ® on slime production in goldfish ( Carassius auratus) and koi ( Cyprinus carpio ). The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat ® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat ® , when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat ® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of different formulations of Stress Coat® for slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath B. Shivappa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the effect of Stress Coat® on slime production in goldfish (Carassius auratus and koi (Cyprinus carpio. The study also investigated histological changes that might be associated with slime producing cells, and wound healing in koi. Several formulations of Stress Coat® were investigated and the results showed that polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, also known as povidone, an ingredient of Stress Coat®, when used alone, showed significantly higher slime production in goldfish than salt and Stress Coat® without PVP after 25 h. The results also showed that koi treated with compounds containing PVP showed better wound healing than those not exposed to PVP. Histology results showed no difference between compounds tested with regards to density and number of slime producing cells.

  9. Male-typical courtship, spawning behavior, and olfactory sensitivity are induced to different extents by androgens in the goldfish suggesting they are controlled by different neuroendocrine mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Ratna; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-06-01

    Male-typical reproductive behaviors vary greatly between different species of fishes with androgens playing a variety of roles that appear especially important in the gonochorist cypriniform fishes. The goldfish is an important model for the cypriniformes and while it is clear that male goldfish are fully feminized by prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α), it is not clear whether females will exhibit normal levels of male-typical reproductive behaviors as well as olfactory function when treated with androgens. To answer this question, we exposed sexually-regressed adult female goldfish to several types of androgen and monitored their tendencies to court (inspect females) and mate (spawn, or attempt to release gametes) while monitoring their olfactory sensitivity until changes in these attributes were maximized. Untreated adult males (intact) were included to determine the extent of masculinization. Treatments included the natural androgens, 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone (KT and T), administered via capsules (KT+T-implanted fish); the artificial androgen, methyltestosterone (MT), administered via capsules (MT-C); and MT administered in the fishes' water (MT-B). Male-typical olfactory sensitivity to a pheromone (15keto-PGF2α) increased in all androgen-treated groups and by week 6 was fully equivalent to that of males. Male-typical courtship behavior increased in all androgen-treated groups although slowly, and only MT-B females came to exhibit levels equivalent to those of males after 18weeks. In contrast, male-typical mating activity increased only slightly, with MT-B females reaching levels one-third that of males after 30weeks. We conclude that while androgens fully masculinize olfactory sensitivity and courtship behavior in goldfish, mating behavior is controlled by a different neuroendocrine mechanism(s) that has yet to be fully elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of Smad Response Elements in the Promoter of Goldfish FSHβ Gene and Evidence for Their Mediation of Activin and GnRH Stimulation of FSHβ Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Tat eLau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As an essential hormone regulating gonads in vertebrates, the biosynthesis and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH is controlled by a variety of endocrine and paracrine factors in both mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates. Activin was initially discovered in the ovary for its specific stimulation of FSH secretion by the pituitary cells. Our earlier studies in fish have shown that activin stimulates FSHβ but suppresses LHβ expression in both the goldfish and zebrafish. Further experiments showed that the regulation of FSHβ in fish occurred at the promoter level involving Smads, in particular Smad3. To further understand the mechanisms by which activin/Smad regulates FSHβ transcription, the present study was undertaken to analyze the promoter of goldfish FSHβ gene (fshb with the aim to identify potential cis-regulatory elements responsible for activin/Smad stimulation. Both serial deletion and site-directed mutagenesis were used, and the promoter activity was tested in the LβT2 cells, a murine gonadotroph cell line. The reporter constructs of goldfish FSHβ promoter-SEAP (secreted alkaline phosphatase were co-transfected with an expression plasmid for Smads (2 or 3 followed by measurement of SEAP activity in the medium. Two putative Smad responsive elements (SRE were identified in the promoter at distal and proximal regions, respectively. The distal site contained a consensus Smad binding element (SBE; AGAC, -1675/-1672 whereas the proximal site (GACCTTGA, -212/-205 was identical to an SF-1 binding site reported in humans, which was preceded by a sequence (AACACTGA highly conserved between fish and mammals. The proximal site also seemed to be involved in mediating stimulation of FSHβ expression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and its potential interaction with activin. In conclusion, we have identified two potential cis-regulatory elements in the promoter of goldfish FSHβ that are responsible for activin

  11. Size-relative Effectiveness of Clove Oil as an Anaesthetic for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 and Goldfish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Perdikaris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to investigate the size-relative effectiveness of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout and goldfish. In total, 128 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (two groups of 20-23 and 30-33 cm mean fork length and 160 goldfish (Carassius auratus (four size groups of 1.5-2.5, 5-7, 11-15 and 20-25 cm were anaesthetized at different clove oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for trouts and 75, 100, 150 mg·l-1 for goldfish. Rainbow trout exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli with shorter induction time as dosage increased (120.5 s, 64.4 s and 44.3 s, respectively. Goldfish exhibited total loss of balance and no response to external stimuli after induction time that varied with dosage used and body size of fish. The small fish (1.5-7 cm exhibited shorter induction time which ranged from 84.28 s at 75 mg·l-1 clove oil to 41.14 s at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. The larger fish had a longer induction time inversely related to the dosage. Recovery time was longer than induction time in both species. Both species recovered within 6 min after anaesthesia at 150 mg·l-1 clove oil. Clove oil did not produce marked changes (P compared to the control. However, marked changes (P P > 0.05. For both fish species, clove oil was effective, producing minimum stress and zero mortalities, and can be recommended as an effective anaesthetic.

  12. The application of hCG, CPH and Ovopel in successful artificial reproduction of goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targońska, K; Kucharczyk, D

    2011-08-01

    Artificial reproduction of fish is one of the main goals of aquaculture production. The aim of this study is to optimize the method of goldfish reproduction under controlled conditions by comparing the effectiveness of carp pituitary homogenate (CPH), Ovopel and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), administered as a one-off dose and inducing two spawns in the same fish within a short time period. Goldfish spawners were stimulated with hCG, CPH and Ovopel, and the results were compared to the fish from the control group, comprised of unstimulated fish. In another experiment, spawn were induced twice within an interval of 21 days with the same group of fish. The best results in the first experiment in terms of the percentage of ovulating females and survival to the eyed-egg stage were achieved after administering hCG (100% and 88.7%, respectively). However, the highest fecundity was observed in fish stimulated with Ovopel (89,960 eggs/kg). It was shown in the second experiment that female goldfish produce higher weight of eggs during the first spawning, but the number of eggs/BW ratio was higher during the next reproduction process. Survival, both that of embryos to the eyed-egg stage and that of spawners, is higher during the first reproduction act. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  14. Influence of the diet on the microbial diversity of faecal and gastrointestinal contents in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and intestinal contents in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Zambonino-Infante, José Luiz; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Gatesoupe, François-Joël

    2011-11-01

    Fish intestinal microbiota changes with the diet and this effect is of particular interest considering the increasing substitution of fish meal by plant protein sources. The objective of this work was to study the effects of partial substitution of fish meal with lupin and rapeseed meals on gut microbiota of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Faecal, gastrointestinal and intestinal contents were characterized using culture-based and molecular methods. Vibrionaceae was high in faeces and in the intestine of sea bream, while a more diverse microbiota was retrieved from the stomach, where Bacillales and Flavobacteriaceae appeared to be influenced by the diet. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles revealed a high diversity of the microbiota transiting in the sea bream digestive tract, with a shift between gastric and intestinal communities, especially in the group fed with lupin meal. The goldfish was different, with a predominance of Aeromonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens and Staphylococcus spp. among the aerotolerant-cultivable bacteria. The culture-independent methods revealed the presence of anaerobes like Cetobacterium somerae, and that of Vibrio spp., likely in a viable, but noncultivable state. There was a trend towards decreasing diversity in goldfish microbiota with the partial substitution by lupin, which seemed to inhibit some taxa. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. INCREASING NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF ARTIFICIAL FEED WITH WHOLE SPORE PROTEIN OF MYXOBOLUS KOI AS AN IMMUNOSTIMULTANT ON GOLDFISH (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusairi A.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of goldfish in Indonesia in 2010-2013 has increased by 7.09%, the lowest average production increase compared with other main commodities such as shrimp, tilapia, catfish, and others. One of the primary causes of the low increase in production is the presence of disease and high price of feed in some central goldfish productions. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi on goldfish (Cyprinus carpio L. through feed to immune response, growth rate, feed efficiency and survival rate. This research was conducted with complete randomized design with 5 replications. This study used two types of treatment, control (100% artificial feed and artificial feed + immunostimulant (whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi + Boster® Progol adhesive spores. The results showed that whole spore protein of Myxobolus koi given to the feed as immunostimulant can cause response of the immune through the increase of monocytes and lymphocytes in white blood cells on days 7, 14 and 28 observations, daily growth rate of 5.55% compared without immunostimulant with the rate of 1.13%; feed efficiency of 36.57% compared with no immunostimulant, which is only 23.84%, and the treatment gives a 99% survival rate.

  16. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  17. Motion sensing energy controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saphir, M.E.; Reed, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A moving object sensing processor responsive to slowly varying motions of a human being or other moving object in a zone of interest employs high frequency pulse modulated non-visible radiation generated by a radiation generating source, such as an LED, and detected by a detector sensitive to radiation of a preselected wavelength which generates electrical signals representative of the reflected radiation received from the zone of interest. The detectorsignals are processed to normalize the base level and remove variations due to background level changes, and slowly varying changes in the signals are detected by a bi-polar threshold detector. The control signals generated by the threshold detector in response to slowly varying motion are used to control the application of power to a utilization device, such as a set of fluoroescent lights in a room, the power being applied in response to detection of such motion and being automatically terminated in the absence of such motion after a predetermined time period established by a settable incrementable counter

  18. Incremental value of regional wall motion analysis immediately after exercise for the detection of single-vessel coronary artery disease. Study by separate acquisition, dual-isotope ECG-gated single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Shunichi; Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Tani, Shigemasa; Takayama, Tadateru; Uchiyama, Takahisa; Saito, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Although the detection of wall motion abnormalities gives incremental value to myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the diagnosis of extensive coronary artery disease (CAD) and high-grade single-vessel CAD, whether or not it is useful in the diagnosis of mild, single-vessel CAD has not been studied previously. Separate acquisition, dual isotope electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated SPECT was performed in 97 patients with a low likelihood of CAD (Group 1) and 46 patients with single-vessel CAD (Group 2). Mild CAD was defined by stenosis of 50-75% (Group 2a, n=22) and moderate to severe CAD was defined by stenosis ≥76% (Group 2b, n=24). Myocardial perfusion and wall motion were graded by a 5 point-scale, 20-segment model. The sensitivity of myocardial perfusion alone was 50% for Group 2a, 83% for Group 2b and 67% for Group 2 as a whole. The overall specificity was 90%. When the wall motion analysis was combined, the sensitivity was increased to 82% in Group 2a and 92% in Group 2b. The ability to detect a wall motion abnormality immediately after exercise gives incremental diagnostic value to myocardial perfusion SPECT in the identification of mild, single-vessel CAD. (author)

  19. Growth performance of pearl goldfish juvenile carassius auratus cultured in 3 ppt salinity with different exposure time of electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrowth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile Carassius auratus relatively slow to reach market size which will take approximately three months. To accelerate its growth can be done by providing exposure of the fish to low-power electric fields (10 V via 3 ppt salinity water, with the goal of providing the close isoosmotic conditions, and also to streamline the flow of electricity from the electrodes to the body of the fish. This study aims to calculate the survival and growth rate of pearl goldfish juvenile of S sizes (2‒4 cm of body length which were maintained at 3 ppt salinity water and treated by different exposure time of electric field (zero, two, four, and six minutes before feeding with 10 volt electric power. Fish were cultured at a density of 2 fish/L in the (20×30×20 cm3 aquaria in volume of 6 L of water. Test fish had an average body length of 4.11±0.05 cm and the average body weight of 2.89±0.05 g. Exposure time of electric field were zero, two, four, and six minutes before the fish are fed, performed every day as much as three times i.e. morning, afternoon, and evening. The research design used was completely randomized design with four treatments, namely 0, 2, 4, and 6 (time for exposure is zero/control, two, four, and six minute with three replications. The results show test fishes exposed to 10 volt electrical field for zero, two, four, and six minutes, have no significant effect on survival rate (P>0.05. For growth performance, four minute exposure treatment gives the best results compared to controls (P<0.05, supported by an increase in the percentage of the ratio of gut length to body length of the fish and higher feed efficiency.Keywords: long exposure to the electric field, growth performance, pearl goldfishABSTRAKPertumbuhan benih ikan hias maskoki mutiara Carassius auratus relatif lambat, karena untuk mencapai ukuran jual memerlukan waktu sekitar tiga bulan. Untuk mempercepat pertumbuhannya dapat dilakukan dengan

  20. Deficient Biological Motion Perception in Schizophrenia: Results from a Motion Noise Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejoong eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficient processing of perceptual and cognitive information. However, it is not well understood how basic perceptual deficits contribute to higher level cognitive problems in this mental disorder. Perception of biological motion, a motion-based cognitive recognition task, relies on both basic visual motion processing and social cognitive processing, thus providing a useful paradigm to evaluate the potentially hierarchical relationship between these two levels of information processing. Methods: In this study, we designed a biological motion paradigm in which basic visual motion signals were manipulated systematically by incorporating different levels of motion noise. We measured the performances of schizophrenia patients (n=21 and healthy controls (n=22 in this biological motion perception task, as well as in coherent motion detection, theory of mind, and a widely used biological motion recognition task. Results: Schizophrenia patients performed the biological motion perception task with significantly lower accuracy than healthy controls when perceptual signals were moderately degraded by noise. A more substantial degradation of perceptual signals, through using additional noise, impaired biological motion perception in both groups. Performance levels on biological motion recognition, coherent motion detection and theory of mind tasks were also reduced in patients. Conclusion: The results from the motion-noise biological motion paradigm indicate that in the presence of visual motion noise, the processing of biological motion information in schizophrenia is deficient. Combined with the results of poor basic visual motion perception (coherent motion task and biological motion recognition, the association between basic motion signals and biological motion perception suggests a need to incorporate the improvement of visual motion perception in social cognitive remediation.

  1. Non-linear effects in the radiolysis-optically detected ESR of radical-ion pairs in liquid and glassy solutions. Reactions and motion of organic radicals as studied by ESR and OD ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antzutkin, O.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two sections. The first part covers an introduction to the Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance (OD ESR) spectroscopy and a short description of the OD ESR spectrometer built in Linkoeping University in 1991. In the second section the following topics are discussed: Non-linear effects in OD ESR spectroscopy and Reactions and motion of organic radicals trapped in freon matrices. (19 refs.)

  2. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Gritsenko

    Full Text Available To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery.Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods.Academic cancer center oncology clinic.20 women (mean age = 60 yrs were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery following mastectomy (n = 4 or lumpectomy (n = 16 for breast cancer.Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle.Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation.Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80, while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more.Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  3. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Dailey, Eric; Kyle, Nicholas; Taylor, Matt; Whittacre, Sean; Swisher, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery. Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods. Academic cancer center oncology clinic. 20 women (mean age = 60 yrs) were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery) following mastectomy (n = 4) or lumpectomy (n = 16) for breast cancer. Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle). Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation. Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80), while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more. Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  4. Clustering Of Left Ventricular Wall Motion Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelogrlic, Z.; Jakopin, J.; Gyergyek, L.

    1982-11-01

    A method for detection of wall regions with similar motion was presented. A model based on local direction information was used to measure the left ventricular wall motion from cineangiographic sequence. Three time functions were used to define segmental motion patterns: distance of a ventricular contour segment from the mean contour, the velocity of a segment and its acceleration. Motion patterns were clustered by the UPGMA algorithm and by an algorithm based on K-nearest neighboor classification rule.

