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Sample records for gold particles reduce

  1. Gold ions bio-released from metallic gold particles reduce inflammation and apoptosis and increase the regenerative responses in focal brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Agnete; Kolind, Kristian; Pedersen, Dan Sonne

    2008-01-01

    neural stem cell response. We conclude that bio-liberated gold ions possess pronounced anti-inflammatory and neuron-protective capacities in the brain and suggest that metallic gold has clinical potentials. Intra-cerebral application of metallic gold as a pharmaceutical source of gold ions represents......Traumatic brain injury results in loss of neurons caused as much by the resulting neuroinflammation as by the injury. Gold salts are known to be immunosuppressive, but their use are limited by nephrotoxicity. However, as we have proven that implants of pure metallic gold release gold ions which do...... not spread in the body, but are taken up by cells near the implant, we hypothesize that metallic gold could reduce local neuroinflammation in a safe way. Bio-liberation, or dissolucytosis, of gold ions from metallic gold surfaces requires the presence of disolycytes i.e. macrophages and the process...

  2. Electrochemically reduced graphene–gold nano particle composite on indium tin oxide for label free immuno sensing of estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharuman, Venkataraman; Hahn, Jong Hoon; Jayakumar, Kumarasamy; Teng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Label free immunosensing of estradiol is demonstrated using graphene–AuNP composite fabricated on ITO transducer. •Continuous potential cycling reduction method selectively reduces the acid groups of the graphene oxide at pH 6.5. •The AuNP deposition induces change in the graphene orientation on the ITO surface and enhances the charge transport. -- Abstract: Electro reduced graphene and gold nano particle (ErG/AuNP) composite is prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO) surface. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques reveals the formation of vertical and flat oriented ErG films on the ITO. The AuNP deposition changes the flat oriented ErGs into vertical orientation indicated by the FESEM. Coherent interactions between the ITO, ErG and AuNPs are responsible for the discrete formation of vertical oriented hetero structures of ErG–AuNP composite on the ITO. Electrochemical properties are investigated using [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− and [Ru(NH 3 )] 2+/3+ redox probes using cyclic voltammetry (CV). While the [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− shows fast reversible behavior, the [Ru(NH 3 )] 2+/3+ reveals very slow charge transport on both ErG and ErG/AuNP films indicating the multi and compact graphene layer posses positive charge at pH 6.5 used for preparing these composites. Immuno sensing of breast cancer inducing hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) is demonstrated in presence of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− . Estrone (E1) and estriol (E3) antigens are used as the controls. The near vertical immobilization of anti-estradiol-antibody enhances the lowest detection limit of 0.1 fmol and dynamic range of 1 × 10 −3 –0.1 × 10 −12 M without any signal amplifiers. These results prove that the acid group of the GO is reduced selectively in controlled way by simple potential

  3. Synthesis method of asymmetric gold particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Bong-Hyun; Murata, Michael; Hahm, Eunil; Lee, Luke P

    2017-06-07

    Asymmetric particles can exhibit unique properties. However, reported synthesis methods for asymmetric particles hinder their application because these methods have a limited scale and lack the ability to afford particles of varied shapes. Herein, we report a novel synthetic method which has the potential to produce large quantities of asymmetric particles. Asymmetric rose-shaped gold particles were fabricated as a proof of concept experiment. First, silica nanoparticles (NPs) were bound to a hydrophobic micro-sized polymer containing 2-chlorotritylchloride linkers (2-CTC resin). Then, half-planar gold particles with rose-shaped and polyhedral structures were prepared on the silica particles on the 2-CTC resin. Particle size was controlled by the concentration of the gold source. The asymmetric particles were easily cleaved from the resin without aggregation. We confirmed that gold was grown on the silica NPs. This facile method for synthesizing asymmetric particles has great potential for materials science.

  4. Gold particle formation via photoenhanced deposition on lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaniewski, A.M., E-mail: azaniews@asu.edu; Meeks, V.; Nemanich, R.J.

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Gold chloride is reduced into solid gold nanoparticles at the surface of a polarized semiconductor. • Reduction processes are driven by ultraviolet light. • Gold nanoparticle and silver nanoparticle deposition patterns are compared. - Abstract: In this work, we report on a technique to reduce gold chloride into sub-micron particles and nanoparticles. We use photoelectron transfer from periodically polarized lithium niobate (PPLN) illuminated with above band gap light to drive the surface reactions required for the reduction and particle formation. The particle sizes and distributions on the PPLN surface are sensitive to the solution concentration, with inhibited nucleation and large particles (>150 nm) for both low (2E−8M to 9E−7M) and high (1E−5M to 1E−3M) concentrations of gold chloride. At midrange values of the concentration, nucleation is more frequent, resulting in smaller sized particles (<150 nm). We compare the deposition process to that for silver, which has been previously studied. We find that the reduction of gold chloride into nanoparticles is inhibited compared to silver ion reduction, due to the multi-step reaction required for gold particle formation. This also has consequences for the resulting deposition patterns: while silver deposits into nanowires along boundaries between areas with opposite signed polarizations, such patterning of the deposition is not observed for gold, for a wide range of concentrations studied (2E−8 to 1E−3M).

  5. Gold nano-particles fixed on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsch, Christian; Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Kracker, Michael; Rüssel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We produced wear resistant gold–ruby coatings on amorphous substrates. ► Thin sputtered gold layers were covered by or embedded in silica coatings. ► Annealing above T g of the substrate glass led to the formation of gold nano particles. ► A 1 1 1-texture of the gold particles is observed via XRD and EBSD. ► EBSD-patterns can be acquired from crystals covered by a thin layer of glass. - Abstract: A simple process for producing wear resistant gold nano-particle coatings on transparent substrates is proposed. Soda-lime-silica glasses were sputtered with gold and subsequently coated with SiO 2 using a combustion chemical vapor deposition technique. Some samples were first coated with silica, sputtered with gold and then coated with a second layer of silica. The samples were annealed for 20 min at either 550 or 600 °C. This resulted in the formation of round, well separated gold nano-particles with sizes from 15 to 200 nm. The color of the coated glass was equivalent to that of gold–ruby glasses. Silica/gold/silica coatings annealed at 600 °C for 20 min were strongly adherent and scratch resistant. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were used to describe the crystal orientations of the embedded particles. The gold particles are preferably oriented with their (1 1 1) planes perpendicular to the surface.

  6. Deposition kinetics of nanocolloidal gold particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.A.M.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Hakbijl, Mark; Wormeester, Herbert; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-01-01

    The deposition kinetics of the irreversible adsorption of citrate-stabilized, nanocolloidal gold particles on Si/SiO2 surfaces, derivatized with (aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), is investigated in situ using single wavelength optical reflectometry. A well-defined flow of colloids towards the

  7. From porous gold nanocups to porous nanospheres and solid particles - A new synthetic approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ihsan, Ayesha

    2015-05-01

    We report a versatile approach for the synthesis of porous gold nanocups, porous gold nanospheres and solid gold nanoparticles. Gold nanocups are formed by the slow reduction of gold salt (HAuCl4{dot operator}3H2O) using aminoantipyrene (AAP) as a reducing agent. Adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to the gold salt followed by reduction with AAP resulted in the formation of porous gold nanospheres. Microwave irradiation of both of these porous gold particles resulted in the formation of slightly smaller but solid gold particles. All these nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and bright-field tomography. Due to the larger size, porous nature, low density and higher surface area, these nanomaterials may have interesting applications in catalysis, drug delivery, phototherapy and sensing.

  8. From porous gold nanocups to porous nanospheres and solid particles - A new synthetic approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ihsan, Ayesha; Katsiev, Habib; AlYami, Noktan; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Khan, Waheed S.; Hussain, Irshad

    2015-01-01

    We report a versatile approach for the synthesis of porous gold nanocups, porous gold nanospheres and solid gold nanoparticles. Gold nanocups are formed by the slow reduction of gold salt (HAuCl4{dot operator}3H2O) using aminoantipyrene (AAP) as a reducing agent. Adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to the gold salt followed by reduction with AAP resulted in the formation of porous gold nanospheres. Microwave irradiation of both of these porous gold particles resulted in the formation of slightly smaller but solid gold particles. All these nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and bright-field tomography. Due to the larger size, porous nature, low density and higher surface area, these nanomaterials may have interesting applications in catalysis, drug delivery, phototherapy and sensing.

  9. Microscopic Gold Particle-Based Fiducial Markers for Proton Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Kyung; Kwak, Jungwon; Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Dongho; Yoon, Myonggeun; Park, Soah; Kim, Jin Sung; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Shin, Jungwook; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Sung Yong; Pyo, Hong Ryeol; Kim, Dae Yong M.D.; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the feasibility of using fiducial markers composed of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers as a means to overcome current problems with conventional macroscopic gold fiducial markers, such as dose reduction and artifact generation, in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We examined two types of gold particle fiducial marker interactions: that with diagnostic X-rays and with a therapeutic proton beam. That is, we qualitatively and quantitatively compared the radiographic visibility of conventional gold and gold particle fiducial markers and the CT artifacts and dose reduction associated with their use. Results: The gold particle fiducials could be easily distinguished from high-density structures, such as the pelvic bone, in diagnostic X-rays but were nearly transparent to a proton beam. The proton dose distribution was distorted <5% by the gold particle fiducials with a 4.9% normalized gold density; this was the case even in the worst configuration (i.e., parallel alignment with a single-direction proton beam). In addition, CT artifacts were dramatically reduced for the gold particle mixture. Conclusion: Mixtures of microscopic gold particles and human-compatible polymers have excellent potential as fiducial markers for proton therapy for prostate cancer. These include good radiographic visibility, low distortion of the depth-dose distribution, and few CT artifacts.

  10. Preparation of gold nanoparticles and determination of their particles size via different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Usanase, Gisele [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Oulmi, Kafia; Aberkane, Fairouz; Bendaikha, Tahar [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Chemistry(LCCE), Faculty of Science, Material Science Department, University of Batna, 05000 (Algeria); Fessi, Hatem [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Zine, Nadia [Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), Université Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, UMR-5180, 5 rue de la Doua, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Agusti, Géraldine [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Errachid, El-Salhi [Institut des Sciences Analytiques (ISA), Université Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1, UMR-5180, 5 rue de la Doua, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Elaissari, Abdelhamid, E-mail: elaissari@lagep.univ-lyon1.fr [University of Lyon, University Lyon-1, CNRS, UMR-5007, LAGEP, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Preparation of gold nanoparticles via NaBH{sub 4} reduction method, and determination of their particle size, size distribution and morphology by using different techniques. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by NaBH{sub 4} reduction method. • Excess of reducing agent leads to tendency of aggregation. • The particle size, size distribution and morphology were investigated. • Particle size was determined both experimentally as well as theoretically. - Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been used in various applications covering both electronics, biosensors, in vivo biomedical imaging and in vitro biomedical diagnosis. As a general requirement, gold nanoparticles should be prepared in large scale, easy to be functionalized by chemical compound of by specific ligands or biomolecules. In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared by using different concentrations of reducing agent (NaBH{sub 4}) in various formulations and their effect on the particle size, size distribution and morphology was investigated. Moreover, special attention has been dedicated to comparison of particles size measured by various techniques, such as, light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, UV spectrum using standard curve and particles size calculated by using Mie theory and UV spectrum of gold nanoparticles dispersion. Particle size determined by various techniques can be correlated for monodispersed particles and excess of reducing agent leads to increase in the particle size.

  11. Preparation of gold nanoparticles and determination of their particles size via different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Usanase, Gisele; Oulmi, Kafia; Aberkane, Fairouz; Bendaikha, Tahar; Fessi, Hatem; Zine, Nadia; Agusti, Géraldine; Errachid, El-Salhi; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Preparation of gold nanoparticles via NaBH_4 reduction method, and determination of their particle size, size distribution and morphology by using different techniques. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by NaBH_4 reduction method. • Excess of reducing agent leads to tendency of aggregation. • The particle size, size distribution and morphology were investigated. • Particle size was determined both experimentally as well as theoretically. - Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been used in various applications covering both electronics, biosensors, in vivo biomedical imaging and in vitro biomedical diagnosis. As a general requirement, gold nanoparticles should be prepared in large scale, easy to be functionalized by chemical compound of by specific ligands or biomolecules. In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared by using different concentrations of reducing agent (NaBH_4) in various formulations and their effect on the particle size, size distribution and morphology was investigated. Moreover, special attention has been dedicated to comparison of particles size measured by various techniques, such as, light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, UV spectrum using standard curve and particles size calculated by using Mie theory and UV spectrum of gold nanoparticles dispersion. Particle size determined by various techniques can be correlated for monodispersed particles and excess of reducing agent leads to increase in the particle size.

  12. PVA stabilized gold nanoparticles by use of unexplored albeit conventional reducing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, P K [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Panchwati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India); Gokhale, R [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Panchwati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India); Subbarao, V V.V.S. [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Panchwati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India); Vishwanath, A Kasi [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Panchwati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India); Das, B K [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Panchwati, Off Pashan Road, Pune 411008 (India); Satyanarayana, C V.V. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan Road, Pune 41108 (India)

    2005-07-15

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) stabilized gold nanoparticles have been prepared in aqueous medium using two different reducing viz.; hydrazine hydrate, a stronger reducing agent and sodium formaldehydesulfoxylate (SFS), a slightly weaker reducing agent. SFS is used for first ever time for reduction of gold metal salt. The PVA stabilized gold nanoparticles solutions are wine red to blood red coloured and are stable over a long period of time with no indication of aggregation. The solution shows strong visible light absorptions in the range of 520-540 nm, characteristics of gold nanoparticles. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of freshly prepared films containing gold nanoparticles indicated particles size to be about 15 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of a more than two-week-old sample revealed well-defined non-agglomerated spherical particles of about 50 nm diameter in solutions.

  13. PVA stabilized gold nanoparticles by use of unexplored albeit conventional reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, P.K.; Gokhale, R.; Subbarao, V.V.V.S.; Vishwanath, A. Kasi; Das, B.K.; Satyanarayana, C.V.V.

    2005-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) stabilized gold nanoparticles have been prepared in aqueous medium using two different reducing viz.; hydrazine hydrate, a stronger reducing agent and sodium formaldehydesulfoxylate (SFS), a slightly weaker reducing agent. SFS is used for first ever time for reduction of gold metal salt. The PVA stabilized gold nanoparticles solutions are wine red to blood red coloured and are stable over a long period of time with no indication of aggregation. The solution shows strong visible light absorptions in the range of 520-540 nm, characteristics of gold nanoparticles. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of freshly prepared films containing gold nanoparticles indicated particles size to be about 15 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of a more than two-week-old sample revealed well-defined non-agglomerated spherical particles of about 50 nm diameter in solutions

  14. Microbial deposition of gold nanoparticles by the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Y.; Tsukiyama, T.; Tachimi, T.; Saitoh, N.; Nomura, T.; Nagamine, S.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial reduction and deposition of gold nanoparticles was achieved at 25 deg. C over the pH range 2.0-7.0 using the mesophilic bacterium Shewanella algae in the presence of H 2 as the electron donor. The reductive deposition of gold by the resting cells of S. algae was a fast process: 1 mM AuCl 4 - ions were completely reduced to elemental gold within 30 min. At a solution pH of 7, gold nanoparticles 10-20 nm in size were deposited in the periplasmic space of S. algae cells. At pH 2.8, gold nanoparticles 15-200 nm in size were deposited on the bacterial cells, and the biogenic nanoparticles exhibited a variety of shapes that included nanotriangles: in particular, single crystalline gold nanotriangles 100-200 nm in size were microbially deposited. At a solution pH of 2.0, gold nanoparticles about 20 nm in size were deposited intracellularly, and larger gold particles approximately 350 nm in size were deposited extracellularly. The solution pH was an important factor in controlling the morphology of the biogenic gold particles and the location of gold deposition. Microbial deposition of gold nanoparticles is potentially attractive as an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional methods

  15. Chemisorption and Reactions of Small Molecules on Small Gold Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Bond

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The activity of supported gold particles for a number of oxidations and hydrogenations starts to increase dramatically as the size falls below ~3 nm. This is accompanied by an increased propensity to chemisorption, especially of oxygen and hydrogen. The explanation for these phenomena has to be sought in kinetic analysis that connects catalytic activity with the strength and extent of chemisorption of the reactants, the latter depending on the electronic structure of the gold atoms constituting the active centre. Examination of the changes to the utilisation of electrons as particle size is decreased points to loss of metallic character at about 3 nm, as energy bands are replaced by levels, and a band gap appears. Detailed consideration of the Arrhenius parameters (E and ln A for CO oxidation points clearly to a step-change in activity at the point where metallic character is lost, as opposed to there being a monotonic dependence of rate on a physical property such as the fraction of atoms at corners or edges of particles. The deplorable scarcity of kinetic information on other reactions makes extension of this analysis difficult, but non-metallic behaviour is an unavoidable property of very small gold particles, and therefore cannot be ignored when seeking to explain their exceptional activity.

  16. Surface modification of silica particles with gold nanoparticles as an augmentation of gold nanoparticle mediated laser perforation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, Stefan; Gentemann, Lara; Schomaker, Markus; Heinemann, Dag; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle mediated (GNOME) laser transfection/perforation fulfills the demands of a reliable transfection technique. It provides efficient delivery and has a negligible impact on cell viability. Furthermore, it reaches high-throughput applicability. However, currently only large gold particles (> 80 nm) allow successful GNOME laser perforation, probably due to insufficient sedimentation of smaller gold nanoparticles. The objective of this study is to determine whether this aspect can be addressed by a modification of silica particles with gold nanoparticles. Throughout the analysis, we show that after the attachment of gold nanoparticles to silica particles, comparable or better efficiencies to GNOME laser perforation are reached. In combination with 1 µm silica particles, we report laser perforation with gold nanoparticles with sizes down to 4 nm. Therefore, our investigations have great importance for the future research in and the fields of laser transfection combined with plasmonics. PMID:25136494

  17. Gold Wire-networks: Particle Array Guided Evaporation Lithograpy

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2015-06-29

    We exploited the combination of dry deposition of monolayer of 2D (two dimensional) templates, lift-up transfer of 2D template onto flat surfaces and evaporation lithography [1] to fabricate gold micro- and submicron size wire networks. The approach relies upon the defect free dry deposition of 2D monolayer of latex particles [2] on patterned silicon template and flat PDMS-substrate to create square centered and honey-comb wire networks respectively. The process is followed by lift-up transfer of 2D latex crystal on glass substrate. Subsequently, a small amount of AuNP-suspension is doped on top of the transferred crystal; the suspension is allowed to spread instantaneously and dried at low temperature. The liquid evaporates uniformly to the direction perpendicular to glass substrate. During evaporation, AuNPs are de-wetted along with the movement of liquid to self-assemble in-between the inter-particle spaces and therefore, giving rise to liquid-bridge networks which upon delayed evaporation, transforms into wire networks. The approach is used to fabricate both micro- and submicron wire-networks by simply changing the template dimensions. One of the prime motives behind this study is to down-scale the existing particle array template-based evaporation lithography process to fabricate connected gold wire networks at both micro- and submicron scale. Secondly, the idea of combining the patterned silicon wafer with lifted latex particle template creates an opportunity to clean and res-use the patterned wafer more often and thereby, saving fabrication time and resources. Finally, we illustrated the validity of this approach by creating an easy and high-speed approach to develop gold wire networks on a flexible substrate with a thin deposited adhesive. These advances will not only serve as a platform to scale up the production, but also demonstrated that the fabrication method can produce metallic wire networks of different scale and onto a variety of substrates.

  18. Ultrasmooth, Highly Spherical Monocrystalline Gold Particles for Precision Plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, You-Jin

    2013-12-23

    Ultrasmooth, highly spherical monocrystalline gold particles were prepared by a cyclic process of slow growth followed by slow chemical etching, which selectively removes edges and vertices. The etching process effectively makes the surface tension isotropic, so that spheres are favored under quasi-static conditions. It is scalable up to particle sizes of 200 nm or more. The resulting spherical crystals display uniform scattering spectra and consistent optical coupling at small separations, even showing Fano-like resonances in small clusters. The high monodispersity of the particles we demonstrate should facilitate the self-assembly of nanoparticle clusters with uniform optical resonances, which could in turn be used to fabricate optical metafluids. Narrow size distributions are required to control not only the spectral features but also the morphology and yield of clusters in certain assembly schemes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Dimerization of eosin on nanostructured gold surfaces: Size regime dependence of the small metallic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Pal, Anjali; Nath, Sudip; Kundu, Subrata; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Pal, Tarasankar

    2005-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles of variable sizes have been exploited to study their influence on the absorption and emission spectral characteristics of eosin, a fluorescent dye. It has been found that smaller particles of gold stimulate J-aggregation of eosin on the surface of metal particles whereas larger particles cannot induce any kind of aggregation amongst the dye molecules. The size regime dependence of the gold nanoparticles has been attributed to the intercluster interactions induced by the dye molecules for smaller gold nanoparticles and consequently, close packing of the dye molecules around the gold surface engenders intermolecular interactions amongst the dye molecules leading to dimerization.

  20. Spiky gold shells on magnetic particles for DNA biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Erin E; Boujday, Souhir; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Gu, Frank X

    2018-05-15

    Combined separation and detection of biomolecules has the potential to speed up and improve the sensitivity of disease detection, environmental testing, and biomolecular analysis. In this work, we synthesized magnetic particles coated with spiky nanostructured gold shells and used them to magnetically separate out and detect oligonucleotides using SERS. The distance dependence of the SERS signal was then harnessed to detect DNA hybridization using a Raman label bound to a hairpin probe. The distance of the Raman label from the surface increased upon complementary DNA hybridization, leading to a decrease in signal intensity. This work demonstrates the use of the particles for combined separation and detection of oligonucleotides without the use of an extrinsic tag or secondary hybridization step. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Methods to reduce mercury pollution is small gold mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoja-Timaran, F.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Rodriguez-Avello, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air, and now have been changed to the utilization of artisan iron retorts which considerable reduce the emissions of mercury vapors to the atmosphere, but there are still high losses of mercury into the waste solids or tailings coming from the amalgamation process (nearly most of the total weight of the ore treated). In order to reduce the mercury losses into the tailings from the process, this research work has been based in the use of cheap systems, available to the isolated miners, to proof that it is feasible to get an important reduction of the losses and the pollution. the procedure has been accomplished by means of washing the ores with alkaline or detergent agents, together with the use of activated mercury purified by electrowinning in a simple device, easily manufactured in site by the own workers. It is also proven herewith that controlling the time of amalgamation and the total amount of mercury used could reduce the total pollution, and in addition, the gold recovery would be improved. This investigation reports the possibility of a reduction of mercury losses down to 2.4 g per 100 of gold produced (case of rich ores like LaBruja), with gold recovery up to 94%; and 8,6 g per 100 g of gold produced (from ores with average grades like La Gruesa), and gold recoveries in the range of 92%. All that is about 20 to 100 times lower than data reported in current bibliography. The introduction of a previous step of the ore concentration in shaking tables, decreases the total amount of solids for

  2. Gold surface supported spherical liposome-gold nano-particle nano-composite for label free DNA sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvana, M; Narayanan, J Shankara; Dharuman, V; Teng, W; Hahn, J H; Jayakumar, K

    2013-03-15

    Immobilization of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) liposome-gold nano-particle (DOPE-AuNP) nano-composite covalently on 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on gold surface is demonstrated for the first time for electrochemical label free DNA sensing. Spherical nature of the DOPE on the MPA monolayer is confirmed by the appearance of sigmoidal voltammetric profile, characteristic behavior of linear diffusion, for the MPA-DOPE in presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+) redox probes. The DOPE liposome vesicle fusion is prevented by electroless deposition of AuNP on the hydrophilic amine head groups of the DOPE. Immobilization of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) is made via simple gold-thiol linkage for DNA hybridization sensing in the presence of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-). The sensor discriminates the hybridized (complementary target hybridized), un-hybridized (non-complementary target hybridized) and single base mismatch target hybridized surfaces sensitively and selectively without signal amplification. The lowest target DNA concentration detected is 0.1×10(-12)M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance (EIS), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques are used for DNA sensing on DOPE-AuNP nano-composite. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV) spectroscopic techniques are used to understand the interactions between the DOPE, AuNP and ssDNA. The results indicate the presence of an intact and well defined spherical DOPE-AuNP nano-composite on the gold surface. The method could be applied for fabrication of the surface based liposome-AuNP-DNA composite for cell transfection studies at reduced reagents and costs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparative evaluation of drilling techniques for deposits containing free gold using radioactive gold particles as tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the summers of 1992 and 1994, the author designed and carried out a statistically valid research program using radioactivated gold particles as tracers (radiotracers). Two types of fully cased normal circulation (N / C) drills, two types of reverse circulation (R/C) drills and three solid auger drills were evaluated under a variety of field conditions. A frozen cylindrical core of compacted gravels containing four sizes ( 1.2, 0.60, 0.30 and 0.15 mm), (+l4,+28,+48and+100 mesh)of radiotracers was placed in 44 drill holes and the holes were re drilled. Scintillometers were used to track free gold losses due to spillage and blow-by around the collar (top) of the hole. Some gold particles were located in temporary traps in the drilling equipment and these particles would have contaminated subsequent samples (as carry-over). Several myths commonly attributed to particular drilling methods were dispelled. There was no significant difference between the recovery of the four sizes of gold particles with any of the drills tested. Observations and down-hole scintillometer records indicated that the free gold particles did not follow the bit down the hole and were either carried out of the hole or forced onto the sides of the hole at or above the depth at which the radioactive gold was positioned. A comparative evaluation of the results of these tests is presented

  4. Strong reduction of spectral heterogeneity in gold bipyramids for single-particle and single-molecule plasmon sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S M E; Verheijen, M A; Prins, M W J; Zijlstra, P

    2016-01-15

    Single metal nanoparticles are attractive biomolecular sensors. Binding of analyte to a functional particle results in a plasmon shift that can be conveniently monitored in a far-field optical microscope. Heterogeneities in spectral properties of individual particles in an ensemble affect the reliability of a single-particle plasmon sensor, especially when plasmon shifts are monitored in real-time using a fixed irradiation wavelength. We compare the spectral heterogeneity of different plasmon sensor geometries (gold nanospheres, nanorods, and bipyramids) and correlate this to their size and aspect-ratio dispersion. We show that gold bipyramids exhibit a strongly reduced heterogeneity in aspect ratio and plasmon wavelength compared to commonly used gold nanorods. We show that this translates into a significantly improved homogeneity of the response to molecular binding without compromising single-molecule sensitivity.

  5. REDUCE in elementary particle physics. Quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozin, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    This preprint is the second part of the problem book on using REDUCE for calculations of cross sections and decay probabilities in elementary particle physics. It contains examples of calculations in quantum electrodynamics. 5 refs

  6. REDUCE system in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozin, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    This preprint is the first part of the problem book on using REDUCE for calculations of cross sections and decay probabilities in elementary particle physics. It contains the review of the necessary formulae and examples of using REDUCE for calculations with vectors and Dirac matrices. 5 refs.; 11 figs

  7. Reducing Mercury Pollution from Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    To reduce airborne mercury emissions from these Gold Shops, EPA and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have partnered to design a low cost, easily constructible technology called the Gold Shop Mercury Capture System (MCS).

  8. Bald Mountain gold mining district, Nevada: A Jurassic reduced intrusion-related gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, C.J.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Bald Mountain mining district has produced about 2 million ounces (Moz) of An. Geologic mapping, field relationships, geochemical data, petrographic observations, fluid inclusion characteristics, and Pb, S, O, and H isotope data indicate that An mineralization was associated with a reduced Jurassic intrusion. Gold deposits are localized within and surrounding a Jurassic (159 Ma) quartz monzonite porphyry pluton and dike complex that intrudes Cambrian to Mississippian carbonate and clastic rocks. The pluton, associated dikes, and An mineralization were controlled by a crustal-scale northwest-trending structure named the Bida trend. Gold deposits are localized by fracture networks in the pluton and the contact metamorphic aureole, dike margins, high-angle faults, and certain strata or shale-limestone contacts in sedimentary rocks. Gold mineralization was accompanied by silicification and phyllic alteration, ??argillic alteration at shallow levels. Although An is typically present throughout, the system exhibits a classic concentric geochemical zonation pattern with Mo, W, Bi, and Cu near the center, Ag, Pb, and Zn at intermediate distances, and As and Sb peripheral to the intrusion. Near the center of the system, micron-sized native An occurs with base metal sulfides and sulfosalts. In peripheral deposits and in later stages of mineralization, Au is typically submicron in size and resides in pyrite or arsenopyrite. Electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses show that arsenopyrite, pyrite, and Bi sulfide minerals contain 10s to 1,000s of ppm Au. Ore-forming fluids were aqueous and carbonic at deep levels and episodically hypersaline at shallow levels due to boiling. The isotopic compositions of H and O in quartz and sericite and S and Pb in sulfides are indicative of magmatic ore fluids with sedimentary sulfur. Together, the evidence suggests that Au was introduced by reduced S-bearing magmatic fluids derived from a reduced intrusion. The reduced

  9. Particle size-dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Wim H.; Hagens, Werner I.; Krystek, Petra; Burger, Marina C.; Sips, Adriënne J A M; Geertsma, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    A kinetic study was performed to determine the influence of particle size on the in vivo tissue distribution of spherical-shaped gold nanoparticles in the rat. Gold nanoparticles were chosen as model substances as they are used in several medical applications. In addition, the detection of the

  10. Gold micro- and nano-particles for surface enhanced vibrational spectroscopy of pyridostigmine bromide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgov, Leonid; Fesenko, Olena; Kavelin, Vladyslav

    2017-01-01

    Triangular gold microprisms and spherical silica nanoparticles with attached gold nano-islands were examined as an active nanostructures for the surface enhanced Raman and infrared spectroscopy. These particles were probed for the detection of pyridostigmine bromide as a safe analog of military c...

  11. Implications of accelerator experiments for models of the Kolar Gold Mine particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, K V.L. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Wolfenstein, L [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA)

    1976-03-01

    The significance of accelerator searches for the new particles discovered in the Kolar Gold Mine experiments depends on the characteristics of the models of these particles. Models that could give cosmic ray neutrinos a great advantage over accelerator neutrinos are presented. The new particles should be produced in e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliding beams, but the cross-section is model dependent.

  12. Gold grade variation and particle microchemistry in exploration pits of the Batouri gold district, SE Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishiti, A.; Suh, C. E.; Lehmann, B.; Egbe, J. A.; Shemang, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The Batouri area hosts lode-gold mineralization under several-m-thick lateritic cover. Pitting to bed rock on a geochemical Au anomaly defined from previous reconnaissance soil sampling identified five horizons ranging from saprock at the base to laterite at the top. Analysis of bulk samples from each horizon by fire assay shows that most of the horizons are barren although 119 ppb and 48 ppb Au values were obtained from one laterite horizon and one saprolite horizon, respectively, from two separate pits. All the horizons were panned and particulate gold was also recovered only from these two horizons. The gold grains from both horizons are morphologically and compositionally indistinguishable with rare quartz, pyrite and galena inclusions. The grains have irregular, sub-rounded, bean to elongated shapes and they show a remarkable core-rim zonation. Electron microprobe analysis of the grains recorded high gold content in the rims (86.3-100 wt%) and along fissures within the grains (95.1-100 wt%). The cores are relatively Ag rich (11.8-14 wt% Ag) while the rims (0.63-13.7 wt% Ag, most of the values fall within the lower limit of this range) and fissures (0.03-5.02 wt% Ag) are poor in Ag. The low Ag concentration in the rims and along fissures is attributed to preferential leaching of Ag; a process recognized in gold grains and platiniferous alloys from alluvia. The core composition of the grains is similar to that of primary gold composition in the bedrock. These results show that gold in the soil is relic particulate gold derived from the primary source with no evidence of secondary gold precipitation in the weathering cycle. In all the pits no horizon was systematically enriched in gold suggesting there has been no chemical remobilization of gold in this environment. Rather the dispersion of gold here is in the particulate form. Therefore combining particulate gold features with assay data is relevant to exploration in such tropical environments.

  13. Methods to reduce mercury pollution in small gold mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantoja-Timarán, F.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. Some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air and now have been changed to the utilization of artisan iron retorts which considerably reduce the emissions of mercury vapors to the atmosphere, but there are still high losses of mercury into the waste solids or tailings coming from the amalgamation process (nearly most of the total weight of the ore treated. In order to reduce the mercury losses into the tailings from the process, this research work has been based in the use of cheap systems, available to the isolated miners, to proof that it is feasible to get an important reduction of the losses and the pollution. The procedure has been accomplished by means of washing the ores with alkaline or detergent agents, together with the use of activated mercury purified by electrowinning in a simple device, easily manufactured in site by the own workers. It is also proven herewith that controlling the time of amalgamation and the total amount of mercury used could reduce the total pollution, and in addition, the gold recovery would be improved. This investigation reports the possibility of a reduction of mercury losses down to 2.4 g per 100 g of gold produced (case of rich ores like La Bruja, with gold recovery up to 94 %; and 8,6 g per 100 g of gold produced (from ores with average grades like La Gruesa, and gold recoveries in the range of 92 %. All that is about 20 to 100 times lower than data reported in current bibliography. The introduction of a previous step of the ore concentration in shaking tables, decreases the total

  14. Reducing wall plasma expansion with gold foam irradiated by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Ding, Yongkun; Jiang, Shaoen; Yang, Jiamin; Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Lin, Zhiwei; Jing, Longfei; Li, Liling; Deng, Bo; Yuan, Zheng; Chen, Tao; Yuan, Guanghui; Tan, Xiulan; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The experimental study on the expanding plasma movement of low-density gold foam (∼1% solid density) irradiated by a high power laser is reported in this paper. Experiments were conducted using the SG-III prototype laser. Compared to solid gold with 19.3 g/cc density, the velocities of X-ray emission fronts moving off the wall are much smaller for gold foam with 0.3 g/cc density. Theoretical analysis and MULTI 1D simulation results also show less plasma blow-off, and that the density contour movement velocities of gold foam are smaller than those of solid gold, agreeing with experimental results. These results indicate that foam walls have advantages in symmetry control and lowering plasma fill when used in ignition hohlraum

  15. Reducing wall plasma expansion with gold foam irradiated by laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu; Ding, Yongkun, E-mail: ding-yk@vip.sina.com; Jiang, Shaoen, E-mail: jiangshn@vip.sina.com; Yang, Jiamin; Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Lin, Zhiwei; Jing, Longfei; Li, Liling; Deng, Bo; Yuan, Zheng; Chen, Tao; Yuan, Guanghui; Tan, Xiulan; Li, Ping [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The experimental study on the expanding plasma movement of low-density gold foam (∼1% solid density) irradiated by a high power laser is reported in this paper. Experiments were conducted using the SG-III prototype laser. Compared to solid gold with 19.3 g/cc density, the velocities of X-ray emission fronts moving off the wall are much smaller for gold foam with 0.3 g/cc density. Theoretical analysis and MULTI 1D simulation results also show less plasma blow-off, and that the density contour movement velocities of gold foam are smaller than those of solid gold, agreeing with experimental results. These results indicate that foam walls have advantages in symmetry control and lowering plasma fill when used in ignition hohlraum.

  16. In Situ Reductive Synthesis of Structural Supported Gold Nanorods in Porous Silicon Particles for Multifunctional Nanovectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guixian; Liu, Jen-Tsai; Wang, Yuzhen; Zhang, Dechen; Guo, Yi; Tasciotti, Ennio; Hu, Zhongbo; Liu, Xuewu

    2016-05-11

    Porous silicon nanodisks (PSD) were fabricated by the combination of photolithography and electrochemical etching of silicon. By using PSD as a reducing agent, gold nanorods (AuNR) were in situ synthesized in the nanopores of PSD, forming PSD-supported-AuNR (PSD/AuNR) hybrid particles. The formation mechanism of AuNR in porous silicon (pSi) was revealed by exploring the role of pSi reducibility and each chemical in the reaction. With the PSD support, AuNR exhibited a stable morphology without toxic surface ligands (CTAB). The PSD/AuNR hybrid particles showed enhanced plasmonic property compared to free AuNR. Because high-density "hot spots" can be generated by controlling the distribution of AuNR supported in PSD, surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS) using PSD/AuNR as particle substrates was demonstrated. A multifunctional vector, PSD/AuNR/DOX, composed of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded PSD/AuNR capped with agarose (agar), was developed for highly efficient, combinatorial cancer treatment. Their therapeutic efficacy was examined using two pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2. PSD/AuNR/DOX (20 μg Au and 1.25 μg DOX/mL) effectively destroyed these cells under near-IR laser irradiation (810 nm, 15 J·cm(-2) power, 90 s). Overall, we envision that PSD/AuNR may be a promising injectable, multifunctional nanovector for biomedical application.

  17. Metallic gold treatment reduces proliferation of inflammatory cells, increases expression of VEGF and FGF, and stimulates cell proliferation in the subventricular zone following experimental traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mie Østergaard; Larsen, Agnete; Pedersen, Dan Sonne

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury represents a leading cause of morbidity in young individuals and there is an imperative need for neuroprotective treatments limiting the neurologic impairment following such injury. It has recently been demonstrated that bio-liberated gold ions liberated from small metallic...... gold implants reduce inflammation and neuronal apoptosis, while generating an increased neuronal stem cell response following focal brain damage. In this study mice were subjected to a unilateral traumatic cryo-lesion with concomitant injection of 25-45 microm gold particles near the lesion. Placebo...... increase in cell proliferation in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral subventricular zone was found in response to gold-treatment. In conclusion: we confirmed the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect of bio-liberated gold ions, and further show that metallic gold increases growth factor...

  18. Ultrafast Relaxation Dynamics of the Optical Nonlinearity in Nanometric Gold Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puech, K.; Blau, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of the resonantly enhanced, third-order nonlinear optical properties of gold nanostructures exhibiting reduced charge-carrier mobility in three dimensions were performed with a number of ultrafast nonlinear optical techniques. The size of the particles investigated was varied between 5 and 40 nm. The magnitude of the nonlinear susceptibility is of the order of 5.10 -16 m 2 V -2 at resonance and an order of magnitude lower off-resonance. The response time of the nonlinearity is found to be extremely fast and could not be resolved in the experiments undertaken here. The only statement that can be made in this regard is that the phase relaxation time is of the order of or less than 20 fs while the energy relaxation time is of the order of or less than 75 fs

  19. The green synthesis of fine particles of gold using an aqueous extract of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Natasha; Khan, Abbas; Shah, Mohib; Azam, Andaleeb; Zaman, Khair; Parven, Zahida

    2016-12-01

    This study deals with the synthesis and physicochemical investigation of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.). On the treatment of aqueous solution of tetrachloroauric acid with the plant extract, gold nanoparticles were rapidly fabricated. The synthesized particles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UV), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation of AuNPs was confirmed by noting the change in color through visual observations as well as via UV-Vis spectroscopy. UV‒Vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing gold nanoparticles showed an absorption peak at around 540 nm. FTIR was used to identify the chemical composition of gold nanoparticles and Au-capped plant extract. The presence of elemental gold was also confirmed through EDX analysis. SEM analysis of the gold nanoparticles showed that they have a uniform spherical shape with an average size in the range of 70-78 nm. This green system showed to be better capping and stabilizing agent for the fine particles. Further, the antioxidant activity of Monotheca buxifolia (Flac.) extract and Au-capped with the plant extract was also evaluated using FeCl3/K3[Fe(CN)]6 in vitro assay.

  20. Progressive biogeochemical transformation of placer gold particles drives compositional changes in associated biofilm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Maria Angelica; Standish, Christopher D; Shuster, Jeremiah; Bissett, Andrew; Reith, Frank

    2018-05-03

    Biofilms on placer gold (Au)-particle surfaces drive Au solubilization and re-concentration thereby progressively transforming the particles. Gold solubilization induces Au-toxicity; however, Au-detoxifying community members ameliorates Au-toxicity by precipitating soluble Au to metallic Au. We hypothesize that Au-dissolution and re-concentration (precipitation) places selective pressures on associated microbial communities, leading to compositional changes and subsequent Au-particle transformation. We analyzed Au-particles from eight United Kingdom sites using next generation sequencing, electron microscopy and micro-analyses. Gold particles contained biofilms composed of prokaryotic cells and extracellular polymeric substances intermixed with (bio)minerals. Across all sites communities were dominated by Proteobacteria (689, 97% Operational Taxonomic Units, 59.3% of total reads), with β-Proteobacteria being the most abundant. A wide range of Au-morphotypes including nanoparticles, micro-crystals, sheet-like Au and secondary rims, indicated that dissolution and re-precipitation occurred, and from this transformation indices were calculated. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a significant relationship between the extent of Au-particle transformation and biofilm community composition, with putative metal-resistant Au-cycling taxa linked to progressive Au transformation. These included the genera Pseudomonas, Leptothrix and Acinetobacter. Additionally, putative exoelectrogenic genera Rhodoferax and Geobacter were highly abundant. In conclusion, biogeochemical Au-cycling and Au-particle transformation occurred at all sites and exerted a strong influence on biofilm community composition.

  1. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-04-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4.3H2O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  2. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Periasamy, Vengadesh [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Department of Physic, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2015-01-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl 4 .3H 2 O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine

  4. Ultrasmooth, Highly Spherical Monocrystalline Gold Particles for Precision Plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, You-Jin; Schade, Nicholas B.; Sun, Li; Fan, Jonathan A.; Bae, Doo Ri; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Lee, Gaehang; Capasso, Federico; Sacanna, Stefano; Manoharan, Vinothan N.; Yi, Gi-Ra

    2013-01-01

    isotropic, so that spheres are favored under quasi-static conditions. It is scalable up to particle sizes of 200 nm or more. The resulting spherical crystals display uniform scattering spectra and consistent optical coupling at small separations, even

  5. In-situ follow up of gold nano-particles nucleation-growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abecassis, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we assess the formation mechanism of gold nanoparticles in situ in liquid media (homogeneous or in microemulsion) by small angle scattering techniques. The first part details several important concepts which are useful for an appropriate understanding of the rest of the thesis along with an overview of the literature on the subject. We then present results of time resolved synchrotron small angle X ray scattering and UV-visible experiment performed in situ during the formation of gold nanoparticles in organic solvent. We show that it is possible to follow the nucleation and growth of the particles in real time with a time resolution of a few hundreds milliseconds. We show that depending on the chemical nature of the ligand the nucleation and growth can be either simultaneous or separated in time. In the latter case, the growth is limited by surface reaction of the monomer at the particles surface. We also show that when the produced nanoparticles have an average radius larger than 5 nm, they self-assemble into ordered super-lattice which exhibit a cubic face center crystallographic structure. In a third part, by using a combination of complementary techniques we study water/oil/octyl-ammonium-octanoate microemulsions in the reverse micelles part of the phase diagram. The structure of these 'catanionic' microemulsions are revealed as a function of the water content, the temperature and the surface charge. The different observed topologies (sphere, rod-like or connected worm-like) and the phase transitions are compared to a recent theory which takes into account the curvature energy of the surfactant film. Finally, we show that these microemulsions can be used efficiently to synthesise gold nanoparticles. We show that the template effect, often cited to explain the formation of nanoparticles in reverse micelles is in our case not relevant. It is also noteworthy possible to separate and purify the as-produced nanoparticles by slightly

  6. One-step synthesis of gold-polyaniline core-shell particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhijuan; Yuan Junhua; Han Dongxue; Niu Li; Ivaska, Ari

    2007-01-01

    A one-step method has been developed for synthesizing gold-polyaniline (Au-PANI) core-shell particles by using chlorauric acid (HAuCl 4 ) to oxidize aniline in the presence of acetic acid and Tween 40 at room temperature. SEM images indicated that the resulting core-shell particles were composed of submicrometre-scale Au particles and PANI shells with an average thickness of 25 nm. Furthermore, a possible mechanism concerning the growth of Au-PANI particles was also proposed based on the results of control experiments

  7. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30

    coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with

  8. Gold Wire-networks: Particle Array Guided Evaporation Lithograpy

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah; Zhang, Jiaming; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    relies upon the defect free dry deposition of 2D monolayer of latex particles [2] on patterned silicon template and flat PDMS-substrate to create square centered and honey-comb wire networks respectively. The process is followed by lift-up transfer of 2D

  9. Methods to reduce mercury pollution in small gold mining operations

    OpenAIRE

    Pantoja-Timarán, F.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, R.; Rodríguez-Avelló, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. Some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air and now have been ...

  10. Photopyroelectric Techniques for thermo-optical characterization of gold nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez-Sandoval, B E; Balderas-López, J A; Padilla-Bernal, G; Moreno-Rivera, M A; Franco-Hernández, M O; Martínez-Jiménez, A; García-Franco, F

    2015-01-01

    Since the first methodology, proposed by Turkevich, to produce gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), improvements have been made as to allow better controllability in their size and shape. These two parameters play important role for application of gold nanoparticles since they determine their optical and thermal properties. Two photopyroelectric techniques for the measurement of the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient for nano-particles are introduced. These thermo-physical properties were measured for the colloidal systems at different nano-particle's sizes and, for optical properties, at three different wavelengths (405 nm, 488 nm and 532 nm). No significant difference, on thermal properties, was found in the range of nano-particles' sizes studied in this work; in opposition optical properties shown more sensitive to this parameter

  11. Seeds mediated synthesis of giant gold particles on the glass surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, A. A.; Borodinova, T. I.; Marchenko, O. A.; Snegir, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    Herein, we present the protocols of synthesis of two types of gold particles which are in the great interest for the purpose of molecular electronics. The first type is the flat prisms with a triangular/hexagonal shape and a lateral size up to 80 µm. They were synthesized directly on a glass surface pretreated with (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane molecules. The second type of particles was synthesized with using gold seeds with diameter of 18 nm. These seeds were deposited on a glass surface coated with APTES. The resulted three-dimensional structures with a form close to spherical increase in size up to 0.5-0.08 µm. Moreover, these particles grew up separately and did not merge during 48 h of synthesis.

  12. In vivo tumor targeting of gold nanoparticles: effect of particle type and dosing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanakrishnan, Priyaveena; Park, Jaesook; Chatterjee, Deyali; Krishnan, Sunil; Tunnell, James W

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have gained significant interest as nanovectors for combined imaging and photothermal therapy of tumors. Delivered systemically, GNPs preferentially accumulate at the tumor site via the enhanced permeability and retention effect, and when irradiated with near infrared light, produce sufficient heat to treat tumor tissue. The efficacy of this process strongly depends on the targeting ability of the GNPs, which is a function of the particle's geometric properties (eg, size) and dosing strategy (eg, number and amount of injections). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of GNP type and dosing strategy on in vivo tumor targeting. Specifically, we investigated the in vivo tumor-targeting efficiency of pegylated gold nanoshells (GNSs) and gold nanorods (GNRs) for single and multiple dosing. We used Swiss nu/nu mice with a subcutaneous tumor xenograft model that received intravenous administration for a single and multiple doses of GNS and GNR. We performed neutron activation analysis to quantify the gold present in the tumor and liver. We performed histology to determine if there was acute toxicity as a result of multiple dosing. Neutron activation analysis results showed that the smaller GNRs accumulated in higher concentrations in the tumor compared to the larger GNSs. We observed a significant increase in GNS and GNR accumulation in the liver for higher doses. However, multiple doses increased targeting efficiency with minimal effect beyond three doses of GNPs. These results suggest a significant effect of particle type and multiple doses on increasing particle accumulation and on tumor targeting ability.

  13. Electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols on single gold particles in highly ordered SiO2 cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Na; Zhou, Qun; Tian, Shu; Zhao, Hong; Li, Xiaowei; Adkins, Jason; Gu, Zhuomin; Zhao, Lili; Zheng, Junwei

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we report a new and simple approach for preparing a highly ordered Au (1 1 1) nanoparticle (NP) array in SiO 2 cavities on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. We fabricated a SiO 2 cavity array on the surface of an ITO electrode using highly ordered self-assembly of polystyrene spheres as a template. Gold NPs were electrodeposited at the bottom of the SiO 2 cavities, and single gold NPs dominated with (1 1 1) facets were generated in each cavity by annealing the electrode at a high temperature. Such (1 1 1) facets were the predominate trait of the single gold particle which exhibited considerable electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and glycerol. This has been attributed to the formation of incipient hydrous oxides at unusually low potential on the specific (1 1 1) facet of the gold particles. Moreover, each cavity of the SiO 2 possibly behaves as an independent electrochemical cell in which the methanol molecules are trapped; this produces an environment advantageous to catalyzing electrooxidation. The oxidation of methanol on the electrodes is a mixed control mechanism (both by diffusion and electrode kinetics). This strategy both provided an approach to study electrochemical reactions on a single particle in a microenvironment and may supply a way to construct alcohols sensors

  14. The anomalous physical and chemical properties of gold nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortie, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Although gold is the most inert of all metallic elements, it has been discovered during the last two decades that it has interesting properties as a nano-particle. Some of the properties of interest include its activity as a heterogeneous catalyst, particularly at low temperatures, its optical properties, and the tendency of its nano-particles to adopt non-crystallographic structures. There are a number of curious aspects to catalysis by gold that are attracting academic and industrial investigation and much is still not understood about the mechanism by which they work. For example, apparently similar preparation techniques result in activities of hugely varying magnitude. In the present talk I assess the what is known about gold nano-particles, with particular reference to their physical, electronic, crystallographic and catalytic properties. It is shown that there is much evidence in favour of the belief that it is the unique electronic structure of these particles that imbues them with catalytic activity. If this is true then tighter control of the electronic structure would allow for the design of more specific and more active catalysts

  15. Metallic gold reduces TNFalpha expression, oxidative DNA damage and pro-apoptotic signals after experimental brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mie Ostergaard; Larsen, Agnete; Pedersen, Dan Sonne

    2009-01-01

    Brain injury represents a major health problem and may result in chronic inflammation and neurodegeneration. Due to antiinflammatory effects of gold, we have investigated the cerebral effects of metallic gold particles following a focal brain injury (freeze-lesion) in mice. Gold particles 20......-45 microm in size or the vehicle (placebo) were implanted in the cortical tissue followed by a cortical freeze-lesioning. At 1-2 weeks post-injury, brains were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry and markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. This study shows that gold treatment...

  16. A Study on the Plasmonic Properties of Silver Core Gold Shell Nanoparticles: Optical Assessment of the Particle Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Derrick; Lee, JaeDong; Thi Bich Thuy, Nguyen; Aoki, Yoshiya; Singh, Prerna; Maenosono, Shinya

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports a qualitative comparison between the optical properties of a set of silver core, gold shell nanoparticles with varying composition and structure to those calculated using the Mie solution. To achieve this, silver nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous phase from a silver hydroxide precursor with sodium acrylate as dual reducing-capping agent. The particles were then coated with a layer of gold with controllable thickness through a reduction-deposition process. The resulting nanoparticles reveal well defined optical properties that make them suitable for comparison to ideal calculated results using the Mie solution. The discussion focuses on the correlation between the synthesized core shell nanoparticles with varying Au shell thickness and the Mie solution results in terms of the optical properties. The results give insight in how to design and synthesize silver core, gold shell nanoparticles with controllable optical properties (e.g., SPR band in terms of intensity and position), and has implications in creating nanoparticle materials to be used as biological probes and sensing elements.

  17. Design and synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with gold shells for single particle optical tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jitkang

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of iron oxide core, gold shell nanoparticles are studied in this thesis. Firstly, nanoparticles with 18 +/- 1.7 nm diameter iron oxide cores with ˜5 nm thick gold shells were synthesized via a new seed-mediated electroless deposition method. The nanoparticles were superparamagnetic at room temperature and could be reversibly collected by a permanent magnet. These nanoparticles displayed a sharp localized surface plasmon resonance peak at 605 nm, as predicted by scattering theory, and their large scattering cross-section allowed them to be individually resolved in darkfield optical microscopy while undergoing Brownian motion in aqueous suspension. Later, commercially available 38 +/- 3.8 nm diameter spherical iron oxide nanoparticles (from Ocean Nanotech, Inc) were employed to make core-shell particles. These particles were decorated with cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) which further promotes the attachment of small gold clusters. After gold seeding, the average hydrodynamic diameter of the core-shell particles is 172 +/- 65.9 nm. The magnetophoretic motion of these particles was guided by a piece of magnetized mu-metal. Individual particle trajectories were observed by darkfield optical microscopy. The typical magnetophoretic velocity achieved was within the range of 1--10 mum/sec. Random walk analysis performed on these particles while undergoing Brownian motion confirmed that individual particles were indeed being imaged. The particle size variation within the observed sample obtained through random walk analysis was within the size distribution obtained by dynamic light scattering. When the current to the solenoid used to magnetize the mu-metal was turned off, all the collected core-shell particles were readily redispersed by diffusion back into the surrounding environment. A Peclet number analysis was performed to probe the convective motion of nanospheres and nanorods under the influence of

  18. Reducing the uncertainties in particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oancea, C., E-mail: oancea@jinr.ru [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot-Curie Street, 141980, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia and Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Atomistilor Street 405, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele, Ilfov Region (Romania); Shipulin, K. N.; Mytsin, G. V.; Luchin, Y. I. [Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot-Curie Street, 141980, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-24

    The use of fundamental Nuclear Physics in Nuclear Medicine has a significant impact in the fight against cancer. Hadrontherapy is an innovative cancer radiotherapy method using nuclear particles (protons, neutrons and ions) for the treatment of early and advanced tumors. The main goal of proton therapy is to deliver high radiation doses to the tumor volume with minimal damage to healthy tissues and organs. The purpose of this work was to investigate the dosimetric errors in clinical proton therapy dose calculation due to the presence of metallic implants in the treatment plan, and to determine the impact of the errors. The results indicate that the errors introduced by the treatment planning systems are higher than 10% in the prediction of the dose at isocenter when the proton beam is passing directly through a metallic titanium alloy implant. In conclusion, we recommend that pencil-beam algorithms not be used when planning treatment for patients with titanium alloy implants, and to consider implementing methods to mitigate the effects of the implants.

  19. Reduced graphene oxide supported gold nanoparticles for electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Mohammad; Halder, Aditi

    2018-02-01

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide is one of the methods which have the capability to recycle CO2 into valuable products for energy and industrial applications. This research article describes about a new electrocatalyst "reduced graphene oxide supported gold nanoparticles" for selective electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. The main aim for conversion of CO2 to CO lies in the fact that the latter is an important component of syn gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), which is then converted into liquid fuel via well-known industrial process called Fischer-Tropsch process. In this work, we have synthesized different composites of the gold nanoparticles supported on defective reduced graphene oxide to evaluate the catalytic activity of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-supported gold nanoparticles and the role of defective RGO support towards the electrochemical reduction of CO2. Electrochemical and impedance measurements demonstrate that higher concentration of gold nanoparticles on the graphene support led to remarkable decrease in the onset potential of 240 mV and increase in the current density for CO2 reduction. Lower impedance and Tafel slope values also clearly support our findings for the better performance of RGOAu than bare Au for CO2 reduction.

  20. Seed-mediated synthesis of gold nanorods: control of the aspect ratio by variation of the reducing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppl, Susanne; Ghielmetti, Nico; Caseri, Walter; Spolenak, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Seed-mediated growth methods involving reduction of tetrachloroaurate(III) with ascorbic acid are common for the synthesis of gold nanorods. This study shows, however, that simply by appropriate choice of the reducing agent a drastic influence on the aspect ratio can be attained. Weaker reducing agents, such as dihydroxybenzene isomers (hydroquinone, catechol or resorcinol) or glucose can increase the aspect ratio of the nanorods by an order of magnitude, up to values as high as 100 (nanowires). The increase in aspect ratio is mainly a consequence of an increase in length of the particles (up to 1–3 μm). This effect is probably associated with a decrease in the reduction rate of gold(III) species by dihydroxybenzenes or glucose compared to ascorbic acid. The reduction potential of the reducing agents strongly depends on the pH value, and related effects on the dimensions of the nanoparticles are also reflected in this study. The nanorods exhibited penta-twinned nature without noteworthy defects (e.g. stacking faults and dislocations).

  1. Differentiating gold nanorod samples using particle size and shape distributions from transmission electron microscope images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulke, Eric A.; Wu, Xiaochun; Ji, Yinglu; Buhr, Egbert; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Song, Nam Woong; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Burchett, Woodrow W.; Lambert, Joshua; Stromberg, Arnold J.

    2018-04-01

    Size and shape distributions of gold nanorod samples are critical to their physico-chemical properties, especially their longitudinal surface plasmon resonance. This interlaboratory comparison study developed methods for measuring and evaluating size and shape distributions for gold nanorod samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The objective was to determine whether two different samples, which had different performance attributes in their application, were different with respect to their size and/or shape descriptor distributions. Touching particles in the captured images were identified using a ruggedness shape descriptor. Nanorods could be distinguished from nanocubes using an elongational shape descriptor. A non-parametric statistical test showed that cumulative distributions of an elongational shape descriptor, that is, the aspect ratio, were statistically different between the two samples for all laboratories. While the scale parameters of size and shape distributions were similar for both samples, the width parameters of size and shape distributions were statistically different. This protocol fulfills an important need for a standardized approach to measure gold nanorod size and shape distributions for applications in which quantitative measurements and comparisons are important. Furthermore, the validated protocol workflow can be automated, thus providing consistent and rapid measurements of nanorod size and shape distributions for researchers, regulatory agencies, and industry.

  2. Determination of concentration levels of arsenic, gold and antimony in particle-size fractions of gold ore using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarku, M.

    2009-02-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to quantify the concentrations of arsenic, gold and antimony in particle-size fractions of a gold ore. The ore, which was taken from the Ahafo project site of Newmont Ghana Gold Ltd, was first fractionated into fourteen (14) particle-size fractions using state-of-the-art analytical sieve machine. The minimum sieve mesh size used was 36 microns and grains >2000 microns were not considered for analysis. Results of the sieving were analysed with easysieve software. The < 36 microns sub fraction was found to be the optimum, hosting bulk of all three elements. For arsenic, the element was found to be highly concentrated in < 36 to +100 microns size fractions and erratically distributed from +150 microns fraction and above. For gold, in exception of the sub fraction <36 which had exceptionally high concentration, the element is distributed in all the size fractions but slightly 'plays out' in the +150 to +400 microns fractions. Antimony occurrence in the sample was relatively high in <36 microns size fraction followed by 600 - 800, 800 - 1000, 400 - 600 and 36 - 40 microns size fractions in that order. Gold content in the sample was far higher than that of arsenic and antimony. Gold concentration in the composite sample was in the range 564 - 8420 ppm. Arsenic levels were higher as compared to antimony. The range of arsenic concentration in the composite sample was 14.33 - 186.92 ppm. Antimony concentration was in the range 1.09 - 9.48 ppm. (au)

  3. Reducing the Schottky barrier between few-layer MoTe2 and gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dianyu; Wang, Qixing; Han, Cheng; Jiang, Jizhou; Zheng, Yujie; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Wenjing; Thye Shen Wee, Andrew

    2017-12-01

    Schottky barriers greatly influence the performance of optoelectronic devices. Schottky barriers can be reduced by harnessing the polymorphism of 2D metal transition dichalcogenides, since both semiconducting and metallic phases exist. However, high energy, high temperature or chemicals are normally required for phase transformation, or the processes are complex. In this work, stable low-resistance contacts between few layer MoTe2 flakes and gold electrodes are achieved by a simple thermal annealing treatment at low temperature (200-400 °C). The resulting Schottky barrier height of the annealed MoTe2/Au interface is low (~23 meV). A new Raman A g mode of the 1T‧ metallic phase of MoTe2 on gold electrode is observed, indicating that the low-resistance contact is due to the phase transition of 2H-MoTe2. The gold substrate plays an important role in the transformation, and a higher gold surface roughness increases the transformation rate. With this method, the mobility and ON-state current of the MoTe2 transistor increase by ~3-4 orders of magnitude, the photocurrent of vertically stacked graphene/MoTe2/Au device increases ~300%, and the response time decreases by ~20%.