  5. Cloning and characterization of GETS-1, a goldfish Ets family member that functions as a transcriptional repressor in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, D; Sapru, M K; Stewart, S; Plotkin, J; Libermann, T A; Wasylyk, B; Guan, K

    1998-10-15

    An Ets transcription factor family member, GETS-1, was cloned from a goldfish retina cDNA library. GETS-1 contains a conserved Ets DNA-binding domain at its N-terminus and is most similar to ternary complex factor (TCF) serum-response-factor protein-1a (SAP-1a). GETS-1 is expressed in many tissues, but is enriched in retina and brain. As with the TCFs SAP-1a and ets-related protein (ERP), overexpression of the GETS-1 promoter suppresses nicotinic acetylcholine receptor epsilon-subunit gene expression in cultured muscle cells. A consensus Ets binding site sequence in the promoter of the epsilon-subunit gene is required for GETS-1-mediated repression. GETS-1 repressor activity is abrogated by overexpression of an activated Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) or by mutation of Ser-405, a MAP kinase phosphorylation site in GETS-1. Fusion proteins created between GETS-1 and the Gal4 DNA-binding domain show that, like other TCFs, GETS-1 contains a C-terminal activation domain that is activated by a Ras/MAP kinase signalling cascade. Interestingly, mutation of Ser-405 located within this activation domain abrogated transcriptional activation of the fusion protein.

  6. Markerless motion estimation for motion-compensated clinical brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyme, Andre Z.; Se, Stephen; Meikle, Steven R.; Fulton, Roger R.

    2018-05-01

    Motion-compensated brain imaging can dramatically reduce the artifacts and quantitative degradation associated with voluntary and involuntary subject head motion during positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT). However, motion-compensated imaging protocols are not in widespread clinical use for these modalities. A key reason for this seems to be the lack of a practical motion tracking technology that allows for smooth and reliable integration of motion-compensated imaging protocols in the clinical setting. We seek to address this problem by investigating the feasibility of a highly versatile optical motion tracking method for PET, SPECT and CT geometries. The method requires no attached markers, relying exclusively on the detection and matching of distinctive facial features. We studied the accuracy of this method in 16 volunteers in a mock imaging scenario by comparing the estimated motion with an accurate marker-based method used in applications such as image guided surgery. A range of techniques to optimize performance of the method were also studied. Our results show that the markerless motion tracking method is highly accurate (brain imaging and holds good promise for a practical implementation in clinical PET, SPECT and CT systems.

  7. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  8. Light-modulated release of RFamide-like neuropeptides from nervus terminalis axon terminals in the retina of goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A J; Stell, W K

    1997-03-01

    The nervus terminalis of teleosts, a cranial nerve anatomically associated with the olfactory system, projects to visual system targets including retina and optic tectum. It is known to contain gonadotropin-releasing hormone and RFamide-like peptides, but its function remains unknown. We have probed nervus terminalis function in goldfish by measuring peptide content in retina and tectum with a radioimmunoassay for A18Famide (neuropeptide AF; bovine morphine-modulating peptide). We found that retinal peptide content increased in the dark and decreased in the light, whereas tectal peptide content decreased in the dark and increased in the light. In addition, RFamide-like peptide content in the retina was transiently decreased by severing both olfactory tracts, increased in light-adapted eyes treated with a GABAergic agonist (isoguvacine), and decreased in dark-adapted eyes treated with GABAergic antagonists (bicuculline and picrotoxin). We also found that RFamide-like peptide release could be induced in dark-adapted isolated-superfused retinas by exposure to light or a high concentration (102.5 mM) of potassium ions. We interpret the increase and decrease in peptide content as reflecting a decrease and increase, respectively, in rate of peptide release. We propose that the release and accumulation of RFamide-like peptides in axon terminals of nervus terminalis processes in the retina are modulated primarily by neurons intrinsic to the retina and regulated by light. Peptide release appears to be inhibited tonically in the dark by GABA acting through GABAA receptors; light facilitates peptide release by disinhibition due to a reduction in GABA release. In addition, we propose that electrical signals originating outside the retina can override these intrinsic release-modulating influences.

  9. Glycine and GABAA receptors mediate tonic and phasic inhibitory processes that contribute to prepulse inhibition in the goldfish startle network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C.P. Curtin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepulse inhibition (PPI is understood as an inhibitory process that attenuates sensory flow during early stages (20-1000ms of information processing. Here, we applied in vivo electrophysiology and pharmacology to determine if prepulse inhibition (PPI is mediated by glycine receptors (GlyRs and/or GABAA receptors (GABAARs in the goldfish auditory startle circuit. Specifically, we used selective antagonists to dissect the contributions of target receptors on sound-evoked postsynaptic potentials (PSPs recorded in the neurons that initiate startle, the Mauthner-cells (M-cell. We found that strychnine, a GlyR antagonist, disrupted a fast-activated (5 ms and rapidly (< 50ms decaying (feed-forward inhibitory process that disrupts PPI at 20 ms prepulse/pulse inter-stimulus intervals (ISI. Additionally we observed increases of the evoked postsynaptic potential (PSP peak amplitude (+87.43 ± 21.53%; N=9 and duration (+204 ± 48.91%, N=9. In contrast, treatment with bicuculline, a GABAAR antagonist, caused a general reduction in PPI across all tested ISIs (20-500 ms, essentially eliminating PPI at ISIs from 20-100 ms. Bicuculline also increased PSP peak amplitude (+133.8 ± 10.3%, N=5 and PSP duration (+284.95 ± 65.64%, N=5. Treatment with either antagonist also tonically increased post-synaptic excitability in the M-cells, reflected by an increase in the magnitude of antidromically-evoked action potentials (APs by 15.07 ± 3.21%, N=7 and 16.23 ± 7.08%, N=5 for strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These results suggest that GABAARs and GlyRs are functionally segregated to short- and longer-lasting sound-evoked (phasic inhibitory processes that contribute to PPI, with the mediation of tonic inhibition by both receptor systems being critical for gain control within the M-cell startle circuit.

  10. Post-surgical functional recovery, lumbar lordosis, and range of motion associated with MR-detectable redundant nerve roots in lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinshui; Wang, Juying; Wang, Benhai; Xu, Hao; Lin, Songqing; Zhang, Huihao

    2016-01-01

    T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) can reveal lumbar redundant nerve roots (RNRs), a result of chronic compression and nerve elongation associated with pathogenesis of cauda equina claudication (CEC) in degenerative lumbar canal stenosis (DLCS). The study investigated effects of lumbar lordosis angle and range of motion on functional recovery in lumbar stenosis patents with and without RNRs. A retrospective study was conducted of 93 lumbar spinal stenosis patients who underwent decompressive surgery. Eligible records were assessed by 3 independent blinded radiologists for presence or absence of RNRs on sagittal T2-weighted MR (RNR and non-RNR groups), pre- and post-operative JOA score, lumbar lordosis angle, and range of motion. Of 93 total patients, the RNR group (n=37, 21/37 female) and non-RNR group (n=56; 31/56 female) had similar preoperative conditions (JOA score) and were not significantly different in age (mean 64.19 ± 8.25 vs. 62.8 ± 9.41 years), symptom duration (30.92 ± 22.43 vs. 28.64 ± 17.40 months), or follow-up periods (17.35 ± 4.02 vs. 17.75 ± 4.29 mo) (all p>0.4). The non-RNR group exhibited significantly better final JOA score (p=0.015) and recovery rate (p=0.002). RNR group patients exhibited larger lumbar lordosis angles in the neutral position (p=0.009) and extension (p=0.021) and larger range of motion (p=0.008). Poorer surgical outcomes in patients with RNRs indicated that elevated lumbar lordosis angle and range of motion increased risks of RNR formation, which in turn may cause poorer post-surgical recovery, this information is possibly useful in prognostic assessment of lumbar stenosis complicated by RNRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Pandey, P K; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay; Kumar, Kundan

    2013-02-01

    Modulation of the immune responses using active bio-ingredients as a possible prophylaxis measure has been novel prospect for aquaculture. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin EC 25% on non-specific immune responses in goldfish Carassius auratus and resistance against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental trial for effects of azadirachtin on immuno-haematoloical parameters in goldfish was conducted by feeding the various levels of azadirachtin as control T(0) (without azadirachtin), T(1) (0.1%), T(2) (0.2%), T(3) (0.4%), T(4) (0.8%) and T(5) (1.6%) for a period of 28 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 28 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (%) was recorded over 14 days post infection. Immuno-haematoloical (total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, NBT activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity, total immunoglobulin) and serum biochemical parameters (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood glucose) of fishes were examined at 14 and 28 days of feedings. Fish fed with azadirachtin, showed significantly (p 0.05) in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Azadirachtin at the concentration of 4 g kg(-1) showed significantly (p azadirachtin EC 25% (4 g kg(-1)) showed higher NBT activity, serum lysozyme, protein profiles, leukocyte counts and resistance against A. hydrophila infection and thus, can be used as a potential immunostimulant in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increase in telencephalic dopamine and cerebellar norepinephrine contents by hydrostatic pressure in goldfish: the possible involvement in hydrostatic pressure-related locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Taro; Takemura, Akihiro; Choi, Eunjung; Suda, Atsushi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Badruzzaman, Muhammad; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Fish are faced with a wide range of hydrostatic pressure (HP) in their natural habitats. Additionally, freshwater fish are occasionally exposed to rapid changes in HP due to heavy rainfall, flood and/or dam release. Accordingly, variations in HP are one of the most important environmental cues for fish. However, little information is available on how HP information is perceived and transmitted in the central nervous system of fish. The present study examined the effect of HP (water depth of 1.3 m) on the quantities of monoamines and their metabolites in the telencephalon, optic tectum, diencephalon, cerebellum (including partial mesencephalon) and vagal lobe (including medulla oblongata) of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using high-performance liquid chromatography. HP affected monoamine and metabolite contents in restricted brain regions, including the telencephalon, cerebellum and vagal lobe. In particular, HP significantly increased the levels of dopamine (DA) in the telencephalon at 15 min and that of norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum at 30 min. In addition, HP also significantly increased locomotor activity at 15 and 30 min after HP treatment. It is possible that HP indirectly induces locomotion in goldfish via telencephalic DA and cerebellar NE neuronal activity.

  14. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  15. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  16. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  17. Cervical spine motion: radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Miyabayashi, T.; Choy, S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

  18. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  19. Leptin Stimulates Prolactin mRNA Expression in the Goldfish Pituitary through a Combination of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MKK3/6/p38MAPK and MEK1/2/ERK1/2 Signalling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aifen; Chen, Yanfeng; Chen, Shuang; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Jirong; Yu, Hui; Liu, Lian; Liu, Fang; Hu, Chaoqun; Tang, Dongsheng; Chen, Ting

    2017-12-20

    Leptin actions at the pituitary level have been extensively investigated in mammalian species, but remain insufficiently characterized in lower vertebrates, especially in teleost fish. Prolactin (PRL) is a pituitary hormone of central importance to osmoregulation in fish. Using goldfish as a model, we examined the global and brain-pituitary distribution of a leptin receptor (lepR) and examined the relationship between expression of lepR and major pituitary hormones in different pituitary regions. The effects of recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII on PRL mRNA expression in the pituitary were further analysed, and the mechanisms underlying signal transduction for leptin-induced PRL expression were determined by pharmacological approaches. Our results showed that goldfish lepR is abundantly expressed in the brain-pituitary regions, with highly overlapping PRL transcripts within the pituitary. Recombinant goldfish leptin-AI and leptin-AII proteins could stimulate PRL mRNA expression in dose- and time-dependent manners in the goldfish pituitary, by both intraperitoneal injection and primary cell incubation approaches. Moreover, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MKK 3/6 /p 38 MAPK, and MEK 1/2 /ERK 1/2 -but not JAK2/STAT 1, 3 and 5 cascades-were involved in leptin-induced PRL mRNA expression in the goldfish pituitary.

  20. Toxicological responses on cytochrome P450 and metabolic transferases in liver of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to lead and paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Cui, Zhaojie; Wang, Xinlei; Wang, Xixin; Zhang, Su

    2018-04-30

    As the producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both lead (Pb) and paraquat (PQ) can generate serious oxidative stress in target organs which result in irreversible toxic effects on organisms. They can disturb the normal catalytic activities of many enzymes by means of different toxicity mechanism. The changed responses of enzymes are frequently used as the biomarkers for indicating the relationship between toxicological effects and exposure levels. In this work, goldfish was exposed to a series of test groups containing lead and paraquat in the range of 0.05-10mg/L, respectively. Four hepatic enzyme activities, including 7-ethoxyresorufinO-deethylase (EROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) were determined after 1, 7, 14, 28 days exposure. The results showed that the activities of EROD and BFCOD in fish were significantly inhibited in response to paraquat at all exposure levels during the whole experiment. Similarly, the inhibitory effects of lead exposure on BFCOD activity were found in our study, while different responses of lead on EROD were observed. There were no significant differences on EROD activity under lower concentrations of lead (less than 0.1mg/L) before 14 days until an obvious increase was occurred for the 0.5mg/L lead treatment group at day 14. Furthermore, lead showed stronger inhibition on GST activity than paraquat when the concentrations of the two toxicants were more than 0.5mg/L. However, the similar dose and time-dependent manners of UGT activity were found under lead and paraquat exposure. Our results indicated that higher exposure levels and longer accumulations caused inhibitory effects on the four enzymes regardless of lead or paraquat stress. In addition, the responses of phase I enzymes were more sensitive than that of phase II enzymes and they may be served as the acceptable biomarkers for evaluating the toxicity effects of both

  1. Initial sexual maturity and fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Perciformes: Cyprynidae under semi-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Ortega-Salas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the time of initial sexual maturity and the fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus under semi-controlled conditions. During the study the water temperature fluctuated from 21 to 30 ºC, the pH between 7 and 8, and the dissolved oxygen between 5.5 and 7 ppm. Sixty days old juvenile fish received prophylactic treatments of brackish water (15 ‰ and methylene blue baths (1 %, and they were fed with live Daphnia magna. The initial sexual maturity occurred between 225 and 233 days of captivity. Mean absolute fecundity was 2 347 (± 302.2 SD ova per gonad, and mean relative fecundity was 63.44 eggs/g fish weight. Gonadosomatic index was between 7.5 and 9.0. Our data will allow ornamental fish producers to calculate the time of initial maturity and fecundity for this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1113-1116. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.Estudiamos el tiempo inicial de madurez sexual y la fecundidad del pez dorado Carassius auratus en condiciones semi-controladas. Durante el estudio la temperatura del gua varió de 21 a 30 ºC, el pH entre 7 y 8, y el oxígeno disuelto entre 5.5 y 7 ppm. Jóvenes de 60 días de edad recibieron tratamiento profiláctico con agua salobre (15 ‰, y baños de azul de metileno (1 %. Se les alimentó con Daphnia magna. La madurez sexual inicial fue tras 225 a 233 días en cautiverio. La fecundidad absoluta media fue de 2 347 (±302.2 DS óvulos por gónada y la fecundidad relativa fue de 63.44 óvulos/g del peso del pez. El índice gonadosomático se calculó entre 7.5 and 9.0.

  2. Gold Nanoparticles for the Detection of DNA Adducts as Biomarkers of Exposure to Acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larguinho, Miguel Angelo Rodrigues

    The main objective of this thesis was the development of a gold nanoparticle-based methodology for detection of DNA adducts as biomarkers, to try and overcome existing drawbacks in currently employed techniques. For this objective to be achieved, the experimental work was divided in three components: sample preparation, method of detection and development of a model for exposure to acrylamide. Different techniques were employed and combined for de-complexation and purification of DNA samples (including ultrasonic energy, nuclease digestion and chromatography), resulting in a complete protocol for sample treatment, prior to detection. The detection of alkylated nucleotides using gold nanoparticles was performed by two distinct methodologies: mass spectrometry and colorimetric detection. In mass spectrometry, gold nanoparticles were employed for laser desorption/ionisation instead of the organic matrix. Identification of nucleotides was possible by fingerprint, however no specific mass signals were denoted when using gold nanoparticles to analyse biological samples. An alternate method using the colorimetric properties of gold nanoparticles was employed for detection. This method inspired in the non-cross-linking assay allowed the identification of glycidamide-guanine adducts and DNA adducts generated in vitro. For the development of a model of exposure, two different aquatic organisms were studies: a goldfish and a mussel. Organisms were exposed to waterborne acrylamide, after which mortality was recorded and effect concentrations were estimated. In goldfish, both genotoxicity and metabolic alterations were assessed and revealed dose-effect relationships of acrylamide. Histopathological alterations were verified primarily in pancreatic cells, but also in hepatocytes. Mussels showed higher effect concentrations than goldfish. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, biotransformation and neurotoxicity were analysed after prolonged exposure, showing mild oxidative stress in

  3. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aída Sánchez-Bretaño

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation

  4. A system for learning statistical motion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Xiao, Xuejuan; Fu, Zhouyu; Xie, Dan; Tan, Tieniu; Maybank, Steve

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of motion patterns is an effective approach for anomaly detection and behavior prediction. Current approaches for the analysis of motion patterns depend on known scenes, where objects move in predefined ways. It is highly desirable to automatically construct object motion patterns which reflect the knowledge of the scene. In this paper, we present a system for automatically learning motion patterns for anomaly detection and behavior prediction based on a proposed algorithm for robustly tracking multiple objects. In the tracking algorithm, foreground pixels are clustered using a fast accurate fuzzy K-means algorithm. Growing and prediction of the cluster centroids of foreground pixels ensure that each cluster centroid is associated with a moving object in the scene. In the algorithm for learning motion patterns, trajectories are clustered hierarchically using spatial and temporal information and then each motion pattern is represented with a chain of Gaussian distributions. Based on the learned statistical motion patterns, statistical methods are used to detect anomalies and predict behaviors. Our system is tested using image sequences acquired, respectively, from a crowded real traffic scene and a model traffic scene. Experimental results show the robustness of the tracking algorithm, the efficiency of the algorithm for learning motion patterns, and the encouraging performance of algorithms for anomaly detection and behavior prediction.

  5. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  6. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLatchy Deborah L

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit. The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control by intra-peritoneal Silastic® implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p

  7. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs learning but not memory fixation or expression of classical fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Davis, R E

    1992-04-01

    The amnestic effects of the noncompetitive antagonist MK-801 on visually mediated, classic fear conditioning in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was examined in 5 experiments. MK-801 was administered 30 min before the training session on Day 1 to look for anterograde amnestic effects, immediately after training to look for retrograde amnestic effects, and before the training or test session, or both, to look for state-dependence effects. The results showed that MK-801 produced anterograde amnesia at doses that did not produce retrograde amnesia or state dependency and did not impair the expression of conditioned or unconditioned branchial suppression responses (BSRs) to the conditioned stimulus. The results indicate that MK-801 disrupts the mechanism of learning of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus relation. Evidence is also presented that the learning processes that are disrupted by MK-801 occur during the initial stage of BSR conditioning.

  8. Uptake and release kinetics of 134Cs by goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137Cs by zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in controlled aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Reddy, S.J.; Kelber, O.; Urich, K.; Denschlag, H.O.

    1994-01-01

    The uptake and release kinetics of 134 Cs by Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and 137 Cs by Zebra Fish (Brachydanio rerio) from aquatic media of different ionic compositions and temperature was studied in controlled laboratory conditions. The accumulation of radiocesium in the case of Brachydanio rerio is observed to be strongly dependent on the potassium ion concentration of the aquatic medium, but in the case of Carassius auratus this dependence is quite weak. The biological half-lives of the cesium isotopes incorporated into the fish investigated in the present work vary from 19 to 80 days and are influenced by the temperature and the ionic composition of the aquatic medium. (author) 19 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  9. Concentration of anesthetic for long-term exposure and the effects of inter-suture distance in the goldfish Carassius auratus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.802 Concentration of anesthetic for long-term exposure and the effects of inter-suture distance in the goldfish Carassius auratus - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i2.802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Shimoda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the minimum concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol for long-term exposure and evaluate the effect of inter-suture distance on wound healing in the goldfish Carassius auratus. Twenty adult goldfish (standard length = 12.4 ± 1.1 cm; weight = 58.7 ± 17.2 g were anesthetized in 2-phenoxiethanol at 1.2‰ and placed in an anesthesia delivery system at the following concentrations of 2-phenoxiethanol: 0.0 (control; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4‰, and the duration of sedation was measured. Fifteen days later, fishes were anesthetized using the same procedure, and a 36 mm incision was performed in the ventro-lateral region. The incision was sutured using a simple-interrupted pattern with 3, 6 or 9 mm as inter-suture distances. Results demonstrated that 2-phenoxiethanol at 0.4‰ maintain the sedation for surgical procedures up to 60 minutes, and 9 mm as inter-suture distance optimized the wound healing in goldfish.This study aimed to determine the minimum concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol for long-term exposure and evaluate the effect of inter-suture distance on wound healing in the goldfish Carassius auratus. Twenty adult goldfish (standard length = 12.4 ± 1.1 cm; weight = 58.7 ± 17.2 g were anesthetized in 2-phenoxiethanol at 1.2‰ and placed in an anesthesia delivery system at the following concentrations of 2-phenoxiethanol: 0.0 (control; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4‰, and the duration of sedation was measured. Fifteen days later, fishes were anesthetized using the same procedure, and a 36 mm incision was performed in the ventro-lateral region. The incision was sutured using a simple-interrupted pattern with 3, 6 or 9 mm as inter-suture distances. Results demonstrated that 2-phenoxiethanol at 0.4‰ maintain the sedation for surgical procedures up to 60 minutes, and 9 mm as inter-suture distance optimized the wound healing in goldfish.

  10. Time-Motion Analysis of Four Automated Systems for the Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James A; Eddleman, Laura; Pantone, Amy; Martinez, Regina; Young, Stephen; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Next-generation diagnostics for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are available on semi- or fully-automated platforms. These systems require less hands-on time than older platforms and are user friendly. Four automated systems, the ABBOTT m2000 system, Becton Dickinson Viper System with XTR Technology, Gen-Probe Tigris DTS system, and Roche cobas 4800 system, were evaluated for total run time, hands-on time, and walk-away time. All of the systems evaluated in this time-motion study were able to complete a diagnostic test run within an 8-h work shift, instrument setup and operation were straightforward and uncomplicated, and walk-away time ranged from approximately 90 to 270 min in a head-to-head comparison of each system. All of the automated systems provide technical staff with increased time to perform other tasks during the run, offer easy expansion of the diagnostic test menu, and have the ability to increase specimen throughput. © 2013 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Parasitological and histological analysis of a new species of the genus Thalohanellus and description of a myxozoan parasite (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida from cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandira Saha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An ornamental fish parasitological survey of West Bengal, India during the year 2014–16 revealed that goldfish, Carassius auratus, was the most susceptible species for myxozoan infestation. This communication revealed the presence of two myxosporean species belonging to the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. Although myxozoan infestation has been determined by isolating small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia up to 0.5–2.5 mm were filled with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. M. ichkeulensis and one new species T. dipaki n. sp. have been isolated infecting the ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus for the first time in India. In the present study, new host, and new locality for M. ichkeulensis have been reported. The description of M. ichkeulensis is being considered as a first report from India. Spore of T. dipaki n. sp. measures uniquely 13.99 ± 0.60 × 9.82 ± 0.60 μm in size, having a one globular pyriform polar capsule measuring 7.45 ± 0.62 × 5.91 ± 0.39 μm. The severity of newly isolated myxozoan infestation has also been assessed by the histopathological changes of fins of the hostfish. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observation along with its severity of infestation, comparison of same and closely related species has been incorporated to identify the new species. The paper deals with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic descriptions of new and known myxozoan species along with new host, locality records and incidence of infestation.

  12. Correlation-based motion vector processing with adaptive interpolation scheme for motion-compensated frame interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ai-Mei; Nguyen, Truong

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we address the problems of unreliable motion vectors that cause visual artifacts but cannot be detected by high residual energy or bidirectional prediction difference in motion-compensated frame interpolation. A correlation-based motion vector processing method is proposed to detect and correct those unreliable motion vectors by explicitly considering motion vector correlation in the motion vector reliability classification, motion vector correction, and frame interpolation stages. Since our method gradually corrects unreliable motion vectors based on their reliability, we can effectively discover the areas where no motion is reliable to be used, such as occlusions and deformed structures. We also propose an adaptive frame interpolation scheme for the occlusion areas based on the analysis of their surrounding motion distribution. As a result, the interpolated frames using the proposed scheme have clearer structure edges and ghost artifacts are also greatly reduced. Experimental results show that our interpolated results have better visual quality than other methods. In addition, the proposed scheme is robust even for those video sequences that contain multiple and fast motions.

  13. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  14. Detection and Characterization of Extrasolar Planets through Mean-motion Resonances. II. The Effect of the Planet’s Orbital Eccentricity on Debris Disk Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabeshian, Maryam; Wiegert, Paul A., E-mail: mtabeshi@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-09-20

    Structures observed in debris disks may be caused by gravitational interaction with planetary or stellar companions. These perturbed disks are often thought to indicate the presence of planets and offer insights into the properties of both the disk and the perturbing planets. Gaps in debris disks may indicate a planet physically present within the gap, but such gaps can also occur away from the planet’s orbit at mean-motion resonances (MMRs), and this is the focus of our interest here. We extend our study of planet–disk interaction through MMRs, presented in an earlier paper, to systems in which the perturbing planet has moderate orbital eccentricity, a common occurrence in exoplanetary systems. In particular, a new result is that the 3:1 MMR becomes distinct at higher eccentricity, while its effects are absent for circular planetary orbits. We also only consider gravitational interaction with a planetary body of at least 1 M {sub J}. Our earlier work shows that even a 1 Earth mass planet can theoretically open an MMR gap; however, given the narrow gap that can be opened by a low-mass planet, its observability would be questionable. We find that the widths, locations, and shapes of two prominent structures, the 2:1 and 3:1 MMRs, could be used to determine the mass, semimajor axis, and eccentricity of the planetary perturber and present an algorithm for doing so. These MMR structures can be used to narrow the position and even determine the planetary properties (such as mass) of any inferred but as-yet-unseen planets within a debris disk. We also briefly discuss the implications of eccentric disks on brightness asymmetries and their dependence on the wavelengths with which these disks are observed.

  15. Noninvasive detection of coronary artery wall thickening with age in healthy subjects using high resolution MRI with beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Mohiaddin, Raad H; Firmin, David N

    2011-10-01

    To demonstrate coronary artery wall thickening with age in a small healthy cohort using a highly efficient, reliable, and reproducible high-resolution MR technique. A 3D cross-sectional MR vessel wall images (0.7 × 0.7 × 3 mm resolution) with retrospective beat-to-beat respiratory motion correction (B2B-RMC) were obtained in the proximal right coronary artery of 21 healthy subjects (age, 22-62 years) with no known cardiovascular disease. Lumen and outer wall (lumen + vessel wall) areas were measured in one central slice from each subject and average wall thickness and wall area/outer wall area ratio (W/OW) calculated. Imaging was successful in 18 (86%) subjects with average respiratory efficiency 99.3 ± 1.7%. Coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW significantly correlate with subject age, increasing by 0.088 mm and 0.031 per decade respectively (R = 0.53, P = 0.024 and R = 0.48, P = 0.046). No relationship was found between lumen area and vessel wall thickness (P = NS), but outer wall area increased significantly with vessel wall thickness at 19 mm(2) per mm (P = 0.046). This is consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Despite the small size of our healthy cohort, using high-resolution MR imaging and B2B-RMC, we have demonstrated increasing coronary vessel wall thickness and W/OW with age. The results obtained are consistent with outward vessel wall remodeling. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Perceptually Uniform Motion Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Asmund; Turkay, Cagatay; Viola, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Flow data is often visualized by animated particles inserted into a flow field. The velocity of a particle on the screen is typically linearly scaled by the velocities in the data. However, the perception of velocity magnitude in animated particles is not necessarily linear. We present a study on how different parameters affect relative motion perception. We have investigated the impact of four parameters. The parameters consist of speed multiplier, direction, contrast type and the global velocity scale. In addition, we investigated if multiple motion cues, and point distribution, affect the speed estimation. Several studies were executed to investigate the impact of each parameter. In the initial results, we noticed trends in scale and multiplier. Using the trends for the significant parameters, we designed a compensation model, which adjusts the particle speed to compensate for the effect of the parameters. We then performed a second study to investigate the performance of the compensation model. From the second study we detected a constant estimation error, which we adjusted for in the last study. In addition, we connect our work to established theories in psychophysics by comparing our model to a model based on Stevens' Power Law.

  17. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  18. The difference between the perception of absolute and relative motion: A reaction time study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Smeets (Jeroen); E. Brenner (Eli)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe used a reaction-time paradigm to examine the extent to which motion detection depends on relative motion. In the absence of relative motion, the responses could be described by a simple model based on the detection of a fixed change in position. If relative motion was present, the

  19. Monocrotophos pesticide decreases the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine and alters the expression of genes associated with the thyroidal axis in female goldfish (Carassius auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Zhang

    Full Text Available Our recent study showed that monocrotophos (MCP pesticide disrupted the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis in male goldfish (Carassius auratus; however, the effects of MCP on the thyroid system in female goldfish are remain unclear. In the present study, plasma thyroid hormone (TH and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels were evaluated in female goldfish exposed to 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L of 40% MCP-based pesticide for 21 days in a semi-static exposure system. Expression profiles of HPT axis-responsive genes, including transthyretin (ttr, deiodinases (d1, d2, and d3, tshβ, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh, and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh, were determined. The results indicated that MCP decreased the plasma levels of total 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (TT3 and the ratio of TT3 to total 3,3',5,5'-l-thyroxine (TT4, and induced alternative expression of TH-related genes. Exposure to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide resulted in the up-regulation of ttr mRNA. The reduction of plasma TT3 levels was partly attributed to an increase in the metabolism of T3 in the liver, as revealed by the highly elevated hepatic d1 and d3 mRNA levels in the MCP treatment groups, and the expression of hepatic d3 showed a negative correlation with the plasma TT3/TT4 levels in females. Moreover, the plasma TSH levels were lower in females exposed to 0.01 and 0.10 mg/L MCP pesticide, whereas the up-regulation of tshβ mRNA levels was compensated by the decreased plasma TT3 levels. These results indicated that MCP had the potential to influence several pathways of HPT axis homeostasis in female goldfish.

  20. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  1. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  2. Real-Time Cosmology with Gaia: Developing the Theory to Use Extragalactic Proper Motions to Make Dynamical Cosmological Tests, to Measure Geometric Distances, and to Detect Primordial Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Jeremy

    A new field of study, "real-time cosmology," is now possible. This involves observing a dynamic universe that can be seen to change over human timescales. Most cosmological observations are geometrical, using standard candles or rulers to measure the expansion history and curvature as light propagates through the universe. Real-time cosmological measurements are dynamical, revealing the changing geometry of the universe - thus often providing geometrical distances independent of the canonical cosmological distance ladder - and are typically orthogonal to customary cosmological tests. This field of inquiry is no longer far-fetched, and this proposal demonstrates using extant data that many types of measurement are now within a factor of a few of being detectable, but the theory will very soon lag the observational capabilities. The Gaia mission will provide astrometry and proper motions of roughly 100 microarcseconds per year for half a million quasars by the end of its 5-year mission, but the theory for how to employ these data for cosmological tests has not been established. This project will develop the theory, models, and methods needed to make optimal use of the Gaia extragalactic proper motion measurements and to make significant new cosmological tests, distance measurements, and mass measurements. Gaia data can provide rich cosmological tests that are nearly model-independent. This work will build the theoretical framework enabling Gaia to measure or constrain: (1) The real-time growth and recession of structures, providing mass and distance measurements, (2) Extragalactic parallax for a statistical sample and individual galaxies, thus providing geometric distances, (3) The primordial stochastic long-period gravitational wave background, which deflects quasar light in a quadrupolar proper motion pattern, and (4) Cosmic shear, rotation, bulk motion, and local voids that may manifest as an apparent acceleration attributed to dark energy. One can also test the

  3. Motion video analysis using planar parallax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Harpreet S.

    1994-04-01

    Motion and structure analysis in video sequences can lead to efficient descriptions of objects and their motions. Interesting events in videos can be detected using such an analysis--for instance independent object motion when the camera itself is moving, figure-ground segregation based on the saliency of a structure compared to its surroundings. In this paper we present a method for 3D motion and structure analysis that uses a planar surface in the environment as a reference coordinate system to describe a video sequence. The motion in the video sequence is described as the motion of the reference plane, and the parallax motion of all the non-planar components of the scene. It is shown how this method simplifies the otherwise hard general 3D motion analysis problem. In addition, a natural coordinate system in the environment is used to describe the scene which can simplify motion based segmentation. This work is a part of an ongoing effort in our group towards video annotation and analysis for indexing and retrieval. Results from a demonstration system being developed are presented.