  4. Size-Controlled Production of Gold Bionanoparticles Using the Extremely Acidophilic Fe(III-Reducing Bacterium, Acidocella aromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nurul Rizki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of gold-bearing “urban mine” resources, such as waste printed circuit boards (PCBs, is attracting an increasing interest. Some of the gold leaching techniques utilize acidic lixiviants and in order to eventually target such acidic leachates, the utility of the acidophilic Fe(III-reducing heterotrophic bacterium, Acidocella (Ac. aromatica PFBC was evaluated for production of Au(0 bionanoparticles (bio-AuNPs. Au(III ions (as AuCl4−, initially 10 mg/L, were readily adsorbed onto the slightly-positively charged Ac. aromatica cell surface and transported into cytoplasm to successfully form intracellular bio-AuNPs in a simple one-step microbiological reaction. Generally, increasing the initial concentration of formate as e-donor corresponded to faster Au(III bioreduction and a greater number of Au(0 nucleation sites with less crystal growth within 40–60 h: i.e., use of 1, 5, 10, or 20 mM formate led to production of bio-AuNPs of 48, 24, 13, or 12 nm in mean particle size with 2.3, 17, 62, and 97 particles/cell, respectively. Addition of Cu2+ as an enzymatic inhibitor significantly decreased the number of Au(0 nucleation sites but enhanced crystal growth of individual particles. As a result, the manipulation of the e-donor concentration combined with an enzyme inhibitor enabled the 3-grade size-control of bio-AuNPs (nearly within a normal distribution at 48, 26 or 13 nm by use of 1 mM formate, 20 mM formate (+Cu2+ or 10 mM formate, respectively, from highly acidic, dilute Au(III solutions.

  5. Non-ammonium reduced nitrogen species in atmospheric aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dod, R.L.; Gundel, L.A.; Benner, W.H.; Novakov, T.

    1983-08-01

    The traditional belief that ambient aerosol particles contain nitrogen predominantly in the form of inorganic ionic species such as NH/sub 4//sup +/ and NO/sub 3//sup -/ was challenged about 10 years ago by results from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (ESCA) of California aerosol particles. A significant fraction (approx. 50%) of the reduced nitrogen was observed to have an oxidation state more reduced than ammonium, characteristic of organic nitrogen species. We have used a recently developed thermal evolved gas analysis method (NO/sub x/) in conjunction with ESCA to confirm the existence of these species in aerosol particles collected in both the United States and Europe. The agreement of EGA and ESCA analyses indicates that these species are found not only on the surface but also throughout the particles. 9 references, 6 figures.

  6. Analysis of Air Particles Around Site Plan of Gold Mining, North Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatot-Suhariyono; Erizal-Tanjung

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of air particles around site plan of gold mining, North Sumatra has been conducted. Air particles of TSP (Total Suspended Particulate), which has maximum diameter around 45 μm (PM 2.5 ) was sampled in four places using impactor cascade. The measurement results indicate that concentration of TSP and PM 10 /PM 2.5 were in site plan center of mining smaller than quality standard of ambient air (PP RI no. 41/1999), while the concentration in areas of around it was on the contrary. The concentration in areas of around the mining was not because of air particle from in site plan center of mining. Based on regulatory of BAPEDAL head no. Kep-107/BAPEDAL/11/1997, concentration of PM 10 /PM 2.5 and TSP in site plan center of mining is in moderate category, while in areas of around the mining are in unhealthy category. Unhealthy category affects decrease at view distance and happened dust defilement everywhere, while moderate category is only happened degradation of view distance. (author)

  7. Polyelectrolyte functionalized gold nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid for electrochemical determination of aminophenol isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinchun; Zhong, Anni; Wei, Shanshan; Luo, Xiaoli; Liang, Yanjin; Zhu, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    A green chemical method for preparation of gold nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite is described. This can be readily accomplished through a two-step chemical reduction scheme by using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), a cationic polyelectrolyte as a common reducer. Polyelectrolyte here also serves to stabilize gold nanoparticles and is beneficial to electrical communication, leading to the formation of well-characteristic nanohybrid. The prepared nanomaterial showed remarkable electrocatalytic ability as a result of the rational conjunction of graphene and gold nanoparticles, which was demonstrated by direct electrochemical determination of three aminophenol isomers on a modified glassy carbon electrode. Effective peak separation of three isomers was achieved due to the favorable electron-transfer network perfectly assembled on the electrode surface, thus enabling the simultaneous assay of multiple components featuring analogous chemical structure without chromatographic separation. The modified electrode was further used to detect para-aminophenol in paracetamol tablets. The present method is simple, eco-friendly and holds potential for electroanalytical and biosensing applications

  8. Cytotoxic Induction and Photoacoustic Imaging of Breast Cancer Cells Using Astaxanthin-Reduced Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniyan Bharathiraja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin, a kind of photosynthetic pigment, was employed for gold nanoparticle formation. Nanoparticles were characterized using Ulteraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction, and the possible presence of astaxanthin functional groups were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The cytotoxic effect of synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer cells using a tetrazolium-based assay, and synthesized nanoparticles exhibited dose-dependent toxicity. The morphology upon cell death was differentiated through fluorescent microscopy using different stains that predicted apoptosis. The synthesized nanoparticles were applied in ultrasound-coupled photoacoustic imaging to obtain good images of treated cells. Astaxanthin-reduced gold nanoparticle has the potential to act as a promising agent in the field of photo-based diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Magnetic characteristics of ultrafine Fe particles reduced from uniform iron oxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, K.; Watts, J.; Tadros, M.; Xiao, Gang; Liou, S. H.; Chien, C. L.

    1987-04-01

    Uniform, cubic 0.05-μm iron oxide particles were formed by forced hydrolysis of ferric perchlorate. These particles were reduced to α-Fe by heating in hydrogen at temperatures between 300 and 500 °C. The effect of reduction temperature and various prereduction treatments on the microstructure of the iron particles will be discussed. Complete reduction to α-Fe was established by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Magnetic measurements on epoxy and polyurethane films containing these particles with various mass fractions gave coercivities as high as 1000 Oe. The relationship between the magnetic measurements and the microstructure will be discussed. Na2SiO3 is found to be the best coating material for the process of reducing iron oxide particles to iron.

  10. A new method to determine the skin thickness of asymmetric UF-membranes using colloidal gold particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Folkert Petrus; Bargeman, Derk; Smolders, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new method is presented for the determination of the skin thickness of asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes. The method is based on the use of well-defined, uniformly sized colloidal gold particles, permeated from the sublayer side of the membrane, combined with electron microscopic

  11. Reducing adhesion and agglomeration within a cloud of combustible particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Howard D.

    1988-01-01

    The study of combustible particle clouds inside flame tubes is of fundamental scientific interest as well as a practical concern. Only the suspended concentration is important to the combustion process, so that assurances must be provided that a minimum of particles adheres to the tube wall. This paper demonstrates experimentally the ability to minimize adhesion and agglomeration of acoustically-mixed lycopodium particles within a 5-cm diameter lexan flame tube. The area density of particles (ADP) adhering to the wall of bare lexan tubes was measured at greater than 100 particles/sq mm. The nature of adhesion was found to be clearly electrostatic, with the ADP level aggravated by increased mixing time, vigor, and the concentration of particles. Increases in the conductivity of the air and the tube wall did not affect ADP levels substantially. However, the observed adhesion was reduced to less than 10 p/sq mm when the air was ionized by use of an alpha emitter mounted on the inner walls of the flame tube.

  12. Green approach for preparation of reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles and its optical and catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šimšíková, M., E-mail: michaela.simsikova@ceitec.vutbr.cz [CEITEC BUT, Brno University of Technology, Technická 10, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Bartoš, M. [CEITEC BUT, Brno University of Technology, Technická 10, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Keša, P. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Šrobárova 2, 041 54 Košice (Slovakia); Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Šikola, T. [CEITEC BUT, Brno University of Technology, Technická 10, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Physical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced and modified by gold nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of green tea. Successful formation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on graphene oxide surface was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared analyses (FT-IR) have been used to demonstrate the behavior of complex of reduced graphene oxide with gold nanoparticles (rGO-AuNPs), the removal of oxygen-containing groups from the graphene, and subsequent formation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). We also demonstrated the change of optical properties of GO after the reduction and formation of gold nanoparticles on its surface by UV–vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The positive impact of rGO-AuNPs composite on safranin T reduction in the presence of NaBH{sub 4} without light irradiation was examined, as well. The dye decolorization was observed within 60 min which highlights the exceptional catalytic potential of the rGO-AuNPs. - Highlights: • Reduction of GO was performed by an environmentally friendly approach. • Gold nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembly on the graphene oxide surface. • Surface properties were enhanced after the formation of gold nanoparticles. • Optical properties have been changed after the graphene reduction and formation of gold nanoparticles. • The decolorization of safranin T was observed within 60 min.

  13. Green approach for preparation of reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles and its optical and catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šimšíková, M.; Bartoš, M.; Keša, P.; Šikola, T.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced and modified by gold nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of green tea. Successful formation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on graphene oxide surface was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared analyses (FT-IR) have been used to demonstrate the behavior of complex of reduced graphene oxide with gold nanoparticles (rGO-AuNPs), the removal of oxygen-containing groups from the graphene, and subsequent formation of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). We also demonstrated the change of optical properties of GO after the reduction and formation of gold nanoparticles on its surface by UV–vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The positive impact of rGO-AuNPs composite on safranin T reduction in the presence of NaBH_4 without light irradiation was examined, as well. The dye decolorization was observed within 60 min which highlights the exceptional catalytic potential of the rGO-AuNPs. - Highlights: • Reduction of GO was performed by an environmentally friendly approach. • Gold nanoparticles were prepared by self-assembly on the graphene oxide surface. • Surface properties were enhanced after the formation of gold nanoparticles. • Optical properties have been changed after the graphene reduction and formation of gold nanoparticles. • The decolorization of safranin T was observed within 60 min.

  14. Evaluation of respirable particle matter in gold mine tailings on the Witwatersrand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojelede, M.E.; Annegarn, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Within the Witwatersrand gold mining area of South Africa, wind-blown dust is a significant contributor to atmospheric air pollution brought to the fore with the reworking of old mine tailings. Approximately 40,000 hectares are covered with tailings in the Witwatersrand. Wind-erosion during late austral winter and early spring causes surfaces of these tailings to be exposed, particularly during higher wind speeds and in the absence of rainfall. Local residents complain as the surrounding areas experience unpleasant dust episodes. As a result of urban PM 10 and PM 2.5 respirable particulate matter, increased respiratory ailments, morbidity and mortality, and concerns about the health impacts of wind-blown mine tailings in South Africa have been reported. Since 1981, significant monitoring of dustfall has taken place on the Witwatersrand, however, characterization of the respirable fraction of gold mine tailings material and dustfall is lacking. This paper presented the results of a study that established the content of respirable particulate matter in exposed mine tailings and wind-blown dust, and their likely contributions to ambient air. The initial results of the particulate size distribution of material samples from tailings and dust deposits collected in ambient dustfall-monitors were provided. Particle size distributions from different deposit types include slimes and sand deposits, surface and core material, and wind-winnowed secondary deposits. Fractions of PM 10 in source and deposited material were also discussed. It was concluded that there was a significant fraction of PM 10 material in the mine tailings, and that further work to quantify the population exposure risk is needed. 11 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  15. Reducing HAuCl4 by the C60 dianion: C60-directed self-assembly of gold nanoparticles into novel fullerene bound gold nanoassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Gao Xiang

    2008-01-01

    The C 60 dianion is used to reduce tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl 4 ) for the first time; three-dimensional C 60 bound gold (Au-C 60 ) nanoclusters are obtained from C 60 -directed self-assembly of gold nanoparticles due to the strong affinities of Au-C 60 and C 60 -C 60 . The process was monitored in situ by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. The resulting Au-C 60 nanoclusters were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. TEM demonstrates the formation of 3D nanonetwork aggregates, which are composed of discrete gold nanocores covered with a C 60 monolayer. The SAED and XRD patterns indicate that the gold nanocores inside the capped C 60 molecules belong to the face-centred cubic crystal structure, while the C 60 molecules are amorphous. The EDS and XPS measurements validate that the Au-C 60 nanoclusters contain only Au and C elements and Au 3+ is reduced to Au 0 . FT-IR spectroscopy shows the chemiadsorption of C 60 to the gold nanocores, while Raman spectroscopy demonstrates the electron transfer from the gold nanocores to the chemiadsorbed C 60 molecules. Au-C 60 nanoclusters embedded in tetraoctyl-n-ammonium bromide (TOAB) on glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) have been fabricated and have shown stable and well-defined electrochemical responses in aqueous solution

  16. Extraction of gold (Au) particles from sea water by Delftia Acidovorans microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, A. H. M.; Nading, M. E.; Salimi, M. N.

    2017-10-01

    Gold-mining activities have been an issue, especially when it involves in contamination of chemicals, for example arsenic and mercury. However, despite of these hazards, gold-mining activities are still being conducted. This is because the gold is worth, regardless of the problems. Gold-mining, as known needs a very large area of land, or site plant. Vast amount of labor force, mechanical force and fund are a must in order for the mining process to be continued. High demand of gold, made gold-mining industries as ones of the most profitable industries in the world. Thus, this has encouraged another alternative way to extract gold. At the mining site, researchers found that biomineralization of gold by Delftia acidovorans can be conducted. How it is done still cannot be understood. It is said that the bacteria secretes secondary metabolites, Delftibactin as a defensive mechanism against the toxicity of the soluble gold. Researchers try to find another source of elemental gold besides of the earth’s core. The options are either lava of a volcano or ocean. Here, the focus is seawater. The problem of seawater is that its composition still not yet to be proved. Dissolve gold existed as gold chloride in seawater, but in a very small amount. So, the gold separation should be focused, in order to make this process to be a successful one. Factors such as depth, climate, region, temperature need to be considered. If this difference affecting the separating process, standardized seawater composition have to be proposed.

  17. Enhancement of single particle rare earth doped NaYF4: Yb, Er emission with a gold shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ling; Green, Kory; Hallen, Hans; Lim, Shuang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Upconversion of infrared light to visible light has important implications for bioimaging. However, the small absorption cross-section of rare earth dopants has limited the efficiency of these anti-Stokes nanomaterials. We present enhanced excitation absorption and single particle fluorescent emission of sodium yttrium fluoride, NaYF 4 : Yb, Er based upconverting nanoparticles coated with a gold nanoshell through surface plasmon resonance. The single gold-shell coated nanoparticles show enhanced absorption in the near infrared, enhanced total emission intensity, and increased green relative to red emission. We also show differences in enhancement between single and aggregated gold shell nanoparticles. The surface plasmon resonance of the gold-shell coated nanoparticle is shown to be dependent on the shell thickness. In contrast to other reported results, our single particle experimental observations are corroborated by finite element calculations that show where the green/red emission enhancement occurs, and what portion of the enhancement is due to electromagnetic effects. We find that the excitation enhancement and green/red emission ratio enhancement occurs at the corners and edges of the doped emissive core. (paper)

  18. Rapid synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using tryptone as a reducing and capping agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sourabh M.; Sequeira, Marilyn P.; Muthurajana, Harries; D'Souza, Jacinta S.

    2018-02-01

    Due to its eco-friendliness, recent times have seen an immense interest in the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. We present here, a protocol for the rapid and cheap synthesis of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) using 1 mg/ml tryptone (trypsinized casein) as a reducing and capping agent. These nanoparticles are spherical, 10 nm in diameter and relatively monodispersed. The atoms of these NPs are arranged in face-centered cubic fashion. Further, when tested for their cytotoxic property against HeLa and VERO cell lines, gold nanoparticles were more lethal than silver nanoparticles, with a more or less similar trend observed against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, the NPs were least cytotoxic against a unicellular alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii implying their eco-friendly property.

  19. Rapid Synthesis of Gold Nano-Particles Using Pulse Waved Potential in a Non-Aqueous Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang J.G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs by pulsed electrodeposition was investigated in the non-aqueous electrolyte, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazoliumbis(trifluoro-methanesulfonylimide ([EMIM]TFSI with gold trichloride (AuCl3. To aid the dissolution of AuCl3, 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ([EMIM]Cl was used as a supporting electrolyte in [EMIM]TFSI. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed a cathodic reaction corresponding to the reduction of gold at −0.4 V vs. Pt-QRE. To confirm the electrodeposition process, potentiostatic electrodeposition of gold in the non-aqueous electrolyte was conducted at −0.4 V for 1 h at room temperature. To synthesize AuNPs, pulsed electrodeposition was conducted with controlled duty factor, pulse duration, and overpotential. The composition, particle-size distribution, and morphology of the AuNPs were confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The electrodeposited AuNPs were uniformly distributed on the platinum electrode surface without any impurities arising from the non-aqueous electrolyte. The size distribution of AuNPs could be also controlled by the electrodeposition conditions.

  20. Demonstration of vessels in CNS and other organs by AMG silver enhancement of colloidal gold particles dispersed in gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, G; Andreasen, A

    1997-12-01

    We present a new autometallographic technique for demonstrating vessels and other small cavities at light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) levels. It is possible to obtain detailed knowledge of the 3-D appearance of the vascular system by exchanging blood with a 40 degrees C, 8% gelatine solution containing colloidal gold particles (gold gelatine solution, GGS) and ensuing silver enhancement of the gold particles by autometallography (AMG). The GGS-AMG technique demonstrates the vascular system as a dark web that can be studied in cryostat, vibratome, methacrylate, paraffin and Epon sections at all magnifications. The infused GGS becomes increasingly viscous and finally becomes rigid when the temperature falls below 20 degrees C. An additional advantage of this technique is the fact that none of the tested counterstains or immunotechniques interfere with this AMG approach. The GGS-AMG technique is demonstrated on rat brains but can be applied to any organ. We believe that the present technique is valuable for both experimental studies and routine pathology.

  1. Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Flanner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Boreal spring climate is uniquely susceptible to solar warming mechanisms because it has expansive snow cover and receives relatively strong insolation. Carbonaceous particles can influence snow coverage by warming the atmosphere, reducing surface-incident solar energy (dimming, and reducing snow reflectance after deposition (darkening. We apply a range of models and observations to explore impacts of these processes on springtime climate, drawing several conclusions: 1 Nearly all atmospheric particles (those with visible-band single-scatter albedo less than 0.999, including all mixtures of black carbon (BC and organic matter (OM, increase net solar heating of the atmosphere-snow column. 2 Darkening caused by small concentrations of particles within snow exceeds the loss of absorbed energy from concurrent dimming, thus increasing solar heating of snowpack as well (positive net surface forcing. Over global snow, we estimate 6-fold greater surface forcing from darkening than dimming, caused by BC+OM. 3 Equilibrium climate experiments suggest that fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of BC+OM induce 95% as much springtime snow cover loss over Eurasia as anthropogenic carbon dioxide, a consequence of strong snow-albedo feedback and large BC+OM emissions from Asia. 4 Of 22 climate models contributing to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, 21 underpredict the rapid warming (0.64°C decade−1 observed over springtime Eurasia since 1979. Darkening from natural and anthropogenic sources of BC and mineral dust exerts 3-fold greater forcing on springtime snow over Eurasia (3.9 W m−2 than North America (1.2 W m−2. Inclusion of this forcing significantly improves simulated continental warming trends, but does not reconcile the low bias in rate of Eurasian spring snow cover decline exhibited by all models, likely because BC deposition trends are negative or near-neutral over much of Eurasia. Improved Eurasian

  2. Intensification Behavior of Mercury Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two types of materials, sulphide gold concentrate and oxide gold ore, was investigated. The results showed that mercury ions, with only a 10−5 M dosage, could significantly intensify leaching and gold recovery. The dissolution behavior of gold plate was also intensified by 10−5 M mercury ions. Microstructure analysis showed that mercury ions intensified the cyanidation corrosion of the gold surface, resulting in a loose structure, where a large number of deep ravines and raised particles were evident across the whole gold surface. The loose structure added contact surface between the gold and cyanide, and accelerated gold dissolution. Moreover, mercury ions obstructed the formation of insoluble products, such as AuCN, Au(OHCN, and Au(OHx, that lead to a passivation membrane on the gold surface, reducing contact between the gold and cyanide. These effects, brought about by mercury ions, change the structure and product of the gold surface during gold cyanidation and promote gold leaching.

  3. Particle size and kind of mica in synthesis of nontoxic bronze and gold pearlescent pigments based on nanoencapsulated hematite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hosseini-Zori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-encapsulated iron oxide in Zirconium oxide-coated mica pigments are thermally stable,innocuous to human health, non-combustible, and they do not conduct electricity. They could beapplied in several industries such as thermoplastics, cosmetics, food packaging, children toys, paints,automobiles coating, security purposes, and banknotes. Nowadays, they are highly desirable inceramic decoration. In the present study, intensively dark gold to bronze colored mica clay pigments,which were based on mica flakes covered with a layer of nano-iron oxide-Zirconium oxide particles,were prepared by homogeneous precipitation of iron nitrate and Zirconium chloride ammonia in thepresence of mica flakes in two kinds of ore clay-based phlogopite and muscovite minerals. The finalcolor was obtained by thermal annealing of precipitates at a temperature of 800◦C. The pigments werecharacterized by X-Ray Diffraction, Particle size analysis, Scanning electron microscopy,Transmission electron microscopy, X-Ray fluorescence, and Simultaneous thermal analysis. Resultsindicate that nano-encapsulated iron oxide in zirconia particles have been formed on mica flakes andkinds of clay-mica can be related to obtained shade from dark gold to bronze pearl. Higher particlesize of mica flakes about phlogopite type of mica introduced pearl effects with higher L* changes indifferent angles. Muscovite performed higher hue and better pearl effect than phlogopite.

  4. One-particle reducibility in effective scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereshagin, V.

    2016-01-01

    To construct the reasonable renormalization scheme suitable for the effective theories one needs to resolve the “problem of couplings” because the number of free parameters in a theory should be finite. Otherwise the theory would loose its predictive power. In the case of effective theory already the first step on this way shows the necessity to solve the above-mentioned problem for the 1-loop 2-leg function traditionally called self energy. In contrast to the customary renormalizable models the corresponding Feynman graph demonstrates divergencies that require introducing of an infinite number of prescriptions. In the recent paper [1] it has been shown that the way out of this difficulty requires the revision of the notion of one-particle reducibility. The point is that in effective scattering theory one can introduce two different notions: the graphic reducibility and the analytic one. Below we explain the main ideas of the paper [1] and recall some notions and definitions introduced earlier in [2] and [3

  5. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Chakravarty, Sujay [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam, Node, Kokilamedu (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2017-02-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) used for biomedical applications could be encountered by biomolecules in the bloodstream, of which IgG is the most abundant antibody. With a view to mitigate their side effect on encountered proteins, the effect of Au concentration (5–40 μM) and functionalization (CTAB-positive;PSS-negative; PEG-neutral) of AuNRs was investigated on the stability of a model protein, IgG (1 μM). Electron microscopic images and particle size analyses indicated least aggregation behavior for PEG-AuNRs, which can be correlated to their neutral charge (from zeta potential analyses) or stearic hindrance of PEG chains. Variations in tryptophan domain were probed by UV–visible absorption and fluorescence quenching studies. Synchronous fluorescence study helped to provide information regarding variations in the hydrophobic region of IgG. The denaturation studies also indicated the stability of AuNR–IgG complex formation. These studies showed that positively charged IgG (pI: 7.8 ± 1.0) was mostly affected by negatively charged PSS-AuNRs and least affected by PEG-AuNRs. This was verified by secondary structural investigations performed using CD and FTIR spectroscopy. For cytotoxicity studies on human lymphocytes, CTAB-AuNRs are known to show higher toxicity compared to PSS-AuNRs and PEG-AuNRs (least). Though PSS-functionalized AuNRs were shown to affect cells to a lesser degree based on the negative charge of cell membrane, they could hamper with positively charged biomolecules in the bloodstream before they reach the target, which must also be considered for choosing the right AuNR functionalization. Thus, this work indicates the effect of different AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity and stresses the necessity to use neutral particles to mitigate their side effect for theranostic applications. - Highlights: • Comprehensive evaluation of AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity. • Minimizes structural changes in IgG as a

  6. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) used for biomedical applications could be encountered by biomolecules in the bloodstream, of which IgG is the most abundant antibody. With a view to mitigate their side effect on encountered proteins, the effect of Au concentration (5–40 μM) and functionalization (CTAB-positive;PSS-negative; PEG-neutral) of AuNRs was investigated on the stability of a model protein, IgG (1 μM). Electron microscopic images and particle size analyses indicated least aggregation behavior for PEG-AuNRs, which can be correlated to their neutral charge (from zeta potential analyses) or stearic hindrance of PEG chains. Variations in tryptophan domain were probed by UV–visible absorption and fluorescence quenching studies. Synchronous fluorescence study helped to provide information regarding variations in the hydrophobic region of IgG. The denaturation studies also indicated the stability of AuNR–IgG complex formation. These studies showed that positively charged IgG (pI: 7.8 ± 1.0) was mostly affected by negatively charged PSS-AuNRs and least affected by PEG-AuNRs. This was verified by secondary structural investigations performed using CD and FTIR spectroscopy. For cytotoxicity studies on human lymphocytes, CTAB-AuNRs are known to show higher toxicity compared to PSS-AuNRs and PEG-AuNRs (least). Though PSS-functionalized AuNRs were shown to affect cells to a lesser degree based on the negative charge of cell membrane, they could hamper with positively charged biomolecules in the bloodstream before they reach the target, which must also be considered for choosing the right AuNR functionalization. Thus, this work indicates the effect of different AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity and stresses the necessity to use neutral particles to mitigate their side effect for theranostic applications. - Highlights: • Comprehensive evaluation of AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity. • Minimizes structural changes in IgG as a

  7. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Gold Nanoparticle Nanoframework as a Highly Selective Separation Material for Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbo; Wu, Lidong; Fan, Kai; Nie, Dongxia; He, Weijing; Yang, Junhua; Zhao, Zhihui; Han, Zheng

    2017-11-03

    Graphene-based materials have been studied in many applications, owing to the excellent electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of graphene. In the current study, an environmentally friendly approach to the preparation of a reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (rGO-AuNP) nanocomposite was developed by using L-cysteine and vitamin C as reductants under mild reaction conditions. The rGO-AuNP material showed a highly selective separation ability for 6 naturally occurring aflatoxins, which are easily adsorbed onto traditional graphene materials but are difficult to be desorbed. The specificity of the nanocomposite was evaluated in the separation of 6 aflatoxin congeners (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin M2) from 23 other biotoxins (including, ochratoxin A, citrinin, and deoxynivalenol). The results indicated that this material was specific for separating aflatoxin congeners. The synthesized material was further validated by determining the recovery (77.6-105.0%), sensitivity (limit of detection in the range of 0.05-0.21 μg kg -1 ), and precision (1.5-11.8%), and was then successfully applied to the separation of aflatoxins from real-world maize, wheat and rice samples.

  8. PLGA/PFC particles loaded with gold nanoparticles as dual contrast agents for photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan J.; Strohm, Eric M.; Sun, Yang; Niu, Chengcheng; Zheng, Yuanyi; Wang, Zhigang; Kolios, Michael C.

    2014-03-01

    Phase-change contrast agents consisting of a perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid core stabilized by a lipid, protein, or polymer shell have been proposed for a variety of clinical applications. Previous work has demonstrated that vaporization can be induced by laser irradiation through optical absorbers incorporated inside the droplet. In this study, Poly-lactide-coglycolic acid (PLGA) particles loaded with PFC liquid and silica-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were developed and characterized using photoacoustic (PA) methods. Microsized PLGA particles were loaded with PFC liquid and GNPs (14, 35, 55nm each with a 20nm silica shell) using a double emulsion method. The PA signal intensity and optical vaporization threshold were investigated using a 375 MHz transducer and a focused 532-nm laser (up to 450-nJ per pulse). The laser-induced vaporization threshold energy decreased with increasing GNP size. The vaporization threshold was 850, 690 and 420 mJ/cm2 for 5μm-sized PLGA particles loaded with 14, 35 and 55 nm GNPs, respectively. The PA signal intensity increased as the laser fluence increased prior to the vaporization event. This trend was observed for all particles sizes. PLGA particles were then incubated with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 6 hours to investigate passive targeting, and the vaporization of the PLGA particles that were internalized within cells. The PLGA particles passively internalized by MDA cells were visualized via confocal fluorescence imaging. Upon PLGA particle vaporization, bubbles formed inside the cells resulting in cell destruction. This work demonstrates that GNPs-loaded PLGA/PFC particles have potential as PA theranostic agents in PA imaging and optically-triggered drug delivery systems.

  9. Direct deposition of gas phase generated aerosol gold nanoparticles into biological fluids--corona formation and particle size shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R Svensson

    Full Text Available An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs.

  10. Direct Deposition of Gas Phase Generated Aerosol Gold Nanoparticles into Biological Fluids - Corona Formation and Particle Size Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Christian R.; Messing, Maria E.; Lundqvist, Martin; Schollin, Alexander; Deppert, Knut; Pagels, Joakim H.; Rissler, Jenny; Cedervall, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    An ongoing discussion whether traditional toxicological methods are sufficient to evaluate the risks associated with nanoparticle inhalation has led to the emergence of Air-Liquid interface toxicology. As a step in this process, this study explores the evolution of particle characteristics as they move from the airborne state into physiological solution. Airborne gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are generated using an evaporation-condensation technique. Spherical and agglomerate AuNPs are deposited into physiological solutions of increasing biological complexity. The AuNP size is characterized in air as mobility diameter and in liquid as hydrodynamic diameter. AuNP:Protein aggregation in physiological solutions is determined using dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and UV absorption spectroscopy. AuNPs deposited into homocysteine buffer form large gold-aggregates. Spherical AuNPs deposited in solutions of albumin were trapped at the Air-Liquid interface but was readily suspended in the solutions with a size close to that of the airborne particles, indicating that AuNP:Protein complex formation is promoted. Deposition into serum and lung fluid resulted in larger complexes, reflecting the formation of a more complex protein corona. UV absorption spectroscopy indicated no further aggregation of the AuNPs after deposition in solution. The corona of the deposited AuNPs shows differences compared to AuNPs generated in suspension. Deposition of AuNPs from the aerosol phase into biological fluids offers a method to study the protein corona formed, upon inhalation and deposition in the lungs in a more realistic way compared to particle liquid suspensions. This is important since the protein corona together with key particle properties (e.g. size, shape and surface reactivity) to a large extent may determine the nanoparticle effects and possible translocation to other organs. PMID:24086363

  11. Elemental analysis of gold coins by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, G.P.; Gil, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    A Van de Graaff accelerator of 2 MeV energy was used for quantitative analysis of gold coins of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by the PIXE method. The results reproduce well the known legal title of the coins. However, for confirmation, a small set of Au-Ag-Cu and Au-Cu standards was also analysed. Again, the known composition of the standards was reasonably reproduced. In this way the authors think that the PIXE method is quite adequate for absolutely non-destructive analysis of gold alloy artifacts with no need of standards. (author)

  12. Gold Nanoparticles Obtained by Bio-precipitation from Gold(III) Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Tiemann, K.J.; Gamez, G.; Dokken, K.; Tehuacanero, S.; Jose-Yacaman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of metal nanoparticles has shown to be very important in recent industrial applications. Currently gold nanoparticles are being produced by physical methods such as evaporation. Biological processes may be an alternative to physical methods for the production of gold nanoparticles. Alfalfa biomass has shown to be effective at passively binding and reducing gold from solutions containing gold(III) ions and resulting in the formation of gold(0) nanoparticles. High resolution microscopy has shown that five different types of gold particles are present after reaction with gold(III) ions with alfalfa biomass. These particles include: fcc tetrahedral, hexagonal platelet, icosahedral multiple twinned, decahedral multiple twinned, and irregular shaped particles. Further analysis on the frequency of distribution has shown that icosahedral and irregular particles are more frequently formed. In addition, the larger particles observed may be formed through the coalescence of smaller particles. Through modification of the chemical parameters, more uniform particle size distribution may be obtained by the alfalfa bio-reduction of gold(III) from solution

  13. Fatigue of 1 {mu}m-scale gold by vibration with reduced resonant frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumigawa, Takashi, E-mail: sumigawa@cyber.kues.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Matsumoto, Kenta [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kitamura, Takayuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Yoshidahommachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-10-30

    In order to investigate the fatigue strength of micro-metal (1 {mu}m-scale), a testing method using resonant vibration is developed. Although the loading by vibration can solve the difficulties associated with the fatigue experiment of micro-specimen (e.g., specimen gripping and high-cycle loading under tension-compression), it inherently has an excessively high resonance frequency (more than several GHz at least) in a 1 {mu}m-scale metal specimen. For control of the fatigue cycle, the resonance frequency must be reduced to several hundreds of kHz by tuning the specimen shape. We design a cantilever specimen of 1 {mu}m scale gold with a weight at the tip, which reduces the resonant frequency to about 330 kHz. The unique specimen with the test section of 1.26 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 0.94 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 1.52 {mu}m is successfully fabricated by a novel technique using a focused ion beam and the tension-compression fatigue cycle is applied to it by means of a piezoelectric actuator. The test section breaks at about 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cycles under {Delta}{sigma}/2=230 MPa, which is within the targeted range of this project. It is easy to extend this method to high-cycle fatigue for actual use (including the failure cycles of over 10{sup 8} cycles). The slip bands observed on the surface, which have concavity and convexity similar to the intrusions/extrusions of PSBs, indicate that the failure is induced by the fatigue.

  14. Eliminating Cyanide, Reducing Heavy Metals, and Harvesting Gold from Mining Waste with Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    : All plants (as far as known) have an enzyme to detoxify cyanide by binding it to an amino acid. Cyanide in the appropriate dose can be used by plants as nitrogen source. Compared to other organisms, plants can tolerate high doses of free and complexed cyanidess. Using plants for detoxifying mining......Large amounts of cyanides are used in gold mining. The application is open and generates environmental problems. Regulators therefore insist on detoxifying cyanide-contaminated wastewater. There are existing technologies to remove cyanides, but none uses plants. Here, a new technology is introduced...... wastewater combines several benefits: cyanide is removed, plants are irrigated and fertilised. Heavy metals (including gold) are extracted by plants. Plants can be harvested and used, e.g., for energy production by burning. The ash of the plants is probaly rich in gold and a resource for further gold...

  15. Nucleation of polypropylene crystallization with gold nanoparticles. Part 2: relation between particle morphology and nucleation activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlouf, Miroslav; Vacková, Taťana; Zhigunov, Alexander; Sikora, Antonín; Piorkowska, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2016), s. 393-410 ISSN 0022-2348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/0348; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : crystallization * gold nanoparticles * isotactic polyproplylene Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2016

  16. Post hoc interlaboratory comparison of single particle ICP-MS size measurements of NIST gold nanoparticle reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Petersen, Elijah J; Possolo, Antonio; Winchester, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    Single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) is an emerging technique that enables simultaneous measurement of nanoparticle size and number quantification of metal-containing nanoparticles at realistic environmental exposure concentrations. Such measurements are needed to understand the potential environmental and human health risks of nanoparticles. Before spICP-MS can be considered a mature methodology, additional work is needed to standardize this technique including an assessment of the reliability and variability of size distribution measurements and the transferability of the technique among laboratories. This paper presents the first post hoc interlaboratory comparison study of the spICP-MS technique. Measurement results provided by six expert laboratories for two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) gold nanoparticle reference materials (RM 8012 and RM 8013) were employed. The general agreement in particle size between spICP-MS measurements and measurements by six reference techniques demonstrates the reliability of spICP-MS and validates its sizing capability. However, the precision of the spICP-MS measurement was better for the larger 60 nm gold nanoparticles and evaluation of spICP-MS precision indicates substantial variability among laboratories, with lower variability between operators within laboratories. Global particle number concentration and Au mass concentration recovery were quantitative for RM 8013 but significantly lower and with a greater variability for RM 8012. Statistical analysis did not suggest an optimal dwell time, because this parameter did not significantly affect either the measured mean particle size or the ability to count nanoparticles. Finally, the spICP-MS data were often best fit with several single non-Gaussian distributions or mixtures of Gaussian distributions, rather than the more frequently used normal or log-normal distributions.

  17. Round-shape gold nanoparticles: effect of particle size and concentration on Arabidopsis thaliana root growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Siegel, J.; Záruba, K.; Švorčík, V.; Kroumanová, Kristýna; Burketová, Lenka; Martinec, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, APR 10 (2018), č. článku 95. ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-10907S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Concentration * Gold nanoparticles * Root growth * Size Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2016

  18. Synthesis of gold nano particles with enlargement size by gamma Co-60 irradiation and investigation of anti oxidation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Dang Van Phu; Le Anh Quoc; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with size in the range of 10-53 nm were synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation using water-soluble chitosan (WSC) as stabilizer and size enlargement by seed approach. Absorption wavelength (λ max ) was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy and particle size was determined from TEM images. Results showed that value of λ max increased from 523 nm (seed particles) to 525, 537 and 549 nm and the size of AuNPs increased from 10 nm (seed particles) to 20, 38 and 53 nm, respectively, for concentration ratio of Au 3+ /Au 0 (seed) of 2.5, 5 and 10. Antioxidant effect of AuNPs with size of 10, 20, 38 and 53 nm was investigated using free radical 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS .+ ). Results indicated that the smaller the particle size was (10 nm) the stronger the antioxidant effect attained. Thus, AuNPs/WSC synthesis by gamma Co-60 irradiation are promising for applications as antioxidants in cosmetics and in other fields as well. (author)

  19. UV-Visible intensity ratio (aggregates/single particles) as a measure to obtain stability of gold nanoparticles conjugated with protein A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios-Corripio, M. A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIBA-Tlaxcala (Mexico); Garcia-Perez, B. E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Inmunologia, ENCB (Mexico); Jaramillo-Flores, M. E. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, ENCB (Mexico); Gayou, V. L.; Rojas-Lopez, M., E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIBA-Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    2013-05-15

    We have analyzed the titration process of gold nanoparticles with several amounts of protein A (0.3, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 9 {mu}g/ml) in the presence of NaCl, which induces aggregation if the surface of particles is not fully covered with protein A. The colloidal solutions with different particle size (16, 18, 20, 33 nm) were synthesized by citrate reduction to be conjugated with protein A. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to measure the absorption of the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles as a function of the concentration of protein A. Such dependence shows an aggregation region (0 < x<6 {mu}g/ml), where the amount of protein A was insufficient to cover the surface of particles, obtaining aggregation caused by NaCl. The next part is the stability region (x {>=} 6 {mu}g/ml), where the amount of protein used covers the surface of particles and protects it from the aggregation. In addition to that the ratio between the intensities of both: the aggregates and of the gold nanoparticle bands was plotted as a function of the concentration of protein A. It was determined that 6 {mu}g/ml is a sufficient value of protein A to stabilize the gold nanoparticle-protein A system. This method provides a simple way to stabilize gold nanoparticles obtained by citrate reduction, with protein A.

  20. On the Adhesive JKR Contact and Rolling Models for Reduced Particle Stiffness Discrete Element Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Jakob; Kleinhans, Ulrich; Wieland, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    particle stiffness to experimental data. Then two well-defined test cases are investigated to show the applicability of the guidelines. When introducing a reduced particle stiffness in DEM simulations by reducing the effective Young's modulus from E to Emod, the surface energy density γ in the adhesive......, this criterion can be used to estimate how much the time step size can be changed when a reduced particle stiffness is introduced. Introducing particles with a reduced particle stiffness has some limitations when strong external forces are acting to break-up formed agglomerates or re-entrain particles deposited...... on a surface out into the free stream. Therefore, care should be taken in flows with high local shear to make sure that an external force, such as a fluid drag force, acting to separate agglomerated particles, is several orders of magnitude lower than the critical force required to separate particles....

  1. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Necip, E-mail: necipatar@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Eren, Tanju [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Yola, Mehmet Lütfi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Sinop University, Sinop (Turkey)

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1} and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g{sup −1}. • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability.

  2. Ultrahigh capacity anode material for lithium ion battery based on rod gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Necip; Eren, Tanju; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of rod shaped gold nanoparticles/2-aminoethanethiol functionalized reduced graphene oxide composite (rdAuNPs/AETrGO) and its application as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The structure of the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performance was investigated at different current rates by using a coin-type cell. It was found that the rod shaped gold nanoparticles were highly dispersed on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. Moreover, the rdAuNPs/AETrGO composite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g −1 and a long-term cycle stability. - Highlights: • We prepared rod shaped gold nanoparticles functionalized reduced graphene oxide. • The nanocomposite was used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. • The nanocomposite showed a high specific gravimetric capacity of about 1320 mAh g −1 . • The nanocomposite exhibited a long-term cycle stability

  3. Application of three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide-gold composite modified electrode for direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Fan; Xi, Jingwen; Hou, Fei; Han, Lin; Li, Guangjiu; Gong, Shixing; Chen, Chanxing; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and gold (Au) composite was synthesized by electrodeposition and used for the electrode modification with carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode. Myoglobin (Mb) was further immobilized on the surface of 3D RGO–Au/CILE to obtain an electrochemical sensing platform. Direct electrochemistry of Mb on the modified electrode was investigated with a pair of well-defined redox waves appeared on cyclic voltammogram, indicating the realization of direct electron transfer of Mb with the modified electrode. The results can be ascribed to the presence of highly conductive 3D RGO–Au composite on the electrode surface that accelerate the electron transfer rate between the electroactive center of Mb and the electrode. The Mb modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity to the reduction of trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.2 to 36.0 mmol/L with the detection limit of 0.06 mmol/L (3σ). - Graphical abstract: Direct electrochemistry of myoglobin was realized on a three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide and gold nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide and gold composite was synthesized by electrodeposition. • Myoglobin was immobilized on the modified electrode to obtain an electrochemical sensor. • Direct electrochemistry of myoglobin was realized on the modified electrode. • The myoglobin modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic reduction to trichloroacetic acid.

  4. Preparation of submicron-sized spherical particles of gold using laser-induced melting in liquids and low-toxic stabilizing reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, T.; Higashi, Y.; Tsuji, M.; Ishikawa, Y.; Koshizaki, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Submicron-sized spherical particles of gold were prepared using laser irradiation for the source gold nanoparticles stabilized by NaCl. • The source gold nanoparticles agglomeration was controlled both by the NaCl concentration of and by laser irradiation. • The formation process and the laser-fluence dependence of the particle size of gold nanoparticles in NaCl solutions differs from those in citrate solutions. • We revealed that properties of ligands are significantly important to prepare submicron-sized spherical particles and to control their size. - Abstract: Laser-induced melting in liquids (LIML) was applied to prepare spherical submicron-sized particles of gold (AuSMPs) from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized using NaCl. Because undesirable byproducts, which might be generated when organic reagents such as citrate are used as the stabilizing reagent, are not generated from NaCl by laser irradiation, AuSMPs fabricated from AuNPs stabilized by NaCl will be low toxic. The AuSMPs were obtained by laser irradiation of the source AuNPs in NaCl solutions stabilized by NaCl at the proper concentration. Similar to the preparation of AuSMPs from AuNPs stabilized by citrate, the agglomeration of the source AuNPs, which is necessary to obtain AuSMPs, was controlled both by the NaCl concentration and by laser irradiation. However, the formation process and the laser-fluence dependence of the particle size of AuSMPs differed for various NaCl solutions and citrate solutions

  5. Synthesis of nano-cuboidal gold particles for effective antimicrobial property against clinical human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphin Kumar, Paskalis Sahaya; MubarakAli, Davoodbasha; Saratale, Rijuta Ganesh; Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya; Pugazhendhi, Arivalagan; Gopalakrishnan, Kumar; Thajuddin, Nooruddin

    2017-12-01

    Algae could offer a potential source of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals and biofuels. In this study, a green synthesis of dispersed cuboidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was achieved using red algae, Gelidium amansii reacted with HAuCl 4 . It was found to be 4-7 nm sized cubical nanoparticles with aspect ratio of 1.4 were synthesized using 0.5 mM of HAuCl 4 by HRSEM analysis. The crystalline planes (111), (200), (220), (311) and elemental signal of gold was observed by XRD and EDS respectively. The major constitutes, galactose and 3,6-anhydrogalactose in the alga played a critical role in the synthesis of crystalline AuNPs with cubical dimension. Further, the antibacterial potential of synthesized AuNPs was tested against human pathogens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The synthesized AuNPs found biocompatible up to 100 ppm and high concentration showed an inhibition against cancer cell. This novel report could be helped to exploration of bioresources to material synthesis for the application of biosensor and biomedical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing Tomo-PIV reconstruction quality by reducing ghost particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, C M; Baidya, R; Marusic, I

    2013-01-01

    A technique to enhance the reconstruction quality and consequently the accuracy of the velocity vector field obtained in Tomo-PIV experiments is presented here. The methodology involves detecting and eliminating spurious outliers in the reconstructed intensity field (ghost particles). A simulacrum matching-based reconstruction enhancement (SMRE) technique is proposed, which utilizes the characteristic shape and size of actual particles to remove ghost particles in the reconstructed intensity field. An assessment of SMRE is performed by a quantitative comparison of Tomo-PIV simulation results and DNS data, together with a comparison to Tomo-PIV experimental data measured in a turbulent channel flow at a matched Reynolds number (Re τ = 937) to the DNS study. For the simulation data, a comparative study is performed on the reconstruction quality based on an ideal reconstruction determined from known particle positions. The results suggest that a significant improvement in the reconstruction quality and flow statistics is achievable at typical seeding densities used in Tomo-PIV experiments. This improvement is further amplified at higher seeding densities, enabling the use of up to twice the typical seeding densities currently used in Tomo-PIV experiments. A reduction of spurious vectors present in the velocity field is also observed based on a median outlier detection criterion. The application of SMRE to Tomo-PIV experimental data shows an improvement in flow statistics, comparable to the improvement seen in simulations. Finally, due to the non-iterative nature of SMRE, the increase in processing time is marginal since only a single pass of the reconstruction algorithm is required. (paper)

  7. Linear Optical Properties of Gold Colloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin XIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold colloid was prepared by reducing HAuCl4·4H2O with Na3C6H5O7·2H2O. The morphology, size of gold nanoparticles and the optical property of colloid were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. It shows that the gold nanoparticles are in the shape of spheres with diameters less than 8 nm, and the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak is located at about 438 nm. As the volume fraction of gold particles increases, the intensity of absorption peak strengthens. The optical property of gold colloid was analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett (MG effective medium theory in the company of Drude dispersion model. The results show that the matrix dielectric constant is a main factor, which influences the optical property of gold colloid.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9558

  8. Gold Cluster Diffusion Kinetics on Stoichiometric and Reduced Surfaces of Rutile TiO 2 (110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Nir; Browning, Nigel D.

    2011-06-16

    Gold clusters on rutile TiO2 are known to serve as efficient oxidation catalysts for pollutants and environmental contaminants. However, the mechanism by which highly mobile small clusters migrate and aggregate into larger species relevant to gold’s catalytic activity remains unresolved. We report herein on ab initio simulations of the diffusion of atomic gold clusters up to the trimer on rutile TiO2(110) surfaces. We show that, on the stoichiometric surface, both the dimer and the trimer can exhibit relatively low surface mobility due to high energetic barriers for diffusion out of their energetic minima coupled with low barriers for the reverse motion. On the reduced surface, these clusters can diffuse relatively quickly between energetic minima within the oxygen vacancy site due to the large degree of vibrational entropy in their transition states. Our computed diffusion times provide a point of comparison for future experiments and will aid in development of models of gold cluster island sintering.

  9. Amplified photoacoustic performance and enhanced photothermal stability of reduced graphene oxide coated gold nanorods for sensitive photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyungwon; Kumar, Dinesh; Kim, Haemin; Sim, Changbeom; Chang, Jin-Ho; Kim, Jung-Mu; Kim, Hyuncheol; Lim, Dong-Kwon

    2015-03-24

    We report a strongly amplified photoacoustic (PA) performance of the new functional hybrid material composed of reduced graphene oxide and gold nanorods. Due to the excellent NIR light absorption properties of the reduced graphene oxide coated gold nanorods (r-GO-AuNRs) and highly efficient heat transfer process through the reduced graphene oxide layer, r-GO-AuNRs exhibit excellent photothermal stability and significantly higher photoacoustic amplitudes than those of bare-AuNRs, nonreduced graphene oxide coated AuNRs (GO-AuNRs), or silica-coated AuNR, as demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo systems. The linear response of PA amplitude from reduced state controlled GO on AuNR indicates the critical role of GO for a strong photothermal effect of r-GO-AuNRs. Theoretical studies with finite-element-method lab-based simulation reveal that a 4 times higher magnitude of the enhanced electromagnetic field around r-GO-AuNRs can be generated compared with bare AuNRs or GO-AuNRs. Furthermore, the r-GO-AuNRs are expected to be a promising deep-tissue imaging probe because of extraordinarily high PA amplitudes in the 4-11 MHz operating frequency of an ultrasound transducer. Therefore, the r-GO-AuNRs can be a useful imaging probe for highly sensitive photoacoustic images and NIR sensitive therapeutics based on a strong photothermal effect.

  10. Latex particle template lift-up guided gold wire-networks via evaporation lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chew, Basil; Wang, Zhihong; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-01-01

    We describe a hybrid methodology that combines a two dimensional (2D) monolayer of latex particles (with a pitch size down to 1 μm) prepared by horizontal dry deposition, lift-up of a 2D template onto flat surfaces and evaporation lithography to fabricate metal micro- and nano wire-networks. This journal is

  11. Study on Sumbawa gold ore liberation using rod mill: effect of rod-number and rotational speed on particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, A.; Mawadati, A.; Putri, A. M. R.; Petrus, H. T. B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Comminution is one of crucial steps in gold ore processing used to liberate the valuable minerals from gaunge mineral. This research is done to find the particle size distribution of gold ore after it has been treated through the comminution process in a rod mill with various number of rod and rotational speed that will results in one optimum milling condition. For the initial step, Sumbawa gold ore was crushed and then sieved to pass the 2.5 mesh and retained on the 5 mesh (this condition was taken to mimic real application in artisanal gold mining). Inserting the prepared sample into the rod mill, the observation on effect of rod-number and rotational speed was then conducted by variating the rod number of 7 and 10 while the rotational speed was varied from 60, 85, and 110 rpm. In order to be able to provide estimation on particle distribution of every condition, the comminution kinetic was applied by taking sample at 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for size distribution analysis. The change of particle distribution of top and bottom product as time series was then treated using Rosin-Rammler distribution equation. The result shows that the homogenity of particle size and particle size distribution is affected by rod-number and rotational speed. The particle size distribution is more homogeneous by increasing of milling time, regardless of rod-number and rotational speed. Mean size of particles do not change significantly after 60 minutes milling time. Experimental results showed that the optimum condition was achieved at rotational speed of 85 rpm, using rod-number of 7.

  12. Synthesis of reduced-size gold nanostars and internalization in SH-SY5Y cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dacarro, Giacomo

    2017-07-01

    The synthesis of large pentatwinned five-branched gold nanostars (GNS) has been modified so to obtain overall dimensions shrunk to 60% and a lower branches aspect ratio, leading to a dramatic blue shift of their two near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) absorptions but still maintaining one LSPR in the biotransparent NIR range. The interactions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated large and shrunk GNS with SH-SY5Y cells revealed that the large ones (DCI - diameter of the circumference in which GNS can be inscribed = 76 nm) are internalized more efficiently than the shrunk ones (DCI = 46 nm), correlating with a decreased cells surving fraction.

  13. Synthesis of reduced-size gold nanostars and internalization in SH-SY5Y cells

    KAUST Repository

    Dacarro, Giacomo; Pallavicini, Piersandro; Bertani, Serena Maria; Chirico, Giuseppe; D'Alfonso, Laura; Falqui, Andrea; Marchesi, Nicoletta; Pascale, Alessia; Sironi, Laura; Taglietti, Angelo; Zuddas, Efisio

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of large pentatwinned five-branched gold nanostars (GNS) has been modified so to obtain overall dimensions shrunk to 60% and a lower branches aspect ratio, leading to a dramatic blue shift of their two near-infrared (NIR) localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) absorptions but still maintaining one LSPR in the biotransparent NIR range. The interactions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated large and shrunk GNS with SH-SY5Y cells revealed that the large ones (DCI - diameter of the circumference in which GNS can be inscribed = 76 nm) are internalized more efficiently than the shrunk ones (DCI = 46 nm), correlating with a decreased cells surving fraction.

  14. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binupriya, A.R.; Sathishkumar, M.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Yun, S.-I.

    2010-01-01

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  15. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binupriya, A.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Sathishkumar, M., E-mail: cvemuthu@nus.edu.sg [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117577 (Singapore); Vijayaraghavan, K. [Singapore-Delft Water Alliance, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117577 (Singapore); Yun, S.-I., E-mail: siyun@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  16. Effect of gold nano-particle layers on ablative acceleration of plastic foil targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dhareshwar, L.J.; Gupta, N.K.; Chaurasia, S.; Ayyub, P.; Kulkarni, N.; Badziak, J.; Pisarczyk, T.; Kasperczuk, A.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Wolowski, J.; Krouský, Eduard; Krása, Josef; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Velyhan, Andriy; Margarone, Daniele; Mezzasalma, A.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 244, č. 2 (2010), 022018/1-022018/8 ISSN 1742-6588 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser pulse absorption * nano-particle coating * lateral thermal conduction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  17. Hypersalinity reduces the risk of cyanide toxicosis to insectivorous bats interacting with wastewater impoundments at gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Lumsden, Linda F; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife and livestock that ingest bioavailable cyanide compounds in gold mining tailings dams are known to experience cyanide toxicosis. Elevated levels of salinity in open impoundments have been shown to prevent wildlife cyanide toxicosis by reducing drinking and foraging. This finding appears to be consistent for diurnal wildlife interacting with open impoundments, however the risks to nocturnal wildlife of cyanide exposure are unknown. We investigated the activity of insectivorous bats in the airspace above both fresh (potable to wildlife) and saline water bodies at two gold mines in the goldfields of Western Australian. During this study, cyanide-bearing solutions stored in open impoundments at both mine sites were hypersaline (range=57,000-295,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS)), well above known physiological tolerance of any terrestrial vertebrate. Bats used the airspace above each water body monitored, but were more active at fresh than saline water bodies. In addition, considerably more terminal echolocation buzz calls were recorded in the airspace above fresh than saline water bodies at both mine sites. However, it was not possible to determine whether these buzz calls corresponded to foraging or drinking bouts. No drinking bouts were observed in 33 h of thermal video footage recorded at one hypersaline tailings dam, suggesting that this water is not used for drinking. There is no information on salinity tolerances of bats, but it could be assumed that bats would not tolerate salinity in drinking water at concentrations greater than those documented as toxic for saline-adapted terrestrial wildlife. Therefore, when managing wastewater impoundments at gold mines to avoid wildlife mortalities, adopting a precautionary principle, bats are unlikely to drink solutions at salinity levels ≥50,000 mg/L TDS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Charged particles produced in neutron reactions on nuclei from beryllium to gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Charged-particle production in reactions of neutrons with nuclei has been studied over the past several years with the spallation source of neutrons from 1 to 50 MeV at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Target nuclides include 9Be, C, 27Al, Si, 56Fe, 59Co, 58,60Ni, 93Nb and 197Au. Proton, deuteron, triton, 3He and 4He emission spectra, angular distributions and production cross sections have been measured. Transitions from the compound nuclear reaction mechanism to precompound reactions are clearly seen in the data. The data are compared with data from the literature where available, with evaluated nuclear data libraries, and with calculations where the selection of the nuclear level density prescription is of great importance. Calculations normalized at En = 14 MeV can differ from the present data by a factor of 2 for neutron energies between 5 and 10 MeV

  19. Gold nano-particle formation from crystalline AuCN: Comparison of thermal, plasma- and ion-beam activated decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Mihály T.; Bertóti, Imre, E-mail: bertoti.imre@ttk.mta.hu; Mohai, Miklós; Németh, Péter; Jakab, Emma; Szabó, László; Szépvölgyi, János

    2017-02-15

    In this work, in addition to the conventional thermal process, two non-conventional ways, the plasma and ion beam activations are described for preparing gold nanoparticles from microcrystalline AuCN precursor. The phase formation at plasma and ion beam treatments was compared with that at thermal treatments and the products and transformations were characterized by thermogravimetry-mass-spectrometry (TG-MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TG-MS measurements in Ar atmosphere revealed that AuCN decomposition starts at 400 °C and completes at ≈700 °C with evolution of gaseous (CN){sub 2}. XPS and TEM show that in heat treatment at 450 °C for 1 h in Ar, loss of nitrogen and carbon occurs and small, 5–30 nm gold particles forms. Heating at 450 °C for 10 h in sealed ampoule, much larger, 60–200 nm size and well faceted Au particles develop together with a fibrous (CN){sub n} polymer phase, and the Au crystallites are covered by a 3–5 nm thick polymer shell. Low pressure Ar plasma treatment at 300 eV energy results in 4–20 nm size Au particles and removes most of the nitrogen and part of carbon. During Ar{sup +} ion bombardment with 2500 eV energy, 5–30 nm size Au crystallites form already in 10 min, with preferential loss of nitrogen and with increased amount of carbon residue. The results suggest that plasma and ion beam activation, acting similarly to thermal treatment, may be used to prepare Au nanoparticles from AuCN on selected surface areas either by depositing AuCN precursors on selected regions or by focusing the applied ionized radiation. Thus they may offer alternative ways for preparing tailor-made catalysts, electronic devices and sensors for different applications. - Graphical abstract: Proposed scheme of the decomposition mechanism of AuCN samples: heat treatment in Ar flow (a) and in sealed ampoule (b); Ar{sup +} ion treatment at 300 eV (c) and at 2500 eV (d). Cross section sketches

  20. Quasi-particle entanglement: redefinition of the vacuum and reduced density matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, P; Sukhorukov, E V; Buettiker, M

    2005-01-01

    A scattering approach to entanglement in mesoscopic conductors with independent fermionic quasi-particles is discussed. We focus on conductors in the tunnelling limit, where a redefinition of the quasi-particle vacuum transforms the wavefunction from a many-body product state of non-interacting particles to a state describing entangled two-particle excitations out of the new vacuum (Samuelsson, Sukhorukov and Buettiker 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 157002). The approach is illustrated with two examples: (i) a normal-superconducting system, where the transformation is made between Bogoliubov-de Gennes quasi-particles and Cooper pairs, and (ii) a normal system, where the transformation is made between electron quasi-particles and electron-hole pairs. This is compared to a scheme where an effective two-particle state is derived from the manybody scattering state by a reduced density matrix approach

  1. Establishment of gold-quartz standard GQS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Hugh T.; Marinenko, John; McLane, John E.

    1969-01-01

    A homogeneous gold-quartz standard, GQS-1, was prepared from a heterogeneous gold-bearing quartz by chemical treatment. The concentration of gold in GQS-1 was determined by both instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope dilution analysis to be 2.61?0.10 parts per million. Analysis of 10 samples of the standard by both instrumental neutron activation analysis and radioisotope dilution analysis failed to reveal heterogeneity within the standard. The precision of the analytical methods, expressed as standard error, was approximately 0.1 part per million. The analytical data were also used to estimate the average size of gold particles. The chemical treatment apparently reduced the average diameter of the gold particles by at least an order of magnitude and increased the concentration of gold grains by a factor of at least 4,000.