  4. The perception of object versus objectless motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Howard S; Nichols, David F

    2013-05-01

    Wertheimer, M. (Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, 61:161-265, 1912) classical distinction between beta (object) and phi (objectless) motion is elaborated here in a series of experiments concerning competition between two qualitatively different motion percepts, induced by sequential changes in luminance for two-dimensional geometric objects composed of rectangular surfaces. One of these percepts is of spreading-luminance motion that continuously sweeps across the entire object; it exhibits shape invariance and is perceived most strongly for fast speeds. Significantly for the characterization of phi as objectless motion, the spreading luminance does not involve surface boundaries or any other feature; the percept is driven solely by spatiotemporal changes in luminance. Alternatively, and for relatively slow speeds, a discrete series of edge motions can be perceived in the direction opposite to spreading-luminance motion. Akin to beta motion, the edges appear to move through intermediate positions within the object's changing surfaces. Significantly for the characterization of beta as object motion, edge motion exhibits shape dependence and is based on the detection of oppositely signed changes in contrast (i.e., counterchange) for features essential to the determination of an object's shape, the boundaries separating its surfaces. These results are consistent with area MT neurons that differ with respect to speed preference Newsome et al (Journal of Neurophysiology, 55:1340-1351, 1986) and shape dependence Zeki (Journal of Physiology, 236:549-573, 1974).

  5. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  6. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  7. Foldable and portable triboelectric-electromagnetic generator for scavenging motion energy and as a sensitive gas flow sensor for detecting breath personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaona; Liu, Guanlin; Chen, Lin; Li, Wenlong; Xi, Yi; Shi, Haofei; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-11-01

    An easily foldable and portable triboelectric-electromagnetic generator (TEMG) based on two polymer/Al layers and one copper coil has been designed to harvest ambient mechanical energy, where the copper coil is used both as a spring to achieve contact and separation of triboelectric layers and as a circuit to collect electromagnetic-induced electricity. The output performance of the TEMG is approximately reproducible after being folded many times. The working mechanism is discussed. The output performance of individual triboelectric generator (TEG) and electromagnetic generator (EMG) are systematically investigated. The maximum output current, voltage, and power are obtained to be 32.2 μA, 500 V, and 2 mW for the TEG, and 4.04 mA, 30 mV, and 15.8 μW for the EMG, respectively. The TEG with a higher internal resistance can be used as a current source, while the EMG with a lower resistance can be used as a voltage source. It can be used as a mobile light source via integrating the TEMG in clothes or bags, and as a self-powered gas flow sensor for detecting respiratory rate, which has a potential application in medical diagnoses. The simple structure and easy portability of the TEMG could be used widely in daily life to harvest ambient energy for electronic devices.

  8. Foldable and portable triboelectric-electromagnetic generator for scavenging motion energy and as a sensitive gas flow sensor for detecting breath personality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Xiaona; Liu, Guanlin; Chen, Lin; Li, Wenlong; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Shi, Haofei

    2015-01-01

    An easily foldable and portable triboelectric-electromagnetic generator (TEMG) based on two polymer/Al layers and one copper coil has been designed to harvest ambient mechanical energy, where the copper coil is used both as a spring to achieve contact and separation of triboelectric layers and as a circuit to collect electromagnetic-induced electricity. The output performance of the TEMG is approximately reproducible after being folded many times. The working mechanism is discussed. The output performance of individual triboelectric generator (TEG) and electromagnetic generator (EMG) are systematically investigated. The maximum output current, voltage, and power are obtained to be 32.2 μA, 500 V, and 2 mW for the TEG, and 4.04 mA, 30 mV, and 15.8 μW for the EMG, respectively. The TEG with a higher internal resistance can be used as a current source, while the EMG with a lower resistance can be used as a voltage source. It can be used as a mobile light source via integrating the TEMG in clothes or bags, and as a self-powered gas flow sensor for detecting respiratory rate, which has a potential application in medical diagnoses. The simple structure and easy portability of the TEMG could be used widely in daily life to harvest ambient energy for electronic devices. (paper)

  9. Toward structural dynamics: protein motions viewed by chemical shift modulations and direct detection of C'N multiple-quantum relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mirko; Kateb, Fatiha; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Piccioli, Mario; Abergel, Daniel

    2010-03-17

    Multiple quantum relaxation in proteins reveals unexpected relationships between correlated or anti-correlated conformational backbone dynamics in alpha-helices or beta-sheets. The contributions of conformational exchange to the relaxation rates of C'N coherences (i.e., double- and zero-quantum coherences involving backbone carbonyl (13)C' and neighboring amide (15)N nuclei) depend on the kinetics of slow exchange processes, as well as on the populations of the conformations and chemical shift differences of (13)C' and (15)N nuclei. The relaxation rates of C'N coherences, which reflect concerted fluctuations due to slow chemical shift modulations (CSMs), were determined by direct (13)C detection in diamagnetic and paramagnetic proteins. In well-folded proteins such as lanthanide-substituted calbindin (CaLnCb), copper,zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn SOD), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP12), slow conformational exchange occurs along the entire backbone. Our observations demonstrate that relaxation rates of C'N coherences arising from slow backbone dynamics have positive signs (characteristic of correlated fluctuations) in beta-sheets and negative signs (characteristic of anti-correlated fluctuations) in alpha-helices. This extends the prospects of structure-dynamics relationships to slow time scales that are relevant for protein function and enzymatic activity.

  10. Motion artifacts in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.K.

    1979-01-01

    In the year 1972, the first Computed Tomography Scanner (or CT) was introduced and caused a revolution in the field of Diagnostic Radiology. A tomogram is a cross-sectional image of a three-dimensional object obtained through non-invasive measurements. The image that is presented is very similar to what would be seen if a thin cross-sectional slice of the patient was examined. In Computed Tomography, x-rays are passed through the body of a patient in many different directions and their attenuation is detected. By using some mathematical theorems, the attenuation information can be converted into the density of the patient along the x-ray path. Combined with modern sophisticated computer signal processing technology, a cross-sectional image can be generated and displayed on a TV monitor. Usually a good CT image relies on the patient not moving during the x-ray scanning. However, for some unconscious or severely ill patients, this is very difficult to achieve. Thus, the motion during the scan causes the so-called motion artifacts which distort the displayed image and sometimes these motion artifacts make diagnosis impossible. Today, to remove or avoid motion artifacts is one of the major efforts in developing new scanner systems. In this thesis, a better understanding of the motion artifacts problem in CT scaning is gained through computer simulations, real scanner experiments and theoretical analyses. The methods by which the distorted image can be improved are simulated also. In particular, it is assumed that perfect knowledge of the patient motion is known since this represents the theoretical limit on how well the distorted image can be improved

  11. Detection of myocardial ischemia by automated, motion-corrected, color-encoded perfusion maps compared with visual analysis of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesch, Christina; Papavassiliu, Theano; Michaely, Henrik J; Attenberger, Ulrike I; Glielmi, Christopher; Süselbeck, Tim; Fink, Christian; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare automated, motion-corrected, color-encoded (AMC) perfusion maps with qualitative visual analysis of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for detection of flow-limiting stenoses. Myocardial perfusion measurements applying the standard adenosine stress imaging protocol and a saturation-recovery temporal generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (t-GRAPPA) turbo fast low angle shot (Turbo FLASH) magnetic resonance imaging sequence were performed in 25 patients using a 3.0-T MAGNETOM Skyra (Siemens Healthcare Sector, Erlangen, Germany). Perfusion studies were analyzed using AMC perfusion maps and qualitative visual analysis. Angiographically detected coronary artery (CA) stenoses greater than 75% or 50% or more with a myocardial perfusion reserve index less than 1.5 were considered as hemodynamically relevant. Diagnostic performance and time requirement for both methods were compared. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were also assessed. A total of 29 CA stenoses were included in the analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for detection of ischemia on a per-patient basis were comparable using the AMC perfusion maps compared to visual analysis. On a per-CA territory basis, the attribution of an ischemia to the respective vessel was facilitated using the AMC perfusion maps. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were better for the AMC perfusion maps (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.94 and 0.93, respectively) compared to visual analysis (concordance correlation coefficient, 0.73 and 0.79, respectively). In addition, in comparison to visual analysis, the AMC perfusion maps were able to significantly reduce analysis time from 7.7 (3.1) to 3.2 (1.9) minutes (P < 0.0001). The AMC perfusion maps yielded a diagnostic performance on a per-patient and on a per-CA territory basis comparable with the visual analysis

  12. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  13. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  14. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    De linearum curvarum cum lineis rectis comparatione dissertatio geometrica - an appendix to a treatise by de Lalouv~re (this was the only publication... correct solution to the problem of motion in the gravity of a permeable rotating Earth, considered by Torricelli (see §3). If the Earth is a homogeneous...in 1686, which contains the correct solution as part of a remarkably comprehensive theory of orbital motions under centripetal forces. It is a

  15. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  16. INS integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bazakos, Mike

    1991-01-01

    The use of inertial navigation system (INS) measurements to enhance the quality and robustness of motion analysis techniques used for obstacle detection is discussed with particular reference to autonomous vehicle navigation. The approach to obstacle detection used here employs motion analysis of imagery generated by a passive sensor. Motion analysis of imagery obtained during vehicle travel is used to generate range measurements to points within the field of view of the sensor, which can then be used to provide obstacle detection. Results obtained with an INS integrated motion analysis approach are reviewed.

  17. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerbik, P.; Mikolajczyk, T.; Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M.; Socha, M.; Chyb, J.; Epler, P.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g -1 of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g -1 ) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g -1 ) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g -1 did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g -1 ) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an important role in the

  18. Influence of long-term exposure to dietary cadmium on growth, maturation and reproduction of goldfish (subspecies: Prussian carp Carassius auratus gibelio B.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbik, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)]. E-mail: rzbienia@kinga.cyf-kr.edu.pl; Mikolajczyk, T. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Socha, M. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Chyb, J. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland); Epler, P. [Department of Ichthyobiology and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, 30-199 Cracow-Mydlniki, ul. Spiczakowa 6 (Poland)

    2006-05-01

    The influence of long-term exposure of goldfish to dietary cadmium (Cd) on its accumulation in tissues, growth, ovarian development, luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and a response to hormonal stimulation of spawning were evaluated. The study was conducted on four groups of females for the period of 3 years, from the age of 10 weeks to second spawning. Four doses of Cd were applied in the feed: 0 (control group), 0.1, 1 and 10 mg Cd g{sup -1} of feed (wet weight). The highest dose of Cd (10 mg g{sup -1}) inhibited growth and caused several behavioural effects. In contrast, lower dose of Cd (1 mg g{sup -1}) stimulated fish growth. The doses of Cd from 0.1 to 1 mg Cd g{sup -1} did not influence ovarian development. The gonado-somatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries showed no differences in ovarian development between the control group and the groups receiving these doses of Cd. However, in the group receiving the highest Cd dose, GSI decreased. This was associated with persistent, long-lasting elevation of plasma LH levels. Ovulation did not occur in this group. Injections of salmon GnRH-analogue (sGnRHa) alone or with domperidone (a dopamine receptor antagonist) in sexually mature fish caused an increase of LH levels in all groups, although in the group fed with the highest Cd dose the effect was weaker than in the other groups. After the first spawning season, a negative effect of lower Cd doses (0.1 and 1 mg Cd g{sup -1}) on ovarian recrudescence (rebuilding of ovaries) and on the response to the consecutive hormonal stimulation of spawning was observed (lower number of ovulating females). There was a significantly higher content of Cd in the livers of fish than in their muscles. The results of hormonal stimulation of spawning and histological analysis of ovaries suggest that in goldfish cadmium acts mainly at the level of ovary rather than on the pituitary gland. We suppose that in the natural environment cadmium present in the feed can play an

  19. Auditory capture of visual motion: effects on perception and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Mark E; Leone, Lynnette M

    2016-09-28

    We asked whether the perceived direction of visual motion and contrast thresholds for motion discrimination are influenced by the concurrent motion of an auditory sound source. Visual motion stimuli were counterphasing Gabor patches, whose net motion energy was manipulated by adjusting the contrast of the leftward-moving and rightward-moving components. The presentation of these visual stimuli was paired with the simultaneous presentation of auditory stimuli, whose apparent motion in 3D auditory space (rightward, leftward, static, no sound) was manipulated using interaural time and intensity differences, and Doppler cues. In experiment 1, observers judged whether the Gabor visual stimulus appeared to move rightward or leftward. In experiment 2, contrast discrimination thresholds for detecting the interval containing unequal (rightward or leftward) visual motion energy were obtained under the same auditory conditions. Experiment 1 showed that the perceived direction of ambiguous visual motion is powerfully influenced by concurrent auditory motion, such that auditory motion 'captured' ambiguous visual motion. Experiment 2 showed that this interaction occurs at a sensory stage of processing as visual contrast discrimination thresholds (a criterion-free measure of sensitivity) were significantly elevated when paired with congruent auditory motion. These results suggest that auditory and visual motion signals are integrated and combined into a supramodal (audiovisual) representation of motion.

  20. Adaptive vehicle motion estimation and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Thorpe, Chuck E.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate motion estimation and reliable maneuver prediction enable an automated car to react quickly and correctly to the rapid maneuvers of the other vehicles, and so allow safe and efficient navigation. In this paper, we present a car tracking system which provides motion estimation, maneuver prediction and detection of the tracked car. The three strategies employed - adaptive motion modeling, adaptive data sampling, and adaptive model switching probabilities - result in an adaptive interacting multiple model algorithm (AIMM). The experimental results on simulated and real data demonstrate that our tracking system is reliable, flexible, and robust. The adaptive tracking makes the system intelligent and useful in various autonomous driving tasks.

  1. Accumulation and Toxicity of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles through Waterborne and Dietary Exposure of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a tenfold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p≥0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p<0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. PMID:24860999

  2. Radioecological studies of [sup 137]Cs in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of [sup 137]Cs in goldfish, Carassium auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki (Saitama Institute of Public Health, Urawa (Japan)); Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1994-11-01

    Accumulation and excretion of [sup 137]Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in natural living fishes. The accumulation of [sup 137]Cs, expressed in concentration ratio (CR), in whole body of the fish showed a rapid increasing tendency during the rearing, and the CR value reached nearly 1 at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of [sup 137]Cs, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above for 7 days demonstrated a gradual decreasing tendency, and the retention rate resulted in nearly 71% at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, higher accumulation and higher excretion were found in the viscera and the gill than those in the muscle. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide for the viscera and the gill is more rapid than that for the muscle. (author).

  3. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  4. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  5. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030

  6. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-01-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in "The Physics Teacher" ("TPT"); however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not…

  7. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  8. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  9. Ghrelin suppresses cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the intestine, and attenuates the anorectic effects of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ayelén Melisa; Bertucci, Juan Ignacio; Valenciano, Ana Isabel; Delgado, María Jesús; Unniappan, Suraj

    2017-07-01

    Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry. Colocalization of ghrelin/GHS-R1a and CCK/PYY/GLP-1 was found primarily in the luminal border of the intestinal mucosa. In an intestinal explant culture, a significant decrease in prepro-cck, prepro-pyy and proglucagon transcript levels was observed after 60min of incubation with ghrelin, which was abolished by preincubation with the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (except for proglucagon). The protein expression of PYY and GLP-1 was also downregulated by ghrelin. Finally, intraperitoneal co-administration of CCK, PYY or GLP-1 with ghrelin results in no modification of food intake in goldfish. Overall, results of the present study show for the first time in fish that ghrelin exerts repressive effects on enteric anorexigens. It is likely that these interactions mediate the stimulatory effects of ghrelin on feeding and metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  11. Efficacy on maximum intensity projection of contrast-enhanced 3D spin echo imaging with improved motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation in the detection of brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byung Se; Yoon, Yeon Hong; Woo, Leonard Sun; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Mi [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic benefits of 5-mm maximum intensity projection of improved motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium prepared contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted turbo-spin echo imaging (MIP iMSDE-TSE) in the detection of brain metastases. The imaging technique was compared with 1-mm images of iMSDE-TSE (non-MIP iMSDE-TSE), 1-mm contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging (non-MIP 3D-GRE), and 5-mm MIP 3D-GRE. From October 2014 to July 2015, 30 patients with 460 enhancing brain metastases (size > 3 mm, n = 150; size ≤ 3 mm, n = 310) were scanned with non-MIP iMSDE-TSE and non-MIP 3D-GRE. We then performed 5-mm MIP reconstruction of these images. Two independent neuroradiologists reviewed these four sequences. Their diagnostic performance was compared using the following parameters: sensitivity, reading time, and figure of merit (FOM) derived by jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis. Interobserver agreement was also tested. The mean FOM (all lesions, 0.984; lesions ≤ 3 mm, 0.980) and sensitivity ([reader 1: all lesions, 97.3%; lesions ≤ 3 mm, 96.2%], [reader 2: all lesions, 97.0%; lesions ≤ 3 mm, 95.8%]) of MIP iMSDE-TSE was comparable to the mean FOM (0.985, 0.977) and sensitivity ([reader 1: 96.7, 99.0%], [reader 2: 97, 95.3%]) of non-MIP iMSDE-TSE, but they were superior to those of non-MIP and MIP 3D-GREs (all, p < 0.001). The reading time of MIP iMSDE-TSE (reader 1: 47.7 ± 35.9 seconds; reader 2: 44.7 ± 23.6 seconds) was significantly shorter than that of non-MIP iMSDE-TSE (reader 1: 78.8 ± 43.7 seconds, p = 0.01; reader 2: 82.9 ± 39.9 seconds, p < 0.001). Interobserver agreement was excellent (κ > 0.75) for all lesions in both sequences. MIP iMSDE-TSE showed high detectability of brain metastases. Its detectability was comparable to that of non-MIP iMSDE-TSE, but it was superior to the detectability of non-MIP/MIP 3D-GREs. With a shorter reading time, the false-positive results of MIP i

  12. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2017-06-06

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  13. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  14. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  15. Mobile Motion Capture--MiMiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, Simeon D; Jaiswal, Tushar; Harley, Linda R; Vaughn, Tyler W; Baranak, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    The low cost, simple, robust, mobile, and easy to use Mobile Motion Capture (MiMiC) system is presented and the constraints which guided the design of MiMiC are discussed. The MiMiC Android application allows motion data to be captured from kinematic modules such as Shimmer 2r sensors over Bluetooth. MiMiC is cost effective and can be used for an entire day in a person's daily routine without being intrusive. MiMiC is a flexible motion capture system which can be used for many applications including fall detection, detection of fatigue in industry workers, and analysis of individuals' work patterns in various environments.

  16. Subtle Motion Analysis and Spotting using the Riesz Pyramid

    OpenAIRE

    Arango , Carlos ,; Alata , Olivier; Emonet , Rémi; Legrand , Anne-Claire; Konik , Hubert

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Analyzing and temporally spotting motions which are almost invisible to the human eye might reveal interesting information about the world. However, detecting these events is difficult due to their short duration and low intensities. Taking inspiration from video magnification techniques, we design a workflow for analyzing and temporally spotting subtle motions based on the Riesz pyramid. In addition, we propose a filtering and masking scheme that segments motions of i...

  17. Elevated CO_2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO_2 led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO_2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO_2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO_2 for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO_2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO_2 levels.

  18. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Du, Wenchao, E-mail: du@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Environmental Science and Engineering PhD program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Guo, Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO{sub 2} to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO{sub 2} for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO{sub 2} increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO{sub 2} led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO{sub 2} also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO{sub 2} levels.

  19. Radioecological studies of {sup 137}Cs in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki; Motegi, Misako; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health, Urawa (Japan); Ogata, Hiromitsu; Izumo, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Fumio

    1996-06-01

    Accumulation and excretion Of {sup 137}Cs in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, from radioactive diets (killifish, Oryzias latipes, meats accumulated {sup 137}Cs in the radioactive freshwater) or control diets (killifish meats mixed {sup 137}CsCl) were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of the radionuclide in natural living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in concentration ratio, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency in proportion to the rearing time. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 137}Cs, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing by administration of non-radioactive commercial diets after the accumulation above for 7 days, demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and followed a gradual decreasing tendency (the biological half lives were about 1.5 days and 52 days, respectively). As for the tissues and organs, higher accumulation and higher excretion were found in the viscera than those in the muscle. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide for the viscera is more rapid than that for the muscle. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that the relative contribution by ingestion of the radioactive diets in the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in natural environmental fish was comparatively higher in comparison with uptake of the radionuclide in the radioactive freshwater. With regard to the difference between the radioactive diets and the control diets, the accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in whole body of the fish from the radioactive diets was less than that from the control diets to rearing 5 days, but afterward was not different. The difference of the accumulation between these diets will be attributable to that of the metabolic turnover between these diets. (author)

  20. Radioecological studies of {sup 90}Sr in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro [Association of Public Health Promotion, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of {sup 90}Sr in naturally living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in concentration ratio (CR) between fish and water, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency with the rearing time, and the CR value reached 5.4{+-}0.4 (mean{+-}standard error) at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above the 7 days demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and then a gradual decreasing tendency indicating the biological half lives about 4 days and 205 days, respectively. The retention rate resulted in nearly 75% of initial radioactivity, i.e. 25% of excretion, at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, the CR values of {sup 85}Sr reared in the radioactive freshwater for 7 days were 62.3 (vertebra: bone), 31.1 (scale), 12.5 (gill), 0.6 (viscera) and 0.4 (muscle). On the other hand, higher excretion was found in the viscera and the muscle than that in the bone, the scale and the gill. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide is different among these tissues and organs particularly characterizing higher accumulation and lower excretion in the vertebra (bone) and scale. (author)

  1. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  2. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-04-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in The Physics Teacher; however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not before described in TPT. In this article an experiment is illustrated to explore projectile motion in a fun and challenging manner that has been used with both high school and university students. With a few simple materials, students have a vested interest in being able to calculate the height of the projectile at a given distance from its launch site. They also have an exciting visual demonstration of projectile motion when the lab is over.

  3. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickness, especially when pregnant, menstruating, or on hormones. Race/ethnicity—Asians may be more susceptible to motion ... it, sitting in the front seat of a car or bus, sitting over the wing of an ...

  4. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that extends into the inner ear can completely destroy both the hearing and equilibrium function of that ... motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting in the rear seat •Do not sit in ...

  5. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/content/search. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  6. DAVID: A new video motion sensor for outdoor perimeter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    To be effective, a perimeter intrusion detection system must comprise both sensor and rapid assessment components. The use of closed circuit television (CCTV) to provide the rapid assessment capability, makes possible the use of video motion detection (VMD) processing as a system sensor component. Despite it's conceptual appeal, video motion detection has not been widely used in outdoor perimeter systems because of an inability to discriminate between genuine intrusions and numerous environmental effects such as cloud shadows, wind motion, reflections, precipitation, etc. The result has been an unacceptably high false alarm rate and operator work-load. DAVID (Digital Automatic Video Intrusion Detector) utilizes new digital signal processing techniques to achieve a dramatic improvement in discrimination performance thereby making video motion detection practical for outdoor applications. This paper begins with a discussion of the key considerations in implementing an outdoor video intrusion detection system, followed by a description of the DAVID design in light of these considerations

  7. Visual Motion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-15

    displace- ment limit for motion in random dots," Vision Res., 24, 293-300. Pantie , A. & K. Turano (1986) "Direct comparisons of apparent motions...Hicks & AJ, Pantie (1978) "Apparent movement of successively generated subjec. uve figures," Perception, 7, 371-383. Ramachandran. V.S. & S.M. Anstis...thanks think deaf girl until world uncle flag home talk finish short thee our screwdiver sonry flower wrCstlir~g plan week wait accident guilty tree

  8. Coupled transverse motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs

  9. 3D motion analysis via energy minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedel, Andreas

    2009-10-16

    computing the apparent image motion vector field. Furthermore this results currently in the most accurate motion estimation techniques in literature. Much as this is an engineering approach of fine-tuning precision to the last detail, it helps to get a better insight into the problem of motion estimation. This profoundly contributes to state-of-the-art research in motion analysis, in particular facilitating the use of motion estimation in a wide range of applications. In Chapter 5, scene flow is rethought. Scene flow stands for the three-dimensional motion vector field for every image pixel, computed from a stereo image sequence. Again, decoupling of the commonly coupled approach of estimating three-dimensional position and three dimensional motion yields an approach to scene flow estimation with more accurate results and a considerably lower computational load. It results in a dense scene flow field and enables additional applications based on the dense three-dimensional motion vector field, which are to be investigated in the future. One such application is the segmentation of moving objects in an image sequence. Detecting moving objects within the scene is one of the most important features to extract in image sequences from a dynamic environment. This is presented in Chapter 6. Scene flow and the segmentation of independently moving objects are only first steps towards machine visual kinesthesia. Throughout this work, I present possible future work to improve the estimation of optical flow and scene flow. Chapter 7 additionally presents an outlook on future research for driver assistance applications. But there is much more to the full understanding of the three-dimensional dynamic scene. This work is meant to inspire the reader to think outside the box and contribute to the vision of building perceiving machines. (orig.)

  10. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal

  11. Acoustic Measurement Of Periodic Motion Of Levitated Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, John L.; Barmatz, Martin B.

    1992-01-01

    Some internal vibrations, oscillations in position, and rotations of acoustically levitated object measured by use of microphone already installed in typical levitation chamber for tuning chamber to resonance and monitoring operation. Levitating acoustic signal modulated by object motion of lower frequency. Amplitude modulation detected and analyzed spectrally to determine amplitudes and frequencies of motions.

  12. Analysing Harmonic Motions with an iPhone's Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone's (or iPad's) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone's magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone's screen using the "Sensor Kinetics"…

  13. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  14. Separating complex compound patient motion tracking data using independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C.; Johnson, K.; King, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, motion from respiration and body motion can reduce image quality by introducing motion-related artifacts. A minimally-invasive way to track patient motion is to attach external markers to the patient's body and record their location throughout the imaging study. If a patient exhibits multiple movements simultaneously, such as respiration and body-movement, each marker location data will contain a mixture of these motions. Decomposing this complex compound motion into separate simplified motions can have the benefit of applying a more robust motion correction to the specific type of motion. Most motion tracking and correction techniques target a single type of motion and either ignore compound motion or treat it as noise. Few methods account for compound motion exist, but they fail to disambiguate super-position in the compound motion (i.e. inspiration in addition to body movement in the positive anterior/posterior direction). We propose a new method for decomposing the complex compound patient motion using an unsupervised learning technique called Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Our method can automatically detect and separate different motions while preserving nuanced features of the motion without the drawbacks of previous methods. Our main contributions are the development of a method for addressing multiple compound motions, the novel use of ICA in detecting and separating mixed independent motions, and generating motion transform with 12 DOFs to account for twisting and shearing. We show that our method works with clinical datasets and can be employed to improve motion correction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images.

  15. Monitoring core barrel motion by neutron noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Por, G.

    1985-08-01

    The core barrel motion is detected by ionization chambers located around the reactor vessel. The method is based on the measurement of the neutron flux fluctuations. Calculations to determine the direction and the size of the motion are discussed. The identification of core barrel motion and its connection with the error of one of the main circulating pumps in the Rheinsberg nuclear power plant are described. Core barrel motion of 10 Hz with an amplitude less than 50 μm could be diagnozed at the Paks-1 reactor using the Dutch high accuracy evaluation system. (V.N.)

  16. Ion motion and conductivity in rubidium and cesium hexafluorotitanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskvich, Yu.N.; Cherkasov, B.I.; Sukhovskij, A.A.; Davidovich, R.L.; AN SSSR, Vladivostok. Inst. Khimii)

    1988-01-01

    Relaxation times for 19 F nuclei and electric conductivity in Rb 2 TiF 6 and Cs 2 TiF 6 polycrystals are measured. The parameters of reoriented anion motion and diffusion cation motion are determined according to the NMR data. The effect of phase transition to the cubic phase on the parameters of these motions are studied. High conductivity reaching values σ∼10 -2 -10 -3 Ohm -1 xm -1 is detected at high temperatures. The electric conductivity observed is shown to be caused by the diffusion motion of Rb + and Cs + cations

  17. Analysing harmonic motions with an iPhone’s magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone’s (or iPad’s) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone’s magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone’s screen using the Sensor Kinetics application. Data from this application was analysed with Eureqa software to establish the equation of the harmonic motion. Analyses show that the use of an iPhone’s magnetometer to analyse harmonic motion is a practical and effective method for small oscillations and frequencies less than 15-20 Hz.

  18. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  19. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...... context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model...

  20. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  1. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  2. The roles of non-retinotopic motions in visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei eNakayama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In visual search, a moving target among stationary distracters is detected more rapidly and more efficiently than a static target among moving distracters. Here we examined how this search asymmetry depends on motion signals from three distinct coordinate system – retinal, relative, and spatiotopic (head/body-centered. Our search display consisted of a target element, distracters elements, and a fixation point tracked by observers. Each element was composed of a spatial carrier grating windowed by a Gaussian envelope, and the motions of carriers, windows, and fixation were manipulated independently and used in various combinations to decouple the respective effects of motion coordinates systems on visual search asymmetry. We found that retinal motion hardly contributes to reaction times and search slopes but that relative and spatiotopic motions contribute to them substantially. Results highlight the important roles of non-retinotopic motions for guiding observer attention in visual search.

  3. Cerebral palsy characterization by estimating ocular motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jully; Atehortúa, Angélica; Moncayo, Ricardo; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a large group of motion and posture disorders caused during the fetal or infant brain development. Sensorial impairment is commonly found in children with CP, i.e., between 40-75 percent presents some form of vision problems or disabilities. An automatic characterization of the cerebral palsy is herein presented by estimating the ocular motion during a gaze pursuing task. Specifically, After automatically detecting the eye location, an optical flow algorithm tracks the eye motion following a pre-established visual assignment. Subsequently, the optical flow trajectories are characterized in the velocity-acceleration phase plane. Differences are quantified in a small set of patients between four to ten years.