  2. MapReduce particle filtering with exact resampling and deterministic runtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan; Kekempanos, Lykourgos; Maskell, Simon

    2017-12-01

    Particle filtering is a numerical Bayesian technique that has great potential for solving sequential estimation problems involving non-linear and non-Gaussian models. Since the estimation accuracy achieved by particle filters improves as the number of particles increases, it is natural to consider as many particles as possible. MapReduce is a generic programming model that makes it possible to scale a wide variety of algorithms to Big data. However, despite the application of particle filters across many domains, little attention has been devoted to implementing particle filters using MapReduce. In this paper, we describe an implementation of a particle filter using MapReduce. We focus on a component that what would otherwise be a bottleneck to parallel execution, the resampling component. We devise a new implementation of this component, which requires no approximations, has O( N) spatial complexity and deterministic O((log N)2) time complexity. Results demonstrate the utility of this new component and culminate in consideration of a particle filter with 224 particles being distributed across 512 processor cores.

  3. Spherical aggregates composed of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C-C; Kuo, P-L; Cheng, Y-C

    2009-01-01

    Alkylated triethylenetetramine (C12E3) was synthesized and used as both a reductant in the preparation of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl 4 and a stabilizer in the subsequent self-assembly of the gold nanoparticles. In acidic aqueous solution, spherical aggregates (with a diameter of about 202 ± 22 nm) of gold nanoparticles (with the mean diameter of ∼18.7 nm) were formed. The anion-induced ammonium adsorption of the alkylated amines on the gold nanoparticles was considered to provide the electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance between the gold nanoparticles, which constituted the barrier that prevented the individual particles from coagulating. However, as the amino groups became deprotonated with increasing pH, the ammonium adsorption was weakened, and the amino groups were desorbed from the gold surface, resulting in discrete gold particles. The results indicate that the morphology of the reduced gold nanoparticles is controllable through pH-'tunable' aggregation under the mediation of the amino groups of alkylated amine to create spherical microstructures.

  4. Gold nanoparticles and diclofenac diethylammonium administered by iontophoresis reduce inflammatory cytokines expression in Achilles tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnert, Marcelo B; Venâncio, Mirelli; Possato, Jonathann C; Zeferino, Rodrigo C; Dohnert, Luciana H; Zugno, Alexandra I; De Souza, Cláudio T; Paula, Marcos M S; Luciano, Thais F

    2012-01-01

    Tendinitis affects a substantial number of people in several occupations involving repetitive work or direct trauma. Iontophoresis is a therapeutic alternative used in the treatment of injury during the inflammatory phase. In recent years, gold nanoparticles (GNP) have been studied due to their therapeutic anti-inflammatory capacity and as an alternative to the transport of several proteins. This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of iontophoresis using GNPs and diclofenac diethylammonium on inflammatory parameters in rats challenged with traumatic tendinitis. Wistar rats were divided in three treatment groups (n = 15): (1) iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium; (2) iontophoresis + GNP; and (3) iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium + GNP. External control was formed by challenged tendons without treatment (n = 15). Iontophoresis was administered using 0.3 mA direct current on 1.5 cm(2) electrodes. The levels of both inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in untreated challenged rats, when compared with the control (5.398 ± 234 for interleukin 1 beta and 6.411 ± 432 for tumor necrosis factor alpha), which confirms the occurrence of an inflammatory stage in injury (P diclofenac and GNP, results were similar to the control (1.732 ± 239) (P diclofenac and GNPs presented decreased levels, compared with the control (3.221 ± 369) (P < 0.05). The results show the efficacy of drug administration using direct current to treat tendinitis in an animal model, and the potential anti-inflammatory, carrier, and enhancing effects of GNPs in iontophoresis.

  5. Implementation of a secondary-ion tritium beam by means of the associated particle technique and its test on a gold target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policroniades, R.; Fernández-Arnáiz, J.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P.; Méndez, B. [Departamento de Aceleradores, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carr. México-Toluca S/N, Ocoyoacac, Estado de México 52750 (Mexico); Chávez, E.; Ortíz-Salazar, M.E.; Huerta, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Varela-González, A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 20-364, México, D.F. 01000 (Mexico)

    2014-05-21

    In this work we present the implementation and characterization of a (secondary ion) tritium beam generated through the D(d,t)p reaction, at deuteron energies of 2.0 and 1.88 MeV, tagging the tritium ions with the associated particle technique. In order to prove its utility as a projectile for scientific applications, this beam was made to impinge on a thin gold target to observe expected elastic scattering events. - Highlights: • A new secondary ion tritium beam obtained through the D(d,t)3He reaction. • Tritium beam tagging by the associated particle technique. • A low energy Tritium beam without radiation contamination of equipment. • Tritium elastic scattering on gold.

  6. Implementation of a secondary-ion tritium beam by means of the associated particle technique and its test on a gold target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policroniades, R.; Fernández-Arnáiz, J.; Murillo, G.; Moreno, E.; Villaseñor, P.; Méndez, B.; Chávez, E.; Ortíz-Salazar, M.E.; Huerta, A.; Varela-González, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the implementation and characterization of a (secondary ion) tritium beam generated through the D(d,t)p reaction, at deuteron energies of 2.0 and 1.88 MeV, tagging the tritium ions with the associated particle technique. In order to prove its utility as a projectile for scientific applications, this beam was made to impinge on a thin gold target to observe expected elastic scattering events. - Highlights: • A new secondary ion tritium beam obtained through the D(d,t)3He reaction. • Tritium beam tagging by the associated particle technique. • A low energy Tritium beam without radiation contamination of equipment. • Tritium elastic scattering on gold

  7. Coal-gold agglomeration: an alternative separation process in gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akcil, A.; Wu, X.Q.; Aksay, E.K. [Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Considering the increasing environmental concerns and the potential for small gold deposits to be exploited in the future, the uses of environmentally friendly processes are essential. Recent developments point to the potential for greatly increased plant performance through a separation process that combines the cyanide and flotation processes. In addition, this kind of alternative treatment processes to the traditional gold recovery processes may reduce the environmental risks of present small-scale gold mining. Gold recovery processes that applied to different types of gold bearing ore deposits show that the type of deposits plays an important role for the selection of mineral processing technologies in the production of gold and other precious metals. In the last 25 years, different alternative processes have been investigated on gold deposits located in areas where environmental issues are a great concern. In 1988, gold particles were first recovered by successful pilot trial of coal-gold agglomeration (CGA) process in Australia. The current paper reviews the importance of CGA in the production of gold ore and identifies areas for further development work.

  8. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  9. Gold nanoparticles and diclofenac diethylammonium administered by iontophoresis reduce inflammatory cytokines expression in Achilles tendinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnert MB

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo B Dohnert1,2, Mirelli Venâncio1, Jonathann C Possato1, Rodrigo C Zeferino1, Luciana H Dohnert2, Alexandra I Zugno1, Cláudio T De Souza1, Marcos MS Paula1, Thais F Luciano11Postgraduation Program in Health Sciences, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, Santa Catarina, 2Department of Physiotherapy, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul, BrazilIntroduction: Tendinitis affects a substantial number of people in several occupations involving repetitive work or direct trauma. Iontophoresis is a therapeutic alternative used in the treatment of injury during the inflammatory phase. In recent years, gold nanoparticles (GNP have been studied due to their therapeutic anti-inflammatory capacity and as an alternative to the transport of several proteins. Purpose: This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of iontophoresis using GNPs and diclofenac diethylammonium on inflammatory parameters in rats challenged with traumatic tendinitis.Methods: Wistar rats were divided in three treatment groups (n = 15: (1 iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium; (2 iontophoresis + GNP; and (3 iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium + GNP. External control was formed by challenged tendons without treatment (n = 15. Iontophoresis was administered using 0.3 mA direct current on 1.5 cm² electrodes. Results: The levels of both inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in untreated challenged rats, when compared with the control (5.398 ± 234 for interleukin 1 beta and 6.411 ± 432 for tumor necrosis factor alpha, which confirms the occurrence of an inflammatory stage in injury (P < 0.05. A significant decrease was observed in expression of cytokines interleukin 1 beta in the three treatment groups, in comparison with untreated challenged tendons, although, in the group treated with diclofenac and GNP, results were similar to the control (1.732 ± 239 (P < 0

  10. Tryptophan-Assisted Synthesis Reduces Bimetallic Gold/Silver Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity and Improves Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor O. Shmarakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to reduce the potential in vivo hepato-and nephrotoxicity of Ag/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, an approach involving a simultaneous reduction of silver nitrate and tetrachlorauratic acid using tryptophan (Trp as a reducing/stabilizing agent was applied during NP synthesis. The obtained Ag/Au/Trp NPs (5–15 nm sized were able to form stable aggregates with an average size of 370–450 nm and were potentially less toxic than Ag/Au/SDS in relation to a mouse model system based on clinical biochemical parameters and oxidative damage product estimation. Ag/Au/Trp NPs were shown to exhibit anticancer activity in relation to a Lewis lung carcinoma model. The data generated from the present study support the fact that the use of tryptophan in NP synthesis is effective in attenuating the potential hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of NPs during their in vivo application.

  11. Fabrication and characterisation of gold nano-particle modified polymer monoliths for flow-through catalytic reactions and their application in the reduction of hexacyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floris, Patrick; Twamley, Brendan; Nesterenko, Pavel N.; Paull, Brett; Connolly, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Polymer monoliths in capillary (100 μm i.d.) and polypropylene pipette tip formats (vol: 20 μL) were modified with gold nano-particles (AuNP) and subsequently used for flow-through catalytic reactions. Specifically, methacrylate monoliths were modified with amine-reactive monomers using a two-step photografting method and then reacted with ethylenediamine to provide amine attachment sites for the subsequent immobilisation of 4 nm, 7 nm or 16 nm AuNP. This was achieved by flushing colloidal suspensions of gold nano-particles through each aminated polymer monolith which resulted in a multi-point covalent attachment of gold via the lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen of the free amine groups. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and scanning capacitively coupled conductivity detection was used to characterise the surface coverage of AuNP on the monoliths. The catalytic activity of AuNP immobilised on the polymer monoliths in both formats was then demonstrated using the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by sodium borohydride as a model reaction by monitoring the reduction in absorbance of the hexacyanoferrate (III) complex at 420 nm. Catalytic activity was significantly enhanced on monoliths modified with smaller AuNP with almost complete reduction (95 %) observed when using monoliths agglomerated with 7 nm AuNPs. (author)

  12. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tahmad3@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Al-Shihri, Ayed S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. Box 9004 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m{sup 2}/g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m{sup 2/}g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl{sub 2} and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl{sub 2}, however, NaBH{sub 4} produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m{sup 2}/g for 7 nm and 269 m{sup 2}/g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H{sup +} efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  13. Antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Tokeer; Wani, Irshad A.; Lone, Irfan H.; Ganguly, Aparna; Manzoor, Nikhat; Ahmad, Aijaz; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Al-Shihri, Ayed S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanoparticles (7 and 15 nm) of very high surface area (329 and 269 m 2 /g) have been successfully synthesized through solvothermal method by using tin chloride and sodium borohydride as reducing agents. As-prepared gold nanoparticles shows very excellent antifungal activity against Candida isolates and activity increases with decrease in the particle size. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effect of reducing agents on the morphology of gold nanoparticles. ► Highly uniform and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (7 nm). ► Highest surface area of gold nanoparticles (329 m 2/ g). ► Excellent antifungal activity of gold nanoparticles against Candida strains. -- Abstract: Gold nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by solvothermal method using SnCl 2 and NaBH 4 as reducing agents. X-ray diffraction studies show highly crystalline and monophasic nature of the gold nanoparticles with face centred cubic structure. The transmission electron microscopic studies show the formation of nearly spherical gold nanoparticles of average size of 15 nm using SnCl 2 , however, NaBH 4 produced highly uniform, monodispersed and spherical gold nanoparticles of average grain size of 7 nm. A high surface area of 329 m 2 /g for 7 nm and 269 m 2 /g for 15 nm gold nanoparticles was observed. UV–vis studies assert the excitations over the visible region due to transverse and longitudinal surface plasmon modes. The gold nanoparticles exhibit excellent size dependant antifungal activity and greater biocidal action against Candida isolates for 7 nm sized gold nanoparticles restricting the transmembrane H + efflux of the Candida species than 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles.

  14. The effect of reducing alfalfa haylage particle size on cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononoff, P J; Heinrichs, A J

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate effects of reducing forage particle size on cows in early lactation based on measurements of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS). Eight cannulated, multiparous cows averaging 19 +/- 4 d in milk and 642 +/- 45 kg BW were assigned to one of two 4 x 4 Latin Squares. During each of the 23-d periods, animals were offered one of four diets, which were chemically identical but included alfalfa haylage of different particle size; short (SH), mostly short (MSH), mostly long (MLG), and long (LG). Physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) was determined by measuring the amount of neutral detergent fiber retained on a 1.18 mm screen and was similar across diets (25.7, 26.2, 26.4, 26.7%) but the amount of particles >19.0 mm significantly decreased with decreasing particle size. Reducing haylage particle size increased dry matter intake linearly (23.3, 22.0, 20.9, 20.8 kg for SH, MSH, MLG, LG, respectively). Milk production and percentage fat did not differ across treatments averaging 35.5 +/- 0.68 kg milk and 3.32 +/- 0.67% fat, while a quadratic effect was observed for percent milk protein, with lowest values being observed for LG. A quadratic effect was observed for mean rumen pH (6.04, 6.15, 6.13, 6.09), while A:P ratio decreased linearly (2.75, 2.86, 2.88, 2.92) with decreasing particle size. Total time ruminating increased quadratically (467, 498, 486, 468 min/d), while time eating decreased linearly (262, 253, 298, 287 min/d) with decreasing particle size. Both eating and ruminating per unit of neutral detergent fiber intake decreased with reducing particle size (35.8, 36.7, 44.9, 45.6 min/kg; 19.9, 23.6, 23.5, 23.5 min/kg). Although chewing activity was closely related to forage particle size, effects on rumen pH were small, indicating factors other than particle size are critical in regulating pH when ration neutral detergent fiber met recommended levels. Feeding alfalfa haylage based rations of reduced

  15. In Situ Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Gold Nanocomposites for Nanoelectronics and Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Peng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, an in situ chemical synthesis approach has been developed to prepare graphene–Au nanocomposites from chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO in aqueous media. UV–Vis absorption, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used to demonstrate the successful attachment of Au nanoparticles to graphene sheets. Configured as field-effect transistors (FETs, the as-synthesized single-layered rGO-Au nanocomposites exhibit higher hole mobility and conductance when compared to the rGO sheets, promising its applications in nanoelectronics. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the rGO-Au FETs are able to label-freely detect DNA hybridization with high sensitivity, indicating its potentials in nanoelectronic biosensing.

  16. One at a time: counting single-nanoparticle/electrode collisions for accurate particle sizing by overcoming the instability of gold nanoparticles under electrolytic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Danfeng; Wang, Song; Zheng, Yuanqin; Deng, Zhaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    In response to an increasing demand for understanding electrochemical processes on the nanometer scale, it now becomes possible to monitor electron transfer reactions at the single-nanoparticle level, namely particle collision electrochemistry. This technique has great potential in the development of research tools towards single-particle electrocatalysis and selective and multiplexed particle sizing. However, one existing problem that may discourage these applications is the relatively weak colloidal stability of nanoparticles in an electrolytic solution. Here we report on a facile but efficient way to achieve a good stability of gold nanoparticles in an acidic media so that ‘zero-aggregation’ collisions can be achieved at a carbon ultramicroelectrode. This allows us to obtain anodic dissolution currents from individual nanoparticles in a ‘one particle at a time’ manner, based on which accurate particle sizing with a resolution of 1–2 nm can be achieved. Our work strongly suggests that to maintain a well dispersed nanoparticle solution during a particle impact electrochemical experiment is critically important for accurate particle sizing, as well as other applications that require information to be extracted from individual nanoparticles (not their aggregates). (paper)

  17. One-particle reducible contribution to the one-loop spinor propagator in a constant field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ahmadiniaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extending work by Gies and Karbstein on the Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian, it has recently been shown that the one-loop propagator of a charged scalar particle in a constant electromagnetic field has a one-particle reducible contribution in addition to the well-studied irreducible one. Here we further generalize this result to the spinor case, and find the same relation between the reducible term, the tree-level propagator and the one-loop Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian as in the scalar case. Our demonstration uses a novel worldline path integral representation of the photon-dressed spinor propagator in a constant electromagnetic field background.

  18. The role of aqueous leaf extract of Tinospora crispa as reducing and capping agents for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriandanu, D. O. B.; Yulizar, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Environmentally friendly method for green synthesis of Au nanoparticles (AuNP) using aqueous leaf extract of Tinospora crispa (TLE) was reported. TLE has the ability for reducing and capping AuNP. Identification of active compounds in aqueous leaf extract was obtained by phytochemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The AuNP-TLE growth was characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The particle size and the distribution of AuNP were confirmed by particle size analyzer (PSA). AuNP-TLE formation was optimized by varying the extract concentration and time of the synthesis process. UV-Vis absorption spectrum of optimum AuNP formation displayed by the surface plasmon resonance at maximum wavelength of λmax 536 nm. The PSA result showed that AuNP has size distribution of 80.60 nm and stable up to 21 days. TEM images showed that the size of the AuNP is ± 25 nm.

  19. Electrochemical Synthesis of Polypyrrole, Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Gold Nanoparticles Composite and Its Application to Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we report a facile eco-friendly one-step electrochemical approach for the fabrication of a polypyrrole (PPy, reduced graphene oxide (RGO, and gold nanoparticles (nanoAu biocomposite on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The electrochemical behaviors of PPy–RGO–nanoAu and its application to electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Graphene oxide and pyrrole monomer were first mixed and casted on the surface of a cleaned GCE. After an electrochemical processing consisting of the electrooxidation of pyrrole monomer and simultaneous electroreduction of graphene oxide and auric ions (Au3+ in aqueous solution, a PPy–RGO–nanoAu biocomposite was synthesized on GCE. Each component of PPy–RGO–nanoAu is electroactive without non-electroactive substance. The obtained PPy–RGO–nanoAu/GCE exhibited high electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide, which allows the detection of hydrogen peroxide at a negative potential of about −0.62 V vs. SCE. The amperometric responses of the biosensor displayed a sensitivity of 40 µA/mM, a linear range of 32 µM–2 mM, and a detection limit of 2.7 µM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3 with good stability and acceptable reproducibility and selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the as-prepared PPy–RGO–nanoAu biocomposite for use as a highly electroactive matrix for an amperometric biosensor.

  20. Determination of melamine in food contact materials using an electrode modified with gold nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ningning; Zhang, Cuiling; Zhao, Kai; Xian, Yuezhong; Cheng, Yuxiao; Li, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for melamine based on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with reduced graphene oxide that was decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP/rGO). The AuNPs/rGO nanocomposite was synthesized by co-reduction of Au(III) and graphene oxide and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The response of the modified GCE to melamine was investigated by using hexacyanoferrate as an electrochemical reporter. It is found that the electrochemical response to hexacyanoferrate is increasingly suppressed by increasing concentration of melamine. This is attributed to competitive adsorption of melamine at the AuNP/rGO composite through the interaction between the amino groups of melamine and the AuNPs. The presence of rGO, in turn, provides a platform for a more uniform distribution of the AuNPs and enhances the electron transfer rate of the redox reaction. The findings were used to develop a sensitive method for the determination of melamine. Under optimized conditions, the redox peak current of hexacyanoferrate at a working voltage of 171 mV (vs. SCE) is linearly related to the concentration of melamine in 5.0 to 50 nM range. The method was successfully applied to the determination of melamine in food contact materials. (author)

  1. Application of three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide-gold composite modified electrode for direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Xi, Jingwen; Hou, Fei; Han, Lin; Li, Guangjiu; Gong, Shixing; Chen, Chanxing; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and gold (Au) composite was synthesized by electrodeposition and used for the electrode modification with carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode. Myoglobin (Mb) was further immobilized on the surface of 3D RGO-Au/CILE to obtain an electrochemical sensing platform. Direct electrochemistry of Mb on the modified electrode was investigated with a pair of well-defined redox waves appeared on cyclic voltammogram, indicating the realization of direct electron transfer of Mb with the modified electrode. The results can be ascribed to the presence of highly conductive 3D RGO-Au composite on the electrode surface that accelerate the electron transfer rate between the electroactive center of Mb and the electrode. The Mb modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity to the reduction of trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.2 to 36.0 mmol/L with the detection limit of 0.06 mmol/L (3σ). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stimuli-Responsive Polyelectrolyte Brushes As a Matrix for the Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles: The Effect of Brush Thickness on Particle Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Christau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of brush thickness on the loading of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs within stimuli-responsive poly-(N,N-(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA polyelectrolyte brushes is reported. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP was used to grow polymer brushes via a “grafting from” approach. The brush thickness was tuned by varying the polymerization time. Using a new type of sealed reactor, thick brushes were synthesized. A systematic study was performed by varying a single parameter (brush thickness, while keeping all other parameters constant. AuNPs of 13 nm in diameter were attached by incubation. X-ray reflectivity, electron scanning microscopy and ellipsometry were used to study the particle loading, particle distribution and interpenetration of the particles within the brush matrix. A model for the structure of the brush/particle hybrids was derived. The particle number densities of attached AuNPs depend on the brush thickness, as do the optical properties of the hybrids. An increasing particle number density was found for increasing brush thickness, due to an increased surface roughness.

  3. SU-F-T-661: Dependence of Gold Nano Particles Cluster Morphology On Dose Enhancement of Photon Radiation Therapy Apply for Radiation Biology Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S [Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K; Han, Y; Park, H [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine radiation oncology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Injected gold nano particles (GNPs) to a body for dose enhancement are known to form in the tumorcell cluster morphology. We investigated the dependence of dose enhancement on the morphology characteristic with an approximated morphology model by using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: For MC simulation, TOPAS version 2.0P-03 was used. GNP cluster morphology was approximated as a body center cubic(BCC) model by placing 8 GNPs at the corner and one at the center of cube with length from 2.59 µm to 0.25 µm located in a 4 µm length water filled cube phantom. 4 µm length square shaped beams of poly-energetic 50, 260 kVp photons were irradiated to the water filled cube phantom with 100 nm diameter GNPs in it. Dose enhancement ratio(DER) was computed as a function of distance from the surface of the GNP at the cube center for 18 cubes geometries. For scoring particles, 10 nm width of concentric shell shaped detector was constructed up to 100 nm from the center. Total dose in a sphere of 100 nm radius of detector were normalized to 2.59 µm length cube morphology. To verified biological effect of BCC model applied to cell survival curve fitting. Results: DER increase as the distance of the GNPs reduces. DER was largest for 0.25 µm length cube. Dependence of GNP distance DER increment was 1.73, 1.60 for 50 kVp, 260 kVp photons, respectively. Also, Using BCC model applied to cell survival curve was well prediction. Conclusion: DER with GNPs was larger when they are closely packed in the phantom. Therefore, better therapeutic effects can be expected with close-packed GNPs. This research was supported by the NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2012M3A9B6055201 and 2012R1A1A2042414), Samsung Medical Center grant[GFO1130081].

  4. Analysis of the toxicity of gold nano particles on the immune system: effect on dendritic cell functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villiers, Christian L.; Freitas, Heidi; Couderc, Rachel; Villiers, Marie-Bernadette; Marche, Patrice N.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of manufactured gold nanoparticles (NPs) on the immune system was analysed through their ability to perturb the functions of dendritic cells (DCs), a major actor of both innate and acquired immune responses. For this purpose, DCs were produced in culture from mouse bone marrow progenitors. The analysis of the viability of the cells after their incubation in the presence of gold NPs shows that these NPs are not cytotoxics even at high concentration. Furthermore, the phenotype of the DC is unchanged after the addition of NPs, indicating that there is no activation of the DC. However, the analysis of the cells at the intracellular level reveals important amounts of gold NPs amassing in endocytic compartments. Furthermore, the secretion of cytokines is significantly modified after such internalisation indicating a potential perturbation of the immune response.

  5. Moessbauerspectroscopy on Gold Ruby Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslbeck, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, the chemical states of gold and the physical mechanisms of the growing process of the particles under the influence of additional ingredients like tin, lead, antimony and selenium before, during and after the colouring process are investigated by using the Moessbauer spectroscopy on 197 Au, 119 Sn and 121 Sb, optical spectroscopy and X-ray-diffraction. Gold in an unnealed, colourless state of the glasses consists of monovalent forming linear bonds to two neighbouring oxygen atoms. The Lamb-Moessbauer factor of these gold oxide bondings is observed as 0.095 at 4.2 K. The gold in it's oxide state transforms to gold particles with a diameter of 3 nm to 60 nm. The size of the gold particles is quite definable within the optical spectra and certain sizes are also discernable within the Moessbauer spectra. One component of the Moessbauer spectra is assigned to the surface layer of the gold particles. By comparing this surface component with the amount of the bulk metallic core, one can calculate the size of the gold particles. In the Moessbauer spectra of the colourless glass one also can find parts of bulk metallic gold. Investigations with X-ray diffraction show that these are gold particles with a diameter of 100 nm to 300 nm and therefore have no additional colouring effect within the visible spectrum. The Moessbauer spectra on gold of the remelt glasses are similar to those which have been measured on the initial colourless glasses

  6. The Effect of Gold Nano Particles Compared to Dioxide Titanium Nano Particles on Vital Factors of Isolated Candida albicans in Patients with Oral Candidiasis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Rahimzadeh Torabi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral Candidiasis is fungal infection that affects the oral cavity. Oral infections caused by yeast of the genus Candida and particularly Candida albicans (oral candidiasis have been recognized throughout recorded history. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the antifungal effects of gold nanoparticles and dioxide titanium nanoparticles on patients with Oral Candidiasis patients. This review is to give the reader a contemporary overview of oral candidiasis, the organisms involved, and the management strategies that are currently employed or could be utilized in the future. Methods This experimental study has been done in Isfahan city totally with 56 numbers of patients suffering from Candidiasis in groups of different ages from hospitals and laboratories The resulted from swap in Sabouraud Dexteros agar and finally with complementary experiments 56 isolated Candida albicans (oral Candidiasis detected and grew in culture milieu then gold nanoparticles (10 nanometers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (10 - 15 nanometers in different consistencies add to this milieu and the least density of halting and the least density of killing fungi for different suspension thinness containing Candida albicans. The data were analyzed by spss 15 version software. Results The results showed that gold nanoparticles have a good anticandidial effects and can be used to treat infections of Candida, it is recommended that further research considered the effects of different infections candidiasis in In vitro condition. Conclusions Using gold nanoparticles with 10 nanometer diameters have high antifungal effect on oral candidiasis and its function has been proved. In current study halting effect of gold nanoparticles on micro-organisms experimented in different densities was observed.

  7. Uncertainty relations and reduced density matrices: Mapping many-body quantum mechanics onto four particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotti, David A.; Erdahl, Robert M.

    2001-04-01

    For the description of ground-state correlation phenomena an accurate mapping of many-body quantum mechanics onto four particles is developed. The energy for a quantum system with no more than two-particle interactions may be expressed in terms of a two-particle reduced density matrix (2-RDM), but variational optimization of the 2-RDM requires that it corresponds to an N-particle wave function. We derive N-representability conditions on the 2-RDM that guarantee the validity of the uncertainty relations for all operators with two-particle interactions. One of these conditions is shown to be necessary and sufficient to make the RDM solutions of the dispersion condition equivalent to those from the contracted Schrödinger equation (CSE) [Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 57, 4219 (1998)]. In general, the CSE is a stronger N-representability condition than the dispersion condition because the CSE implies the dispersion condition as well as additional N-representability constraints from the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Energy minimization subject to the representability constraints is performed for a boson model with 10, 30, and 75 particles. Even when traditional wave-function methods fail at large perturbations, the present method yields correlation energies within 2%.

  8. The effect of the electronic structure, phase transition, and localized dynamics of atoms in the formation of tiny particles of gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mubarak, E-mail: mubarak74@comsats.edu.pk, E-mail: mubarak74@mail.com [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics (Pakistan); Lin, I-Nan [Tamkang University, Department of Physics (China)

    2017-01-15

    In addition to self-governing properties, tiny-sized particles of metallic colloids are the building blocks of large-sized particles; thus, their study has been the subject of a large number of publications. In the present work, it has been discussed that geometry structure of tiny particle made through atom-to-atom amalgamation depends on attained dynamics of gold atoms along with protruded orientations. The localized process conditions direct two-dimensional structure of a tiny particle at atomically flat air-solution interface while heating locally dynamically approached atoms, thus, negate the role of van der Waals interactions. At electronphoton-solution interface, impinging electrons stretch or deform atoms of tiny particles depending on the mechanism of impingement. In addition, to strike regular grid of electrons ejected on split of atoms not executing excitations and de-excitations of their electrons, atoms of tiny particles also deform or stretch while occupying various sites depending on the process of synergy. Under suitable impinging electron streams, those tiny particles in monolayer two-dimensional structure electron states of their atoms are diffused in the direction of transferred energy, thus, coincide to the next adjacent atoms in each one-dimensional array dealing the same sort of behavior. Instantaneously, photons of adequate energy propagate on the surfaces of such electronic structures and modify those into smooth elements, thus, disregard the phenomenon of localized surface plasmons. This study highlights the fundamental process of formation of tiny particles where the role of localized dynamics of atoms and their electronic structure along with interaction to light are discussed. Such a tool of processing materials, in nonequilibrium pulse-based process, opens a number of possibilities to develop engineered materials with specific chemical, optical, and electronic properties.

  9. Fractionation and Characterization of High Aspect Ratio Gold Nanorods Using Asymmetric-Flow Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao M. Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (GNRs are of particular interest for biomedical applications due to their unique size-dependent longitudinal surface plasmon resonance band in the visible to near-infrared. Purified GNRs are essential for the advancement of technologies based on these materials. Used in concert, asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F and single particle inductively coupled mass spectrometry (spICP-MS provide unique advantages for fractionating and analyzing the typically complex mixtures produced by common synthetic procedures. A4F fractions collected at specific elution times were analyzed off-line by spICP-MS. The individual particle masses were obtained by conversion of the ICP-MS pulse intensity for each detected particle event, using a defined calibration procedure. Size distributions were then derived by transforming particle mass to length assuming a fixed diameter. The resulting particle lengths correlated closely with ex situ transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to our previously reported observations on the fractionation of low-aspect ratio (AR GNRs (AR < 4, under optimal A4F separation conditions the results for high-AR GNRs of fixed diameter (≈20 nm suggest normal, rather than steric, mode elution (i.e., shorter rods with lower AR generally elute first. The relatively narrow populations in late eluting fractions suggest the method can be used to collect and analyze specific length fractions; it is feasible that A4F could be appropriately modified for industrial scale purification of GNRs.

  10. Size fraction assaying of gold bearing rocks (for gold extraction) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel method has been developed for processing and extraction of gold from gold bearing rocks for use by small-scale gold miners in Ghana. The methodology involved crushing of gold bearing hard rocks to fine particles to form a composite sample and screening at a range of sizes. Gold distribution in the composite ...

  11. Magmatic Vapor Phase Transport of Copper in Reduced Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: Evidence From PIXE Microanalysis of Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowins, S. M.; Yeats, C. J.; Ryan, C. G.

    2002-05-01

    Nondestructive proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) studies of magmatic fluid inclusions in granite-related Sn-W deposits [1] reveal that copper transport out of reduced felsic magmas is favored by low-salinity vapor and not co-existing high-salinity liquid (halite-saturated brine). Copper transport by magmatic vapor also has been documented in oxidized porphyry Cu-Au deposits, but the magnitude of Cu partitioning into the vapor compared to the brine generally is less pronounced than in the reduced magmatic Sn-W systems [2]. Consideration of these microanalytical data leads to the hypothesis that Cu and, by inference, Au in the recently established "reduced porphyry copper-gold" (RPCG) subclass should partition preferentially into vapor and not high-salinity liquid exsolving directly from fluid-saturated magmas [3-4]. To test this hypothesis, PIXE microanalysis of primary fluid inclusions in quartz-sulfide (pyrite, pyrrhotite & chalcopyrite) veins from two RPCG deposits was undertaken using the CSIRO-GEMOC nuclear microprobe. PIXE microanalysis for the ~30 Ma San Anton deposit (Mexico) was done on halite-saturated aqueous brine (deposit (W. Australia) was done on halite-saturated "aqueous" inclusions, which contain a small (deposits of the new RPCG subclass demonstrate the greater potential of these systems, compared to the classically oxidized porphyry Cu-Au systems, to transport Cu and probably precious metals in a magmatic aqueous vapor phase. These PIXE data also support the possibility that Cu partitions preferentially into an immiscible CO2-rich magmatic fluid. References: [1] Heinrich, C.A. et al. (1992) Econ. Geol., 87, 1566-1583. [2] Heinrich, C.A. et al. (1999) Geology, 27, 755-758. [3] Rowins, S.M. (2000) Geology, 28, 491-494. [4] Rowins, S.M. (2000) The Gangue, GAC-MDD Newsletter, 67, 1-7 (www.gac.ca). [5] Rowins, S.M. et al. (1993) Geol. Soc. Australia Abs., 34, 68-70.

  12. One-pot synthesis of reduced graphene oxide supported gold-based nanomaterials as robust nanocatalysts for glucose electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Srabanti; Holade, Yaovi; Remita, Hynd; Servat, Karine; Beaunier, Patricia; Hagège, Agnès; Kokoh, K. Boniface

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fast preparation of graphene nanosheets by one-pot radiolytic reduction of GO. • One-pot synthesis of graphene nanosheets supported Au-Pt-Pd nanoparticles. • Radiolysis enables to engineer highly active Metal/rGO nanocomposites. • Ternary Au_5_0Pt_2_5Pd_2_5/rGO electrocatalyst is 5-fold higher effective than Pt/rGO. • Selective glucose oxidation reaction in a 2-electron process leads to gluconate. - Abstract: We report a novel “one-pot”, convenient and efficient method based on radiolysis to synthesize gold-based nanoparticles finely dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets obtained from reductive transformation of graphene oxide (GO). Extensive characterizations of the metal/rGO nanocomposites were performed and revealed that the optimized bimetallic Au_9_0Pd_1_0 and trimetallic Au_5_0Pd_2_5Pt_2_5 materials were mostly nano-alloyed. Not only the multimetallic catalysts demonstrate high electrocatalytic performances towards glucose in alkaline medium, but they also surpass the majority of the reported noble metals based nanocatalysts. The spectroelectrochemical investigations have highlighted a 2-electron reaction process leading to gluconate, a high added-value chemical used in various industries. Definitely, the strategies developed herein pave new rational pathways for the design of effective anode catalysts for glucose-based electrochemical energy converters and the scalability in the catalyst composition opens up new avenues in the efficient application of graphene-based nanocomposites as promising electrode materials in the electrocatalysis of carbohydrates.

  13. Controlling the electrochemical deposition of silver onto gold nanoparticles: reducing interferences and increasing the sensitivity of magnetoimmuno assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Maltez-da Costa, Marisa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2009-04-15

    An electrocatalytical method induced by gold nanoparticles in order to improve the sensitivity of the magnetoimmunosensing technology is reported. Microparamagnetic beads as primary antibodies immobilization platforms and gold nanoparticles modified with secondary antibodies as high sensitive electrocatalytical labels are used. A built-in magnet carbon electrode allows the collection/immobilization on its surface of the microparamagnetic beads with the immunological sandwich and gold nanoparticle catalysts attached onto. The developed magnetoimmunosensing technology allows the antigen detection with an enhanced sensitivity due to the catalytic effect of gold nanoparticles on the electroreduction of silver ions. The main parameters that affect the different steps of the developed assay are optimized so as to reach a high sensitive electrochemical detection of the protein. The low levels of gold nanoparticles detected with this method allow the obtaining of a novel immunosensor with low protein detection limits (up to 23 fg/mL), with special interest for further applications in clinical analysis, food quality and safety as well as other industrial applications.

  14. Reduced anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing caused by biogenic new particle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hamish; Sengupta, Kamalika; Rap, Alexandru; Duplissy, Jonathan; Frege, Carla; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K.; Wagner, Robert; Dunne, Eimear M.; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill S.; Dias, Antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Fischer, Lukas; Flagan, Richard C.; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Monks, Sarah A.; Onnela, Antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander Lucas; Wagner, Andrea C.; Wagner, Paul E.; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M.; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2016-10-01

    The magnitude of aerosol radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions depends on the baseline state of the atmosphere under pristine preindustrial conditions. Measurements show that particle formation in atmospheric conditions can occur solely from biogenic vapors. Here, we evaluate the potential effect of this source of particles on preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and aerosol-cloud radiative forcing over the industrial period. Model simulations show that the pure biogenic particle formation mechanism has a much larger relative effect on CCN concentrations in the preindustrial atmosphere than in the present atmosphere because of the lower aerosol concentrations. Consequently, preindustrial cloud albedo is increased more than under present day conditions, and therefore the cooling forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is reduced. The mechanism increases CCN concentrations by 20-100% over a large fraction of the preindustrial lower atmosphere, and the magnitude of annual global mean radiative forcing caused by changes of cloud albedo since 1750 is reduced by 0.22 W m-2 (27%) to -0.60 W m-2. Model uncertainties, relatively slow formation rates, and limited available ambient measurements make it difficult to establish the significance of a mechanism that has its dominant effect under preindustrial conditions. Our simulations predict more particle formation in the Amazon than is observed. However, the first observation of pure organic nucleation has now been reported for the free troposphere. Given the potentially significant effect on anthropogenic forcing, effort should be made to better understand such naturally driven aerosol processes.

  15. Reduced anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing caused by biogenic new particle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hamish; Sengupta, Kamalika; Rap, Alexandru; Duplissy, Jonathan; Frege, Carla; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K; Wagner, Robert; Dunne, Eimear M; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill S; Dias, Antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Fischer, Lukas; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Monks, Sarah A; Onnela, Antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Pringle, Kirsty J; Richards, Nigel A D; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Seinfeld, John H; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander Lucas; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S

    2016-10-25

    The magnitude of aerosol radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions depends on the baseline state of the atmosphere under pristine preindustrial conditions. Measurements show that particle formation in atmospheric conditions can occur solely from biogenic vapors. Here, we evaluate the potential effect of this source of particles on preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and aerosol-cloud radiative forcing over the industrial period. Model simulations show that the pure biogenic particle formation mechanism has a much larger relative effect on CCN concentrations in the preindustrial atmosphere than in the present atmosphere because of the lower aerosol concentrations. Consequently, preindustrial cloud albedo is increased more than under present day conditions, and therefore the cooling forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is reduced. The mechanism increases CCN concentrations by 20-100% over a large fraction of the preindustrial lower atmosphere, and the magnitude of annual global mean radiative forcing caused by changes of cloud albedo since 1750 is reduced by [Formula: see text] (27%) to [Formula: see text] Model uncertainties, relatively slow formation rates, and limited available ambient measurements make it difficult to establish the significance of a mechanism that has its dominant effect under preindustrial conditions. Our simulations predict more particle formation in the Amazon than is observed. However, the first observation of pure organic nucleation has now been reported for the free troposphere. Given the potentially significant effect on anthropogenic forcing, effort should be made to better understand such naturally driven aerosol processes.

  16. Reducing the anisotropy of a Brazilian disc generated in a bonded-particle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X. P.; Ji, P. Q.

    2018-03-01

    The Brazilian test is a widely used method for determining the tensile strength of rocks and for calibrating parameters in bonded-particle models (BPMs). In previous studies, the Brazilian disc has typically been trimmed from a compacted rectangular specimen. The present study shows that different tensile strength values are obtained depending on the compressive loading direction. Several measures are proposed to reduce the anisotropy of the disc. The results reveal that the anisotropy of the disc is significantly influenced by the compactibility of the specimen from which it is trimmed. A new method is proposed in which the Brazilian disc is directly generated with a particle boundary, effectively reducing the anisotropy. The stiffness (particle and bond) and strength (bond) of the boundary are set at less than and greater than those of the disc assembly, respectively, which significantly decreases the stress concentration at the boundary contacts and prevents breakage of the boundary particle bonds. This leads to a significant reduction in the anisotropy of the disc and the discreteness of the tensile strength. This method is more suitable for carrying out a realistic Brazilian test for homogeneous rock-like material in the BPM.

  17. Discrete element method modeling of the triboelectric charging of polyethylene particles: Can particle size distribution and segregation reduce the charging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, Ladislav; Kosek, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene particles of various sizes are present in industrial gas-dispersion reactors and downstream processing units. The contact of the particles with a device wall as well as the mutual particle collisions cause electrons on the particle surface to redistribute in the system. The undesirable triboelectric charging results in several operational problems and safety risks in industrial systems, for example in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor. We studied the charging of polyethylene particles caused by the particle-particle interactions in gas. Our model employs the Discrete Element Method (DEM) describing the particle dynamics and incorporates the ‘Trapped Electron Approach’ as the physical basis for the considered charging mechanism. The model predicts the particle charge distribution for systems with various particle size distributions and various level of segregation. Simulation results are in a qualitative agreement with experimental observations of similar particulate systems specifically in two aspects: 1) Big particles tend to gain positive charge and small particles the negative one. 2) The wider the particle size distribution is, the more pronounced is the charging process. Our results suggest that not only the size distribution, but also the effect of the spatial segregation of the polyethylene particles significantly influence the resulting charge distribution ‘generated’ in the system. The level of particle segregation as well as the particle size distribution of polyethylene particles can be in practice adjusted by the choice of supported catalysts, by the conditions in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor and by the fluid dynamics. We also attempt to predict how the reactor temperature affects the triboelectric charging of particles. (paper)

  18. Reduced Ultrafine Particle Concentration in Urban Air: Changes in Nucleation and Anthropogenic Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Provat K; Robinson, Ellis S; Shah, Rishabh U; Zimmerman, Naomi; Apte, Joshua S; Robinson, Allen L; Presto, Albert A

    2018-06-19

    Nucleation is an important source of ambient ultrafine particles (UFP). We present observational evidence of the changes in the frequency and intensity of nucleation events in urban air by analyzing long-term particle size distribution measurements at an urban background site in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania during 2001-2002 and 2016-2017. We find that both frequency and intensity of nucleation events have been reduced by 40-50% over the past 15 years, resulting in a 70% reduction in UFP concentrations from nucleation. On average, the particle growth rates are 30% slower than 15 years ago. We attribute these changes to dramatic reductions in SO 2 (more than 90%) and other pollutant concentrations. Overall, UFP concentrations in Pittsburgh have been reduced by ∼48% in the past 15 years, with a ∼70% reduction in nucleation, ∼27% in weekday local sources (e.g., weekday traffic), and 49% in the regional background. Our results highlight that a reduction in anthropogenic emissions can considerably reduce nucleation events and UFP concentrations in a polluted urban environment.

  19. A reduced scale two loop PWR core designed with particle swarm optimization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Junior, Carlos A. Souza; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A; Lapa, Celso M.F.; Cunha, Joao J.; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Reduced scale experiments are often employed in engineering projects because they are much cheaper than real scale testing. Unfortunately, designing reduced scale thermal-hydraulic circuit or equipment, with the capability of reproducing, both accurately and simultaneously, all physical phenomena that occur in real scale and at operating conditions, is a difficult task. To solve this problem, advanced optimization techniques, such as Genetic Algorithms, have been applied. Following this research line, we have performed investigations, using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Technique, to design a reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, considering 100% of nominal power and non accidental operating conditions. Obtained results show that the proposed methodology is a promising approach for forced flow reduced scale experiments. (author)

  20. Dual-enhanced photothermal conversion properties of reduced graphene oxide-coated gold superparticles for light-triggered acoustic and thermal theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Sen; Yang, Xiangyu; Niu, Gang; Song, Jibin; Yang, Huang-Hao; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    A rational design of highly efficient photothermal agents that possess excellent light-to-heat conversion properties is a fascinating topic in nanotheranostics. Herein, we present a facile route to fabricate size-tunable reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-coated gold superparticles (rGO-GSPs) and demonstrate their dual-enhanced photothermal conversion properties for photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy. For the first time, graphene oxide (GO) was directly used as an emulsifying agent for the preparation of gold superparticles (GSPs) with near-infrared absorption by the emulsion method. Moreover, GO spontaneously deposited on the surface of GSPs could also act as the precursor of the rGO shell. Importantly, both the plasmonic coupling of the self-assembled gold nanoparticles and the interaction between GSPs and rGO endow rGO-GSPs with enhanced photothermal conversion properties, allowing rGO-GSPs to be used for sensitive photoacoustic detection and efficient photothermal ablation of tumours in vivo. This study provides a facile approach to prepare colloidal superparticles-graphene hybrid nanostructures and will pave the way toward the design and optimization of photothermal nanomaterials with improved properties for theranostic applications.A rational design of highly efficient photothermal agents that possess excellent light-to-heat conversion properties is a fascinating topic in nanotheranostics. Herein, we present a facile route to fabricate size-tunable reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-coated gold superparticles (rGO-GSPs) and demonstrate their dual-enhanced photothermal conversion properties for photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy. For the first time, graphene oxide (GO) was directly used as an emulsifying agent for the preparation of gold superparticles (GSPs) with near-infrared absorption by the emulsion method. Moreover, GO spontaneously deposited on the surface of GSPs could also act as the precursor of the rGO shell. Importantly, both the

  1. ASPEN: A fully kinetic, reduced-description particle-in-cell model for simulating parametric instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, H.X.; Bezzerides, B.; DuBois, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    A fully kinetic, reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) model is presented in which deviations from quasineutrality, electron and ion kinetic effects, and nonlinear interactions between low-frequency and high-frequency parametric instabilities are modeled correctly. The model is based on a reduced description where the electromagnetic field is represented by three separate temporal envelopes in order to model parametric instabilities with low-frequency and high-frequency daughter waves. Because temporal envelope approximations are invoked, the simulation can be performed on the electron time scale instead of the time scale of the light waves. The electrons and ions are represented by discrete finite-size particles, permitting electron and ion kinetic effects to be modeled properly. The Poisson equation is utilized to ensure that space-charge effects are included. The RPIC model is fully three dimensional and has been implemented in two dimensions on the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) parallel computer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the resulting simulation code has been named ASPEN. The authors believe this code is the first particle-in-cell code capable of simulating the interaction between low-frequency and high-frequency parametric instabilities in multiple dimensions. Test simulations of stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and Langmuir decay instability are presented

  2. Effect of gold nano-particles on switch-on voltage and relaxation frequency of nematic liquid crystal cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation of large changes in the electro-optical properties of nematic liquid crystal (NLC due to inclusion of small concentration of 10 nm diameter gold nanoparticles (GNPs. It is observed that GNPs lower switch-on voltage and also lower the relaxation frequency with applied voltage (AC field to NLC cell. These studies of GNP doped NLC cell have been done using optical interferometry and capacity measurement by impedance analyzer. The change in threshold voltage and relaxation frequency by doping GNPs in NLC is explained theoretically.

  3. Terminalia chebula mediated green and rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sinha, Madhulika; Krishnakumar, Varadhan

    2012-02-01

    Biologically inspired experimental process in synthesising nanoparticles is of great interest in present scenario. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered to be one of the best green techniques in synthesising metal nanoparticles. Here, an in situ green biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula as reducing and stabilizing agent is reported. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed by surface plasmon resonance in the range of 535 nm using UV-visible spectrometry. TEM analysis revealed that the morphology of the particles thus formed contains anisotropic gold nanoparticles with size ranging from 6 to 60 nm. Hydrolysable tannins present in the extract of T. chebula are responsible for reductions and stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticles showed better activity towards gram positive S. aureus compared to gram negative E. coli using standard well diffusion method.

  4. A review of mortality associated with elongate mineral particle (EMP) exposure in occupational epidemiology studies of gold, talc, and taconite mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jeffrey H; Alexander, Bruce H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-12-01

    Mining of gold, taconite, and talc may involve exposure to elongate mineral particles (EMP). The involved EMPs are typically non-asbestiform, include dimensions that regulatory definitions exclude, and have been less studied. A review of the literature was undertaken for this exposure and occupational epidemiological studies that occur in gold, talc, and taconite mining. Quantitative EMP exposure information in these industries is incomplete. However, there are consistent findings of pneumoconiosis in each of these types of mining. A recent case-control study suggests a possible association between this exposure and mesothelioma. Lung cancer is inconsistently reported in these industries and is an unlikely outcome of non-asbestiform EMP exposure. There is evidence of cardiovascular mortality excess across all of these types of mining. Non-malignant respiratory disease and cardiovascular mortality have been consistently increased in these industries. Further investigation, including additional insights for the role of non-asbestiform EMP, is warranted. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1047-1060, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Basic investigation of particle swarm optimization performance in a reduced scale PWR passive safety system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Joao J. da; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F.; Alvim, Antonio Carlos M.; Lima, Carlos A. Souza; Pereira, Claudio Marcio do N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a methodology to investigate the viability of using particle swarm optimization technique to obtain the best combination of physical and operational parameters that lead to the best adjusted dimensionless groups, calculated by similarity laws, that are able to simulate the most relevant physical phenomena in single-phase flow under natural circulation and to offer an appropriate alternative reduced scale design for reactor primary loops with this flow characteristics. A PWR reactor core, under natural circulation, based on LOFT test facility, was used as the case study. The particle swarm optimization technique was applied to a problem with these thermo-hydraulics conditions and results demonstrated the viability and adequacy of the method to design similar systems with these characteristics.

  6. Basic investigation of particle swarm optimization performance in a reduced scale PWR passive safety system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Joao J. da [Eletronuclear Eletrobras Termonuclear, Gerencia de Analise de Seguranca Nuclear, Rua da Candelaria, 65, 7o andar. Centro, Rio de Janeiro 20091-906 (Brazil); Lapa, Celso Marcelo F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Divisao de Reatores/PPGIEN, P.O. Box 68550, Rua Helio de Almeida 75 Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (Brazil); Alvim, Antonio Carlos M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE/Nuclear, P.O. Box 68509, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao s/n, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (Brazil); Lima, Carlos A. Souza [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Divisao de Reatores/PPGIEN, P.O. Box 68550, Rua Helio de Almeida 75 Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto Politecnico, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional, Rua Alberto Rangel, s/n, Vila Nova, Nova Friburgo 28630-050 (Brazil); Pereira, Claudio Marcio do N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Divisao de Reatores/PPGIEN, P.O. Box 68550, Rua Helio de Almeida 75 Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    This work presents a methodology to investigate the viability of using particle swarm optimization technique to obtain the best combination of physical and operational parameters that lead to the best adjusted dimensionless groups, calculated by similarity laws, that are able to simulate the most relevant physical phenomena in single-phase flow under natural circulation and to offer an appropriate alternative reduced scale design for reactor primary loops with this flow characteristics. A PWR reactor core, under natural circulation, based on LOFT test facility, was used as the case study. The particle swarm optimization technique was applied to a problem with these thermo-hydraulics conditions and results demonstrated the viability and adequacy of the method to design similar systems with these characteristics.

  7. A novel solution for reducing the transfer of particles and gases among adjacent apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    of the sealing membrane reduced the transfer of UFP up to 86% and reduced the transfer of N2O up to 87.5% in comparison with the transfers without the membrane. A similar procedure of measuring the transfer of UFP and gases was adapted in situ measurements. In situ the sealing membrane was able to reduce...... the transfer of UFP up to 53%. A survey regarding occupant’s perception of the performance of the sealing membrane was also conducted after 4 months post occupancy. Before the renovation, the occupants were continuously irritated by the cigarette smells from their neighbours. However, after renovation......A unique type of fabric membrane has been developed by a Swedish company. That membrane is design to trap the emission from surfaces. To test the performance of the said membrane for trapping particles and gases, a study was conducted by the Danish Building Research Institute (SBi). The study...

  8. Preparation of SnO_2-Glass Composite Containing Cu Particles Reduced from Copper Ions in Glass Matrix : Effect of Glass Particle Size on Microstructure and Electrical Property

    OpenAIRE

    Haruhisa, SHIOMI; Kaori, UMEHARA; Faculty of Engineering and Design, Kyoto Institute of Technology; Faculty of Engineering and Design, Kyoto Institute of Technology

    2000-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve the electrical properties of SnO_2-glass composites by dispersing Cu particles with low resistivity and positive temperature coefficient of resistance(TCR)in the glass matrix. Cu metal particles were precipitated by reducing Cu_2O previously dissolved into the matrix glass by adding LaB_6 as a reducing agent. The effect of the glass particle size, which influences the homogeneity of LaB_6 dispersion in the powder mixture before firing, on the Cu precipitation in...

  9. Study of multifragmentation: contribution of reduced velocity correlations between particles and fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Fevre, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work is focused on the study of fragment and light particle production mechanisms in the multifragmentation process of hot nuclei, which are formed in the central collisions of Xe+Sn at 50 MeV/u. The experiment has been performed with the INDRA multidetector. The central collision events, selected via the flow angle variable, exhibit the presence of a heavy (Z=90) and highly excited (E * =12.5 MeV/u) isotropic emission source. The comparison of the data with a statistical multifragmentation model (MMMC) and a dynamical model (BNV) makes us conclude that the multifragmentation can only be explained in the frame of a relatively cold process, around 6 MeV/u of thermal excitation energy, preceded by a primary emission stage of the expanding source, during which nearly one third of the excitation energy is dissipated. In addition, it appears that the fragment energy spectra are not explained by a purely thermal process, and that one has to put forward an expansion collective motion, of 2 MeV/u of energy, following the compression of the compound system. In order to precise the existence of a two-step particle emission (primary and secondary), we have developed and applied an original method of reduced velocity correlations between particles and fragments. It has allowed us to underline two distinct origins for the particle production: one corresponding to secondary emissions, coming from the fragments, and the other one, associated with emissions which occur prior to the fragment production. At last, it has allowed us, also to bring out a hierarchy in the emission time in the decay process, with respect to the particle type. (author)

  10. Highly active thermally stable nanoporous gold catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, Juergen; Wittstock, Arne; Biener, Monika M.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Baeumer, Marcus; Wichmann, Andre; Neuman, Bjoern

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, a system includes a nanoporous gold structure and a plurality of oxide particles deposited on the nanoporous gold structure; the oxide particles are characterized by a crystalline phase. In another embodiment, a method includes depositing oxide nanoparticles on a nanoporous gold support to form an active structure and functionalizing the deposited oxide nanoparticles.

  11. Analytical determination of the reducing and stabilization agents present in different Zostera noltii extracts used for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzuela, Rafael; Luna, Manuel Jesús; Gil, María Luisa Almoraima; Ortega, María Jesús; Palacios-Santander, José María; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Ignacio; Delgado, Juan José; Cubillana-Aguilera, Laura María

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this work was to ascertain the nature of the components responsible for the reducing and stabilizing properties of Zostera noltii extracts that lead to gold nanoparticle formation using chemical techniques of analysis. In order to achieve this aim, we try the synthesis of AuNPs with three different extracts from plants collected in the Bay of Cádiz (Spain). The n-butanol extract produced the best results. Taking this into account, four fractions were isolated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography from this extract and we studied their activity. The chemical study of these fractions led to the isolation of several flavone sulfates and these were identified as the species' responsible for the formation and stabilization of the AuNPs. Flavone sulfates were purified by high performance liquid chromatography and the structures were established by means of spectroscopic methods nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. AuNPs have an average lifetime of about 16weeks. Additionally, the morphology and crystalline phase of the gold nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The composition of the nanoparticles was evaluated by electron diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. An 88% of the gold nanoparticles has a diameter in the range 20-35nm, with an average size of 26±2nm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of the influence of gold particles on the absorbed dose in soft tissue using polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonso, Luciana Caminha

    2011-01-01

    The presence of high-Z material adjacent to soft tissue, when submitted to irradiation, enhances locally the absorbed dose in these soft tissues. Such effect occurs due to the outscattering of photoelectrons from the high-Z material. Polymer gel dosimeters have been used to investigate this effect. Analytic calculations to estimate the dose enhancement and Monte Carlo simulations have been performed. Samples containing polymer gel (PG) with 0.005 gAu/gPG and pure polymer gel have been irradiated using an X-rays beam produced by 150 kV, filtered with 4 mm Al and 5 mm Cu, which resulted in an approximately 20% higher absorbed dose in the samples with gold in comparison to those with pure polymer gel. The analytic calculations and the Monte Carlo simulation resulted in a dose enhancement factor of approximately 30%. (author)

  13. Direct night-time ejection of particle-phase reduced biogenic sulfur compounds from the ocean to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J; Furutani, Hiroshi; Guazzotti, Sergio A; Coffee, Keith R; Jung, Jinyoung; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Prather, Kimberly A

    2015-04-21

    The influence of oceanic biological activity on sea spray aerosol composition, clouds, and climate remains poorly understood. The emission of organic material and gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from the ocean represents well-documented biogenic processes that influence particle chemistry in marine environments. However, the direct emission of particle-phase biogenic sulfur from the ocean remains largely unexplored. Here we present measurements of ocean-derived particles containing reduced sulfur, detected as elemental sulfur ions (e.g., (32)S(+), (64)S2(+)), in seven different marine environments using real-time, single particle mass spectrometry; these particles have not been detected outside of the marine environment. These reduced sulfur compounds were associated with primary marine particle types and wind speeds typically between 5 and 10 m/s suggesting that these particles themselves are a primary emission. In studies with measurements of seawater properties, chlorophyll-a and atmospheric DMS concentrations were typically elevated in these same locations suggesting a biogenic source for these sulfur-containing particles. Interestingly, these sulfur-containing particles only appeared at night, likely due to rapid photochemical destruction during the daytime, and comprised up to ∼67% of the aerosol number fraction, particularly in the supermicrometer size range. These sulfur-containing particles were detected along the California coast, across the Pacific Ocean, and in the southern Indian Ocean suggesting that these particles represent a globally significant biogenic contribution to the marine aerosol burden.

  14. Assessing and reducing fine and ultrafine particles inside Los Angeles taxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; Zhu, Yifang

    2018-05-01

    Taxi drivers and passengers are exposed to high levels of traffic-related air pollutants, but their exposures to fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) and related mitigation strategies are rarely explored. In this study, UFP and PM2.5 concentrations were monitored concurrently inside and outside of 22 taxis under different ventilation and mitigation conditions. Under realistic working conditions (no mitigation; NM), the average UFP and PM2.5 levels inside taxis were 1.46 × 104 particles/cm3 and 26 μg/m3, respectively. When the taxi ventilation was set to outside air mode and the windows kept closed, in-cabin UFP and PM2.5 concentrations are significantly associated with on-road concentrations, driving speed, and cabin air filter usage. The average in-cabin to on-roadway (I/O) ratios for UFP and PM2.5 were reduced from 0.60 to 0.75 under NM, to 0.47 and 0.52 under the most stringent mitigation strategy of keeping the windows closed and operating a high efficiency cabin air filter (WC + HECA). Among all tested taxi models, Toyota Prius exhibited the lowest UFP and PM2.5 I/O ratios under WC + HECA. Switching cabin air filters from the originally equipped manufacturer filter (OEM) to a HECA filter reduced the UFP and PM2.5 I/O ratios most effectively in Toyota Prius taxis as well.

  15. Perturbation theory corrections to the two-particle reduced density matrix variational method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Tamas; Mazziotti, David A

    2004-07-15

    In the variational 2-particle-reduced-density-matrix (2-RDM) method, the ground-state energy is minimized with respect to the 2-particle reduced density matrix, constrained by N-representability conditions. Consider the N-electron Hamiltonian H(lambda) as a function of the parameter lambda where we recover the Fock Hamiltonian at lambda=0 and we recover the fully correlated Hamiltonian at lambda=1. We explore using the accuracy of perturbation theory at small lambda to correct the 2-RDM variational energies at lambda=1 where the Hamiltonian represents correlated atoms and molecules. A key assumption in the correction is that the 2-RDM method will capture a fairly constant percentage of the correlation energy for lambda in (0,1] because the nonperturbative 2-RDM approach depends more significantly upon the nature rather than the strength of the two-body Hamiltonian interaction. For a variety of molecules we observe that this correction improves the 2-RDM energies in the equilibrium bonding region, while the 2-RDM energies at stretched or nearly dissociated geometries, already highly accurate, are not significantly changed. At equilibrium geometries the corrected 2-RDM energies are similar in accuracy to those from coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), but at nonequilibrium geometries the 2-RDM energies are often dramatically more accurate as shown in the bond stretching and dissociation data for water and nitrogen. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trapped...... in air using a 1064 nm laser. The positions visited by the trapped gold nano-particle were quantified using a quadrant photo diode placed in the back focal plane. The time traces were analyzed and the trapping stiffness characterizing gold aerosol trapping determined and compared to aerosol trapping...... of nanometer sized silica and polystyrene particles. Based on our analysis, we concluded that gold nano-particles trap more strongly in air than similarly sized polystyrene and silica particles. We found that, in a certain power range, the trapping strength of polystyrene particles is linearly decreasing...