  4. Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-β estradiol and nonylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soverchia, L.; Ruggeri, B.; Palermo, F.; Mosconi, G.; Cardinaletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Gatti, G.; Polzonetti-Magni, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17β and different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ERβ-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17β) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good 'sentinel' species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10 -7 M of estradiol-17β. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 deg. C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 deg. C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 deg. C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17β and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17β plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ERβ-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17β and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin rate through interaction with the ERβ-1 subtype. The

  5. Pebble bed pebble motion: Simulation and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, Joshua J.

    Pebble bed reactors (PBR) have moving graphite fuel pebbles. This unique feature provides advantages, but also means that simulation of the reactor requires understanding the typical motion and location of the granular flow of pebbles. This dissertation presents a method for simulation of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. A new mechanical motion simulator, PEBBLES, efficiently simulates the key elements of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. This model simulates gravitational force and contact forces including kinetic and true static friction. It's used for a variety of tasks including simulation of the effect of earthquakes on a PBR, calculation of packing fractions, Dancoff factors, pebble wear and the pebble force on the walls. The simulator includes a new differential static friction model for the varied geometries of PBRs. A new static friction benchmark was devised via analytically solving the mechanics equations to determine the minimum pebble-to-pebble friction and pebble-to-surface friction for a five pebble pyramid. This pyramid check as well as a comparison to the Janssen formula was used to test the new static friction equations. Because larger pebble bed simulations involve hundreds of thousands of pebbles and long periods of time, the PEBBLES code has been parallelized. PEBBLES runs on shared memory architectures and distributed memory architectures. For the shared memory architecture, the code uses a new O(n) lock-less parallel collision detection algorithm to determine which pebbles are likely to be in contact. The new collision detection algorithm improves on the traditional non-parallel O(n log(n)) collision detection algorithm. These features combine to form a fast parallel pebble motion simulation. The PEBBLES code provides new capabilities for understanding and optimizing PBRs. The PEBBLES code has provided the pebble motion data required to calculate the motion of pebbles during a simulated earthquake. The PEBBLES code provides the ability to

  6. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  7. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  8. Motion of magnetotactic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, D.M.S.; Barros, H.G. de P.L. de.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic moments for different magnetotactic microorganisms are obtained by electron microscopy analyses and studies of motion by optical microscopy. The results are analysed in terms of a model due to C.Bean. The considerations presented suggest that magnetotaxy is an efficient mechanism for orientation only if the time for reorientation is smaller than the cycles of environmental perturbations. (Author) [pt

  9. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Gregson, James; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non

  10. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360 ...

  11. Algebraic Description of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidon, William C.

    1974-01-01

    An algebraic definition of time differentiation is presented and used to relate independent measurements of position and velocity. With this, students can grasp certain essential physical, geometric, and algebraic properties of motion and differentiation before undertaking the study of limits. (Author)

  12. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  13. Motion Control with Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir Peter Boots

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the work that is done by a group of I3 students at Philips CFT in Eindhoven, Netherlands. I3 is an initiative of Fontys University of Professional Education also located in Eindhoven. The work focuses on the use of computer vision in motion control. Experiments are done with

  14. Superluminal motion (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  15. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  16. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  17. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon

  18. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Melissa [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany); Matela, Nuno [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  19. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Melissa; Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen; Matela, Nuno; Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  20. Neurons compute internal models of the physical laws of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, Dora E; Shaikh, Aasef G; Green, Andrea M; Dickman, J David

    2004-07-29

    A critical step in self-motion perception and spatial awareness is the integration of motion cues from multiple sensory organs that individually do not provide an accurate representation of the physical world. One of the best-studied sensory ambiguities is found in visual processing, and arises because of the inherent uncertainty in detecting the motion direction of an untextured contour moving within a small aperture. A similar sensory ambiguity arises in identifying the actual motion associated with linear accelerations sensed by the otolith organs in the inner ear. These internal linear accelerometers respond identically during translational motion (for example, running forward) and gravitational accelerations experienced as we reorient the head relative to gravity (that is, head tilt). Using new stimulus combinations, we identify here cerebellar and brainstem motion-sensitive neurons that compute a solution to the inertial motion detection problem. We show that the firing rates of these populations of neurons reflect the computations necessary to construct an internal model representation of the physical equations of motion.

  1. Brane-world motion in compact dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Brian; Levin, Janna; Parikh, Maulik

    2011-08-01

    The topology of extra dimensions can break global Lorentz invariance, singling out a globally preferred frame even in flat spacetime. Through experiments that probe global topology, an observer can determine her state of motion with respect to the preferred frame. This scenario is realized if we live on a brane universe moving through a flat space with compact extra dimensions. We identify three experimental effects due to the motion of our universe that one could potentially detect using gravitational probes. One of these relates to the peculiar properties of the twin paradox in multiply-connected spacetimes. Another relies on the fact that the Kaluza-Klein modes of any bulk field are sensitive to boundary conditions. A third concerns the modification to the Newtonian potential on a moving brane. Remarkably, we find that even small extra dimensions are detectable by brane observers if the brane is moving sufficiently fast. Communicated by P R L V Moniz

  2. Ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, J A [John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  3. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  4. Motion of the esophagus due to cardiac motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Palmer

    Full Text Available When imaging studies (e.g. CT are used to quantify morphological changes in an anatomical structure, it is necessary to understand the extent and source of motion which can give imaging artifacts (e.g. blurring or local distortion. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of esophageal motion due to cardiac motion. We used retrospective electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images for this study. The anatomic region from the carina to the bottom of the heart was taken at deep-inspiration breath hold with the patients' arms raised above their shoulders, in a position similar to that used for radiation therapy. The esophagus was delineated on the diastolic phase of cardiac motion, and deformable registration was used to sequentially deform the images in nearest-neighbor phases among the 10 cardiac phases, starting from the diastolic phase. Using the 10 deformation fields generated from the deformable registration, the magnitude of the extreme displacements was then calculated for each voxel, and the mean and maximum displacement was calculated for each computed tomography slice for each patient. The average maximum esophageal displacement due to cardiac motion for all patients was 5.8 mm (standard deviation: 1.6 mm, maximum: 10.0 mm in the transverse direction. For 21 of 26 patients, the largest esophageal motion was found in the inferior region of the heart; for the other patients, esophageal motion was approximately independent of superior-inferior position. The esophagus motion was larger at cardiac phases where the electrocardiogram R-wave occurs. In conclusion, the magnitude of esophageal motion near the heart due to cardiac motion is similar to that due to other sources of motion, including respiratory motion and intra-fraction motion. A larger cardiac motion will result into larger esophagus motion in a cardiac cycle.

  5. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  6. S4-3: Spatial Processing of Visual Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin'ya Nishida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Local motion signals are extracted in parallel by a bank of motion detectors, and their spatiotemporal interactions are processed in subsequent stages. In this talk, I will review our recent studies on spatial interactions in visual motion processing. First, we found two types of spatial pooling of local motion signals. Directionally ambiguous 1D local motion signals are pooled across orientation and space for solution of the aperture problem, while 2D local motion signals are pooled for estimation of global vector average (e.g., Amano et al., 2009 Journal of Vision 9(3:4 1–25. Second, when stimulus presentation is brief, coherent motion detection of dynamic random-dot kinematogram is not efficient. Nevertheless, it is significantly improved by transient and synchronous presentation of a stationary surround pattern. This suggests that centre-surround spatial interaction may help rapid perception of motion (Linares et al., submitted. Third, to know how the visual system encodes pairwise relationships between remote motion signals, we measured the temporal rate limit for perceiving the relationship of two motion directions presented at the same time at different spatial locations. Compared with similar tasks with luminance or orientation signals, motion comparison was more rapid and hence efficient. This high performance was affected little by inter-element separation even when it was increased up to 100 deg. These findings indicate the existence of specialized processes to encode long-range relationships between motion signals for quick appreciation of global dynamic scene structure (Maruya et al., in preparation.

  7. Clinical impact of ' in-treatment' wall motion abnormalities in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicala, S.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Left ventricular systolic wall motion abnormalities have prognostic value. Whether wall motion detected by serial echocardiographic examinations predicts prognosis in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy ( LVH) without clinically recognized atherosclerotic disease ha...

  8. THE ALLWISE MOTION SURVEY, PART 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Kellogg, Kendra; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Gelino, Christopher R.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cutri, Roc M.; Conrow, Tim; Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Greco, Jennifer; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Martin, Emily C.; McLean, Ian S.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Lansbury, George B.

    2016-01-01

    We use the AllWISE Data Release to continue our search for Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE )-detected motions. In this paper, we publish another 27,846 motion objects, bringing the total number to 48,000 when objects found during our original AllWISE motion survey are included. We use this list, along with the lists of confirmed WISE -based motion objects from the recent papers by Luhman and by Schneider et al., and candidate motion objects from the recent paper by Gagné et al., to search for widely separated, common-proper-motion systems. We identify 1039 such candidate systems. All 48,000 objects are further analyzed using color–color and color–mag plots to provide possible characterizations prior to spectroscopic follow-up. We present spectra of 172 of these, supplemented with new spectra of 23 comparison objects from the literature, and provide classifications and physical interpretations of interesting sources. Highlights include: (1) the identification of three G/K dwarfs that can be used as standard candles to study clumpiness and grain size in nearby molecular clouds because these objects are currently moving behind the clouds, (2) the confirmation/discovery of several M, L, and T dwarfs and one white dwarf whose spectrophotometric distance estimates place them 5–20 pc from the Sun, (3) the suggestion that the Na i “D” line be used as a diagnostic tool for interpreting and classifying metal-poor late-M and L dwarfs, (4) the recognition of a triple system including a carbon dwarf and late-M subdwarf, for which model fits of the late-M subdwarf (giving [Fe/H] ≈ −1.0) provide a measured metallicity for the carbon star, and (5) a possible 24 pc distant K5 dwarf + peculiar red L5 system with an apparent physical separation of 0.1 pc.

  9. THE ALLWISE MOTION SURVEY, PART 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Kellogg, Kendra; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Gelino, Christopher R.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cutri, Roc M.; Conrow, Tim [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Greco, Jennifer [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS 111, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606-3328 (United States); Mace, Gregory N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wright, Edward L.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Martin, Emily C.; McLean, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Lansbury, George B., E-mail: davy@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    We use the AllWISE Data Release to continue our search for Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE )-detected motions. In this paper, we publish another 27,846 motion objects, bringing the total number to 48,000 when objects found during our original AllWISE motion survey are included. We use this list, along with the lists of confirmed WISE -based motion objects from the recent papers by Luhman and by Schneider et al., and candidate motion objects from the recent paper by Gagné et al., to search for widely separated, common-proper-motion systems. We identify 1039 such candidate systems. All 48,000 objects are further analyzed using color–color and color–mag plots to provide possible characterizations prior to spectroscopic follow-up. We present spectra of 172 of these, supplemented with new spectra of 23 comparison objects from the literature, and provide classifications and physical interpretations of interesting sources. Highlights include: (1) the identification of three G/K dwarfs that can be used as standard candles to study clumpiness and grain size in nearby molecular clouds because these objects are currently moving behind the clouds, (2) the confirmation/discovery of several M, L, and T dwarfs and one white dwarf whose spectrophotometric distance estimates place them 5–20 pc from the Sun, (3) the suggestion that the Na i “D” line be used as a diagnostic tool for interpreting and classifying metal-poor late-M and L dwarfs, (4) the recognition of a triple system including a carbon dwarf and late-M subdwarf, for which model fits of the late-M subdwarf (giving [Fe/H] ≈ −1.0) provide a measured metallicity for the carbon star, and (5) a possible 24 pc distant K5 dwarf + peculiar red L5 system with an apparent physical separation of 0.1 pc.

  10. Respiratory lung motion analysis using a nonlinear motion correction technique for respiratory-gated lung perfusion SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ue, Hidenori; Haneishi, Hideaki; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Suga, Kazuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the respiratory motion of lungs using a nonlinear motion correction technique for respiratory-gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. The motion correction technique corrects the respiratory motion of the lungs nonlinearly between two-phase images obtained by respiratory-gated SPECT. The displacement vectors resulting from respiration can be computed at every location of the lungs. Respiratory lung motion analysis is carried out by calculating the mean value of the body axis component of the displacement vector in each of the 12 small regions into which the lungs were divided. In order to enable inter-patient comparison, the 12 mean values were normalized by the length of the lung region along the direction of the body axis. This method was applied to 25 Technetium (Tc)-99m-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion SPECT images, and motion analysis results were compared with the diagnostic results. It was confirmed that the respiratory lung motion reflects the ventilation function. A statistically significant difference in the amount of the respiratory lung motion was observed between the obstructive pulmonary diseases and other conditions, based on an unpaired Student's t test (P<0.0001). A difference in the motion between normal lungs and lungs with a ventilation obstruction was detected by the proposed method. This method is effective for evaluating obstructive pulmonary diseases such as pulmonary emphysema and diffuse panbronchiolitis. (author)

  11. Restoration of non-uniform exposure motion blurred image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanhong; Xu, Tingfa; Wang, Ningming; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Restoring motion-blurred image is the key technologies in the opto-electronic detection system. The imaging sensors such as CCD and infrared imaging sensor, which are mounted on the motion platforms, quickly move together with the platforms of high speed. As a result, the images become blur. The image degradation will cause great trouble for the succeeding jobs such as objects detection, target recognition and tracking. So the motion-blurred images must be restoration before detecting motion targets in the subsequent images. On the demand of the real weapon task, in order to deal with targets in the complex background, this dissertation uses the new theories in the field of image processing and computer vision to research the new technology of motion deblurring and motion detection. The principle content is as follows: 1) When the prior knowledge about degradation function is unknown, the uniform motion blurred images are restored. At first, the blur parameters, including the motion blur extent and direction of PSF(point spread function), are estimated individually in domain of logarithmic frequency. The direction of PSF is calculated by extracting the central light line of the spectrum, and the extent is computed by minimizing the correction between the fourier spectrum of the blurred image and a detecting function. Moreover, in order to remove the strip in the deblurred image, windows technique is employed in the algorithm, which makes the deblurred image clear. 2) According to the principle of infrared image non-uniform exposure, a new restoration model for infrared blurred images is developed. The fitting of infrared image non-uniform exposure curve is performed by experiment data. The blurred images are restored by the fitting curve.

  12. Motion field estimation for a dynamic scene using a 3D LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-09-09

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  13. Motion Field Estimation for a Dynamic Scene Using a 3D LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingquan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  14. Parallel search for conjunctions with stimuli in apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casco, C; Ganis, G

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine whether apparent motion tends to follow the similarity rule (i.e. is attribute-specific) and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Stimulus duration thresholds were measured during a two-alternative forced-choice task in which observers detected either the location or the motion direction of target groups defined by the conjunction of size and orientation. Target element positions were randomly chosen within a nominally defined rectangular subregion of the display (target region). The target region was presented either statically (followed by a 250 ms duration mask) or dynamically, displaced by a small distance (18 min of arc) from frame to frame. In the motion display, the position of both target and background elements was changed randomly from frame to frame within the respective areas to abolish spatial correspondence over time. Stimulus duration thresholds were lower in the motion than in the static task, indicating that target detection in the dynamic condition does not rely on the explicit identification of target elements in each static frame. Increasing the distractor-to-target ratio was found to reduce detectability in the static, but not in the motion task. This indicates that the perceptual segregation of the target is effortless and parallel with motion but not with static displays. The pattern of results holds regardless of the task or search paradigm employed. The detectability in the motion condition can be improved by increasing the number of frames and/or by reducing the width of the target area. Furthermore, parallel search in the dynamic condition can be conducted with both short-range and long-range motion stimuli. Finally, apparent motion of conjunctions is insufficient on its own to support location decision and is disrupted by random visual noise. Overall, these findings show that (i) the mechanism underlying apparent motion is attribute-specific; (ii) the motion system mediates temporal

  15. Coherent Lagrangian swirls among submesoscale motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beron-Vera, F J; Hadjighasem, A; Xia, Q; Olascoaga, M J; Haller, G

    2018-03-05

    The emergence of coherent Lagrangian swirls (CLSs) among submesoscale motions in the ocean is illustrated. This is done by applying recent nonlinear dynamics tools for Lagrangian coherence detection on a surface flow realization produced by a data-assimilative submesoscale-permitting ocean general circulation model simulation of the Gulf of Mexico. Both mesoscale and submesoscale CLSs are extracted. These extractions prove the relevance of coherent Lagrangian eddies detected in satellite-altimetry-based geostrophic flow data for the arguably more realistic ageostrophic multiscale flow.