  17. Algorithm of Data Reduce in Determination of Aerosol Particle Size Distribution at Damps/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad-Priyatna; Otto-Pribadi-Ruslanto

    2001-01-01

    The analysis had to do for algorithm of data reduction on Damps/C (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer with Condensation Particle Counter) system, this is for determine aerosol particle size distribution with range 0,01 μm to 1 μm in diameter. Damps/C (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer with Condensation Particle Counter) system contents are software and hardware. The hardware used determine of mobilities of aerosol particle and so the software used determine aerosol particle size distribution in diameter. The mobilities and diameter particle had connection in the electricity field. That is basic program for reduction of data and particle size conversion from particle mobility become particle diameter. The analysis to get transfer function value, Ω, is 0.5. The data reduction program to do conversation mobility basis become diameter basis with number efficiency correction, transfer function value, and poly charge particle. (author)

  18. One-pot, green, rapid synthesis of flowerlike gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide composite with regenerated silk fibroin as efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengjie; Yong, Liu; Wu, Peiyi

    2013-02-01

    Flowerlike gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were fabricated by a facile, one-pot, environmentally friendly method in the presence of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF). The influences of reaction time, temperature, and HAuCl(4): RGO ratio on the morphology of Au NPs loaded on RGO sheets were discussed and a tentative mechanism for the formation of flowerlike Au NPs/RGO composite was proposed. In addition, the flowerlike Au NPs/RGO composite showed superior catalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to Au/RGO composites with other morphologies. Our work provides an alternative facile and green approach to synthesize functional metal/RGO composites.

  19. Control over position, orientation, and spacing of arrays of gold nanorods using chemically nanopatterned surfaces and tailored particle-particle-surface interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Dhriti; Onses, M Serdar; Park, Kyoungweon; Jespersen, Michael; Thode, Christopher J; Nealey, Paul F; Vaia, Richard A

    2012-06-26

    The synergy of self- and directed-assembly processes and lithography provides intriguing avenues to fabricate translationally ordered nanoparticle arrangements, but currently lacks the robustness necessary to deliver complex spatial organization. Here, we demonstrate that interparticle spacing and local orientation of gold nanorods (AuNR) can be tuned by controlling the Debye length of AuNR in solution and the dimensions of a chemical contrast pattern. Electrostatic and hydrophobic selectivity for AuNR to absorb to patterned regions of poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) and polystyrene brushes and mats was demonstrated for AuNR functionalized with mercaptopropane sulfonate (MS) and poly(ethylene glycol), respectively. For P2VP patterns of stripes with widths comparable to the length of the AuNR, single- and double-column arrangements of AuNR oriented parallel and perpendicular to the P2VP line were obtained for MS-AuNR. Furthermore, the spacing of the assembled AuNR was uniform along the stripe and related to the ionic strength of the AuNR dispersion. The different AuNR arrangements are consistent with predictions based on maximization of packing of AuNR within the confined strip.

  20. Effect of heat treatment on stability of gold particle modified carbon supported Pt-Ru anode catalysts for a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei; Liu Juanying; Huang Qinghong; Vogel, Walter; Akins, Daniel L.; Yang Hui

    2010-01-01

    Carbon supported Au-PtRu (Au-PtRu/C) catalysts were prepared as the anodic catalysts for the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The procedure involved simple deposition of Au particles on a commercial Pt-Ru/C catalyst, followed by heat treatment of the resultant composite catalyst at 125, 175 and 200 o C in a N 2 atmosphere. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) measurements indicated that the Au nanoparticles were attached to the surface of the Pt-Ru nanoparticles. We found that the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the Au-PtRu/C catalysts for methanol oxidation is better than that of the PtRu/C catalyst. An enhanced stability of the electrocatalyst is observed and attributable to the promotion of CO oxidation by the Au nanoparticles adsorbed onto the Pt-Ru particles, by weakening the adsorption of CO, which can strongly adsorb to and poison Pt catalyst. XPS results show that Au-PtRu/C catalysts with heat treatment lead to surface segregation of Pt metal and an increase in the oxidation state of Ru, which militates against the dissolution of Ru. We additionally find that Au-PtRu/C catalysts heat-treated at 175 o C exhibit the highest electrocatalytic stability among the catalysts prepared by heat treatment: this observation is explained as due to the attainment of the highest relative concentration of gold and the highest oxidation state of Ru oxides for the catalyst pretreated at this temperature.

  1. Extraction and analysis of silver and gold nanoparticles from biological tissues using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Evan P; Coleman, Jessica G; Bednar, Anthony J; Kennedy, Alan J; Ranville, James F; Higgins, Christopher P

    2013-12-17

    Expanded use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in consumer products increases the potential for environmental release and unintended biological exposures. As a result, measurement techniques are needed to accurately quantify ENP size, mass, and particle number distributions in biological matrices. This work combines single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICPMS) with tissue extraction to quantify and characterize metallic ENPs in environmentally relevant biological tissues for the first time. ENPs were extracted from tissues via alkaline digestion using tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). Method development was performed using ground beef and was verified in Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus . ENPs investigated include 100 and 60 nm Au and Ag stabilized by polyvynylpyrrolidone (PVP). Mass- and number-based recovery of spiked Au and Ag ENPs was high (83-121%) from all tissues tested. Additional experiments suggested ENP mixtures (60 and 100 nm Ag ENPs) could be extracted and quantitatively analyzed. Biological exposures were also conducted to verify the applicability of the method for aquatic organisms. Size distributions and particle number concentrations were determined for ENPs extracted from D. magna exposed to 98 μg/L 100 nm Au and 4.8 μg/L 100 nm Ag ENPs. The D. magna nanoparticulate body burden for Au ENP uptake was 613 ± 230 μg/kgww, while the measured nanoparticulate body burden for D. magna exposed to Ag ENPs was 59 ± 52 μg/kgww. Notably, the particle size distributions determined from D. magna tissues suggested minimal shifts in the size distributions of ENPs accumulated, as compared to the exposure media.

  2. Gold film with gold nitride - A conductor but harder than gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siller, L.; Peltekis, N.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Chao, Y.; Bull, S.J.; Hunt, M.R.C.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of surface nitrides on gold films is a particularly attractive proposition, addressing the need to produce harder, but still conductive, gold coatings which reduce wear but avoid the pollution associated with conventional additives. Here we report production of large area gold nitride films on silicon substrates, using reactive ion sputtering and plasma etching, without the need for ultrahigh vacuum. Nanoindentation data show that gold nitride films have a hardness ∼50% greater than that of pure gold. These results are important for large-scale applications of gold nitride in coatings and electronics

  3. GOLD CLUSTER LABELS AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES IN MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAINFELD,J.F.; POWELL,R.D.

    2004-02-04

    Although intensely colored, even the largest colloidal gold particles are not, on their own, sufficiently colored for routine use as a light microscopy stain: only with very abundant antigens or with specialized illumination methods can bound gold be seen. Colloidal gold probes were developed primarily as markers for electron microscopy, for which their very high electron density and selectivity for narrow size distributions when prepared in different ways rendered them highly suited. The widespread use of gold labeling for light microscopy was made possible by the introduction of autometallographic enhancement methods. In these processes, the bound gold particles are exposed to a solution containing metal ions and a reducing agent; they catalyze the reduction of the ions, resulting in the deposition of additional metal selectively onto the particles. On the molecular level, the gold particles are enlarged up to 30-100 nm in diameter; on the macroscale level, this results in the formation of a dark stain in regions containing bound gold particles, greatly increasing visibility and contrast. The applications of colloidal gold have been described elsewhere in this chapter, we will focus on the use of covalently linked cluster complexes of gold and other metals. A gold cluster complex is a discrete molecular coordination compound comprising a central core, or ''cluster'' of electron-dense metal atoms, ligated by a shell of small organic molecules (ligands), which are linked to the metal atoms on the surface of the core. This structure gives clusters several important advantages as labels. The capping of the metal surface by ligands prevents non-specific binding to cell and tissue components, which can occur with colloidal gold. Cluster compounds are more stable and may be used under a wider range of conditions. Unlike colloidal gold, clusters do not require additional macromolecules such as bovine serum albumin or polyethylene glycol for

  4. Quasi-particle energy spectra in local reduced density matrix functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathiotakis, Nektarios N; Helbig, Nicole; Rubio, Angel; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I

    2014-10-28

    Recently, we introduced [N. N. Lathiotakis, N. Helbig, A. Rubio, and N. I. Gidopoulos, Phys. Rev. A 90, 032511 (2014)] local reduced density matrix functional theory (local RDMFT), a theoretical scheme capable of incorporating static correlation effects in Kohn-Sham equations. Here, we apply local RDMFT to molecular systems of relatively large size, as a demonstration of its computational efficiency and its accuracy in predicting single-electron properties from the eigenvalue spectrum of the single-particle Hamiltonian with a local effective potential. We present encouraging results on the photoelectron spectrum of molecular systems and the relative stability of C20 isotopes. In addition, we propose a modelling of the fractional occupancies as functions of the orbital energies that further improves the efficiency of the method useful in applications to large systems and solids.

  5. Reaction parameters for controlled sonosynthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, A. L. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon esq. Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cabrera L, L. I. [UNAM-UAEM, Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Km 14.5 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, 50200 San Cayetano-Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by sonochemical technique has been previously performed with excellent results. The synthesis has been carried out in the presence of citric acid, a strong reducing agent, which allows the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles, at the same time that controls particle size. In this work we report the use of sodium tartrate as a mild reducing agent that allows a better understanding of the effect of the reaction parameters during gold nanoparticle synthesis. A conventional sonication bath (37 k Hz) was used for the sonochemical synthesis. This work focuses on the reaction temperature effect and the effect of sodium tartrate concentration. It was confirmed that particle size, and particle morphology is dependent of these two reaction parameters. Equally, colloidal stabilization was related to reaction temperature and sodium tartrate concentration. It was also determined that Ostwald ripening takes place during sonochemical reaction under our conditions, allowing to understand the mechanism that takes place during synthesis. Gold nanoparticles with main particle size of 17 nm were achieved by this method. Characterization techniques used: Fourier transform infrared spectra (Ftir), X-ray diffraction and Atomic Force Microscope was used in order to determine particle size of the synthetic product of reaction M10c by tapping mode. (Author)

  6. Reaction parameters for controlled sonosynthesis of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, A. L.; Cabrera L, L. I.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by sonochemical technique has been previously performed with excellent results. The synthesis has been carried out in the presence of citric acid, a strong reducing agent, which allows the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles, at the same time that controls particle size. In this work we report the use of sodium tartrate as a mild reducing agent that allows a better understanding of the effect of the reaction parameters during gold nanoparticle synthesis. A conventional sonication bath (37 k Hz) was used for the sonochemical synthesis. This work focuses on the reaction temperature effect and the effect of sodium tartrate concentration. It was confirmed that particle size, and particle morphology is dependent of these two reaction parameters. Equally, colloidal stabilization was related to reaction temperature and sodium tartrate concentration. It was also determined that Ostwald ripening takes place during sonochemical reaction under our conditions, allowing to understand the mechanism that takes place during synthesis. Gold nanoparticles with main particle size of 17 nm were achieved by this method. Characterization techniques used: Fourier transform infrared spectra (Ftir), X-ray diffraction and Atomic Force Microscope was used in order to determine particle size of the synthetic product of reaction M10c by tapping mode. (Author)

  7. Optical properties of individual nano-sized gold particle pairs. Mie-scattering, fluorescence, and Raman-scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olk, Phillip

    2008-07-01

    This thesis examines and exploits the optical properties of pairs of MNPs. Pairs of MNPs offer two further parameters not existent at single MNPs, which both affect the local optical fields in their vicinity: the distance between them, and their relative orientation with respect to the polarisation of the excitation light. These properties are subject of three chapters: One section examines the distance-dependent and orientation-sensitive scattering cross section (SCS) of two equally sized MNPs. Both near- and far-field interactions affect the spectral position and spectral width of the SCS. Far-field coupling affects the SCS even in such a way that a two-particle system may show both a blue- and redshifted SCS, depending only on the distance between the two MNPs. The maximum distance for this effect is the coherence length of the illumination source - a fact of importance for SCS-based experiments using laser sources. Another part of this thesis examines the near-field between two MNPs and the dependence of the locally enhanced field on the relative particle orientation with respect to the polarisation of the excitation light. To attain a figure of merit, the intensity of fluorescence light from dye molecules in the surrounding medium was measured at various directions of polarisation. The field enhancement was turned into fluorescence enhancement, even providing a means for sensing the presence of very small MNPs of 12 nm in diameter. In order to quantify the near-field experimentally, a different technique is devised in a third section of this thesis - scanning particle-enhanced Raman microscopy (SPRM). This device comprises a scanning probe carrying an MNP which in turn is coated with a molecule of known Raman signature. By manoeuvring this outfit MNP into the vicinity of an illuminated second MNP and by measuring the Raman signal intensity, a spatial mapping of the field enhancement was possible. (orig.)

  8. Synthesis and characterization of pHLIP® coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jennifer L; Crawford, Troy M; Andreev, Oleg A; Reshetnyak, Yana K

    2017-07-01

    Novel approaches in synthesis of spherical and multispiked gold nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP ® ) were introduced. The presence of a tumor-targeting pHLIP ® peptide in the nanoparticle coating enhances the stability of particles in solution and promotes a pH-dependent cellular uptake. The spherical particles were prepared with sodium citrate as a gold reducing agent to form particles of 7.0±2.5 nm in mean metallic core diameter and ∼43 nm in mean hydrodynamic diameter. The particles that were injected into tumors in mice (21 µg of gold) were homogeneously distributed within a tumor mass with no staining of the muscle tissue adjacent to the tumor. Up to 30% of the injected gold dose remained within the tumor one hour post-injection. The multispiked gold nanoparticles with a mean metallic core diameter of 146.0±50.4 nm and a mean hydrodynamic size of ~161 nm were prepared using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and disk-like bicelles as a template. Only the presence of a soft template, like bicelles, ensured the appearance of spiked nanoparticles with resonance in the near infrared region. The irradiation of spiked gold nanoparticles by an 805 nm laser led to the time- and concentration-dependent increase of temperature. Both pHLIP ® and PEG coated gold spherical and multispiked nanoparticles might find application in radiation and thermal therapies of tumors.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of pHLIP® coated gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Daniels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel approaches in synthesis of spherical and multispiked gold nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG and pH Low Insertion Peptide (pHLIP® were introduced. The presence of a tumor-targeting pHLIP® peptide in the nanoparticle coating enhances the stability of particles in solution and promotes a pH-dependent cellular uptake. The spherical particles were prepared with sodium citrate as a gold reducing agent to form particles of 7.0±2.5 nm in mean metallic core diameter and ∼43 nm in mean hydrodynamic diameter. The particles that were injected into tumors in mice (21 µg of gold were homogeneously distributed within a tumor mass with no staining of the muscle tissue adjacent to the tumor. Up to 30% of the injected gold dose remained within the tumor one hour post-injection. The multispiked gold nanoparticles with a mean metallic core diameter of 146.0±50.4 nm and a mean hydrodynamic size of ~161 nm were prepared using ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and disk-like bicelles as a template. Only the presence of a soft template, like bicelles, ensured the appearance of spiked nanoparticles with resonance in the near infrared region. The irradiation of spiked gold nanoparticles by an 805 nm laser led to the time- and concentration-dependent increase of temperature. Both pHLIP® and PEG coated gold spherical and multispiked nanoparticles might find application in radiation and thermal therapies of tumors.

  10. An in-vitro studies on green synthesis of gold nanoparticles against pathogens and cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a most promising field for generating new applications in medicine. It is imperative to integrate nanoscience and medicine. The present investigation is highly warranted to through more light upon the gold nanoparticles reduced from gold salt through the active principle of medicinal plant. The special emphasis of investigation is the active principle along with gold nanoparticles against for cancer cells. The 70 - 90 nm sized particles were synthesized by using Diospyros ferrea and this confirmed by SEM. These gold nanoparticles showed a characteristic absorption peak at 540 nm in UV spectra. The possibility of protein as a stabilizing material in gold nanoparticles is revealed by FTIR analysis. Remarkably, as a result of wide screening on the application of newly synthesized gold nanoparticles their anticancer potential has been discovered using MTT assay. The antimicrobial activity of AuNPs showed effective against bacteria than the fungal strains.

  11. Synthesis and catalytic activity of the metastable phase of gold phosphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Deshani; Nigro, Toni A.E.; Dyer, I.D. [Department of Chemistry, 107 Physical Sciences I, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Alia, Shaun M.; Pivovar, Bryan S. [Chemical and Materials Science Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Vasquez, Yolanda, E-mail: yolanda.vasquez@okstate.edu [Department of Chemistry, 107 Physical Sciences I, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Recently, transition metal phosphides have found new applications as catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction that has generated an impetus to synthesize these materials at the nanoscale. In this work, Au{sub 2}P{sub 3} was synthesized utilizing the high temperature decomposition of tri-n-octylphosphine as a source of elemental phosphorous. Gold nanorods were used as morphological templates with the aim of controlling the shape and size of the resulting gold phosphide particles. We demonstrate that the surface capping ligand of the gold nanoparticle precursors can influence the purity and extent to which the gold phosphide phase will form. Gold nanorods functionalized with 1-dodecanethiol undergo digestive ripening to produce discrete spherical particles that exhibit reduced reactivity towards phosphorous, resulting in low yields of the gold phosphide. In contrast, gold phosphide was obtained as a phase pure product when cetyltrimethylammonium bromide functionalized gold nanorods are used instead. The Au{sub 2}P{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibited higher activity than polycrystalline gold towards the hydrogen evolution reaction. - Graphical abstract: Au{sub 2}P{sub 3} was synthesized utilizing the high temperature decomposition of tri-n-octylphosphine as a source of elemental phosphorous and gold nanoparticles as reactants. We demonstrate that the surface capping ligand of the gold nanoparticle precursors influence the purity and extent to which the Au{sub 2}P{sub 3} phase will form. Gold nanorods functionalized with 1-dodecanethiol undergo digestive ripening to produce discrete spherical particles that exhibit reduced reactivity towards phosphorous, resulting in low yields of the gold phosphide. In contrast, gold phosphide was obtained as a phase pure product when cetyltrimethylammonium bromide functionalized gold nanoparticles are used instead. The Au{sub 2}P{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibited higher activity than polycrystalline gold towards the hydrogen evolution

  12. Tensor hypercontracted ppRPA: Reducing the cost of the particle-particle random phase approximation from O(r 6) to O(r 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenvi, Neil; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao; Aggelen, Helen van

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, interest in the random-phase approximation (RPA) has grown rapidly. At the same time, tensor hypercontraction has emerged as an intriguing method to reduce the computational cost of electronic structure algorithms. In this paper, we combine the particle-particle random phase approximation with tensor hypercontraction to produce the tensor-hypercontracted particle-particle RPA (THC-ppRPA) algorithm. Unlike previous implementations of ppRPA which scale as O(r 6 ), the THC-ppRPA algorithm scales asymptotically as only O(r 4 ), albeit with a much larger prefactor than the traditional algorithm. We apply THC-ppRPA to several model systems and show that it yields the same results as traditional ppRPA to within mH accuracy. Our method opens the door to the development of post-Kohn Sham functionals based on ppRPA without the excessive asymptotic cost of traditional ppRPA implementations

  13. Gold nano particle decorated graphene core first generation PAMAM dendrimer for label free electrochemical DNA hybridization sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K; Rajesh, R; Dharuman, V; Venkatasan, R; Hahn, J H; Pandian, S Karutha

    2012-01-15

    A novel first generation (G1) poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM) with graphene core (GG1PAMAM) was synthesized for the first time. Single layer of GG1PAMAM was immobilized covalently on mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) monolayer on Au transducer. This allows cost effective and easy deposition of single layer graphene on the Au transducer surface than the advanced vacuum techniques used in the literature. Au nano particles (17.5 nm) then decorated the GG1PAMAM and used for electrochemical DNA hybridization sensing. The sensor discriminates selectively and sensitively the complementary double stranded DNA (dsDNA, hybridized), non-complementary DNA (ssDNA, un-hybridized) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) surfaces. Interactions of the MPA, GG1PAMAM and the Au nano particles were characterized by Ultra Violet (UV), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Cyclic Voltmetric (CV), Impedance spectroscopy (IS) and Differntial Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) techniques. The sensor showed linear range 1×10(-6) to 1×10(-12) M with lowest detection limit 1 pM which is 1000 times lower than G1PAMAM without graphene core. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antiviral Activity of Gold/Copper Sulfide Core/Shell Nanoparticles against Human Norovirus Virus-Like Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Jenkins Broglie

    Full Text Available Human norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide in a plethora of residential and commercial settings, including restaurants, schools, and hospitals. Methods for easily detecting the virus and for treating and preventing infection are critical to stopping norovirus outbreaks, and inactivation via nanoparticles (NPs is a more universal and attractive alternative to other physical and chemical approaches. Using norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk virus-like particles (VLPs as a model viral system, this study characterized the antiviral activity of Au/CuS core/shell nanoparticles (NPs against GI.1 VLPs for the rapid inactivation of HuNoV. Inactivation of VLPs (GI.1 by Au/CuS NPs evaluated using an absorbance-based ELISA indicated that treatment with 0.083 μM NPs for 10 min inactivated ~50% VLPs in a 0.37 μg/ml VLP solution and 0.83 μM NPs for 10 min completely inactivated the VLPs. Increasing nanoparticle concentration and/or VLP-NP contact time significantly increased the virucidal efficacy of Au/CuS NPs. Changes to the VLP particle morphology, size, and capsid protein were characterized using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis. The strategy reported here provides the first reported proof-of-concept Au/CuS NPs-based virucide for rapidly inactivating human norovirus.

  15. Does carbonation of steel slag particles reduce their toxicity? An in vitro approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibouraadaten, Saloua; van den Brule, Sybille; Lison, Dominique

    2015-06-01

    Mineral carbonation can stabilize industrial residues and, in the steel industry, may contribute to simultaneously valorize CO2 emissions and slag. We hypothesized that, by restricting the leaching of metals of toxicological concern such as Cr and V, carbonation can suppress the toxicity of these materials. The cytotoxic activity (WST1 assay) of slag dusts collected from a stainless and a Linz-Donawitz (LD) steel plant, before and after carbonation, was examined in J774 macrophages. The release of Cr, V, Fe, Mn and Ni was measured after incubation in artificial lung fluids mimicking the extracellular and phagolysosomal milieu to which particles are confronted after inhalation. LD slag had the higher Fe, Mn and V content, and was more cytotoxic than stainless steel slag. The cytotoxic activity of LD but not of stainless dusts was reduced after carbonation. The cytotoxic activity of the dusts toward J774 macrophages necessitated a direct contact with the cells and was reduced in the presence of inhibitors of phagocytosis (cytochalasin D) or phagolysosome acidification (bafilomycin), pointing to a key role of metallic constituents released in phagolysosomes. This in vitro study supports a limited reduction of the cytotoxic activity of LD, but not of stainless, steel dusts upon carbonation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Introduction of Mercury-free Gold Extraction Methods to Medium-Scale Miners and Education of Health Care Providers to Reduce the use of Mercury in Sorata, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. U. Appel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The gold ores tested during the project proved amenable to mercury-free gold extraction using borax smelting. The miners also realized that gold recovery increased when performing mercury-free gold extraction. The miners decided to stop using mercury and a follow-up project cleaned their mining equipment for mercury and modified the processing lines. The health care providers were also successfully trained.

  17. Influence of co-electrodeposited Gold particles on the electrocatalytic properties of CoHCF thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Alam Venugopal Narendra; Joseph, James

    2014-01-01

    The electrochemical modification of solid electrodes with metal hexacyanoferrate thin films for enhancing the interfacial properties has created interest for over the past three decades. The preparation of Prussian blue (PB) Au nano composites for the enhancement in the electrocatalytic properties of PB on glassy carbon electrode has been reported by us. The incorporation of Au nano particles in Cobalt hexacyanoferrate (CoHCF) films on Glassy carbon by co-electrodeposition is expected to benefit its interfacial electron transfer properties. The present work describes the effect on the interfacial properties by incorporated Au particles in CoHCF (CoHCF(Au)) modified electrodes. The CoHCF(Au) modified electrodes were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Cyclic Voltammetry, AC Impedance, FE-SEM etc., Influence on the electrocatalytic properties of CoHCF(Au) films have been explored by performing two important reactions i) Hydrazine elecrtro-oxidation ii) Oxygen evolution reaction. Our results reveal that CoHCF(Au) modified GC electrode perform better in terms of charge transport in the redox film and also for the electrooxidation of hydrazine in comparision with simple CoHCF modified electrodes. By using the current-transient technique (chrono method i vs t curve) the hydrazine diffusion coefficient (D 0 ) were calculated. Diffusion coefficient of hydrazine was approximately three times higher on CoHCF(Au) electrode, 9.5 × 10 −5 cm 2 s −1 compared with simple CoHCF modified electrode, 3.3× 10 −5 cm 2 s −1 . Similarly, we also discuss results which reveal that CoHCF(Au) electrodes enhances electrocatalytic activity in splitting water to oxygen in 0.1 M NaOH solution compared to simple CoHCF and Au deposited on GC electrodes

  18. On the observation of the need for an unusually high concentration of cysteine and homocysteine to induce aggregation of polymer-stabilized gold nano particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the interaction of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CH-AuNPs) with cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcys) in aqueous media at pH 1.4. Since the polymer precipitates at higher pH, and the amino acids Cys and HCys are soluble at acidic pH, we kept the pH around 1.4 for stabilizing the particles. Zeta potential of CH-AuNPs was found to be positive and it is reasonable to assume that +ve Cys or Hcys at pH 1.4 will experience repulsive force. However, TEM images and absorption spectra indicated formation of aggregates including rod-like assembly. An interesting observation was the need for unusually high concentration of analytes (Cys and Hcys) to induce the assembly of CH-AuNPs. We also found time bound variation of the optical properties probably indicating the interaction is kinetically controlled and only a fraction of the analyte molecules having sufficient energy can bind onto the particles. We observed that at elevated temperature, the reaction was faster with a lower concentration of Cys or Hcys. These observations were supported by the classical Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory which describes the interparticle interaction and the colloidal stability in solution. Only molecules possessing enough energy to cross this force barrier can cause the aggregation. We also noted a time lag between Cys and Hcys to influence optical properties reflecting the possibility of using this simple approach to discriminate these two clinically relevant molecules. Our observation shows that simple sensing as well as generation of novel nanostructures could be manipulated by a judicious choice of conditions such as stabilizing agents, pH, etc.Graphical AbstractMore energetic ones cross the barrier to induce aggregation.

  19. A gold electrode modified with hemoglobin and the chitosan Fe3O4 nanocomposite particles for direct electrochemistry of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuan-Hong; Yu, Chun-Mei; Pan, Zhong-Qin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Guo, Jian-Wei; Gu, Hai-Ying

    2013-01-01

    We report on a novel electrochemical biosensor that was fabricated by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) onto the surface of a gold electrode modified with a chitosan Fe 3 O 4 nano-composite. The Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation and have an average size of 25 nm. They were dispersed in chitosan solution to obtain the chitosan Fe 3 O 4 nano-composite particles with an average diameter of 35 nm as verified by transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy confirmed that the crystallite structure of the Fe 3 O 4 particles in the nano-composite has remained unchanged. At pH 7.0, Hb gives a pair of redox peaks with a potential of about −0.21 V and −0.36 V. The Hb on the film maintained its biological activity and displays good electrocatalytic reduction activity towards hydrogen peroxide. The linear range for the determination of H 2 O 2 is from 2.3 μM to 9.6 mM, with a detection limit at 1.1 μM concentration (at S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is 3.7 mM and indicates the high affinity of Hb for H 2 O 2 . This biosensor also exhibits good reproducibility and long-term stability. Thus, it is expected to possess potential applications in the development of the third-generation electrochemical biosensors (author)

  20. On the observation of the need for an unusually high concentration of cysteine and homocysteine to induce aggregation of polymer-stabilized gold nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K., E-mail: sreeni@sctimst.ac.in [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Laboratory for Polymer Analysis, Biomedical Technology Wing (India)

    2013-02-15

    This study reports the interaction of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CH-AuNPs) with cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcys) in aqueous media at pH 1.4. Since the polymer precipitates at higher pH, and the amino acids Cys and HCys are soluble at acidic pH, we kept the pH around 1.4 for stabilizing the particles. Zeta potential of CH-AuNPs was found to be positive and it is reasonable to assume that +ve Cys or Hcys at pH 1.4 will experience repulsive force. However, TEM images and absorption spectra indicated formation of aggregates including rod-like assembly. An interesting observation was the need for unusually high concentration of analytes (Cys and Hcys) to induce the assembly of CH-AuNPs. We also found time bound variation of the optical properties probably indicating the interaction is kinetically controlled and only a fraction of the analyte molecules having sufficient energy can bind onto the particles. We observed that at elevated temperature, the reaction was faster with a lower concentration of Cys or Hcys. These observations were supported by the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory which describes the interparticle interaction and the colloidal stability in solution. Only molecules possessing enough energy to cross this force barrier can cause the aggregation. We also noted a time lag between Cys and Hcys to influence optical properties reflecting the possibility of using this simple approach to discriminate these two clinically relevant molecules. Our observation shows that simple sensing as well as generation of novel nanostructures could be manipulated by a judicious choice of conditions such as stabilizing agents, pH, etc.Graphical AbstractMore energetic ones cross the barrier to induce aggregation.

  1. New studies on mustard gold from the Dongping Mines, Hebei Province, China: The tellurian, plumbian, manganoan and mixed varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiuling; Makovicky, Emil

    2001-01-01

    geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold......geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold...

  2. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  3. Biosensor for pesticide triazophos based on its inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and using a glassy carbon electrode modified with coral-like gold nanostructures supported on reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Ke-Jian; Feng, Jin-Xia; Zhang, Qian-Li; Xu, Tian-Qi; Wei, Jie; Feng, Jiu-Ju; Wang, Ai-Jun

    2015-01-01

    A nanocomposite consisting of coral-like gold nanostructures on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was synthesized with the assistance of dimethylbiguanide (DMBG). It was then fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode, coating with cysteamine in order to enable the immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a model enzyme whose activity of hydrolyzing the substrate of acetylthiocholine is inhibited by the pesticide triazophos. The biosensor has response to acetylthiocholine in the 0.3 ∼ 300 μM concentration range at 0.65 V (vs. SCE). The inhibition of the enzyme by triazophos can be determined in concentrations of up to 210 ppb, with a detection limit of 0.35 ppb of triazophos (S/N = 3). The biosensor is highly reproducible and acceptably stable. (author)

  4. Microwave-assisted synthesis of reduced graphene oxide decorated with magnetite and gold nanoparticles, and its application to solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdinia, Ali; Rouhani, Shirin; Mozaffari, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    An agent-free microwave-assisted method was developed for the preparation of a reduced graphene oxide/Fe_3O_4-gold nanocomposite. This material was used as an adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from water samples. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effects of sample volume, amount of sorbent, eluent volume, extraction and desorption time, and the effect of salt on the extraction efficiency were optimized. The linear response range of GC analysis extends from 0.05 to 500 μg L"−"1 of OCPs, the limits of detection range from 0.4 to 4.1 ng L"−"1, relative standard deviations from 1.7 to 7.3 %, and recoveries (from spiked seawater samples) from 69 to 114 %. (author)

  5. An electrochemical ELISA-like immunosensor for miRNAs detection based on screen-printed gold electrodes modified with reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H V; Piro, B; Reisberg, S; Huy Nguyen, L; Dung Nguyen, T; Duc, H T; Pham, M C

    2014-12-15

    We design an electrochemical immunosensor for miRNA detection, based on screen-printed gold electrodes modified with reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. An original immunological approach is followed, using antibodies directed to DNA.RNA hybrids. An electrochemical ELISA-like amplification strategy was set up using a secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Hydroquinone is oxidized into benzoquinone by the HRP/H2O2 catalytic system. In turn, benzoquinone is electroreduced into hydroquinone at the electrode. The catalytic reduction current is related to HRP amount immobilized on the surface, which itself is related to miRNA.DNA surface density on the electrode. This architecture, compared to classical optical detection, lowers the detection limit down to 10 fM. Two miRNAs were studied: miR-141 (a prostate biomarker) and miR-29b-1 (a lung cancer biomarker). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced egfr, elevated urine protein and low level of personal protective equipment compliance among artisanal small scale gold miners at Bibiani-Ghana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrifa, Justice; Essien-Baidoo, Samuel; Ephraim, Richard K D; Nkrumah, Daniel; Dankyira, Daniel Osei

    2017-06-27

    Mercury is a toxic metal with its effects on human health ranging from acute to chronic in a very short time of exposure. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the main source of direct human exposure to mercury. To access the effect of mercury exposure on the renal function and level of personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance among small-scale gold miners in Bibiani District of the Western Region of Ghana METHOD: 110 consenting male gold miners were purposively recruited for this study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information from the participants. Work place assessment and interviews were conducted. Urine samples were analysed for protein; blood was analysed for mercury and creatinine. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Of the 110 participants, 61(55.5%) exceeded the occupational exposure threshold (blood mercury <5μg/L). Urine protein (41.72±68.34, P<0.0001), serum creatinine (2.24±1.19, P<0.0001) and blood mercury (18.37±10.47, P<0.0001) were significantly elevated among the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. However, the exposed group had a significantly reduced eGFR (P<0.0001). There was a significant correlation (r=0.7338, p<0.0001) between blood mercury concentration and urine protein concentration. An increase in blood mercury correlated negatively (r = -0.8233, P<0.0001) with eGFR among the exposed group. High urine protein (P< 0.0001) and high serum creatinine (P< 0.0001) were significantly associated with increased mercury exposure. Increased mercury exposure was significantly associated with burning of amalgam (P=0.0196), sucking of excess mercury (P=0.0336), longer work duration (P=0.0314) and low educational background (P=0.0473). Small scale miners at the Bibiani work site are exposed to excess mercury. Proteinuria and reduced eGFR is common in mine workers exposed to excess

  7. Evidence for Reduced, Carbon-rich Regions in the Solar Nebula from an Unusual Cometary Dust Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gregorio, Bradley T.; Stroud, Rhonda M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6366, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Nittler, Larry R. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Kilcoyne, A. L. David, E-mail: bradley.degregorio@nrl.navy.mil [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 7R0222, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Geochemical indicators in meteorites imply that most formed under relatively oxidizing conditions. However, some planetary materials, such as the enstatite chondrites, aubrite achondrites, and Mercury, were produced in reduced nebular environments. Because of large-scale radial nebular mixing, comets and other Kuiper Belt objects likely contain some primitive material related to these reduced planetary bodies. Here, we describe an unusual assemblage in a dust particle from comet 81P/Wild 2 captured in silica aerogel by the NASA Stardust spacecraft. The bulk of this ∼20 μ m particle is comprised of an aggregate of nanoparticulate Cr-rich magnetite, containing opaque sub-domains composed of poorly graphitized carbon (PGC). The PGC forms conformal shells around tiny 5–15 nm core grains of Fe carbide. The C, N, and O isotopic compositions of these components are identical within errors to terrestrial standards, indicating a formation inside the solar system. Magnetite compositions are consistent with oxidation of reduced metal, similar to that seen in enstatite chondrites. Similarly, the core–shell structure of the carbide + PGC inclusions suggests a formation via FTT reactions on the surface of metal or carbide grains in warm, reduced regions of the solar nebula. Together, the nanoscale assemblage in the cometary particle is most consistent with the alteration of primary solids condensed from a C-rich, reduced nebular gas. The nanoparticulate components in the cometary particle provide the first direct evidence from comets of reduced, carbon-rich regions that were present in the solar nebula.

  8. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  9. Gold recovery from low concentrations using nanoporous silica adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledresse, Adil

    The development of high capacity adsorbents with uniform porosity denoted 5%MP-HMS (5% Mercaptopropyl-Hexagonal Mesoporous Structure) to extract gold from noncyanide solutions is presented. The preliminary studies from laboratory simulated noncyanide gold solutions show that the adsorption capacities of these materials are among the highest reported. The high adsorption saturation level of these materials, up to 1.9 mmol/g (37% of the adsorbent weight) from gold chloride solutions (potassium tetrachloroaurate) and 2.9 mmol/g (57% of the adsorbent weight) from gold bromide solutions (potassium tetrabromoaurate) at pH = 2, is a noteworthy feature of these materials. This gold loading from [AuC4]- and [AuBr4 ]- solutions corresponds to a relative Au:S molar ratio of 2.5:1 and 3.8:1, respectively. These rates are significantly higher than the usual 1:1 (Au:S) ratio expected for metal ion binding with the material. The additional gold ions loaded have been spontaneously reduced to metallic gold in the mesoporous material. Experimental studies indicated high maximum adsorptions of gold as high as 99.9% recovery. Another promising attribute of these materials is their favourable adsorption kinetics. The MP-HMS reaches equilibrium (saturation) in less than 1 minute of exposure in gold bromide and less than 10 minutes in gold chloride. The MP-HMS materials adsorption is significantly improved by agitation and the adsorption capacity of Au (III) ions increases with the decrease in pH. The recovery of adsorbed gold and the regeneration of spent adsorbent were investigated for MP-HMS adsorbent. The regenerated adsorbent (MP-HMS) maintained its adsorption capacity even after repeated use and all the gold was successfully recovered from the spent adsorbent. For the fist time, a promising adsorbent system has been found that is capable of effectively concentrating gold thiosulphate complexes, whereas conventional carbon-inpulp (CIP) and carbon-in-leach (CIL) systems fail. The

  10. Nanotoxicity of gold and gold-cobalt nanoalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, E; Khalil, W K B; Emam, A N; Mohamed, M B; Rao, K V

    2012-05-21

    Nanotoxicology test of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and gold-cobalt (Au-Co) nanoalloy is an important step in their safety evaluation for biomedical applications. The Au and Au-Co NPs were prepared by reducing the metal ions using sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping material. The average size and shape of the nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Cobalt presence in the nanoalloy was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis, and the magnetic properties of these particles were determined using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The Gold and gold-cobalt NPs of average size 15 ± 1.5 nm were administered orally to mice with a dose of 80, 160, and 320 mg/kg per body weight (bw) using gavages. Samples were collected after 7 and 14 days of the treatment. The results indicated that the Au-Co NPs were able to induce significant alteration in the tumor-initiating genes associated with an increase of micronuclei (MNs) formation and generation of DNA adduct (8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) as well as a reduction in the glutathione peroxidase activity. This action of Au-Co NPs was observed using 160 and 320 mg/kg bw at both time intervals. However, Au NPs had much lower effects than Au-Co NPs on alteration in the tumor-initiating genes, frequency of MNs, and generation of 8-OHdG as well as glutathione peroxidase activity except with the highest dose of Au NPs. This study suggests that the potential to cause in vivo genetic and antioxidant enzyme alterations due to the treatment by Au-Co nanoalloy may be attributed to the increase in oxidative stress in mice.

  11. The synthesis and characterization of water-reducible nanoscale Colloidal Unimolecular Polymer (CUP) particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddles, Cynthia Jeannette

    The coatings industry has adapted to more stringent guidelines in paint formulations. Current VOC (volatile organic compound) limits placed by the federal government have pushed the industry toward the development of paint formulations which have very little to no VOC's. The development of Colloidal Unimolecular Polymer (CUP) particles is a step in the direction of providing a resin system which exists in zero VOC aqueous dispersion. The CUP particles are a part of the polymer field of Single Chain Nano Particles (SCNP) and ranged in diameters of 3-9 nm. The research presented in this dissertation describes the synthesis and design of these particles along with the various means of instrumentation used to gain insight into the structure and nature of these particles when suspended in aqueous medium.

  12. Calcium-Phosphate-Osteopontin Particles Reduce Biofilm Formation and pH Drops in in situ Grown Dental Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Ibsen, Casper J S; Birkedal, Henrik; Nyvad, Bente

    2017-01-01

    This 2-period crossover study investigated the effect of calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles on biofilm formation and pH in 48-h biofilms grown in situ. Bovine milk osteopontin is a highly phosphorylated glycoprotein that has been shown to interfere with bacterial adhesion to salivary-coated surfaces. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles have been shown to reduce biofilm formation and pH drops in a 5-species laboratory model of dental biofilm without affecting bacterial viability. Here, smooth surface biofilms from 10 individuals were treated ex vivo 6 times/day for 30 min with either calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles or sterile saline. After growth, the amount of biofilm formed was determined by confocal microscopy, and pH drops upon exposure to glucose were monitored using confocal-microscopy-based pH ratiometry. A total of 160 biofilms were analysed. No adverse effects of repeated ex vivo treatment with calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles were observed. Particle treatment resulted in a 32% lower amount of biofilm formed (p Biofilm pH was significantly higher upon particle treatment, both shortly after the addition of glucose and after 30 min of incubation with glucose (p biofilms as well as the remineralizing potential of the particles. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Highly efficient electrocatalytic vapor generation of methylmercury based on the gold particles deposited glassy carbon electrode: A typical application for sensitive mercury speciation analysis in fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng-Ting; Yang, Xin-An; Qin, Li-Ming; Zhang, Wang-Bing

    2018-09-26

    A gold particle deposited glassy carbon electrode (Au/GCE) was first used in electrochemical vapor generation (ECVG) technology and demonstrated to have excellent catalytic property for the electrochemical conversion process of aqueous mercury, especially for methylmercury (CH 3 Hg + ), to gaseous mercury. Systematical research has shown that the highly consistent or distinct difference between the atomic fluorescence spectroscopy signals of CH 3 Hg + and Hg 2+ can be achieved by controlling the electrolytic parameters of ECVG. Hereby, a new green and accurate method for mercury speciation analysis based on the distinguishing electrochemical reaction behavior of Hg 2+ and CH 3 Hg +  on the modified electrode was firstly established. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectra and the square wave voltammetry displayed that the ECVG reaction of CH 3 Hg +  may belong to the electrocatalytic mechanism. Under the selected conditions, the limits of detection of Hg 2+ and CH 3 Hg +  are 5.3 ng L -1 and 4.4 ng L -1 for liquid samples and 0.53 pg mg -1 and 0.44 pg mg -1 for solid samples, respectively. The precision of the 5 measurements is less than 6% within the concentration of Hg 2+ and CH 3 Hg +  ranging from 0.2 to 15.0 μg L -1 . The accuracy and practicability of the proposed method was verified by analyzing the mercury content in the certified reference material and several fish as well as water samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical properties of spherical gold mesoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evlyukhin, A. B.; Kuznetsov, A. I.; Novikov, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Optical properties of spherical gold particles with diameters of 150-650 nm (mesoparticles) are studied by reflectance spectroscopy. Particles are fabricated by laser-induced transfer of metallic droplets onto metal and dielectric substrates. Contributions of higher multipoles (beyond...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of gold cubic nanoshells using water-soluble GeO₂templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cen; Tang, Peisong; Ge, Mingyuan; Xu, Xiaobin; Cao, Feng; Jiang, J Z

    2011-04-15

    Size-tunable GeO₂ nanocubes were initially prepared by a modified sono-assisted reverse micelle method and then functionalized with an amino-terminated silanizing agent. Subsequently, gold decorated GeO₂ nanocomposites were prepared at pH ≈ 7 and 80 °C. It was found that well-dispersed gold nanoparticles on GeO₂ nanocubes could be obtained only if gold salt is abundant to favor simultaneous, homogeneous nucleation of gold particles. Additional gold ions were reduced onto these attached 'seed' particles accompanied by synchronous dissolution of water-soluble GeO₂ cores, resulting in gold hollow cubic shells. The GeO₂ nanocubes and Au/GeO₂ nanocomposites as well as gold hollow cubic shells were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy. In particular, gold hollow cubic shells feature a plasmon resonance peak at above 900 nm, which renders it quite promising in biochemical applications.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of gold cubic nanoshells using water-soluble GeO2 templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cen; Tang, Peisong; Ge, Mingyuan; Xu, Xiaobin; Cao, Feng; Jiang, J. Z.

    2011-04-01

    Size-tunable GeO2 nanocubes were initially prepared by a modified sono-assisted reverse micelle method and then functionalized with an amino-terminated silanizing agent. Subsequently, gold decorated GeO2 nanocomposites were prepared at pH ≈ 7 and 80 °C. It was found that well-dispersed gold nanoparticles on GeO2 nanocubes could be obtained only if gold salt is abundant to favor simultaneous, homogeneous nucleation of gold particles. Additional gold ions were reduced onto these attached 'seed' particles accompanied by synchronous dissolution of water-soluble GeO2 cores, resulting in gold hollow cubic shells. The GeO2 nanocubes and Au/GeO2 nanocomposites as well as gold hollow cubic shells were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy. In particular, gold hollow cubic shells feature a plasmon resonance peak at above 900 nm, which renders it quite promising in biochemical applications.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of gold cubic nanoshells using water-soluble GeO2 templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cen; Ge Mingyuan; Xu Xiaobin; Jiang, J Z; Tang Peisong; Cao Feng

    2011-01-01

    Size-tunable GeO 2 nanocubes were initially prepared by a modified sono-assisted reverse micelle method and then functionalized with an amino-terminated silanizing agent. Subsequently, gold decorated GeO 2 nanocomposites were prepared at pH ∼ 7 and 80 deg. C. It was found that well-dispersed gold nanoparticles on GeO 2 nanocubes could be obtained only if gold salt is abundant to favor simultaneous, homogeneous nucleation of gold particles. Additional gold ions were reduced onto these attached 'seed' particles accompanied by synchronous dissolution of water-soluble GeO 2 cores, resulting in gold hollow cubic shells. The GeO 2 nanocubes and Au/GeO 2 nanocomposites as well as gold hollow cubic shells were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy. In particular, gold hollow cubic shells feature a plasmon resonance peak at above 900 nm, which renders it quite promising in biochemical applications.

  18. Optical Epitaxial Growth of Gold Nanoparticle Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ningfeng; Martínez, Luis Javier; Jaquay, Eric; Nakano, Aiichiro; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-09-09

    We use an optical analogue of epitaxial growth to assemble gold nanoparticles into 2D arrays. Particles are attracted to a growth template via optical forces and interact through optical binding. Competition between effects determines the final particle arrangements. We use a Monte Carlo model to design a template that favors growth of hexagonal particle arrays. We experimentally demonstrate growth of a highly stable array of 50 gold particles with 200 nm diameter, spaced by 1.1 μm.

  19. On the reduced dynamics of a subset of interacting bosonic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Manuel; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    The quantum dynamics of a subset of interacting bosons in a subspace of fixed particle number is described in terms of symmetrized many-particle states. A suitable partial trace operation over the von Neumann equation of an N-particle system produces a hierarchical expansion for the subdynamics of M ≤ N particles. Truncating this hierarchy with a pure product state ansatz yields the general, nonlinear coherent mean-field equation of motion. In the special case of a contact interaction potential, this reproduces the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. To account for incoherent effects on top of the mean-field evolution, we discuss possible extensions towards a second-order perturbation theory that accounts for interaction-induced decoherence in form of a nonlinear Lindblad-type master equation.

  20. Tensor hypercontracted ppRPA: Reducing the cost of the particle-particle random phase approximation from O(r {sup 6}) to O(r {sup 4})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenvi, Neil; Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Aggelen, Helen van [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    In recent years, interest in the random-phase approximation (RPA) has grown rapidly. At the same time, tensor hypercontraction has emerged as an intriguing method to reduce the computational cost of electronic structure algorithms. In this paper, we combine the particle-particle random phase approximation with tensor hypercontraction to produce the tensor-hypercontracted particle-particle RPA (THC-ppRPA) algorithm. Unlike previous implementations of ppRPA which scale as O(r{sup 6}), the THC-ppRPA algorithm scales asymptotically as only O(r{sup 4}), albeit with a much larger prefactor than the traditional algorithm. We apply THC-ppRPA to several model systems and show that it yields the same results as traditional ppRPA to within mH accuracy. Our method opens the door to the development of post-Kohn Sham functionals based on ppRPA without the excessive asymptotic cost of traditional ppRPA implementations.

  1. Isolation and dispersion of reduced metal particles using the surface dipole moment of F-terminated diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Furuta, M. [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, School of Science, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan); Kondo, T. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Fujishima, A. [Kanagawa Advanced Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1, Sakato, Takastu-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Honda, K. [Department of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, School of Science, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi-shi, Yamaguchi 753-8512 (Japan)], E-mail: khonda@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    2009-04-30

    Cu particles that have been reductively generated at the oxidized surface of a boron-doped diamond electrode (O-BDD) can be removed from the electrode's surface by the repulsive electrostatic force of the surface dipole moment during a potential cycle of a solution of Cu{sup 2+} ions. The objective of this study was to isolate various metal particles other than Cu by use of a fluorine-terminated BDD surface (F-BDD) with a stronger surface dipole moment than O-BDD, and to clarify the mechanism of the metal particles' separation from the electrode. During the potential cycle treatment of Cu{sup 2+} ions using F-BDD, the reionization of the reduced Cu could be suppressed in the presence of dissolved oxygen, and the Cu particles were separated from the electrode surface as CuO. A similar result was seen with O-BDD. The degree of separation of the Cu particles could be drastically enhanced by raising the upper potential limit in the potential cycle from +0.2 to +0.8 V. By setting the upper potential to a potential greater than the metal-metal oxide equilibrium line in the potential-pH equilibrium diagram of the Cu-water system (Pourbaix Diagram), oxidation of the reduced metal surface by reaction with dissolved oxygen could be accelerated and the surface of metal particles could be insulated. The Cu particles were forced from the BDD surface by the electrostatic repulsion from the surface dipole moment of F-BDD. Also, it turned out that the physical adsorption of chloride ions (Cl{sup -}) on the electrode surface intensified the electrostatic repulsive force between the F- or O-BDD surface and the metal particles, and thus increased the degree of the metal particles' separation. For Zn with a metal-metal oxide equilibrium potential of approximately -0.8 V at pH 7, complete separation of the Zn particles was achieved with F-BDD by setting the upper potential limit to +0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), decreasing the Zn{sup 2+} concentration (1/10 that of Cu{sup 2

  2. Correction: One-step coelectrodeposition-assisted layer-by-layer assembly of gold nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide and its self-healing three-dimensional nanohybrid for an ultrasensitive DNA sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Kumarasamy; Camarada, María Belén; Dharuman, Venkataraman; Ju, Huangxian; Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Wen, Yangping

    2018-02-01

    Correction for 'One-step coelectrodeposition-assisted layer-by-layer assembly of gold nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide and its self-healing three-dimensional nanohybrid for an ultrasensitive DNA sensor' by Jayakumar Kumarasamy, et al., Nanoscale, 2018, DOI: 10.1039/c7nr06952a.

  3. Gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Timea; Boca, Sanda [Babes-Bolyai University, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences and Faculty of Physics (Romania); Biro, Dominic [Sapientia University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences (Romania); Baldeck, Patrice [Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, UMR 5588, CNRS (France); Astilean, Simion, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences and Faculty of Physics (Romania)

    2013-04-15

    This study presents the synthesis of gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles by a two-step method and investigates their biological impact on cancer cells, specifically nanoparticle internalization and cytotoxicity. Uniform, 9-10-nm-sized, hydrophobic gold nanoparticles were synthesized in organic phase by reducing gold salt with oleylamine, after which oleylamine-protected gold nanoparticles were phase-transferred into aqueous medium using Pluronic F127 block copolymer, resulting in gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of {approx}35 nm. The formation and phase-transfer of gold nanoparticles were analyzed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The obtained gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles proved to be highly stable in salted solution. Cytotoxicity tests showed no modification of cellular viability in the presence of properly purified particles. Furthermore, dark-field cellular imaging demonstrated that gold-Pluronic nanoparticles were able to be efficiently uptaken by cells, being internalized through nonspecific endocytosis. The high stability, proven biocompatibility, and imaging properties of gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles hold promise for relevant intracellular applications, with such a design providing the feasibility to combine all multiple functionalities in one nanoparticle for simultaneous detection and imaging.

  4. Suspended particles only marginally reduce pyrethroid toxicity to the freshwater invertebrate Gammarus pulex (L.) during pulse exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Cedergreen, Nina; Kronvang, Brian; Andersen, Maj-Britt Bjergager; Nørum, Ulrik; Kretschmann, Andreas; Strobel, Bjarne Westergaard; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun

    2016-04-01

    Current ecotoxicological research on particle-associated pyrethroids in freshwater systems focuses almost exclusively on sediment-exposure scenarios and sediment-dwelling macroinvertebrates. We studied how suspended particles influence acute effects of lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin on the epibenthic freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex (L.) using brief pulse exposures followed by a 144 h post exposure recovery phase. Humic acid (HA) and the clay mineral montmorillonite (MM) were used as model sorbents in environmentally realistic concentrations (5, 25 and 125 mg L(-1)). Mortality of G. pulex was recorded during the post exposure recovery phase and locomotor behavior was measured during exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. We found that HA in concentrations ≥25 mg L(-1) adsorbed the majority of pyrethroids but only reduced mortality of G. pulex up to a factor of four compared to pyrethroid-only treatments. MM suspensions adsorbed a variable fraction of pyrethroids (10% for bifenthrin and 70% for lambda-cyhalothrin) but did not significantly change the concentration-response relationship compared to pure pyrethroid treatments. Behavioral responses and immobilisation rate of G. pulex were reduced in the presence of HA, whereas behavioral responses and immobilisation rate were increased in the presence of MM. This indicates that G. pulex was capable of sensing the bioavailable fraction of lambda-cyhalothrin. Our results imply that suspended particles reduce to only a limited extent the toxicity of pyrethroids to G. pulex and that passive uptake of pyrethroids can be significant even when pyrethroids are adsorbed to suspended particles.

  5. The effect of six-point one-particle reducible local interactions in the dual fermion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanin, A A

    2013-01-01

    We formulate the dual fermion approach for strongly correlated electronic systems in terms of the lattice and dual effective interactions, obtained by using the covariation splitting formula. This allows us to consider the effect of six-point one-particle reducible interactions, which are usually neglected by the dual fermion approach. We show that the consideration of one-particle reducible six-point (as well as higher order) vertices is crucially important for the diagrammatic consistency of this approach. In particular, the relation between the dual and lattice self-energy, derived in the dual fermion approach, implicitly accounts for the effect of the diagrams, containing six-point and higher order local one-particle reducible vertices, and should be applied with caution, if these vertices are neglected. Apart from that, the treatment of the self-energy feedback is also modified by six-point and higher order vertices; these vertices are also important to account for some non-local corrections to the lattice self-energy, which have the same order in the local four-point vertices as the diagrams usually considered in the approach. These observations highlight an importance of six-point and higher order vertices in the dual fermion approach, and call for the development of new schemes of treatment of non-local fluctuations, which are based on one-particle irreducible quantities. (paper)

  6. Performance evaluation of mobile downflow booths for reducing airborne particles in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Li-Ming; Hocker, Braden; Steltz, Austin E; Kremer, John; Feng, H Amy

    2017-11-01

    Compared to other common control measures, the downflow booth is a costly engineering control used to contain airborne dust or particles. The downflow booth provides unidirectional filtered airflow from the ceiling, entraining released particles away from the workers' breathing zone, and delivers contained airflow to a lower level exhaust for removing particulates by filtering media. In this study, we designed and built a mobile downflow booth that is capable of quick assembly and easy size change to provide greater flexibility and particle control for various manufacturing processes or tasks. An experimental study was conducted to thoroughly evaluate the control performance of downflow booths used for removing airborne particles generated by the transfer of powdered lactose between two containers. Statistical analysis compared particle reduction ratios obtained from various test conditions including booth size (short, regular, or extended), supply air velocity (0.41 and 0.51 m/s or 80 and 100 feet per minute, fpm), powder transfer location (near or far from the booth exhaust), and inclusion or exclusion of curtains at the booth entrance. Our study results show that only short-depth downflow booths failed to protect the worker performing powder transfer far from the booth exhausts. Statistical analysis shows that better control performance can be obtained with supply air velocity of 0.51 m/s (100 fpm) than with 0.41 m/s (80 fpm) and that use of curtains for downflow booths did not improve their control performance.

  7. Synthesis, Structure, Stability and Redispersion of Gold-based Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruvalam, Ram Chandra

    ' particles with Pd-shell/Au-core and Au-shell/Pd-core morphologies, have been prepared and immobilized on both activated carbon and TiO2 supports. These have subsequently been compared as catalysts for the direct production of H2O2 and for benzyl alcohol oxidation in an attempt to elucidate the optimum particle morphology/support combination for both these reactions. Aberration corrected analytical electron microscopy has been used extensively to characterize these sol-immobilized materials. In particular, the STEM -HAADF technique has provided invaluable new (and often unexpected) information on the atomic structure, elemental distribution within particles, and compositional variations between particles for these controlled catalyst preparations. In addition, we have been able to compare their differing thermal stability and sintering behaviors, and to demonstrate that they have quite varying wetting interactions with activated carbon and TiO2 supports. Over the course of their lifetime, many supported metal catalysts exposed to elevated temperatures tend to de-activate by nanoparticle sintering, which decreases the overall exposed metal surface area and the number of active sites available for catalysis. It is sometimes desirable to devise chemical re-dispersion treatments whereby the mean size of the particles is reduced and the catalytic activity regenerated. In this work, the possibility of re-dispersing gold nanoparticles by a simple low temperature methyl iodide (CH3 I) treatment has been investigated. A variety of characterization techniques, including EXAFS, XRD, XPS, UV-DRS and STEM-HAADF imaging has been applied to samples before and after CH3 I treatment, in an attempt to determine the efficacy of the re-dispersion method. It is shown that re-dispersion of Au nanoparticles on activated carbon, graphite, Al2 O3 and TiO2 substrates is possible to varying degrees. A complete re-dispersion of `bulk' gold nanoparticles down to the atomic scale has been achieved on

  8. Phage based green chemistry for gold ion reduction and gold retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Magdiel I; Xie, Jianping; Leong, David T

    2014-01-22

    The gold mining industry has taken its toll on the environment, triggering the development of more environmentally benign processes to alleviate the waste load release. Here, we demonstrate the use of bacteriophages (phages) for biosorption and bioreduction of gold ions from aqueous solution, which potentially can be applied to remediate gold ions from gold mining waste effluent. Phage has shown a remarkably efficient sorption of gold ions with a maximum gold adsorption capacity of 571 mg gold/g dry weight phage. The product of this phage mediated process is gold nanocrystals with the size of 30-630 nm. Biosorption and bioreduction processes are mediated by the ionic and covalent interaction between gold ions and the reducing groups on the phage protein coat. The strategy offers a simple, ecofriendly and feasible option to recover of gold ions to form readily recoverable products of gold nanoparticles within 24 h.

  9. Calcium-Phosphate-Osteopontin Particles Reduce Biofilm Formation and pH Drops in in situ-Grown Dental Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Ibsen, Casper Jon Steenberg; Birkedal, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    This 2-period crossover study investigated the effect of calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles on biofilm formation and pH in 48-h biofilms grown in situ. Bovine milk osteopontin is a highly phosphorylated glycoprotein that has been shown to interfere with bacterial adhesion to salivary......-coated surfaces. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles have been shown to reduce biofilm formation and pH drops in a 5-species laboratory model of dental biofilm without affecting bacterial viability. Here, smooth surface biofilms from 10 individuals were treated ex vivo 6 times/day for 30 min with either...... calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles or sterile saline. After growth, the amount of biofilm formed was determined by confocal microscopy, and pH drops upon exposure to glucose were monitored using confocal-microscopy-based pH ratiometry. A total of 160 biofilms were analysed. No adverse effects...

  10. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Li; Chen, Jing; Li, Na; He, Pingli; Li, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tetracyclines directly reduce aurate into gold nanoparticles. • Gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plamson absorbance at 526 nm. • Quantitative detection of tetracyclines with the colorimetric assay. • Tetracyclines spiked urine samples can be detected with the assay. - Abstract: A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV–vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL −1 can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples

  11. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Li [Logistics School, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China); Chen, Jing; Li, Na [Logistics School, Beijing Wuzi University, Beijing 101149 (China); He, Pingli [State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Li, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2014-08-11

    Highlights: • Tetracyclines directly reduce aurate into gold nanoparticles. • Gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plamson absorbance at 526 nm. • Quantitative detection of tetracyclines with the colorimetric assay. • Tetracyclines spiked urine samples can be detected with the assay. - Abstract: A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV–vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL{sup −1} can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples.

  12. Prussian blue-gold nanoparticles-ionic liquid functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as label for ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Liu, Na; Ma, Zhanfang

    2014-06-04

    In this work, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) protected Prussian blue/gold nanoparticles/ionic liquid functionalized reduced graphene oxide (IL-rGO-Au-PDDA-PB) nanocomposite was fabricated. The resulting nanocomposite exhibited high biocompatibility, conductivity and catalytic activity. To assess the performance of the nanocomposite, a sensitive sandwich-type immunosensor was constructed for detecting alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Greatly enhanced sensitivity for this immunosensor was based on triple signal amplification strategies. Firstly, IL-rGO modified electrode was used as biosensor platform to capture a large amount of antibody due to its increased surface area, thus amplifying the detection response. Secondly, a large number of Au-PDDA-PB was conjugated on the surface of IL-rGO, which meant the enrichment of the signal and the more immobilization of label antibody. Finally, the catalytic reaction between H2O2 and the IL-rGO-Au-PDDA-PB nanocomposite further enhanced the signal response. The signals increased linearly with AFP concentrations in the range of 0.01-100 ng mL(-1). The detection limit for AFP was 4.6 pg mL(-1). The immunosensor showed high sensitivity, excellent selectivity and good stability. Moreover, the immunosensor was applied to the analysis of AFP in serum sample with satisfactory result. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Very sensitive electrochemical determination of diuron on glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle-Nafion composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, K; Khodadadi, A

    2017-10-01

    In this work, a very sensitive electrochemical sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticles/Nafion (rGO-AuNPs/Nafion) composite film was applied to determine diuron. Synthesized GO was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the rGO-AuNPs/Nafion film was also characterized using scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and adsorptive differential pulse voltammetry (AdDPV) were applied to investigate the electrochemical response of the diuron on the modified electrode. The electrode showed a linear response at 1.0×10 -9 -1.0×10 -7 M and a detection limit of 0.3nM under the optimized conditions. The effect of some other species on the determination of diuron was investigated and the sensor showed good selectivity for determination of diuron. The constructed sensor was applied to determine diuron in enriched samples of orange juice, mineral and tap water which statistical t-test showed accuracy of method. Also the sensor was applied to obtain diuron content in the tea sample. The reliability of the proposed sensor was confirmed after comparing the results with those obtained using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a comparative method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Label-free impedimetric aptasensor for detection of femtomole level acetamiprid using gold nanoparticles decorated multiwalled carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Airong; Liu, Qian; Huan, Juan; Qian, Jing; Dong, Xiaoya; Qiu, Baijing; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun

    2015-08-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) decorated multiwalled carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon (Au/MWCNT-rGONR) composites were synthesized by a one-pot reaction. By employing the resulting Au/MWCNT-rGONR composites as the support for aptamer immobilization, we developed an ultrasensitive label-free electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor for acetamiprid detection, which was based on that the variation of electron transfer resistance was relevant to the formation of acetamiprid-aptamer complex at the modified electrode surface. Compared with pure Au NPs and MWCNT-rGONR, the Au/MWCNT-rGONR composites modified electrode was the most sensitive aptasensing platform for the determination of acetamiprid. The proposed aptasensor displayed a linear response for acetamiprid in the range from 5×10(-14) M to 1×10(-5) M with an extremely low detection limit of 1.7×10(-14) M (S/N=3). In addition, this impedimetric aptasensor possessed great advantages including the simple operation process, low-cost, selectivity and sensitivity, which provided a promising model for the aptamer-based detection with a direct impedimetric method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel lable-free electrochemical immunosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen based on gold nanoparticles-thionine-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fen-Ying; Xu, Mao-Tian; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, gold nanoparticle-thionine-reduced graphene oxide (GNP-THi-GR) nanocomposites were prepared to design a label-free immunosensor for the sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The nanocomposites with good biocompatibility, excellent redox electrochemical activity and large surface area were coated onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and then CEA antibody (anti-CEA) was immobilized on the electrode to construct the immunosensor. The morphologies and electrochemistry of the formed nanocomposites were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies demonstrated that the formation of antibody-antigen complexes decreased the peak current of THi in the GNP-THi-GR nanocomposites. The decreased currents were proportional to the CEA concentration in the range of 10-500 pg/mL with a detection limit of 4 pg/mL. The proposed method was simple, fast and inexpensive for the determination of CEA at very low levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Voltammetric determination of total dissolved iron in coastal waters using a glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide, Methylene Blue and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Mingyue; Zhang, Haiyun; Han, Haitao; Pan, Dawei; Su, Zhencui

    2015-01-01

    A nanocomposite, prepared from reduced graphene oxide (rGO), Methylene Blue (MB) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode for the determination of total dissolved iron by differential pulse voltammetry. The use of rGO warrants a larger electrode surface and the presence of more active sites, while electron transfer is accelerated by incorporating AuNPs. MB acts as an electron mediator, as an anchor for the AuNPs (which were grown in situ), and also prevents the aggregation of rGO. The modified electrode displayed a remarkably improved sensitivity and selectivity for Fe(III). The kinetics of the electrode reaction is adsorption-controlled, and the reversible process involves one proton and one electron. The response to Fe(III) is linear in the 0.3 to 100 μM concentration range, and the detection limit is 15 nM. Possible interferences by other ions were studied. The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of total dissolved iron in real coastal waters. (author)

  17. Voltammetric determination of nitric oxide using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanohybrid consisting of myoglobin, gold nanorods, and reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlinda, Ab Rahman; Jayabal, Subramaniam; Yusoff, Norazriena; Huang, Nay Ming; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Suriani, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Myoglobin-modified gold nanorods incorporating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were fabricated and deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to obtain a sensor for nitric oxide (NO). The Mb-AuNR/rGO nanohybrid showed a transverse localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band with a peak at 508 nm, and a longitudinal LSPR band at 724 nm. The AuNRs have an average length of 38 ± 3 nm and a width of 11 ± 1 nm. The GCE modified with the nanohybrid is shown to be a viable sensor for the determination of NO by linear sweep voltammetry. Its electrocatalytic response toward the oxidation of NO is distinctly enhanced compared to other electrodes. The sensor, best operated at a working voltage of 0.85 V (vs. SCE), showed two linear response ranges (from 10 to 100 μM, and from 100 to 1000 μM), with a detection limit of 5.5 μM. Furthermore, it exhibits excellent selectivity for NO over common interferents such as NaNO 3 , and also over electroactive species such as ascorbate, dopamine, glucose, and uric acid. These properties make it a promising tool for the detection of NO in situations such as capillary and pulmonary hypertension and embolism, and during vasodilation. (author)

  18. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  19. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.

    2016-01-01

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  20. Intravenously administered gold nanoparticles pass through the blood-retinal barrier depending on the particle size, and induce no retinal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yu, Young Suk [Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Seoul Artificial Eye Center, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 151744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyu-Won [NeuroVascular Coordination Research Center, College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Hun, E-mail: hunin315@paran.com, E-mail: ysyu@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-ku, Seoul 120749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-16

    The retina maintains homeostasis through the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Although it is ideal to deliver the drug to the retina via systemic administration, it is still challenging due to the BRB strictly regulating permeation from blood to the retina. Herein, we demonstrated that intravenously administered gold nanoparticles could pass through the BRB and are distributed in all retinal layers without cytotoxicity. After intravenous injection of gold nanoparticles into C57BL/6 mice, 100 nm nanoparticles were not detected in the retina whereas 20 nm nanoparticles passed through the BRB and were distributed in all retinal layers. 20 nm nanoparticles in the retina were observed in neurons (75 {+-} 5%), endothelial cells (17 {+-} 6%) and peri-endothelial glial cells (8 {+-} 3%), where nanoparticles were bound on the membrane. In the retina, cells containing nanoparticles did not show any structural abnormality and increase of cell death compared to cells without nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles never affected the viability of retinal endothelial cells, astrocytes and retinoblastoma cells. Furthermore, gold nanoparticles never led to any change in expression of representative biological molecules including zonula occludens-1 and glut-1 in retinal endothelial cells, neurofilaments in differentiated retinoblastoma cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes. Therefore, our data suggests that small gold nanoparticles (20 nm) could be an alternative for drug delivery across the BRB, which could be safely applied in vivo.

  1. Intravenously administered gold nanoparticles pass through the blood-retinal barrier depending on the particle size, and induce no retinal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Myung Hun

    2009-01-01

    The retina maintains homeostasis through the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Although it is ideal to deliver the drug to the retina via systemic administration, it is still challenging due to the BRB strictly regulating permeation from blood to the retina. Herein, we demonstrated that intravenously administered gold nanoparticles could pass through the BRB and are distributed in all retinal layers without cytotoxicity. After intravenous injection of gold nanoparticles into C57BL/6 mice, 100 nm nanoparticles were not detected in the retina whereas 20 nm nanoparticles passed through the BRB and were distributed in all retinal layers. 20 nm nanoparticles in the retina were observed in neurons (75 ± 5%), endothelial cells (17 ± 6%) and peri-endothelial glial cells (8 ± 3%), where nanoparticles were bound on the membrane. In the retina, cells containing nanoparticles did not show any structural abnormality and increase of cell death compared to cells without nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles never affected the viability of retinal endothelial cells, astrocytes and retinoblastoma cells. Furthermore, gold nanoparticles never led to any change in expression of representative biological molecules including zonula occludens-1 and glut-1 in retinal endothelial cells, neurofilaments in differentiated retinoblastoma cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes. Therefore, our data suggests that small gold nanoparticles (20 nm) could be an alternative for drug delivery across the BRB, which could be safely applied in vivo.

  2. Coal gold agglomeration: an innovative approach to the recovery of gold in environmentally sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, N.C.; Hughes-Narborough, C.; Willey, G. [Davy (Stockton) Ltd., Stockton-on-Tees (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    Coal Gold Agglomeration (CGA) was developed by BP Minerals and involves the selective recovery of oleophilic gold particles from an aqueous slurry into coal-oil agglomerates. These agglomerates are allowed to build up to a high gold loading and are then separated from the slurry. The loaded agglomerates are burned and the gold is finally recovered from the ash residue by dissolution and precipitation or by direct smelting. 6 figs.

  3. Gold Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Barro; Sanjay P. Misra

    2013-01-01

    From 1836 to 2011, the average real rate of price change for gold in the United States is 1.1% per year and the standard deviation is 13.1%, implying a one-standard-deviation confidence band for the mean of (0.1%, 2.1%). The covariances of gold's real rate of price change with consumption and GDP growth rates are small and statistically insignificantly different from zero. These negligible covariances suggest that gold's expected real rate of return--which includes an unobserved dividend yiel...

  4. REDUCED ACTIVITY AND LARGE PARTICLES FROM THE DISINTEGRATING PLANET CANDIDATE KIC 12557548b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlawin, E.; Herter, T. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Zhao, M. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Teske, J. K. [Carnegie DTM, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Chen, H. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The intriguing exoplanet candidate KIC 12557548b is believed to have a comet-like tail of dusty debris trailing a small rocky planet. The tail of debris scatters up to 1.3% of the stellar light in the Kepler observatory’s bandpass (0.42–0.9 μ m). Observing the tail’s transit depth at multiple wavelengths can reveal the composition and particle size of the debris, constraining the makeup and lifetime of the sub-Mercury planet. Early dust particle size predictions from the scattering of the comet-like tail pointed toward a dust size of ∼0.1 μ m for silicate compositions. These small particles would produce a much deeper optical transit depth than near-infrared transit depth. We measure a transmission spectrum for KIC 12557548b using the SpeX spectrograph (covering 0.8–2.4 μ m) simultaneously with the MORIS imager taking r ′ (0.63 μ m) photometry on the Infrared Telescope Facility for eight nights and one night in H band (1.63 μ m) using the Wide-field IR Camera at the Palomar 200 inch telescope. The infrared spectra are plagued by systematic errors, but we argue that sufficient precision is obtained when using differential spectroscopic calibration when combining multiple nights. The average differential transmission spectrum is flat, supporting findings that KIC 12557548b’s debris is likely composed of larger particles ≳0.5 μ m for pyroxene and olivine and ≳0.2 μ m for iron and corundum. The r ′ photometric transit depths are all below the average Kepler value, suggesting that the observations occurred during a weak period or that the mechanisms producing optical broadband transit depths are suppressed.

  5. Reduced Particle size of plant material does not stimulate decomposition but affects the microbivorous microfauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Rønn, Regin; Christensen, Søren

    2001-01-01

    in soils amended with the large pieces on nine out of 10 occasions. Microbial biomass measured as SIR was significantly higher in soils with maize than in those amended with barley, but no effect of particle size was observed (three-way ANOVA, P... material, but significantly higher numbers were found in soil with finely-ground maize than in soil with large pieces (two-way ANOVA, P... barley (three-way ANOVA, P

  6. Reducing Water Sensitivity of Chitosan Biocomposite Films Using Gliadin Particles Made by In Situ Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajian Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to sustain rapid expansion in the field of biocomposites, it is necessary to develop novel fillers that are biodegradable, and easy to disperse and obtain. In this work, gliadin particles (GPs fabricated through an in situ method have been reported as fillers for creating chitosan (CS-based biocomposite films. In general, the particles tend to agglomerate in the polymer matrix at high loading (approximately >10% in the biopolymer/particles composites prepared by the traditional solution-blending method. However, the micrographs of biocomposites confirmed that the GPs are well dispersed in the CS matrix in all CS/GPs composites even at a high loading of 30% in this study. It was found that the GPs could improve the mechanical properties of the biocomposites. In addition, the results of moisture uptake and solubility in water of biocomposites showed that water resistance of biocomposites was enhanced by the introduction of GPs. These results suggested that GPs fabricated through an in situ method could be a good candidate for use in biopolymer-based composites.

  7. One-pot high-yield synthesis of single-crystalline gold nanorods using glycerol as a low-cost and eco-friendly reducing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parveen, Rashida [University of São Paulo, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos (Brazil); Gomes, Janaina F. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departamento de Engenharia Química (Brazil); Ullah, Sajjad [University of São Paulo, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos (Brazil); Acuña, José J. S. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (Brazil); Tremiliosi-Filho, Germano, E-mail: germano@iqsc.usp.br [University of São Paulo, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    The formation of gold nanorods (AuNRs) has recently attracted great attention due to their shape-dependent optical properties that are important for many applications. The development of simpler and safer methods for the high-yield synthesis of AuNRs employing low-cost and easily handled reagents is thus of great importance. Here, we introduce, for the first time, a one-pot seedless method for the preparation of single-crystalline AuNRs in almost 100 % yield based on the use of glycerol in alkaline medium as an eco-friendly, low-cost and pH-tunable reducing agent. The synthesized AuNRs were characterized by UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, FEG–SEM and HRTEM. The effect of the presence of capping agent (CTAB) and the concentration of reactants (glycerol, NaOH and AgNO{sub 3}) on the yield and aspect ratio (AR) of AuNRs is discussed. The AR and yield of AuNRs showed a clear dependence on the pH and temperature of the reaction mixture as well as on the concentration of AgNO{sub 3} added as an auxiliary reagent. The longitudinal plasmon resonance band of the resulting AuNRs can be tuned between 620 and 1200 nm by varying the reaction conditions. AuNRs with an aspect ratio (AR) of around 4 were obtained in almost 100 % yield at room temperature and under mild reducing environment. The formation of AuNRs is faster at higher pH (>11) and higher temperature (>30 °C), but the AuNR yield is smaller (<70 %). Variation in the pH of the reaction mixture in the range 12–13.5 results in the formation of AuNRs with different ARs and in different yields (27–99 %). Detailed study of the AuNRs crystallography by HRTEM showed that the AuNRs grow in [001] direction and have a perfect single-crystalline fcc structure, free from structural faults or dislocations. The present green method, which introduces glycerol as a tunable reducing agent with a pH-dependent reducing power, can provide a more general strategy for the preparation of a wide range of metallic nanoparticles.

  8. Reducing field emission in the superconducting rf cavities for the next generation of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Q.S.; Hartung, W.; Leibovich, A.; Kirchgessner, J.; Moffat, D.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Sears, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on field emission, which is an obstacle to reaching the higher fields called for in future applications of superconducting radio frequency cavities to particle accelerators. The authors used heat treatment up to 1500 degrees C in an ultra-high vacuum furnace, along with processing of cavities and temperature mapping, to suppress field emission and analyze emitter properties. In 27 tests of 1-cell 1500 MHz fired accelerating cavities, on the average the accelerating field E acc increased to 24 MV/m (H pk = 1250 Oe) from 13 MV/m with chemical treatment alone; the highest E acc reached was 30.5 MV/m

  9. Gold monetization and gold discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Flood; Peter M. Garber

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a study of the price level and relative price effects of a policy to monetize gold and fix its price at a given future time and at the then prevailing nominal price. Price movements are analyzed both during the transition to the gold standard and during the post-monetization period. The paper also explores the adjustments to fiat money which are necessary to ensure that this type of gold monetization is non-inflationary. Finally, some conditions which produce a run on the governm...

  10. Two step continuous method to synthesize colloidal spheroid gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S; Doran, J; McCormack, S J

    2015-12-01

    This research investigated a two-step continuous process to synthesize colloidal suspension of spheroid gold nanorods. In the first step; gold precursor was reduced to seed-like particles in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone and ascorbic acid. In continuous second step; silver nitrate and alkaline sodium hydroxide produced various shape and size Au nanoparticles. The shape was manipulated through weight ratio of ascorbic acid to silver nitrate by varying silver nitrate concentration. The specific weight ratio of 1.35-1.75 grew spheroid gold nanorods of aspect ratio ∼1.85 to ∼2.2. Lower weight ratio of 0.5-1.1 formed spherical nanoparticle. The alkaline medium increased the yield of gold nanorods and reduced reaction time at room temperature. The synthesized gold nanorods retained their shape and size in ethanol. The surface plasmon resonance was red shifted by ∼5 nm due to higher refractive index of ethanol than water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced incorporation of the influenza B virus BM2 protein in virus particles decreases infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, David; Zuercher, Thomas; Barclay, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    BM2 is the fourth integral membrane protein encoded by the influenza B virus genome. It is synthesized late in infection and transported to the plasma membrane from where it is subsequently incorporated into progeny virus particles. It has recently been reported that BM2 has ion channel activity and may be the functional homologue of the influenza A virus M2 protein acting as an ion channel involved in viral entry. Using a reverse genetic approach it was not possible to recover virus which lacked BM2. A recombinant influenza B virus was generated in which the BM2 AUG initiation codon was mutated to GUG. This decreased the efficiency of translation of BM2 protein such that progeny virions contained only 1/8 the amount of BM2 seen in wild-type virus. The reduction in BM2 incorporation resulted in a reduction in infectivity although there was no concomitant decrease in the numbers of virions released from the infected cells. These data imply that the incorporation of sufficient BM2 protein into influenza B virions is required for infectivity of the virus particles

  12. Synthesis and characterization of gold cubic nanoshells using water-soluble GeO{sub 2} templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Cen; Ge Mingyuan; Xu Xiaobin; Jiang, J Z [International Center for New-Structured Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Tang Peisong; Cao Feng, E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Huzhou Teachers College, Huzhou 313000 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Size-tunable GeO{sub 2} nanocubes were initially prepared by a modified sono-assisted reverse micelle method and then functionalized with an amino-terminated silanizing agent. Subsequently, gold decorated GeO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared at pH {approx} 7 and 80 deg. C. It was found that well-dispersed gold nanoparticles on GeO{sub 2} nanocubes could be obtained only if gold salt is abundant to favor simultaneous, homogeneous nucleation of gold particles. Additional gold ions were reduced onto these attached 'seed' particles accompanied by synchronous dissolution of water-soluble GeO{sub 2} cores, resulting in gold hollow cubic shells. The GeO{sub 2} nanocubes and Au/GeO{sub 2} nanocomposites as well as gold hollow cubic shells were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and UV-visible spectroscopy. In particular, gold hollow cubic shells feature a plasmon resonance peak at above 900 nm, which renders it quite promising in biochemical applications.

  13. Low-voltage, large-strain soft electrothermal actuators based on laser-reduced graphene oxide/Ag particle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Tian-Yu; Wang, Dan-Yang; Tian, Ye; Yan, Jun-Chao; Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Yang, Fan; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, low-voltage, large-strain flexible electrothermal actuators (ETAs) based on laser-reduced graphene oxide (LRGO)/Ag particle composites were fabricated in a simple and cost-efficient process. By adding Ag particles to the LRGO, the sheet resistance decreased effectively. Under a driving voltage of 28 V, the actuator obtained a bending angle of 192° within 6 s. Besides, the bending deformation could be precisely controlled by the driving voltage ranging from 10° to 192°. Finally, a gripper composed of two actuators was demonstrated to manipulate a piece of polydimethylsiloxane block. With the advantages of low-voltage, fast-response, and easy-to-manufacture, the graphene based ETAs have a promising application in soft robotics and soft machines.

  14. In-vitro Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Conjugate with Tabernaemontana divaricata flower SMs Against MCF -7 Breast Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preetam, Raj J. P.; Purushothaman, M; Khusro, Ameer; Panicker, Shirly George

    2016-01-01

    Biologically stabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized from the flower aqueous extract of T. divaricata. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Zeta sizer, FTIR and TEM analysis. T. divaricata reduced gold nanoparticles having particle size and potential of 106.532 nm and -10.2 mV, respectively, with a characteristic peak of 550 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. FTIR graph after comparison between the crude flower extract and gold nanoparticles showed three major shifts in the functional groups. The morphology and size of the gold nanoparticles were examined by HRTEM analysis, which showed that most of the nanoparticles were nearly spherical with size of 100 nm. The gold nanoparticles synthesized demonstrated potent anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell line. The findings conclude that the antioxidant molecule present in T. divaricata may be responsible for both reduction and capping of gold nanoparticles which possess potential applications in medicine and pharmaceutical fields

  15. In-vitro Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Conjugate with Tabernaemontana divaricata flower SMs Against MCF -7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preetam, Raj J. P.; Purushothaman, M; Khusro, Ameer; Panicker, Shirly George [PG Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-02-15

    Biologically stabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized from the flower aqueous extract of T. divaricata. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Zeta sizer, FTIR and TEM analysis. T. divaricata reduced gold nanoparticles having particle size and potential of 106.532 nm and -10.2 mV, respectively, with a characteristic peak of 550 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometer. FTIR graph after comparison between the crude flower extract and gold nanoparticles showed three major shifts in the functional groups. The morphology and size of the gold nanoparticles were examined by HRTEM analysis, which showed that most of the nanoparticles were nearly spherical with size of 100 nm. The gold nanoparticles synthesized demonstrated potent anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell line. The findings conclude that the antioxidant molecule present in T. divaricata may be responsible for both reduction and capping of gold nanoparticles which possess potential applications in medicine and pharmaceutical fields.

  16. Synthesis and surface modification of spindle-type magnetic nanoparticles: gold coating and PEG functionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Mendez-Garza , Juan; Wang , Biran; Madeira , Alexandra; Di-Giorgio , Christophe; Bossis , Georges

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we describe the synthesis of gold coated spindle-type iron nanoparticles and its surface modification by a thiolated fluorescently-labelled polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer. A forced hydrolysis of ferric salts in the presence of phosphate ions was used to produce α-Fe2O3 spindle-type particles. The oxide powders were first reduced to α-iron under high temperature and controlled dihydrogen atmosphere. Then, the resulting magnetic spindle-type particles w...

  17. Application of a particle separation device to reduce inductively coupled plasma-enhanced elemental fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillong, Marcel; Kuhn, Hans-Rudolf; Guenther, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    The particle size distribution of laser ablation aerosols are a function of the wavelength, the energy density and the pulse duration of the laser, as well as the sample matrix and the gas environment. Further the size of the particles affects the vaporization and ionization efficiency in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Some matrices produce large particles, which are not completely vaporized and ionized in the ICP. The previous work has shown that analytical results such as matrix-independent calibration, accuracy and precision can be significantly influenced by the particle sizes of the particles. To minimize the particle size related incomplete conversion of the sample to ions in the ICP a particle separation device was developed, which allows effective particle separation using centrifugal forces in a thin coiled tube. In this device, the particle cut-off size is varied by changing the number of turns in the coil, as well as by changing the gas flow and the tube diameter. The interaction of the laser with the different samples leads to varying particle size distributions. When carrying out quantitative analysis with non-matrix matched calibration reference materials, it was shown that different particle cut-off sizes were required depending on the ICP conditions and the instrument used for analysis. Various sample materials were investigated in this study to demonstrate the applicability of the device. For silicate matrices, the capability of the ICP to produce ions was significantly reduced for particles larger than 0.5 μm, and was dependent on the element monitored. To reduce memory effects caused by the separated particles, a washout procedure was developed, which additionally allowed the analysis of the trapped particles. These results clearly demonstrate the very important particle size dependent ICP-MS signal response and the potential of the described particle size based separator for the reduction of ICP induced elemental fractionation

  18. Gold nanoparticles in oxidation catalysis [Les nanoparticules d'or en catalyse d'oxydation

    KAUST Repository

    Caps, Valerie

    2010-10-25

    When gold dimensions are reduced to a few nanometers, gold exhibits unique properties in oxidation catalysis. By performing selective oxidations of hydrocarbons at low temperature (typically below 100°C), gold nanoparticles achieve high selectivities at levels of conversion usually obtained at higher temperature. This is attributed to the activation modes of molecular oxygen on gold. Indeed, unlike platinum, gold does not chemisorb oxygen at its operating temperature. On the other hand, it seems to catalyze the formation of reduced and active dioxygen species in the presence of a reductant (hydrogen or hydrocarbon) and the decomposition of organic hydroperoxides. It thus allows using an alkane as a promoter of the epoxidation of an alkene. In the liquid phase, this translates into an ultra-selective radical mechanism, initiated and controlled by gold particles, which uses oxygen from the air at atmospheric pressure as oxidant and which can be generalized to other types of oxidations. This unique activity at low temperature, which can be optimized upon a thorough control of the surface chemistry of the material, makes gold a catalyst of choice to reconsider the oxidative transformations of petrochemicals in an eco-efficient way.

  19. Anterior segment sparing to reduce charged particle radiotherapy complications in uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daftari, Inder K.; Char, Devron H.; Verhey, Lynn J.; Castro, Joseph R.; Petti, Paula L.; Meecham, William J.; Kroll, Stewart; Blakely, Eleanor A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to delineate the risk factors in the development of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) after helium-ion irradiation of uveal melanoma patients and to propose treatment technique that may reduce this risk. Methods and Materials: 347 uveal melanoma patients were treated with helium-ions using a single-port treatment technique. Using univariate and multivariate statistics, the NVG complication rate was analyzed according to the percent of anterior chamber in the radiation field, tumor size, tumor location, sex, age, dose, and other risk factors. Several University of California San Francisco-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) patients in each size category (medium, large, and extralarge) were retrospectively replanned using two ports instead of a single port. By using appropriate polar and azimuthal gaze angles or by treating patients with two ports, the maximum dose to the anterior segment of the eye can often be reduced. Although a larger volume of anterior chamber may receive a lower dose by using two ports than a single port treatment. We hypothesize that this could reduce the level of complications that result from the irradiation of the anterior chamber of the eye. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for the lens, and compared for the single and two-port techniques. Results: NVG developed in 121 (35%) patients. The risk of NVG peaked between 1 and 2.5 years posttreatment. By univariate and multivariate analysis, the percent of lens in the field was strongly correlated with the development of NVG. Other contributing factors were tumor height, history of diabetes, and vitreous hemorrhage. Dose-volume histogram analysis of single-port vs. two-port techniques demonstrate that for some patients in the medium and large category tumor groups, a significant decrease in dose to the structures in the anterior segment of the eye could have been achieved with the use of two ports. Conclusion: The development of NVG after

  20. Use of alkaline or enzymatic sample pretreatment prior to characterization of gold nanoparticles in animal tissue by single-particle ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Brabrand, Myung Suk Jung; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    , not much is known about the applicability of spICPMS for determination of NPs in complex matrices such as biological tissues. In the present study, alkaline and enzymatic treatments were applied to solubilize spleen samples from rats, which had been administered 60-nm gold nanoparticles (Au......NPs) intravenously. The results showed that similar size distributions of AuNPs were obtained independent of the sample preparation method used. Furthermore, the quantitative results for AuNP mass concentration obtained with spICPMS following alkaline sample pretreatment coincided with results for total gold...... concentration obtained by conventional ICPMS analysis of acid-digested tissue. The recovery of AuNPs from enzymatically digested tissue, however, was approximately four times lower. Spiking experiments of blank spleen samples with AuNPs showed that the lower recovery was caused by an inferior transport...

  1. Technical solutions for reducing indoor residential exposures to ultrafine particles from second-hand cigarette smoke infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    was carried out in the field in a multi-storey building and cardboard and plastic foil of polyethylene were used for sealing the entire wooden floor in the receiving flat. Another technical solution examined was a novel air circulating ductwork. The efficiency of the novel air circulating ductwork...... in which smoke infiltrates from one flat to another and also to examine technical solutions for preventing or reducing infiltration of ultrafine particles from the source flat to the receiving flat. One of the technical solutions examined was sealing of the floor in the receiving flat. The study...

  2. Gold Museum

    OpenAIRE

    Efraín Sánchez Cabra

    2003-01-01

    On 22 december 1939, the Banco de la República, the Central Bank of Colombia, purchased a 23.5 centimetres high pre-Columbian gold arte fact weighing 777·7 grams that was to become the Gold M useum's foundation stone. Described as a Quimbaya poporo, it is a masterpiece of pre-Hispanic goldwork, an object of beauty whose brightly burnished body and neck, crowned with four sphere-like or naments, rest on an exquisite cast metal tiligree base and which seems to ftoat in a space of its own. The b...

  3. Enhancement of gold recovery using bioleaching from gold concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. H.; Cho, K. H.; Kim, B. J.; Choi, N. C.; Park, C. Y.

    2012-04-01

    The gold in refractory ores is encapsulated as fine particles (sometimes at a molecular level) in the crystal structure of the sulfide (typically pyrite with or without arsenopyrite) matrix. This makes it impossible to extract a significant amount of refractory gold by cyanidation since the cyanide solution cannot penetrate the pyrite/arsenopyrite crystals and dissolve gold particles, even after fine grinding. To effectively extract gold from these ores, an oxidative pretreatment is necessary to break down the sulfide matrix. The most popular methods of pretreatment include nitric acid oxidation, roasting, pressure oxidation and biological oxidation by microorganisms. This study investigated the bioleaching efficiency of Au concentrate under batch experimental conditions (adaptation cycles and chemical composition adaptation) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from gold mine leachate in Sunsin gold mine, Korea. We conducted the batch experiments at two different chemical composition (CuSO4 and ZnSO4), two different adaptation cycles 1'st (3 weeks) and 2'nd (6 weeks). The results showed that the pH in the bacteria inoculating sample decreased than initial condition and Eh increased. In the chemical composition adaptation case, the leached accumulation content of Fe and Pb was exhibited in CuSO4 adaptation bacteria sample more than in ZnSO4 adaptation bacteria samples, possibly due to pre-adaptation effect on chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) in gold concentrate. And after 21 days on the CuSO4 adaptation cycles case, content of Fe and Pb was appeared at 1'st adaptation bacteria sample(Fe - 1.82 and Pb - 25.81 times per control sample) lower than at 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample(Fe - 2.87 and Pb - 62.05 times per control sample). This study indicates that adaptation chemical composition and adaptation cycles can play an important role in bioleaching of gold concentrate in eco-/economic metallurgy process.

  4. Nonlinear optical studies of single gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Meindert Alexander van

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are spherical clusters of gold atoms, with diameters typically between 1 and 100 nanometers. The applications of these particles are rather diverse, from optical labels for biological experiments to data carrier for optical data storage. The goal of my project was to develop new

  5. Fabrication of gold nanoparticles-decorated reduced graphene oxide as a high performance electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of toxicant Sudan I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junhua; Feng, Haibo; Li, Jun; Feng, Yonglan; Zhang, Yaqian; Jiang, Jianbo; Qian, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •A well-dispersed AuNPs/RGO nanocomposite was fabricated via a green and in situ reduction method. •This nanocomposite displays excellent electro-catalysis activity for the oxidation of Sudan I. •The AuNPs/RGO/GCE exhibits superior comprehensive properties for the detection of Sudan I. •This proposed method was successfully applied to detect Sudan I in chilli powder and ketchup sauce. -- Abstract: In this paper, we are presenting a facile, green and in situ synthesis strategy for the convenient preparation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO) without the use of any template molecules and poisonous reductant. The as-synthesized nanocomposite has been detailedly characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis as well as electrochemical technologies. The morphological and structural characterizations illustrate that AuNPs can be efficiently decorated on RGO with the Au content of 20.33 wt% in the matrix and the size of the embedded AuNPs vary between 25 and 40 nm. The electrochemical investigations confirm that the small-sized AuNPs on the RGO film can remarkably boost the electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of Sudan I, which can be used as an enhanced electrochemical sensing platform for the sensitively detection of the toxicant Sudan I. Moreover, the kinetic parameter studies demonstrate that the Sudan I electro-oxidation at the AuNPs/RGO electrode is a diffusion-controlled process which involves two-electron and two-proton transfer. Under the optimal conditions, a wide linear range of Sudan I detection from 0.01 to 70 μmol L −1 with good linearity (R 2 = 0.9965, 0.9942) and a low detection limit (1.0 nmol L −1 , S/N = 3) were obtained. In comparison with the existing analogues ever reported

  6. Preparation and characterization of reduced graphene oxide/copper composites incorporated with nano-SiO2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinjiang; Dong, Pengyu; Zhang, Benguo; Tang, Shengyang; Yang, Zirun; Chen, Yong; Yang, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/copper (rGO/Cu) composites incorporated with nano-SiO 2 particles were successfully fabricated using the raw materials of GO dispersion, hydrophilic nano-SiO 2 and electrolytic Cu powder. The as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Microstructural observation of the composite powders indicated that the graphene oxide (GO) was effectively reduced by N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O addition in the composite slurry, and the nano-SiO 2 particles and rGO sheets were randomly and completely mixed with Cu particles. The as-sintered composites exhibited the small rGO agglomerations in the Cu matrix, and the more nano-SiO 2 additions led to the agglomerations increase. The mechanical property testing revealed that rGO/Cu composites with nano-SiO 2 incorporation exhibited the higher hardness and strength, compared with the rGO/Cu composite and as-cast pure Cu. However, the strengthening in the composites with higher SiO 2 content accompanied with the expense of compressive ductility. Microstructural formation and strengthening mechanism of the composites are also discussed in details. - Highlights: • Nano-SiO 2 incorporated rGO/Cu composites were successfully fabricated. • The more nano-SiO 2 additions led to the agglomerations increase in the composites. • The nano-SiO 2 incorporated composites exhibited the better hardness and strength. • The formation and strengthening mechanism of the composite was discussed in detail.

  7. Preparation and characterization of nano gold supported over montmorillonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraja, P.V.; Binitha, N.N.; Yaakob, Z.; Silija, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The use of montmorillonite clays as a matrix, or as a host, for obtaining intercalated/supported metal particles has potential applications in catalysis and other areas. The gold nanoparticles were obtained from the most common anionic gold precursor HAuCl 4 ·3H 2 O by deposition-precipitation (DP) methods. However, it is difficult to prepare nano scale gold catalysts supported on silica surfaces with lower isoelectric point (IEP). Homogeneous precipitation method using urea also fails on silica surfaces. Reasons for the inefficiency of these methods are the negative charge of the metal precursor as well as the support surface and the high pH required for depositing gold nanoparticles. In the present work, we use glucose as the reductant in the presence of stabilizer for preparation of nano gold supported on montmorillonite clay. Here there is no need of increasing the pH of the solution to reduce the Au 3+ ions. The prepared systems are characterized using various techniques such as using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), UV-Vis Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Fourier Transform infra red spectra (FTIR) to prove the efficiency of the present method. (author)

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Nano Gold Supported over Montmorillonite Clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suraja, P V; Binitha, N N; Yaakob, Z; Silija, P P, E-mail: binithann@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    The use of montmorillonite clays as a matrix, or as a host, for obtaining intercalated/supported metal particles has potential applications in catalysis and other areas. The gold nanoparticles were obtained from the most common anionic gold precursor HAuCl4{center_dot}3H2O by deposition-precipitation (DP) methods. However, it is difficult to prepare nanoscale gold catalysts supported on silica surfaces with lower isoelectric point (IEP). Homogeneous precipitation method using urea also fails on silica surfaces. Reasons for the inefficiency of these methods are the negative charge of the metal precursor as well as the support surface and the high pH required for depositing gold nanoparticles. In the present work, we use glucose as the reductant in the presence of stabilizer for preparation of nano gold supported on montmorillonite clay. There is no need of increasing the pH of the solution to reduce the Au3+ ions. The prepared systems are characterized using various techniques such as using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), UV-VIS Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and Fourier Transform infra red spectra (FTIR) to prove the efficiency of the present method.

  9. Biosynthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles using fungus, Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Huimin; Tan, Weihong

    2009-10-01

    The unique optoelectronic and physicochemical properties of gold nanoparticles are significantly dependent on the particle size, shape and structure. In this paper, biosynthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles using fungus Penicillium sp. is reported. Fungus Penicillium sp. could successfully bioreduce and nucleate AuCl4(-) ions, and lead to the assembly and formation of intracellular Au nanoparticles with spherical morphology and good monodispersity after exposure to HAuCl4 solution. Reaction temperature, as an important physiological parameter for fungus Penicillium sp. growth, could significantly control the size of the biosynthesized Au nanoparticles. The biological compositions and FTIR spectra analysis of fungus Penicillium sp. exposed to HAuCl4 solution indicated the intracellular reducing sugar played an important role in the occurrence of intracellular reduction of AuCl4(-) ions and the growth of gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, the intracellular gold nanoparticles could be easily separated from the fungal cell lysate by ultrasonication and centrifugation.

  10. Effect of rhodium traces on the reducibility of silica-supported iron particles

    KAUST Repository

    Bonnefille, Eric

    2012-06-19

    Fe/SiO 2 and Rh-Fe/SiO 2 catalysts with increasing Fe/Rh ratio have been prepared and characterized by TEM, XRD, oxygen adsorption and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was confirmed that Fe/SiO 2 catalysts cannot be reduced under hydrogen flow, to more than 50 % whatever the temperature in the 200-500 °C range and shown that the presence of even a small amount of Rh (Fe/Rh ≤2,000) promoted the reduction of iron up to 85-95 %. This promoting effect also took place with a Fe/SiO 2 + Rh/SiO 2 physical mixture (Fe/Rh B2,000). Therefore, the occurrence of a hydrogen spillover effect may be involved in the observed process. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Effect of rhodium traces on the reducibility of silica-supported iron particles

    KAUST Repository

    Bonnefille, Eric; Millet, Jean Marc M M; Candy, Jean Pierre; Thivolle-Cazat, Jean; Bellabarba, Roñ an M.; Tooze, Robert P.; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Fe/SiO 2 and Rh-Fe/SiO 2 catalysts with increasing Fe/Rh ratio have been prepared and characterized by TEM, XRD, oxygen adsorption and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was confirmed that Fe/SiO 2 catalysts cannot be reduced under hydrogen flow, to more than 50 % whatever the temperature in the 200-500 °C range and shown that the presence of even a small amount of Rh (Fe/Rh ≤2,000) promoted the reduction of iron up to 85-95 %. This promoting effect also took place with a Fe/SiO 2 + Rh/SiO 2 physical mixture (Fe/Rh B2,000). Therefore, the occurrence of a hydrogen spillover effect may be involved in the observed process. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  13. Suppression of gold nanoparticle agglomeration and its separation via nylon membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayyavoo Jayalakshmi; In-Chul Kim; Young-Nam Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Use of ultraporous nylon membrane is one of the most widely employed techniques for removal of hard and soft nanoparticles in the semiconductor industry,and the accurate determination of membrane pore size is necessary in order to avoid manufacturing defects caused by contamination.The gold nanoparticle has several benefits for the evaluation of polymeric membranes;however,the nanoparticles agglomerate easily on the nylon membrane and make it difficult to evaluate the membrane precisely.The properties of 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol (ADP) ligand in gold nanoparticle solution were systematically investigated,and ADP was utilized for improved evaluation of the nylon membranes.Nylon membrane used in this study was prepared by phase inversion techniques.Ultrathin dense layer on top of the membrane surface and Darcy structures in the microporous membrane support were observed.The gold particle rejection was carried out at various pH values from 4 to 14 and higher rejection was observed at pH 4 and 8.The suppression of gold colloid agglomeration using ADP and monodispersity of gold colloids was also analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM),and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).van der Waals interaction energy of the particles was reduced in the addition of ADP.The presence ofADP ligand in the gold solutions prevented the agglomeration of gold nanoparticles and reduced the adsorption of the particles on the nylon membrane surface,leading to precise evaluation of membrane pore sizes.

  14. Ecofriendly Synthesis of Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles: A Potential Candidate of SERS Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwala Gaware

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecofriendly synthesis of nanoparticles has been inspiring to nanotechnologists especially for biomedical applications. Moreover, anisotropic particle synthesis is an attractive option due to decreased symmetry of such particles often leads to new and unusual chemical and physical behaviour. This paper reports a single-step room-temperature synthesis of gold nanotriangles using a cheap bioresource of reducing and stabilizing agent Piper betle leaf extract. On treating aqueous chloroauric acid solution with Piper betle leaf extract, after 12 hr, complete reduction of the chloroaurate ions was observed leading to the formation of flat and single crystalline gold nanotriangles. These gold nanotriangles can be exploited in photonics, optical coating, optoelectronics, magnetism, catalysis, chemical sensing, and so forth, and are a potential candidate of SERS studies.

  15. [Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Azospirillum brasilense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriashina, M A; Vetchinkina, E P; Burov, A M; Ponomareva, E G; Nikitina, V E

    2014-01-01

    Plant-associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Azospirillum brasilense were shown to reduce the gold of chloroauric acid to elemental gold, resulting in formation of gold nanoparicles. Extracellular phenoloxidizing enzymes (laccases and Mn peroxidases) were shown to participate in reduction of Au+3 (HAuCl4) to Au(0). Transmission electron microscopy revealed accumulation of colloidal gold nanoparticles of diverse shape in the culture liquid of A. brasilense strains Sp245 and Sp7. The size of the electron-dense nanospheres was 5 to 50 nm, and the size of nanoprisms varied from 5 to 300 nm. The tentative mechanism responsible for formation of gold nanoparticles is discussed.

  16. Reducing uncertainties associated with filter-based optical measurements of light absorbing carbon particles with chemical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, J. E.; Leck, C.

    2011-08-01

    The presented filter-based optical method for determination of soot (light absorbing carbon or Black Carbon, BC) can be implemented in the field under primitive conditions and at low cost. This enables researchers with small economical means to perform monitoring at remote locations, especially in the Asia where it is much needed. One concern when applying filter-based optical measurements of BC is that they suffer from systematic errors due to the light scattering of non-absorbing particles co-deposited on the filter, such as inorganic salts and mineral dust. In addition to an optical correction of the non-absorbing material this study provides a protocol for correction of light scattering based on the chemical quantification of the material, which is a novelty. A newly designed photometer was implemented to measure light transmission on particle accumulating filters, which includes an additional sensor recording backscattered light. The choice of polycarbonate membrane filters avoided high chemical blank values and reduced errors associated with length of the light path through the filter. Two protocols for corrections were applied to aerosol samples collected at the Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo during episodes with either continentally influenced air from the Indian/Arabian subcontinents (winter season) or pristine air from the Southern Indian Ocean (summer monsoon). The two ways of correction (optical and chemical) lowered the particle light absorption of BC by 63 to 61 %, respectively, for data from the Arabian Sea sourced group, resulting in median BC absorption coefficients of 4.2 and 3.5 Mm-1. Corresponding values for the South Indian Ocean data were 69 and 97 % (0.38 and 0.02 Mm-1). A comparison with other studies in the area indicated an overestimation of their BC levels, by up to two orders of magnitude. This raises the necessity for chemical correction protocols on optical filter-based determinations of BC, before even the sign on the

  17. Size control in the synthesis of 1-6 nm gold nanoparticles via solvent-controlled nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Kim, Dukhan; Lee, Dongil

    2011-11-15

    We report a facile synthetic route for size-controlled preparation of gold nanoparticles. Nearly monodisperse gold nanoparticles with core diameters of 1-6 nm were obtained by reducing AuP(Phenyl)(3)Cl with tert-butylamine borane in the presence of dodecanethiol in the solvent mixture of benzene and CHCl(3). Mechanism studies have shown that the size control is achieved by the solvent-controlled nucleation in which the nuclei concentration increases with increasing the fraction of CHCl(3), leading to smaller particles. It was also found that, following the solvent-controlled nucleation, particle growth occurs via ligand replacement of PPh(3) on the nuclei by Au(I)thiolate generated by the digestive etching of small particles. This synthetic strategy was successfully demonstrated with other alkanethiols of different chain length with which size-controlled, monodisperse gold nanoparticles were prepared in remarkable yield without requiring any postsynthesis treatments.

  18. Variational minimization of atomic and molecular ground-state energies via the two-particle reduced density matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazziotti, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic and molecular ground-state energies are variationally determined by constraining the two-particle reduced density matrix (2-RDM) to satisfy positivity conditions. Because each positivity condition corresponds to correcting the ground-state energies for a class of Hamiltonians with two-particle interactions, these conditions collectively provide a new approach to many-body theory that, unlike perturbation theory, can capture significantly correlated phenomena including the multireference effects of potential-energy surfaces. The D, Q, and G conditions for the 2-RDM are extended through generalized lifting operators inspired from the formal solution of N-representability. These lifted conditions agree with the hierarchy of positivity conditions presented by Mazziotti and Erdahl [Phys. Rev. A 63, 042113 (2001)]. The connection between positivity and the formal solution explains how constraining higher RDMs to be positive semidefinite improves the N representability of the 2-RDM and suggests using pieces of higher positivity conditions that computationally scale like the D condition. With the D, Q, and G conditions as well as pieces of higher positivity the electronic energies for Be, LiH, H 2 O, and BH are computed through a primal-dual interior-point algorithm for positive semidefinite programming. The variational method produces potential-energy surfaces that are highly accurate even far from the equilibrium geometry where single-reference perturbation-based methods often fail to produce realistic energies

  19. Use of coal-oil agglomerates for particulate gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvez, J.P.S.; Kim, M.J.; Wong, P.L.M.; Tran, T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering and Industrial Chemistry

    1998-09-01

    The underlying principles by which gold is recovered by coal-oil agglomerates was investigated. The effects of various parameters such as oil:coal ratios, agglomerate:ore ratios, pH and coal particle size on gold recovery were evaluated using synthetic gold bearing samples, bituminous coal, and diesel oil and kerosene. The effects of sulfides on gold recovery and the depth of gold particle penetration within the agglomerates were also investigated. Results showed that gold recovery was increased by increasing agglomerate:ore ratio, decreasing oil:coal ratio and decreasing coal particle size. There was no significant difference in gold recoveries at pH range of 4-12 and at up to 5% sulfides in the feed.

  20. Use of the Kalman filter in signal processing to reduce beam requirements for alpha-particle diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Several techniques proposed for diagnosing the velocity distribution of fast alpha-particles in a burning plasma require the injection of a beam of fast neutral atoms as probes. The author discusses how improving signal detection techniques is a high leverage factor in reducing the cost of the diagnostic beam. Optimal estimation theory provides a computational algorithm, the Kalman filter, that can optimally estimate the amplitude of a signal with arbitrary (but known) time dependence in the presence of noise. In one example presented, based on a square-wave signal and assumed noise levels, the Kalman filter achieves an enhancement of signal detection efficiency of about a factor of 10 (as compared with the straightforward observation of the signal superimposed on noise) with an observation time of 100 signal periods

  1. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles with graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshuo; He, Dawei; Zhang, Xiqing; Duan, Jiahua; Wu, Hongpeng; Xu, Haiteng; Wang, Yongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Single sheets of functionalized graphene oxide are derived through chemical exfoliation of natural flake graphite. We present an effective synthetic method of graphene-gold nanoparticles hybrid nanocomposites. AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) was used to measure the thickness of the individual GO nanosheet. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy was used to verify the attachment of oxygen functionalities on the surface of graphene oxide. TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) data revealed the average diameters of the gold colloids and characterized the composite particles situation. Absorption spectroscopy showed that before and after synthesis the gold particle size did not change. Our studies indicate that the hybrid is potential substrates for catalysts and biosensors.

  2. Gold nanoparticles extraction from dielectric scattering background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Wang, Jingxin

    2014-11-01

    The unique advantages such as brightness, non-photobleaching, good bio-compatibility make gold nanoparticles desirable labels and play important roles in biotech and related research and applications. Distinguishing gold nanoparticles from other dielectric scattering particles is of more importance, especially in bio-tracing and imaging. The enhancement image results from the localized surface plasmon resonance associated with gold nanopartilces makes themselves distinguishable from other dielectric particles, based on which, we propose a dual-wavelength detection method by employing a high sensitive cross-polarization microscopy.

  3. Determination of gold in gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keedy, C.R.; Parson, L.; Shen, J.

    1989-01-01

    The gold content of placer gold flakes and gold bearing ores was determined by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis, respectively. It was discovered that significant errors result in the instrumental method for gold flakes as small as 10 mg due to sample self-absorption of neutrons during irradiation. Reliable results were obtained for both ore samples and gold flakes by dissolving the samples in aqua regia prior to irradiation. (author) 7 refs.; 3 tabs

  4. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Geobacillus sp. strain ID17 a thermophilic bacterium isolated from Deception Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of microorganisms in the synthesis of nanoparticles emerges as an eco-friendly and exciting approach, for production of nanoparticles due to its low energy requirement, environmental compatibility, reduced costs of manufacture, scalability, and nanoparticle stabilization compared with the chemical synthesis. Results The production of gold nanoparticles by the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus sp. strain ID17 is reported in this study. Cells exposed to Au3+ turned from colourless into an intense purple colour. This change of colour indicates the accumulation of intracellular gold nanoparticles. Elemental analysis of particles composition was verified using TEM and EDX analysis. The intracellular localization and particles size were verified by TEM showing two different types of particles of predominant quasi-hexagonal shape with size ranging from 5–50 nm. The mayority of them were between 10‒20 nm in size. FT-IR was utilized to characterize the chemical surface of gold nanoparticles. This assay supports the idea of a protein type of compound on the surface of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles. Reductase activity involved in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles has been previously reported to be present in others microorganisms. This reduction using NADH as substrate was tested in ID17. Crude extracts of the microorganism could catalyze the NADH-dependent Au3+ reduction. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by ID17 is mediated by enzymes and NADH as a cofactor for this biological transformation. PMID:23919572

  5. Effect of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Gorjup, Erwin; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Büchel, Claudia; Briesen, Hagen von; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are very attractive for biomedical products. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activity of nanosized gold in human tissue cells. An influence of nanoparticles on stem cells might lead to unforeseen consequences to organ and tissue functions as long as all cells arising from the initial stem cell might be subsequently damaged. Therefore the effect of negatively charged gold nanoparticles (9 and 95 nm), which are certified as reference material for preclinical biomedical research, on the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is investigated here. Bone marrow hMSCs are chosen as differentiation model since bone marrow hMSCs are well characterized and their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage shows clear and easily detectable differentiation. In this study effects of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation are analyzed regarding fat storage and mitochondrial activity after different exposure times (4–21 days). Using time lapse microscopy the differentiation progress under chronically gold nanoparticle treatment is continuously investigated. In this preliminary study, chronically treatment of adipogenic differentiating hMSCs with gold nanoparticles resulted in a reduced number and size of lipid vacuoles and reduced mitochondrial activity depending on the applied concentration and the surface charge of the particles.

  6. Effect of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Gorjup, Erwin; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Büchel, Claudia; von Briesen, Hagen; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles are very attractive for biomedical products. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activity of nanosized gold in human tissue cells. An influence of nanoparticles on stem cells might lead to unforeseen consequences to organ and tissue functions as long as all cells arising from the initial stem cell might be subsequently damaged. Therefore the effect of negatively charged gold nanoparticles (9 and 95 nm), which are certified as reference material for preclinical biomedical research, on the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is investigated here. Bone marrow hMSCs are chosen as differentiation model since bone marrow hMSCs are well characterized and their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage shows clear and easily detectable differentiation. In this study effects of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation are analyzed regarding fat storage and mitochondrial activity after different exposure times (4-21 days). Using time lapse microscopy the differentiation progress under chronically gold nanoparticle treatment is continuously investigated. In this preliminary study, chronically treatment of adipogenic differentiating hMSCs with gold nanoparticles resulted in a reduced number and size of lipid vacuoles and reduced mitochondrial activity depending on the applied concentration and the surface charge of the particles.

  7. The gold standard: gold nanoparticle libraries to understand the nano-bio interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkilany, Alaaldin M; Lohse, Samuel E; Murphy, Catherine J

    2013-03-19

    Since the late 1980s, researchers have prepared inorganic nanoparticles of many types--including elemental metals, metal oxides, metal sulfides, metal selenides, and metal tellurides--with excellent control over size and shape. Originally many researchers were primarily interested in exploring the quantum size effects predicted for such materials. Applications of inorganic nanomaterials initially centered on physics, optics, and engineering but have expanded to include biology. Many current nanomaterials can serve as biochemical sensors, contrast agents in cellular or tissue imaging, drug delivery vehicles, or even as therapeutics. In this Account we emphasize that the understanding of how nanomaterials will function in a biological system relies on the knowledge of the interface between biological systems and nanomaterials, the nano-bio interface. Gold nanoparticles can serve as excellent standards to understand more general features of the nano-bio interface because of its many advantages over other inorganic materials. The bulk material is chemically inert, and well-established synthetic methods allow researchers to control its size, shape, and surface chemistry. Gold's background concentration in biological systems is low, which makes it relatively easy to measure it at the part-per-billion level or lower in water. In addition, the large electron density of gold enables relatively simple electron microscopic experiments to localize it within thin sections of cells or tissue. Finally, gold's brilliant optical properties at the nanoscale are tunable with size, shape, and aggregation state and enable many of the promising chemical sensing, imaging, and therapeutic applications. Basic experiments with gold nanoparticles and cells include measuring the toxicity of the particles to cells in in vitro experiments. The species other than gold in the nanoparticle solution can be responsible for the apparent toxicity at a particular dose. Once the identity of the toxic

  8. Big Data: A Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization-Back-Propagation Neural Network Algorithm Based on MapReduce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianfang; Cui, Hongyan; Shi, Hao; Jiao, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    A back-propagation (BP) neural network can solve complicated random nonlinear mapping problems; therefore, it can be applied to a wide range of problems. However, as the sample size increases, the time required to train BP neural networks becomes lengthy. Moreover, the classification accuracy decreases as well. To improve the classification accuracy and runtime efficiency of the BP neural network algorithm, we proposed a parallel design and realization method for a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-optimized BP neural network based on MapReduce on the Hadoop platform using both the PSO algorithm and a parallel design. The PSO algorithm was used to optimize the BP neural network's initial weights and thresholds and improve the accuracy of the classification algorithm. The MapReduce parallel programming model was utilized to achieve parallel processing of the BP algorithm, thereby solving the problems of hardware and communication overhead when the BP neural network addresses big data. Datasets on 5 different scales were constructed using the scene image library from the SUN Database. The classification accuracy of the parallel PSO-BP neural network algorithm is approximately 92%, and the system efficiency is approximately 0.85, which presents obvious advantages when processing big data. The algorithm proposed in this study demonstrated both higher classification accuracy and improved time efficiency, which represents a significant improvement obtained from applying parallel processing to an intelligent algorithm on big data.

  9. Anaerobic granule-based biofilms formation reduces propionate accumulation under high H2 partial pressure using conductive carbon felt particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng; Wang, Cuiping; Yan, Kun; Wu, Jing; Zuo, Jiane; Wang, Kaijun

    2016-09-01

    Syngas based co-digestion is not only more economically attractive than separate syngas methanation but also able to upgrade biogas and increase overall CH4 amount simultaneously. However, high H2 concentration in the syngas could inhibit syntrophic degradation of propionate, resulting in propionate accumulation and even failure of the co-digestion system. In an attempt to reduce propionate accumulation via enhancing both H2 interspecies transfer (HIT) and direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) pathways, layered granule-based biofilms induced by conductive carbon felt particles (CCFP) was employed. The results showed that propionate accumulation was effectively reduced with influent COD load up to 7gL(-1)d(-1). Two types of granule-based biofilms, namely biofilm adhered to CCFP (B-CCFP) and granules formed by self-immobilization (B-SI) were formed in the reactor. Clostridium, Syntrophobacter, Methanospirillum were possibly involved in HIT and Clostridium, Geobacter, Anaerolineaceae, Methanosaeta in DIET, both of which might be responsible for the high-rate propionate degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Innovative Route to Prepare of Au/C Catalysts by Replication of Gold-containing Mesoporous Silicas

    KAUST Repository

    Kerdi, Fatmé ; Caps, Valerie; Tuel, Alain

    2011-01-01

    precursor and the composite material is heated at 900 °C under vacuum or nitrogen. Silica is then removed by acid leaching, leading to partially encapsulated gold particles in mesoporous carbon. Carbon prevents aggregation of gold particles at high

  11. Biosynthesis of Silver and Gold Crystals Using Grapefruit Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Long; Wang Jianli; Wang Hongfeng; Qi Zhaopeng; Zheng Yuchuan; Wang Junbo; Pan Le; Chang Guanru; Yang Yongmei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, biological synthesis of silver and gold crystals using grapefruit extract is reported. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with grapefruit extract, the formation of stable silver and gold particles at high concentrations is observed to occur. The silver particles formed are quasi-spherical or irregular with sizes ranging from several hundred nanometers to several microns. The gold quasi-spheres with holes on surfaces and with diameters rangi...