  16. Correlated motions are a fundamental property of β-sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, R. Bryn; Orellana, Laura; Esteban-Martín, Santi; Orozco, Modesto; Salvatella, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Correlated motions in proteins can mediate fundamental biochemical processes such as signal transduction and allostery. The mechanisms that underlie these processes remain largely unknown due mainly to limitations in their direct detection. Here, based on a detailed analysis of protein structures deposited in the protein data bank, as well as on state-of-the art molecular simulations, we provide general evidence for the transfer of structural information by correlated backbone motions, mediated by hydrogen bonds, across β-sheets. We also show that the observed local and long-range correlated motions are mediated by the collective motions of β-sheets and investigate their role in large-scale conformational changes. Correlated motions represent a fundamental property of β-sheets that contributes to protein function.

  17. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    , Toshio Ando from the University of Kanazawa provides an overview of developments that have allowed atomic force microscopy to move from rates of the order of one frame a minute to over a thousand frames per second in constant height mode, as reported by Mervyn Miles and colleagues at Bristol University and University College London [8]. Among the pioneers in the field, Ando's group demonstrated the ability to record the Brownian motion of myosin V molecules on mica with image capture rates of 100 x 100 pixels in 80 ms over a decade ago [9]. The developments unleash the potential of atomic force microscopy to observe the dynamics of biological and materials systems. If seeing is believing, the ability to present real motion pictures of the nanoworld cannot fail to capture the public imagination and stimulate burgeoning new avenues of scientific endeavour. Nearly 350 years on from the publication Micrographia, images in microscopy have moved from the page to the movies. References [1] Binnig G, Quate C F, and Gerber Ch 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930-3 [2] Ando T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 062001 [3] J G 1934 Nature 134 635-6 [4] Bharadwaj P, Anger P and Novotny L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044017 [5] The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Nobelprize.org [6] Kim K K, Reina A, Shi Y, Park H, Li L-J, Lee Y H and Kong J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 285205 [7] Phillips D B, Grieve J A, Olof S N, Kocher S J, Bowman R, Padgett M J, Miles M J and Carberry D M 2011 Nanotechnology 22 285503 [8] Picco L M, Bozec L, Ulcinas A, Engledew D J, Antognozzi M, Horton M A and Miles M J 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044030 [9] Ando T, Kodera N, Takai E, Maruyama D, Saito K and Toda A 2001 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 12468

  18. Human motion simulation predictive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Malek, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom. Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics Develops an i...

  19. WORKSHOP: Stable particle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Alessandro G.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Particle beam stability is crucial to any accelerator or collider, particularly big ones, such as Brookhaven's RHIC heavy ion collider and the larger SSC and LHC proton collider schemes. A workshop on the Stability of Particle Motion in Storage Rings held at Brookhaven in October dealt with the important issue of determining the short- and long-term stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings and colliders, and explored new methods for ensuring it. In the quest for realistic environments, the imperfections of superconducting magnets and the effects of field modulation and noise were taken into account. The workshop was divided into three study groups: Short-Term Stability in storage rings, including chromatic and geometric effects and correction strategies; Long-Term Stability, including modulation and random noise effects and slow varying effects; and Methods for determining the stability of particle motion. The first two were run in parallel, but the third was attended by everyone. Each group considered analytical, computational and experimental methods, reviewing work done so far, comparing results and approaches and underlining outstanding issues. By resolving conflicts, it was possible to identify problems of common interest. The workshop reaffirmed the validity of methods proposed several years ago. Major breakthroughs have been in the rapid improvement of computer capacity and speed, in the development of more sophisticated mathematical packages, and in the introduction of more powerful analytic approaches. In a typical storage ring, a particle may be required to circulate for about a billion revolutions. While ten years ago it was only possible to predict accurately stability over about a thousand revolutions, it is now possible to predict over as many as one million turns. If this trend continues, in ten years it could become feasible to predict particle stability over the entire storage period. About ninety participants

  20. Temporomandibular joint motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Itou, S.; Odori, T.; Ishii, Y.; Torizuka, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates MR imaging with the therapeutic effect after splint therapy in internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fifteen patients (19 TMJs) with internal derangement of the TMJ and five normal volunteers (10 TMJs) were examined with sagittal T1-weighted spin-echo and gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state (GRASS) MR imaging. MR studies of the patients undergoing splint therapy were performed with an without splints. Pseudodynamic images of TMJ motion provide information that was not available from spin-echo T1-weighted images

  1. Motion Capturing Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood Karen; Cisneros Rosemary E.; Whatley Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The ...

  2. Electromechanical motion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Pekarek, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines-as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles. Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac

  3. Patellofemoral joint motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, W.; Phelan, J.; Albright, J.; Kathol, M.; Rooholamini, S.A.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Palutsis, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the use of ultrafast computed tomography (CT) to obtain dynamic images of the patellofemoral joint during active motion. Thirty-eight patients underwent measurements of tangent offset, bisect offset, congruence angle, patellar tilt angle, lateral patellofemoral angle, sulcus angle, and sulcus depth made during leg movement. Selected parameters were compared with Merchant views. Significant correlations were obtained between Merchant views and comparable ultrafast CT views for all parameters except sulcus angle. Correlations between the other parameters were poor. Cine strips showed two patterns of movement; the patella remained centered either throughout excursion or until the last 20 0 of full extension, when it would sublux laterally

  4. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  5. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  6. Biological Motion Preference in Humans at Birth: Role of Dynamic and Configural Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Regolin, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses the hypothesis that detection of biological motion is an intrinsic capacity of the visual system guided by a non-species-specific predisposition for the pattern of vertebrate movement and investigates the role of global vs. local information in biological motion detection. Two-day-old babies exposed to a biological…

  7. Secular Extragalactic Parallax and Geometric Distances with Gaia Proper Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Jennie; Darling, Jeremiah K.

    2018-06-01

    The motion of the Solar System with respect to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) rest frame creates a well measured dipole in the CMB, which corresponds to a linear solar velocity of about 78 AU/yr. This motion causes relatively nearby extragalactic objects to appear to move compared to more distant objects, an effect that can be measured in the proper motions of nearby galaxies. An object at 1 Mpc and perpendicular to the CMB apex will exhibit a secular parallax, observed as a proper motion, of 78 µas/yr. The relatively large peculiar motions of galaxies make the detection of secular parallax challenging for individual objects. Instead, a statistical parallax measurement can be made for a sample of objects with proper motions, where the global parallax signal is modeled as an E-mode dipole that diminishes linearly with distance. We present preliminary results of applying this model to a sample of nearby galaxies with Gaia proper motions to detect the statistical secular parallax signal. The statistical measurement can be used to calibrate the canonical cosmological “distance ladder.”

  8. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  9. Modeling a space-variant cortical representation for apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurbs, Jeremy; Mingolla, Ennio; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2013-08-06

    Receptive field sizes of neurons in early primate visual areas increase with eccentricity, as does temporal processing speed. The fovea is evidently specialized for slow, fine movements while the periphery is suited for fast, coarse movements. In either the fovea or periphery discrete flashes can produce motion percepts. Grossberg and Rudd (1989) used traveling Gaussian activity profiles to model long-range apparent motion percepts. We propose a neural model constrained by physiological data to explain how signals from retinal ganglion cells to V1 affect the perception of motion as a function of eccentricity. Our model incorporates cortical magnification, receptive field overlap and scatter, and spatial and temporal response characteristics of retinal ganglion cells for cortical processing of motion. Consistent with the finding of Baker and Braddick (1985), in our model the maximum flash distance that is perceived as an apparent motion (Dmax) increases linearly as a function of eccentricity. Baker and Braddick (1985) made qualitative predictions about the functional significance of both stimulus and visual system parameters that constrain motion perception, such as an increase in the range of detectable motions as a function of eccentricity and the likely role of higher visual processes in determining Dmax. We generate corresponding quantitative predictions for those functional dependencies for individual aspects of motion processing. Simulation results indicate that the early visual pathway can explain the qualitative linear increase of Dmax data without reliance on extrastriate areas, but that those higher visual areas may serve as a modulatory influence on the exact Dmax increase.

  10. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  11. Motion camouflage in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, P. V.; Justh, E. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate and analyze a three-dimensional model of motion camouflage, a stealth strategy observed in nature. A high-gain feedback law for motion camouflage is formulated in which the pursuer and evader trajectories are described using natural Frenet frames (or relatively parallel adapted frames), and the corresponding natural curvatures serve as controls. The biological plausibility of the feedback law is discussed, as is its connection to missile guidance. Simulations illustrating motion ...

  12. Visual motion influences the contingent auditory motion aftereffect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, J.; de Gelder, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we show that the contingent auditory motion aftereffect is strongly influenced by visual motion information. During an induction phase, participants listened to rightward-moving sounds with falling pitch alternated with leftward-moving sounds with rising pitch (or vice versa).

  13. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency

  14. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a supporting memorandum. Within 10 days after a written motion is served, or such other time period... writing. If made at the hearing, motions may be stated orally; but the Administrative Law Judge may require that they be reduced to writing and filed and served on all parties in the same manner as a formal...

  15. A dual-Kinect approach to determine torso surface motion for respiratory motion correction in PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heß, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.hess@uni-muenster.de; Büther, Florian; Dawood, Mohammad; Schäfers, Klaus P. [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany); Gigengack, Fabian [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Münster 48149, Germany and Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Münster, Münster 48149 (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce blurring effects and attenuation correction artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Established clinically available methods that employ body-attached hardware for acquiring respiration signals rely on the assumption that external surface motion and internal organ motion are well correlated. In this paper, the authors present a markerless method comprising two Microsoft Kinects for determining the motion on the whole torso surface and aim to demonstrate its validity and usefulness—including the potential to study the external/internal correlation and to provide useful information for more advanced correction approaches. Methods: The data of two Kinects are used to calculate 3D representations of a patient’s torso surface with high spatial coverage. Motion signals can be obtained for any position by tracking the mean distance to a virtual camera with a view perpendicular to the surrounding surface. The authors have conducted validation experiments including volunteers and a moving high-precision platform to verify the method’s suitability for providing meaningful data. In addition, the authors employed it during clinical {sup 18}F-FDG-PET scans and exemplarily analyzed the acquired data of ten cancer patients. External signals of abdominal and thoracic regions as well as data-driven signals were used for gating and compared with respect to detected displacement of present lesions. Additionally, the authors quantified signal similarities and time shifts by analyzing cross-correlation sequences. Results: The authors’ results suggest a Kinect depth resolution of approximately 1 mm at 75 cm distance. Accordingly, valid signals could be obtained for surface movements with small amplitudes in the range of only few millimeters. In this small sample of ten patients, the abdominal signals were better suited for gating the PET data than the thoracic signals and the correlation of data-driven signals was

  16. A dual-Kinect approach to determine torso surface motion for respiratory motion correction in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heß, Mirco; Büther, Florian; Dawood, Mohammad; Schäfers, Klaus P.; Gigengack, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is commonly used to reduce blurring effects and attenuation correction artifacts in positron emission tomography (PET). Established clinically available methods that employ body-attached hardware for acquiring respiration signals rely on the assumption that external surface motion and internal organ motion are well correlated. In this paper, the authors present a markerless method comprising two Microsoft Kinects for determining the motion on the whole torso surface and aim to demonstrate its validity and usefulness—including the potential to study the external/internal correlation and to provide useful information for more advanced correction approaches. Methods: The data of two Kinects are used to calculate 3D representations of a patient’s torso surface with high spatial coverage. Motion signals can be obtained for any position by tracking the mean distance to a virtual camera with a view perpendicular to the surrounding surface. The authors have conducted validation experiments including volunteers and a moving high-precision platform to verify the method’s suitability for providing meaningful data. In addition, the authors employed it during clinical 18 F-FDG-PET scans and exemplarily analyzed the acquired data of ten cancer patients. External signals of abdominal and thoracic regions as well as data-driven signals were used for gating and compared with respect to detected displacement of present lesions. Additionally, the authors quantified signal similarities and time shifts by analyzing cross-correlation sequences. Results: The authors’ results suggest a Kinect depth resolution of approximately 1 mm at 75 cm distance. Accordingly, valid signals could be obtained for surface movements with small amplitudes in the range of only few millimeters. In this small sample of ten patients, the abdominal signals were better suited for gating the PET data than the thoracic signals and the correlation of data-driven signals was found

  17. The allwise motion survey and the quest for cold subdwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Gelino, Christopher R.; Fowler, John W.; Cutri, Roc M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schneider, Adam; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS 111, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606-3328 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; McLean, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Stern, Daniel [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Baloković, Mislav [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Lansbury, George B. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Rich, J. A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Skrzypek, Nathalie, E-mail: davy@ipac.caltech.edu [Astro Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-03-10

    The AllWISE processing pipeline has measured motions for all objects detected on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) images taken between 2010 January and 2011 February. In this paper, we discuss new capabilities made to the software pipeline in order to make motion measurements possible, and we characterize the resulting data products for use by future researchers. Using a stringent set of selection criteria, we find 22,445 objects that have significant AllWISE motions, of which 3525 have motions that can be independently confirmed from earlier Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) images, yet lack any published motions in SIMBAD. Another 58 sources lack 2MASS counterparts and are presented as motion candidates only. Limited spectroscopic follow-up of this list has already revealed eight new L subdwarfs. These may provide the first hints of a 'subdwarf gap' at mid-L types that would indicate the break between the stellar and substellar populations at low metallicities (i.e., old ages). Another object in the motion list—WISEA J154045.67–510139.3—is a bright (J ≈ 9 mag) object of type M6; both the spectrophotometric distance and a crude preliminary parallax place it ∼6 pc from the Sun. We also compare our list of motion objects to the recently published list of 762 WISE motion objects from Luhman. While these first large motion studies with WISE data have been very successful in revealing previously overlooked nearby dwarfs, both studies missed objects that the other found, demonstrating that many other nearby objects likely await discovery in the AllWISE data products.

  18. Apparatus and method for motion tracking in brain imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is apparatus and method for motion tracking of a subject in medical brain imaging. The method comprises providing a light projector and a first camera; projecting a first pattern sequence (S1) onto a surface region of the subject with the light projector, wherein the subject is positioned......2,1) based on the detected first pattern sequence (S1'); projecting the second pattern sequence (S2) onto a surface region of the subject with the light projector; detecting the projected second pattern sequence (S2') with the first camera; and determining motion tracking parameters based...

  19. Algorithmic Issues in Modeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P. K; Guibas, L. J; Edelsbrunner, H.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a survey of research areas in which motion plays a pivotal role. The aim of the article is to review current approaches to modeling motion together with related data structures and algorithms, and to summarize the challenges that lie ahead in producing a more unified theory of mot...

  20. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively .... rigid body rotation. The solid body rotation makes sense in the context of small Reynolds. (Re) number flows ...

  1. Motion simulator with exchangeable unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.A.; Beukers, A.; Baarspul, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.; De Winter, S.E.E.