  12. Effects of species-specific leaf characteristics and reduced water availability on fine particle capture efficiency of trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Räsänen, Janne V.; Holopainen, Toini; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Ndam, Collins; Pasanen, Pertti; Rinnan, Åsmund; Kivimäenpää, Minna

    2013-01-01

    Trees can improve air quality by capturing particles in their foliage. We determined the particle capture efficiencies of coniferous Pinus sylvestris and three broadleaved species: Betula pendula, Betula pubescens and Tilia vulgaris in a wind tunnel using NaCl particles. The importance of leaf surface structure, physiology and moderate soil drought on the particle capture efficiencies of the trees were determined. The results confirm earlier findings of more efficient particle capture by conifers compared to broadleaved plants. The particle capture efficiency of P. sylvestris (0.21%) was significantly higher than those of B. pubescens, T. vulgaris and B. pendula (0.083%, 0.047%, 0.043%, respectively). The small leaf size of P. sylvestris was the major characteristic that increased particle capture. Among the broadleaved species, low leaf wettability, low stomatal density and leaf hairiness increased particle capture. Moderate soil drought tended to increase particle capture efficiency of P. sylvestris. -- Highlights: • Coniferous Scots pine was the most efficient particle collector. • Decreasing single leaf size increases particle deposition of the total leaf area. • Hairiness of the leaf increases particle deposition. -- Trees can improve air quality by removing PM 2.5 pollutants carried on the wind at a velocity of 3 m s −1 , the efficiency of which depends on species leaf characteristics and physical factors

  13. Reducing uncertainties associated with filter-based optical measurements of light absorbing carbon particles with chemical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Engström

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The presented filter-based optical method for determination of soot (light absorbing carbon or Black Carbon, BC can be implemented in the field under primitive conditions and at low cost. This enables researchers with small economical means to perform monitoring at remote locations, especially in the Asia where it is much needed.

    One concern when applying filter-based optical measurements of BC is that they suffer from systematic errors due to the light scattering of non-absorbing particles co-deposited on the filter, such as inorganic salts and mineral dust. In addition to an optical correction of the non-absorbing material this study provides a protocol for correction of light scattering based on the chemical quantification of the material, which is a novelty. A newly designed photometer was implemented to measure light transmission on particle accumulating filters, which includes an additional sensor recording backscattered light. The choice of polycarbonate membrane filters avoided high chemical blank values and reduced errors associated with length of the light path through the filter.

    Two protocols for corrections were applied to aerosol samples collected at the Maldives Climate Observatory Hanimaadhoo during episodes with either continentally influenced air from the Indian/Arabian subcontinents (winter season or pristine air from the Southern Indian Ocean (summer monsoon. The two ways of correction (optical and chemical lowered the particle light absorption of BC by 63 to 61 %, respectively, for data from the Arabian Sea sourced group, resulting in median BC absorption coefficients of 4.2 and 3.5 Mm−1. Corresponding values for the South Indian Ocean data were 69 and 97 % (0.38 and 0.02 Mm−1. A comparison with other studies in the area indicated an overestimation of their BC levels, by up to two orders of magnitude. This raises the necessity for chemical correction protocols on optical filter

  14. Artificial neural network and particle swarm optimization for removal of methyl orange by gold nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon and Tamarisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Ansari, A.; Mohammadi, F.; Vafaei, A.

    2014-11-01

    The influence of variables, namely initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage (g), stirrer speed (rpm) and contact time (min) on the removal of methyl orange (MO) by gold nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Au-NP-AC) and Tamarisk were investigated using multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) and the variables were optimized by partial swarm optimization (PSO). Comparison of the results achieved using proposed models, showed the ANN model was better than the MLR model for prediction of methyl orange removal using Au-NP-AC and Tamarisk. Using the optimal ANN model the coefficient of determination (R2) for the test data set were 0.958 and 0.989; mean squared error (MSE) values were 0.00082 and 0.0006 for Au-NP-AC and Tamarisk adsorbent, respectively. In this study a novel and green approach were reported for the synthesis of gold nanoparticle and activated carbon by Tamarisk. This material was characterized using different techniques such as SEM, TEM, XRD and BET. The usability of Au-NP-AC and activated carbon (AC) Tamarisk for the methyl orange from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effect of variables such as pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage (g) and contact time (min) on methyl orange removal were studied. Fitting the experimental equilibrium data to various isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models show the suitability and applicability of the Langmuir model. Kinetic models such as pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models indicate that the second-order equation and intraparticle diffusion models control the kinetic of the adsorption process. The small amount of proposed Au-NP-AC and activated carbon (0.015 g and 0.75 g) is applicable for successful removal of methyl orange (>98%) in short time (20 min for Au-NP-AC and 45 min for Tamarisk-AC) with high adsorption capacity 161 mg g-1 for Au-NP-AC and 3.84 mg g-1 for Tamarisk-AC.

  15. Coal-oil assisted flotation for the gold recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, S.; Seyrankaya, A.; Cilingir, Y. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2005-09-01

    Using coal-oil agglomeration method for free or native gold recovery has been a research subject for many researchers over the years. In this study, a new approach 'coal-oil assisted gold flotation' was used to recover gold particles. The coal-oil-gold agglomeration process considers the preferential wetting of coal and gold particles. The method takes advantage of the greater hydrophobicity and oleophilicity of coal and gold compared to that the most gangue materials. Unlike the previous studies about coal-oil-gold agglomeration, this method uses a very small amount of coal and agglomerating agents. Some experiments were conducted on synthetic gold ore samples to reveal the reaction of the coal-oil assisted gold flotation process against the size and the number of gold particles in the feed. It was observed that there is no significant difference in process gold recoveries for feeds assaying different Au. Although there was a slight decrease for coarse gold particles, the process seems to be effective for the recovery of gold grains as coarse as 300 {mu} m. The decrease in the finest size ({lt} 53 {mu} m) is considered to be the decrease in the collision efficiency between the agglomerates and the finest gold particles. The effect of changing coal quantity for constant ore and oil amounts was also investigated. The experiments showed that the process gives very similar results for both artificial and natural ore samples; the best results have been obtained by using 30/1 coal-oil ratio.

  16. Mercury adsorption to gold nanoparticle and thin film surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Todd Ashley

    Mercury adsorption to gold nanoparticle and thin film surfaces was monitored by spectroscopic techniques. Adsorption of elemental mercury to colloidal gold nanoparticles causes a color change from wine-red to orange that was quantified by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The wavelength of the surface plasmon mode of 5, 12, and 31 nm gold particles blue-shifts 17, 14, and 7.5 nm, respectively, after a saturation exposure of mercury vapor. Colorimetric detection of inorganic mercury was demonstrated by employing 2.5 nm gold nanoparticles. The addition of low microgram quantities of Hg 2+ to these nanoparticles induces a color change from yellow to peach or blue. It is postulated that Hg2+ is reduced to elemental mercury by SCN- before and/or during adsorption to the nanoparticle surface. It has been demonstrated that surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPRS) is sensitive to mercury adsorption to gold and silver surfaces. By monitoring the maximum change in reflectivity as a function of amount of mercury adsorbed to the surface, 50 nm Ag films were shown to be 2--3 times more sensitive than 50 nm Au films and bimetallic 15 nm Au/35 nm Ag films. In addition, a surface coverage of ˜40 ng Hg/cm2 on the gold surface results in a 0.03° decrease in the SPR angle of minimum reflectivity. SPRS was employed to follow Hg exposure to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au. The data indicate that the hydrophilic or hydrophobic character of the SAM has a significant effect on the efficiency of Hg penetration. Water adsorbed to carboxylic acid end group of the hydrophilic SAMs is believed to slow the penetration of Hg compared to methyl terminated SAMs. Finally, two protocols were followed to remove mercury from gold films: immersion in concentrated nitric acid and thermal annealing up to 200°C. The latter protocol is preferred because it removes all of the adsorbed mercury from the gold surface and does not affect the morphology of the gold surface.

  17. Gold-coated nanoparticles for use in biotechnology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Douglas E [Los Alamos, NM; Kraus, Jr., Robert H.; Atcher, Robert W [Los Alamos, NM; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-07-07

    A process of preparing gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles is disclosed and includes forming a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles within a suitable liquid, adding an amount of a reducible gold compound and a reducing agent to the suspension, and, maintaining the suspension for time sufficient to form gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

  18. The study on application of radiation for preparation of oligo-β-glucan extracted from brewer yeast cell and for gold and silver nano particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quang Luan; Nguyen Huynh Phuong Uyen; Nguyen Thanh Vu; Nguyen Quoc Hien; Dang Van Phu; Vo Thi Thu Ha; To Van Loi; Le Dinh Don; Truong Phuoc Thien Hoang; Do Thi Phuong Linh

    2015-01-01

    The process for production of insoluble β-glucan product from brewer’s yeast cell wall collected from the discard waste of beer production was successfully established. Radiation was improved as a useful tool for preparation of low Mw β-glucan. The water soluble oligo-β-glucans with Mw ~ 18 - 25 kDa were found to have novel features for application as plant growth promoter, growth and immune stimulator additive for animals and functional food for prevention and therapy of diabetic, dyslipidemia, cancer, etc. The processes for large scale production of oligo-β-glucan as plant growth promoter. chicken additive and functional food by gamma Co-60 irradiation method have been set up for application. In addition, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with size of 10 - 50 nm stabilized in sericin and water soluble chitosan and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with size of 5-20 nm stabilized PVA, PVP, sericin and alginate were also successfully synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation method. While AuNPs product was found to be not toxic and can be used for bio-medicine and cosmetics, AgNPs exhibited highly antimicrobial activity for potentially use as new and safety antimicrobial agent. The processes for large scale production of AuNPs, AgNPs, cream/AgNPs and hand-wash solution/AgNPs products were also successfully developed within this project. (author)

  19. Curcumin coated gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity and its comparison with citrate coated gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Shaabani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Biological applications of gold nanoparticles have limitations because of the toxic chemicals used in their synthesis. Curcumin can be used as reducing as well as capping agent in synthesis of GNPs to eliminate the cytotoxicity. Conjugation of curcumin to gold also helps in increasing its solubility and bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Here we report synthesis of gold nanoparticles coated with citrate and curcumin and of two different sizes via chemical routes. UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering and Transmission Electron Microscopy were applied to study the average particle size, size stability of the samples and zeta potential. Fourier transform infrared, Raman Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy were applied for detection of curcumin on the surface of GNPs. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH assay and Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay.Results: Particles were synthesized of 6 and 16 nm size. The average particle size was found to be 21.7 ± 5.7 by TEM. The zeta potential on the surface of Cur-GNPs was negative and larger than 25 mV which is a sign of their high stability. The stability of these particles (with different coatings but with similar sizes at different time intervals (up to 3 months and also in different media like cell culture medium, different buffers, glucose and at different pH conditions have been investigated thoroughly. Appearance of functional groups assigned to curcumin in FTIR and SERS spectra are sign of presence of curcumin in the sample. The quenching of the fluorescence in the presence of GNPs reveals the clear indication of the capping and binding of curcumin with GNPs. Cur-GNP1 (16 nm were found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity than other gold nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity evaluation using MTT assay on L929 cell line proved curcumin coated gold nanoparticles were non-toxic up to 40 ppm.Conclusion: The results revealed that larger curcumin

  20. SU-E-T-231: Measurements of Gold Nanoparticle-Mediated Proton Dose Enhancement Due to Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission and Activation Products Using Radiochromic Films and CdTe Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J; Cho, S; Manohar, N; Krishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There have been several reports of enhanced cell-killing and tumor regression when tumor cells and mouse tumors were loaded with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) prior to proton irradiation. While particle-induced xray emission (PIXE), Auger electrons, secondary electrons, free radicals, and biological effects have been suggested as potential mechanisms responsible for the observed GNP-mediated dose enhancement/radiosensitization, there is a lack of quantitative analysis regarding the contribution from each mechanism. Here, we report our experimental effort to quantify some of these effects. Methods: 5-cm-long cylindrical plastic vials were filled with 1.8 mL of either water or water mixed with cylindrical GNPs at the same gold concentration (0.3 mg Au/g) as used in previous animal studies. A piece of EBT2 radiochromic film (30-µm active-layer sandwiched between 80/175-µm outer-layers) was inserted along the long axis of each vial and used to measure dose enhancement due to PIXE from GNPs. Vials were placed at center-of-modulation (COM) and 3-cm up-/down-stream from COM and irradiated with 5 different doses (2–10 Gy) using 10-cm-SOBP 160-MeV protons. After irradiation, films were cleaned and read to determine the delivered dose. A vial containing spherical GNPs (20 mg Au/g) was also irradiated, and gamma-rays from activation products were measured using a cadmium-telluride (CdTe) detector. Results: Film measurements showed no significant dose enhancement beyond the experimental uncertainty (∼2%). There was a detectable activation product from GNPs, but it appeared to contribute to dose enhancement minimally (<0.01%). Conclusion: Considering the composition of EBT2 film, it can be inferred that gold characteristic x-rays from PIXE and their secondary electrons make insignificant contribution to dose enhancement. The current investigation also suggests negligible dose enhancement due to activation products. Thus, previously-reported GNP-mediated proton dose

  1. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Shayeh, J.; Ehsani, A.; Ganjali, M. R.; Norouzi, P.; Jaleh, B.

    2015-10-01

    Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm-2. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g-1, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  2. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani Shayeh, J. [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, A., E-mail: a.ehsani@qom.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, P.O. Box 37185-359, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, M.R.; Norouzi, P. [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaleh, B. [Physics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI/rGO/AuNPs as a ternary composite synthesized by electrodeposition. • Presence of rGO/AuNPs caused increasing the stability of electrodes. • Composite represented high specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy values than PANI. - Abstract: Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge–discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm{sup −2}. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g{sup −1}, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  3. Conductive polymer/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles as efficient composite materials in electrochemical supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani Shayeh, J.; Ehsani, A.; Ganjali, M.R.; Norouzi, P.; Jaleh, B.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI/rGO/AuNPs as a ternary composite synthesized by electrodeposition. • Presence of rGO/AuNPs caused increasing the stability of electrodes. • Composite represented high specific capacitance, specific power and specific energy values than PANI. - Abstract: Polyaniline/reduced graphene oxide/Au nano particles (PANI/rGO/AuNPs) as a hybrid supercapacitor were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) method as ternary composites and their electrochemical performance was evaluated in acidic medium. Scanning electron micrographs clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of the working electrode. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) clearly revealed the formation of nanocomposites on the surface of working electrode. Different electrochemical methods including galvanostatic charge–discharge (CD) experiments, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were carried out in order to investigate the applicability of the system as a supercapacitor. Based on the cyclic voltammogram results obtained, PANI/rGO/AuNPs gave higher specific capacitance, power and energy values than PANI at a current density of 1 mA cm"−"2. Specific capacitance (SC) of PANI and PANI/rGO/AuNPs electrodes calculated using CV method are 190 and 303 F g"−"1, respectively. The present study introduces new nanocomposite materials for electrochemical redox capacitors with advantages including long life cycle and stability due to synergistic effects of each component.

  4. Green synthesis of stabilized spherical shaped gold nanoparticles using novel aqueous Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) leaves extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tausif; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Irfan, Muhammad; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Anwaar Asghar, Hafiz Muhammad; Bhattacharjee, Sekhar

    2018-05-01

    In the last decade, development of bioinspired protocols to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using plants and their extracts have been dealt by researchers due to their low cost, renewability and non-toxic features. A simple, cheap and ecofriendly method is reported to synthesize stabilized AuNPs of size 35-75 nm at room temperature using aqueous Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) leaves extract without addition of any external agent. Oil palm leaves mediated AuNPs were characterized using FTIR, UV-vis spectrophotometer, EDAX, XPS, FESEM, TEM, DLS and TGA. FTIR spectra results revealed contribution of phenolic, carboxylic, amines and amides in reduction of trivalent gold ions and stabilization of formed gold atoms. Reaction solution color change and UV-vis spectra confirmed reduction of gold ions to generate gold atoms. Reaction mechanism explained the role of phenolic compounds in reduction reaction using FTIR and UV-vis spectra results. EDAX and XPS results further validated the formation of metallic gold particles through bioreduction of gold ions. Crystal structure of metallic gold particles was confirmed through XRD peaks indexing to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. TEM and FESEM particles size measurements exhibited the formation of nanostructured AuNPs. Synthesis of well scattered and spherical shaped AuNPs was revealed through FESEM and TEM images. The excellent stability of AuNPs was shown through high negative zeta potential value (-14.7 ± 4.68 mV) and uniform dispersion in aqueous media. Our results disclosed the excellent potential of Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) leaves as reducing and stabilizing agents in green synthesis of well scattered spherical shaped AuNPs, which can be employed as strong candidates in medical drug delivery and industrial applications.

  5. Anti-aggregation-based spectrometric detection of Hg(II) at physiological pH using gold nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeshwari, A.; Karthiga, D.; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com

    2016-10-01

    An efficient detection method for Hg (II) ions at physiological pH (pH 7.4) was developed using tween 20-modified gold nanorods (NRs) in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT). Thiol groups (-SH) at the end of DTT have a higher affinity towards gold atoms, and they can covalently interact with gold NRs and leads to their aggregation. The addition of Hg(II) ions prevents the aggregation of gold NRs due to the covalent bond formation between the -SH group of DTT and Hg(II) ions in the buffer system. The changes in the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak of gold NRs were characterized using a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The absorption intensity peak of gold NRs at 679 nm was observed to reduce after interaction with DTT, and the absorption intensity was noted to increase by increasing the concentration of Hg(II) ions. The TEM analysis confirms the morphological changes of gold NRs before and after addition of Hg(II) ions in the presence of DTT. Further, the aggregation and disaggregation of gold NRs were confirmed by particle size and zeta potential analysis. The developed method shows an excellent linearity (y = 0.001 x + 0.794) for the graph plotted between the absorption ratio and Hg(II) concentration (1 to 100 pM) under the optimized conditions. The limit of detection was noted to be 0.42 pM in the buffer system. The developed method was tested in simulated body fluid, and it was found to have a good recovery rate. - Highlights: • Tween-20 modified gold NRs used as a probe for Hg(II) at physiological pH. • TEM, particle size and surface charge analysis confirm the aggregation and • disaggregation of NRs • The sensitivity of the probe for Hg(II) ions detection was 0.42 pM. • Hg(II) estimation in simulated body fluids with good recovery.

  6. Study on Sumbawa gold recovery using centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdana, A. D.; Petrus, H. T. B. M.; Bendiyasa, I. M.; Prijambada, I. D.; Hamada, F.; Sachiko, T.

    2018-01-01

    The Artisanal Small Gold Mining in Sumbawa has been processing gold with mercury (Hg), which poses a serious threat to the mining and global environment. One method of gold processing that does not use mercury is by gravity method. Before processing the ore first performed an analysis of Mineragraphy and analysis of compound with XRD. Mineragraphy results show that gold is associated with chalcopyrite and covelite and is a single particle (native) on size 58.8 μm, 117 μm up to 294 μm. characterization with XRD shows that the Sumbawa Gold Ore is composed of quartz, pyrite, pyroxene, and sericite compounds. Sentrifugation is one of separation equipment of gravity method to increase concentrate based on difference of specific gravity. The optimum concentration result is influenced by several variables, such as water flow rate and particle size. In this present research, the range of flow rate is 5 lpm and 10 lpm, the particle size - 100 + 200 mesh and -200 +300 mesh. Gold concentration in concentrate is measured by EDX. The result shows that the optimum condition is obtained at a separation with flow rate 5 lpm and a particle size of -100 + 200 mesh.

  7. New pyrimidine based ligand capped gold and platinum nano particles: Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial, antioxidant, DNA interaction and in vitro anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarganesh, M; Adwin Jose, P; Dhaveethu Raja, J; Kesavan, M P; Vadivel, M; Rajesh, J; Jeyamurugan, R; Senthil Kumar, R; Karthikeyan, S

    2017-11-01

    In this research work, we have synthesized new pyrimidine based Schiff base ligand, 2-((4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine-2-yl)methyleneenamino)-6-methoxyphenol (DPMM) capped gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs) by modified Brust-Schiffrin method. The characteristics of DPMM-Au NPs and DPMM-Pt NPs have been examined by UV-Visible, FTIR, SEM, TEM and powder XRD analysis. SEM analysis result shows that surface morphology of the DPMM-Au NPs and DPMM-Pt NPs are in granular and spherical shape, correspondingly. The size of the DPMM-Au NPs and DPMM-Pt NPs are approximately 38.14±4.5 and 58.64±3.0nm respectively, which confirmed by TEM analysis. The DPMM-Au NPs and DPMM-Pt NPs have potent antimicrobial against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Mucor indicus, Rhizopus strains. The DPMM-Au NPs and DPMM-Pt NPs have good antioxidant activities than the free ligand (DPMM). The spectroscopic and viscometric measurement confirms the hydrophobic DNA binding abilities of the newly prepared DPMM capped metal NPs. Moreover, the in vitro anticancer activity of DPMM, DPMM-Au NPs and DPMM-Pt NPs against cancer (MCF-7, HeLa & HEp2) and normal (NHDF) cell lines have performed using MTT assay. These results reveals that, DPMM-Au NPs and DPMM-Pt NPs having significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines and least toxic effect on normal cell line as compared to standard drug cisplatin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fabrication of new carbon paste electrodes based on gold nano-particles self-assembled to mercapto compounds as suitable ionophores for potentiometric determination of copper ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Pourtaghavi Talemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigate the potentiometric behavior of Cu2+ carbon paste electrodes based on two mercapto compounds 2-ethylmino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (EAMT and 2-acetylamino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AAMT self-assembled on gold nano-paricle (GNP as ionophore. Then, the obtained results from the modified electrodes are compared. The self-assembled ionophores exhibit a high selectivity for copper ion (Cu2+, in which the sulfur and nitrogen atoms in their structure play a significant role as the effective coordination donor site for the copper ion. Among these electrodes, the best performance was obtained with the sensor with a EAMT/graphite powder/paraffin oil weight ratio of 4.0/68/28 with 200 µL of GNP which exhibits the working concentration range of 1.6×10−9 to 6.3×10−2 M and a nernstian slope of 28.9±0.4 mVdecade−1 of copper(II activity. The detection limit of electrode was 2.9(±0.2×10−10M and potential response was pH ; in other words, it was independent across the range of 2.8–6.3. The proposed electrode presented very good selectivity and sensitivity towards the Cu2+ ions over a wide variety of cations including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. Moreover, the proposed electrode was successfully applied as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Cu(II ions with EDTA and also the potentiometric determination of copper ions in spiked water samples.

  9. Gold nanoparticle growth control - Implementing novel wet chemistry method on silicon substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ameer, Ammar

    2013-04-01

    Controlling particle size, shape, nucleation, and self-assembly on surfaces are some of the main challenges facing electronic device fabrication. In this work, growth of gold nanoparticles over a wide range of sizes was investigated by using a novel wet chemical method, where potassium iodide is used as the reducing solution and gold chloride as the metal precursor, on silicon substrates. Four parameters were studied: soaking time, solution temperature, concentration of the solution of gold chloride, and surface pre-treatment of the substrate. Synthesized nanoparticles were then characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The precise control of the location and order of the grown gold overlayer was achieved by using focused ion beam (FIB) patterning of a silicon surface, pre-treated with potassium iodide. By varying the soaking time and temperature, different particle sizes and shapes were obtained. Flat geometrical shapes and spherical shapes were observed. We believe, that the method described in this work is potentially a straightforward and efficient way to fabricate gold contacts for microelectronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Rapid colorimetric sensing of tetracycline antibiotics with in situ growth of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Chen, Jing; Li, Na; He, Pingli; Li, Zhen

    2014-08-11

    A colorimetric assay utilizing the formation of gold nanoparticles was developed to detect tetracycline antibiotics in fluidic samples. Tetracycline antibiotics showed the capability of directly reducing aurate salts into atomic gold which form gold nanoparticles spontaneously under proper conditions. The resulted gold nanoparticles showed characteristic plasmon absorbance at 526 nm, which can be visualized by naked eyes or with a spectrophotometer. UV-vis absorbance of the resulted gold nanoparticles is correlated directly with the concentrations of tetracycline antibiotics in the solution, allowing for quantitative colorimetric detection of tetracycline antibiotics. Reaction conditions, such as pH, temperature, reaction time, and ionic strength were optimized. Sensitivity of the colorimetric assay can be enhanced by the addition of gold nanoparticle seeds, a LOD as low as 20 ng mL(-1) can be achieved with the help of seed particles. The colorimetric assay showed minimum interference from ethanol, methanol, urea, glucose, and other antibiotics such as sulfonamides, amino glycosides etc. Validity of the method was also evaluated on urine samples spiked with tetracycline antibiotics. The method provides a broad spectrum detection method for rapid and sensitive detection of reductive substances such as tetracycline antibiotics in liquid and biological samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. One-step coelectrodeposition-assisted layer-by-layer assembly of gold nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide and its self-healing three-dimensional nanohybrid for an ultrasensitive DNA sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasamy, Jayakumar; Camarada, María Belén; Venkatraman, Dharuman; Ju, Huangxian; Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Wen, Yangping

    2018-01-18

    A layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly was employed for preparing multilayer thin films with a controlled architecture and composition. In this study, we report the one-step coelectrodeposition-assisted LBL assembly of both gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the ultrasensitive electrochemical impedance sensing of DNA hybridization. A self-healable nanohybrid thin film with a three-dimensional (3D) alternate-layered nanoarchitecture was obtained by the one-step simultaneous electro-reduction of both graphene oxide and gold chloride in a high acidic medium of H 2 SO 4 using cyclic voltammetry and was confirmed by different characterization techniques. The DNA bioelectrode was prepared by immobilizing the capture DNA onto the surface of the as-obtained self-healable AuNP/rGO/AuNP/GCE with a 3D LBL nanoarchitecture via gold-thiol interactions, which then served as an impedance sensing platform for the label-free ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization over a wide range from 1.0 × 10 -9 to 1.0 × 10 -13 g ml -1 , a low limit of detection of 3.9 × 10 -14 g ml -1 (S/N = 3), ultrahigh sensitivity, and excellent selectivity. This study presents a promising electrochemical sensing platform for the label-free ultrasensitive detection of DNA hybridization with potential application in cancer diagnostics and the preparation of a self-healable nanohybrid thin film with a 3D alternate-layered nanoarchitecture via a one-step coelectrodeposition-assisted LBL assembly.

  12. Size fraction assaying of gold bearing rocks (for gold extraction) by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Dampare, S.B.; Addo, M.A.; Osae, S.; Adotey, D.K.; Adomako, D.

    2005-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for processing and extraction of gold from gold bearing rocks for use by small-scale gold miners in Ghana. The methodology involved crushing of gold bearing hard rocks to fine particles to form a composite sample and screening at a range of sizes. Gold distribution in the composite sample was determined as a function of particle size by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The concentrations of gold for the corresponding particle sizes were 16.4 ± 0.17mg/kg for sizes <63μm; 161± 0.75 mg/kg for 63 - 125 μm, 0.53 + 0.03 mg/kg for 125 - 250 μm, 4.66± 0.07 mg/kg for 250 - 355 μm, 1.55 ± 0.06 for 355 - 425 μm, 0.80 ± 0.008 mg/kg for 425 -1000 μm, and 1.27 + 0.05 mg/kg for 1000-2000 μm. The average gold content in a 7.127 kg composite sample based on particle size found to be 3.08 mg/kg. (au)

  13. ESCAPING PARTICLE FLUXES IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF CLOSE-IN EXOPLANETS. II. REDUCED MASS-LOSS RATES AND ANISOTROPIC WINDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    In Paper I, we presented a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the winds of close-in exoplanets. However, close-in exoplanets are tidally locked and irradiated only on the day sides by their host stars. This requires two-dimensional hydrodynamic models with self-consistent radiative transfer calculations. In this paper, for the tidal-locking (two-dimensional radiative transfer) and non-tidal-locking cases (one-dimensional radiative transfer), we constructed a multi-fluid two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with detailed radiative transfer to depict the escape of particles. We found that the tidal forces (the sum of tidal gravity of the star and centrifugal force due to the planetary rotation) supply significant accelerations and result in anisotropic winds. An important effect of the tidal forces is that it severely depresses the outflow of particles near the polar regions where the density and the radial velocity are a factor of a few (ten) smaller than those of the low-latitude regions. As a consequence, most particles escape the surface of the planet from the regions of low latitude. Comparing the tidal-locking and non-tidal-locking cases, we found that their optical depths are very different so that the flows also emerge with a different pattern. In the case of non-tidal locking, the radial velocities at the base of the wind are higher than the meridional velocities. However, in the case of tidal locking, the meridional velocities dominate the flow at the base of the wind, and they can effectively transfer mass and energy from the day sides to the night sides. Further, we also found that the differences of the winds show a middle extent at large radii. This means that the structure of the wind at the base can be changed by the two-dimensional radiative transfer due to large optical depths, but the extent is reduced with an increase in radius. Because the escape is depressed in the polar regions, the mass-loss rate predicted by the non-tidal-locking model, in

  14. Green Chemistry Techniques for Gold Nanoparticles Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavino, Sarah A.; King, Christy A.; Ferrara, Davon W.

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are often utilized in many technological and research applications ranging from the detection of tumors, molecular and biological sensors, and as nanoantennas to probe physical processes. As these applications move from the research laboratory to industrial settings, there is a need to develop efficient and sustainable synthesis techniques. Recent research has shown that several food products and beverages containing polyphenols, a common antioxidant, can be used as reducing agents in the synthesis of AuNPs in solution. In this study, we explore a variety of products to determine which allow for the most reproducible solution of nanoparticles based on the size and shapes of particles present. We analyzed the AuNPs solutions using extinction spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We also develop a laboratory activity to introduce introductory chemistry and physics students to AuNP synthesis techniques and analysis.

  15. Reverse Transfection Using Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Fujita, Satoshi; Uchimura, Eiichiro; Miyake, Masato; Miyake, Jun

    Reverse transfection from a solid surface has the potential to deliver genes into various types of cell and tissue more effectively than conventional methods of transfection. We present a method for reverse transfection using a gold colloid (GC) as a nanoscaffold by generating nanoclusters of the DNA/reagentcomplex on a glass surface, which could then be used for the regulation of the particle size of the complex and delivery of DNA into nuclei. With this method, we have found that the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (20 nm in particle size) to the pEGFP-N1/Jet-PEI complex resulted in an increase in the intensity of fluorescence of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (based on the efficiency of transfection) from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), as compared with the control without GC. In this manner, we constructed a method for reverse transfection using GC to deliver genes into the cells effectively.

  16. Suspended particles only marginally reduce pyrethroid toxicity to the freshwater invertebrate Gammarus pulex (L.) during pulse exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Cedergreen, Nina; Kronvang, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Current ecotoxicological research on particle associated pyrethroids in freshwater systems focuses almost exclusively on sediment-exposure scenarios and sediment-dwelling macroinvertebrates. We studied how suspended particles influence acute effects of lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin on the epi......Current ecotoxicological research on particle associated pyrethroids in freshwater systems focuses almost exclusively on sediment-exposure scenarios and sediment-dwelling macroinvertebrates. We studied how suspended particles influence acute effects of lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin....... MM suspensions adsorbed a variable fraction of pyrethroids (10% for bifenthrin and 70% for lambda-cyhalothrin) but did not significantly change the concentration–response relationship compared to pure pyrethroid treatments. Behavioral responses and immobilisation rate of G. pulex were reduced...

  17. A nanocomposite disk prepared from reduced graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles for the preconcentration of heterocyclic aromatic amines prior to their determination by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Connieal; Wang, Yiru; Deng, Zhuo; Xu, Na; Song, Xinhong; Liu, Haihong; Rong, Mingcong; Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preconcentration disk for the determination of trace amounts of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in the groups of quinoline and quinoxaline congeners as possible human carcinogens. The disk is based on nanocomposite (NC) prepared from graphene oxide as the precursor and from gold nanoparticles that act as building blocks to form a three-dimensional NC. If deposited in the sampling valve of a HPLC system, the material displays excellent extraction capability for HAAs owing to its large surface and π-π stacking interaction. Following an optimization of the extraction parameters, the method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of polar HAAs in meat samples with detection limit of 0.09 to 0.16 ng g −1 and recoveries of 69.5 to 122.7 %. The disk was used in more than 150 subsequent preconcentration cycles without obvious loss of the absorption capability. The results reveal that this new NC represents an excellent sorbent for purposes of preconcentration. (author)

  18. Pulsed ultrasound associated with gold nanoparticle gel reduces oxidative stress parameters and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in an animal model of muscle injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Eduardo G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanogold has been investigated in a wide variety of biomedical applications because of the anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of TPU (Therapeutic Pulsed Ultrasound with gold nanoparticles (GNP on oxidative stress parameters and the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules after traumatic muscle injury. Materials and methods Animals were divided in nine groups: sham (uninjured muscle; muscle injury without treatment; muscle injury + DMSO; muscle injury + GNP; muscle injury + DMSO + GNP; muscle injury + TPU; muscle injury + TPU + DMSO; muscle injury + TPU + GNP; muscle injury + TPU + DMSO + GNP. The ROS production was determined by concentration of superoxide anion, modulation of antioxidant defenses was determined by the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes, oxidative damage determined by formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and protein carbonyls. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as inflammatory parameters. Results Compared to muscle injury without treatment group, the muscle injury + TPU + DMSO + GNP gel group promoted a significant decrease in superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation levels (p Conclusions Our results suggest that TPU + DMSO + GNP gel presents beneficial effects on the muscular healing process, inducing a reduction in the production of ROS and also the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules.

  19. Free gold recovery by coal-oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotze, W.; Petersen, F.W. [Cape Technikon Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-02-01

    The gold mining industry has mainly relied upon the use of highly polluting chemicals, such as mercury and cyanide to recover gold from its ores. The Coal Gold Agglomeration (CGA) process was developed some years ago and has the advantage in that gold is recovered by a procedure which has little or no negative impact on the environment. A gold ore containing liberated gold particles is contacted with coal-oil agglomerates, whereby the gold is recovered into the coal/oil phase. Laboratory scale batch tests were performed on an artificial mixture gold slurry and gold recoveries of up to 85% were found under optimized conditions. By recycling the coal/oil phase, it was found that the gold loading onto the agglomerates was increased. Tests performed on an industrial ore yielded slightly lower gold recoveries, and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis on the coal/oil phase showed that minerals other than gold were recovered into this phase. A comparative study was conducted whereby the CGA process was compared to mercury amalgamation. Gold recoveries obtained through amalgamation were 15% lower than by the agglomeration process, which indicates that this process can be considered favourably as an alternative to amalgamation. 16 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. NUCLEATION STUDIES OF GOLD ON CARBON ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SOBRI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest has grown in developing non-toxic electrolytes for gold electrodeposition to replace the conventional cyanide-based bath for long term sustainability of gold electroplating. A solution containing thiosulphate and sulphite has been developed specially for microelectronics applications. However, at the end of the electrodeposition process, the spent electrolyte can contain a significant amount of gold in solution. This study has been initiated to investigate the feasibility of gold recovery from a spent thiosulphate-sulphite electrolyte. We have used flat-plate glassy carbon and graphite electrodes to study the mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth of gold deposition from the spent electrolyte. It was found that at the early stages of reduction process, the deposition of gold on glassy carbon exhibits an instantaneous nucleation of non-overlapping particles. At longer times, the particles begin to overlap and the deposition follows a classic progressive nucleation phenomenon. On the other hand, deposition of gold on graphite does not follow the classical nucleation phenomena.

  1. Facile synthesis of hierarchical gold nanostructures and their catalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Siang Yi, Edward Ng

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a one-step, surfactant-free method to prepare gold (Au) nanostructures using a synthesized aniline (ANI) derivative N-(3-amidino)-aniline (NAAN) as a reducing agent. By simply mixing NAAN with a Au precursor, raspberry-like Au particles (RSPs) were formed. The presence of Ag+ resulted in the formation of Au nanoflowers (AuNFs). The size and shape of the AuNFs can be tuned by the reaction conditions such as the NAAN/HAuCl4 ratio, the temperature and the solvent composition. Under the same reaction conditions, bowling-pin-like particles (BPLPs) were reported for the first time using commercial ANI as a reducing agent. The AuNFs exhibited good ability to oxidize peroxidase substrate 3, 3‧, 5, 5‧-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2O2, allowing them as a peroxidase mimetic.

  2. Phoenix dactylifera L. leaf extract phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles; controlled synthesis and catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mervat F.; Eisa, Wael H.

    2014-03-01

    A green synthesis route was reported to explore the reducing and capping potential of Phoenix dactylifera extract for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The processes of nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles were followed by monitoring the absorption spectra during the reaction. The size and morphology of these nanoparticles was typically imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size ranged between 32 and 45 nm and are spherical in shape. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis suggests that the synthesized gold nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in the carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic acids present in P. dactylifera. The as-synthesized Au colloids exhibited good catalytic activity for the degradation of 4-nitrophenol.

  3. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-06-05

    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced

  4. A novel bacterial isolate Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as living factory for synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhawat G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs has received considerable attention with their potential applications in various life sciences related applications. Recently, there has been tremendous excitement in the study of nanoparticles synthesis by using some natural biological system, which has led to the development of various biomimetic approaches for the growth of advanced nanomaterials. In the present study, we have demonstrated the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by a novel bacterial strain isolated from a site near the famous gold mines in India. A promising mechanism for the biosynthesis of GNPs by this strain and their stabilization via charge capping was investigated. Results A bacterial isolate capable of gold nanoparticle synthesis was isolated and identified as a novel strain of Stenotrophomonas malophilia (AuRed02 based on its morphology and an analysis of its 16S rDNA gene sequence. After 8 hrs of incubation, monodisperse preparation of gold nanoparticles was obtained. Gold nanoparticles were characterized and found to be of ~40 nm size. Electrophoresis, Zeta potential and FTIR measurements confirmed that the particles are capped with negatively charged phosphate groups from NADP rendering them stable in aqueous medium. Conclusion The process of synthesis of well-dispersed nanoparticles using a novel microorganism isolated from the gold enriched soil sample has been reported in this study, leading to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of GNPs. This is the first study in which an extensive characterization of the indigenous bacterium isolated from the actual gold enriched soil was conducted. Promising mechanism for the biosynthesis of GNPs by the strain and their stabilization via charge capping is suggested, which involves an NADPH-dependent reductase enzyme that reduces Au3+ to Au0 through electron shuttle enzymatic metal reduction process.

  5. Green synthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles for photothermal therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Sajid; Jayasree, Aswathy; Sasidharan, Sisini; Koyakutty, Manzoor; Nair, Shantikumar V; Menon, Deepthy

    2014-06-11

    Nanoparticles of varying composition, size, shape, and architecture have been explored for use as photothermal agents in the field of cancer nanomedicine. Among them, gold nanoparticles provide a simple platform for thermal ablation owing to its biocompatibility in vivo. However, the synthesis of such gold nanoparticles exhibiting suitable properties for photothermal activity involves cumbersome routes using toxic chemicals as capping agents, which can cause concerns in vivo. Herein, gold nanoparticles, synthesized using green chemistry routes possessing near-infrared (NIR) absorbance facilitating photothermal therapy, would be a viable alternative. In this study, anisotropic gold nanoparticles were synthesized using an aqueous route with cocoa extract which served both as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-prepared gold nanoparticles were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to maximize its NIR absorption in the wavelength range of 800-1000 nm. The particles also showed good biocompatibility when tested in vitro using A431, MDA-MB231, L929, and NIH-3T3 cell lines up to concentrations of 200 μg/mL. Cell death induced in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells upon irradiation with a femtosecond laser at 800 nm at a low power density of 6 W/cm(2) proved the suitability of green synthesized NIR absorbing anisotropic gold nanoparticles for photothermal ablation of cancer cells. These gold nanoparticles also showed good X-ray contrast when tested using computed tomography (CT), proving their feasibility for use as a contrast agent as well. This is the first report on green synthesized anisotropic and cytocompatible gold nanoparticles without any capping agents and their suitability for photothermal therapy.

  6. Uptake, translocation, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Shahmansouri, Nastaran

    Nanomaterials are widely used in many different products, such as electronics, cosmetics, industrial goods, biomedical uses, and other material applications. The heavy emission of nanomaterials into the environment has motived increasing concern regarding the effects on ecosystems, food chains, and, human health. Plants can tolerate a certain amount of natural nanomaterials, but large amounts of ENMs released from a variety of industries could be toxic to plants and possibly threaten the ecosystem. Employing phytoremediation as a contamination treatment method may show promise. However a pre-requisite to successful treatment is a better understanding of the behavior and effects of nanomaterials within plant systems. This study is designed to investigate the uptake, translocation, bioavailability, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize plants. Maize is an important food and feed crop that can be used to understand the potential hazardous effects of nanoparticle uptake and distribution in the food chain. The findings could be an important contribution to the fields of phytoremediation, agri-nanotechnology, and nanoparticle toxicity on plants. In the first experiment, hydroponically grown maize seedlings were exposed to similar doses of commercial non-coated gold nanorods in three sizes, 10x34 nm, 20x75 nm, and 40x96 nm. The three nanorod species were suspended in solutions at concentrations of 350 mg/l, 5.8 mg/l, and 14 mg/l, respectively. Maize plants were exposed to all three solutions resulting in considerably lower transpiration and wet biomass than control plants. Likewise, dry biomass was reduced, but the effect is less pronounced than that of transpiration and wet biomass. The reduced transpiration and water content, which eventually proved fatal to exposed plants, were most likely a result of toxic effect of gold nanorod, which appeared to physically hinder the root system. TEM images proved that maize plants can uptake gold particles and accumulate them in

  7. Mitigation strategies to reduce the generation and transmission of airborne highly pathogenic avian influenza virus particles during processing of infected poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Clark, Andrew; Swayne, David E

    2018-06-08

    Airborne transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses has occurred among poultry and from poultry to humans during home or live-poultry market slaughter of infected poultry, and such transmission has been experimentally reproduced. In this study, we investigated simple, practical changes in the processing of H5N1 virus-infected chickens to reduce infectious airborne particles and their transmission. Our findings suggest that containing the birds during the killing and bleeding first step by using a disposable plastic bag, a commonly available cooking pot widely used in Egypt (halla), or a bucket significantly reduces generation of infectious airborne particles and transmission to ferrets. Similarly, lack of infectious airborne particles was observed when processing vaccinated chickens that had been challenged with HPAI virus. Moreover, the use of a mechanical defeatherer significantly increased total number of particles in the air compared to manual defeathering. This study confirms that simple changes in poultry processing can efficiently mitigate generation of infectious airborne particles and their transmission to humans. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Preparation of radioactive colloidal gold 198Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarosano, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation with simple equipment of radioactive colloidal gold of particle size about approximately 300 A from seed colloid stabilized by gelatine is described. Some physico-chemical parameters which can affect the process of formation of these colloidal particles are analysed; particle size has been meassured with an electron microscope. The colloid stability has been studied as a function of dilution, age and pH. Nucleation and growth of radioactive colloidal gold have been studied using spectrophotometry. Absorption spectra of the two ones are presented and compared. Quality control of the production process is verified through measurement of parameters, such as radioactive and radiochemical purity and biological distribution in laboratorial animals. This distribution was evalusted for rats injected endovenously with the gold colloidal solution.(Author) [pt

  9. Influence of the Surfactant Nature on the Occurrence of Self-Assembly between Rubber Particles and Thermally Reduced Graphite Oxide during the Preparation of Natural Rubber Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Aguilar-Bolados

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural rubber (NR latex consists of polymer particles charged negatively due to the adsorbed phospholipids and proteins molecules. The addition of stable aqueous suspension of thermally reduced graphite oxide (TRGO stabilized by ionic surfactants to NR latex can favor the occurrence of interaction between the stabilized TRGO and NR particles. Herein, the use of two surfactants of different nature, namely, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB, for the preparation of (TRGO/NR nanocomposites, is reported. Zeta potential and particle size measurements indicated that the use of DTAB as cationic surfactant results in the flocculation of NR particles and promoted the formation of ion-pair interactions between TRGO and the proteins and/or phospholipids present on the NR surface. This indicates that the use of DTAB can promote a self-assembly phenomenon between TRGO with adsorbed DTAB molecules and NR particles. The occurrence of self-assembly phenomenon allows obtaining homogenous dispersion of TRGO particles in the polymer matrix. The TRGO/NR nanocomposites prepared by the use of DTAB exhibited superior mechanical properties and excellent electrical conductivities reaching values of stress at 500% strain of 3.02 MPa and 10−4 S/cm, respectively.

  10. Improvement of Gold Leaching from a Refractory Gold Concentrate Calcine by Separate Pretreatment of Coarse and Fine Size Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A total gold extraction of 70.2% could only be reached via direct cyanidation from a refractory As-, S- and C-bearing gold concentrate calcine, and the gold extraction varied noticeably with different size fractions. The reasons for unsatisfactory gold extraction from the calcine were studied through analyses of chemical composition, chemical phase and SEM-EDS of different sizes of particles. It was found that a significant segregation of compositions occurred during the grinding of gold ore before flotation. As a result, for the calcine obtained after oxidative roasting, the encapsulation of gold by iron oxides was easily engendered in finer particles, whilst in coarser particles the gold encapsulation by silicates was inclined to occur likely due to melted silicates blocking the porosity of particles. The improvement of gold leaching from different size fractions was further investigated through pretreatments with alkali washing, acid pickling or sulfuric acid curing-water leaching. Finally, a novel process was recommended and the total gold extraction from the calcine could be increased substantially to 93.6% by the purposeful pretreatment with alkali washing for the relatively coarse size fraction (+37 μm and sulfuric acid curing–water leaching for the fine size fraction (−37 μm.

  11. A Comparison between Temperature-Controlled Laminar Airflow Device and a Room Air-Cleaner in Reducing Exposure to Particles While Asleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Sigsgaard, Torben; Takai, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep...... was significantly lower with the TLA device compared to the room air cleaner. The TLA device provided a barrier which significantly reduced the introduction of airborne particles into the breathing zone. Further studies should be conducted for the understanding of the transport of resuspended particles between...

  12. Radiation-electrochemistry of the colloidal gold micro-electrode: Hydrogen formation by organic free radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerhausen, J.; Henglein, A.; Lilie, J.

    1981-01-01

    Various organic free radicals as well as Ni + ions produce hydrogen in the presence of some 10 -4 M of colloidal gold. The gold catalyst was prepared via the reduction of HAuCl 4 either thermally by citrate or by γ-irradiation. The organic radicals were radiolytically produced. The mechanism of H 2 formation includes electron transfer from the organic radicals to the gold particles, storage of a large number of electrons per gold particle, conversion of the electrons into adsorbed H-atoms and desorption of the latter to form H 2 . - The rates of some of these steps were measured using the method of pulse radiolysis. 1-Hydroxy-1-methyl ethyl radicals, (CH 3 ) 2 COH, react with colloidal gold particles almost diffusion controlled provided that the gold particles are not charged with excess electrons. Charged gold particles react at a substantially lower rate. The stored electrons live seconds or even minutes depending on their number per gold particle. In the stationary state, up to 0.38 Coulomb of electrons could be stored per liter of a 2.9x10 -4 molar gold solution, each gold particle carrying about 39 electrons. A comparison is also made between the catalytic activities of colloidal gold and silver. Due to the relative fast conversion of electrons into adsorbed H-atoms, colloidal gold has less capacity for the storage of electrons than colloidal silver. - The dependence of the hydrogen yield on the pH of the solution, the concentration of gold, the size of the gold particles, the concentration of the polyvinyl alcohol stabilizer, and the intensity of radiation was also investigated. At high intensities, some of the radicals are destroyed in a gold catalysed disproportionation. (orig.)

  13. Quasifree (p , 2 p ) Reactions on Oxygen Isotopes: Observation of Isospin Independence of the Reduced Single-Particle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, L.; Paschalis, S.; Barbieri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Díaz Fernández, P.; Holl, M.; Najafi, M. A.; Panin, V.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Benlliure, J.; Boillos, J. M.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Caamaño, M.; Caesar, C.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkall, J.; Chartier, M.; Chulkov, L.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Cravo, E.; Crespo, R.; Dillmann, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Ershova, O.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, L. M.; Freer, M.; Galaviz Redondo, D.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubev, P.; Göbel, K.; Hagdahl, J.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Heine, M.; Heinz, A.; Henriques, A.; Hufnagel, A.; Ignatov, A.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Kahlbow, J.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Knyazev, A.; Kröll, T.; Kurz, N.; Labiche, M.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Lindberg, S.; Machado, J.; Marganiec-Gałązka, J.; Movsesyan, A.; Nacher, E.; Nikolskii, E. Y.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Perea, A.; Petri, M.; Pietri, S.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Ribeiro, G.; Rigollet, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Röder, M.; Savran, D.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.; Sorlin, O.; Syndikus, I.; Taylor, J. T.; Tengblad, O.; Thies, R.; Togano, Y.; Vandebrouck, M.; Velho, P.; Volkov, V.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Wheldon, C.; Wilson, G. L.; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, P.; Yakorev, D.; Zhukov, M.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.; R3B Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Quasifree one-proton knockout reactions have been employed in inverse kinematics for a systematic study of the structure of stable and exotic oxygen isotopes at the R3B /LAND setup with incident beam energies in the range of 300 - 450 MeV /u . The oxygen isotopic chain offers a large variation of separation energies that allows for a quantitative understanding of single-particle strength with changing isospin asymmetry. Quasifree knockout reactions provide a complementary approach to intermediate-energy one-nucleon removal reactions. Inclusive cross sections for quasifree knockout reactions of the type O A (p ,2 p )N-1A have been determined and compared to calculations based on the eikonal reaction theory. The reduction factors for the single-particle strength with respect to the independent-particle model were obtained and compared to state-of-the-art ab initio predictions. The results do not show any significant dependence on proton-neutron asymmetry.

  14. Applying burnable poison particles to reduce the reactivity swing in high temperature reactors with batch-wise fuel loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Dam, H. van; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2003-01-01

    Burnup calculations have been performed on a standard HTR fuel pebble with a radius of 3 cm containing 9 g of 8% enriched uranium and burnable poison particles (BPP) made of B 4 C highly enriched in 10 B. The radius of the BPP and the number of particles per fuel pebble have been varied to find the flattest reactivity-to-time curve. It was found that for a k∞ of 1.1, a reactivity swing as low as 2% can be obtained when each fuel pebble contains about 1070 BPP with a radius of 75 μm. For coated BPP that consist of a graphite kernel with a radius of 300 μm covered with a B 4 C burnable poison layer, a similar value for the reactivity swing can be obtained. Cylindrical particles seem to perform worse. In general, the modification of the geometry of BPP is an effective means to tailor the reactivity curve of HTRs

  15. Effect of particle-particle shearing on the bioleaching of sulfide minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, N; Karamanev, D G; Margaritis, A

    2002-11-05

    The biological leaching of sulfide minerals, used for the production of gold, copper, zinc, cobalt, and other metals, is very often carried out in slurry bioreactors, where the shearing between sulfide particles is intensive. In order to be able to improve the efficiency of the bioleaching, it is of significant importance to know the effect of particle shearing on the rate of leaching. The recently proposed concept of ore immobilization allowed us to study the effect of particle shearing on the rate of sulfide (pyrite) leaching by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Using this concept, we designed two very similar bioreactors, the main difference between which was the presence and absence of particle-particle shearing. It was shown that when the oxygen mass transfer was not the rate-limiting step, the rate of bioleaching in the frictionless bioreactor was 2.5 times higher than that in a bioreactor with particle friction (shearing). The concentration of free suspended cells in the frictionless bioreactor was by orders of magnitude lower than that in the frictional bioreactor, which showed that particle friction strongly reduces the microbial attachment to sulfide surface, which, in turn, reduces the rate of bioleaching. Surprisingly, it was found that formation of a layer of insoluble iron salts on the surface of sulfide particles is much slower under shearless conditions than in the presence of particle-particle shearing. This was explained by the effect of particle friction on liquid-solid mass transfer rate. The results of this study show that reduction of the particle friction during bioleaching of sulfide minerals can bring important advantages not only by increasing significantly the bioleaching rate, but also by increasing the rate of gas-liquid oxygen mass transfer, reducing the formation of iron precipitates and reducing the energy consumption. One of the efficient methods for reduction of particle friction is ore immobilization in a porous matrix. Copyright 2002

  16. Increased cellular uptake of peptide-modified PEGylated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Yang, Dan; Qin, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yuan; He, Bing; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xueqing; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Hua; Yin, Changcheng

    2017-12-09

    Gold nanoparticles are promising drug delivery vehicles for nucleic acids, small molecules, and proteins, allowing various modifications on the particle surface. However, the instability and low bioavailability of gold nanoparticles compromise their clinical application. Here, we functionalized gold nanoparticles with CPP fragments (CALNNPFVYLI, CALRRRRRRRR) through sulfhydryl PEG to increase their stability and bioavailability. The resulting gold nanoparticles were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the stability in biological solutions was evaluated. Comparing to PEGylated gold nanoparticles, CPP (CALNNPFVYLI, CALRRRRRRRR)-modified gold nanoparticles showed 46 folds increase in cellular uptake in A549 and B16 cell lines, as evidenced by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The interactions between gold nanoparticles and liposomes indicated CPP-modified gold nanoparticles bind to cell membrane more effectively than PEGylated gold nanoparticles. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to measure interactions between nanoparticles and the membrane. TEM and uptake inhibitor experiments indicated that the cellular entry of gold nanoparticles was mediated by clathrin and macropinocytosis. Other energy independent endocytosis pathways were also identified. Our work revealed a new strategy to modify gold nanoparticles with CPP and illustrated the cellular uptake pathway of CPP-modified gold nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Uptake of Au(III) Ions by Aluminum Hydroxide and Their Spontaneous Reduction to Elemental Gold (Au(0)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama; Matsukado; Uchida; Motomura; Watanabe; Izawa

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of AuCl(4)(-) ions during the formation of aluminum hydroxide at pH 6 was examined. With an increase in NaCl concentration, the content of gold taken up by aluminum hydroxide decreased, suggesting that chloro-hydroxy complexes of Au(III) ion were taken up due to the formation of Al-O-Au bonds. It was found unexpectedly that the Au(III) ions taken up were spontaneously reduced to elemental gold without addition of a specific reducing reagent and then colloidal gold particles were formed. The mechanisms for the uptake of Au(III) ions by aluminum hydroxide and for their spontaneous reduction are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Gold nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Adriana N.; Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Silva, Andressa A. da; Leal, Jessica; Batista, Jorge G.S.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2015-01-01

    In our laboratory has been growing the interest in studying gold nanoparticles and for this reason, the aim of this work is report the first results of the effect of chitosan as stabilizer in gold nanoparticle formulation. AuNPs were synthesized by reducing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl 4 ) using NaBH 4 or gamma irradiation (25kGy) as reduction agent. The chitosan (3 mol L -1 ) was added at 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mL. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their physical stability was determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer over one week during storage at room temperature. Absorption measurements indicated that the plasmon resonance wavelength appears at a wavelength around 530 nm. Has been observed that Chitosan in such quantities were not effective in stabilizing the AuNPs. (author)

  19. The use of gold nanoparticles to enhance radiotherapy in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainfeld, James F; Slatkin, Daniel N; Smilowitz, Henry M

    2004-01-01

    Mice bearing subcutaneous EMT-6 mammary carcinomas received a single intravenous injection of 1.9 nm diameter gold particles (up to 2.7 g Au/kg body weight), which elevated concentrations of gold to 7 mg Au/g in tumours. Tumour-to-normal-tissue gold concentration ratios remained ∼8:1 during several minutes of 250 kVp x-ray therapy. One-year survival was 86% versus 20% with x-rays alone and 0% with gold alone. The increase in tumours safely ablated was dependent on the amount of gold injected. The gold nanoparticles were apparently non-toxic to mice and were largely cleared from the body through the kidneys. This novel use of small gold nanoparticles permitted achievement of the high metal content in tumours necessary for significant high-Z radioenhancement. (note)

  20. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, Jen-Kuang; Huang, Jen-Chuen; Tien, Der-Chi; Liao, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Tsung, Tsing-Tshin; Kao, Wen-Shiow; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Jwo, Ching-Song; Lin, Hong-Ming; Stobinski, Leszek

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been attracting attention due to their extensive application in chemistry, physics, material science, electronics, catalysis and bionanotechnology. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles often involves toxic and expensive physical-chemistry methods. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water is proposed for the first time. Fabrication of gold nanostructures in deionized water has been successfully established. The evidence of gold particles' light absorbance reveals a unique surface plasmon resonance for Au nanoparticles suspended in deionized water. Gold nanostructures uniformly dispersed in water, their UV-Vis absorption and crystalline size are shown. Our experimental results demonstrate that fabrication of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water is an alternative, cheap, effective and environmentally friendly method

  1. Photonics of 2D gold nanolayers on sapphire surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Butashin, A. V.; Nabatov, B. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Konovko, A. A.; Belov, I. V.; Gizetdinov, R. M.; Andreev, A. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kanevsky, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Center “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Gold layers with thicknesses of up to several nanometers, including ordered and disordered 2D nanostructures of gold particles, have been formed on sapphire substrates; their morphology is described; and optical investigations are carried out. The possibility of increasing the accuracy of predicting the optical properties of gold layers and 2D nanostructures using quantum-mechanical models based on functional density theory calculation techniques is considered. The application potential of the obtained materials in photonics is estimated.

  2. Synthesis of porous gold nanoshells by controlled transmetallation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattabi, Manjunatha, E-mail: manjupattabi@yahoo.com; M, Krishnaprabha [Department of Materials Science, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri-574199 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Aqueous synthesis of porous gold nanoshells in one step is carried out through controlled transmetallation (TM) reaction using a naturally available egg shell membrane (ESM) as a barrier between the sacrificial silver particles (AgNPs) and the gold precursor solution (HAuCl{sub 4}). The formation of porous gold nanoshells via TM reaction is inferred from UV-Vis spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies.

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) aqueous extract and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujitha, Mohanan V.; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the reduction of HAuCl4 by using citrus fruits (Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata and Citrus sinensis) juice extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. A various shape and size of gold nanoparticles were formed when the ratio of the reactants were altered with respect to 1.0 mM chloroauric acid solution. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to be of various shapes and sizes and particle size ranges from 15 to 80 nm. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed fcc phase and crystallinity of the particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the distinctive facets (1 1 1, 2 0 0, 2 2 0 and 2 2 2 planes) of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size for colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are 32.2 nm, 43.4 nm and 56.7 nm respectively. The DLS graph showed that the particles size was larger and more polydispersed compared to the one observed by TEM due to the fact that the measured size also includes the bio-organic compounds enveloping the core of the Au NPs. Zeta potential value for gold nanoparticles obtained from colloid gp3 of C. limon, C. reticulata and C. sinensis are -45.9, -37.9 and -31.4 respectively indicating the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. Herein we propose a novel, previously unexploited method for the biological syntheses of polymorphic gold nanoparticles with potent biological applications.

  4. Summary of gold nanoparticles obtained by reduction Au3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corzo Lucioni, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation were synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) of gold by oxidation-reduction reactions at boiling temperature, starting from dilute solutions of acid tetrachloroauric: H[AuCl 4 ].3H 2 O as a precursor in the presence of organic reducing agents such as trisodium citrate: Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 .2H 2 O; potassium sodium tartrate: KNaC 4 H 4 O 6 .4H 2 O and sodium borohydride: inorganic reducing agent NaBH 4 . With the aim of evaluating the particle size according to the type of reducing agent, is designed a series of experiments in which the reducing agent is changed, keeping it constant concentrations, but varying the concentration of H[AuCl 4 ]. The particle size and the absorbance of the plasmon Au were measured in a particle size analyzer and a UV - visible, respectively. In turn, the effect of pH variation on the size of the NP Au, maintaining concentrations of H [AuCl 4 ] constant and reducing agent trisodium citrate, at different pH values under the same conditions. (author).

  5. The effect of cysteine on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolati, A.; Imanieh, I.; Salehi, F.; Farahani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Cysteine was found as an appropriate additive for electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles. → The deposition mechanism of gold nanoparticle was determined as instantaneous nucleation. → Oxygen reduction on the gold nanoparticle surface was eight times greater than that on the conventional gold deposits. - Abstract: The most applications of gold nanoparticles are in the photo-electronical accessories and bio-chemical sensors. Chloride solution with cysteine additive was used as electrolyte in gold nanoparticles electrodeposition. The nucleation and growing mechanism were studied by electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, in order to obtain a suitable nano structure. The deposition mechanism was determined as instantaneous nucleation and the dimension of particles was controlled in nanometric particle size range. Atomic Force Microscope was used to evaluate the effect of cysteine on the morphology and topography of gold nanoparticles. Finally the catalytic property of gold nanoparticle electrodeposited was studied in KOH solution, where oxygen reduction on the gold nanoparticle surface was eight times greater than that on the conventional gold deposits.

  6. Oriented nanocomposites of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene and gold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heffels, W.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Caseri, W.R.; Smith, P.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites were prepd. by mixing ultrahigh-mol.-wt. polyethylene and gold colloids coated with a self-assembled monolayer of dodecanethiol. Subsequently, these materials were oriented by solid state drawing which induced the formation of uniaxially oriented arrays of gold particles. As a

  7. Toward efficient modification of large gold nanoparticles with DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.; Göeken, Kristian L; Subramaniam, V.

    2014-01-01

    DNA-coated gold nanoparticles are one of the most researched nano-bio hybrid systems. Traditionally their synthesis has been a long and tedious process, involving slow salt addition and long incubation steps. This stems from the fact that both DNA and gold particles are negatively charged, therefore

  8. Frontiers in Gold Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Basic chemistry of gold tells us that it can bond to sulfur, phosphorous, nitrogen, and oxygen donor ligands. The Frontiers in Gold Chemistry Special Issue covers gold complexes bonded to the different donors and their fascinating applications. This issue covers both basic chemistry studies of gold complexes and their contemporary applications in medicine, materials chemistry, and optical sensors. There is a strong belief that aurophilicity plays a major role in the unending applications of g...

  9. Silver micro- and nano-particles obtained using different glycols as reducing agents and measurement of their conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moudir Naïma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver micro- and nano-particles for the preparation of conductive pastes for the metallization of solar cells was realized by chemical reduction in the presence and absence of poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP. Silver nitrate was used as a precursor in the presence of three polyols (ethylene glycol, di-ethylene glycol and propylene glycol tested at experimental temperatures near their boiling points. Six samples were obtained by this protocol. Three silver powders obtained without the use of PVP have a metallic luster appearance; however, the samples produced using an excess of PVP are in the form of stable colloidal dispersions of silver nano-particles. Structural characterizations of samples using a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer show a good crystallinity and spherical morphology. From DSC and TGA analyses, it was noticed that all the nano-silvers present in the colloidal suspension have the same thermal behavior.

  10. Gold in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girling, C.A.; Peterson, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Many plants have the ability to take up gold from the soil and to accumulate it in their tisssue. Advances have been made in understanding these processes to the point where their exploitation in the field of prospecting for gold appears practically feasible. Neutron activation analysis is used for the determination of the small quantities of gold in plants

  11. Reduced ultrafine particle levels in São Paulo's atmosphere during shifts from gasoline to ethanol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Alberto; Brito, Joel; Artaxo, Paulo; Geiger, Franz M

    2017-07-18

    Despite ethanol's penetration into urban transportation, observational evidence quantifying the consequence for the atmospheric particulate burden during actual, not hypothetical, fuel-fleet shifts, has been lacking. Here we analyze aerosol, meteorological, traffic, and consumer behavior data and find, empirically, that ambient number concentrations of 7-100-nm diameter particles rise by one-third during the morning commute when higher ethanol prices induce 2 million drivers in the real-world megacity of São Paulo to substitute to gasoline use (95% confidence intervals: +4,154 to +13,272 cm -3 ). Similarly, concentrations fall when consumers return to ethanol. Changes in larger particle concentrations, including US-regulated PM2.5, are statistically indistinguishable from zero. The prospect of increased biofuel use and mounting evidence on ultrafines' health effects make our result acutely policy relevant, to be weighed against possible ozone increases. The finding motivates further studies in real-world environments. We innovate in using econometrics to quantify a key source of urban ultrafine particles.The biofuel ethanol has been introduced into urban transportation in many countries. Here, by measuring aerosols in São Paulo, the authors find that high ethanol prices coincided with an increase in harmful nanoparticles by a third, as drivers switched from ethanol to cheaper gasoline, showing a benefit of ethanol.

  12. Structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles with reduced particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotey, Gurmeet Singh; Verma, N. K.

    2012-01-01

    Pure and Gd-doped BiFeO 3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol–gel method. The significant effects of size and Gd-doping on structural, electrical, and magnetic properties have been investigated. X-ray diffraction study reveals that the pure BiFeO 3 nanoparticles possess rhombohedral structure, but with 10% Gd-doping complete structural transformation from rhombohedral to orthorhombic has been observed. The particle size of pure and Gd-doped BiFeO 3 nanoparticles, calculated using Transmission electron microscopy, has been found to be in the range 25–15 nm. Pure and Gd-doped BiFeO 3 nanoparticles show ferromagnetic character, and the magnetization increases with decrease in particle size and increase in doping concentration. Scanning electron microscopy study reveals that grain size decreases with increase in Gd concentration. Well-saturated polarization versus electric field loop is observed for the doped samples. Leakage current density decreases by four orders by doping Gd in BiFeO 3 . The incorporation of Gd in BiFeO 3 enhances spin as well as electric polarization at room temperature. The possible origin of enhancement in these properties has been explained on the basis of dopant and its concentration, phase purity, small particle, and grain size.

  13. Quasifree (p, 2p) Reactions on Oxygen Isotopes: Observation of Isospin Independence of the Reduced Single-Particle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, L; Paschalis, S; Barbieri, C; Bertulani, C A; Díaz Fernández, P; Holl, M; Najafi, M A; Panin, V; Alvarez-Pol, H; Aumann, T; Avdeichikov, V; Beceiro-Novo, S; Bemmerer, D; Benlliure, J; Boillos, J M; Boretzky, K; Borge, M J G; Caamaño, M; Caesar, C; Casarejos, E; Catford, W; Cederkall, J; Chartier, M; Chulkov, L; Cortina-Gil, D; Cravo, E; Crespo, R; Dillmann, I; Elekes, Z; Enders, J; Ershova, O; Estrade, A; Farinon, F; Fraile, L M; Freer, M; Galaviz Redondo, D; Geissel, H; Gernhäuser, R; Golubev, P; Göbel, K; Hagdahl, J; Heftrich, T; Heil, M; Heine, M; Heinz, A; Henriques, A; Hufnagel, A; Ignatov, A; Johansson, H T; Jonson, B; Kahlbow, J; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kanungo, R; Kelic-Heil, A; Knyazev, A; Kröll, T; Kurz, N; Labiche, M; Langer, C; Le Bleis, T; Lemmon, R; Lindberg, S; Machado, J; Marganiec-Gałązka, J; Movsesyan, A; Nacher, E; Nikolskii, E Y; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Perea, A; Petri, M; Pietri, S; Plag, R; Reifarth, R; Ribeiro, G; Rigollet, C; Rossi, D M; Röder, M; Savran, D; Scheit, H; Simon, H; Sorlin, O; Syndikus, I; Taylor, J T; Tengblad, O; Thies, R; Togano, Y; Vandebrouck, M; Velho, P; Volkov, V; Wagner, A; Wamers, F; Weick, H; Wheldon, C; Wilson, G L; Winfield, J S; Woods, P; Yakorev, D; Zhukov, M; Zilges, A; Zuber, K

    2018-02-02

    Quasifree one-proton knockout reactions have been employed in inverse kinematics for a systematic study of the structure of stable and exotic oxygen isotopes at the R^{3}B/LAND setup with incident beam energies in the range of 300-450  MeV/u. The oxygen isotopic chain offers a large variation of separation energies that allows for a quantitative understanding of single-particle strength with changing isospin asymmetry. Quasifree knockout reactions provide a complementary approach to intermediate-energy one-nucleon removal reactions. Inclusive cross sections for quasifree knockout reactions of the type ^{A}O(p,2p)^{A-1}N have been determined and compared to calculations based on the eikonal reaction theory. The reduction factors for the single-particle strength with respect to the independent-particle model were obtained and compared to state-of-the-art ab initio predictions. The results do not show any significant dependence on proton-neutron asymmetry.

  14. CMS Industries awarded gold, crystal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CMS collaboration honoured 10 of its top suppliers in the seventh annual awards ceremony The representatives of the firms that recieved the CMS Gold and Crystal Awards stand with their awards after the ceremony. The seventh annual CMS Awards ceremony was held on Monday 13 March to recognize the industries that have made substantial contributions to the construction of the collaboration's detector. Nine international firms received Gold Awards, and General Tecnica of Italy received the prestigious Crystal Award. Representatives from the companies attended the ceremony during the plenary session of CMS week. 'The role of CERN, its machines and experiments, beyond particle physics is to push the development of equipment technologies related to high-energy physics,'said CMS Awards Coordinator Domenico Campi. 'All of these industries must go beyond the technologies that are currently available.' Without the involvement of good companies over the years, the construction of the CMS detector wouldn't be possible...

  15. Continuous flow synthesis and characterization of tailor-made bare gold nanoparticles for use in SERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López -Lorente, Ángela I.; Valcárcel, Miguel; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles in a stainless steel continuous flow tubular reactor using tetrachloroauric acid as a precursor but without using a classical reducing agent. Gold(III) ion is reduced by stainless steel to form gold nanoparticles which are collected at the end of the coil. A single-phase system is introduced that generates dispersed nanoparticles in the absence of reducing agents on their surface. By controlling flow rates and temperature, the size of the nanoparticles can be tuned in the range from 24 nm to 36 nm. The reproducibility of the preparation was investigated, relative standard deviation of both the wavelength of the peak and the intensity of the plasmonic absorption band were determined and found to vary by 0.15 % and 6.5 %, respectively. Flow synthesis is found to be an excellent alternative to chemical methods to produce stable gold nanoparticles of varying size in an efficiently way. The particles obtained also perform very well when used as a substrate in surface enhanced Raman scattering as shown by the characterization of carboxylated single walled carbon nanotubes. (author)

  16. A tetraethylene glycol coat gives gold nanoparticles long in vivo half-lives with minimal increase in size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willett JDS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Julian DS Willett, Marlon G Lawrence, Jennifer C Wilder, Oliver Smithies† Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA †Dr Oliver Smithies passed away on January 10, 2017 Abstract: In this study, we describe the experiments determining whether coating gold nanoparticles with tetraethylene glycol (TEG provides pharmacologically relevant advantages, such as increased serum half-life and resistance to protein adsorption. Monodisperse TEG-coated, NaBH4-reduced gold nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic size comparable to albumin were synthesized by reducing gold chloride with NaBH4 under alkaline conditions in the presence of TEG-SH. The particles were characterized by gel electrophoresis, column chromatography, and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were subsequently injected intravenously into mice, and their half-lives and final destinations were determined via photometric analysis, light microscopy (LM, and transmission electron microscopy. The TEG particles had a long half-life (~400 minutes that was not influenced by splenectomy. After 500 minutes of injection, TEG particles were found in kidney proximal tubule cell vesicles and in spleen red and white pulp. The particles induced apoptosis in the spleen red pulp but not in white pulp or the kidney. Some of the TEG particles appeared to have undergone ligand exchange reactions that increased their charge. The TEG particles were shown to be resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, as judged by gel electrophoresis and column chromatography. These results demonstrate that naturally monodisperse, small-sized gold nanoparticles coated with TEG have long in vivo plasma half-lives, are minimally toxic, and are resistant to protein adsorption. This suggests that a TEG coating should be considered as an alternative to a polyethylene glycol coating, which is polydisperse and of much larger size. Keywords

  17. Using reduced graphene oxide-Ca:CdSe nanocomposite to enhance photoelectrochemical activity of gold nanoparticles functionalized tungsten oxide for highly sensitive prostate specific antigen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Xu, Rui; Sun, Xu; Wang, Yaoguang; Ren, Xiang; Du, Bin; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin

    2017-10-15

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor was constructed for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). In this work, Au-nanoparticle-loaded tungsten oxide (WO 3 -Au) hybrid composites was applied as PEC sensing platform, while Ca ions doped CdSe equipped on the conducting framework of reduced graphene oxide (rGO-Ca:CdSe) nanocomposites were employed as the signal amplification probe. As for WO 3 -Au, massive Au nanoparticles were formed on the surface of WO 3 without any additional reducing agent, providing a novel nanocarriers for anchoring plenty of the primary antibodies due to the large specific surface area and good biocompatibility by chemical bonding between Au nanoparticles and -NH 2 of antibodies. Besides, the incorporation of the rGO and the doping of Ca ions could improve the conductivity and hinder the recombination of electron-hole pairs of CdSe nanoparticles effectively, thereby enhancing the photocurrent conversion efficiency. Based on the sandwich immunoreaction, the primary antibody was immobilized onto WO 3 -Au substrate, after the formed rGO-Ca:CdSe labels were captured onto the electrode surface via the specific antibody-antigen interaction, the photocurrent intensity could be further enhanced due to the sensitization effect. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed PEC immunosensor shows a linear relationship between photocurrent variation and the logarithm of PSA concentration in the wide range of 5pgmL -1 to 50ngmL -1 with a low detection limit of 2.6pgmL -1 (S/N=3). Moreover, it also presented good stability and acceptable specificity, indicating the potential applications in clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

      Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...... of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...

  19. Reduced Fokker-Planck models for fast particle distribution across a transition layer of disparate plasma temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; Berk, H. L.; Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, C. J.

    2014-03-01

    Across a transition layer of disparate plasma temperatures, the high energy tail of the plasma distribution can have appreciable deviations from the local Maxwellian distribution due to the Knudson layer effect. The Fokker-Planck equation for the tail particle population can be simplified in a series of practically useful limiting cases. The first is the approximation of background Maxwellian distribution for linearizing the collision operator. The second is the supra-thermal particle speed ordering of vTi ≪ v ≪ vTe for the tail ions and vTi ≪ vTe ≪ v for the tail electrons. Keeping both the collisional drag and energy scattering is essential for the collision operator to produce a Maxwellian tail distribution. The Fokker-Planck model for following the tail ion distribution for a given background plasma profile is explicitly worked out for systems of one spatial dimension, in both slab and spherical geometry. A third simplification is an expansion of the tail particle distribution using the spherical harmonics, which are eigenfunctions of the pitch angle scattering operator. This produces a set of coupled Fokker-Planck equations that contain energy-dependent spatial diffusion terms in two coordinates (position and energy), which originate from pitch angle scattering in the original Fokker-Planck equation. It is shown that the well-known diffusive Fokker-Planck model is a poor approximation of the two-mode truncation model, which itself has fundamental deficiency compared with the three-mode truncation model. The cause is the lack of even-symmetry representation in pitch dependence in the two-mode truncation model.

  20. The electrical double layer on gold probed by electrokinetic and surface force measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Gold surfaces, obtained by vacuum deposition of 15-nm gold films on glass and silica wafers, were studied in aqueous solutions by streaming potential measurements and colloidal-probe AFM force measurements. In the force measurements both a bare and a gold-coated silica particle (6 m in diameter)

  1. NA35: sulphur-gold collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    In this image the real particles produced by the collision of a 6400 GeV sulphur ion with a gold target can be seen as they pass through a streamer chamber. Streamer chambers consist of a gas chamber through which a strong pulsed electric field is passed, creating sparks as a charged particle passes through it. The NA35 experiment, which was in operation in the 1980s, was part of CERN's ongoing heavy ion project.

  2. Broadband Spectroscopy of Nanoporous-Gold Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Nakatani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of UV photocatalysis on TiO2 particles was increased by mixing TiO2 particles with nanoporous gold (NPG with pore diameters of 10–40 nm. This means that NPG acts as a promoter in the photocatalytic reaction of TiO2. Broadband spectroscopic results from millimeter wave to ultra violet of NPG membrane are discussed to estimate plasmonic effect on the catalysis.

  3. SU-E-T-13: Comparison of Dose Rates with and without Gold Backing of USC #9 Radioactive Eye Plaque Using MCNP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, P; Molloy, J

    2012-06-01

    To show the effect of gold backing on dose rates for the USC #9 radioactive eye plaque. An I125 source (IsoAid model IAI-125A) and gold backing was modeled using MCNP5 Monte Carlo code. A single iodine seed was simulated with and without gold backing. Dose rates were calculated in two orthogonal planes. Dose calculation points were structured in two orthogonal planes that bisect the center of the source. A 2×2 cm matrix of spherical points of radius 0.2 mm was created in a water phantom of 10 cm radius. 0.2 billion particle histories were tracked. Dose differences with and without the gold backing were analyzed using Matlab. The gold backing produced a 3% increase in the dose rate near the source surface (<1mm) relative to that without the backing. This was presumably caused by fluorescent photons from the gold. At distances between 1 and 2 cm, the gold backing reduced the dose rate by up to 12%, which we attribute to a lack of scatter resulting from the attenuation from the gold. Dose differences were most pronounced in the radial direction near the source center but off axis. The dose decreased by 25%, 65% and 81% at 1, 2, and 3 mm off axis at a distance of 1 mm from the source surface. These effects were less pronounced in the perpendicular dimension near the source tip, where maximum dose decreases of 2% were noted. I 125 sources embedded directly into gold troughs display dose differences of 2 - 90%, relative to doses without the gold backing. This is relevant for certain types of plaques used in treatment of ocular melanoma. Large dose reductions can be observed and may have implications for scleral dose reduction. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Controlled growth of gold nanoparticles in zeolite L via ion-exchange reactions and thermal reduction processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Shangjing; Ding, Shuang; Li, Shangyu; Wang, Runwei; Zhang, Zongtao

    2014-01-01

    The growth of gold nanoparticles in zeolite can be controlled using ion-exchange reactions and thermal reduction processes. We produce a number of different sizes of the gold nanoparticles with the particle size increasing with increased temperature

  5. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males and 145 g (females, were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group: fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3, middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3, and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3. The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue

  6. Nature vs. nurture: gold perpetuates "stemness".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Willi; Sharma, Chandra P; Deb, Kaushik Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Adult tissues contain quiescent reservoirs of multipotent somatic stem cells and pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells (ELSCs). Credited with regenerative properties gold is used across both -contemporary and -ancient medicines. Here, we show that gold exerted these effects by enhancing the pool of pluripotent ELSC while improving their stemness. We used hESCs as an in-vitro model to understand if gold could enhance self-renewal and pluripotency. Swarna-bhasma (SB), an ancient Indian gold microparticulate (41.1 nm), preparation, reduced spontaneous-differentiation, improved self-renewal, pluripotency and proliferation of hESCs. Colloidal gold-nanoparticles (GNP) (15.59 nm) were tested to confirm that the observations were attributable to nanoparticulate-gold. SB and GNP exposure: maintained -stemness, -karyotypic stability, enhanced pluripotency till day-12, increased average colony-sizes, and reduced the number of autonomously-derived differentiated FGFR1 positive fibroblast-niche-cells/colony. Particulate-gold induced upregulation of FGFR1 and IGF2 expression, and decrease in IGF1 secretion indicates IGF1/2 mediated support for enhanced pluripotency and self-renewal in hESCs.

  7. New Trends in Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda F. Liotta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s [1]. Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research [2]. Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4]− or [AuOHxCl4−x]− species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites

  8. Optical properties of self assembled oriented island evolution of ultra-thin gold layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worsch, Christian; Kracker, Michael; Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Rüssel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Gold layers with a thickness of only 8 to 21 nm were sputtered on soda–lime–silica glasses. Subsequent annealing at 300 and 400 °C for 1 and 24 h resulted in the formation of separated round gold particles with diameters from 8 to 200 nm. Crystal orientations were described using X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. The gold particles are oriented with their (111) planes perpendicular to the surface. Most gold nano particles are single crystalline, some particles are twinned. Thermal annealing of sputtered gold layers resulted in purple samples with a coloration comparable to that of gold ruby glasses. The color can be controlled by the thickness of the sputtered gold layer and the annealing conditions. The simple method of gold film preparation and the annealing temperature dependent properties of the layers make them appropriate for practical applications. - Highlights: ► We produce gold nano particle layers on amorphous substrates. ► Thin sputtered gold layers were annealed at low temperatures. ► Various colors can be achieved reproducibly and UV–vis-NIR spectra are reported. ► A 111-texture of the particles is described as well as twinning. ► The process is suitable for mass production.

  9. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of thiolated pectin stabilized gold coated magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Varun, E-mail: varun.arora3986@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Sector 16-C, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Sood, Ankur, E-mail: ankursood02@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Sector 16-C, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Shah, Jyoti, E-mail: shah.jyoti1@gmail.com [National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@nplindia.org [National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Jain, Tapan K., E-mail: tapankjain@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Sector 16-C, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Core–shell nanoparticles, magnetic core and gold shell, were synthesized by reduction of gold chloride on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles; using tyrosine as a reducing agent. The formation of gold shell on magnetic nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The core–shell nanoparticles (CSn) were conjugated with thiolated pectin to form a stable aqueous dispersion. The hydrodynamic size of thiolated pectin stabilized core–shell nanoparticles (TP-CSn) measured by Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was 160.5 nm with a poly dispersity index (PDI) of 0.302, whereas the mean particle size of TP-CSn calculated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was 10.8 ± 2.7 nm. The value of zeta potential for TP-CSn was −13.6 mV. There was a decrease in the value of saturation magnetization upon formation of the gold shell on magnetic nanoparticles. The amount of thiolated pectin bound to the surface of core–shell nanoparticles, calculated using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), was 6% of sample weight. - Highlights: • Use of side group of tyrosine (phenol) as a pH dependent reducing agent to synthesize gold coated magnetic nanoparticles. • Successful coating of gold shell on magnetic nanoparticles core. • Synthesis of thiolated pectin and stabilization of aqueous dispersion of core–shell nanoparticles with thiolated pectin. • The superparamagnetic behaviour of magnetic nanoparticles is retained after shell formation.

  11. A new route to gold nanoflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Ferenc; Henning, Ricky; Sarhan, Radwan M.; Prietzel, Claudia; Bargheer, Matias; Koetz, Joachim

    2018-05-01

    Catanionic vesicles spontaneously formed by mixing the anionic surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as a reducing medium to produce gold clusters, which are embedded and well-ordered into the template phase. The gold clusters can be used as seeds in the growth process that follows by adding ascorbic acid as a mild reducing component. When the ascorbic acid was added very slowly in an ice bath round-edged gold nanoflowers were produced. When the same experiments were performed at room temperature in the presence of Ag+ ions, sharp-edged nanoflowers could be synthesized. The mechanism of nanoparticle formation can be understood to be a non-diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening process of preordered gold nanoparticles embedded in catanionic vesicle fragments. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments show an excellent enhancement factor of 1.7 · 105 for the nanoflowers deposited on a silicon wafer.

  12. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles with different atomistic structural characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza, R.; Rosas, G.; Lopez Fuentes, M.; Sanchez Ramirez, J.F.; Pal, U.; Ascencio, J.A.; Perez, R.

    2007-01-01

    A chemical reduction method was used to produce nanometric gold particles. Depending on the concentration of the main reactant compound different nanometric sizes and consequently different atomic structural configurations of the particles are obtained. Insights on the structural nature of the gold nanoparticles are obtained through a comparison between digitally-processed experimental high-resolution electron microscopy images and theoretically-simulated images obtained with a multislice approach of the dynamical theory of electron diffraction. Quantum molecular mechanical calculations, based on density functional theory, are carried out to explain the relationships between the stability of the gold nanoparticles, the atomic structural configurations and the size of nanoparticles

  13. Effective Opacity for Gold-Doped Foam Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Cheng-Wu; Song Tian-Ming; Zhao Yang; Zhu Tuo; Shang Wan-Li; Xiong Gang; Zhang Ji-Yan; Yang Jia-Min; Jiang Shao-En

    2012-01-01

    Radiation flow through gold-doped hydrocarbon foam is investigated and a model is presented to calculate effective opacity for an inhomogeneous, pressure-equilibrated gold/foam mixture based on the Levermore—Pomraning method for binary stochastic media. The effective opacity dependance on the size of the gold particles and the foam temperature are studied. The results suggest that when the mixture temperature is lower than 250 eV, the opacity difference between the 5 μm particle mix case and the atomic mix case is large enough to induce a significant discrepancy in radiation transport, which is confirmed by the hydrodynamic simulation

  14. Study of multifragmentation: contribution of reduced velocity correlations between particles and fragments; Etude de la multifragmentation: apport des correlations en vitesse reduite entre particules et fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fevre, A. [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-05-14

    This work is focused on the study of fragment and light particle production mechanisms in the multifragmentation process of hot nuclei, which are formed in the central collisions of Xe+Sn at 50 MeV/u. The experiment has been performed with the INDRA multidetector. The central collision events, selected via the flow angle variable, exhibit the presence of a heavy (Z=90) and highly excited (E{sup *}=12.5 MeV/u) isotropic emission source. The comparison of the data with a statistical multifragmentation model (MMMC) and a dynamical model (BNV) makes us conclude that the multifragmentation can only be explained in the frame of a relatively cold process, around 6 MeV/u of thermal excitation energy, preceded by a primary emission stage of the expanding source, during which nearly one third of the excitation energy is dissipated. In addition, it appears that the fragment energy spectra are not explained by a purely thermal process, and that one has to put forward an expansion collective motion, of 2 MeV/u of energy, following the compression of the compound system. In order to precise the existence of a two-step particle emission (primary and secondary), we have developed and applied an original method of reduced velocity correlations between particles and fragments. It has allowed us to underline two distinct origins for the particle production: one corresponding to secondary emissions, coming from the fragments, and the other one, associated with emissions which occur prior to the fragment production. At last, it has allowed us, also to bring out a hierarchy in the emission time in the decay process, with respect to the particle type. (author) 90 refs.

  15. Phospholipid-assisted synthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Peng; Zhu Xinyuan

    2007-01-01

    Morphology and size control of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by phospholipids (PLs) has been reported. It was found that gold entities could form nanostructures with different sizes controlled by PLs in an aqueous solution. During the preparation of 1.5 nm gold seeds, AuNPs were obtained from the reduction of gold complex by sodium borohydride and capped by citrate for stabilization. With the different ratios between seed solution and growth solution, which was composed by gold complex and PLs, gold seeds grew into larger nanoparticles step by step until enough large size up to 30 nm. The main discovery of this work is that common biomolecules, such as PLs can be used to control nanoparticle size. This conclusion has been confirmed by transmission electron micrographs, particle size analysis, and UV-vis spectra

  16. Radiofrequency Heating Pathways for Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C. B.; McCoy, R. S.; Ackerson, B. J.; Collins, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    This feature article reviews the thermal dissipation of nanoscopic gold under radiofrequency (RF) irradiation. It also presents previously unpublished data addressing obscure aspects of this phenomenon. While applications in biology motivated initial investigation of RF heating of gold nanoparticles, recent controversy concerning whether thermal effects can be attributed to nanoscopic gold highlight the need to understand the involved mechanism or mechanisms of heating. Both the nature of the particle and the nature of the RF field influence heating. Aspects of nanoparticle chemistry and physics, including the hydrodynamic diameter of the particle, the oxidation state and related magnetism of the core, and the chemical nature of the ligand shell may all strongly influence to what extent a nanoparticle heats in an RF field. Aspects of RF include: power, frequency and antenna designs that emphasize relative strength of magnetic or electric fields, and also influence the extent to which a gold nanoparticle heats in RF. These nanoparticle and RF properties are analysed in the context of three heating mechanisms proposed to explain gold nanoparticle heating in an RF field. This article also makes a critical analysis of the existing literature in the context of the nanoparticle preparations, RF structure, and suggested mechanisms in previously reported experiments. PMID:24962620

  17. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Joerg; Ristig, Simon [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Greulich, Christina [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Li Zian; Farle, Michael [University of Duisburg-Essen, Faculty of Physics, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany); Koeller, Manfred [Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bergmannsheil University Hospital/Surgical Research (Germany); Epple, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.epple@uni-due.de [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE) (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 {mu}g mL{sup -1} induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  18. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver-gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li, Zi-An; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Silver, gold, and silver-gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15-25 nm), gold (5-6 nm), and silver-gold (50:50; 10-12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver-gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver-gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver-gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5-20 μg mL-1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  19. Silver, gold, and alloyed silver–gold nanoparticles: characterization and comparative cell-biologic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahl, Dirk; Diendorf, Jörg; Ristig, Simon; Greulich, Christina; Li Zian; Farle, Michael; Köller, Manfred; Epple, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Silver, gold, and silver–gold-alloy nanoparticles were prepared by citrate reduction modified by the addition of tannin during the synthesis, leading to a reduction in particle size by a factor of three. Nanoparticles can be prepared by this easy water-based synthesis and subsequently functionalized by the addition of either tris(3-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine or poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). The resulting nanoparticles of silver (diameter 15–25 nm), gold (5–6 nm), and silver–gold (50:50; 10–12 nm) were easily dispersable in water and also in cell culture media (RPMI + 10 % fetal calf serum), as shown by nanoparticle tracking analysis and differential centrifugal sedimentation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a polycrystalline nature of all nanoparticles. EDX on single silver–gold nanoparticles indicated that the concentration of gold is higher inside a nanoparticle. The biologic action of the nanoparticles toward human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was different: Silver nanoparticles showed a significant concentration-dependent influence on the viability of hMSC. Gold nanoparticles showed only a small effect on the viability of hMSC after 7 days. Surprisingly, silver–gold nanoparticles had no significant influence on the viability of hMSC despite the silver content. Silver nanoparticles and silver–gold nanoparticles in the concentration range of 5–20 μg mL −1 induced the activation of hMSC as indicated by the release of IL-8. In contrast, gold nanoparticles led to a reduction of the release of IL-6 and IL-8.

  20. Immobilization of gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces for safe and enhanced gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, Stefan; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Gentemann, Lara; Meyer, Heiko; Ripken, Tammo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. In comparison to standard transfection methods, gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection has proven to be a versatile alternative. This is based on its minor influence on cell viability and its high efficiency, especially for the delivery of small molecules like small interfering RNA. However, in order to transfer it to routine usage, a safety aspect is of major concern: The avoidance of nanoparticle uptake by the cells is desired. The immobilization of the gold nanoparticles on cell culture surfaces can address this issue. In this study, we achieved this by silanization of the appropriate surfaces and the binding of gold nanoparticles to them. Comparable perforation efficiencies to the previous approaches of gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection with free gold nanoparticles are demonstrated. The uptake of the immobilized particles by the cells is unlikely. Consequently, these investigations offer the possibility of bringing gold nanoparticle-mediated laser transfection closer to routine usage. PMID:25069006

  1. Effect of surface roughness on substrate-tuned gold nanoparticle gap plasmon resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumdee, Chatdanai; Yun, Binfeng; Kik, Pieter G

    2015-03-07

    The effect of nanoscale surface roughness on the gap plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles on thermally evaporated gold films is investigated experimentally and numerically. Single-particle scattering spectra obtained from 80 nm diameter gold particles on a gold film show significant particle-to-particle variation of the peak scattering wavelength of ±28 nm. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations of gold nanoparticles positioned on representative rough gold surfaces, modeled based on atomic force microscopy measurements. The predicted spectral variation and average resonance wavelength show good agreement with the measured data. The study shows that nanometer scale surface roughness can significantly affect the performance of gap plasmon-based devices.

  2. Application of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique to the thermal-hydraulics project of a PWR reactor core in reduced scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Junior, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2008-09-01

    The reduced scale models design have been employed by engineers from several different industries fields such as offshore, spatial, oil extraction, nuclear industries and others. Reduced scale models are used in experiments because they are economically attractive than its own prototype (real scale) because in many cases they are cheaper than a real scale one and most of time they are also easier to build providing a way to lead the real scale design allowing indirect investigations and analysis to the real scale system (prototype). A reduced scale model (or experiment) must be able to represent all physical phenomena that occurs and further will do in the real scale one under operational conditions, e.g., in this case the reduced scale model is called similar. There are some different methods to design a reduced scale model and from those two are basic: the empiric method based on the expert's skill to determine which physical measures are relevant to the desired model; and the differential equation method that is based on a mathematical description of the prototype (real scale system) to model. Applying a mathematical technique to the differential equation that describes the prototype then highlighting the relevant physical measures so the reduced scale model design problem may be treated as an optimization problem. Many optimization techniques as Genetic Algorithm (GA), for example, have been developed to solve this class of problems and have also been applied to the reduced scale model design problem as well. In this work, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is investigated as an alternative optimization tool for such problem. In this investigation a computational approach, based on particle swarm optimization technique (PSO), is used to perform a reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, considering 100% of nominal power operation on a forced flow cooling circulation and non-accidental operating conditions. A performance comparison

  3. Gold and uranium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.S.; Davidson, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A process for extracting gold and uranium from an ore containing them both comprising the steps of pulping the finely comminuted ore with a suitable cyanide solution at an alkaline pH, acidifying the pulp for uranium dissolution, adding carbon activated for gold recovery to the pulp at a suitable stage, separating the loaded activated carbon from the pulp, and recovering gold from the activated carbon and uranium from solution

  4. Gold mineralogy and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J. [Monash University, Physics Department (Australia)

    1998-12-15

    Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed.

  5. Gold mineralogy and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Several examples are examined in which Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of gold mineral samples, treated concentrates and extracted species has provided information not obtainable by competing techniques. Descriptions are given of current work on bacterial oxidation of pyritic ores and on the adsorbed species from gold extracted from cyanide and chloride solutions onto activated carbon and polyurethane foams. The potential benefits for the gold mining industry from Moessbauer studies and some limitations on the use of the technique are also discussed

  6. Biomolecular Assembly of Gold Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine Marya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-20

    Over the past ten years, methods have been developed to construct discrete nanostructures using nanocrystals and biomolecules. While these frequently consist of gold nanocrystals and DNA, semiconductor nanocrystals as well as antibodies and enzymes have also been used. One example of discrete nanostructures is dimers of gold nanocrystals linked together with complementary DNA. This type of nanostructure is also known as a nanocrystal molecule. Discrete nanostructures of this kind have a number of potential applications, from highly parallel self-assembly of electronics components and rapid read-out of DNA computations to biological imaging and a variety of bioassays. My research focused in three main areas. The first area, the refinement of electrophoresis as a purification and characterization method, included application of agarose gel electrophoresis to the purification of discrete gold nanocrystal/DNA conjugates and nanocrystal molecules, as well as development of a more detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior of these materials in gels. The second area, the development of methods for quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscope data, used computer programs written to find pair correlations as well as higher order correlations. With these programs, it is possible to reliably locate and measure nanocrystal molecules in TEM images. The final area of research explored the use of DNA ligase in the formation of nanocrystal molecules. Synthesis of dimers of gold particles linked with a single strand of DNA possible through the use of DNA ligase opens the possibility for amplification of nanostructures in a manner similar to polymerase chain reaction. These three areas are discussed in the context of the work in the Alivisatos group, as well as the field as a whole.

  7. Urban artisanal gold shops and mercury emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordy, P.; Veiga, M.; Carrasco, V.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Artisanal miners in developing countries use mercury amalgamation processes to extract gold. The amalgams are then refined before being sold on to urban gold shops. The amalgams can often contain between 2 to 40 per cent mercury. Unburned amalgams are also often sold directly to gold shops. There are serious health risks for shop employees and nearby populations when the gold is melted and further purified. Studies have shown that mercury concentrations in the ambient air of gold shops often exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) limits by an order of magnitude or more. This study examined the practices and technologies used to refine gold in Latin America and Indonesia. The study compared and contrasted various refining methods and their resulting mercury emissions. Methods of reducing mercury emissions were also investigated, including a filtration system designed to capture 80 per cent of mercury emissions. Barriers to implementing mercury emissions reduction plans were also investigated. It was concluded that the design of urban gold shops must include condensers, fume hoods, and efficient mercury capture systems. 15 refs

  8. Bubble template synthesis of hollow gold nanoparticles and their applications as theranostic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chienwen

    Hollow gold nanoparticle with a sub-30nm polycrystalline shell and a 50 nm hollow core has been successfully synthesized through the reduction of sodium gold sulfite by electrochemically evolved hydrogen. Such hollow gold nanoparticles exhibit unique plasmonic properties. They strongly scatter and absorb near infrared light. In this thesis we seek to understand the formation mechanism of hollow gold nanoparticles in this new synthesis process and their plasmonic properties. Also, we explore their biomedical applications as theranostic agents (therapeutic and diagnostic imaging). A lithographically patterned electrode consisting of Ag stripes on a glass substrate was used to investigate the formation process of hollow gold nanoparticles. Ag stripes served as working electrode for electrochemically evolution of hydrogen, and adjacent glass areas provided supporting surface for hydrogen nanobubbles nucleation and growth. Hydrogen nanobubbles served as both templates and reducing agents to trigger the autocatalytic disproportionation reaction of sodium gold sulfite. The effects of applied potential and the additives in the electrolyte have been studied. It has been found that the size and size distribution of hollow gold nanoparticle are directly relative to the applied potential, i.e. the hydrogen evolution rate. It has also been found the addition of Ni2+ ions can greatly improve the size distribution of hollow gold nanoparticles that can be contributed to that the newly electrodeposited nickel metal can enhance the hydrogen evolution efficiency. Another additive, ethylenediamine (EDA) can suppress the autocatalytic reaction of gold sulfite to increase the stability of sodium gold sulfite electrolyte. To capture such electrochemically evolved hydrogen nanobubbles, and subsequently to generate hollow gold nanoparticles in large numbers, alumina membranes were placed on the top of the working electrode. Anodic alumina membrane consists of ~200 nm pores, which provides

  9. Synthesis and characterization of silica–gold core-shell (SiO2@Au ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper reports a systematic investigation of the growth and attachment of small gold nanoparticles to the functionalized surface of larger silica nanoparticles by three different methods. Nearly monodispersed silica particles and gold nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel method. The size of the particle could ...

  10. Synthesis of gold nanostructures with optical properties within the near-infrared window for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Soto, Mariano de Jesus

    The work reported in this dissertation describes the design and synthesis of different gold nanoshells with strong absorption coefficients at the near-infrared region (NIR) of the spectrum, and includes preliminary studies of their use for the photo-induced heating of pancreatic cancer cells and ex vivo tissues. As the emphasis was on gold nanoshells with maximum extinctions located at 800 nm, the methods explored for their synthesis led us to the preparation of silica-core and hollow gold nanoshells of improved stability, with maximum extinctions at or beyond the targeted within the near-infrared window. The synthesis of silica-core gold nanoshells was investigated first given its relevance as one of the pioneering methods to produce gold nanostructures with strong absorption and scattering coefficients in the visible and the near-infrared regions of the spectrum. By using a classical method of synthesis, we explored the aging of the precursor materials and the effect of using higher concentrations than the customary for the reduction of gold during the shell growth. We found that the aging for one week of the as-prepared or purified precursors, namely, the gold cluster suspensions, and the seeded silica particles, along with higher concentrations of gold in the plating solution, produced fully coated nanoshells of 120 nm in size with smooth surfaces and maximum extinctions around 800 nm. Additional work carried out to reduce the time and steps in the synthesis of silica-core gold nanoshells, led us to improve the seeding step by increasing the ionic strength of the cluster suspension, and also to explore the growth of gold on tin-seeded silica nanoparticles. The synthesis of hollow gold nanoshells (HGS) of with maximum extinctions at the NIR via the galvanic replacement of silver nanoparticles for gold in solution was explored next. A first method explored led us to obtain HGS with maximum extinctions between 650 and 800 nm and sizes between 30 and 80 nm from

  11. Synthesis and electromagnetic absorption properties of Ag-coated reduced graphene oxide with MnFe_2O_4 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Xinming; Zhang, Wenzhi; Huang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    A ternary composite of Ag/MnFe_2O_4/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The morphology, microstructure, magnetic and electromagnetic properties of as-prepared Ag/MnFe_2O_4/RGO composite were characterized by means of XRD, TEM, XPS, VSM and vector network analyzer. The maximum reflection loss (R_L) of Ag/ MnFe_2O_4/RGO composite shows maximum absorption of −38 dB at 6 GHz with the thickness of 3.5 mm, and the absorption bandwidth with the R_L below −10 dB is up to 3.5 GHz (from 3.7 to 7.2 GHz). The result demonstrates that the introduction of Ag significantly leads to the multiple absorbing mechanisms. It is believed that such composite could serve as a powerful candidate for microwave absorber. - Highlights: • A ternary composite of Ag/MnFe_2O_4/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was synthesized by a facile method. • The morphology, microstructure, magnetic and electromagnetic properties were characterized. • The maximum reflection loss of Ag/MnFe_2O_4/RGO is −38 dB at 6 GHz with a thickness of 3.5 mm. • The composite shows a wide absorption band.

  12. Carbonate hosted gold deposit in Tasmania, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadi, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: This study uses elemental and isotopic composition of carbonates associated with gold from Henty and Beaconsfield in Tasmania, Australia, to illustrate source of gold-bearing fluids, salinity, temperature and dissolution and reprecipitation of carbonate. The Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are located in northern and western Tasmania respectively. Gold mineralisation in Beaconsfield occurs within the quartz-carbonate Tasmania Reef (Lower to Middle Palaeozoic sequence, Hills, 1998). The Henty gold mine is located at the base of the Cambrian Tyndall Group (volcano-sedimentary succession, White and McPhie, 1996) close to Henty Fault. Gold in carbonate samples from Henty ranges from 7.7 to 9360 ppm and in Beaconsfield ranges from 0.01 to 434 ppm. The amount of carbonate in samples from Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines varies from approximately 24 to 99.8%. Bivariate plot of Ca relative to total amounts of Mg, Fe and Mn illustrates that the major carbonate minerals at Beaconsfield and Henty gold mines are magnesian ankerite and calcite. The difference in carbonate mineralogy, at Henty and Beaconsfield gold mines, is attributed to the composition of fluids responsible for carbonate alteration. Gold and magnesium in Beaconsfield ankerite are derived from the leaching of Cambrian ultramafic rocks during the Devonian by the passage of meteoric fluids through tectonically affected Ordovician carbonates (Rao and Adabi, 1999). The total concentration of Fe and Mn are low (0.5 to 2%) in Henty and high (1 to 17.5%) in Beaconsfield ankerite, possibly due to oxidising conditions at Henty and reducing conditions at Beaconsfield gold mines during gold mineralisation. Variation of Sr values between Beaconsfield ankerite and Henty calcite is related to dissolution of limestone that increase Sr concentrations in gold mineralising fluids. Na values in both Beaconsfield (20 to 1100 ppm) and Henty carbonates (25 to 1650 ppm) suggest low salinity fluids responsible for gold

  13. Microplastics Reduce Short-Term Effects of Environmental Contaminants. Part II: Polyethylene Particles Decrease the Effect of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinteich, Julia; Seidensticker, Sven; Marggrander, Nikolaj; Zarfl, Christiane

    2018-02-07

    Microplastic particles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are currently discussed as an emerging persistent organic pollutant and as acting as a vector for hydrophobic chemicals. Microplastic particles may ultimately deposit and accumulate in soil as well as marine and freshwater sediments where they can be harmful to organisms. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of natural freshwater sediment bacterial communities (by genetic fingerprint) to exposure to microplastics (polyethylene, 2 and 20 mg/g sediment) and microplastics loaded with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, phenanthrene and anthracene), using a laboratory-based approach. After two weeks of incubation, the bacterial community composition from an unpolluted river section was altered by high concentrations of microplastics, whereas the community downstream of a wastewater treatment plant remained unchanged. Low microplastic concentrations loaded with phenanthrene or anthracene induced a less pronounced response in the sediment communities compared to the same total amount of phenanthrene or anthracene alone. In addition, biodegradation of the PAHs was reduced. This study shows, that microplastic can affect bacterial community composition in unpolluted freshwater sediments. Moreover, the results indicate that microplastics can serve as a vehicle for hydrophobic pollutants but bioavailability of the latter is reduced by the sorption to microplastics.

  14. Microplastics Reduce Short-Term Effects of Environmental Contaminants. Part II: Polyethylene Particles Decrease the Effect of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kleinteich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microplastic particles in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are currently discussed as an emerging persistent organic pollutant and as acting as a vector for hydrophobic chemicals. Microplastic particles may ultimately deposit and accumulate in soil as well as marine and freshwater sediments where they can be harmful to organisms. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of natural freshwater sediment bacterial communities (by genetic fingerprint to exposure to microplastics (polyethylene, 2 and 20 mg/g sediment and microplastics loaded with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, phenanthrene and anthracene, using a laboratory-based approach. After two weeks of incubation, the bacterial community composition from an unpolluted river section was altered by high concentrations of microplastics, whereas the community downstream of a wastewater treatment plant remained unchanged. Low microplastic concentrations loaded with phenanthrene or anthracene induced a less pronounced response in the sediment communities compared to the same total amount of phenanthrene or anthracene alone. In addition, biodegradation of the PAHs was reduced. This study shows, that microplastic can affect bacterial community composition in unpolluted freshwater sediments. Moreover, the results indicate that microplastics can serve as a vehicle for hydrophobic pollutants but bioavailability of the latter is reduced by the sorption to microplastics.

  15. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  16. Particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  17. Leaching of a gold bearing partially roasted sulphide. Laboratory scale studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Almeida

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at defining a route for recovering precious metals from a very heterogeneous gold bearing sulphide and arsenide concentrate that was partially roasted and dumped by the 1960s when Santo António mine closed. Gold occurs in this concentrate as free particles in the range of 10-100 mum, most of them still enclosed in the pyrite and arsenopyrite matrix. Its content varies from 20 to 150 g of Au/ton, being higher at the dump upper levels and in the finer concentrate fractions. Preliminary tests demonstrated the refractoriness of this product, since the leaching with conventional cyanide solutions and with other leaching solutions gave very low recoveries. However, high concentrated cyanide solutions recover more than 60% of Au, although with high NaCN and lime consumptions and poor settling characteristics. Iron was shown to be highly dissolved in these solutions. Some prior treatments clearly favoured the cyanidation process, in particular a roasting step. Thus, a large number of roasting experiments was carried out to define the most favourable conditions for recovering gold. However, no clear relationship between roasting conditions and gold dissolution was found due to the heterogeneity of the product and high variance of gold experimental recoveries. These recoveries were calculated considering gold contained in both the leaching residues and leachates, and uncertainties of these results are relatively high. Roasting the product at 450-700 °C for 1 h guarantees a high probability to dissolve at least 74% Au in a highly concentrated NaCN solution stirred for 24 h. The 600-700 °C roasting range is clearly preferable for consuming less cyanide and lime. Pre-washing the roasted product seems not to reduce the cyanide consumption. Regarding the silver recovery, the NaCN and lime consumption are higher while using the products roasted at the lowest tested temperatures. Products roasted at higher temperatures have better settling

  18. Role of nanostructured gold surfaces on monocyte activation and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sara Svensson,1,2 Magnus Forsberg,1,2 Mats Hulander,1,2 Forugh Vazirisani,1,2 Anders Palmquist,1,2 Jukka Lausmaa,2,3 Peter Thomsen,1,2 Margarita Trobos1,21Department of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, SwedenAbstract: The role of material surface properties in the direct interaction with bacteria and the indirect route via host defense cells is not fully understood. Recently, it was suggested that nanostructured implant surfaces possess antimicrobial properties. In the current study, the adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and human monocyte adhesion and activation were studied separately and in coculture in different in vitro models using smooth gold and well-defined nanostructured gold surfaces. Two polystyrene surfaces were used as controls in the monocyte experiments. Fluorescent viability staining demonstrated a reduction in the viability of S. epidermidis close to the nanostructured gold surface, whereas the smooth gold correlated with more live biofilm. The results were supported by scanning electron microscopy observations, showing higher biofilm tower formations and more mature biofilms on smooth gold compared with nanostructured gold. Unstimulated monocytes on the different substrates demonstrated low activation, reduced gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and low cytokine secretion. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan or opsonized live S. epidermidis for 1 hour significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, as well as the secretion of TNF-α, demonstrating the ability of the cells to elicit a response and actively phagocytose prey. In addition, cells cultured on the smooth

  19. Influence of temperature on the formation and encapsulation of gold nanoparticles using a temperature-sensitive template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Peter Bengzon Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes the synthesis of temperature-sensitive and amine-rich microgel particle as a dual reductant and template to generate smart gold/polymer nanocomposite particle. TEM images illustrate the influence of reaction temperature on the formation and in-site encapsulation of gold nanoparticles using the temperature-sensitive microgel template. Thermal stability of the resultant gold/polymer composite particles was also examined.

  20. Subcellular localization of alkaline phosphatase in Bacillus licheniformis 749/C by immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinglu, G.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, B.K.

    1984-01-01

    Subcellular distribution of the alkaline phosphatase of Bacillus licheniformis 749/C was determined by an immunoelectron microscopy method. Anti-alkaline phosphatase antibody labeled with 15- to 18-nm colloidal gold particles (gold-immunoglobulin G [IgG] complex) were used for the study. Both the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic material were labeled with the gold-IgG particles. These particles formed clusters in association with the plasma membrane; in contrast, in the cytoplasm the particles were largely dispersed, and only a few clusters were found. The gold-IgG binding was quantitatively estimated by stereological analysis of labeled, frozen thin sections. This estimation of a variety of control samples showed that the labeling was specific for the alkaline phosphatase. Cluster formation of the gold -IgG particles in association with the plasma membrane suggests that existence of specific alkaline phosphatase binding sites (receptors) in the plasma membrane of B. licheniformis 749/C. 27 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  1. Preparation of gold ethanol colloid by the arc discharge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, K.-H.; Huang, J.-C.; Liao, C.-Y.; Tien, D.-C.; Tsung, T.-T.

    2009-01-01

    A new method using the arc discharge method (ADM) to synthesize gold nanoparticles in an anhydrous ethanol was studied. Fabricated gold nanoparticles were characterized by different techniques. Unlike conventional methods for metal nanoparticles synthesis, the ADM method does not require application of chemical surfactants and stabilizers. The microstructure of ADM-produced gold nanoparticles was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The particle size was found in the range of 2-40 nm. The chemical composition of gold nanoparticles has been confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The crystal structure of the nanoscale gold particles was studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. Images of the gold nanoparticles, Zeta potential, size distribution, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorbance were investigated. This innovative approach for gold nanoparticles preparation has been successfully established. The experimental results showed that the ADM technique is easy, cheap and clean method which can be used to manufacture gold nanoparticles suspended in ethanol solution without any surfactant

  2. Biological synthesis and characterization of intracellular gold ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, Aspergillus fumigatus was used for the intracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Stable nanoparticles were produced when an aqueous solution of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) was reduced by A. fumigatus biomass as the reducing agent. Production of nanoparticles was confirmed by the colour ...

  3. BROOKHAVEN: High energy gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleser, Ed

    1992-01-01

    On April 24, Brookhaven's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) started to deliver gold ions at 11.4 GeV per nucleon (2,000 GeV per ion) to experimenters who were delighted not only to receive the world's highest energy gold beam but also to receive it on schedule

  4. The role of particle jamming on the formation and stability of step-pool morphology: insight from a reduced-complexity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletti, M.; Molnar, P.; Hassan, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Granular processes have been recognized as key drivers in earth surface dynamics, especially in steep landscapes because of the large size of sediment found in channels. In this work we focus on step-pool morphologies, studying the effect of particle jamming on step formation. Starting from the jammed-state hypothesis, we assume that grains generate steps because of particle jamming and those steps are inherently more stable because of additional force chains in the transversal direction. We test this hypothesis with a particle-based reduced-complexity model, CAST2, where sediment is organized in patches and entrainment, transport and deposition of grains depend on flow stage and local topography through simplified phenomenological rules. The model operates with 2 grain sizes: fine grains, that can be mobilized both my large and moderate flows, and coarse grains, mobile only during large floods. First, we identify the minimum set of processes necessary to generate and maintain steps in a numerical channel: (a) occurrence of floods, (b) particle jamming, (c) low sediment supply, and (d) presence of sediment with different entrainment probabilities. Numerical results are compared with field observations collected in different step-pool channels in terms of step density, a variable that captures the proportion of the channel occupied by steps. Not only the longitudinal profiles of numerical channels display step sequences similar to those observed in real step-pool streams, but also the values of step density are very similar when all the processes mentioned before are considered. Moreover, with CAST2 it is possible to run long simulations with repeated flood events, to test the effect of flood frequency on step formation. Numerical results indicate that larger step densities belong to system more frequently perturbed by floods, compared to system having a lower flood frequency. Our results highlight the important interactions between external hydrological forcing and

  5. Applications of Gold Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine: Recent Advances in Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabineiro, Sónia Alexandra Correia

    2017-05-22

    Nowadays, gold is used in (nano-)medicine, usually in the form of nanoparticles, due to the solid proofs given of its therapeutic effects on several diseases. Gold also plays an important role in the vaccine field as an adjuvant and a carrier, reducing toxicity, enhancing immunogenic activity, and providing stability in storage. An even brighter golden future is expected for gold applications in this area.

  6. Improved synthesis of gold and silver nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Silva, Antonio M; Sobral-Filho, Regivaldo G; Barbosa-Silva, Renato; de Araújo, Cid B; Galembeck, André; Brolo, Alexandre G

    2013-04-02

    Metallic nanoshells have been in evidence as multifunctional particles for optical and biomedical applications. Their surface plasmon resonance can be tuned over the electromagnetic spectrum by simply adjusting the shell thickness. Obtaining these particles, however, is a complex and time-consuming process, which involves the preparation and functionalization of silica nanoparticles, synthesis of very small metallic nanoparticles seeds, attachment of these seeds to the silica core, and, finally, growing of the shells in a solution commonly referred as K-gold. Here we present synthetic modifications that allow metallic nanoshells to be obtained in a faster and highly reproducible manner. The main improved steps include a procedure for quick preparation of 2.3 ± 0.5 nm gold particles and a faster approach to synthesize the silica cores. An investigation on the effect of the stirring speed on the shell growth showed that the optimal stirring speeds for gold and silver shells were 190 and 1500 rpm, respectively. In order to demonstrate the performance of the nanoshells fabricated by our method in a typical plasmonic application, a method to immobilize these particles on a glass slide was implemented. The immobilized nanoshells were used as substrates for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering from Nile Blue A.

  7. Microbially Induced Precipitation of Gold(0) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Yu; Kang, Serku; Park, Bitna; Kim, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize gold nanoparticles by biomineralization using metal-reducing bacteria and to characterize their mineralogical properties. The metal-reducing bacteria were able to reduce Au(III) to Au(0) with organic fatty acids as electron donors, as indicated by the color change of the culture solution from colorless gold ions to black precipitates at 25 degrees C. XRD, SEM- and TEM-EDS analyses of the precipitates showed that Au(0) was precipitated and formed at either the cell membrane or extracellularly. The Au(0) nanoparticles were about 200 nm in size and ball-shaped. Biomineralization for elemental Au(0) nanoparticle synthesis may be useful for the recovery of natural gold in natural environments.

  8. Multidentate-Protected Colloidal Gold Nanocrystals: pH Control of Cooperative Precipitation and Surface Layer Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairdolf, Brad A.; Nie, Shuming

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal gold nanocrystals with broad size tunability and unusual pH-sensitive properties have been synthesized by using multidentate polymer ligands. Containing both carboxylic functional groups and sterically hindered aliphatic chains, the multidentate ligands are able to both reduce gold precursors and to stabilize gold nanoclusters during nucleation and growth. The “as-synthesized” nanocrystals are protected by an inner coordinating layer and an outer polymer layer, and are soluble in water and polar solvents. When the solution pH is lowered by just 0.6 units (from pH 4.85 to 4.25), the particles undergo a dramatic cooperative transition from being soluble to insoluble, allowing rapid isolation, purification, and redispersion of the multidentate-protected nanocrystals. A surprise finding is that when a portion of the surface carboxylate groups is neutralized by protonation, the particles irreversibly shed their outer polymer layer and become soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. Further, the multidentate polymer coatings are permeable to small organic molecules, in contrast to tightly packed self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold. These insights are important towards the design of “smart” imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles that are activated by small pH changes in the tumor interstitial space or endocytic organelles. PMID:21510704

  9. Gold nanoparticles in oxidation catalysis [Les nanoparticules d'or en catalyse d'oxydation

    KAUST Repository

    Caps, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    On the other hand, it seems to catalyze the formation of reduced and active dioxygen species in the presence of a reductant (hydrogen or hydrocarbon) and the decomposition of organic hydroperoxides. It thus allows using an alkane as a promoter of the epoxidation of an alkene. In the liquid phase, this translates into an ultra-selective radical mechanism, initiated and controlled by gold particles, which uses oxygen from the air at atmospheric pressure as oxidant and which can be generalized to other types of oxidations. This unique activity at low temperature, which can be optimized upon a thorough control of the surface chemistry of the material, makes gold a catalyst of choice to reconsider the oxidative transformations of petrochemicals in an eco-efficient way.

  10. Nondestructive analysis of silver in gold foil using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Toshio; Shimoda, Osamu; Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Small particles of gold foil detached from an indoor decoration might be important evidence to associate a suspect with a crime scene. We have investigated the application of elemental analysis using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to discriminate small particles of gold foil. Eight kinds of gold foil samples collected in Japan were used in the experiments. As a result of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, only two elements, gold and silver, were detected from all gold foil samples. The intensity ratios of AgK α /AuL α showed good correlation with the content ratios of Ag/Au. The variation of intensity ratio within a same sample was sufficiently small compared with those of different samples. Therefore the comparison of this intensity ratio can be an effective method to discriminate small particles originating from different types of gold foil. (author)

  11. New method for preparation of polyoxometalate-capped gold nanoparticles, and their assembly on an indium-doped tin oxide electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, Z.; Liu, L.; Wu, Y.; Yang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Functionalized gold nanoparticles capped with polyoxometalates were prepared by a simple photoreduction technique where phosphododecamolybdates serve as reducing reagents, photocatalysts, and as stabilizers. TEM images of the resulting gold nanoparticles show the particles to have a relative narrow size distribution. Monolayer and multilayer structures of the negatively charged capped gold nanoparticles were deposited on a poly(vinyl pyridine)-derivatized indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrode via the layer-by-layer technique. The surface plasmon resonance band of the gold nanoparticles displays a blue shift on the surface of the ITO electrode. This is due to the substrate-induced charge redistribution in the gold nanoparticles and a change in the electromagnetic coupling between the assembled nanoparticles. The modified electrode exhibits the characteristic electrochemical behavior of surface-confined phosphododecamolybdate and excellent electrocatalytic activity. The catalysis of the modified electrode towards the model compound iodate was systematically studied. The heterogeneous catalytic rate constant for the electrochemical reduction of iodate was determined by chronoamperometry to be ca. 1. 34 x 10 5 mol -1 .L.s -1 . The amperometric method gave a linear range from 2. 5 x 10 -6 to 1. 5 x 10 -3 M and a detection limit of 1. 0 x 10 -6 M. We believe that the functionalized gold nanoparticles prepared by this photoreduction technique are advantageous in terms of fabrication of sensitive and stable redox electrodes. (author)

  12. Effect of pH and chloroauric acid concentration on the geometry of gold nanoparticles obtained by photochemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Rodríguez, G. R.; Gauthier, G. H.; Ladeira, L. O.; Sanabria Cala, J. A.; Laverde Cataño, D.