    2001-01-01

    A motion simulator provided with a movable housing, preferably carried by a number of length-adjustable legs, in which housing projection means are arranged for visual information supply, while in the housing a control environment of a motion apparatus to be simulated is situated, the control

  2. Nanoparticle mediated micromotor motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Gao, Wenlong; Su, Miaoda; Ge, Ya; Shi, Lili; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report the utilization of nanoparticles to mediate the motion of a polymer single crystal catalytic micromotor. Micromotors have been fabricated by directly self-assembling functional nanoparticles (platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles) onto one or both sides of two-dimensional polymer single crystals. We show that the moving velocity of these micromotors in fluids can be readily tuned by controlling the nanoparticles' surface wettability and catalytic activity. A 3 times velocity increase has been achieved for a hydrophobic micromotor as opposed to the hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles inside the micromotor can be enhanced by their synergetic interactions with iron oxide nanoparticles and an electric field. Both strategies lead to dramatically increased moving velocities, with the highest value reaching ~200 μm s-1. By decreasing the nanoparticles' surface wettability and increasing their catalytic activity, a maximum of a ~10-fold increase in the moving speed of the nanoparticle based micromotor can be achieved. Our results demonstrate the advantages of using nanoparticles in micromotor systems.In this paper, we report the utilization of nanoparticles to mediate the motion of a polymer single crystal catalytic micromotor. Micromotors have been fabricated by directly self-assembling functional nanoparticles (platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles) onto one or both sides of two-dimensional polymer single crystals. We show that the moving velocity of these micromotors in fluids can be readily tuned by controlling the nanoparticles' surface wettability and catalytic activity. A 3 times velocity increase has been achieved for a hydrophobic micromotor as opposed to the hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles inside the micromotor can be enhanced by their synergetic interactions with iron oxide nanoparticles and an electric

  3. Trend-Centric Motion Visualization: Designing and Applying a New Strategy for Analyzing Scientific Motion Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David; Korsakov, Fedor; Knipe, Carissa Mai-Ping; Thorson, Lauren; Ellingson, Arin M; Nuckley, David; Carlis, John; Keefe, Daniel F

    2014-12-01

    In biomechanics studies, researchers collect, via experiments or simulations, datasets with hundreds or thousands of trials, each describing the same type of motion (e.g., a neck flexion-extension exercise) but under different conditions (e.g., different patients, different disease states, pre- and post-treatment). Analyzing similarities and differences across all of the trials in these collections is a major challenge. Visualizing a single trial at a time does not work, and the typical alternative of juxtaposing multiple trials in a single visual display leads to complex, difficult-to-interpret visualizations. We address this problem via a new strategy that organizes the analysis around motion trends rather than trials. This new strategy matches the cognitive approach that scientists would like to take when analyzing motion collections. We introduce several technical innovations making trend-centric motion visualization possible. First, an algorithm detects a motion collection's trends via time-dependent clustering. Second, a 2D graphical technique visualizes how trials leave and join trends. Third, a 3D graphical technique, using a median 3D motion plus a visual variance indicator, visualizes the biomechanics of the set of trials within each trend. These innovations are combined to create an interactive exploratory visualization tool, which we designed through an iterative process in collaboration with both domain scientists and a traditionally-trained graphic designer. We report on insights generated during this design process and demonstrate the tool's effectiveness via a validation study with synthetic data and feedback from expert musculoskeletal biomechanics researchers who used the tool to analyze the effects of disc degeneration on human spinal kinematics.

  4. Evidence for Excitation of Polar Motion by Fortnightly Ocean Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard S.; Hamdan, Kamal H.; Boggs, Dale H.

    1996-01-01

    The second-degree zonal tide raising potential, which is responsible for tidal changes in the Earth's rotation rate and length-of-day, is symmetric about the polar axis and hence can excite the Earth's polar motion only through its action upon nonaxisymmetric features of the Earth such as the oceans. Ocean tidal excitation of polar motion in the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal bands has been previously detected and examined. Here, the detection of ocean tidal excitation of polar motion in the long-period tidal band, specifically at the Mf' (13.63-day) and Mf (13.66-day) tidal frequencies, is reported. Spectra of the SPACE94 polar motion excitation series exhibit peaks at the prograde and retrograde fortnightly tidal periods. After removing effects of atmospheric wind and pressure changes, an empirical model for the effect of the fortnightly ocean tides upon polar motion excitation is obtained by least-squares fitting periodic terms at the Mf and Mf' tidal frequencies to the residual polar motion excitation series. The resulting empirical model is then compared with the predictions of two hydrodynamic ocean tide models.

  5. Motion Capturing Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Karen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The study embraced four dance genres: Ballet, Contemporary, Flamenco and Greek Folk dance. We are specifically interested in the kinesthetic and emotional engagement with the moving body and what new corporeal awareness may be experienced. Positioning the moving, dancing body as fundamental to technological advancements, we discuss the importance of considering the dancer’s experience in the real and virtual space. Some of the artists involved in the project have offered their experiences, which are included, and they form the basis of the discussion. In addition, we discuss the affect of immersive environments, how these environments expand reality and what effect (emotionally and otherwise that has on the body. The research reveals insights into relationships between emotion, movement and technology and what new sensorial knowledge this evokes for the dancer.

  6. Measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeong Han

    2006-01-01

    This study was to understand about the measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio. We proposed the radiological criterior of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement ratio. We measured the motion fraction of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement using CR (computed radiological system) of arm elevation at neutral, 90 degree, full elevation. Central ray was 15 .deg., 19 .deg., 22 .deg. to the cephald for the parallel scapular spine, and the tilting of torso was external oblique 40 .deg., 36 .deg., 22 .deg. for perpendicular to glenohumeral surface. Healthful donor of 100 was divided 5 groups by age (20, 30, 40, 50, 60). The angle of glenohumeral motion and scapulothoracic motion could be taken from gross arm angle and radiological arm angle. We acquired 3 images at neutral, 90 .deg. and full elevation position and measured radiographic angle of glenoheumeral, scapulothoracic movement respectively. While the arm elevation was 90 .deg., the shoulder motion fraction was 1.22 (M), 1.70 (W) in right arm and 1.31, 1.54 in left. In full elevation, Right arm fraction was 1.63, 1.84 and left was 1.57, 1.32. In right dominant arm (78%), 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.58, 1.43, in left (22%) 1.82, 1.94. In generation 20, 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.56, 1.52, 30' was 1.82, 1.43, 40' was 1.23, 1.16, 50' was 1.80, 1.28,60' was 1.24, 1.75. There was not significantly by gender, dominant arm and age. The criteria of motion fraction was useful reference for clinical diagnosis the shoulder instability

  7. Inertial navigation sensor integrated motion analysis for autonomous vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry; Bhanu, Bir

    1992-01-01

    Recent work on INS integrated motion analysis is described. Results were obtained with a maximally passive system of obstacle detection (OD) for ground-based vehicles and rotorcraft. The OD approach involves motion analysis of imagery acquired by a passive sensor in the course of vehicle travel to generate range measurements to world points within the sensor FOV. INS data and scene analysis results are used to enhance interest point selection, the matching of the interest points, and the subsequent motion-based computations, tracking, and OD. The most important lesson learned from the research described here is that the incorporation of inertial data into the motion analysis program greatly improves the analysis and makes the process more robust.

  8. Visual gravitational motion and the vestibular system in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eLacquaniti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual system is poorly sensitive to arbitrary accelerations, but accurately detects the effects of gravity on a target motion. Here we review behavioral and neuroimaging data about the neural mechanisms for dealing with object motion and egomotion under gravity. The results from several experiments show that the visual estimates of a target motion under gravity depend on the combination of a prior of gravity effects with on-line visual signals on target position and velocity. These estimates are affected by vestibular inputs, and are encoded in a visual-vestibular network whose core regions lie within or around the Sylvian fissure, and are represented by the posterior insula/retroinsula/temporo-parietal junction. This network responds both to target motions coherent with gravity and to vestibular caloric stimulation in human fMRI studies. Transient inactivation of the temporo-parietal junction selectively disrupts the interception of targets accelerated by gravity.

  9. Development of motion image prediction method using principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatkuli, Ritu Bhusal; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Kawai, Masaki; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Kamiaka, Kazuma

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory motion can induce the limit in the accuracy of area irradiated during lung cancer radiation therapy. Many methods have been introduced to minimize the impact of healthy tissue irradiation due to the lung tumor motion. The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm for the improvement of image guided radiation therapy by the prediction of motion images. We predict the motion images by using principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-channel singular spectral analysis (MSSA) method. The images/movies were successfully predicted and verified using the developed algorithm. With the proposed prediction method it is possible to forecast the tumor images over the next breathing period. The implementation of this method in real time is believed to be significant for higher level of tumor tracking including the detection of sudden abdominal changes during radiation therapy. (author)

  10. Visual gravitational motion and the vestibular system in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Bosco, Gianfranco; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Zago, Myrka

    2013-12-26

    The visual system is poorly sensitive to arbitrary accelerations, but accurately detects the effects of gravity on a target motion. Here we review behavioral and neuroimaging data about the neural mechanisms for dealing with object motion and egomotion under gravity. The results from several experiments show that the visual estimates of a target motion under gravity depend on the combination of a prior of gravity effects with on-line visual signals on target position and velocity. These estimates are affected by vestibular inputs, and are encoded in a visual-vestibular network whose core regions lie within or around the Sylvian fissure, and are represented by the posterior insula/retroinsula/temporo-parietal junction. This network responds both to target motions coherent with gravity and to vestibular caloric stimulation in human fMRI studies. Transient inactivation of the temporo-parietal junction selectively disrupts the interception of targets accelerated by gravity.

  11. Proper Motion and Secular Variations of Keplerian Orbital Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey G. Butkevich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High-precision observations require accurate modeling of secular changes in the orbital elements in order to extrapolate measurements over long time intervals, and to detect deviation from pure Keplerian motion caused, for example, by other bodies or relativistic effects. We consider the evolution of the Keplerian elements resulting from the gradual change of the apparent orbit orientation due to proper motion. We present rigorous formulae for the transformation of the orbit inclination, longitude of the ascending node and argument of the pericenter from one epoch to another, assuming uniform stellar motion and taking radial velocity into account. An approximate treatment, accurate to the second-order terms in time, is also given. The proper motion effects may be significant for long-period transiting planets. These theoretical results are applicable to the modeling of planetary transits and precise Doppler measurements as well as analysis of pulsar and eclipsing binary timing observations.

  12. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  13. Motion perception in motion : how we perceive object motion during smooth pursuit eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souman, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eye movements change the retinal image motion of objects in the visual field. When we make an eye movement, the image of a stationary object will move across the retinae, while the retinal image of an object that we follow with the eyes is approximately stationary. To enable us to perceive motion in

  14. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  15. Analytical Analysis of Motion Separability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hadian Jazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion segmentation is an important task in computer vision and several practical approaches have already been developed. A common approach to motion segmentation is to use the optical flow and formulate the segmentation problem using a linear approximation of the brightness constancy constraints. Although there are numerous solutions to solve this problem and their accuracies and reliabilities have been studied, the exact definition of the segmentation problem, its theoretical feasibility and the conditions for successful motion segmentation are yet to be derived. This paper presents a simplified theoretical framework for the prediction of feasibility, of segmentation of a two-dimensional linear equation system. A statistical definition of a separable motion (structure is presented and a relatively straightforward criterion for predicting the separability of two different motions in this framework is derived. The applicability of the proposed criterion for prediction of the existence of multiple motions in practice is examined using both synthetic and real image sequences. The prescribed separability criterion is useful in designing computer vision applications as it is solely based on the amount of relative motion and the scale of measurement noise.

  16. Fundamentals - longitudinal motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    There are many ways to accelerate charged particles to high energy for physics research. Each has served its purpose but eventually has encountered fundamental limitations of one kind or another. Looking at the famous Livingston curve, the initial birth and final level-off of all types of accelerators is seen. In fact, in the mid-80s we personally witnessed the creation of a new type of collider - the Stanford Linear Collider. Also witnessed, was the resurgence of study into novel methods of acceleration. This paper will cover acceleration and longitudinal motion in a synchrotron. A synchrotron is a circular accelerator with the following three characteristics: (1) Magnetic guiding (dipole) and confinement (quadrupole) components are placed in a small neighborhood around the equilibrium orbit. (2) Particles are kept in resonance with the radio-frequency electric field indefinitely to achieve acceleration to higher energies. (3) Magnetic fields are varied adiabatically with the energy of the particle. D. Edwards described the transverse oscillations of particles in a synchrotron. Here the author talks about the longitudinal oscillations of particles. The phase stability principle was invented by V. Veksler and E. McMillan independently in 1945. The phase stability and strong focusing principle, invented by Courant and Livingston in 1952, enabled the steady energy gain of accelerators and storage rings witnessed during the past 30 years. This paper is a unified overview of the related rf subjects in an accelerator and a close coupling between accelerator physics and engineering practices, which is essential for the major progress in areas such as high intensity synchrotrons, a multistage accelerator complex, and anti-proton production and cooling, made possible in the past 20 years

  17. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.; Tapia, Lydia; Thomas, Shawna

    2010-01-01

    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer's disease

  18. What motion is: William Neile and the laws of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Max

    2017-07-01

    In 1668-1669 William Neile and John Wallis engaged in a protracted correspondence regarding the nature of motion. Neile was unhappy with the laws of motion that had been established by the Royal Society in three papers published in 1668, deeming them not explanations of motion at all, but mere descriptions. Neile insisted that science could not be informative without a discussion of causes, meaning that Wallis's purely kinematic account of collision could not be complete. Wallis, however, did not consider Neile's objections to his work to be serious. Rather than engage in a discussion of the proper place of natural philosophy in science, Wallis decided to show how Neile's preferred treatment of motion lead to absurd conclusions. This dispute is offered as a case study of dispute resolution within the early Royal Society.

  19. Proper motion survey for solar nearby stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Bertrand

    2001-01-01

    For its microlensing observations EROS 2 built one of the largest CCD mosaic opera ting since 1996. This instrument allowed us to survey a large area of the sky, to look for faint, cool compact objects in the Solar neighborhood that may contribute to the Dark Matter revealed by flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies and the Milky Way. We imaged over 400 square degrees, at least three times over four years, with a single, stable instrument. The aim of this work is the reduction, the analysis and the detection of high proper motion objects that would look like those expected in a dark halo. We selected and analyzed thousands of images taken in two bands, visible and near-infrared, and obtained a catalogue of several thousand stars with proper motion typically higher than 80 milli-arc-seconds per year. None of these candidates displays the expected properties of the halo objects: very high proper motion and faintness. The second part of our work was to put constraints on the contributions of white dwarfs and brown dwarfs ta the halo. To do that, we simulated our data set and estimated our sensitivity to halo objects. We compared our results about moderately high proper motion stars with existing Galactic models, and confirmed the robustness of these models. We deduced a upper limit ta the contribution of M_v = 17.5 white dwarfs to the standard halo of 10% (at the 95% confidence level), or 5% of a 14 Gyr old halo, and to the contribution of brown dwarfs of 7% (95% C.L.). Finally, among our candidates, several interesting objects, that do not belong to the halo but are among the coolest and faintest known, have been discovered. Systematic search for faint, nearby objects thus lead us to study disk L dwarfs, as well as old white dwarfs of the disk. (author) [fr

  20. Illusory Motion Reproduced by Deep Neural Networks Trained for Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eiji; Kitaoka, Akiyoshi; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Yasugi, Masaki; Tanaka, Kenta

    2018-01-01

    The cerebral cortex predicts visual motion to adapt human behavior to surrounding objects moving in real time. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, predictive coding is one of the leading theories. Predictive coding assumes that the brain's internal models (which are acquired through learning) predict the visual world at all times and that errors between the prediction and the actual sensory input further refine the internal models. In the past year, deep neural networks based on predictive coding were reported for a video prediction machine called PredNet. If the theory substantially reproduces the visual information processing of the cerebral cortex, then PredNet can be expected to represent the human visual perception of motion. In this study, PredNet was trained with natural scene videos of the self-motion of the viewer, and the motion prediction ability of the obtained computer model was verified using unlearned videos. We found that the computer model accurately predicted the magnitude and direction of motion of a rotating propeller in unlearned videos. Surprisingly, it also represented the rotational motion for illusion images that were not moving physically, much like human visual perception. While the trained network accurately reproduced the direction of illusory rotation, it did not detect motion components in negative control pictures wherein people do not perceive illusory motion. This research supports the exciting idea that the mechanism assumed by the predictive coding theory is one of basis of motion illusion generation. Using sensory illusions as indicators of human perception, deep neural networks are expected to contribute significantly to the development of brain research.