    2017-12-01

    Due to their excellent surface properties, gold nanoparticles have been used in a wide range of applications from optics and catalysis to biology and cancer treatment by thermal therapy. Gold nanoparticles can absorb a large amount of radiation according to their geometry, such as nanospheres and nanorods. The importance of gold nanoparticles geometry is based on the electromagnetic spectrum wavelength where exists a greater absorption of radiation, which belongs to the visible region for nanospheres and ranges between visible and near infrared regions for nanorods, conferring greater biomedical applicability to the latter. When using photochemical synthesis method, which consists of reducing gold atoms to their metallic state with UV radiation, the geometry of gold nanoparticles depends on different variables such as: 1) pH, 2) concentration of chloroauric acid, 3) the surfactant, 4) concentration of silver nitrate, 5) temperature and 6) irradiation time. Therefore, in this study the geometry of the gold nanoparticles obtained by photochemical synthesis was determined as a function of solution pH and chloroauric acid concentration, using Spectrophotometry in the Ultraviolet Visible region (UV-vis) as characterization technique. From the analysis of the UV-vis spectra, it was determined that at an acidic pH the particles have two absorption bands corresponding to nanorods geometry, while at a basic pH only nanospheres are found and at a neutral pH the lower relative intensity of the second band indicates the simultaneous existence of the two geometries. The increase in the concentration of chloroauric acid produces a decrease in the amount of synthesized nanorods, seen as a decrease of the relative intensity of the second absorption band. Therefore, obtaining gold nanoparticles with nanorods geometry favours fields such as biomedicine, because they are capable of absorbing infrared radiation and can be used as photosensitive agents in localized thermal therapy

  13. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  14. Minute synthesis of extremely stable gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Wang, Baoxiang; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Xie, Zhaohui; Fossum, Jon Otto; Yu, Xiaofeng; Raaen, Steinar

    2009-12-16

    We describe a rapid environmentally friendly wet-chemical approach to synthesize extremely stable non-toxic, biocompatible, water-soluble monodispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in one step at room temperature. The particles have been successfully achieved in just a few minutes by merely adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) acting as an initiator for the reduction of HAuCl(4) in aqueous solution in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) without the use of any reducing agent. It is also proved to be highly efficient for the preparation of AuNPs with controllable sizes. The AuNPs show remarkable stability in water media with high concentrations of salt, various buffer solutions and physiological conditions in biotechnology and biomedicine. Moreover, the AuNPs are also non-toxic at high concentration (100 microM). Therefore, it provides great opportunities to use these AuNPs for biotechnology and biomedicine. This new approach also involved several green chemistry concepts, such as the selection of environmentally benign reagents and solvents, without energy consumption, and less reaction time.

  15. Minute synthesis of extremely stable gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Min; Wang Baoxiang; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Xie Zhaohui; Fossum, Jon Otto; Yu Xiaofeng; Raaen, Steinar

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rapid environmentally friendly wet-chemical approach to synthesize extremely stable non-toxic, biocompatible, water-soluble monodispersed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in one step at room temperature. The particles have been successfully achieved in just a few minutes by merely adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) acting as an initiator for the reduction of HAuCl 4 in aqueous solution in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) without the use of any reducing agent. It is also proved to be highly efficient for the preparation of AuNPs with controllable sizes. The AuNPs show remarkable stability in water media with high concentrations of salt, various buffer solutions and physiological conditions in biotechnology and biomedicine. Moreover, the AuNPs are also non-toxic at high concentration (100 μM). Therefore, it provides great opportunities to use these AuNPs for biotechnology and biomedicine. This new approach also involved several green chemistry concepts, such as the selection of environmentally benign reagents and solvents, without energy consumption, and less reaction time.

  16. Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides by using a plasma technique and their application for removal of heavy-metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Changlun; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides (NZVI/rGOs) from spent graphene oxide (GO)-bound iron ions were developed by using a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method to improve the reactivity and stability of NZVI. The NZVI/rGOs exhibited excellent water treatment performance with excellent removal capacities of 187.16 and 396.37 mg g(-1) for chromium and lead, respectively. Moreover, the NZVI/rGOs could be regenerated by plasma treatment and maintained high removal ability after four cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis results implied that the removal mechanisms could be attributed to adsorption/precipitation, reduction, or both. Such multiple removal mechanisms by the NZVI/rGOs were attributed to the reduction ability of the NZVI particles and the role of dispersing and stabilizing abilities of the rGOs. The results indicated that the NZVI/rGOs prepared by a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method might be an effective composite for heavy-metal-ion removal. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. EGF Functionalized Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Promote EGF Photostability and EGFR Internalization for Photothermal Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Oliveira Silva

    Full Text Available The application of functionalized nanocarriers on photothermal therapy for cancer ablation has wide interest. The success of this application depends on the therapeutic efficiency and biocompatibility of the system, but also on the stability and biorecognition of the conjugated protein. This study aims at investigating the hypothesis that EGF functionalized polymer-coated gold nanoparticles promote EGF photostability and EGFR internalization, making these conjugated particles suitable for photothermal therapy. The conjugated gold nanoparticles (100-200 nm showed a plasmon absorption band located within the near-infrared range (650-900 nm, optimal for photothermal therapy applications. The effects of temperature, of polymer-coated gold nanoparticles and of UVB light (295nm on the fluorescence properties of EGF have been investigated with steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence properties of EGF, including the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts, is modulated by temperature and by the intensity of the excitation light. The presence of polymeric-coated gold nanoparticles reduced or even avoided the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts when EGF is exposed to UVB light, protecting this way the structure and function of EGF. Cytotoxicity studies of conjugated nanoparticles carried out in normal-like human keratinocytes showed small, concentration dependent decreases in cell viability (0-25%. Moreover, conjugated nanoparticles could activate and induce the internalization of overexpressed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in human lung carcinoma cells. In conclusion, the gold nanoparticles conjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor and coated with biopolymers developed in this work, show a potential application for near infrared photothermal therapy, which may efficiently destroy solid tumours, reducing the damage of the healthy tissue.

  18. EGF Functionalized Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles Promote EGF Photostability and EGFR Internalization for Photothermal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Petersen, Steffen B.; Reis, Catarina Pinto; Rijo, Patrícia; Molpeceres, Jesús; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Odete; Gomes, Andreia C.; Correia, Isabel; Vorum, Henrik; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The application of functionalized nanocarriers on photothermal therapy for cancer ablation has wide interest. The success of this application depends on the therapeutic efficiency and biocompatibility of the system, but also on the stability and biorecognition of the conjugated protein. This study aims at investigating the hypothesis that EGF functionalized polymer-coated gold nanoparticles promote EGF photostability and EGFR internalization, making these conjugated particles suitable for photothermal therapy. The conjugated gold nanoparticles (100–200 nm) showed a plasmon absorption band located within the near-infrared range (650–900 nm), optimal for photothermal therapy applications. The effects of temperature, of polymer-coated gold nanoparticles and of UVB light (295nm) on the fluorescence properties of EGF have been investigated with steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence properties of EGF, including the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts, is modulated by temperature and by the intensity of the excitation light. The presence of polymeric-coated gold nanoparticles reduced or even avoided the formation of Trp and Tyr photoproducts when EGF is exposed to UVB light, protecting this way the structure and function of EGF. Cytotoxicity studies of conjugated nanoparticles carried out in normal-like human keratinocytes showed small, concentration dependent decreases in cell viability (0–25%). Moreover, conjugated nanoparticles could activate and induce the internalization of overexpressed Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in human lung carcinoma cells. In conclusion, the gold nanoparticles conjugated with Epidermal Growth Factor and coated with biopolymers developed in this work, show a potential application for near infrared photothermal therapy, which may efficiently destroy solid tumours, reducing the damage of the healthy tissue. PMID:27788212

  19. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt Particles Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene RGO/PEDOT Composite towards Ethanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanito Raphael F. Foronda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts in fuel cells are normally platinum based because platinum exhibits high electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in acidic medium. However, bulk Pt is expensive and rare in nature. To reduce the consumption of Pt, a support material or matrix is needed to disperse Pt on its surface as micro- or nanoparticles with potential application as anode material in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs. In this study, a composite material consisting of platinum particles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (RGO/PEDOT support was electrochemically prepared for ethanol oxidation in sulfuric acid electrolyte. PEDOT, a conductive polymer, was potentiodynamically polymerized from the corresponding monomer, 0.10 M EDOT in 0.10 M HClO4 electrolyte. The PEDOT-modified electrode was used as a substrate for exfoliated graphene oxide (EGO which was prepared by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite from carbon rod of spent batteries and subsequently reduced to form RGO. The Pt/RGO/PEDOT composite gave the highest electrocatalytic activity with an anodic current density of 2688.7 mA·cm−2 at E = 0.70 V (versus Ag/AgCl towards ethanol oxidation compared to bare Pt electrode and other composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the surface morphology of the hybrid composites while energy dispersive X-ray (EDX confirmed the presence of all the elements for the Pt/RGO/PEDOT composite.

  20. Far- and near-field optical properties of gold nanoparticle ensembles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkov, N N; Dikovska, A O; Dimitrov, I; Nikov, Ru; Atanasov, P A; Toshkova, R A; Gardeva, E G; Yossifova, L S; Alexandrov, M T

    2012-12-31

    The optical properties of gold nanoparticle clusters are presented from the point of view of their applications in biophotonics, where the absorption and scattering spectra are crucial. Generalised multiparticle Mie theory and finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique are used for theoretical description of the far- and nearfield optical properties of two dimensional nanoparticle ensembles. The system under consideration consists of spherical gold nanoparticles from 20 to 200 nm in diameter, forming 2D clusters in water. The properties of the far-field absorption and scattering spectra as a function of the cluster size, particle dimensions, and interparticle distance are investigated for ordered hexagonal structure of the particle arrays. It is found that the absorption efficiency can be shifted to the IR spectral range by increasing array size and decreasing interparticle distance. The increase in the array size also results in enhancement of the scattering efficiency while the absorption is reduced. The near-field intensity distribution is inhomogeneous over the array, as formation of zones with intensity enhancement of about two orders of magnitude is observed in specific areas. The optical properties of an ensemble whose configuration is reproduced from real experiments of gold nanoparticle deposition onto cancer cells are also presented. The results obtained can be used in designing of nanoparticle arrays with applications in biophotonics, bioimaging and photothermal therapy. (nanosystems)

  1. Far- and near-field optical properties of gold nanoparticle ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedyalkov, N N; Dikovska, A O; Dimitrov, I; Nikov, Ru; Atanasov, P A; Toshkova, R A; Gardeva, E G; Yossifova, L S; Alexandrov, M T

    2012-01-01

    The optical properties of gold nanoparticle clusters are presented from the point of view of their applications in biophotonics, where the absorption and scattering spectra are crucial. Generalised multiparticle Mie theory and finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique are used for theoretical description of the far- and nearfield optical properties of two dimensional nanoparticle ensembles. The system under consideration consists of spherical gold nanoparticles from 20 to 200 nm in diameter, forming 2D clusters in water. The properties of the far-field absorption and scattering spectra as a function of the cluster size, particle dimensions, and interparticle distance are investigated for ordered hexagonal structure of the particle arrays. It is found that the absorption efficiency can be shifted to the IR spectral range by increasing array size and decreasing interparticle distance. The increase in the array size also results in enhancement of the scattering efficiency while the absorption is reduced. The near-field intensity distribution is inhomogeneous over the array, as formation of zones with intensity enhancement of about two orders of magnitude is observed in specific areas. The optical properties of an ensemble whose configuration is reproduced from real experiments of gold nanoparticle deposition onto cancer cells are also presented. The results obtained can be used in designing of nanoparticle arrays with applications in biophotonics, bioimaging and photothermal therapy. (nanosystems)

  2. Significant Enhancement of the Chiral Correlation Length in Nematic Liquid Crystals by Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces Featuring Axially Chiral Binaphthyl Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-26

    surface is diminished as the size of the particle is reduced. However, in comparison to the free ligands, per chiral molecule all tested gold nanoparticles induce helical distortions in a 10- to 50-fold larger number of liquid crystal host molecules surrounding each particle, indicating a significantly enhanced chiral correlation length. We propose that both the helicity and the chirality transfer efficiency of axially chiral binaphthyl derivatives can be controlled at metal nanoparticle surfaces by adjusting the particle size and curvature as well as the number and density of the chiral ligands to ultimately measure and tune the chiral correlation length.

  3. Medicinal gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.; Cottrill, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major use of gold compounds in the pharmaceutical industry is for anti-arthritic agents. The disease itself is not understood and little is known about the way in which the drugs act, but detailed pictures of the distribution of gold in the body are available, and some of the relevant biochemistry is beginning to emerge. The purpose of this article is to give a survey of the types of compounds presently employed in medicine, of the distribution of gold in the body which results from their use, and of some relevant chemistry. Emphasis is placed on results obtained in the last few years

  4. Ordered arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A combination of a “top-down” approach (substrate-conformal imprint lithography and two “bottom-up” approaches (dewetting and dealloying enables fabrication of perfectly ordered 2-dimensional arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles. The dewetting of Au/Ag bilayers on the periodically prepatterned substrates leads to the interdiffusion of Au and Ag and the formation of an array of Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles. The array of alloy nanoparticles is transformed into an array of nanoporous gold nanoparticles by a following dealloying step. Large areas of this new type of material arrangement can be realized with this technique. In addition, this technique allows for the control of particle size, particle spacing, and ligament size (or pore size by varying the period of the structure, total metal layer thickness, and the thickness ratio of the as-deposited bilayers.

  5. Biological synthesis of triangular gold nanoprisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, S. Shiv; Rai, Akhilesh; Ankamwar, Balaprasad; Singh, Amit; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

    2004-07-01

    The optoelectronic and physicochemical properties of nanoscale matter are a strong function of particle size. Nanoparticle shape also contributes significantly to modulating their electronic properties. Several shapes ranging from rods to wires to plates to teardrop structures may be obtained by chemical methods; triangular nanoparticles have been synthesized by using a seeded growth process. Here, we report the discovery that the extract from the lemongrass plant, when reacted with aqueous chloroaurate ions, yields a high percentage of thin, flat, single-crystalline gold nanotriangles. The nanotriangles seem to grow by a process involving rapid reduction, assembly and room-temperature sintering of 'liquid-like' spherical gold nanoparticles. The anisotropy in nanoparticle shape results in large near-infrared absorption by the particles, and highly anisotropic electron transport in films of the nanotriangles.

  6. Optical characterization of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} thin film modified gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naujok, P.; Katzer, C. [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Schmidl, G., E-mail: gabriele.schmidl@ipht-jena.de [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Albert-Einstein-Straße 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Jatschka, J.; Fritzsche, W. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), Albert-Einstein-Straße 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Schmidl, F. [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Different thick YBCO layers allow an active control of particle sizes and density distributions on film surfaces. • The gold volume on the YBCO film surface decreases with increasing YBCO layer thickness. • Combining SEM and dark-field microscopy via image processing. • Clear correlation of scattering spectrum and addressed particles supporting by a new Ti-marker technology. - Abstract: We report on the influence of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} (YBCO) thin films on the self-organized formation of gold nanoparticles. A thickness variation of the YBCO film allows one to actively control the size of the particles and their density distribution. In this context, the particle forming process is discussed. The YBCO matrix can be removed in order to reduce the particle density on the substrate. The remaining modified particles can be used in plasmonic applications. Combining scanning electron microscopy and dark-field microscopy permits one to identify a correlation of the measured scattering spectra with the physical properties of each studied particle. A clear assignment of spectrum and particle is supported by a new Ti-marker technology and image processing. Growth parameters allow the scientist to tune the spectral peak position of the plasmon resonance and the spectral bandwidth.

  7. Interaction of β-sheet folds with a gold surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hoefling

    Full Text Available The adsorption of proteins on inorganic surfaces is of fundamental biological importance. Further, biomedical and nanotechnological applications increasingly use interfaces between inorganic material and polypeptides. Yet, the underlying adsorption mechanism of polypeptides on surfaces is not well understood and experimentally difficult to analyze. Therefore, we investigate here the interactions of polypeptides with a gold(111 surface using computational molecular dynamics (MD simulations with a polarizable gold model in explicit water. Our focus in this paper is the investigation of the interaction of polypeptides with β-sheet folds. First, we concentrate on a β-sheet forming model peptide. Second, we investigate the interactions of two domains with high β-sheet content of the biologically important extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN. We find that adsorption occurs in a stepwise mechanism both for the model peptide and the protein. The positively charged amino acid Arg facilitates the initial contact formation between protein and gold surface. Our results suggest that an effective gold-binding surface patch is overall uncharged, but contains Arg for contact initiation. The polypeptides do not unfold on the gold surface within the simulation time. However, for the two FN domains, the relative domain-domain orientation changes. The observation of a very fast and strong adsorption indicates that in a biological matrix, no bare gold surfaces will be present. Hence, the bioactivity of gold surfaces (like bare gold nanoparticles will critically depend on the history of particle administration and the proteins present during initial contact between gold and biological material. Further, gold particles may act as seeds for protein aggregation. Structural re-organization and protein aggregation are potentially of immunological importance.

  8. Diatom. A potential bio-accumulator of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pal, R.; Ramaswami, A.; Nayak, D.; Lahiri, S.

    2006-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of gold in trace concentration by Nitzschia obtusa and Navicula minima, two members of bacillariophyceae, has been studied. It has been observed that Nitzschia obtusa showed better accumulation of gold in acidic pH in comparison to neutral and basic pH. Maximum accumulation was observed with 1 mg x kg -1 or less gold concentration. However, the accumulation by the living cells was reduced when the matrix concentration was higher. Navicula minima, on the other hand, found to be a better accumulator of gold in wide ranges of pH and substrate concentration of the media. It was also inferred that the gold accumulation by diatom was mainly due to adsorption by biosilica (siliceous frustules of dead diatom cells). Accumulated gold was recovered with conc. HNO 3 . (author)

  9. Mercury Exposure and Health Problems in Urban Artisanal Gold Mining (UAGM in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasriwiani Habo Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban artisanal gold mining (UAGM in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, has been run by a number of urban gold workers with gold jewelry manufacture as its core activity. The wastes generated from goldsmiths’ activities were further processed by the gold smelters to recover fine gold particles. Smelting gold doré, amalgamation, and burning out the amalgam were the mercury-based gold process usually applied in their work. While working the gold workers are, therefore, potentially exposed to a source of mercury pollution that may cause health problems because of working without proper protection. The aims of this research are to characterize the process of urban artisanal gold mining with the potential mercury exposures during the process, and to assess the health of the gold workers. The results showed that the gold workers had a low educational background, but a relatively high income. The total mercury concentration of gold workers was higher than the control group. They were exposed to intoxicatingly high levels of mercury with the average total mercury concentrations of 6.6 and 10.8 µg/g in the hair of indirect and direct exposed workers, respectively. The health assessment showed that 85% of the gold workers suffered neurological symptoms, such as tremors, and 44%–56% of them experienced restricted fields of vision, slow reflexes, sensory disturbances, unbalanced rigidity, and ataxia. The results also showed that the working years have reasonable correlation with the sum of the positive findings in the 10 neurological symptoms.

  10. Genetic Affiliation of Gold and Uranium Mineralization in El-Missikat Granite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, F.A.; Omar, S.A.M.; El Sawey, El.H.

    2016-01-01

    Gabal El-Missikat granitic pluton is affected by two fault systems trending NW-SE (the oldest) and ENE-WSW directions. It is one of the uranium occurrences in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The northwestern margins of El-Missikat pluton, along its contact with the gneissose quartz diorite, are dissected by numerous reactivated fractured shear zones running generally ENE-WSW to NE-SW and dipping about 60°-70° to SE. Many white (oldest), smoky or black and jasperoid (youngest) silica veinlets fill the fractures of these shear zones. These veins are of irregular shape and variable thickness ranging from few centimeters to about three meters. They are chiefly affected by silicification, sericitization, hematitization , kaolinization and hydrothermal alterations processes. The smoky black veins are hosting secondary uranium and fluorite-, sulphide-gold mineralizations. Polished surface studies, ICP-ES and Atomic Absorption as well as Scanning Electron Microscope measurements recorded galena, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite and molybdenite in the black and jasperoid mineralized veins. Gold associated with ore mineral assemblage as pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, sheelite and iron oxides. The identified sulphide minerals not bearing gold are recorded. Gold are relatively coarse-grained, massive and metallic yellow or stretched bronze colored particles. The recorded secondary U minerals associates the sulphide gold-mineralization in the black and jasperoid silica veins. Regarding the mobility of both uranium and gold, U 4+ mobilized in oxidizing medium and migrate and transport as U 6+ , then deposited later as U 4+ when the medium changes to be reducing characterized by high /O 2 . On contrary, gold mobilized when the medium is complex AuCl 3- ion bearing. Consequently, El- Missikat granitic pluton affected by oxidizing Au and Cl 3- bearing high temperature hydrothermal solutions that leached U 4+ , W and Mo from the granitic mass as U 6 + , later decrease of

  11. Investigating the toxicity, uptake, nanoparticle formation and genetic response of plants to gold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Taylor

    Full Text Available We have studied the physiological and genetic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Arabidopsis to gold. The root lengths of Arabidopsis seedlings grown on nutrient agar plates containing 100 mg/L gold were reduced by 75%. Oxidized gold was subsequently found in roots and shoots of these plants, but gold nanoparticles (reduced gold were only observed in the root tissues. We used a microarray-based study to monitor the expression of candidate genes involved in metal uptake and transport in Arabidopsis upon gold exposure. There was up-regulation of genes involved in plant stress response such as glutathione transferases, cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and peroxidases. In parallel, our data show the significant down-regulation of a discreet number of genes encoding proteins involved in the transport of copper, cadmium, iron and nickel ions, along with aquaporins, which bind to gold. We used Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa to study nanoparticle uptake from hydroponic culture using ionic gold as a non-nanoparticle control and concluded that nanoparticles between 5 and 100 nm in diameter are not directly accumulated by plants. Gold nanoparticles were only observed in plants exposed to ionic gold in solution. Together, we believe our results imply that gold is taken up by the plant predominantly as an ionic form, and that plants respond to gold exposure by up-regulating genes for plant stress and down-regulating specific metal transporters to reduce gold uptake.

  12. Investigating the Toxicity, Uptake, Nanoparticle Formation and Genetic Response of Plants to Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew F.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Bruce, Neil C.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the physiological and genetic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Arabidopsis) to gold. The root lengths of Arabidopsis seedlings grown on nutrient agar plates containing 100 mg/L gold were reduced by 75%. Oxidized gold was subsequently found in roots and shoots of these plants, but gold nanoparticles (reduced gold) were only observed in the root tissues. We used a microarray-based study to monitor the expression of candidate genes involved in metal uptake and transport in Arabidopsis upon gold exposure. There was up-regulation of genes involved in plant stress response such as glutathione transferases, cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and peroxidases. In parallel, our data show the significant down-regulation of a discreet number of genes encoding proteins involved in the transport of copper, cadmium, iron and nickel ions, along with aquaporins, which bind to gold. We used Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) to study nanoparticle uptake from hydroponic culture using ionic gold as a non-nanoparticle control and concluded that nanoparticles between 5 and 100 nm in diameter are not directly accumulated by plants. Gold nanoparticles were only observed in plants exposed to ionic gold in solution. Together, we believe our results imply that gold is taken up by the plant predominantly as an ionic form, and that plants respond to gold exposure by up-regulating genes for plant stress and down-regulating specific metal transporters to reduce gold uptake. PMID:24736522

  13. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  14. Gold nanoprobes for theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Book-Newell, Brittany; Sethu, Palaniappan; Rao, Madhusudhana; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoprobes have become attractive diagnostic and therapeutic agents in medicine and life sciences research owing to their reproducible synthesis with atomic level precision, unique physical and chemical properties, versatility of their morphologies, flexibility in functionalization, ease of targeting, efficiency in drug delivery and opportunities for multimodal therapy. This review highlights some of the recent advances and the potential for gold nanoprobes in theranostics. PMID:22122586

  15. Biosynthesis of spherical and highly stable gold nanoparticles using Ferulago Angulata aqueous extract: dual role of extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A.; Parsafar, S.; Khodaei, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    A biocompatible method for synthesizing of highly disperses gold nanoparticles using Ferulago Angulata leaf extract has been developed. It has been shown that leaf extract acts as reducing and coating agent. Various spectroscopic and electron microscopic techniques were employed for the structural characterization of the prepared nanoparticles. The biosynthesized particles were identified as elemental gold with spherical morphology, narrow size distribution (ranged 9.2-17.5 nm) with high stability. Also, the effect of initial ratio of precursors, temperature and time of reaction on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied in more detail. It was observed that varying these parameters provides an accessible remote control on the size and morphology of nanoparticles. The uniqueness of this procedure lies in its cleanliness using no extra surfactant, reducing agent or any capping agent.

  16. Facts and Fantasies about Gold

    OpenAIRE

    Klement, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of gold as an investment the demand for effective risk management techniques for gold investments has increased as well. In this paper we analyze several drivers of the price of gold that have been proposed in the past. Our analysis indicates that short-term volatility of the price of gold remains rather unpredictable with many of the explanations like the fund flows in physical gold ETF either unreliable or unstable over time. Our analysis suggests that there...

  17. Considerations of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion in single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Koon-Sing; Lui, Kwok-On; Lee, Kin-Ho; Chan, Wing-Tat

    2013-01-01

    The intensity of individual gold nanoparticles with nominal diameters of 80, 100, 150, and 200 nm was measured using single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Since the particles are not perfectly monodisperse, a distribution of ICP-MS intensity was obtained for each nominal diameter. The distribution of particle mass was determined from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the particles. The distribution of ICP-MS intensity and the distribution of particle mass for each nominal diameter were correlated to give a calibration curve. The calibration curves are linear, but the slope decreases as the nominal diameter increases. The reduced slope is probably due to a smaller degree of vaporization of the large particles. In addition to the degree of particle vaporization, the rate of analyte diffusion in the ICP is an important factor that determines the measured ICP-MS intensity. Simulated ICP-MS intensity versus particle size was calculated using a simple computer program that accounts for the vaporization rate of the gold nanoparticles and the diffusion rate and degree of ionization of the gold atoms. The curvature of the simulated calibration curves changes with sampling depth because the effects of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion on the ICP-MS intensity are dependent on the residence time of the particle in the ICP. Calibration curves of four hypothetical particles representing the four combinations of high and low boiling points (2000 and 4000 K) and high and low analyte diffusion rates (atomic masses of 10 and 200 Da) were calculated to further illustrate the relative effects of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion. The simulated calibration curves show that the sensitivity of single-particle ICP-MS is smaller than that of the ICP-MS measurement of continuous flow of standard solutions by a factor of 2 or more. Calibration using continuous flow of standard solution is semi-quantitative at best. An

  18. Synthesis and study of catalytic application of l-methionine protected gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Akif; Javed, Safdar; Qureshi, Muhammad Zahid; khan, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Muhammad Saleem

    2017-10-01

    Gold nanoparticle is growing class of nanotechnology due to large number of uses. We synthesized stable l-methionine protected gold nanoparticles (AuNps) by in situ reduction of HAuCl4 using sodium borohydrate as reducing and l-methionine as stabilizing agent in an aqueous medium. Different parameters (pH, capping agent, precursor salt, and heating time) were optimized to see the effect on the size of particles. Double beam spectrophotometer was used to carry out the spectroscopic studies. It was observed that pH and concentration of reducing salt are deciding factors in controlling the size and morphology of AuNps. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) verified the formation of AuNPs as predicted by UV-Vis spectra. The interaction of AuNPs with l-methionine was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The reduction of 4-nitrophenol acted as standard of reaction to check the response of AuNps catalyst. Complete reduction of 4-nitrophenol was accomplished by AuNps sol in just 60 s. Fastest reduction rate was observed with smaller spherical particles. This study concluded that size and shape of AuNps can be monitored by controlling the pH, concentration of capping and reducing agent. It also provides an economical solution to aquatic environment in terms of time saving and use of small volume of catalytic solution for reduction of several other toxic organic pollutants.

  19. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using diatoms-silica-gold and EPS-gold bionanocomposite formation

    OpenAIRE

    Schröfel, Adam; Kratošová, Gabriela; Bohunická, Markéta; Dobročka, Edmund; Vávra, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Novel synthesis of gold nanoparticles, EPS-gold, and silica-gold bionanocomposites by biologically driven processes employing two diatom strains (Navicula atomus, Diadesmis gallica) is described. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction analysis (SAED) revealed a presence of gold nanoparticles in the experimental solutions of the diatom culture mixed with tetrachloroaureate. Nature of the gold nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. Scanning electron m...

  20. Microscopy and certification as tools for environmentally benign, mercury-free small-scale gold mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylander, Lars D; Plath, David

    2006-09-01

    Small-scale gold miners lose annually 500-700 tonnes of mercury when amalgamating gold with mercury and subsequent burning. So far, mercury-free alternatives have been demanding more skill, time, or capital investments and the interest from the miners to reduce the mercury emissions has been limited. Recent development of mercury free methods, an increasing mercury price, and increased awareness of health and environmental damages caused by mercury is changing the attitudes. This trend could be spurred by certification of gold with added value due to clean production methods. Our objectives are to present a method to distinguish gold recovered without using mercury or harmful chemicals such as cyanide. Thereby, this gold could be certified and thus obtain a higher market price. The method is based on inspection of the gold grain surfaces with a light microscope. This method separated natural gold grains from gold recovered by amalgamation or cyanidation. The method also demonstrated different characteristics of gold grains from different gold fields and a basis for a catalogue with photomicrographs of gold grains from different gold fields has been established and partly presented in this article. In conclusion, studies of gold grains with a light microscope and photo documentation is an inexpensive but reliable method to distinguish environment-friendly recovered gold, which could be used for certification to get a higher market price.

  1. Synthesis of highly faceted multiply twinned gold nanocrystals stabilized by polyoxometalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Junhua; Chen Yuanxian; Han Dongxue; Zhang Yuanjian; Shen Yanfei; Wang Zhijuan; Niu Li

    2006-01-01

    A novel and facile chemical synthesis of highly faceted multiply twinned gold nanocrystals is reported. The gold nanocrystals are hexagonal in transmission electron microscopy and icosahedral in scanning electron microscopy. Phosphotungstic acid (PTA), which was previously reduced, serves as a reductant and stabilizer for the synthesis of gold nanocrystals. The PTA-gold nanocomposites are quite stable in aqueous solutions, and electrochemically active towards the hydrogen evolution reaction

  2. Thiourea leaching gold and silver from the printed circuit boards of waste mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing-ying, Li; Xiu-li, Xu; Wen-quan, Liu

    2012-06-01

    The present communication deals with the leaching of gold and silver from the printed circuit boards (PCBs) of waste mobile phones using an effective and less hazardous system, i.e., a thiourea leaching process as an alternative to the conventional and toxic cyanide leaching of gold. The influence of particle size, thiourea and Fe(3+) concentrations and temperature on the leaching of gold and silver from waste mobile phones was investigated. Gold extraction was found to be enhanced in a PCBs particle size of 100 mesh with the solutions containing 24 g/L thiourea and Fe(3+) concentration of 0.6% under the room temperature. In this case, about 90% of gold and 50% of silver were leached by the reaction of 2h. The obtained data will be useful for the development of processes for the recycling of gold and silver from the PCBs of waste mobile phones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genesis of uranium-gold pyritic conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The ancient pyritic ore conglomerates have a common origin best exemplified by the Witwatersrand deposits. All contain detrital pyrite and uraninite, which are unstable in modern oxygenated environments and were deposited in a reducing atmosphere. The Rand reefs are not similar to modern gold placers. Placers result from the near incapacity of streams and currents to transport coarse gold. Placers as rich as Rand reef occur only in narrow paystreaks within 15 kilometers of a coarse-gold source. The board dispersion of gold in the reefs is due to solution transport of metal complexed as aurous sulfide, leached anoxygenically from crustal rocks, probably from sea-floor basalt, and precipitated by a slow reaction driven by the radioactive decay of detrital uraninite. Radiolysis of water on shallow marine unconformities resulted in diffusion of hydrogen to the atmosphere and a slight excess of hydroxyl free radical in the reef environment. The mild oxidizing tendency slowly dissolved uranium, precipitated gold, and oxygenated thucholite. These actions define a maturing process. A uraninite placer accumulating on an unconformity becomes progressively converted to a gold reef with little residual uraninite. The most mature reefs tend to grade toward the thucholite-seam type, very thin but exceedingly rich in gold. A combination of chemical attack and physical reworking accounts for the general thinness of mature reefs. Pyrite, like uraninite, decreases in abundance with increasing maturity; buffering by pyrite moderated the oxidative depletion of uranium. Where pyrite was scanty or absent, uraninite was completely dissolved by the effects of radiolysis and no ore formed

  4. Study of preparation and survey of radioisotopes tracer applications of gold nanoparticles in the multi-phase industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh Thai Kim Ngan; Trinh Cong Son; Duong Thi Bich Chi; Tran Tri Hai; Nguyen Huu Quang; Bui Trong Duy; Le Trong Nghia; Ngo Duc Tin

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared by Turkevich and Brust method. The labeled gold in liquids is the colloidal form with nano size particle of gold. This particles is of high dispersity in the liquid phase that makes them a good physical tracer. The stability and dissolve of AuNPs in solvents such as water, toluene are hereafter discussed. The size of AuNPs was determined through UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). (author)

  5. Reducing loss in lateral charged-particle equilibrium due to air cavities present in x-ray irradiated media by using longitudinal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Shahid A.; Li, X. Allen; Ramahi, Shada W.; Chu, James C.; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2001-01-01

    The underdosing of lesions distal to air cavities, such as those found in upper respiratory passages, occurs due to the loss in lateral charged-particle equilibrium (CPE). The degree of underdosing worsens for smaller field sizes, resulting in more frequent recurrence of the cancer treated. Higher photon energies further aggravate the outcome by producing longer second build-up regions beyond the cavity. Besides underdosing, the larger lateral spread of secondary electron fluence in the air cavity produces diffuse dose distributions at the tissue-air interface for shaped or intensity modulated fields. These disequilibrium effects create undesirable deviations from the intended treatment. The clinical concern is further intensified by the failure of traditional treatment planning systems to even account for such defects. In this work, the use of longitudinal magnetic fields on the order of 0.5 T is proposed for alleviating lateral electronic disequilibrium due to the presence of air cavities in the irradiated volume. The magnetic field enforces lateral CPE by restricting the lateral range of electrons in the air cavity. The problem is studied in a simple water-air-water slab geometry using EGS4 Monte Carlo simulations for 6 MV photons. Electronic disequilibrium is evaluated for beams of various sizes, shapes and intensity distributions constructed by linear superposition of the dose distributions for 0.5x0.5 cm 2 beamlets. Comparison is also made with 60 Co irradiation. The results indicate that the lateral confinement of secondary electrons in the air cavity by sub-MRI strength longitudinal fields is effective in reducing deterioration of dose distributions near tissue-air interfaces. This can potentially reduce recurrence rates of cancers such as the larynx carcinoma

  6. The golden age: gold nanoparticles for biomedicine†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreaden, Erik C.; Alkilany, Alaaldin M.; Huang, Xiaohua; Murphy, Catherine J.; El-Sayed, Mostafa A.

    2018-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been used in biomedical applications since their first colloidal syntheses more than three centuries ago. However, over the past two decades, their beautiful colors and unique electronic properties have also attracted tremendous attention due to their historical applications in art and ancient medicine and current applications in enhanced optoelectronics and photovoltaics. In spite of their modest alchemical beginnings, gold nanoparticles exhibit physical properties that are truly different from both small molecules and bulk materials, as well as from other nanoscale particles. Their unique combination of properties is just beginning to be fully realized in range of medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This critical review will provide insights into the design, synthesis, functionalization, and applications of these artificial molecules in biomedicine and discuss their tailored interactions with biological systems to achieve improved patient health. Further, we provide a survey of the rapidly expanding body of literature on this topic and argue that gold nanotechnology-enabled biomedicine is not simply an act of ‘gilding the (nanomedicinal) lily’, but that a new ‘Golden Age’ of biomedical nanotechnology is truly upon us. Moving forward, the most challenging nanoscience ahead of us will be to find new chemical and physical methods of functionalizing gold nanoparticles with compounds that can promote efficient binding, clearance, and biocompatibility and to assess their safety to other biological systems and their long-term term effects on human health and reproduction (472 references). PMID:22109657

  7. Gold in the hills: patterns of placer gold accumulation under dynamic tectonic and climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sam; Upton, Phaedra; Craw, Dave

    2018-01-01

    Formation of placer accumulations in fluvial environments requires 103-106 or even greater times concentration of heavy minerals. For this to occur, regular sediment supply from erosion of adjacent topography is required, the river should remain within a single course for an extended period of time and the material must be reworked such that a high proportion of the sediment is removed while a high proportion of the heavy minerals remains. We use numerical modeling, constrained by observations of circum-Pacific placer gold deposits, to explore processes occurring in evolving river systems in dynamic tectonic environments. A fluvial erosion/transport model is used to determine the mobility of placer gold under variable uplift rate, storm intensity, and rock mass strength conditions. Gold concentration is calculated from hydraulic and bedload grain size conditions. Model results suggest that optimal gold concentration occurs in river channels that frequently approach a threshold between detachment-limited and transport-limited hydraulic conditions. Such a condition enables the accumulation of gold particles within the framework of a residual gravel lag. An increase in transport capacity, which can be triggered by faster uplift rates, more resistant bedrock, or higher intensity storm events, will strip all bedload from the channel. Conversely, a reduction in transport capacity, triggered by a reduction in uplift rate, bedrock resistance, or storm intensity, will lead to a greater accumulation of a majority of sediments and a net decrease in gold concentration. For our model parameter range, the optimal conditions for placer gold concentration are met by 103 times difference in strength between bedrock and fault, uplift rates between 1 and 5 mm a-1, and moderate storm intensities. Fault damage networks are shown to be a critical factor for high Au concentrations and should be a target for exploration.

  8. A halogen-free synthesis of gold nanoparticles using gold(III) oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sashuk, Volodymyr; Rogaczewski, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are one of the most used nanomaterials. They are usually synthesized by the reduction of gold(III) chloride. However, the presence of halide ions in the reaction mixture is not always welcome. In some cases, these ions have detrimental influence on the morphology and structure of resulting nanoparticles. Here, we present a simple and halogen-free procedure to prepare gold nanoparticles by reduction of gold(III) oxide in neat oleylamine. The method provides the particles with an average size below 10 nm and dispersity of tens of percent. The process of nanoparticle formation was monitored using UV–Vis spectroscopy. The structure and chemical composition of the nanoparticles was determined by SEM, XPS and EDX. We also proposed the mechanism of reduction of gold(III) oxide based on MS, IR and NMR data. Importantly, the synthetic protocol is general and applicable for the preparation of other coinage metal nanoparticles from the corresponding metal oxides. For instance, we demonstrated that the absence of halogen enables efficient alloying of metals when preparing gold–silver bimetallic nanoparticles.

  9. Size fractional gold assaying of gold bearing rocks from the Amansie West District of Ghana by instrumental neutron activation: implication for gold extraction process by small-scale miners. Technical report for 2004/2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Dampare, S.B.; Addo, M.A.; Osae, S.; Adotey, D. K.; Adomako, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of improving the extraction process of gold from gold bearing rocks by small-scale gold miners in Ghana. The investigation involved crushing of 25 hard rock gold ore samples with a total weight of 7,126.98g to fine particles to form a composite sample and screening at a range of grind sizes. This was followed by the determination of gold distribution as a function of 'particle size' in the composite sample using INAA. The following concentrations of gold for the corresponding particle sizes are reported: 63-125 μm, 161±0.75 mg/kg; Sub 63 μm, 16.4 ± 0.17 mg/kg; 250-355 μm, 4.66 ± 0. 07; 355-425μm, 1.55 ± 0.06 mg/kg; 1000-2000 μm, 1.27±005 mg/kg; 125-250 μm, 0.53 ± 0.03 mg/kg; 425-1000 μm, 0.180 ± 0.008 mg/kg. An estimate for gold in the composite sample based on particle size yielded an average value of 3.80 mg/kg. (au)

  10. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus by functional gold nanoparticle-based affinity surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong-Zheng; Wang, Sin-Ge; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2015-02-17

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the common pathogenic bacteria responsible for bacterial infectious diseases and food poisoning. This study presents an analytical method based on the affinity nanoprobe-based mass spectrometry that enables detection of S. aureus in aqueous samples. A peptide aptamer DVFLGDVFLGDEC (DD) that can recognize S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was used as the reducing agent and protective group to generate DD-immobilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs@DD) from one-pot reactions. The thiol group from cysteine in the peptide aptamer, i.e., DD, can interact with gold ions to generate DD-immobilized AuNPs in an alkaline solution. The generated AuNPs@DD has an absorption maximum at ∼518 nm. The average particle size is 7.6 ± 1.2 nm. Furthermore, the generated AuNPs@DD can selectively bind with S. aureus and MRSA. The conjugates of the target bacteria with AuNPs were directly analyzed by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). The gold ions generated from the AuNPs@DD anchored on the target bacteria were monitored. Gold ions (m/z 197 and 394) were only generated from the conjugates of the target bacterium-AuNP@DD in the SALDI process. Thus, the gold ions could be used as the indicators for the presence of the target bacteria. The detection limit of S. aureus using this method is in the order of a few tens of cells. The low detection limit is due to the ease of generation of gold cluster ion derived from AuNPs under irradiation with a 355 nm laser beam. Apple juice mixed with S. aureus was used as the sample to demonstrate the suitability of the method for real-world application. Because of its low detection limit, this approach can potentially be used to screen the presence of S. aureus in complex samples.

  11. Extracellular facile biosynthesis, characterization and stability of gold nanoparticles by Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sneha; Vidyarthi, Ambarish Sharan; Nigam, Vinod Kumar; Dev, Abhimanyu

    2014-02-01

    The development of a reliable, eco-friendly process for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has gained impetus in recent years to counter the drawbacks of chemical and physical methods. This study illustrates simple, green synthesis of AuNPs in vitro using cell lysate supernatant (CLS) of non-pathogenic bacteria and to investigate its potential antimicrobial activity. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by the reduction of precursor AuCl4- ions using the CLS of Bacillus licheniformis at 37°C upon 24 h of incubation. The nanoparticles were characterized for their morphology, particle size, optical absorption, zeta potential, and stability. Further the antimicrobial activity was assayed using cup-plate method. The process of biosynthesis was extracellular and the gold ions were reduced to stable nanogold of average size 38 nm. However, upon storage of AuNPs for longer duration at room temperature stability was influenced in terms of increase in particle size and decrease in zeta potential with respect to as synthesized nanoparticles. SEM micrographs revealed the spherical shape of AuNPs and EDX analysis confirmed the presence of gold in the sample. Also clear zone of inhibition was observed against Bacilllus subtilis MTCC 8364, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7925, and Escherichia coli MTCC 1698 confirming the antimicrobial activity of AuNPs. The bioprocess under study was simple and less time consuming as compared to other methods as the need for harvesting AuNPs from within the microbial cells via downstream process will be eliminated. Nanoparticles exhibited good stability even in absence of external stabilizing agents. AuNPs showed good antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. The extracellular biosynthesis from CLS may serve as a suitable alternative for large scale synthesis of gold nanoparticles in vitro. The synthesis from lysed bacterial cell strongly suggests that exposure of microbial whole cells to the

  12. GOLD IS EARNED FROM THE PRODUCTION OF THAI GOLD LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Bax

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.

  13. Nanoporous Au: an unsupported pure gold catalyst?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittstock, A; Neumann, B; Schaefer, A; Dumbuya, K; Kuebel, C; Biener, M; Zielasek, V; Steinrueck, H; Gottfried, M; Biener, J; Hamza, A; B?umer, M

    2008-09-04

    The unique properties of gold especially in low temperature CO oxidation have been ascribed to a combination of various effects. In particular, particle sizes below a few nm and specific particle-support interactions have been shown to play important roles. On the contrary, recent reports revealed that monolithic nanoporous gold (npAu) prepared by leaching a less noble metal, such as Ag, out of the corresponding alloy can also exhibit remarkably high catalytic activity for CO oxidation, even though no support is present. Therefore, it was claimed to be a pure and unsupported gold catalyst. We investigated npAu with respect to its morphology, surface composition and catalytic properties. In particular, we studied the reaction kinetics for low temperature CO oxidation in detail taking mass transport limitation due to the porous structure of the material into account. Our results reveal that Ag, even if removed almost completely from the bulk, segregates to the surface resulting in surface concentrations of up to 10 at%. Our data suggest that this Ag plays a significant role in activation of molecular oxygen. Therefore, npAu should be considered as a bimetallic catalyst rather than a pure Au catalyst.

  14. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  15. Particles beams and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzureau, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the ''Chocs'' journal is devoted to particles beams used by the D.A.M. (Direction of Military Applications) and to their applications. The concerned beams are limited to those in an energy range from hundred of Kev to several Gev. Light ions (protons, deuterons, alpha) where it is easy to produce neutrons sources and heavy ions (from carbon to gold). (N.C.). 8 refs., 2 figs

  16. A grand unified model for liganded gold clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen Wu; Zhu, Beien; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Gao, Yi

    2016-12-01

    A grand unified model (GUM) is developed to achieve fundamental understanding of rich structures of all 71 liganded gold clusters reported to date. Inspired by the quark model by which composite particles (for example, protons and neutrons) are formed by combining three quarks (or flavours), here gold atoms are assigned three `flavours' (namely, bottom, middle and top) to represent three possible valence states. The `composite particles' in GUM are categorized into two groups: variants of triangular elementary block Au3(2e) and tetrahedral elementary block Au4(2e), all satisfying the duet rule (2e) of the valence shell, akin to the octet rule in general chemistry. The elementary blocks, when packed together, form the cores of liganded gold clusters. With the GUM, structures of 71 liganded gold clusters and their growth mechanism can be deciphered altogether. Although GUM is a predictive heuristic and may not be necessarily reflective of the actual electronic structure, several highly stable liganded gold clusters are predicted, thereby offering GUM-guided synthesis of liganded gold clusters by design.

  17. Size control synthesis of starch capped-gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajammul Hussain, S.; Iqbal, M.; Mazhar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Metallic gold nanoparticles have been synthesized by the reduction of chloroaurate anions [AuCl 4 ] - solution with hydrazine in the aqueous starch and ethylene glycol solution at room temperature and at atmospheric pressure. The characterization of synthesized gold nanoparticles by UV-vis spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron diffraction analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that average size of pure gold nanoparticles is 3.5 nm, they are spherical in shape and are pure metallic gold. The concentration effects of [AuCl 4 ] - anions, starch, ethylene glycol, and hydrazine, on particle size, were investigated, and the stabilization mechanism of Au nanoparticles by starch polymer molecules was also studied by FT-IR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA analysis shows that hydroxyl groups of starch are responsible of capping and stabilizing gold nanoparticles. The UV-vis spectrum of these samples shows that there is blue shift in surface plasmon resonance peak with decrease in particle size due to the quantum confinement effect, a supporting evidence of formation of gold nanoparticles and this shift remains stable even after 3 months.

  18. The Kolar Gold Field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekantan, B.V.

    1982-01-01

    Meson theory was propounded to explain the nuclear force which holds neutrons and protons inside the nucleus. Subsequently, quark theory was put forward to bring some order into an enormously large number of fundamental particles discovered in the hadron family. These two theories are briefly explained. The gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force and the strong nuclear force are the basic forces which determine the behaviour of fundamental particles when they are in close proximity. If the last three of the above-mentioned four forces are one or just different aspects of a single force, quarks and leptons can be mingled in the same theoretical framework indicating the non-conservation of baryon number and the spontaneous decay of the proton into leptons. In order to test the last possibility i.e. proton decay, an experiment has been set up in the Kolar Gold Field at a depth of 2300 metres in India. 1650 gas proportional counters are sandwiched between iron plates. The total amount of iron in the form of iron plates and walls of the counters is 140 tons. In this experiment, nuclei of iron are serving as the source of protons and neutrons and the depth eliminates the background events which mimic proton decay. The amount of iron used in the experiment i.e. 140 tons is more than enough to obtain evidence of 10 proton decay events in a year, assuming that the lifetime of proton is 10 30 years or below. (M.G.B.)

  19. Synthesis of surfactant-free electrostatically stabilized gold nanoparticles by plasma-induced liquid chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, J; Maguire, P; Mariotti, D; Němcová, L; Graham, W G

    2013-01-01

    Plasma-induced non-equilibrium liquid chemistry is used to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) without using any reducing or capping agents. The morphology and optical properties of the synthesized AuNPs are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. Plasma processing parameters affect the particle shape and size and the rate of the AuNP synthesis process. Particles of different shapes (e.g. spherical, triangular, hexagonal, pentagonal, etc) are synthesized in aqueous solutions. In particular, the size of the AuNPs can be tuned from 5 nm to several hundred nanometres by varying the initial gold precursor (HAuCl 4 ) concentration from 2.5 μM to 1 mM. In order to reveal details of the basic plasma–liquid interactions that lead to AuNP synthesis, we have measured the solution pH, conductivity and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) concentration of the liquid after plasma processing, and conclude that H 2 O 2 plays the role of the reducing agent which converts Au +3 ions to Au 0 atoms, leading to nucleation growth of the AuNPs. (paper)

  20. Synthesis of surfactant-free electrostatically stabilized gold nanoparticles by plasma-induced liquid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J.; Němcová, L.; Maguire, P.; Graham, W. G.; Mariotti, D.

    2013-06-01

    Plasma-induced non-equilibrium liquid chemistry is used to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) without using any reducing or capping agents. The morphology and optical properties of the synthesized AuNPs are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Plasma processing parameters affect the particle shape and size and the rate of the AuNP synthesis process. Particles of different shapes (e.g. spherical, triangular, hexagonal, pentagonal, etc) are synthesized in aqueous solutions. In particular, the size of the AuNPs can be tuned from 5 nm to several hundred nanometres by varying the initial gold precursor (HAuCl4) concentration from 2.5 μM to 1 mM. In order to reveal details of the basic plasma-liquid interactions that lead to AuNP synthesis, we have measured the solution pH, conductivity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration of the liquid after plasma processing, and conclude that H2O2 plays the role of the reducing agent which converts Au+3 ions to Au0 atoms, leading to nucleation growth of the AuNPs.

  1. Organosilane oxidation by water catalysed by large gold nanoparticles in a membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gitis, V.; Beerthuis, R.; Shiju, N.R.; Rothenberg, G.

    2014-01-01

    We show that gold nanoparticles catalyse the oxidation of organosilanes using water as oxidant at ambient conditions. Remarkably, monodispersions of small gold particles (3.5 nm diameter) and large ones (6-18 nm diameter) give equally good conversion rates. This is important because separating large

  2. Surface Photochemistry of Adsorbed Nitrate: The Role of Adsorbed Water in the Formation of Reduced Nitrogen Species on α-Fe2O3 Particle Surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanayakkara, C.E.; Jayaweera, P.M.; Rubasinghege, G; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Grassian, V.H.

    2014-01-01

    The surface photochemistry of nitrate, formed from nitric acid adsorption, on hematite (α-Fe2O3) particle surfaces under different environmental conditions is investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Following exposure of α-Fe2O3 particle surfaces to gas-phase nitric acid, a peak

  3. Extracellular mycosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, K.; Arumugam, A.

    2014-08-01

    The development of eco-friendly methods for the synthesis of nanomaterial shape and size is an important area of research in the field of nanotechnology. The present investigation deals with the extracellular rapid biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Fusarium solani culture filtrate. The UV-vis spectra of the fungal culture filtrate medium containing gold ion showed peak at 527 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of gold nanoparticles. FTIR spectra provide an evidence for the presence of heterocyclic compound in the culture filtrate, which increases the stability of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The X-ray analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of the gold nanoparticles. AFM analysis showed the results of particle sizes (41 nm). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the gold nanoparticles are spherical in shape with the size range from 20 to 50 nm. The use of F. solani will offer several advantages since it is considered as a non-human pathogenic organism. The fungus F. solani has a fast growth rate, rapid capacity of metallic ions reduction, NPs stabilization and facile and economical biomass handling. Extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles could be highly advantageous from the point of view of synthesis in large quantities, time consumption, eco-friendly, non-toxic and easy downstream processing.

  4. Gold-Decorated Supraspheres of Block Copolymer Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. P.; Kang, D. J.; Kannon, A. G.; Jung, D.-W.; Yi, G. R.; Kim, B. J.

    2012-02-01

    Gold-decorated supraspheres displaying various surface morphologies were prepared by infiltration of gold precursor into polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) supraspheres under acidic condition. The supraspheres were fabricated by emulsifying PS-b-P2VP polymer solution into surfactant solution. Selective swelling of P2VP in the suprasphere by gold precursor under acidic condition resulted in the formation of gold-decorated supraspheres with various surface structures. As evidenced by TEM and SEM images, dot pattern was formed in the case of smaller supraspheres than 800 nm; whereas fingerprint-like pattern was observed in larger supraspheres than 800 nm. Gold nanoparticles were located inside P2VP domains near the surface of prepared supraspheres as confirmed by TEM. The optical property of the supraspheres was characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and the maximum absorption peak at around 580 nm was observed, which means that gold nanoparticles densely packed into P2VP domain on the suprasphere. Our approach to prepare gold-decorated supraspheres can be extended to other metallic particles such as iron oxide or platinum nanoparticles, and those precursors can be also selectively incorporated into the P2VP domain.

  5. Highly stable, protein capped gold nanoparticles as effective drug delivery vehicles for amino-glycosidic antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Lori; Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the production of highly stable gold nanoparticles (Au NP) was optimized using sodium borohydride as reducing agent and bovine serum albumin as capping agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic light scattering techniques. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of pink colour and an absorption maximum at 532 nm. These protein capped nanoparticles exhibited excellent stability towards pH modification and electrolyte addition. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape, nearly monodispersed and with an average particle size of 7.8 ± 1.7 nm. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles in face centered cubic structure is confirmed from the selected‐area electron diffraction and XRD patterns. The nanoparticles were functionalized with various amino-glycosidic antibiotics for utilizing them as drug delivery vehicles. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the possible functional groups of antibiotics bound to the nanoparticle surface have been examined. These drug loaded nanoparticle solutions were tested for their antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains, by well diffusion assay. The antibiotic conjugated Au NP exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity, compared to pure antibiotic at the same concentration. Being protein capped and highly stable, these gold nanoparticles can act as effective carriers for drugs and might have considerable applications in the field of infection prevention and therapeutics. - Highlights: ► Method for NaBH 4 reduced and BSA capped gold nanoparticle was standardized. ► Nanoparticles were spherical and nearly monodispersed with a size of 7.8 nm. ► Nanoparticles are extremely stable towards pH modification and electrolyte addition. ► Antibiotic conjugated nanoparticles exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity

  6. Geobiological Cycling of Gold: From Fundamental Process Understanding to Exploration Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Reith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities mediating gold cycling occur on gold grains from (sub-tropical, (semi-arid, temperate and subarctic environments. The majority of identified species comprising these biofilms are β-Proteobacteria. Some bacteria, e.g., Cupriavidus metallidurans, Delftia acidovorans and Salmonella typhimurium, have developed biochemical responses to deal with highly toxic gold complexes. These include gold specific sensing and efflux, co-utilization of resistance mechanisms for other metals, and excretion of gold-complex-reducing siderophores that ultimately catalyze the biomineralization of nano-particulate, spheroidal and/or bacteriomorphic gold. In turn, the toxicity of gold complexes fosters the development of specialized biofilms on gold grains, and hence the cycling of gold in surface environments. This was not reported on isoferroplatinum grains under most near-surface environments, due to the lower toxicity of mobile platinum complexes. The discovery of gold-specific microbial responses can now drive the development of geobiological exploration tools, e.g., gold bioindicators and biosensors. Bioindicators employ genetic markers from soils and groundwaters to provide information about gold mineralization processes, while biosensors will allow in-field analyses of gold concentrations in complex sampling media.

  7. Plasmonic Gold Nanorod Dispersions with Electrical and Optical Tunability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Christopher; Mahoney, Clare; Park, Kyoungweon; Jawaid, Ali; White, Timothy; Vaia, Richard

    The transmissive, absorptive, electrical, and thermal properties of plasmonic gold nanorods (NRs) have led to their employment in a broad range of applications. These electro-optical properties - governed by their size, shape, and composition - are widely and precisely tunable during synthesis. Gold NRs show promise for large scale optical elements as they have been demonstrated to align faster than liquid crystal films (μs) at low fields (1 V/ μm). Successfully dispersing a high volume fraction of gold NRs requires a strategy to control particle-particle separation and thus avoid aggregation. Herein, we discuss the role of theta temperature and the ability to swell or collapse the chains of polymer-grafted gold NRs to alter the interaction potential between particles. UV-Vis spectroscopy, scattering, and electrical susceptibility characterization methods were employed to determine nanoparticle dispersion along with the degree of gold NR alignment. The development of new agile photonic materials, controllable with both light and electric fields, will help address emerging needs in laser hardening (agile filters) and variable transmission visors.

  8. Femtosecond laser generated gold nanoparticles and their plasmonic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Rupali; Navas, M. P.; Soni, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The pulsed laser ablation in liquid medium is now commonly used to generate stable colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) in absence of any chemical additives or stabilizer with diverse applications. In this paper, we report generation of gold NPs (Au NPs) by ultra-short laser pulses. Femtosecond (fs) laser radiation (λ = 800 nm) has been used to ablate a gold target in pure de-ionized water to produce gold colloids with smallsize distribution. The average size of the particles can be further controlled by subjecting to laser-induced post-irradiation providing a versatile physical method of size-selected gold nanoparticles. The optical extinction and morphological dimensions were investigated with UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy measurements, respectively. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is employed to calculate localized surface plasmon (LSPR) wavelength and the near-field generated by Au NPs and their hybrids.

  9. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  10. Spectroscopic diagnostic of gold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a simulation of a gold-aluminium alloy target irradiated by laser are presented. FCI code has been used with a processing out of LTE of atomic physics of gold and of multigroup photonics. Emission and reabsorption of gold and aluminium lines are included [fr

  11. Spectroscopic diagnostic of gold plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, M.

    1986-06-01

    Results of a simulation of a gold-aluminium alloy target irradiated by laser are presented. FCI code has been used with a processing out of LTE of atomic physics of gold and of multigroup photonics. Emission and reabsorption of gold and aluminium lines are included.

  12. Reversible peptide oligomerization over nanoscale gold surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushige Yokoyama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A selective oligomeric formation of amyloid beta 1-40 (Ab1-40 monomers over a nanogold colloidal surface was investigated. An unfolded Ab1-40 monomer is considered to construct a dimer or trimer based oligomeric form with its hydrophobic segment placing outward under an acidic condition. Under a basic condition, a conformation of Ab is expected to take a folded monomeric form with its hydrophilic segment folded inward, avoiding the networking with residual colloidal particles. The most probable oligomeric form constructed over a 20 nm gold colloidal surface within a 25 ℃ to 65 ℃ temperature range is a dimer based unit and that over 30 or 40 nm gold colloidal surface below 15 ℃ is concluded to be a trimer based unit. However, selective oligomerization was not successfully reproduced under the rest of the conditions. A dipole-induced dipole interaction must cause a flexible structural change between folded and unfolded forms.

  13. Bioassisted Phytomining of Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluckov, Biljana S.

    2015-05-01

    Bioassisted phytomining implies targeted use of microorganisms and plants for the selective recovery of the metal. Metals from undissolved compounds are dissolved by applying specially chosen microorganisms and therefore become available to the hyperaccumulating plants. In the article, the selective extraction method of base metals and the precious metal gold by using microorganisms and plants is discussed.

  14. Digging for Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2012-01-01

    In the case of higher education, the hills are more like mountains of data that "we're accumulating at a ferocious rate," according to Gerry McCartney, CIO of Purdue University (Indiana). "Every higher education institution has this data, but it just sits there like gold in the ground," complains McCartney. Big Data and the new tools people are…

  15. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  16. A novel class of potential prion drugs: preliminary in vitro and in vivo data for multilayer coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai Tran, Hoang Ngoc; Sousa, Fernanda; Moda, Fabio; Mandal, Subhra; Chanana, Munish; Vimercati, Chiara; Morbin, Michela; Krol, Silke; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Legname, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles coated with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, such as polyallylamine hydrochloride and polystyrenesulfonate, were examined for potential inhibition of prion protein aggregation and prion (PrPSc) conversion and replication. Different coatings, finishing with a positive or negative layer, were tested, and different numbers of layers were investigated for their ability to interact and reduce the accumulation of PrPSc in scrapie prion infected ScGT1 and ScN2a cells. The particles efficiently hampered the accumulation of PrPSc in ScN2a cells and showed curing effects on